These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22902601

Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

2013-02-01

2

Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

Muller, Miklos; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

2012-01-01

3

Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM  

E-print Network

to aerobic metabolsm. This said, it is not uncommon to hear microbiologists talk about anaerobic respiration and respiration together since respiration historically implies breathing. Breathing, of course, is closely tied and if respiration is thought of as the catabolic pathways that yield ATP for other reactions, then this is certainly

Prestwich, Ken

4

Comparative Study of the Energy Metabolism of Anaerobic Alkaliphiles from Soda Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of inhibitors of energy metabolism and ionophores on the growth and formation of metabolic products in alkaliphilic anaerobes characterized by various catabolism types. It was shown that blockage of oxidative phosphorylation by the addition of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of F1F0 ATP synthase, resulted in a complete arrest of the growth of the acetogenic bacterium Tindalliamagadiensis

A. V. Pitryuk; E. N. Detkova; M. A. Pusheva

2004-01-01

5

Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schuhle, Karola; Heider, Johann

2012-01-01

6

Anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate.  

PubMed

The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD(+) or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B(12)-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann; Fuchs, Georg

2012-06-01

7

Use of carbon and energy balances in the study of the anaerobic metabolism of Enterobacter aerogenes at variable starting glucose concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic metabolism of Enterobacter aerogenes was studied in batch culture at increasing initial glucose levels (9.0So -1). The ultimate concentrations of fermentation products were utilized to check a metabolic flux analysis based on simple carbon mass and energy balances that promise to be suitable for the study of different fermentation processes, either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The stoichiometric

A. Converti; P. Perego

2002-01-01

8

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

2003-12-01

9

Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of aromatic compounds in the form of lignin, lignin derivatives, and aromatic pollutants are continually being introduced into the biosphere and much of this material accumulates in anaerobic environments. This project seeks to elucidate anaerobic routes of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism by the photorophic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Recent evidence suggests that diverse aromatics must first be metabolized to form one or the other of these compounds prior to cleavage of the aromatic ring and so these pathways probably play general role as major degradative routes. R. palustris is particularly well suited for these studies because its ability to separate carbon metabolism from energy generating mechanisms frees it from the thermodynamic constraints that restrict the anaerobic metabolism of aromatics by pure cultures of fermentative bacteria. Studies include identification of the number and specificity of enzymes involved in benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism, identification of cofactors and electron carriers involved in each pathway, and a determination of the precise nature of the products formed. Mutants that are blocked in aromatic metabolism have been isolated. These mutants will be used, together with physiological approaches, to identify compounds (inducers and repressors) that regulate the expression of genes for aromatic degradation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Harwood, C.S.; Gibson, J.

1986-12-19

10

Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

11

Effects of cadmium on anaerobic energy metabolism and mRNA expression during air exposure and recovery of an intertidal mollusk Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

Marine organisms are exposed to periodical oxygen deficiency and pollution stress in estuarine and coastal zones which may strongly affect their performance and survival. We studied the combined effects of exposure to a common pollutant, cadmium (Cd), and intermittent anoxia on anaerobic metabolism, energy status and mRNA expression of 13 genes involved in and/or controlled by the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in hepatopancreas of an intertidal bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. In control oysters, prolonged anoxia resulted in a selective suppression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) while the levels of other transcripts remained unchanged. During post-anoxic recovery, mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) was elevated, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NOS and LON protease suppressed, and mRNA expression of other studied genes not changed. Notably, most of the key glycolytic genes that are stimulated by HIF-1 in mammals, either remained unchanged or were downregulated in anoxic oysters suggesting a different mechanism of molecular response to oxygen deficiency. Patterns of transcriptional response during anoxia and reoxygenation were significantly altered by Cd exposure in a gene-specific manner. Anaerobic metabolism (indicated by accumulation of l-alanine, succinate and acetate during anoxia) was also suppressed in Cd-exposed oysters. In control oysters, ATP turnover rate (M(ATP)) during anoxia was mostly sustained by anaerobic glycolysis with negligible contributions from ATP and PLA breakdown. In contrast, in Cd-exposed oysters ATP breakdown contributed significantly to anaerobic M(ATP). Thus, while control oysters could efficiently defend the ATP levels and tissue energy status during prolonged anoxia, Cd-exposed oysters experienced a disturbance in tissue energy balance indicated by the depletion of ATP, a rapid decline in adenylate energy charge and increase in ADP/ATP ratios. This energy deficiency combined with suppression of anaerobic metabolism may strongly affect performance and survival of oysters in polluted estuaries where metal pollution may co-occur with "dead zones". PMID:20538354

Ivanina, Anna V; Sokolov, Eugene P; Sokolova, Inna M

2010-09-01

12

Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

Boopathy, Raj

13

Integrated Analysis of Protein Complexes and Regulatory Networks Involved in Anaerobic Energy Metabolism of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic Nitrate Reduction. Nitrate is an extensive co-contaminant at some DOE sites making metal and radionuclide reduction problematic. Hence, we sought to better understand the nitrate reduction pathway and its control in S. oneidensis MR-1. It is not known whether the nitrate reduction is by denitrification or dissimilatory nitrate reduction into ammonium (DNRA). By both physiological and genetic evidence, we proved that DNRA is the nitrate reduction pathway in this organism. Using the complete genome sequence of S. oneidensis MR-1, we identified a gene encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase based on its 72% sequence identity with the napA gene in E. coli. Anaerobic growth of MR-1 on nitrate was abolished in a site directed napA mutant, indicating that NapA is the only nitrate reductase present. The anaerobic expression of napA and nrfA, a homolog of the cytochrome b552 nitrite reductase in E. coli, increased with increasing nitrate concentration until a plateau was reached at 3 mM KNO3. This indicates that these genes are not repressed by increasing concentrations of nitrate. The reduction of nitrate can generate intermediates that can be toxic to the microorganism. To determine the genetic response of MR-1 to high concentrations of nitrate, DNA microarrays were used to obtain a complete gene expression profile of MR-1 at low (1 mM) versus high (40 mM) nitrate concentrations. Genes encoding transporters and efflux pumps were up-regulated, perhaps as a mechanism to export toxic compounds. In addition, the gene expression profile of MR-1, grown anaerobically with nitrate as the only electron acceptor, suggested that this dissimilatory pathway contributes to N assimilation. Hence the nitrate reduction pathway could serve a dual purpose. The role of EtrA, a homolog of Fnr (global anaerobic regulator in E. coli) was examined using an etrA deletion mutant we constructed, S. oneidensis EtrA7-1.

Tiedje, James M.

2005-06-01

14

Metabolic indicators for detecting in situ anaerobic alkylbenzene degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring programs for intrinsic bioremediation of fuel hydrocarbonsrequire indicators that can convincingly demonstrate in situ metabolism. In this evaluation of potential indicators of in situ anaerobic alkylbenzene metabolism, laboratory and field data are reviewed for two classes of aromatic acids: (i) benzylsuccinate, E-phenylitaconate, and their methyl homologs, and (ii) benzoate, and methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethylbenzoates. The review includes previously unpublished

Harry R. Beller

2000-01-01

15

Energy metabolism in nuclear reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Nuclear reprogramming with stemness factors enables resetting of somatic differentiated tissue back to the pluripotent ground state. Recent evidence implicates mitochondrial restructuring and bioenergetic plasticity as key components underlying execution of orchestrated dedifferentiation and derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Aerobic to anaerobic transition of somatic oxidative energy metabolism into a glycolytic metabotype promotes proficient reprogramming, establishing a novel regulator of acquired stemness. Metabolomic profiling has further identified specific metabolic remodeling traits defining lineage redifferentiation of pluripotent cells. Therefore, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism comprise a vital axis for biomarker discovery, intimately reflecting the molecular dynamics fundamental for the resetting and redirection of cell fate. PMID:22103608

Folmes, Clifford DL; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

2012-01-01

16

Redesigning Escherichia coli Metabolism for Anaerobic Production of Isobutanol?†  

PubMed Central

Fermentation enables the production of reduced metabolites, such as the biofuels ethanol and butanol, from fermentable sugars. This work demonstrates a general approach for designing and constructing a production host that uses a heterologous pathway as an obligately fermentative pathway to produce reduced metabolites, specifically, the biofuel isobutanol. Elementary mode analysis was applied to design an Escherichia coli strain optimized for isobutanol production under strictly anaerobic conditions. The central metabolism of E. coli was decomposed into 38,219 functional, unique, and elementary modes (EMs). The model predictions revealed that during anaerobic growth E. coli cannot produce isobutanol as the sole fermentative product. By deleting 7 chromosomal genes, the total 38,219 EMs were constrained to 12 EMs, 6 of which can produce high yields of isobutanol in a range from 0.29 to 0.41 g isobutanol/g glucose under anaerobic conditions. The remaining 6 EMs rely primarily on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) and are typically inhibited under anaerobic conditions. The redesigned E. coli strain was constrained to employ the anaerobic isobutanol pathways through deletion of 7 chromosomal genes, addition of 2 heterologous genes, and overexpression of 5 genes. Here we present the design, construction, and characterization of an isobutanol-producing E. coli strain to illustrate the approach. The model predictions are evaluated in relation to experimental data and strategies proposed to improve anaerobic isobutanol production. We also show that the endogenous alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE is the key enzyme responsible for the production of isobutanol and ethanol under anaerobic conditions. The glycolytic flux can be controlled to regulate the ratio of isobutanol to ethanol production. PMID:21642415

Trinh, Cong T.; Li, Johnny; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

2011-01-01

17

(Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Biochemical aspects)  

SciTech Connect

Major effort has gone into purifying and characterizing a second Coenzyme A ligase involved in anaerobic aromatic acid metabolism in Rhodopseudomonas palustris. This enzyme has some overlap in specificity with the benzoate-CoA ligase previously characterized, but differs in many other characteristics, and is antigenically unrelated. Some amino acid sequence information has been obtained, and this as well as a highly specific antiserum, will be useful for cloning the structural gene for the new ligase. In collaboration with Dr. Harwood, at the University of Iowa, we have continued to characterize a group of mutants obtained after Tn5 insertion into our clone bank, followed by transfer of the entire mutagenized bank into wild-type R. palustris. A clone which complements a group of these mutations has been insolated, and is currently being tested for ability to restore anaerobic growth on aromatic acids to other mutants isolated after chemical or uv mutagenesis of the wild-type strain. The close ties with Dr. Harwood's lab were demonstrated by the week-long visit of one of her students during last summer, to learn how to purify the benzoate CoA ligase from R. palustris. A search for possible intermediates in anaerobic metabolism of benzoyl CoA has been initiated in collaboration with Dr. Gibson, focussing on the possible role 1,4-dihydrobenzoyl CoA as a first reduction product.

Gibson, J.

1990-01-01

18

Metabolic Biomarkers for Monitoring in Situ Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years researchers have made great strides in understanding the metabolism of hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria. Organisms capable of utilizing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been isolated and described. In addition, the mechanisms of degradation for these compounds have been elucidated. This basic research has led to the development of methods for detecting in situ biodegradation of petroleum-related pollutants in anoxic groundwater. Knowledge of the metabolic pathways used by anaerobic bacteria to break down hydrocarbons has allowed us to identify unique intermediate compounds that can be used as biomarkers for in situ activity. One of these unique intermediates is 2-methylbenzylsuccinate, the product of fumarate addition to o-xylene by the enzyme responsible for toluene utilization. We have carried out laboratory studies to show that this compound can be used as a reliable indicator of anaerobic toluene degradation. Field studies confirmed that the biomarker is detectable in field samples and its distribution corresponds to areas where active biodegradation is predicted. For naphthalene, three biomarkers were identified [2-naphthoic acid (2-NA), tetrahydro-2-NA, and hexahydro-2-NA] that can be used in the field to identify areas of active in situ degradation. PMID:15626649

Young, Lily Y.; Phelps, Craig D.

2005-01-01

19

Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from an Anaerobic  

E-print Network

Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from anaerobe Escherichia coli K-12 provides an ideal system for exploring this process. Methods and Findings) Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from an Anaerobic

Williamson, Mike P.

20

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-01-01

21

Involvement of coenzyme A thioesters in anaerobic metabolism of 4-hydroxybenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

SciTech Connect

The initial steps of anaerobic 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation were studied in whole cells and cell extracts of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Illuminated suspensions of cells that had been grown anaerobically on 4-hydroxybenzoate and were assayed under anaerobic conditions took up (U-14C)4-hydroxybenzoate at a rate of 0.6 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. Uptake occurred with high affinity (apparent Km = 0.3 microM), was energy dependent, and was insensitive to external pH in the range of 6.5 to 8.2 Very little free 4-hydroxybenzoate was found associated with cells, but a range of intracellular products was formed after 20-s incubations of whole cells with labeled substrate. When anaerobic pulse-chase experiments were carried out with cells incubated on ice or in darkness, 4-hydroxybenzoyl coenzyme A (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA) was formed early and disappeared immediately after addition of excess unlabeled substrate, as would be expected of an early intermediate in 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism. A 4-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase activity with an average specific activity of 0.7 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1 was measured in the soluble protein fraction of cells grown anaerobically on 4-hydroxybenzoate. 4-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA was the sole product formed from labeled 4-hydroxybenzoate in the ligase reaction mixture. 4-Hydroxybenzoate uptake and ligase activities were present in cells grown anaerobically with benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and 4-aminobenzoate and were not detected in succinate-grown cells.

Merkel, S.M.; Eberhard, A.E.; Gibson, J.; Harwood, C.S.

1989-01-01

22

Erythropoietin (rHuEPO) doping: effects of exercise on anaerobic metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration on energy metabolism during exercise. Specifically, the contribution of anaerobic (glycogen) metabolism during exercise was evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an experimental [rHuEPO] (600 U x kg(-1) of Eprex, every 3 days) or control (equivalent volume of saline) group. After 15 days of treatment, animals from both groups were randomly subjected to either a 30-minute exercise (swimming with 5% body weight added) or resting period. They were sacrificed at the end of the exercise period. Their liver and muscles were quickly removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Blood was also sampled. rHuEPO administration resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase of hematocrit (from 42 +/- 2 to 54 +/- 7 L/L). In the rHuEPO group, both muscle glycogen and free fatty acids were higher whereas lactate was lower at the conclusion of the exercise period (P < 0.05). These results suggest that energy substrate utilization during exercise is affected by enhanced oxygen availability. Finally, a lower overall contribution to energy production from anaerobic metabolism during exercise followed rHuEPO administration. PMID:9657370

Lavoie, C; Diguet, A; Milot, M; Gareau, R

1998-05-01

23

Carbohydrate oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction, a novel form of anaerobic metabolism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An isolate, designated GC-29, that could incompletely oxidize glucose to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the electron acceptor was recovered from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. This metabolism yielded energy to support cell growth. Strain GC-29 is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative motile rod which, in addition to glucose, also used sucrose, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract, casamino acids or H2 as alternative electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. Stain GC-29 could reduce NO-3, Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, malate, S2O32-, and colloidal S0 as well as the humics analog, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA sequence indicated that strain GC-29 belongs in the Shewanella genus in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The name Shewanella saccharophilia is proposed. Shewanella saccharophilia differs from previously described fermentative microorganisms that metabolize glucose with the reduction of Fe(III) because it transfers significantly more electron equivalents to Fe(III); acetate and carbon dioxide are the only products of glucose metabolism; energy is conserved from Fe(III) reduction; and glucose is not metabolized in the absence of Fe(III). The metabolism of organisms like S. saccharophilia may account for the fact that glucose is metabolized primarily to acetate and carbon dioxide in a variety of sediments in which Fe(III) reduction is the terminal electron accepting process.

Coates, J.D.; Councell, T.; Ellis, D.J.; Lovley, D.R.

1998-01-01

24

The Metabolic Reprogramming Evoked by Nitrosative Stress Triggers the Anaerobic Utilization of Citrate in  

E-print Network

by Nitrosative Stress Triggers the Anaerobic Utilization of Citrate in Pseudomonas fluorescens. PLoS ONE 6(12): eThe Metabolic Reprogramming Evoked by Nitrosative Stress Triggers the Anaerobic Utilization of Citrate in Pseudomonas fluorescens Christopher Auger, Joseph Lemire, Dominic Cecchini, Adam Bignucolo

Appanna, Vasu

25

Metabolism of alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and other hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and its refined products. Whereas degradation of hydrocarbons by oxygen-respiring microorganisms has been known for about a century, utilization of hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions has been investigated only during the past decade. Diverse strains of anaerobic bacteria have been isolated that degrade toluene anaerobically, using nitrate, iron(III), or sulfate as

Alfred M. Spormann; Friedrich Widdel

2000-01-01

26

Anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of diverse aromatic compounds by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

SciTech Connect

The purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris used diverse aromatic compounds for growth under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Many phenolic, dihydroxylated, and methoxylated aromatic acids, as well as aromatic aldehydes and hydroaromatic acids, supported growth of strain CGA001 in both the presence and absence of oxygen. Some compounds were metabolized under only aerobic or under only anaerobic conditions. Two other strains, CGC023 and CGD052, had similar anaerobic substrate utilization patterns, but CGD052 was able to use a slightly larger number of compounds from growth. These results show that R. palustris is far more versatile in terms of aromatic degradation than had been previously demonstrated. A mutant (CGA033) blocked in aerobic aromatic metabolism remained wild type with respect to anaerobic degradative abilities, indicating that separate metabolic pathways mediate aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of diverse aromatics. Another mutant (CGA047) was unable to grow anaerobically on either benzoate or 4-hydroxybenzoate, and these compounds accumulated in growth media when cells were grown on more complex aromatic compounds. This indicates that R. palustris has two major anaerobic routes for aromatic ring fissions, one that passes through benzoate and one that passes through 4-hydroxybenzoate.

Harwood, C.S.; Gibson, J.

1988-03-01

27

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron

J. G. Zeikus; M. Jain

1993-01-01

28

Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during activity in small rodents.  

PubMed

Analysis of oxygen consumption and lactic acid formation during five minutes of maximal activity by the rodents Microtus montanus (Cricetidae) and Dipodomys merriami (Hetermyidae) indicates that: (1) anaerobiosis provides approximately 10% of total energy utilized during the 5-minute activity period; (2) anaerobiosis may account for as much as one-third of total energy utilized during the first 30 seconds of activity. In addition, these data indicate at least one species of lizard may be capable of a higher total rate of metabolism during "burst" activity than are the rodents investigated here. PMID:381568

Ruben, J A; Battalia, D E

1979-04-01

29

Anaerobic  

E-print Network

Applying animal manure to crop land is a traditional and effective means of recycling nutrients and improving the structure of the soil by adding organic matter and biological activity. Applying manure can also enhance animal and crop production by reducing the costs of fertilizer. However, manure application can cause odor complaints from neighbors and surrounding communities. Appropriate application methods and management practices based on odor emission and dispersion principles can effectively reduce odor concerns during manure application. This fact sheet presents a basic understanding of odors and odor dispersion and highlights best management practices for controlling odors during manure application. What Is Odor? Odor is an unpleasant smell caused by odorous gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These volatile organic compounds are organic acids, and they evaporate easily. Under ideal anaerobic conditions, manure is degraded by acid-forming microorganisms into volatile organic compounds (Figure 1). These compounds are further metabolized by methane-producing bacteria into methane, carbon dioxide, and water, which are odor-free compounds. If conditions are not correct for methane bacteria, excess volatile organic compounds are generated. Manure stored in a well-functioning treatment lagoon (purple lagoon) will be less odorous than manure from non-treatment

Lingying Zhao; Jonathan N. Rausch; Tamara L. Combs

30

Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria, exemplifed byRhodobacter capsulatus andRhodobacter sphaeroides, exhibit a remarkable versatility in their anaerobic metabolism. In these bacteria the photosynthetic apparatus, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and pathways of anaerobic respiration are all induced upon a reduction in oxygen tension. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of molecular properties of the photosynthetic apparatus and the

Alastair G. McEwan

1994-01-01

31

Study of the role of anaerobic metabolism in succinate production by Enterobacter aerogenes.  

PubMed

Succinate is a core biochemical building block; optimizing succinate production from biomass by microbial fermentation is a focus of basic and applied biotechnology research. Lowering pH in anaerobic succinate fermentation culture is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach to reducing the use of sub-raw materials such as alkali, which are needed for neutralization. To evaluate the potential of bacteria-based succinate fermentation under weak acidic (pH <6.2) and anaerobic conditions, we characterized the anaerobic metabolism of Enterobacter aerogenes AJ110637, which rapidly assimilates glucose at pH 5.0. Based on the profile of anaerobic products, we constructed single-gene knockout mutants to eliminate the main anaerobic metabolic pathways involved in NADH re-oxidation. These single-gene knockout studies showed that the ethanol synthesis pathway serves as the dominant NADH re-oxidation pathway in this organism. To generate a metabolically engineered strain for succinate production, we eliminated ethanol formation and introduced a heterogeneous carboxylation enzyme, yielding E. aerogenes strain ?adhE/PCK. The strain produced succinate from glucose with a 60.5% yield (grams of succinate produced per gram of glucose consumed) at pH <6.2 and anaerobic conditions. Thus, we showed the potential of bacteria-based succinate fermentation under weak acidic conditions. PMID:24962116

Tajima, Yoshinori; Kaida, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Fukui, Keita; Nishio, Yousuke; Hashiguchi, Kenichi; Fudou, Ryosuke; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Sode, Koji

2014-09-01

32

Anaerobic metabolism at thermal extremes: a metabolomic test of the oxygen limitation hypothesis in an aquatic insect.  

PubMed

Thermal limits in ectotherms may arise through a mismatch between supply and demand of oxygen. At higher temperatures, the ability of their cardiac and ventilatory activities to supply oxygen becomes insufficient to meet their elevated oxygen demand. Consequently, higher levels of oxygen in the environment are predicted to enhance tolerance of heat, whereas reductions in oxygen are expected to reduce thermal limits. Here, we extend previous research on thermal limits and oxygen limitation in aquatic insect larvae and directly test the hypothesis of increased anaerobic metabolism and lower energy status at thermal extremes. We quantified metabolite profiles in stonefly nymphs under varying temperatures and oxygen levels. Under normoxia, the concept of oxygen limitation applies to the insects studied. Shifts in the metabolome of heat-stressed stonefly nymphs clearly indicate the onset of anaerobic metabolism (e.g., accumulation of lactate, acetate, and alanine), a perturbation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., accumulation of succinate and malate), and a decrease in energy status (e.g., ATP), with corresponding decreases in their ability to survive heat stress. These shifts were more pronounced under hypoxic conditions, and negated by hyperoxia, which also improved heat tolerance. Perturbations of metabolic pathways in response to either heat stress or hypoxia were found to be somewhat similar but not identical. Under hypoxia, energy status was greatly compromised at thermal extremes, but energy shortage and anaerobic metabolism could not be conclusively identified as the sole cause underlying thermal limits under hyperoxia. Metabolomics proved useful for suggesting a range of possible mechanisms to explore in future investigations, such as the involvement of leaking membranes or free radicals. In doing so, metabolomics provided a more complete picture of changes in metabolism under hypoxia and heat stress. PMID:23604617

Verberk, W C E P; Sommer, U; Davidson, R L; Viant, M R

2013-10-01

33

Involvement of the TCA cycle in the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs).  

PubMed

For decades, glycolysis has been generally accepted to supply the reducing power for the anaerobic conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). However, the importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has also been raised since 1980s. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the involvement of the TCA cycle in the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs. To achieve this goal, the glycogen pool of an activated sludge highly enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter Phosphatis (hereafter referred to as Accumulibacter), a putative PAO was reduced substantially through starving the sludge under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions. After the starvation, acetate added was still taken up anaerobically and stored as PHA, with negligible glycogen degradation. The metabolic models proposed by Pereira, Hesselmann and Yagci, which predict the formation of reducing power through glycolysis and the full or partial TCA cycle, were used to estimate the carbon fluxes. The results demonstrate that Accumulibacter can use both glycogen and acetate to generate reducing power anaerobically. The anaerobic production of reducing power from acetate is likely through the full TCA cycle. The proportion of TCA cycle involvement depends on the availability of degradable glycogen. PMID:19144373

Zhou, Yan; Pijuan, Maite; Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo

2009-03-01

34

Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: Progress report, (year 2)  

SciTech Connect

Various aromatic compounds can be broken down anaerobically a model oganism, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These results show that R. palustris is one of the most versatile of the anaerobic bacteria described to date with respect to aromatic degradation. The probable metabolic routes taken were assessed by analyzing growth patterns and the accumulation of partial degradation products by wild type strains and by a mutant blocked in anaerobic degradation of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate. The main conclusion reached from these studies is that R. palustris uses two major routes for aromatic degradation; one that flows through benzoate and one that flows through 4-hydroxybenzoate. Thus there appear to be two major pathways that mediate the fission of aromatic rings under anaerobic conditions. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Harwood, C.S.

1988-01-01

35

Enhanced Oxygen Delivery Reverses Anaerobic Metabolic States in Prolonged Sandwich Rat Hepatocyte Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It must be assumed that current petri dish primary hepatocyte culture models do not supply sufficient amounts of oxygen and thus cause anaerobic metabolism of the cells. This is contrary to the physiologic state of the cells.In vivothe liver is a highly vascularized organ with a rather high blood flow rate of a mixture of arterial and venous blood. The

A. Bader; N. Frühauf; M. Tiedge; M. Drinkgern; L. De Bartolo; J. T. Borlak; G. Steinhoff; A. Haverich

1999-01-01

36

Exercise- and Hypoxia-Induced Anaerobic Metabolism and Recovery: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anaerobic metabolism is recruited in vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a…

Rees, B. B.; Boily, P.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2009-01-01

37

Ontogenetic effects on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during jumping in the American locust, Schistocerca americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing vertebrates increase both their locomotory power output and endurance due to ontogenetic improvements in anaerobic and aerobic metabolic capacities. Do similar patterns hold for insect locomotion, or do longer tracheal lengths create problems for oxygen delivery in older animals? We forced developing American locust grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) to jump repeatedly and examined the effect of development on power output,

Scott D. Kirkton; Jared A. Niska; Jon F. Harrison

2005-01-01

38

Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in Paenibacillus macerans: metabolic pathways and environmental determinants.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus macerans is one of the species with the broadest metabolic capabilities in the genus Paenibacillus, able to ferment hexoses, deoxyhexoses, pentoses, cellulose, and hemicellulose. However, little is known about glycerol metabolism in this organism, and some studies have reported that glycerol is not fermented. Despite these reports, we found that several P. macerans strains are capable of anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. One of these strains, P. macerans N234A, grew fermentatively on glycerol at a maximum specific growth rate of 0.40 h(-1) and was chosen for further characterization. The use of [U-13C]glycerol and further analysis of extracellular metabolites and proteinogenic amino acids via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allowed identification of ethanol, formate, acetate, succinate, and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as fermentation products and demonstrated that glycerol is incorporated into cellular components. A medium formulation with low concentrations of potassium and phosphate, cultivation at acidic pH, and the use of a CO2-enriched atmosphere stimulated glycerol fermentation and are proposed to be environmental determinants of this process. The pathways involved in glycerol utilization and synthesis of fermentation products were identified using NMR spectroscopy in combination with enzyme assays. Based on these studies, the synthesis of ethanol and 1,2-PDO is proposed to be a metabolic determinant of glycerol fermentation in P. macerans N234A. Conversion of glycerol to ethanol fulfills energy requirements by generating one molecule of ATP per molecule of ethanol synthesized. Conversion of glycerol to 1,2-PDO results in the consumption of reducing equivalents, thus facilitating redox balance. Given the availability, low price, and high degree of reduction of glycerol, the high metabolic rates exhibited by P. macerans N234A are of paramount importance for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:19617389

Gupta, Ashutosh; Murarka, Abhishek; Campbell, Paul; Gonzalez, Ramon

2009-09-01

39

Regulation and Function of Versatile Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiratory Metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitously distributed opportunistic pathogen that inhabits soil and water as well as animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments. The ubiquity would be attributed to its very versatile energy metabolism. P. aeruginosa has a highly branched respiratory chain terminated by multiple terminal oxidases and denitrification enzymes. Five terminal oxidases for aerobic respiration have been identified in the P. aeruginosa cells. Three of them, the cbb3-1 oxidase, the cbb3-2 oxidase, and the aa3 oxidase, are cytochrome c oxidases and the other two, the bo3 oxidase and the cyanide-insensitive oxidase, are quinol oxidases. Each oxidase has a specific affinity for oxygen, efficiency of energy coupling, and tolerance to various stresses such as cyanide and reactive nitrogen species. These terminal oxidases are used differentially according to the environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa also has a complete set of the denitrification enzymes that reduce nitrate to molecular nitrogen via nitrite, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide. These nitrogen oxides function as alternative electron acceptors and enable P. aeruginosa to grow under anaerobic conditions. One of the denitrification enzymes, NO reductase, is also expected to function for detoxification of NO produced by the host immune defense system. The control of the expression of these aerobic and anaerobic respiratory enzymes would contribute to the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to a wide range of environmental conditions including in the infected hosts. Characteristics of these respiratory enzymes and the regulatory system that controls the expression of the respiratory genes in the P. aeruginosa cells are overviewed in this article. PMID:21833336

Arai, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

40

Genome-scale analysis of anaerobic benzoate and phenol metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus.  

PubMed

Insight into the mechanisms for the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus is expected to improve understanding of the degradation of aromatics in hot (>80°?C) environments and to identify enzymes that might have biotechnological applications. Analysis of the F. placidus genome revealed genes predicted to encode enzymes homologous to those previously identified as having a role in benzoate and phenol metabolism in mesophilic bacteria. Surprisingly, F. placidus lacks genes for an ATP-independent class II benzoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) reductase (BCR) found in all strictly anaerobic bacteria, but has instead genes coding for a bzd-type ATP-consuming class I BCR, similar to those found in facultative bacteria. The lower portion of the benzoate degradation pathway appears to be more similar to that found in the phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris, than the pathway reported for all heterotrophic anaerobic benzoate degraders. Many of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate metabolism were found in one of two gene clusters. Genes for phenol carboxylation proceeding through a phenylphosphate intermediate were identified in a single gene cluster. Analysis of transcript abundance with a whole-genome microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate or phenol metabolism had higher transcript abundance during growth on those substrates vs growth on acetate. These results suggest that the general strategies for benzoate and phenol metabolism are highly conserved between microorganisms living in moderate and hot environments, and that anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds might be analyzed in a wide range of environments with similar molecular targets. PMID:21776029

Holmes, Dawn E; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A; Lovley, Derek R

2012-01-01

41

Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

PubMed Central

Background EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is complex and not well understood. Results The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down-regulated at least 2-fold in the mutant, which, showed lower or no reduction of these electron acceptors when compared to the wild type, suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down-regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. Conclusion In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and, in conjunction with other regulators, fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1. Transcriptomic and sequence analyses of the genes differentially expressed showed that those mostly affected by the mutation belonged to the "Energy metabolism" category, while stress-related genes were indirectly regulated in the mutant possibly as a result of a secondary perturbation (e.g. oxidative stress, starvation). We also conclude based on sequence, physiological and expression analyses that this regulator is more appropriately termed Fnr and recommend this descriptor be used in future publications. PMID:21450087

2011-01-01

42

The Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West Falmouth Harbor  

E-print Network

the slowest. Initial aerobic respiration in the detrital algal/terrestrial site was 1.96 mg C g C-1 hr-1 , respectively. Anaerobic respiration rates were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than aerobic ratesThe Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West

Vallino, Joseph J.

43

Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production. PMID:23969939

Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

2013-01-01

44

Resistance to freshwater exposure in White Sea Littorina spp. I: Anaerobic metabolism and energetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic metabolism and changes in the osmotic concentration of extravisceral fluid were studied in the White Sea periwinkles\\u000a (Littorina littorea, Littorina saxatilis and Littorina obtusata) during freshwater exposure. Resistance to hypoosmotic stress increased in the order: L. obtusata? Our data suggest that osmotic shock is not a primary reason for mortality of the periwinkles under these conditions. During\\u000a environmental anaerobiosis,

I. M. Sokolova; C. Bock; H.-O. Pörtner

2000-01-01

45

Anaerobic andAerobic Metabolism ofDiverse Aromatic Compounds bythePhotosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thepurple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris useddiverse aromatic com- pounds forgrowth underanaerobic andaerobic conditions. Manyphenolic, dihydroxylated, andmethoxylated aromatic acids, aswell asaromatic aldehydes andhydroaromatic acids, supported growth ofstrain CGA001 inboththepresenceandabsence ofoxygen.Somecompounds were metabolized underonlyaerobic orunder onlyanaerobic conditions. Two otherstrains, CGCO23andCGDO52,hadsimilar anaerobic substrate utilization patterns, butCGDO52was abletouse a slightly larger numberofcompounds forgrowth. These results showthat R.palustris isfarmore versatile intermsofaromatic degradation thanhadbeenpreviously demonstrated.

CAROLINE S. HARWOOD; JANE GIBSON

1988-01-01

46

Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

SciTech Connect

Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1991-07-01

47

Flexibility in Anaerobic Metabolism as Revealed in a Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Lacking Hydrogenase Activity  

SciTech Connect

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a network of fermentation pathways that become active when cells acclimate to anoxia. Hydrogenase activity is an important component of this metabolism, and we have compared metabolic and regulatory responses that accompany anaerobiosis in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and a null mutant strain for the HYDEF gene (hydEF-1 mutant), which encodes an [FeFe] hydrogenase maturation protein. This mutant has no hydrogenase activity and exhibits elevated accumulation of succinate and diminished production of CO2 relative to the parental strain during dark, anaerobic metabolism. In the absence of hydrogenase activity, increased succinate accumulation suggests that the cells activate alternative pathways for pyruvate metabolism, which contribute to NAD(P)H reoxidation, and continued glycolysis and fermentation in the absence of O2. Fermentative succinate production potentially proceeds via the formation of malate, and increases in the abundance of mRNAs encoding two malateforming enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme, are observed in the mutant relative to the parental strain following transfer of cells from oxic to anoxic conditions. Although C. reinhardtii has a single gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase, it has six genes encoding putative malic enzymes. Only one of the malic enzyme genes, MME4, shows a dramatic increase in expression (mRNA abundance) in the hydEF-1 mutant during anaerobiosis. Furthermore, there are marked increases in transcripts encoding fumarase and fumarate reductase, enzymes putatively required to convert malate to succinate. These results illustrate the marked metabolic flexibility of C. reinhardtii and contribute to the development of an informed model of anaerobic metabolism in this and potentially other algae.

Dubini, A.; Mus, F.; Seibert, M.; Grossman, A. R.; Posewitz, M. C.

2009-03-13

48

Geographic differences in digoxin inactivation, a metabolic activity of the human anaerobic gut flora.  

PubMed Central

The inactivation of digoxin by conversion to reduced metabolites (digoxin reduction products, or DRP), a function of the anaerobic gut flora, was studied in normal volunteers from southern India and the United States. Digoxin was metabolised to DRP by 28 (13.7%) of 204 healthy south Indians in contrast to 67 (36.0%) of 186 New Yorkers (p less than 1 X 10(-6)). Only 1.0% of Indians compared with 14.0% of Americans excreted large amounts of metabolites (greater than 40% DRP) in the urine (p less than 1 X 10(-5)). Of 104 urban Indians, 23 (22.1%) were metabolisers, in contrast with five of 100 rural villagers (p less than 0.001). Within the urban group, digoxin metabolism correlated with education, frequency of animal protein intake, and most significantly, personal income. Organisms capable of reducing digoxin in vitro were found with similar frequencies in stool cultures from Indians and Americans. In the cultures of some subjects, DRP production was inhibited at lower dilutions but expressed at higher dilutions. We conclude that variations in drug metabolism between population groups may result from differences in the metabolic activity of the anaerobic gut flora probably mediated by environmentally determined factors. PMID:2759492

Mathan, V I; Wiederman, J; Dobkin, J F; Lindenbaum, J

1989-01-01

49

Total solids content: a key parameter of metabolic pathways in dry anaerobic digestion  

PubMed Central

Background In solid-state anaerobic digestion (AD) bioprocesses, hydrolytic and acidogenic microbial metabolisms have not yet been clarified. Since these stages are particularly important for the establishment of the biological reaction, better knowledge could optimize the process performances by process parameters adjustment. Results This study demonstrated the effect of total solids (TS) content on microbial fermentation of wheat straw with six different TS contents ranging from wet to dry conditions (10 to 33% TS). Three groups of metabolic behaviors were distinguished based on wheat straw conversion rates with 2,200, 1,600, and 1,400 mmol.kgVS-1 of fermentative products under wet (10 and 14% TS), dry (19 to 28% TS), and highly dry (28 to 33% TS) conditions, respectively. Furthermore, both wet and dry fermentations showed acetic and butyric acid metabolisms, whereas a mainly butyric acid metabolism occurred in highly dry fermentation. Conclusion Substrate conversion was reduced with no changes of the metabolic pathways until a clear limit at 28% TS content, which corresponded to the threshold value of free water content of wheat straw. This study suggested that metabolic pathways present a limit of TS content for high-solid AD. PMID:24261971

2013-01-01

50

Cellulose digestion and metabolism induced biocatalytic transitions in anaerobic microbial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of highly polymerized biomass by microbial communities present in diverse microbial ecosystems is an indispensable metabolic process for biogeochemical cycling in nature and for industrial activities required to maintain a sustainable society. Therefore, the evaluation of the complicated microbial metabolomics presents a significant challenge. We here describe a comprehensive strategy for characterizing the degradation of highly crystallized bacterial cellulose (BC) that is accompanied by metabolite production for identifying the responsible biocatalysts, including microorganisms and their metabolic functions. To this end, we employed two-dimensional solid- and one-dimensional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profiling combined with a metagenomic approach using stable isotope labeling. The key components of biocatalytic reactions determined using a metagenomic approach were correlated with cellulose degradation and metabolic products. The results indicate that BC degradation was mediated by cellulases that contain carbohydrate-binding modules and that belong to structural type A. The degradation reactions induced the metabolic dynamics of the microbial community and produced organic compounds, such as acetic acid and propionic acid, mainly metabolized by clostridial species. This combinatorial, functional and structural metagenomic approach is useful for the comprehensive characterization of biomass degradation, metabolic dynamics and their key components in diverse ecosystems. PMID:24958386

Yamazawa, Akira; Iikura, Tomohiro; Morioka, Yusuke; Shino, Amiu; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

51

Phenotypic Diversity of Hydrogen Production in Chlorophycean Algae Reflects Distinct Anaerobic Metabolisms  

SciTech Connect

Several species of green algae use [FeFe]-hydrogenases to oxidize and/or produce H{sub 2} during anoxia. To further define unique aspects of algal hydrogenase activity, the well-studied anaerobic metabolisms of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were compared with four strains of Chlamydomonas moewusii and a Lobochlamys culleus strain. In vivo and in vitro hydrogenase activity, starch accumulation/degradation, and anaerobic end product secretion were analyzed. The C. moewusii strains showed the most rapid induction of hydrogenase activity, congruent with high rates of starch catabolism, and anoxic metabolite accumulation. Intriguingly, we observed significant differences in morphology and hydrogenase activity in the C. moewusii strains examined, likely the result of long-term adaptation and/or genetic drift during culture maintenance. Of the C. moewusii strains examined, SAG 24.91 showed the highest in vitro hydrogenase activity. However, SAG 24.91 produced little H{sub 2} under conditions of sulfur limitation, which is likely a consequence of its inability to utilize exogenous acetate. In L. culleus, hydrogenase activity was minimal unless pulsed light was used to induce significant H2 photoproduction. Overall, our results demonstrate that unique anaerobic acclimation strategies have evolved in distinct green algae, resulting in differential levels of hydrogenase activity and species-specific patterns of NADH reoxidation during anoxia.

Meuser, J. E.; Ananyev, G.; Wittig, L. E.; Kosourov, S.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Seibert, M.; Dismukes, G. C.; Posewitz, M. C.

2009-01-01

52

Heat and energy requirements in thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating requirements of the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process were studied. Biogas production was studied in laboratory experiments at retention times from 1 to 10 days. The data gathered in the experiments was then used to perform a heat and energy analysis. The source of heat was a conventional CHP unit system. The results showed that thermophilic digestion is much

G. D. Zupan?i?; M. Roš

2003-01-01

53

Global transcriptomic analysis uncovers a switch to anaerobic metabolism in tellurite-exposed Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Tellurite (TeO3(2-)) is harmful for most microorganisms, especially Gram-negative bacteria. Even though tellurite toxicity involves a number of individual aspects, including oxidative stress, malfunctioning of metabolic enzymes and a drop in the reduced thiol pool, among others, the general mechanism of toxicity is rather complex and not completely understood to date. This work focused on DNA microarray analysis to evaluate the Escherichia coli global transcriptomic response when exposed to the toxicant. Confirming previous results, the induction of the oxidative stress response regulator soxS was observed. Upregulation of a number of genes involved in the global stress response, protein folding, redox processes and cell wall organization was also detected. In addition, downregulation of aerobic respiration-related genes suggested a metabolic switch to anaerobic respiration. The expression results were validated through oxygen consumption experiments, which corroborated that tellurite-exposed cells effectively consume oxygen at lower rates than untreated controls. PMID:25049169

Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Loyola, David E; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo A; Arenas, Felipe A; Urzúa, Ulises; Pérez-Donoso, José M; Vásquez, Claudio C

2014-09-01

54

Metagenomic insights into anaerobic metabolism along an Arctic peat soil profile.  

PubMed

A metagenomic analysis was performed on a soil profile from a wet tundra site in northern Alaska. The goal was to link existing biogeochemical knowledge of the system with the organisms and genes responsible for the relevant metabolic pathways. We specifically investigated how the importance of iron (Fe) oxides and humic substances (HS) as terminal electron acceptors in this ecosystem is expressed genetically, and how respiratory and fermentative processes varied with soil depth into the active layer and into the upper permafrost. Overall, the metagenomes reflected a microbial community enriched in a diverse range of anaerobic pathways, with a preponderance of known Fe reducing species at all depths in the profile. The abundance of sequences associated with anaerobic metabolic processes generally increased with depth, while aerobic cytochrome c oxidases decreased. Methanogenesis genes and methanogen genomes followed the pattern of CH4 fluxes: they increased steeply with depth into the active layer, but declined somewhat over the transition zone between the lower active layer and the upper permafrost. The latter was relatively enriched in fermentative and anaerobic respiratory pathways. A survey of decaheme cytochromes (MtrA, MtrC and their homologs) revealed that this is a promising approach to identifying potential reducers of Fe(III) or HS, and indicated a possible role for Acidobacteria as Fe reducers in these soils. Methanogens appear to coexist in the same layers, though in lower abundance, with Fe reducing bacteria and other potential competitors, including acetogens. These observations provide a rich set of hypotheses for further targeted study. PMID:23741360

Lipson, David A; Haggerty, John Matthew; Srinivas, Archana; Raab, Theodore K; Sathe, Shashank; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

2013-01-01

55

Bacterial metabolism of aromatic compounds and a complex hazardous waste under anaerobic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The biological fate of organic chemicals in the environment depends upon a variety of physical/chemical factors. In the absence of molecular oxygen, the importance of terminal electron acceptors has been often overlooked. Since anaerobic microbial consortia are dependent upon the availability of particular electron acceptors, these conditions can play an important role in influencing the fate of environmental pollutants. In this research, different electron acceptors were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of environmental toxicants. Two anaerobic bioassays, the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and the Anaerobic Toxicity Assay (ATA), were used to evaluate a series of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), substituted phenols and a landfill leachate, for their methanogenic biodegradability and toxicity. Many of the PAEs and phenols could be stoichiometrically mineralized. In addition, the landfill leachate was found to be inhibitory at concentrations greater than 10%, and partially mineralized in approximately 50 weeks. Based upon these assays, 6 different functional groups and their isomers were evaluated for their effect on the biodegradability and toxicity of phenol under methanogenic and denitrifying conditions. These results indicated that nitro- and chloro-substituted phenols were persistent under denitrifying conditions. Under methanogenic conditions, these compounds were metabolized to a more reduced intermediate with less toxicity. Conversely, amino-substituted phenols were not readily mineralized under methanogenic conditions, but were metabolized after minimal lag under denitrifying conditions. From active denitrifying phenol degrading cultures, a pure culture was obtained which could grow on phenol and on a variety of other alkyl-substituted aromatic compounds. Additional studies have tentatively identified several alicyclic metabolites including cyclohexanol, 2-cyclohexene-1-ol, cyclohexanone and 2-cyclohexene-1-one from phenol catabolism.

O'Connor, O.A.

1992-01-01

56

Metabolic behavior and enzymatic aspects of denitrifying EBPR sludge in a continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic system.  

PubMed

The metabolic aspects of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) were investigated for the first time in a continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic plant fed with acetate, propionate, or substrates which are involved in the tricarboxylic acid and/or glyoxylate cycle, i.e., fumarate, malate, or oxaloacetate, as the sole carbon source. Although the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) population remained stable with any carbon source examined, no typical EBPR metabolism was observed during fumarate, malate, or oxaloacetate utilization. Specific enzymatic activities related to EBPR were determined in activated sludge homogenates and directly correlated with the nutrient metabolic rates. The experimental results indicated the direct involvement of alkaline phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, and exopolyphosphatase in the denitrifying EBPR process. Metabolic aspects of glyoxylate cycle enzymes are discussed with regard to the biomass anaerobic and anoxic activity. Process performance was highly influenced by the kind of substrate utilized, indicating that specific metabolic pathways should be followed to favor efficient EBPR. PMID:23912208

Zafiriadis, Ilias; Ntougias, Spyridon; Kapagiannidis, Anastasios G; Aivasidis, Alexander

2013-10-01

57

Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress. PMID:24723105

Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

58

Metabolic energy required for flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

1994-11-01

59

Metabolic energy required for flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

1994-01-01

60

Exercise-and Hypoxia-Induced Anaerobic Metabolism and Recovery: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic metabolism is recruitedin vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a laboratory exercise developed as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology class that demonstrates

Bernard Rees; P. Boily; L. A. C. Williamson

2009-01-01

61

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production. Progress report, June 1990--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-04-01

62

Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-05-20

63

Energy Metabolism in the Liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial ? oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1?, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

Rui, Liangyou

2014-01-01

64

Metabolism of n-alkanes and n-alkenes by anaerobic bacteria: A summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the pathways for the degradation of n-alkanes and n-alkenes by anaerobic bacteria is summarized and new results questioning the existence of an alternative pathway for anaerobic alkane degradation are introduced. Remaining gaps in our knowledge are also mentioned, together with the possible use of some specific metabolites as biomarkers of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation.

Vincent Grossi; Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Rémy Guyoneaud; Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse; Agnès Hirschler-Réa

2008-01-01

65

High anaerobic energy release during submaximal arm exercise.  

PubMed

The anaerobic energy release during submaximal arm (AE) and leg exercise (LE) has been estimated from O2 deficit measured at the onset of exercise. Eight male subjects were studied during 8-10 min of arm or leg cycling at the same relative workload (53% of the peak exercise-induced increase in pulmonary oxygen uptake, VO2). The workloads were 78 +/- 4 W during AE and 173 +/- 11 W during LE and VO2 was 1.51 +/- 0.06 1 min-1 for AE and 2.33 +/- 0.15 1 min-1 for LE. The half-time of the VO2 on-response was considerably longer (P < 0.01) during AE (62 +/- 9 s) than during LE (33 +/- 4 s) and the peak blood lactate concentration was higher (P < 0.05) during AE (4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol.l-1) than during LE (3.5 +/- 0.4 mmol.l-1). Oxygen deficit was 1.64 +/- 0.16 and 1.78 +/- 0.16 1 for AE and LE respectively. Oxygen deficit was higher during AE than during LE when related to absolute workload (P < 0.01), or to VO2 at steady state (P < 0.001) or to limb volume (P < 0.001). The proportion of the total energy demand covered by anaerobic energy release at the onset of exercise (0-8 min) was about 54% higher (P < 0.01) during AE than during LE. It is concluded that the energy release to a greater extend is covered by anaerobic processes during AE than during LE. PMID:8435979

Jensen-Urstad, M; Hallbäck, I; Sahlin, K

1993-01-01

66

Anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms selected with propionate as the sole carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inthemicrobial competition observedinenhanced biological phosphorusremoval(EBPR) systems, an undesirable group of micro-organisms known as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete for carbon in the anaerobic period with the desired polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Some studies have suggested that a propionate carbon source provides PAOs with acompetitive advantage over GAOs in EBPRsystems; however, the metabolism ofGAOs with this carbon source has not been previously investigated.

Adrian Oehmen; Raymond J. Zeng; Aaron M. Saunders; Linda L. Blackall; Jurg Keller; Zhiguo Yuan

2006-01-01

67

Anaerobic 1-Alkene Metabolism by the Alkane- and Alkene-Degrading Sulfate Reducer Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain CV2803T?  

PubMed Central

The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd number) (C-odd) when it was grown on C-odd 1-alkenes. Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 6- to 10-week incubations allowed the identification of saturated 2- and 4-ethyl-, 2- and 4-methyl-, and monounsaturated 4-methyl-branched fatty acids with chain lengths that correlated with those of the 1-alkene. The growth of D. aliphaticivorans on (per)deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of the anaerobic transformation of these alkenes into the corresponding 1-alcohols and into linear as well as 10- and 4-methyl-branched fatty acids. Experiments performed with [13C]bicarbonate indicated that the initial activation of 1-alkene by the addition of inorganic carbon does not occur. These results demonstrate that D. aliphaticivorans metabolizes 1-alkene by the oxidation of the double bond at C-1 and by the subterminal addition of organic carbon at both ends of the molecule [C-2 and C-(?-1)]. The detection of ethyl-branched fatty acids from unlabeled 1-alkenes further suggests that carbon addition also occurs at C-3. Alkylsuccinates were not observed as potential initial intermediates in alkene metabolism. Based on our observations, the first pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in an anaerobic bacterium are proposed. Those pathways indicate that diverse initial reactions of 1-alkene activation can occur simultaneously in the same strain of sulfate-reducing bacterium. PMID:17965214

Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Meou, Alain; Raphel, Danielle; Garzino, Frederic; Hirschler-Rea, Agnes

2007-01-01

68

Anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism by the alkane- and alkene-degrading sulfate reducer Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T.  

PubMed

The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803(T), known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd number) (C-odd) when it was grown on C-odd 1-alkenes. Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 6- to 10-week incubations allowed the identification of saturated 2- and 4-ethyl-, 2- and 4-methyl-, and monounsaturated 4-methyl-branched fatty acids with chain lengths that correlated with those of the 1-alkene. The growth of D. aliphaticivorans on (per)deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of the anaerobic transformation of these alkenes into the corresponding 1-alcohols and into linear as well as 10- and 4-methyl-branched fatty acids. Experiments performed with [(13)C]bicarbonate indicated that the initial activation of 1-alkene by the addition of inorganic carbon does not occur. These results demonstrate that D. aliphaticivorans metabolizes 1-alkene by the oxidation of the double bond at C-1 and by the subterminal addition of organic carbon at both ends of the molecule [C-2 and C-(omega-1)]. The detection of ethyl-branched fatty acids from unlabeled 1-alkenes further suggests that carbon addition also occurs at C-3. Alkylsuccinates were not observed as potential initial intermediates in alkene metabolism. Based on our observations, the first pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in an anaerobic bacterium are proposed. Those pathways indicate that diverse initial reactions of 1-alkene activation can occur simultaneously in the same strain of sulfate-reducing bacterium. PMID:17965214

Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Méou, Alain; Raphel, Danielle; Garzino, Frédéric; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

2007-12-01

69

Anaerobic organic acid metabolism of Candida zemplinina in comparison with Saccharomyces wine yeasts.  

PubMed

Organic acid production under oxygen-limited conditions has been thoroughly studied in the Saccharomyces species, but practically never investigated in Candida zemplinina, which seems to be an acidogenic species under oxidative laboratory conditions. In this study, several strains of C. zemplinina were tested for organic acid metabolism, in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces uvarum and Candida stellata, under fermentative conditions. Only C. stellata produced significantly higher acidity in simple minimal media (SM) with low sugar content and two different nitrogen sources (ammonia or glutamic acid) at low level. However, the acid profile differed largely between the Saccharomyces and Candida species and showed inverse types of N-dependence in some cases. Succinic acid production was strongly enhanced on glutamic acid in Saccharomyces species, but not in Candida species. 2-oxoglutarate production was strongly supported on ammonium nitrogen in Candida species, but remained low in Saccharomyces. Candida species, C. stellata in particular, produced more pyruvic acid regardless of N-sources. From the results, we concluded that the anaerobic organic acid metabolisms of C. zemplinina and C. stellata are different from each other and also from that of the Saccharomyces species. In the formation of succinic acid, the oxidative pathway from glutamic acid seems to play little or no role in C. zemplinina. The reductive branch of the TCA cycle, however, produces acidic intermediates (malic, fumaric, and succinic acid) in a level comparable with the production of the Saccharomyces species. An unidentified organic acid, which was produced on glutamic acid only by the Candida species, needs further investigation. PMID:24667312

Magyar, Ildikó; Nyitrai-Sárdy, Diána; Leskó, Annamária; Pomázi, Andrea; Kállay, Miklós

2014-05-16

70

Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi  

PubMed Central

Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB. PMID:22661972

Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jorg; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

71

Anaerobic Digesters: From Waste to Energy Crops as an Alternative Energy Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to investigate the integrated organic waste-anaerobic digester-energy crop production system as a eco-agricultural system and to use anaerobically digested cattle slurry as fertilizer for safflower production. The value of slurry as fertilizer for growing safflower was compared with commercial organic and chemical fertilizers. According to the results of this study, higher yields

G. Kocar

2008-01-01

72

Anaerobic energy provision does not limit Wingate exercise performance in endurance-trained cyclists.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of severe acute hypoxia on exercise performance and metabolism during 30-s Wingate tests. Five endurance- (E) and five sprint- (S) trained track cyclists from the Spanish National Team performed 30-s Wingate tests in normoxia and hypoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.10). Oxygen deficit was estimated from submaximal cycling economy tests by use of a nonlinear model. E cyclists showed higher maximal O(2) uptake than S (72 +/- 1 and 62 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). S cyclists achieved higher peak and mean power output, and 33% larger oxygen deficit than E (P < 0.05). During the Wingate test in normoxia, S relied more on anaerobic energy sources than E (P < 0.05); however, S showed a larger fatigue index in both conditions (P < 0.05). Compared with normoxia, hypoxia lowered O(2) uptake by 16% in E and S (P < 0.05). Peak power output, fatigue index, and exercise femoral vein blood lactate concentration were not altered by hypoxia in any group. Endurance cyclists, unlike S, maintained their mean power output in hypoxia by increasing their anaerobic energy production, as shown by 7% greater oxygen deficit and 11% higher postexercise lactate concentration. In conclusion, performance during 30-s Wingate tests in severe acute hypoxia is maintained or barely reduced owing to the enhancement of the anaerobic energy release. The effect of severe acute hypoxia on supramaximal exercise performance depends on training background. PMID:12391104

Calbet, J A L; De Paz, J A; Garatachea, N; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Chavarren, J

2003-02-01

73

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

74

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

PubMed Central

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

75

Phenylphosphate Carboxylase: a New C-C Lyase Involved in Anaerobic Phenol Metabolism in Thauera aromatica  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic metabolism of phenol in the beta-proteobacterium Thauera aromatica proceeds via carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate and is initiated by the ATP-dependent conversion of phenol to phenylphosphate. The subsequent para carboxylation of phenylphosphate to 4-hydroxybenzoate is catalyzed by phenylphosphate carboxylase, which was purified and studied. This enzyme consists of four proteins with molecular masses of 54, 53, 18, and 10 kDa, whose genes are located adjacent to each other in the phenol gene cluster which codes for phenol-induced proteins. Three of the subunits (54, 53, and 10 kDa) were sufficient to catalyze the exchange of 14CO2 and the carboxyl group of 4-hydroxybenzoate but not phenylphosphate carboxylation. Phenylphosphate carboxylation was restored when the 18-kDa subunit was added. The following reaction model is proposed. The 14CO2 exchange reaction catalyzed by the three subunits of the core enzyme requires the fully reversible release of CO2 from 4-hydroxybenzoate with formation of a tightly enzyme-bound phenolate intermediate. Carboxylation of phenylphosphate requires in addition the 18-kDa subunit, which is thought to form the same enzyme-bound energized phenolate intermediate from phenylphosphate with virtually irreversible release of phosphate. The 54- and 53-kDa subunits show similarity to UbiD of Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the decarboxylation of a 4-hydroxybenzoate derivative in ubiquinone (ubi) biosynthesis. They also show similarity to components of various decarboxylases acting on aromatic carboxylic acids, such as 4-hydroxybenzoate or vanillate, whereas the 10-kDa subunit is unique. The 18-kDa subunit belongs to a hydratase/phosphatase protein family. Phenylphosphate carboxylase is a member of a new family of carboxylases/decarboxylases that act on phenolic compounds, use CO2 as a substrate, do not contain biotin or thiamine diphosphate, require K+ and a divalent metal cation (Mg2+or Mn2+) for activity, and are strongly inhibited by oxygen. PMID:15231788

Schuhle, Karola; Fuchs, Georg

2004-01-01

76

Flexibility in Anaerobic Metabolism as Revealed in a Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Lacking Hydrogenase Activity*S?  

PubMed Central

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a network of fermentation pathways that become active when cells acclimate to anoxia. Hydrogenase activity is an important component of this metabolism, and we have compared metabolic and regulatory responses that accompany anaerobiosis in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and a null mutant strain for the HYDEF gene (hydEF-1 mutant), which encodes an [FeFe] hydrogenase maturation protein. This mutant has no hydrogenase activity and exhibits elevated accumulation of succinate and diminished production of CO2 relative to the parental strain during dark, anaerobic metabolism. In the absence of hydrogenase activity, increased succinate accumulation suggests that the cells activate alternative pathways for pyruvate metabolism, which contribute to NAD(P)H reoxidation, and continued glycolysis and fermentation in the absence of O2. Fermentative succinate production potentially proceeds via the formation of malate, and increases in the abundance of mRNAs encoding two malateforming enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme, are observed in the mutant relative to the parental strain following transfer of cells from oxic to anoxic conditions. Although C. reinhardtii has a single gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase, it has six genes encoding putative malic enzymes. Only one of the malic enzyme genes, MME4, shows a dramatic increase in expression (mRNA abundance) in the hydEF-1 mutant during anaerobiosis. Furthermore, there are marked increases in transcripts encoding fumarase and fumarate reductase, enzymes putatively required to convert malate to succinate. These results illustrate the marked metabolic flexibility of C. reinhardtii and contribute to the development of an informed model of anaerobic metabolism in this and potentially other algae. PMID:19117946

Dubini, Alexandra; Mus, Florence; Seibert, Michael; Grossman, Arthur R.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

2009-01-01

77

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery  

E-print Network

LIM J.W. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery Jun Wei LIM waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION water and kitchen food waste in urban decentralised units hal-00607958,version1-11Jul2011 Author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy During Resistance Exercise at 80% 1RM.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) method to assess the energy cost in resistance exercises (RE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic energy release during resistance exercises performed at 80% 1-RM in four exercises (half squat, bench press, triceps extension and lat pull down), as well as the accuracy of its estimation. The sample comprised 14 men (age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; height = 177.7 ± 0.1 cm; body mass = 79.0 ± 11.1 kg; and estimated fat mass = 10.5 ± 4.6%). Test and re-test of 1-RM were applied to every exercise. Low-intensity bouts at 12, 16, 20, and 24% of 1-RM were conducted. Energy cost was then extrapolated to 80% 1-RM exhaustive bout and relative energy contribution were assessed. By utilizing the AOD method, the results of the present study suggest a great proportion of anaerobic metabolism during exercise at 80% 1-RM in the four RE that were analyzed: Bench press = 77,66±6,95%; Half squat = 87,44±6,45%; Triceps extension = 63,91±9,22%; Lat pull down = 71,99±13,73 %. The results of the present study suggest that AOD during resistance exercises presents a pattern that does not match the reports in the literature for other types of exercise. The accuracy of the total energy demand estimation at 80% 1-RM was acceptable in the Bench press, in the Triceps extension and in the Lat pull down, but no in the Half squat. More studies are warranted to investigate the validity of this method in resistance exercise. PMID:23487002

Vianna, Jefferson M; Lima, Jorge P; Saavedra, Francisco J; Reis, Victor M

2011-09-01

79

Computational Approaches for Understanding Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

There has been a surge of interest in understanding the regulation of metabolic networks involved in disease in recent years. Quantitative models are increasingly being used to i nterrogate the metabolic pathways that are contained within this complex disease biology. At the core of this effort is the mathematical modeling of central carbon metabolism involving glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (referred to as energy metabolism). Here we discuss several approaches used to quantitatively model metabolic pathways relating to energy metabolism and discuss their formalisms, successes, and limitations. PMID:23897661

Shestov, Alexander A; Barker, Brandon; Gu, Zhenglong; Locasale, Jason W

2013-01-01

80

Investigation of possible alternate end products of anaerobic metabolism in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta  

E-print Network

, reported large quantities of ethanol anaerobically produced by the insect larvae, Chironomus. There have been reports of increased levels of succinate and alanine in higher vertebrates due to low oxygen. Rats exposed to hypoxia and perfused rat hearts..., reported large quantities of ethanol anaerobically produced by the insect larvae, Chironomus. There have been reports of increased levels of succinate and alanine in higher vertebrates due to low oxygen. Rats exposed to hypoxia and perfused rat hearts...

Trant, John Miller

2012-06-07

81

Engineering of the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for anaerobic production of mannitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under anaerobic conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd1p and Gpd2p) to re-oxidize excess NADH, yielding substantial amounts of glycerol. In a ?gpd1 ?gpd2 double-null mutant, the necessary NAD+ regeneration through glycerol production is no longer possible, and this mutant does not grow under anaerobic conditions. The excess NADH formed can potentially be used to drive other NADH-dependent reactions

Roeland Costenoble; Lennart Adler; Claes Niklasson; Gunnar Lidén

2003-01-01

82

Anaerobic Sulfur Metabolism Coupled to Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in the Extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans  

PubMed Central

Gene transcription (microarrays) and protein levels (proteomics) were compared in cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on elemental sulfur as the electron donor under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using either molecular oxygen or ferric iron as the electron acceptor, respectively. No evidence supporting the role of either tetrathionate hydrolase or arsenic reductase in mediating the transfer of electrons to ferric iron (as suggested by previous studies) was obtained. In addition, no novel ferric iron reductase was identified. However, data suggested that sulfur was disproportionated under anaerobic conditions, forming hydrogen sulfide via sulfur reductase and sulfate via heterodisulfide reductase and ATP sulfurylase. Supporting physiological evidence for H2S production came from the observation that soluble Cu2+ included in anaerobically incubated cultures was precipitated (seemingly as CuS). Since H2S reduces ferric iron to ferrous in acidic medium, its production under anaerobic conditions indicates that anaerobic iron reduction is mediated, at least in part, by an indirect mechanism. Evidence was obtained for an alternative model implicating the transfer of electrons from S0 to Fe3+ via a respiratory chain that includes a bc1 complex and a cytochrome c. Central carbon pathways were upregulated under aerobic conditions, correlating with higher growth rates, while many Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle components were upregulated during anaerobic growth, probably as a result of more limited access to carbon dioxide. These results are important for understanding the role of A. ferrooxidans in environmental biogeochemical metal cycling and in industrial bioleaching operations. PMID:23354702

Osorio, Hector; Mangold, Stefanie; Denis, Yann; Nancucheo, Ivan; Esparza, Mario; Johnson, D. Barrie; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Dopson, Mark

2013-01-01

83

Altered energy metabolism in cancer  

PubMed Central

The early observations by Dr Otto Warburg revealed that fundamentally metabolic differences exist between malignant tumor cells and adjacent normal cells. Many studies have further reported the relationship between altered cellular metabolism and therapeutic outcomes. These observations suggest that targeting the peculiar metabolic pathways in cancer might be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. In recent years, investigations have accelerated into how altered cellular metabolism promotes tumor survival and growth. This review highlights the current concepts of altered metabolism in cancer and the molecular targets involved in glycolysis, mitochondria and glutamine metabolism and discusses future perspective of cellular metabolism-based cancer treatment. PMID:23192270

Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jin-Ming

2013-01-01

84

Ibogaine affects brain energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid present in the root of the plant Tabernanthe iboga. It is known to attenuate abstinence syndrome in animal models of drug addiction. Since the anti-addiction effect lasts longer than the presence of ibogaine in the body, some profound metabolic changes are expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ibogaine on protein expression in rat brains. Rats were treated with ibogaine at 20 mg/kg body weight i.p. and subsequently examined at 24 and 72 h. Proteins were extracted from whole brain and separated by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Individual proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Enzymes of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle namely glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase were induced. The results suggest that the remedial effect of ibogaine could be mediated by the change in energy availability. Since energy dissipating detoxification and reversion of tolerance to different drugs of abuse requires underlying functional and structural changes in the cell, higher metabolic turnover would be favourable. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of anti-addiction drugs highlights the subcellular aspects of addiction diseases, in addition to neurological and psychological perspectives. PMID:17054944

Paskulin, Roman; Jamnik, Polona; Zivin, Marko; Raspor, Peter; Strukelj, Borut

2006-12-15

85

Toward Homosuccinate Fermentation: Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for Anaerobic Production of Succinate from Glucose and Formate  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of Corynebacterium glutamicum for anaerobic succinate production from glucose under nongrowing conditions. In this work, we have addressed two shortfalls of this process, the formation of significant amounts of by-products and the limitation of the yield by the redox balance. To eliminate acetate formation, a derivative of the type strain ATCC 13032 (strain BOL-1), which lacked all known pathways for acetate and lactate synthesis (?cat ?pqo ?pta-ackA ?ldhA), was constructed. Chromosomal integration of the pyruvate carboxylase gene pycP458S into BOL-1 resulted in strain BOL-2, which catalyzed fast succinate production from glucose with a yield of 1 mol/mol and showed only little acetate formation. In order to provide additional reducing equivalents derived from the cosubstrate formate, the fdh gene from Mycobacterium vaccae, coding for an NAD+-coupled formate dehydrogenase (FDH), was chromosomally integrated into BOL-2, leading to strain BOL-3. In an anaerobic batch process with strain BOL-3, a 20% higher succinate yield from glucose was obtained in the presence of formate. A temporary metabolic blockage of strain BOL-3 was prevented by plasmid-borne overexpression of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene gapA. In an anaerobic fed-batch process with glucose and formate, strain BOL-3/pAN6-gap accumulated 1,134 mM succinate in 53 h with an average succinate production rate of 1.59 mmol per g cells (dry weight) (cdw) per h. The succinate yield of 1.67 mol/mol glucose is one of the highest currently described for anaerobic succinate producers and was accompanied by a very low level of by-products (0.10 mol/mol glucose). PMID:22389371

Litsanov, Boris; Brocker, Melanie

2012-01-01

86

Energy flows, metabolism and translation  

PubMed Central

Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the abovementioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation. PMID:21930587

Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent

2011-01-01

87

Vampires, Pasteur and reactive oxygen species. Is the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism a preventive antioxidant defence in blood-feeding parasites?  

PubMed

Several species of parasites show a reduction of their respiratory activity along their developmental cycles after they start to feed on vertebrate blood, relying on anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates to achieve their energy requirements. Usually, these parasites choose not to breathe despite of living in an environment of high oxygen availability such as vertebrate blood. Absence of the 'Pasteur effect' in most of these parasites has been well documented. Interestingly, together with the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in these parasites, there is clear evidence pointing to an increase in their antioxidant defences. As the respiratory chain in mitochondria is a major site of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we propose here that the arrest of respiration constitutes an adaptation to avoid the toxic effects of ROS. This situation would be especially critical for blood-feeding parasites because ROS produced in mitochondria would interact with pro-oxidant products of blood digestion, such as haem and/or iron, and increase the oxidative damage to the parasite's cells. PMID:12163151

Oliveira, Pedro L; Oliveira, Marcus F

2002-08-14

88

Overflow metabolism during anaerobic growth of Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 on glycerol and dihydroxyacetone in chemostat culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with glycerol as source of carbon and energy. Glycerol-limited cultures did not ferment the carbon source with maximal efficiency but produced considerable amounts of 1,3-propanediol. The fraction of glycerol converted to this product depended on the growth rate and on the limitation: faster growing cells produced relatively more of this

H. Streekstra; M. J. Teixeira de Mattos; O. M. Neijssel; D. W. Tempest

1987-01-01

89

Anaerobic Metabolism in Tidal Freshwater Wetlands: II. Effects of Plant Removal on Archaeal  

E-print Network

are inhabited by complex micro- bial communities that carry out important transformations of carbon decomposition, which is carried out exclusively by microbes. Following a series of initial degradation steps by fermenting bacteria, it is gener- ally assumed that methanogenesis and Fe-reduction domi- nate anaerobic

Moyer, Craig

90

Metabolic engineering of a xylose-isomerase-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for rapid anaerobic xylose fermentation.  

PubMed

After an extensive selection procedure, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express the xylose isomerase gene from the fungus Piromyces sp. E2 can grow anaerobically on xylose with a mu(max) of 0.03 h(-1). In order to investigate whether reactions downstream of the isomerase control the rate of xylose consumption, we overexpressed structural genes for all enzymes involved in the conversion of xylulose to glycolytic intermediates, in a xylose-isomerase-expressing S. cerevisiae strain. The overexpressed enzymes were xylulokinase (EC 2.7.1.17), ribulose 5-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.6), ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase (EC 5.3.1.1), transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) and transaldolase (EC 2.2.1.2). In addition, the GRE3 gene encoding aldose reductase was deleted to further minimise xylitol production. Surprisingly the resulting strain grew anaerobically on xylose in synthetic media with a mu(max) as high as 0.09 h(-1) without any non-defined mutagenesis or selection. During growth on xylose, xylulose formation was absent and xylitol production was negligible. The specific xylose consumption rate in anaerobic xylose cultures was 1.1 g xylose (g biomass)(-1) h(-1). Mixtures of glucose and xylose were sequentially but completely consumed by anaerobic batch cultures, with glucose as the preferred substrate. PMID:15691745

Kuyper, Marko; Hartog, Miranda M P; Toirkens, Maurice J; Almering, Marinka J H; Winkler, Aaron A; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

2005-02-01

91

The anaerobic oxidation of hydrazine: a novel reaction in microbial nitrogen metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrazine is rarely found as an intermediate in microbial nitrogen conversions. In this study the conversion of hydrazine by the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) culture, in which hydrazine has been proposed as an intermediate, was investigated. This study demonstrated the biological nature of hydrazine conversion by the Anammox culture. In batch cultures with hydrazine it was observed that 3 mol

Jos Schalk; Hege Oustad; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M Jetten

1998-01-01

92

Simultaneous Involvement of a Tungsten-Containing Aldehyde:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase and a Phenylacetaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Anaerobic Phenylalanine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH. PMID:24214948

Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg

2014-01-01

93

Selenocysteine, Pyrrolysine, and the Unique Energy Metabolism of Methanogenic Archaea  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic archaea are a group of strictly anaerobic microorganisms characterized by their strict dependence on the process of methanogenesis for energy conservation. Among the archaea, they are also the only known group synthesizing proteins containing selenocysteine or pyrrolysine. All but one of the known archaeal pyrrolysine-containing and all but two of the confirmed archaeal selenocysteine-containing protein are involved in methanogenesis. Synthesis of these proteins proceeds through suppression of translational stop codons but otherwise the two systems are fundamentally different. This paper highlights these differences and summarizes the recent developments in selenocysteine- and pyrrolysine-related research on archaea and aims to put this knowledge into the context of their unique energy metabolism. PMID:20847933

Rother, Michael; Krzycki, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

94

Hypoxic Regulation of Glucose Transport, Anaerobic Metabolism and Angiogenesis in Cancer: Novel Pathways and Targets for Anticancer Therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer cells require a steady source of metabolic energy in order to continue their uncontrolled growth and proliferation. Accelerated glycolysis is one of the biochemical characteristics of cancer cells. Recent work indicates that glucose transport and metabolism are essential for the posttreatment survival of tumor cells, leading to poor prognosis. Glycolytic breakdown of glucose is preceded by the transport of

Rachel E. Airley; Ali Mobasheri

2007-01-01

95

Probing the redox metabolism in the strictly anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-producing Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus using amperometry.  

PubMed

Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular electron flow were observed when cells were supplied with different carbon sources. A higher electrochemical response was detected when cells were supplied with xylose than with sucrose or glucose. Moreover, using the mediated electrochemical method, it was possible to detect differences in the electron flow between cells harvested in the exponential and stationary growth phases. The electron flow of C. saccharolyticus was dependent on the NADH- and reduced ferredoxin generation flux and the competitive behavior of cytosolic and membrane-associated oxidoreductases. Sodium oxamate was used to inhibit the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo. PMID:21132340

Kostesha, Natalie; Willquist, Karin; Emneus, Jenny; van Niel, Ed W J

2011-01-01

96

Degradation and metabolism of imazapyr in soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of imazapyr in four soils was investigated under laboratory aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, imazapyr degraded faster in yellow–red soil than in other soils, and its persistence decreased depending on soil pH in the order coastal soil (pH 8.8)?>?silt-loamy paddy soil (pH 7.9)?>?fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil (pH 7.1)?>?Yellow–red soil (pH 5.3). However, soil pH did not

Xuedong Wang; Huili Wang; Defang Fan

2006-01-01

97

Anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Phodopseudomonas palustris WS17  

SciTech Connect

A mixed phototrophic culture was found to reductive metabolize 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of benzoate following adaptation for a period of 7 weeks. The dominant bacterial isolate from this mixed culture, identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris WS17, metabolized 3-chlorobenzoate completely in the presence of benzoate and light and in the absence of oxygen. ({sup 14}C)3-chlorobenzoate was converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and cell biomass. The results of tests conducted on several other isolates of R. palustris indicated that adaptation to 3-chlorobenzoate metabolism is a common phenomenon in this species.

Kamal, V.S.; Wyndham, R.C. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-12-01

98

Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component and overall performance. The overall systems model software, ENRAT, predicted that a full-scale operation to treat 18,750 L leachate/day would need an Ammonia Recovery process consisting of 88,300 L of total gas transfer column volume, an activated sludge system of 74,417 L, and an algal post treatment raceway of 683 m2 (30 cm depth). The ARP would consume 262.5 L/day of 6N sulfuric acid and produce 16.12 kg-N/day ammonium sulfate. The activated sludge system and algal post treatment would produce 900 g-VS/day (or 44.6 L 2% sludge) and 6.83 kg-VS/day (or 341.6 L 2% sludge) of bacterial and algal biomass.

Henrich, Christian-Dominik

99

Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.  

PubMed

Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2013-07-01

100

Metal centers in the anaerobic microbial metabolism of CO and CO2.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are important components of the carbon cycle. Major research efforts are underway to develop better technologies to utilize the abundant greenhouse gas, CO(2), for harnessing 'green' energy and producing biofuels. One strategy is to convert CO(2) into CO, which has been valued for many years as a synthetic feedstock for major industrial processes. Living organisms are masters of CO(2) and CO chemistry and, here, we review the elegant ways that metalloenzymes catalyze reactions involving these simple compounds. After describing the chemical and physical properties of CO and CO(2), we shift focus to the enzymes and the metal clusters in their active sites that catalyze transformations of these two molecules. We cover how the metal centers on CO dehydrogenase catalyze the interconversion of CO and CO(2) and how pyruvate oxidoreductase, which contains thiamin pyrophosphate and multiple Fe(4)S(4) clusters, catalyzes the addition and elimination of CO(2) during intermediary metabolism. We also describe how the nickel center at the active site of acetyl-CoA synthase utilizes CO to generate the central metabolite, acetyl-CoA, as part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and how CO is channelled from the CO dehydrogenase to the acetyl-CoA synthase active site. We cover how the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein interacts with acetyl-CoA synthase. This protein uses vitamin B(12) and a Fe(4)S(4) cluster to catalyze a key methyltransferase reaction involving an organometallic methyl-Co(3+) intermediate. Studies of CO and CO(2) enzymology are of practical significance, and offer fundamental insights into important biochemical reactions involving metallocenters that act as nucleophiles to form organometallic intermediates and catalyze C-C and C-S bond formations. PMID:21647480

Bender, Güne?; Pierce, Elizabeth; Hill, Jeffrey A; Darty, Joseph E; Ragsdale, Stephen W

2011-08-01

101

Metal centers in the anaerobic microbial metabolism of CO and CO2  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are important components of the carbon cycle. Major research efforts are underway to develop better technologies to utilize the abundant greenhouse gas, CO2, for harnessing ‘green’ energy and producing biofuels. One strategy is to convert CO2 into CO, which has been valued for many years as a synthetic feedstock for major industrial processes. Living organisms are masters of CO2 and CO chemistry and, here, we review the elegant ways that metalloenzymes catalyze reactions involving these simple compounds. After describing the chemical and physical properties of CO and CO2, we shift focus to the enzymes and the metal clusters in their active sites that catalyze transformations of these two molecules. We cover how the metal centers on CO dehydrogenase catalyze the interconversion of CO and CO2 and how pyruvate oxidoreductase, which contains thiamin pyrophosphate and multiple Fe4S4 clusters, catalyzes the addition and elimination of CO2 during intermediary metabolism. We also describe how the nickel center at the active site of acetyl-CoA synthase utilizes CO to generate the central metabolite, acetyl-CoA, as part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and how CO is channelled from the CO dehydrogenase to the acetyl-CoA synthase active site. We cover how the corrinoid iron–sulfur protein interacts with acetyl-CoA synthase. This protein uses vitamin B12 and a Fe4S4 cluster to catalyze a key methyltransferase reaction involving an organometallic methyl-Co3+ intermediate. Studies of CO and CO2 enzymology are of practical significance, and offer fundamental insights into important biochemical reactions involving metallocenters that act as nucleophiles to form organometallic intermediates and catalyze C–C and C–S bond formations. PMID:21647480

Bender, Gunes; Pierce, Elizabeth; Hill, Jeffrey A.; Darty, Joseph E.

2014-01-01

102

Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored how seasonal changes in temperature, exercise and food supply affected energy metabolism and heart rate of Inuit\\u000a dogs in Greenland. Using open flow respirometry, doubly labeled water, and heart rate recording, we measured metabolic rates\\u000a of the same dogs at two different locations: at one location the dogs were fed with high energy food throughout the year while

Nadine Gerth; Paula Redman; John Speakman; Sue Jackson; J. Matthias Starck

2010-01-01

103

INSECT FAT BODY: ENERGY, METABOLISM, AND REGULATION  

PubMed Central

The fat body plays major roles in the life of insects. It is a dynamic tissue involved in multiple metabolic functions. One of these functions is to store and release energy in response to the energy demands of the insect. Insects store energy reserves in the form of glycogen and triglycerides in the adipocytes, the main fat body cell. Insect adipocytes can store a great amount of lipid reserves as cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Lipid metabolism is essential for growth and reproduction and provides energy needed during extended nonfeeding periods. This review focuses on energy storage and release and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes in insects. PMID:19725772

Arrese, Estela L.; Soulages, Jose L.

2010-01-01

104

Anaerobic Metabolism of Cyclohex-1-Ene-1-Carboxylate, a Proposed Intermediate of Benzoate Degradation, by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows anaerobically on structurally diverse aromatic compounds, and this phototrophic bacterium, along with two strains of denitrifying pseudomonads, has served as a model organism in studies of anaerobic aromatic compound degra...

J. A. Perrotta, C. S. Harwood

1994-01-01

105

Potential for energy generation from anaerobic digestion of food waste in Australia.  

PubMed

Published national and state reports have revealed that Australia deposits an average of 16 million Mg of solid waste into landfills yearly, of which approximately 12.6% is comprised of food. Being highly biodegradable and possessing high energy content, anaerobic digestion offers an attractive treatment option alternative to landfilling. The present study attempted to identify the theoretical maximum benefit of food waste digestion in Australia with regard to energy recovery and waste diversion from landfills. The study also assessed the scope for anaerobic process to utilize waste for energy projects through various case study scenarios. Results indicated anaerobic digestion of total food waste generated across multiple sites in Australia could generate 558 453 dam(3) of methane which translated to 20.3 PJ of heating potential or 1915 GWe in electricity generation annually. This would contribute to 3.5% of total current energy supply from renewable sources. Energy contribution from anaerobic digestion of food waste to the total energy requirement in Australia remains low, partially due to the high energy consumption of the country. However its appropriateness in low density regions, which are prevalent in Australia, may allow digesters to have a niche application in the country. PMID:23381970

Lou, Xian Fang; Nair, Jaya; Ho, Goen

2013-03-01

106

Geranic Acid Formation, an Initial Reaction of Anaerobic Monoterpene Metabolism in Denitrifying Alcaligenes defragrans  

PubMed Central

Monoterpenes with an unsaturated hydrocarbon structure are mineralized anaerobically by the denitrifying ?-proteobacterium Alcaligenes defragrans. Organic acids occurring in cells of A. defragrans and culture medium were characterized to identify potential products of the monoterpene activation reaction. Geranic acid (E,E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid) accumulated to 0.5 mM in cells grown on ?-phellandrene under nitrate limitation. Cell suspensions of A. defragrans 65Phen synthesized geranic acid in the presence of ?-myrcene, ?-phellandrene, limonene, or ?-pinene. Myrcene yielded the highest transformation rates. The alicyclic acid was consumed by cell suspensions during carbon limitation. Heat-labile substances present in cytosolic extracts catalyzed the formation of geranic acid from myrcene. These results indicated that a novel monoterpene degradation pathway must be present in A. defragrans. PMID:10877798

Heyen, Udo; Harder, Jens

2000-01-01

107

Anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism in wheat and barley, two anoxia-intolerant cereal seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereals such as barley and wheat are unable to ger- minate under anoxic conditions. Data are presented on the utilization of the soluble sugars present in the dry seed of wheat and barley kept under strict anoxia, together with the status of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates . The amount of glucose, fructose, and sucrose decreases during

Pierdomenico Perata; Lorenzo Guglielminetti; Amedeo Alpi

1996-01-01

108

Anaerobic metabolism in the roots of seedlings of the invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidium latifolium is an invasive exotic crucifer that is widely distributed in riparian zones and wetlands. In this study, anoxic carbohydrate metabolism and post-anoxic injury in the roots of L. latifolium seedlings were examined. A significant increase in the activity of the fermentative enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in roots occurred under anoxia and increased with the

Hongjun Chen; Robert G. Qualls

2003-01-01

109

A model-driven quantitative metabolomics analysis of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in E. coli K-12 MG1655 that is biochemically and thermodynamically consistent.  

PubMed

The advent of model-enabled workflows in systems biology allows for the integration of experimental data types with genome-scale models to discover new features of biology. This work demonstrates such a workflow, aimed at establishing a metabolomics platform applied to study the differences in metabolomes between anaerobic and aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Constraint-based modeling was utilized to deduce a target list of compounds for downstream method development. An analytical and experimental methodology was developed and tailored to the compound chemistry and growth conditions of interest. This included the construction of a rapid sampling apparatus for use with anaerobic cultures. The resulting genome-scale data sets for anaerobic and aerobic growth were validated by comparison to previous small-scale studies comparing growth of E. coli under the same conditions. The metabolomics data were then integrated with the E. coli genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) via a sensitivity analysis that utilized reaction thermodynamics to reconcile simulated growth rates and reaction directionalities. This analysis highlighted several optimal network usage inconsistencies, including the incorrect use of the beta-oxidation pathway for synthesis of fatty acids. This analysis also identified enzyme promiscuity for the pykA gene, that is critical for anaerobic growth, and which has not been previously incorporated into metabolic models of E coli. PMID:24249002

McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A; King, Zachary A; Naviaux, Robert K; Barshop, Bruce A; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

2014-04-01

110

Anaerobic metabolism in roots of Kentucky bluegrass in response to short-term waterlogging alone and in combination with high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterlogging often occurs simultaneously with high temperatures during summer. The objective of this study was to characterize\\u000a anaerobic metabolism and transcript abundance of fermentative enzymes in roots of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) in response to short-term waterlogging and high temperature stresses. Grasses were subjected to four treatments: (1)\\u000a well-drained under normal temperature (20\\/15°C, day\\/night; control); (2) waterlogging under normal

Kehua Wang; Shaomin Bian; Yiwei Jiang

2009-01-01

111

Anaerobic growth of a Rhodopseudomonas species in the dark with carbon monoxide as sole carbon and energy substrate.  

PubMed

A species of Rhodopseudomonas that grows under strict anaerobic conditions in the dark and requires CO was isolated from lake and pond sediments. Although anaerobic growth in the dark occurs in a chemically defined mineral medium with CO as the only carbon and energy source, growth is stimulated by adding trypticase. Under these conditions, cells exhibit a generation time of 6.7 hr and reach a final concentration of 1 to 3 X 10(9) cells per ml of liquid medium. Resting suspensions of CO-grown cells metabolize about 6.7 mumol of CO per mg of protein in 1 hr and produce equimolar amounts of CO2 and H2 according to the equation CO + H2O leads to CO2 + H2. As predicted by this equation, when cells were suspended in tritium-labeled water containing potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and incubated with pure CO, 3H2 gas was produced at linear rate with a constant specific activity. PMID:1067620

Uffen, R L

1976-09-01

112

Isolation, Growth, and Metabolism of an Obligately Anaerobic, Selenate-Respiring Bacterium, Strain SES-3.  

PubMed

A gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, motile vibrio was isolated from a selenate-respiring enrichment culture. The isolate, designated strain SES-3, grew by coupling the oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO(2) with the concomitant reduction of selenate to selenite or of nitrate to ammonium. No growth was observed on sulfate or selenite, but cell suspensions readily reduced selenite to elemental selenium (Se). Hence, SES-3 can carry out a complete reduction of selenate to Se. Washed cell suspensions of selenate-grown cells did not reduce nitrate, and nitrate-grown cells did not reduce selenate, indicating that these reductions are achieved by separate inducible enzyme systems. However, both nitrate-grown and selenate-grown cells have a constitutive ability to reduce selenite or nitrite. The oxidation of [C]lactate to CO(2) coupled to the reduction of selenate or nitrate by cell suspensions was inhibited by CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), cyanide, and azide. High concentrations of selenite (5 mM) were readily reduced to Se by selenate-grown cells, but selenite appeared to block the synthesis of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Tracer experiments with [Se]selenite indicated that cell suspensions could achieve a rapid and quantitative reduction of selenite to Se. This reduction was totally inhibited by sulfite, partially inhibited by selenate or nitrite, but unaffected by sulfate or nitrate. Cell suspensions could reduce thiosulfate, but not sulfite, to sulfide. These results suggest that reduction of selenite to Se may proceed, in part, by some of the components of a dissimilatory system for sulfur oxyanions. PMID:16349362

Oremland, R S; Blum, J S; Culbertson, C W; Visscher, P T; Miller, L G; Dowdle, P; Strohmaier, F E

1994-08-01

113

Metabolism of the Plasticizer di-n-Butylphthalate by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Under Anaerobic Conditions, with Nitrate as the Only Electron Acceptor  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of di-n-butylphthalate by a denitrifying strain of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes B20b1 was studied under anaerobic conditions, with nitrate as the only electron acceptor. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectral analysis of culture extracts (20 days at 30°C) showed mono-n-butylphthalate and phthalic acid as the only products, suggesting that one butanol moiety served essentially as the carbon source for growth and denitrification. N2 and N2O were detected by gas chromatography. In contrast to aerobic metabolism, phthalate was not degraded further if nitrate was the only electron acceptor. PMID:16346088

Benckiser, G.; Ottow, J. C. G.

1982-01-01

114

Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

2014-02-01

115

Organ specific analysis of the anaerobic primary metabolism in rice and wheat seedlings II: light exposure reduces needs for fermentation and extends survival during anaerobiosis.  

PubMed

Low oxygen stress in plants can occur during flooding and compromise the availability and utilization of carbohydrates in root and shoot tissues. Low-oxygen-tolerant rice and -sensitive wheat plants were analyzed under anaerobiosis in light to evaluate main factors of the primary metabolism that affect sensitivity against oxygen deprivation: activity of glycolysis and the rate of photosynthesis. Relatively stable ATP contents (93 and 58% of aerated control levels after 24 h anaerobiosis) in illuminated shoot tissues account for enhanced tolerance of rice and wheat seedlings to anaerobiosis upon light exposure in comparison to anoxia in darkness. Although the photosynthetic process was inhibited during low oxygen stress, which was partly due to CO(2) deficiency, more light-exposed than dark-incubated seedlings survived. Illuminated plants could tolerate a 70% lower anaerobic ethanol production in shoots in comparison to darkness, although still an 18-times higher ethanol production rate was determined in rice than in wheat leaves. In conclusion, light-exposed plants grown under anaerobiosis may recycle low amounts of generated oxygen between photosynthesis and dissimilation and generate additional energy not only from substrate phosphorylation during glycolysis but also from other sources like cyclic electron transport. PMID:16802177

Mustroph, Angelika; Boamfa, Elena I; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Pörs, Yvonne; Grimm, Bernhard

2006-12-01

116

Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism[S  

PubMed Central

Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1? was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:24443561

Braga, Melissa; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Vergnes, Laurent; Pervin, Shehla; Grijalva, Victor; Stout, David; David, John; Li, Xinmin; Tomasian, Venina; Reid, Christopher B.; Norris, Keith C.; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Reue, Karen; Singh, Rajan

2014-01-01

117

Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

Sax, R.I. [Biothane Corporation, Camden, NJ (United States); Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-11-01

118

Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological\\u000a approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can\\u000a be employed to decrease environmental pollution and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are two major biological processes\\u000a that can convert biomass

Dimitar Karakashev; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Irini Angelidaki

2007-01-01

119

Anaerobic fermentative system based scheme for green energy sustainable houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green energy sustainable house based on bio-hydrogen and bio-methane energy technologies proposed in this study employs dark fermentation technology to complete a scheme for green energy sustainable house that includes energy production, storage, distribution control, load applications, recycling, waste treatment, and reuse. In order to resolve the problem of wastewater discharge from hydrogen production in green energy sustainable houses,

Chen-Yeon Chu; Shang-Yuan Chen; Chyi-How Lay; Jou-Hsien Wu; Ming-jen Cheng; Chiu-Yue Lin

2011-01-01

120

Modelling the energy demands of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A modelling study has been developed in which the energy requirements of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are assessed in order to compare these two wastewater treatment technologies. The model took into consideration the aeration required for biological oxidation in aerobic MBRs (AeMBRs), the energy recovery from methane production in anaerobic MBRs (AnMBRs) and the energy demands of operating submerged and sidestream membrane configurations. Aeration and membrane energy demands were estimated based on previously developed modelling studies populated with operational data from the literature. Given the difference in sludge production between aerobic and anaerobic systems, the model was benchmarked by assuming high sludge retention times or complete retention of solids in both AeMBRs and AnMBRs. Analysis of biogas production in AnMBRs revealed that the heat required to achieve mesophilic temperatures (35 degrees C) in the reactor was only possible with influent wastewater strengths above 4-5 g COD L(-1). The general trend of the submerged configuration, which is less energy intensive than the sidestream configuration in aerobic systems, was not observed in AnMBRs, mainly due to the wide variation in gas demand utilized in anaerobic systems. Compared to AeMBRs, for which the energy requirements were estimated to approach 2 kWh m(-3) (influent up to 1 g COD L(-1)), the energy demands associated with fouling control in AnMBRs were lower (0.80 kWh m(-3) for influent of 1.14 g COD L(-1)), although due to the low fluxes reported in the literature capital costs associated with membrane material would be three times higher than this. PMID:21882546

Martin, I; Pidou, M; Soares, A; Judd, S; Jefferson, B

2011-07-01

121

High Ethanol Titers from Cellulose by Using Metabolically Engineered Thermophilic, Anaerobic Microbes ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D. Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Feinberg, Lawrence F.; Olson, Daniel G.; Foden, Justine M.; Miller, Bethany B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

2011-01-01

122

High ethanol titers from cellulose by using metabolically engineered thermophilic, anaerobic microbes.  

PubMed

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A; Barrett, Trisha F; Rogers, Stephen R; Feinberg, Lawrence F; Olson, Daniel G; Foden, Justine M; Miller, Bethany B; Lynd, Lee R; Hogsett, David A; Caiazza, Nicky C

2011-12-01

123

The role of Klotho in energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

A disproportionate expansion of white adipose tissue and abnormal recruitment of adipogenic precursor cells can not only lead to obesity but also impair glucose metabolism, which are both common causes of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to slow the progression of obesity, diabetes mellitus and their associated complications will require improved understanding of adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Klotho might have a role in adipocyte maturation and systemic glucose metabolism. Klotho increases adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and mice that lack Klotho activity are lean owing to reduced white adipose tissue accumulation; moreover, mice that lack the Kl gene (which encodes Klotho) are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Knockout of Kl in leptin-deficient Lepob/ob mice reduces obesity and increases insulin sensitivity, which lowers blood glucose levels. Energy metabolism might also be influenced by Klotho. However, further studies are needed to explore the possibility that Klotho could be a novel therapeutic target to reduce obesity and related complications, and to determine whether and how Klotho might influence the regulation and function of a related protein, ?-Klotho, which is also involved in energy metabolism. PMID:22641000

Razzaque, M. Shawkat

2013-01-01

124

Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study.  

PubMed

Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded. PMID:24112851

Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Borello, Domenico; Clift, Roland

2014-01-01

125

2006. The Journal of Arachnology 34:351356 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM AND MAXIMAL RUNNING  

E-print Network

of behavioral response to alternative stimuli presented after two mins of prodding suggested that the scorpions in C. hentzi are lower than those found in species of spiders, crabs and terrestrial ectothermic-and-wait or slow search predatory style, means that total energy expenditures are small. The result

Prestwich, Ken

126

Muscle heat production and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s?1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise is repeated muscle heat production is not changed, but muscle aerobic energy turnover is elevated and anaerobic energy production is reduced during the first minutes of exercise. PMID:11691886

Krustrup, Peter; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Quistorff, Bj?rn; Bangsbo, Jens

2001-01-01

127

Influence of temperature on energetics of hydrogen metabolism in homoacetogenic, methanogenic, and other anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen consumption by various thermophilic, mesophilic and\\/or psychrotrophic homoacetogens and methanogens was measured at temperatures between 4 and 80°C. Within the tolerated temperature range H2 was consumed until a final H2 threshold partial pressure was reached. H2 thresholds generally decreased with temperature, parallel to the values calculated from the thermodynamics prevailing under culture conditions, i.e. the Gibbs free energy (?G)

Ralf Conrad; Bettina Wetter

1990-01-01

128

Energy Transduction in the Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Clostridium fervidus is Exclusively Coupled to Sodium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophilic, peptidolytic, anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus is unable to generate a pH gradient in the range of 5.5-8.0, which limits growth of the organism to a narrow pH range (6.3-7.7). A significant membrane potential (Deltapsi ≈ -60 mV) and chemical gradient of Na^+ (-ZDelta pNa ≈ -60 mV) are formed in the presence of metabolizable substrates. Energy-dependent Na^+ efflux

Gea Speelmans; Bert Poolman; Tjakko Abee; Wil N. Konings

1993-01-01

129

The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways. PMID:22069603

Snider, Rachel M.; McKenzie, Jennifer R.; Kraft, Lewis; Kozlov, Eugene; Wikswo, John P.; Cliffel, David E.

2010-01-01

130

Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments  

PubMed Central

Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network. PMID:20497531

2010-01-01

131

Energy metabolism in the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linn: Comparisons with temperate abalone species  

E-print Network

in aerated seawater, and there is no significant ATP production from anaerobic glycolysis or phosphagen to the additional inputs from anaerobic glycolysis required by other abalone. Metabolic profiles of foot of enzymes unique to aerobic ATP production, relatively high activities of arginine kinase, tauropine and D

Donovan, Deborah

132

Adenosine, energy metabolism and sleep homeostasis.  

PubMed

Adenosine is directly linked to the energy metabolism of cells. In the central nervous system (CNS) an increase in neuronal activity enhances energy consumption as well as extracellular adenosine concentrations. In most brain areas high extracellular adenosine concentrations, through A1 adenosine receptors, decrease neuronal activity and thus the need for energy. Adenosine may be a final common pathway for various sleep factors. We have identified a relatively specific area, the basal forebrain (BF), which appears to be central in the regulation/execution of recovery sleep after sleep deprivation (SD), or prolonged wakefulness. Adenosine concentration increases in this area during SD, and this increase induces sleep while prevention of the increase during SD abolishes recovery sleep. The increase in adenosine is associated with local changes in energy metabolism as indicated by increases in levels of pyruvate and lactate and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. The increases in adenosine and sleep are associated with intact cholinergic system since specific lesion of the BF cholinergic cells abolishes both. Whether adenosine during SD is produced by the cholinergic neurons or astrocytes associated with them remains to be explored. An interesting, but so far unexplored question regards the relationship between the local, cortical regulation of sleep homeostasis and the global regulation of the state of sleep as executed by lower brain mechanisms, including the BF. The increase in adenosine concentration during SD also in cortical areas suggests that adenosine may have a role in the local regulation of sleep homeostasis. The core of sleep need is probably related to primitive functions of life, like energy metabolism. It can be noted that this assumption in no way excludes the possibility that later in evolution additional functions may have developed, e.g., related to complex neuronal network functions like memory and learning. PMID:20970361

Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Kalinchuk, Anna V

2011-04-01

133

A metabolic profiling approach to human disorders of energy metabolism  

E-print Network

The integrated network of biochemical reactions known collectively as metabolism is essential for life, and dysfunction in parts of this network causes human disease - both rare, inherited disorders and common diseases ...

Shaham, Oded

2009-01-01

134

Anaerobic metabolism of cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate, a proposed intermediate of benzoate degradation, by Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

SciTech Connect

Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows anaerobically on structurally diverse aromatic compounds and has served as a model organism in studies of anaerobic aromatic compound degradation. The authors examined {Delta}-1-chca degradation by intact cells of R. paulustris and reexamined enzymatic activities proposed to be involved in the conversion of {Delta}-1-chca to a ring cleavage product. The study confirmed the proposed degradation pathway illustrated. Profiles of intracellular metabolites formed during short-term incubations of whole cells indicated that benzoate grown and {Delta}-1-chc grown cells degrade benzoate by the same route. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Perrotta, J.A.; Harwood, C.S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1994-06-01

135

Melatonin, energy metabolism, and obesity: a review.  

PubMed

Melatonin is an old and ubiquitous molecule in nature showing multiple mechanisms of action and functions in practically every living organism. In mammals, pineal melatonin functions as a hormone and a chronobiotic, playing a major role in the regulation of the circadian temporal internal order. The anti-obesogen and the weight-reducing effects of melatonin depend on several mechanisms and actions. Experimental evidence demonstrates that melatonin is necessary for the proper synthesis, secretion, and action of insulin. Melatonin acts by regulating GLUT4 expression and/or triggering, via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptors, the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its intracellular substrates mobilizing the insulin-signaling pathway. Melatonin is a powerful chronobiotic being responsible, in part, by the daily distribution of metabolic processes so that the activity/feeding phase of the day is associated with high insulin sensitivity, and the rest/fasting is synchronized to the insulin-resistant metabolic phase of the day. Furthermore, melatonin is responsible for the establishment of an adequate energy balance mainly by regulating energy flow to and from the stores and directly regulating the energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue and participating in the browning process of white adipose tissue. The reduction in melatonin production, as during aging, shift-work or illuminated environments during the night, induces insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, sleep disturbance, and metabolic circadian disorganization characterizing a state of chronodisruption leading to obesity. The available evidence supports the suggestion that melatonin replacement therapy might contribute to restore a more healthy state of the organism. PMID:24654916

Cipolla-Neto, J; Amaral, F G; Afeche, S C; Tan, D X; Reiter, R J

2014-05-01

136

Role of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on energy metabolism in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

A study of the combined effects of intravenous infusion of the recombinant cytokines beta-interleukin 1 (IL-1) and alpha-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on energy substrate metabolism in awake, conditioned, adult rabbits was performed. After a 2-h basal or control period, 48-h fasted rabbits were administered TNF and IL-1 as a bolus (5 micrograms/kg) followed by a continuous intravenous infusion (25 ng.kg-1.min-1) for 3 h. Significant increases in plasma lactate (P less than 0.01), glucose (P less than 0.01), and triglycerides (P less than 0.05) occurred during the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF, whereas neither cytokine alone had no effect. There was a 33% increase in the rate of glucose appearance (P less than 0.05), but glucose clearance was not altered compared with the control period. Glucose oxidation increased during the combined cytokine infusion period and glucose recycling increased by 600% (P less than 0.002). Lactic acidosis and decreased oxygen consumption, as a result of the cytokine infusions, indicated development of anaerobic glycolytic metabolism. A reduction in the activity state of hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (65 vs. 82% in control animals, P less than 0.05) was consistent with the observed increase in anaerobic glycolysis. Thus the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF in rabbits produces metabolic manifestations seen in severe injury and sepsis in human patients and, as such, may account for the profound alterations of energy metabolism seen in these conditions.

Tredget, E.E.; Yu, Y.M.; Zhong, S.; Burini, R.; Okusawa, S.; Gelfand, J.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Young, V.R.; Burke, J.F.

1988-12-01

137

Anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with rice straw: economic & energy feasibility.  

PubMed

Rice straw (RS) is one of the most abundant wastes generated in Valencia (Spain). Traditional waste disposal methods are harmful to the environment. The straw burning emits large amounts of toxic air pollutants and the straw burying produces uncontrolled anaerobic fermentation in the soil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of cow manure anaerobic co-digestion with RS in a semi-continuous plug flow pilot-scale reactor. Three different periods of co-digestion were carried out as the RS dose was increased. When the addition of RS was 1, 2 and 5% (on weight basis) the biogas productivity increased by 4, 28 and 54% respectively. Furthermore, economic and energy feasibility were analysed considering the logistics cost of the RS (baling, collection, crushing and transportation). Two different scenarios were analysed. In scenario 1, the anaerobic co-digestion process was considered that take place in a new biogas installation, and in scenario 2 the process was considered that take place in a biogas plant already in operation. In scenario 1, the cow manure co-digestion with 2% of RS in a biogas installation of 500 kW showed the best economic analysis (net present value of 13.23%). In scenario 2, the results showed that the maximum distance between the rice field and the biogas plant that produces a positive economic balance was less than 95 km (2% RS) and 74 km (5% RS). In the case of the addition of 1% RS the economic balance is negative. Energy balance is positive in the three mixtures analysed. PMID:23306251

Silvestre, G; Gómez, M P; Pascual, A; Ruiz, B

2013-01-01

138

Nanosilver incurs an adaptive shunt of energy metabolism mode to glycolysis in tumor and nontumor cells.  

PubMed

Due to its significant antimicrobial properties, nanosilver (nAg) has been substantially used in a wide spectrum of areas. This has raised the concerns on the detrimental effects on environment and human health. Although numerous studies have documented nAg-mediated toxicity to cells or organisms, little attempt has been made to study the biological impacts of nAg on cells at nontoxic concentrations, namely, the distinct biological effects that can be separated from direct cytotoxicity. Here, we studied nAg-mediated effects on energy metabolism in cells under sublethal exposure. Treatment of nAg at nontoxic concentrations resulted in a decline of ATP synthesis and attenuation of respiratory chain function in nontumor HEK293T cells and tumor cells with differential respiration rate, including HepG2, HeLa, A498, and PC3 cells. Cellular energy homeostasis was switched from oxidative phosphorylation-based aerobic metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis, which is an adaption process to satisfy the energy demand for cell survival. Nanospheres with smaller size showed greater capability to alter cellular energy metabolism than those with larger size or nanoplates. Mechanistic investigation manifested that inhibition of PGC-1? by nAg was, at least partially, accountable for the transition from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Additionally, altered expression of a few energy metabolism-related genes (such as PFKFB3 and PDHA1) was also involved in the transition process. We further showed nAg-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduction of respiratory chain complex activity. Together, our combined results uncovered the mechanisms by which nAg induced energy metabolism reprogramming in both tumor and nontumor cells under sublethal dosage. PMID:24810997

Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Xia, Tian; Zhao, Jincai; Jiang, Guibin; Xu, Yong; Liu, Sijin

2014-06-24

139

Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation  

PubMed Central

Background Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. Results The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized "central" enzymes to support anaerobic aromatic degradation of benzene proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene) and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex and exosortase (epsH) are also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Conclusion Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72. PMID:19650930

2009-01-01

140

Metabolic resistance of a psychrotolerant VFA-oxidizing microbial community from an anaerobic bioreactor to changes in the cultivation temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychrotolerant microbial consortium from a low-temperature anaerobic EGSB bioreactor was grown separately on acetate, propionate,\\u000a butyrate, and H2\\/CO2 at 30 and 10°C in glass flasks. In the course of the experiments, the cultivation temperature was changed at different time\\u000a intervals. The initial rates of substrate utilization were higher at 30 than at 10°C. However, the microbial consortium was\\u000a found

S. N. Parshina; A. V. Ermakova; K. A. Shatilova

2011-01-01

141

Purification, properties and primary structure of alanine dehydrogenase involved in taurine metabolism in the anaerobe Bilophila wadsworthia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alanine dehydrogenase [l-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.1.4.] catalyses the reversible oxidative deamination of l-alanine to pyruvate and, in the anaerobic bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU, it is involved in the degradation of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate). The enzyme regenerates the amino-group acceptor pyruvate, which is consumed during the transamination of taurine and liberates ammonia, which is one of the degradation end products. Alanine

Heike Laue; Alasdair M. Cook

2000-01-01

142

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et al. 2007. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 514 - 512. Hoeft, S.E, et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2741 - 2747. Oremland, R.S., et al. 2005. Science 308: 1305 - 1308. Kulp, T.R. et al. 2008. Science 321: 967 - 970.

Oremland, R. S.

2008-12-01

143

Cerebral Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxidative metabolism. Average total hemispheric flow was measured utilizing a polarographic technique and the metabolic consumption...

J. M. Fein

1975-01-01

144

Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

1975-01-01

145

Changes in protein expression in the salt marsh mussel Geukensia demissa: evidence for a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during prolonged aerial exposure  

PubMed Central

During aerial exposure (emersion), most sessile intertidal invertebrates experience cellular stress caused by hypoxia, and the amount and types of hypoxia-induced stress will differ as exposure time increases, likely leading to altered metabolic responses. We examined proteomic responses to increasing emersion times and decreasing recovery (immersion) times in the mussel Geukensia demissa, which occurs in salt marshes along the east coast of North America. Individuals are found above mean tide level, and can be emersed for over 18 h during spring tides. We acclimated mussels to full immersion at 15°C for 4 weeks, and compared changes in gill protein expression between groups of mussels that were continually immersed (control), were emersed for 6 h and immersed during recovery for 18 h (6E/18R), were emersed for 12 h and recovered for 12 h (12E/12R), or were emersed for 18 h with a 6 h recovery (18E/6R). We found clear differences in protein expression patterns among the treatments. Proteins associated with anaerobic fermentation increased in abundance in 6E/18R but not in 12E/12R or 18E/6R. Increases in oxidative stress proteins were most apparent in 12E/12R, and in 18E/6R changes in cytoskeletal protein expression predominated. We conclude that G. demissa alters its strategy for coping with emersion stress over time, relying on anaerobic metabolism for short- to medium-duration exposure, but switching to an air-gaping strategy for long-term exposure, which reduces hypoxia stress but may cause structural damage to gill tissue. PMID:24501137

Fields, Peter A.; Eurich, Chris; Gao, William L.; Cela, Bekim

2014-01-01

146

Myostatin is a key mediator between energy metabolism and endurance capacity of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Myostatin (Mstn) participates in the regulation of skeletal muscle size and has emerged as a regulator of muscle metabolism. Here, we hypothesized that lack of myostatin profoundly depresses oxidative phosphorylation-dependent muscle function. Toward this end, we explored Mstn(-/-) mice as a model for the constitutive absence of myostatin and AAV-mediated overexpression of myostatin propeptide as a model of myostatin blockade in adult wild-type mice. We show that muscles from Mstn(-/-) mice, although larger and stronger, fatigue extremely rapidly. Myostatin deficiency shifts muscle from aerobic toward anaerobic energy metabolism, as evidenced by decreased mitochondrial respiration, reduced expression of PPAR transcriptional regulators, increased enolase activity, and exercise-induced lactic acidosis. As a consequence, constitutively reduced myostatin signaling diminishes exercise capacity, while the hypermuscular state of Mstn(-/-) mice increases oxygen consumption and the energy cost of running. We wondered whether these results are the mere consequence of the congenital fiber-type switch toward a glycolytic phenotype of constitutive Mstn(-/-) mice. Hence, we overexpressed myostatin propeptide in adult mice, which did not affect fiber-type distribution, while nonetheless causing increased muscle fatigability, diminished exercise capacity, and decreased Pparb/d and Pgc1a expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that myostatin endows skeletal muscle with high oxidative capacity and low fatigability, thus regulating the delicate balance between muscle mass, muscle force, energy metabolism, and endurance capacity. PMID:24965795

Mouisel, Etienne; Relizani, Karima; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Denis, Raphaël; Hourdé, Christophe; Agbulut, Onnik; Patel, Ketan; Arandel, Ludovic; Morales-Gonzalez, Susanne; Vignaud, Alban; Garcia, Luis; Ferry, Arnaud; Luquet, Serge; Billat, Véronique; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Schuelke, Markus; Amthor, Helge

2014-08-15

147

Metabolic energy requirements for space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

Lane, Helen W.

1992-01-01

148

StudentsÃÂ Misconception About Energy-Yielding Metabolism: Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÃÂ daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.

Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica); Dr. Cristiane R. Sousa (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Departamento de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular); Dr. Andrea T. Da Poian (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica,); Dr. Maurício R. M. P. Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Setor Curricular de Biologia)

2003-09-01

149

Energy metabolism in astrocytes: high rate of oxidative metabolism and spatiotemporal dependence on glycolysis\\/glycogenolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytic energy demand is stimulated by K+ and glutamate uptake, signaling processes, responses to neurotransmitters, Ca2+ fluxes, and filopodial motility. Astrocytes derive energy from glycolytic and oxidative pathways, but respiration, with its high-energy yield, provides most adenosine 5? triphosphate (ATP). The proportion of cortical oxidative metabolism attributed to astrocytes (?30%) in in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and autoradiographic

Leif Hertz; Liang Peng; Gerald A Dienel

2007-01-01

150

(Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by phototrophic bacteria: biochemical aspects): Annual progress report, April 1988--March 1989  

SciTech Connect

Intensive efforts to define a protocol for generating transposon mutations in R. palustris have continued. An indirect approach, in which a transposon is introduced into a pLAFR1 cosmid containing an approximately 20 kb fragment of R. palustris DNA from a lambda derivative containing Tn5, appears promising. Both plasmids can be introduced into E. coli, and the antibiotic resistances coded for by each subsequently mated into wild-type R. palustris. A mutant isolated following chemical mutagenesis which is unable to grow aerobically on 4-OH benzoate (CGA033) has been complemented biochemically by the same clone which functions in the absence of the transposon; in addition, and more importantly, this indirect tranposon mutagenesis appears to yield mutants with novel phenotypes affecting the anaerobic pathway for 4-OH benzoate utilization. 2 refs.

Harwood, C.S.; Gibson, J.

1989-01-01

151

The endocannabinoid system and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Many different regulatory actions have been attributed to endocannabinoids, and their involvement in several pathophysiological conditions is under intense scrutiny. Cannabinoid receptors [cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2] participate in the physiological modulation of many central and peripheral functions. The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food intake and energy balance has recently received considerable attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The endocannabinoid system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptors and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake. Interestingly, the endocannabinoid system was recently shown to control several metabolic functions by acting on peripheral tissues such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, the gastrointestinal tract, the skeletal muscles and the endocrine pancreas. The relevance of the system is further strengthened by the notion that visceral obesity seems to be a condition in which an overactivation of the endocannabinoid system occurs, and therefore drugs interfering with this overactivation by blocking CB1 receptors are considered as potentially valuable candidates for the treatment of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:18601709

Bellocchio, L; Cervino, C; Pasquali, R; Pagotto, U

2008-06-01

152

SAGE surveys C. elegans carbohydrate metabolism: evidence for an anaerobic shift in the long-lived dauer larva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dauer larva, a non-feeding and developmentally arrested stage of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is morphologically and physiologically specialized for survival and dispersal during adverse growth conditions. The ability of dauer larvae to live several times longer than the continuous developmental life span has been attributed in part to a repressed metabolism. We used serial analysis of gene expression

Suzan J Holt; Donald L Riddle

2003-01-01

153

Metabolic profiles and aprE expression in anaerobic cultures of Bacillus subtilis using nitrate as terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor were conducted in Schaeffer's medium to evaluate the growth performance and metabolic profiles of Bacillus subtilis, and its potential to express the aprE (subtilisin) gene under anoxic conditions. Nitrate was converted to ammonia through nitrite reduction; and different product profiles were observed during the growth phase when nitrate was added at various

J. Espinosa-de-los-Monteros; A. Martinez; F. Valle

2001-01-01

154

Metabolic versatility in methanogens.  

PubMed

Methanogenesis is an anaerobic metabolism responsible for the generation of >90% of the methane formed on Earth today, with important implications for fuels production and global warming. Although methanogenic Archaea have been cultured for over 70 years, key insights regarding electron flow and energy conservation in methanogenesis have only recently emerged. Fundamental differences between two metabolic types of methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic, are now understood, with implications for metabolic versatility and the potential for engineering of methanogens to utilize new substrates. The development of model species with genetic and bioinformatic tools has advanced the field and holds potential for further characterizing and engineering of methanogenesis. Our understanding of a related pathway, anaerobic methane oxidation, is in its infancy. PMID:24662145

Costa, Kyle C; Leigh, John A

2014-10-01

155

Perturbed Energy Metabolism and Neuronal Circuit Dysfunction in Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Summary Epidemiological, neuropathological and functional neuroimaging evidence implicates global and regional derangements in brain metabolism and energetics in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Nerve cell microcircuits are modified adaptively by excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity and neurotrophic factors. Aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cause perturbations in cellular energy metabolism, level of excitation/inhibition and neurotrophic factor release that overwhelm compensatory mechanisms and result in neuronal microcircuit and brain network dysfunction. A prolonged positive energy balance impairs the ability of neurons to respond adaptively to oxidative and metabolic stress. Experimental studies in animals demonstrate how derangements related to chronic positive energy balance, such as diabetes, set the stage for accelerated cognitive aging and AD. Therapeutic interventions to allay cognitive dysfunction that target energy metabolism and adaptive stress responses (such as neurotrophin signaling) have shown efficacy in animal models and preliminary studies in humans. PMID:21147038

Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Mattson, Mark P.

2010-01-01

156

Metabolic Strategies in Energy-Limited Microbial Communities in the Anoxic Subsurface (Frasassi Cave System, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major sources of energy, light and chemical potential, are available to microorganisms. However, energy is not always abundant and is often a limiting factor in microbial survival and replication. The anoxic, terrestrial subsurface offers a unique opportunity to study microorganisms and their potentially novel metabolic strategies that are relevant for understanding biogeochemistry and biosignatures as related to the non-photosynthetic, energy-limited environments on the modern and ancient Earth and elsewhere in the solar system. Geochemical data collected in a remote stratified lake 600 m below ground surface in the sulfidic Frasassi cave system (Italy) suggest that little redox energy is available for life, consistent with low signal from domain-specific FISH probes. The carbon isotope signatures of biofilms (-33‰) and DIC (-9‰) in the anoxic water suggest in situ production by lithoautotrophs using RuBisCO. 16S rDNA libraries constructed from the biofilm are dominated by diverse sulfate reducing bacteria. The remaining bacterial and archaeal clones affiliate with more than 11 major uncultivated or novel prokaryotic lineages. Diverse dsrAB gene sequences are consistent with high sulfate concentrations and undetectable or extremely low oxygen, nitrate, and iron concentrations. However, the electron donor for sulfate reduction is unclear. Methane is detectable in the anoxic water although no 16S rDNA sequences associated with known methanogens or anaerobic methane oxidizers were retrieved. mcrA gene sequences retrieved from the biofilm by cloning are not related to cultivated methanogens or to known anaerobic methane oxidizers. Non-purgable organic carbon (NPOC) is below detection limits (i.e. <42 ?M acetate) suggesting that alternative electron donors or novel metabolisms may be important. A sample collected by cave divers in October 2009 was pyrosequenced at the Pennsylvania State University Genomics Core Facility using Titanium chemistry (454 Life Sciences). We retrieved more than 420,000 metagenomic reads, of which 46% have significant homology to sequences in NCBI’s non-redundant protein database and 3% could be assigned using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) classification system. 16S (174 reads) and 23S (283 reads) rDNA sequences in the metagenome imply a phylogenetically diverse community dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. We also identified 15 metagenome sequences with homology to known dsrAB genes. Further work will identify additional genes for specific energy and nutrient metabolisms in the community, as well as use comparative analyses to determine overrepresented functions that are characteristic of life in the oligotrophic, euxinic cave environment.

McCauley, R. L.; Jones, D. S.; Schaperdoth, I.; Steinberg, L.; Macalady, J. L.

2010-12-01

157

Anaerobic n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain CV2803T  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon atoms (C even) when it was grown on a C-even

Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Vincent Grossi; Danielle Raphel; Robert Matheron; Agnes Hirschler-Rea

2005-01-01

158

Reducing agitation energy-consumption by improving rheological properties of corn stover substrate in anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Rheological properties of corn stover substrate were investigated to explore agitation energy reduction potential for different total solid (TS) in anaerobic digestion. The effects of particle size and temperature on rheological properties and corresponding energy reduction were studied. The results indicated that corn stover slurry exhibited pseudo-plastic flow behavior at TS of 4.23-7.32%, and was well described by Power-law model. At TS of 4.23%, rheological properties were not obviously affected by particle size and temperature. However, when TS was increased to 7.32%, there was 10.37% shear stress reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh, and 11.73% shear stress reduction by temperature-increase from 25 to 55 °C. PTS was advanced as variations of power consumption by TS-increase from 4.23% to 7.32%. There was 9.2% PTS-reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh at 35 °C. Moreover, PTS-reduction of 10.3%/10 °C was achieved at 20-mesh compared with 9.0%/10 °C at 80-mesh. PMID:24690465

Tian, Libin; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

2014-09-01

159

Energy transduction in the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus is exclusively coupled to sodium ions.  

PubMed

The thermophilic, peptidolytic, anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus is unable to generate a pH gradient in the range of 5.5-8.0, which limits growth of the organism to a narrow pH range (6.3-7.7). A significant membrane potential (delta psi approximately -60 mV) and chemical gradient of Na+ (-Z delta pNa approximately -60 mV) are formed in the presence of metabolizable substrates. Energy-dependent Na+ efflux is inhibited by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin but is stimulated by uncouplers, suggesting that the Na+ gradient is formed by a primary pumping mechanism rather than by secondary Na+/H+ antiport. This primary sodium pump was found to be an ATPase that has been characterized in inside-out membrane vesicles and in proteoliposomes in which solubilized ATPase was reconstituted. The enzyme is stimulated by Na+, resistant to vanadate, and sensitive to nitrate, which is indicative of an F/V-type Na(+)-ATPase. In the proteoliposomes Na+ accumulation depends on the presence of ATP, is inhibited by the ATPase inhibitor nitrate, and is completely prevented by the ionophore monensin but is stimulated by protonophores and valinomycin. These and previous observations, which indicated that secondary amino acid transport uses solely Na+ as coupling ion, demonstrate that energy transduction at the membrane in C. fervidus is exclusively dependent on a Na+ cycle. PMID:8367451

Speelmans, G; Poolman, B; Abee, T; Konings, W N

1993-09-01

160

The techno-economic potential of renewable energy through the anaerobic digestion of microalgae.  

PubMed

The potential of microalgae as feedstock for methane production is evaluated from a process technical and economic point of view. Production of mixed culture algae in raceway ponds on non-agricultural sites, such as landfills, was identified as a preferred approach. The potential of straightforward bio-methanation, which includes pre-concentration of microalgae and utilization of a high rate anaerobic reactor was examined based on the premises of achievable up-concentration from 0.2-0.6 kg m(-3) to 20-60 kg dry matter (DM) m(-3) and an effective bio-methanation of the concentrate at a loading rate of 20 kg DM m(-3) d(-1). The costs of biomass available for bio-methanation under such conditions were calculated to be in the range of €86-€124 ton(-1) DM. The levelized cost of energy by means of the process line "algae biomass--biogas--total energy module" would be in the order of €0.170-0.087 kWh(-1), taking into account a carbon credit of about €30 ton(-1) CO2(eq). PMID:20933389

Zamalloa, Carlos; Vulsteke, Elien; Albrecht, Johan; Verstraete, Willy

2011-01-01

161

Energy metabolism in heart failure and remodelling  

PubMed Central

Myocytes of the failing heart undergo impressive metabolic remodelling. The time line for changes in the pathways for ATP synthesis in compensated hypertrophy is: flux through the creatine kinase (CK) reaction falls as both creatine concentration ([Cr]) and CK activity fall; increases in [ADP] and [AMP] lead to increases in glucose uptake and utilization; fatty acid oxidation either remains the same or decreases. In uncompensated hypertrophy and in other forms of heart failure, CK flux and fatty acid oxidation are both lower; any increases in glucose uptake and utilization are not sufficient to compensate for overall decreases in the capacity for ATP supply and [ATP] falls. Metabolic remodelling is under transcriptional and post-transcriptional control. The lower metabolic reserve of the failing heart contributes to impaired contractile reserve. PMID:18987051

Ingwall, Joanne S.

2009-01-01

162

Inborn Errors of Energy Metabolism Associated with Myopathies  

PubMed Central

Inherited neuromuscular disorders affect approximately one in 3,500 children. Structural muscular defects are most common; however functional impairment of skeletal and cardiac muscle in both children and adults may be caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism as well. Patients suffering from metabolic myopathies due to compromised energy metabolism may present with exercise intolerance, muscle pain, reversible or progressive muscle weakness, and myoglobinuria. In this review, the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle is described, followed by the presentation of distinct disorders affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle: glycogen storage diseases types III, V, VII, fatty acid oxidation defects, and respiratory chain defects (i.e., mitochondriopathies). The diagnostic work-up and therapeutic options in these disorders are discussed. PMID:20589068

Das, Anibh M.; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Illsinger, Sabine

2010-01-01

163

Adaptation to anaerobic metabolism in two mussel species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the tidal zone at Arcachon Bay, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of anaerobic metabolism were investigated in two sympatric mussel species, viz. Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, living in the tidal zone in Arcachon Bay, France. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate kinase (PEP-CK) were remarkably similar in the two sympatric species and generally corresponded more closely to those observed in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean than with M. edulis in the Dutch Wadden Sea. However, the values for the radio PK: PEP-CK for the two species in Arcachon Bay agreed with those of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Succinate accumulation during the first 24 h of anaerobicsis was about the same as in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean, but decreased during the second 24 h, particularly in M. edulis, obviously due to propionate formation. Decrease in ATP concentrations in the tissues during anaerobiosis corresponded to that of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. With the exception of specific activities of PK and PEP-CK, all properties investigated in both species were as expected in intertidal mussels.

de Vooys, C. G. N.

164

Genome-scale comparison and constraint-based metabolic reconstruction of the facultative anaerobic Fe(III)-reducer Rhodoferax ferrireducens  

PubMed Central

Background Rhodoferax ferrireducens is a metabolically versatile, Fe(III)-reducing, subsurface microorganism that is likely to play an important role in the carbon and metal cycles in the subsurface. It also has the unique ability to convert sugars to electricity, oxidizing the sugars to carbon dioxide with quantitative electron transfer to graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells. In order to expand our limited knowledge about R. ferrireducens, the complete genome sequence of this organism was further annotated and then the physiology of R. ferrireducens was investigated with a constraint-based, genome-scale in silico metabolic model and laboratory studies. Results The iterative modeling and experimental approach unveiled exciting, previously unknown physiological features, including an expanded range of substrates that support growth, such as cellobiose and citrate, and provided additional insights into important features such as the stoichiometry of the electron transport chain and the ability to grow via fumarate dismutation. Further analysis explained why R. ferrireducens is unable to grow via photosynthesis or fermentation of sugars like other members of this genus and uncovered novel genes for benzoate metabolism. The genome also revealed that R. ferrireducens is well-adapted for growth in the subsurface because it appears to be capable of dealing with a number of environmental insults, including heavy metals, aromatic compounds, nutrient limitation and oxidative stress. Conclusion This study demonstrates that combining genome-scale modeling with the annotation of a new genome sequence can guide experimental studies and accelerate the understanding of the physiology of under-studied yet environmentally relevant microorganisms. PMID:19772637

Risso, Carla; Sun, Jun; Zhuang, Kai; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; DeBoy, Robert; Ismail, Wael; Shrivastava, Susmita; Huot, Heather; Kothari, Sagar; Daugherty, Sean; Bui, Olivia; Schilling, Christophe H; Lovley, Derek R; Methe, Barbara A

2009-01-01

165

Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids.  

PubMed

In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in regulating energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-alpha expressed primarily in liver is essential for metabolic adaptation to starvation by inducing genes for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis and by downregulating energy expenditure through fibroblast growth factor 21. PPAR-delta is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and induces genes for LCFA oxidation during fasting and endurance exercise. PPAR-delta also regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by inducing FOXO1 and PGC1-alpha. Genes targeted by PPAR-gamma in adipocytes suggest that PPAR-gamma senses incoming non-esterified LCFAs and induces the pathways to store LCFAs as triglycerides. Adiponectin, another important target of PPAR-gamma may act as a spacer between adipocytes to maintain their metabolic activity and insulin sensitivity. Another topic of this review is effects of skin LCFAs on energy metabolism. Specific LCFAs are required for the synthesis of skin lipids, which are essential for water barrier and thermal insulation functions of the skin. Disturbance of skin lipid metabolism often causes apparent resistance to developing obesity at the expense of normal skin function. PMID:24362249

Nakamura, Manabu T; Yudell, Barbara E; Loor, Juan J

2014-01-01

166

Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium isolated from marine sediments.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium (Marinobacter sp. strain CAB) isolated from marine sediments. Under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, this strain efficiently degraded this ubiquitous isoprenoid ketone. Several bacterial metabolites, 4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecan-1-ol, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanal, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid, Z-3,7-dimethylocten-2-oic acid, Z-3,7,11-trimethyldodecen-2-oic acid, and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol, were formally identified, and different pathways were proposed to explain the formation of such isoprenoid compounds. PMID:9023941

Rontani, J F; Gilewicz, M J; Michotey, V D; Zheng, T L; Bonin, P C; Bertrand, J C

1997-01-01

167

MudPIT profiling reveals a link between anaerobic metabolism and the alkaline adaptive response of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening disease in susceptible populations. Previous proteomic analysis we performed demonstrated that different strains of L. monocytogenes initiate a stringent response when subjected to alkaline growth conditions. Here, using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT), we show that in L. monocytogenes EGD-e this response involves an energy shift to anaerobic pathways in response to the extracellular pH environment. Importantly we show that this supports a reduction in relative lag time following an abrupt transition to low oxygen tension culture conditions. This has important implications for the packaging of fresh and ready-to-eat foods under reduced oxygen conditions in environments where potential exists for alkaline adaptation. PMID:23342094

Nilsson, Rolf E; Ross, Tom; Bowman, John P; Britz, Margaret L

2013-01-01

168

Automatic purification of animal wastewater by dual means of energy-retaining anaerobic fermentation and ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of purifying animal wastewater and recovering energy during the operation, an automatic bench-scale unit was manufactured and operated. It consisted of three pieces of an anaerobic fermentation digester, a sedimentation tank and an ultrafiltration module. The digester was equipped with fixed bacteria beds(bioreactor) and tape heaters. The sedimentation tank was equipped with a heat exchanger, through which fresh slurry passed. During automatic operations the slurry samples were taken out before, during and after the operation, and turbidity and organic matter contents were analyzed. Comparing nylon mesh, chips of vinyl chloride pipe and crushed cement blocks, the crushed blocks were recognized best as a fixed bacteria bed. In the operating process, the supernatant fluid in the sedimentation tank was sent to the ultrafiltration module. After filtration a daily reverse cleansing was performed. All the operations worked according to the command programmed in the Controller PL40M III. The average removal rates of organic matters in the compound slurry by the dual operations were as follows: 76.6% T-S, 100.0% T-SS, 92.6% COD, 96.5% BOD, 86.8% NH[sub 4]-N, 69.0% T-N, and 98.8% T-P. The result of pre-heating fresh slurry by effluent from the digester was also evaluated. 14 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Kobayashi, Shigeki; Masuda, Yoshiko (Meiji Univ., Kawasaki (Japan)); Etou, Yasushi (Sanshin Technological Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

1993-11-01

169

[Adaptive changes of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training].  

PubMed

To explore adaptive changes of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training as well as to collect basic data of molecular mechanisms of adaption to anaerobic exercise training among this fish, we investigated the influences of 4 weeks of anaerobic exercise training on the behavior, morphology, growth, muscle biochemical components and metabolic enzyme activities of the Zebrafish. Our results indicated that individual's daily activity level declined after 4 weeks training and they preferred to swim together more frequently. Both body length and weight gain decreased, allowing the fish to adapt to the increased locomotion. Similarly, glycogen in muscles increased and exercise endurance also strengthened due to the enhancement of energy storage. Moreover, although the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle has increased, the activity of citrate synthase (CS) decreased. Taken together, these results suggest that both the ability of anaerobic exercise and anaerobic metabolism of Zebrafish can in fact be enhanced by training, and the tangible changes that we could measure were retained, but only for a limited time. PMID:23775994

Liu, Ming-jing; Wang, Zhi-jian

2013-06-01

170

Enzymatic and metabolic activities of four anaerobic sludges and their impact on methane production from ensiled sorghum forage.  

PubMed

Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were run on ensiled sorghum forage using four inocula (urban, agricultural, mixture of agricultural and urban, granular) and differences on their metabolic and enzymatic activities were also discussed. Results indicate that no significant differences were observed in terms of BMP values (258±14NmLCH4g(-1)VS) with a slightly higher value when agricultural sludge was used as inoculum. Significant differences can be observed among different inocula, in terms of methane production rate. In particular the fastest biomethanization occurred when using the urban sludge (hydrolytic kinetic constant kh=0.146d(-1)) while the slowest one was obtained from the agricultural sludge (kh=0.049d(-1)). Interestingly, positive correlations between the overall enzymatic activities and methane production rates were observed for all sludges, showing that a high enzymatic activity may favour the hydrolysis of complex substrate and accelerate the methanization process of sorghum. PMID:24440490

Sambusiti, C; Rollini, M; Ficara, E; Musatti, A; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

2014-03-01

171

Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

2000-12-01

172

Formulating multicellular models of metabolism in tissues: application to energy metabolism in the human brain  

PubMed Central

A workflow is presented that integrates gene expression data, proteomic data, and literature-based manual curation to construct multicellular, tissue-specific models of human brain energy metabolism that recapitulate metabolic interactions between astrocytes and various neuron types. Three analyses are applied for gene identification, analysis of omics data, and analysis of physiological states. First, we identify glutamate decarboxylase as a target that may contribute to cell-type and regional specificity in Alzheimer’s disease. Second, the decreased metabolic rate seen in affected brain regions in Alzheimer’s disease is consistent with a suppression of central metabolic gene expression in histopathologically normal neurons. Third, we identify pathways in cholinergic neurons that couple mitochondrial metabolism and cytosolic acetylcholine production, and subsequently find that cholinergic neurotransmission accounts for ?3% of brain neurotransmission. Constraint-based modeling can thus contribute to the study and analysis of multicellular metabolic processes in human tissues, and provide detailed mechanistic insight into high-throughput data analysis. PMID:21102456

Lewis, Nathan E.; Schramm, Gunnar; Bordbar, Aarash; Schellenberger, Jan; Andersen, Michael Paul; Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Patel, Nilam; Yee, Alex; Lewis, Randall A.; Eils, Roland; Konig, Rainer; Palsson, Bernhard ?.

2010-01-01

173

Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (?), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (?), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with ?=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, ?=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with ?=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, ?=5.2. PMID:23891078

Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

2013-11-01

174

Dissecting the energy metabolism in Mycoplasma pneumoniae through genome-scale metabolic modeling  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a threatening pathogen with a minimal genome, is a model organism for bacterial systems biology for which substantial experimental information is available. With the goal of understanding the complex interactions underlying its metabolism, we analyzed and characterized the metabolic network of M. pneumoniae in great detail, integrating data from different omics analyses under a range of conditions into a constraint-based model backbone. Iterating model predictions, hypothesis generation, experimental testing, and model refinement, we accurately curated the network and quantitatively explored the energy metabolism. In contrast to other bacteria, M. pneumoniae uses most of its energy for maintenance tasks instead of growth. We show that in highly linear networks the prediction of flux distributions for different growth times allows analysis of time-dependent changes, albeit using a static model. By performing an in silico knock-out study as well as analyzing flux distributions in single and double mutant phenotypes, we demonstrated that the model accurately represents the metabolism of M. pneumoniae. The experimentally validated model provides a solid basis for understanding its metabolic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23549481

Wodke, Judith A H; Puchalka, Jacek; Lluch-Senar, Maria; Marcos, Josep; Yus, Eva; Godinho, Miguel; Gutierrez-Gallego, Ricardo; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Serrano, Luis; Klipp, Edda; Maier, Tobias

2013-01-01

175

The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

2014-05-01

176

The Iron Stimulon and Fur Regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Their Role in Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek

2014-01-01

177

Evolution of energy metabolism and its compartmentation in Kinetoplastida  

PubMed Central

Kinetoplastida are protozoan organisms that probably diverged early in evolution from other eukaryotes. They are characterized by a number of unique features with respect to their energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These organisms possess peculiar peroxisomes, called glycosomes, which play a central role in this metabolism; the organelles harbour enzymes of several catabolic and anabolic routes, including major parts of the glycolytic and pentosephosphate pathways. The kinetoplastid mitochondrion is also unusual with regard to both its structural and functional properties. In this review, we describe the unique compartmentation of metabolism in Kinetoplastida and the metabolic properties resulting from this compartmentation. We discuss the evidence for our recently proposed hypothesis that a common ancestor of Kinetoplastida and Euglenida acquired a photosynthetic alga as an endosymbiont, contrary to the earlier notion that this event occurred at a later stage of evolution, in the Euglenida lineage alone. The endosymbiont was subsequently lost from the kinetoplastid lineage but, during that process, some of its pathways of energy and carbohydrate metabolism were sequestered in the kinetoplastid peroxisomes, which consequently became glycosomes. The evolution of the kinetoplastid glycosomes and the possible selective advantages of these organelles for Kinetoplastida are discussed. We propose that the possession of glycosomes provided metabolic flexibility that has been important for the organisms to adapt easily to changing environmental conditions. It is likely that metabolic flexibility has been an important selective advantage for many kinetoplastid species during their evolution into the highly successful parasites today found in many divergent taxonomic groups. Also addressed is the evolution of the kinetoplastid mitochondrion, from a supposedly pluripotent organelle, attributed to a single endosymbiotic event that resulted in all mitochondria and hydrogenosomes of extant eukaryotes. Furthermore, indications are presented that Kinetoplastida may have acquired other enzymes of energy and carbohydrate metabolism by various lateral gene transfer events different from those that involved the algal- and ?-proteobacterial-like endosymbionts responsible for the respective formation of the glycosomes and mitochondria. PMID:14613499

Hannaert, Veronique; Bringaud, Frederic; Opperdoes, Fred R; Michels, Paul AM

2003-01-01

178

Temperature and pH dependence of energy balance by 31P- and 1H-MRS in anaerobic frog muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature (T)-dependence of energy consumption of resting anaerobic frog gastrocnemii exposed to different, changing electrochemical gradients was assessed. To this aim, the rate of ATP resynthesis (??P\\/?t) was determined by 31P- and 1H-MRS as the sum of the rates of PCr hydrolysis (?[PCr]\\/?t) and of anaerobic glycolysis (?[La]\\/ ?t, based on a ?P\\/La ratio of 1.5). The investigated T levels

Alessandra Vezzoli; Maristella Gussoni; Fulvia Greco; Lucia Zetta; Paolo Cerretelli

2004-01-01

179

Continuous thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion of sludge. Energy integration study.  

PubMed

Experimental data obtained from the operation in a pilot plant are used to perform mass and energy balances to a global process combining units of thermal hydrolysis (TH) of secondary sludge, anaerobic digestion (AD) of hydrolysed secondary sludge together with fresh primary sludge, and cogeneration from biogas by using a gas engine in which the biogas produces electricity and heat from the exhaust gases. Three scenarios were compared, corresponding to the three digesters operated: C (conventional AD, 17 days residence time), B (combined TH + AD, same time), and A (TH + AD at half residence time). The biogas production of digesters B and A was 33 and 24% better, respectively when compared with C. In the case of the combined TH + AD process (scenarios A and B), the key factors in the energy balance were the recovery of heat from hot streams, and the concentration of sludge. The results of the balances showed that for 8% DS concentration of the secondary sludge tested in the pilot plant, the process can be energetically self-sufficient, but a fraction of the biogas must by-pass the gas engine to be directly burned. From an economic point of view, scenario B is more profitable in terms of green energy and higher waste removal, while scenario A reduces the digester volume required by a half. Considering a population of 100,000 inhabitants, the economic benefit is 87,600 €/yr for scenario A and 132,373 €/yr for B. This value can be increased to 223,867 €/yr by increasing the sludge concentration of the feeding to the TH unit to a minimum value that allows use of all the biogas to produce green energy. This concentration is 13% DS, which is still possible from a practical point of view. Additional benefits gained with the combined TH + AD process are the enhancement of the digesters rheology and the possibility of getting Class A biosolids. The integration study presented here set the basis for the scale-up to a demonstration plant. PMID:22546800

Pérez-Elvira, S I; Fdz-Polanco, F

2012-01-01

180

Physiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: metabolic control of proton motive force in Sarcina ventriculi.  

PubMed Central

Detailed physiological studies were done to compare the influence of environmental pH and fermentation end product formation on metabolism, growth, and proton motive force in Sarcina ventriculi. The kinetics of end product formation during glucose fermentation in unbuffered batch cultures shifted from hydrogen-acetate production to ethanol production as the medium pH dropped from 7.0 to 3.3. At a constant pH of 3.0, the production of acetate ceased when the accumulation of acetate in the medium reached 40 mmol/liter. At a constant pH of 7.0, acetate production continued throughout the entire growth time course. The in vivo hydrogenase activity was much higher in cells grown at pH 7.0 than at pH 3.0. The magnitude of the proton motive force increased in relation to a decrease of the medium pH from 7.5 to 3.0. When the organism was grown at pH 3.0, the cytoplasmic pH was 4.25 and the organism was unable to exclude acetic acid or butyric acid from the cytoplasm. Addition of acetic acid, but not hydrogen or ethanol, inhibited growth and resulted in proton motive force dissipation and the accumulation of acetic acid in the cytoplasm. The results indicate that S. ventriculi is an acidophile that can continue to produce ethanol at low cytoplasmic pH values. Both the ability to shift to ethanol production and the ability to continue to ferment glucose while cytoplasmic pH values are low adapt S. ventriculi for growth at low pH. PMID:3571164

Goodwin, S; Zeikus, J G

1987-01-01

181

Purification and Characterization of ?-l-Arabinopyranosidase and ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium breve K-110, a Human Intestinal Anaerobic Bacterium Metabolizing Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc  

PubMed Central

Two arabinosidases, ?-l-arabinopyranosidase (no EC number) and ?-l-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), were purified from ginsenoside-metabolizing Bifidobacterium breve K-110, which was isolated from human intestinal microflora. ?-l-Arabinopyranosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity, using a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose, butyl Toyopearl, hydroxyapatite Ultrogel, QAE-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-300 HR column chromatography, with a final specific activity of 8.81 ?mol/min/mg. ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity, using a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose, butyl Toyopearl, hydroxyapatite Ultrogel, Q-Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 column chromatography, with a final specific activity of 6.46 ?mol/min/mg. The molecular mass of ?-l-arabinopyranosidase was found to be 310 kDa by gel filtration, consisting of four identical subunits (77 kDa each, measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE]), and that of ?-l-arabinofuranosidase was found to be 60 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. ?-l-Arabinopyranosidase and ?-l-arabinofuranosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and 40°C and pH 4.5 and 45°C, respectively. Both purified enzymes were potently inhibited by Cu2+ and p-chlormercuryphenylsulfonic acid. ?-l-Arabinopyranosidase acted to the greatest extent on p-nitrophenyl-?-l-arabinopyranoside, followed by ginsenoside Rb2. ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase acted to the greatest extent on p-nitrophenyl-?-l-arabinofuranoside, followed by ginsenoside Rc. Neither enzyme acted on p-nitrophenyl-?-galactopyranoside or p-nitrophenyl-?-d-fucopyranoside. These findings suggest that the biochemical properties and substrate specificities of these purified enzymes are different from those of previously purified ?-l-arabinosidases. This is the first reported purification of ?-l-arabinopyranosidase from an anaerobic Bifidobacterium sp. PMID:14660356

Shin, Ho-Young; Park, Sun-Young; Hwan Sung, Jong; Kim, Dong-Hyun

2003-01-01

182

Interaction of acute changes in exercise energy expenditure and energy intake on resting metabolic rate13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on nesting metabolic rate (RMR) of energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were exam- med in eight trained men under four conditions: 1) high energy flux (HF), 90 mm of exercise at 75% VO,max on 3 d while in energy balance; 2) low energy flux (LF), no exercise for 3 d while in energy balance; 3) negative energy

Richard C Bullough; Cynthia A Gillette; Mary A Harris; Christopher L Melby

183

Mitochondrial DNA variation in human metabolic rate and energy expenditure  

PubMed Central

The role of climate in driving selection of mtDNA as Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa into Eurasia remains controversial. We evaluated the role of mtDNA variation in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) among 294 older, community-dwelling African and European American adults from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Common African haplogroups L0, L2 and L3 had significantly lower RMRs than European haplogroups H, JT and UK with haplogroup L1 RMR being intermediate to these groups. This study links mitochondrial haplogroups with ancestry-associated differences in metabolic rate and energy expenditure. PMID:21586348

Tranah, Gregory J.; Manini, Todd M.; Lohman, Kurt K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Miljkovic, Iva; Biffi, Alessandro; Cummings, Steven R.; Liu, Yongmei

2014-01-01

184

Metabolic sources of energy for hummingbird flight.  

PubMed

It has been known for some two decades that hovering flight in hummingbirds is the most energetically expensive muscle work known among vertebrates, but the metabolic support for such work has never been clarified. Measurement of the maximum activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate, fat, and amino acid catabolism in flight muscle and heart of rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) reveals that the high ATP requirements of short-term hovering flight can only be supported by the oxidation of carbohydrate. Fat oxidation can support a substantially lower maximum rate of ATP turnover, indicating that this process can power only the lower +.++energetic requirements of long-term forward or migratory flight. Mitochondria isolated from flight muscle oxidize pyruvate and palmitoyl-CoA equally well. The inhibition of pyruvate oxidation by palmitoyl-CoA oxidation provides a mechanism by which fat oxidation inhibits carbohydrate oxidation in the transition from short- to long-term flight. PMID:3752286

Suarez, R K; Brown, G S; Hochachka, P W

1986-09-01

185

[Anaerobic paraproctitis].  

PubMed

An analysis of 25 cases of anaerobic paraproctitis has shown that in most cases they were people over 60 having severe concomitant diseases. Primary necrotic proctitis should be distinguished as a special morphological form. Sepsis was found to develop mostly in necrotic forms and ascending anaerobic lymphadenitis. An urgent wide opening of paraproctitis with a radical dissection of the tissues suspected of a damage is thought to be a necessary condition for the favourable outcome of the disease. PMID:6326371

Dolidze, N G; Kakoishvili, G A; Gvasaliia, G N

1984-03-01

186

Cardiac energy metabolism is positively associated with skeletal muscle energy metabolism in physically active adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

(31)Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P?MRS) is a well-validated, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that has been used to determine cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in vivo. Few studies have documented cardiac energy metabolism in adolescents and young adult cohorts. This cross-sectional study sought to explore the association among cardiac energy metabolism, skeletal muscle energy metabolism, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and age in adolescents and young adults. Ten healthy, active participants (40% male) with a mean ± SD age of 18.6 ± 4.9 years, body mass index of 21.1 ± 2.4 kg·m(-2), and median MVPA level of 83 min per weekday (lower quartile: 45 min per weekday; upper quartile: 114 min per weekday) completed the following study assessments: a (31)P?MRS scan to determine cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism, cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine aerobic power, and accelerometry to determine MVPA over 7 days. Resting cardiac energy metabolism, as measured by the ratio of phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP?, mean ± SD: 2.76 ± 0.65), was positively associated with skeletal muscle aerobic oxidative function (Estimate (SE): -0.1(0.01), p < 0.001), as measured by PCr recovery half-time following 60 s of exercise (34 ± 9 s). This association, which was adjusted for peak aerobic power, MVPA, age, and sex, suggests the development of an association between cardiac and skeletal muscle health at any early age. Larger studies are needed to establish normative data for both physically active and sedentary males and females that may be used for comparison in future studies involving clinical cohorts. PMID:24552379

Banks, Laura; Wells, Greg D; McCrindle, Brian W

2014-03-01

187

Test/QA Plan For Verification Of Anaerobic Digester For Energy Production And Pollution Prevention  

EPA Science Inventory

The ETV-ESTE Program conducts third-party verification testing of commercially available technologies that improve the environmental conditions in the U.S. A stakeholder committee of buyers and users of such technologies guided the development of this test on anaerobic digesters...

188

ENERGY AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS AND BIOFUELS FOR RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A technological and socioeconomic assessment of anaerobic digester feasibility for small to mid-size livestock operations was undertaken. Three full scale digesters and one pilot scale facility were under various degrees of monitoring and evaluation to assess design and operation...

189

Energy recovery from dairy waste-waters: impacts of biofilm support systems on anaerobic CST reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is one of the major steps involved in the treatment of dairy industry waste-waters and many CSTRs (continuously-stirred tank reactors) are functioning for this purpose all over the world. In this paper, the authors describe their attempts to upgrade a CSTR's performance by incorporating a biofilm support system (BSS) within the existing reactor. The focus of the work

E. V. Ramasamy; S. A. Abbasi

2000-01-01

190

Therapeutic Implications of Targeting Energy Metabolism in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

PPARs are ligand activated transcription factors. PPAR? agonists have been reported as a new and potentially efficacious treatment of inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cancer, AD, and schizophrenia. Since cancer cells show dysregulation of glycolysis they are potentially manageable through changes in metabolic environment. Interestingly, several of the genes involved in maintaining the metabolic environment and the central energy generation pathway are regulated or predicted to be regulated by PPAR?. The use of synthetic PPAR? ligands as drugs and their recent withdrawal/restricted usage highlight the lack of understanding of the molecular basis of these drugs, their off-target effects, and their network. These data further underscores the complexity of nuclear receptor signalling mechanisms. This paper will discuss the function and role of PPAR? in energy metabolism and cancer biology in general and its emergence as a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:23431283

Sakharkar, Meena K.; Shashni, Babita; Sharma, Karun; Dhillon, Sarinder K.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar R.; Sakharkar, Kishore R.

2013-01-01

191

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

2013-12-01

192

Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

2012-01-01

193

Hexokinase Binding to Mitochondria: A Basis for Proliferative Energy Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current thought is that proliferating cells undergo a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism, where the energy requirements of the rapidly dividing cell are provided by ATP from glycolysis. Drawing on the hexokinase–mitochondrial acceptor theory of insulin action, this article presents evidence suggesting that the increased binding of hexokinase to porin on mitochondria of cancer cells not only accelerates glycolysis

Shiva G. Golshani-Hebroni; Samuel P. Bessman

1997-01-01

194

PGC-1{alpha}: a key regulator of energy metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. This makes it an inviting target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Huiyun Liang (University of Texas Health Science Center Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies); Walter F. Ward (University of Texas Health Science Center Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies)

2006-12-01

195

Fatty Acids in Energy Metabolism of the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain's energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile ?-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups. PMID:24883315

Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vavilin, Valentin; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav

2014-01-01

196

Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Aromatic Biodegradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aromatic acids are intermediates in the biodegradation of structurally diverse aromatic compounds, including lignin monomers and environmental pollutants, by many metabolic types of anaerobic bacteria. They are also the starting compounds for central path...

C. S. Harwood

1992-01-01

197

Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation  

PubMed Central

Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979

Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

2010-01-01

198

Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis.  

PubMed

Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe] hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energy metabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered. PMID:18060515

Pereira, Patrícia M; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M A; Xavier, António V; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Inês A C; Louro, Ricardo O

2008-05-01

199

A guide to analysis of mouse energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

We present a consolidated view of the complexity and challenges of designing studies for measurement of energy metabolism in mouse models, including a practical guide to the assessment of energy expenditure, energy intake and body composition and statistical analysis thereof. We hope this guide will facilitate comparisons across studies and minimize spurious interpretations of data. We recommend that division of energy expenditure data by either body weight or lean body weight and that presentation of group effects as histograms should be replaced by plotting individual data and analyzing both group and body-composition effects using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). PMID:22205519

Tschop, Matthias H; Speakman, John R; Arch, Jonathan R S; Auwerx, Johan; Bruning, Jens C; Chan, Lawrence; Eckel, Robert H; Farese, Robert V; Galgani, Jose E; Hambly, Catherine; Herman, Mark A; Horvath, Tamas L; Kahn, Barbara B; Kozma, Sara C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Muller, Timo D; Munzberg, Heike; Pfluger, Paul T; Plum, Leona; Reitman, Marc L; Rahmouni, Kamal; Shulman, Gerald I; Thomas, George; Kahn, C Ronald; Ravussin, Eric

2013-01-01

200

PPARs Integrate the Mammalian Clock and Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of numerous target genes. PPARs play an essential role in various physiological and pathological processes, especially in energy metabolism. It has long been known that metabolism and circadian clocks are tightly intertwined. However, the mechanism of how they influence each other is not fully understood. Recently, all three PPAR isoforms were found to be rhythmically expressed in given mouse tissues. Among them, PPAR? and PPAR? are direct regulators of core clock components, Bmal1 and Rev-erb?, and, conversely, PPAR? is also a direct Bmal1 target gene. More importantly, recent studies using knockout mice revealed that all PPARs exert given functions in a circadian manner. These findings demonstrated a novel role of PPARs as regulators in correlating circadian rhythm and metabolism. In this review, we summarize advances in our understanding of PPARs in circadian regulation. PMID:24693278

Chen, Lihong; Yang, Guangrui

2014-01-01

201

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism  

E-print Network

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism Beata Obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis are major public health concerns. Current estimates indicate of bone homeostasis and energy metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent

Toledo, University of

202

Energy metabolism in Bardet–Biedl syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a consistent presenting feature of the Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS), a hereditary disorder caused by a single gene defect. This contrasts sharply with general obesity which, despite a strong hereditary component, has a multifactorial aetiology. For BBS, the phenotypic characterisation of the components of energy balance and the implications for their management remains relatively uninvestigated.OBJECTIVE: A case–control study

C Grace; P Beales; C Summerbell; S A Jebb; A Wright; D Parker; P Kopelman

2003-01-01

203

Basic Laboratory Culture Methods for Anaerobic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen is either limiting or absent in many ecosystems. Anaerobic bacteria are often key players in such environments and these organisms have important roles in geo-elemental cycling, agriculture, and medicine. The metabolic versatility of anaerobes is exploited in a variety of industrial processes including fermented food production, biochemical synthesis, and bioremediation. There has been recent considerable interest in developing and enhancing technologies that employ anaerobes as biocatalysts. The study of anaerobic bacteria requires specialized techniques, and specific methods are described for the culture and manipulation of these microbes.

Strobel, Herbert J.

204

USE OF SOLAR ENERGY TO HEAT ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS. PART I. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY. PART II. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Two distinct, yet related studies were conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy as the source of heat for the anaerobic digestion process. Retrofitting a solar energy collection and heat transfer system to a digester at Annapolis, Maryla...

205

Temperature effects on energy metabolism: a dynamic system analysis.  

PubMed Central

Q(10) factors are widely used as indicators of the magnitude of temperature-induced changes in physico-chemical and physiological rates. However, there is a long-standing debate concerning the extent to which Q(10) values can be used to derive conclusions about energy metabolism regulatory control. The main point of this disagreement is whether or not it is fair to use concepts derived from molecular theory in the integrative physiological responses of living organisms. We address this debate using a dynamic systems theory, and analyse the behaviour of a model at the organismal level. It is shown that typical Q(10) values cannot be used unambiguously to deduce metabolic rate regulatory control. Analytical constraints emerge due to the more formal and precise equation used to compute Q(10), derived from a reference system composed from the metabolic rate and the Q(10). Such an equation has more than one unknown variable and thus is unsolvable. This problem disappears only if the Q(10) is assumed to be a known parameter. Therefore, it is concluded that typical Q(10) calculations are inappropriate for addressing questions about the regulatory control of a metabolism unless the Q(10) values are considered to be true parameters whose values are known beforehand. We offer mathematical tools to analyse the regulatory control of a metabolism for those who are willing to accept such an assumption. PMID:11788031

Chaui-Berlinck, Jose Guilherme; Monteiro, Luiz Henrique Alves; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Bicudo, Jose Eduardo P W

2002-01-01

206

A Single Eubacterial Origin of Eukaryotic Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Genes: Implications for the Evolution of Anaerobic Eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) is central to energy metabolism in amitochondriate eukaryotes, including those with hydrogenosomes. Thus, revealing the evolutionary history of PFO is critical to understanding the origin(s) of eukaryote anaerobic energy metabolism. We determined a complete PFO sequence for Spironucleus barkhanus, a large fragment of a PFO sequence from Clostridium pasteurianum,and a fragment of a

David S. Horner; Robert P. Hirt; T. Martin Embley

207

[Anaerobic paraproctitis].  

PubMed

The authors had 80 patients, most of them (90%) of an old age, with anaerobic paraproctitis. Delayed hospitalization was encountered in 62 cases, in 16 of these cases an erroneous diagnosis had been established. Severe concomitant diseases complicated the course of anaerobic paraproctitis in 80% of cases (in each group of three patients one had diabetes mellitus). The authors describe characteristic clinical manifestations and the course of various forms of anaerobic paraproctitis, the results of bacteriological examination, and the order in which the surgical treatment is applied. They suggest a scheme of drug therapy which is maximally approximated to cleansing of a microbial cenosis, including ultraviolet irradiation of the blood. All these measures allowed the mortality rate to be decreased from 33.3% to 17.7%. PMID:7723255

Koplatadze, A M; Bondarev, Iu A; Egorkin, M A

1994-10-01

208

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

2013-09-01

209

STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons  

PubMed Central

STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

2014-01-01

210

Energy metabolism in adult neural stem cell fate Victoria A. Rafalski a,b  

E-print Network

the current understanding of how cellular and systemic energy metabolism regulate neural stem cell fateEnergy metabolism in adult neural stem cell fate Victoria A. Rafalski a,b , Anne Brunet a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 2.3. Energy metabolism differences between neural stem cells and differentiated neural cells

Brunet, Anne

211

Economic and environmental analysis of four different configurations of anaerobic digestion for food waste to energy conversion using LCA for: a food service provider case study.  

PubMed

The US disposes of more than 34 million tons of food waste in landfills per year. As this food waste decomposes it generates methane gas and negatively contributes to global warming. Diverting theses organic food wastes from landfills and to emerging technologies will prevent these wastes and greenhouse gas emissions while at the same time generating a source renewable energy by collecting the emitted gases. From a waste prevention standpoint, instead of the food waste decomposing at local landfills, it is being converted into an energy source and the by-product may be used as a fertilizer (Fine and Hadas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to compare four different configurations of anaerobic digestion of organic waste to energy technologies from an economic, energy, and emissions standpoint using LCA via a case study at a large food services provider in Northwest Ohio, USA. The technologies studied included two-stage anaerobic digestion system using ultrasound pre-treating, two stage continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic with recirculation of the digested sludge, long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements, and single stage anaerobic digestion. Using LCA, these scenarios were compared to landfill disposal of the food waste. The findings from the case study indicated that implementing on-site waste to energy systems will result in lower operation costs and lower environmental impacts. In addition, a standardized environmental and economic comparison of competing food waste to energy technologies is provided. PMID:23583791

Franchetti, Matthew

2013-07-15

212

Energy metabolism of cancer: Glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation (Review).  

PubMed

Metabolic activities in normal cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate ATP for energy. Unlike in normal cells, glycolysis is enhanced and OXPHOS capacity is reduced in various cancer cells. It has long been believed that the glycolytic phenotype in cancer is due to a permanent impairment of mitochondrial OXPHOS, as proposed by Otto Warburg. This view is challenged by recent investigations which find that the function of mitochondrial OXPHOS in most cancers is intact. Aerobic glycolysis in many cancers is the combined result of various factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressors, a hypoxic microenvironment, mtDNA mutations, genetic background and others. Understanding the features and complexity of the cancer energy metabolism will help to develop new approaches in early diagnosis and effectively target therapy of cancer. PMID:23226794

Zheng, Jie

2012-12-01

213

Response of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria to hydroxylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically

Maarten J. Van De Graaf; Boran Kartal; Cristian Picioreanu; Mike S. M. Jetten

2008-01-01

214

Brain energy metabolism parameters in an animal model of diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence has indicated that altered mitochondrial function may be involved in mechanism for the development\\u000a of diabetic complications. Thus, we investigated whether animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan alters energy metabolism\\u000a parameters. Wistar rats received one single injection of alloxan (250 mg\\/kg) and after 15 days we evaluated mitochondrial\\u000a respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III and IV,

Luciane B. Ceretta; Gislaine Z. Réus; Gislaine T. Rezin; Giselli Scaini; Emílio L. Streck; João Quevedo

2010-01-01

215

Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis  

SciTech Connect

Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.

Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

2007-11-01

216

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... Some metabolic diseases and conditions include: Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per- thigh -roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism is caused ... or through surgery or radiation treatments. Hypothyroidism (pronounced: hi-po- thigh -roy-dih-zum) . Hypothyroidism is caused ...

217

Appraisal of Anotox, a new anaerobic atmospheric detoxifying agent for use in anaerobic cabinets.  

PubMed Central

Using Clostridium sporogenes cultures, inhibitory effects of its gaseous metabolic end products on the activity of palladium Deoxo catalyst and on surface growth of some clinically significant anaerobes were demonstrated. A new product "Anotox" was shown to absorb these metabolites, which enabled uninhibited growth of anaerobes, and prolonged the life of the catalyst. PMID:7068916

Brazier, J S

1982-01-01

218

Endocannabinoid signaling and energy metabolism: a target for dietary intervention.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoid (EC) signaling (ECS) system involves the activation of receptors targeted by endogenously produced ligands called endocannabinoids that trigger specific physiologic events in various organs and tissues throughout the body. ECs are lipid mediators that bind to specific receptors and elicit cell signaling. The focus of this review is to discuss the responses that direct pathways of systemic energy metabolism. Recent findings have indicated that an imbalance of the ECS contributes to visceral fat accumulation and disrupts energy homeostasis, which are characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Constant activation of ECS has been linked to metabolic processes that are associated with the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues of obese patients. In contrast, inhibition of ECS results in weight loss in animal and human subjects. Despite these findings, the mechanism involved in the dysregulation of ECS is unclear. Interestingly, the level of endogenous ligands, derived from arachidonic acid, can be directly manipulated by nutrient intervention, in that a diet rich in long-chain ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids will decrease the production of ligands to modulate the activation of target receptors. In contrast, a diet that is high in ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids will cause an increase in ECS activation and stimulate tissue specific activities that decrease insulin sensitivity in muscle and promote fat accumulation in the adipose tissue. The purpose of this review is to explain the components of ECS, its role in adipose and muscle energy metabolism, and how nutritional approaches with dietary ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may reverse the dysregulation of this system to improve insulin sensitivity and control body fat. PMID:21470818

Kim, Jeffrey; Li, Yong; Watkins, Bruce A

2011-06-01

219

Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D.

Kennan Kellaris Salinero; Keith Keller; William S. Feil; Helene Feil; Stephan Trong; Genevieve Di Bartolo; Alla Lapidus

2008-01-01

220

Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. RESULTS: The a priori prediction that

Kennan Kellaris Salinero; Keith Keller; William S Feil; Helene Feil; Stephan Trong; Genevieve Di Bartolo; Alla Lapidus

2009-01-01

221

Energy- and CO2-reduction potentials by anaerobic treatment of wastewater and organic kitchen wastes in consideration of different climatic conditions.  

PubMed

The classical municipal wastewater treatment in Germany consists of an aerobic carbon and nitrogen elimination and mostly an anaerobic sludge treatment. Organic kitchen wastes from separate waste collection as well as yard wastes are converted mostly in composting plants to soil conditioner. With these conventional types of treatment, the energy potential in waste and wastewater is lost due to aerobic material conversion. In this article three scenarios for the treatment of municipal wastewater and waste are compared on the subject of energy efficiency and useable potential: Sc1. the classical wastewater treatment and the composting of the organic waste fraction, Sc2. the anaerobic treatment of wastewater combined with deammonification and the digestion of the organic waste fraction, and Sc3. a mutual anaerobic treatment of wastewater and waste as co-digestion with deammonification. The calculation of energy and CO2-balance considers different climatic conditions. In case of using anaerobic treatment, not only the energy balance will be positive, also the CO2-balance is improved by the substitution of fossil fuels with generated biogas. PMID:18701789

Weichgrebe, D; Urban, I; Friedrich, K

2008-01-01

222

[Modifications in myocardial energy metabolism in diabetic patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capacity of cardiac myocyte to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. Because FA is the main heart fuel (although the most expensive one in oxygen, and prompt to induce deleterious effects), this process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Several pathological situations are associated with an accumulation of FA or derivatives, or with an excessive b-oxidation. The diabetic cardiomyocyte is characterised by an over consumption of FA. The control of the FA/glucose balance clearly appears as a new strategy for cytoprotection, particularly in diabetes and requires a reduced FA contribution to ATP production. Cardiac myocytes can control FA mitochondrial entry, but display weak ability to control FA uptake, thus the fate of non beta-oxidized FA appear as a new impairment for the cell. Both the trigger and the regulation of cardiac contraction result from membrane activity, and the other major FA function in the myocardium is their role in membrane homeostasis, through the phospholipid synthesis and remodeling pathways. Sudden death, hypercatecholaminemia, diabetes and heart failure have been associated with an altered PUFA content in cardiac membranes. Experimental data suggest that the 2 metabolic pathways involved in membrane homeostasis may represent therapeutic targets for cytoprotection. The drugs that increase cardiac phospholipid turnover (trimetazidine, ranolazine,...) display anti-ischemic non hemodynamic effect. This effect is based on a redirection of FA utilization towards phospholipid synthesis, which decrease their availability for energy production. A nutritional approach gave also promising results. Besides its anti-arrhythmic effect, the dietary docosahexaenoic acid is able to reduce FA energy consumption and hence oxygen demand. The cardiac metabolic pathways involving FA should be considered as a whole, precariously balanced. The diabetic heart being characterised by a different metabolic "status" with similarities to that of myocardium in coronary disease. Diabetes and other chronic cardiac diseases share common FA metabolism disorders leading to an altered energy balance, a decrease in long chain polyunsaturated Fas, and altered FA profiles in cardiac membranes. These disturbances, however, do not represent independent therapeutic targets, and should be considered as a whole.

Grynberg, A.

2001-01-01

223

The endocannabinoid system: role in glucose and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as one of the most relevant regulators of energy balance. The ECS acts through two cannabinoid receptors: types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the brain, but are also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, the liver, the gut, and the pancreas. Blockade of CB1 receptors causes a reduction in food intake and a sustained weight loss. This system contributes also to the control of lipid and glucose metabolism, and it is well established that blockade of CB1 receptors enhances insulin sensitivity in both humans and rodents. In obese states, endocannabinoid levels are increased and might exert unfavorable effects on insulin-sensitive tissues. This review summarizes the effects of the endocannabinoid system on glucose metabolism in humans and rodents. PMID:19559361

Nogueiras, Ruben; Diaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Lockie, Sarah H; Velásquez, Douglas A; Tschop, Johannes; López, Miguel; Cadwell, Charles C; Diéguez, Carlos; Tschöp, Matthias H

2009-08-01

224

Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity  

PubMed Central

Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (??m), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, ??m, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

2012-01-01

225

Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator  

PubMed Central

There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

2011-01-01

226

Functional Electron Microscopy in Studies of Plant response and adaptation to Anaerobic Stress  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the contribution made by functional electron microscopy towards identifying and understanding the reactions of plant roots and shoots to anaerobic stress. Topics examined include: (1) unexpected hypersensitivity, rather than hyper?resistance, to anoxia of root tips of flooding?tolerant plants; (2) protective, rather than damaging, effects of a stimulated energy metabolism (glycolysis and fermentation) under anaerobic conditions; (3) the concept of two main strategies of plant adaptation to anaerobic environments, namely avoidance of anaerobiosis on the whole plant level, termed ‘apparent’ tolerance, and metabolic adaptation at the cellular and molecular levels, termed ‘true’ tolerance; (4) the importance of protein synthesis during hypoxia and anoxia for enhanced energy production and metabolic adaptation; (5) a general adaptive syndrome in plants to stress at the ultrastructural level and a possible molecular mechanism for its realization under anoxia; (6) the physiological role of anaerobically synthesized lipids and nitrate as alternative electron acceptors in an oxygen?free medium; and (7) the selection of cell lines derived from callus cultures that possess enhanced tolerance to anoxia and can regenerate whole plants with improved tolerance of soil waterlogging. PMID:12509337

VARTAPETIAN, BORIS B.; ANDREEVA, IRINA N.; GENEROZOVA, INNA P.; POLYAKOVA, LYLI I.; MASLOVA, INNA P.; DOLGIKH, YULIA I.; STEPANOVA, ANNA YU.

2003-01-01

227

Anaerobic Degradation and Transformation of p Toluidine by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfobacula toluolica  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The ability of the strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacula toluolica (strain Tol2) to cometabolically degrade p-toluidine (p-methylaniline) while using toluene as the primary source of carbon and energy has been studied. This organism has been shown\\u000a to modify and degrade toluidine in dense cell suspensions when no other source of carbon and energy is added. The metabolism\\u000a led to

Tim Raber; Thomas Gorontzy; Magarete Kleinschmidt; Klaus Steinbach; Karl-Heinz Blotevogel

1998-01-01

228

Organ-specific analysis of the anaerobic primary metabolism in rice and wheat seedlings. I: Dark ethanol production is dominated by the shoots.  

PubMed

During anaerobiosis in darkness the main route for ATP production in plants is through glycolysis in combination with fermentation. We compared the organ-specific anaerobic fermentation of flooding-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. A sensitive laser-based photoacoustic trace gas detection system was used to monitor emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde by roots and shoots of intact seedlings. Dark-incubated rice seedlings released 3 times more acetaldehyde and 14 times more ethanol than wheat seedlings during anaerobiosis. Ninety percent of acetaldehyde originated from shoots of both species. In comparison to wheat shoots, the high ethanol production of rice shoots correlated with larger amounts of soluble carbohydrates, and higher activities of fermentative enzymes. After 24 h of anaerobiosis in darkness rice shoots still contained 30% of aerated ATP level, which enabled seedlings to survive this period. In contrast, ATP content declined almost to zero in wheat shoots and roots, which were irreversibly damaged after a 24-h anaerobic period. When plants were anaerobically and dark incubated for 4 h and subsequently transferred back to aeration, shoots showed a transient peak of acetaldehyde release indicating prompt re-oxidation of ethanol. Post-anoxic acetaldehyde production was lower in rice seedlings than in wheat. This observation accounts for a more effective acetaldehyde detoxification system in rice. Compared to wheat the greater tolerance of rice seedlings to transient anaerobic periods is explained by a faster fermentation rate of their shoots allowing a sufficient ATP production and an efficient suppression of toxic acetaldehyde formation in the early re-aeration period. PMID:16845530

Mustroph, Angelika; Boamfa, Elena I; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Albrecht, Gerd; Grimm, Bernhard

2006-12-01

229

[Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].  

PubMed

Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters. PMID:19140337

Arakelova, E S

2008-01-01

230

Perspectives for anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety, minimum environmental impact and, as far as possible, on valorization of the waste and final recycling of the end products. One of the main trends of today's waste management policies is to reduce the stream of waste going to landfills and to recycle the organic material and the plant nutrients back to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments as well as future perspectives will be discussed. PMID:12747559

Ahring, Birgitte K

2003-01-01

231

[Anaerobic paraproctitis].  

PubMed

Anaerobic paraproctitis (AP) was seen in 8.6% of 1057 cases with acute paraproctitis. Severe general condition of the patient, vast damage, fetid wound secretion, extensive detachment and necrosis of tissues were the main AP symptoms. Radical excision of affected tissues with daily revision and sanatation in combination with intensive general therapy permits to reduce mortality to 4.3%. In early postoperative period reversible insufficiency of anal sphincter developed in 16.1% AP patients. It is necessary to close wounds as early as possible. Perforated cutaneous pedicle flap from posterior wall of the scrotum may be successfully used for plastic repair of perineum wound. PMID:12418322

Trenin, S O; Gel'fenbe?n, L S; Shishkov, A V

2002-01-01

232

Thermal hydrolysis integration in the anaerobic digestion process of different solid wastes: energy and economic feasibility study.  

PubMed

An economic assessment of thermal hydrolysis as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion has been achieved to evaluate its implementation in full-scale plants. Six different solid wastes have been studied, among them municipal solid waste (MSW). Thermal hydrolysis has been tested with batch lab-scale tests, from which an energy and economic assessment of three scenarios is performed: with and without energy integration (recovering heat to produce steam in a cogeneration plant), finally including the digestate management costs. Thermal hydrolysis has lead to an increase of the methane productions (up to 50%) and kinetics parameters (even double). The study has determined that a proper energy integration design could lead to important economic savings (5 €/t) and thermal hydrolysis can enhance up to 40% the incomes of the digestion plant, even doubling them when digestate management costs are considered. In a full-scale MSW treatment plant (30,000 t/year), thermal hydrolysis would provide almost 0.5 M€/year net benefits. PMID:24582388

Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Fdz-Polanco, M

2014-09-01

233

Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, November 16, 1986-November 15, 1987  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the growth and metabolism of Syntrophomonas wolfei in pure culture with crotonate as the energy source. S. wolfei grows in crotonate mineral salts medium without rumen fluid with cobalamin, thymine, lipoic acid and biotin added. However, after four to six transfers in this medium, growth ceases, indicating that another vitamin is required. The chemically defined medium allows large batches of S. wolfei to be grown for enzyme purification. All the enzymes involved in the oxidation of crotonyl-CoA to acetate have been detected. The pure culture of S. wolfei or coculture of S. wolfei grown with crotonate contain high activities of a crotonate: acetyl-CoA CoA-transferase activity. This activity is not detected in cocultures grown with butyrate. Thus, we believe that the reason why S. wolfei can now grow with crotonate is that an alteration or mutation occurred which allows the organism to activate this crotonate. S. wolfei also makes small amounts of H/sub 2/ when grown in pure culture with crotonate. A methyl viologen-dependent hydrogenase activity was found. We have also demonstrated the production of H/sub 2/ from 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA in cell-free extracts of S. wolfei by coupling H/sub 2/ production to CH/sub 4/ production with the addition of Methanobacterium bryantii and directly using a hydrogen electrode. These results clearly show that S. wolfei makes H/sub 2/. S. wolfei does not contain formate dehydrogenase or CO dehydrogenase activities.

McInerney, M.J.

1987-01-01

234

Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1? was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:24443561

Braga, Melissa; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Vergnes, Laurent; Pervin, Shehla; Grijalva, Victor; Stout, David; David, John; Li, Xinmin; Tomasian, Venina; Reid, Christopher B; Norris, Keith C; Devaskar, Sherin U; Reue, Karen; Singh, Rajan

2014-03-01

235

Canonical and new generation anticancer drugs also target energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Significant efforts have been made for the development of new anticancer drugs (protein kinase or proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal humanized antibodies) with presumably low or negligible side effects and high specificity. However, an in-depth analysis of the side effects of several currently used canonical (platin-based drugs, taxanes, anthracyclines, etoposides, antimetabolites) and new generation anticancer drugs as the first line of clinical treatment reveals significant perturbation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Canonical and new generation drug side effects include decreased (1) intracellular ATP levels, (2) glycolytic/mitochondrial enzyme/transporter activities and/or (3) mitochondrial electrical membrane potentials. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effects of these drugs are markedly attenuated in tumor rho (0) cells, in which functional mitochondria are absent; in addition, several anticancer drugs directly interact with isolated mitochondria affecting their functions. Therefore, several anticancer drugs also target the energy metabolism, and hence, the documented inhibitory effect of anticancer drugs on cancer growth should also be linked to the blocking of ATP supply pathways. These often overlooked effects of canonical and new generation anticancer drugs emphasize the role of energy metabolism in maintaining cancer cells viable and its targeting as a complementary and successful strategy for cancer treatment. PMID:24792321

Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Pacheco-Velázquez, Silvia C; López-Ramírez, Sayra Y; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

2014-07-01

236

Alternative energy systems for Puerto Rico : analysis and comparison of anaerobic waste digestion  

E-print Network

Energy prices in Puerto Rico are increasing constantly, making evident the need for alternative energy sources. Several methods to produce power have been developed as alternatives to burning petroleum, such as solar energy ...

Cuevas, Emil A. (Emil André Cuevas Meléndez)

2006-01-01

237

Regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton: osteocalcin and beyond.  

PubMed

The skeleton has recently emerged as an endocrine organ implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. This function of bone is mediated, at least in part, by osteocalcin, an osteoblast-derived protein acting as a hormone stimulating insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and energy expenditure. Osteocalcin secretion and bioactivity is in turn regulated by several hormonal cues including insulin, leptin, the sympathetic nervous system and glucocorticoids. Recent findings support the notion that osteocalcin functions and regulations are conserved between mice and humans. Moreover, studies in mice suggest that osteocalcin could represent a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on osteocalcin functions, its various modes of action and the mechanisms implicated in the control of this hormone. PMID:24893146

Ferron, Mathieu; Lacombe, Julie

2014-11-01

238

Adaptive Evolution of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism Genes Associated with Increased Energy Demand in Flying Insects  

PubMed Central

Insects are unique among invertebrates for their ability to fly, which raises intriguing questions about how energy metabolism in insects evolved and changed along with flight. Although physiological studies indicated that energy consumption differs between flying and non-flying insects, the evolution of molecular energy metabolism mechanisms in insects remains largely unexplored. Considering that about 95% of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation, we examined 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes to test whether adaptive evolution of energy metabolism-related genes occurred in insects. The analyses demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA protein-encoding genes are subject to positive selection from the last common ancestor of Pterygota, which evolved primitive flight ability. Positive selection was also found in insects with flight ability, whereas no significant sign of selection was found in flightless insects where the wings had degenerated. In addition, significant positive selection was also identified in the last common ancestor of Neoptera, which changed its flight mode from direct to indirect. Interestingly, detection of more positively selected genes in indirect flight rather than direct flight insects suggested a stronger selective pressure in insects having higher energy consumption. In conclusion, mitochondrial protein-encoding genes involved in energy metabolism were targets of adaptive evolution in response to increased energy demands that arose during the evolution of flight ability in insects. PMID:24918926

Yang, Yunxia; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Guo, Yan; Yang, Guang

2014-01-01

239

Of early animals, anaerobic mitochondria, and a modern sponge.  

PubMed

The origin and early evolution of animals marks an important event in life's history. This event is historically associated with an important variable in Earth history - oxygen. One view has it that an increase in oceanic oxygen levels at the end of the Neoproterozoic Era (roughly 600 million years ago) allowed animals to become large and leave fossils. How important was oxygen for the process of early animal evolution? New data show that some modern sponges can survive for several weeks at low oxygen levels. Many groups of animals have mechanisms to cope with low oxygen or anoxia, and very often, mitochondria - organelles usually associated with oxygen - are involved in anaerobic energy metabolism in animals. It is a good time to refresh our memory about the anaerobic capacities of mitochondria in modern animals and how that might relate to the ecology of early metazoans. PMID:25118050

Mentel, Marek; Röttger, Mayo; Leys, Sally; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

2014-10-01

240

CHAPTER TWO Vibrio fischeri Metabolism  

E-print Network

. fischeri Metabolic Pathways are Used in the Host? 49 4.1 Aerobic respiration 49 4.2 Anaerobic respiration: Fur and H-NOX 55 5.3 Anaerobic respiration: FNR 56 5.4 Acetate metabolism: LitR 57 5.5 Summary 57 6

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

241

J Neurochem . Author manuscript Impact of endogenous nitric oxide on microglial cell energy metabolism  

E-print Network

Transport Complex II ; Energy Metabolism ; physiology ; Enzyme Activation ; Interferon-gamma ; pharmacology used the murine BV-2 microglial cell line stimulated with -interferon and lipopolysaccharide to gain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

The SCFA Receptor GPR43 and Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Free fatty acids (FFAs) are essential nutrients and act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes via binding with FFA receptors. Of these receptors, GPR43 is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate). During feeding, SCFAs are produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, and these SCFAs become important energy sources for the host. The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Recently, GPR43 has been reported to regulate host energy homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissues. Hence, GPR43 is also thought to be a potential drug target for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, we summarize the identification, structure, and activities of GPR43, with a focus on host energy regulation, and present an essential overview of our current understanding of its physiological roles in host energy regulation that is mediated by gut microbiota. We also discuss the potential for GPR43 as a therapeutic target. PMID:24926285

Kimura, Ikuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Hirano, Kanako; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

2014-01-01

243

[Heart energy metabolism and its role in the treatment of heart failure].  

PubMed

It is unknown why heart failure progresses even when patients are treated with the best therapy available. Evidences suggest that heart failure progression is due to loss of neurohumoral blockade in advanced stages of the disease and to alterations in myocardial metabolism induced, in part, by this neurohumoral activation. Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism, especially those related to substrate utilization and insulin resistance, reduce the efficiency of energy production, causing a heart energy reserve deficit. These events play a basic role in heart failure progression. Therefore, modulation of cardiac metabolism has arisen as a promissory therapy in the treatment of heart failure. This review describes myocardial energy metabolism, evaluates the role of impaired energy metabolism in heart failure progression and describes new therapies for heart failure involving metabolic intervention. PMID:21140063

Castro, Pablo; Gabrielli, Luigi; Verdejo, Hugo; Greig, Douglas; Mellado, Rosemarie; Concepción, Roberto; Sepúlveda, Luis; Vukasovic, José Luis; García, Lorena; Pizarro, Marcela; Pivet, Deisy; Carrillo, Constanza; Tapia, Fabiola; Navarro, Mario; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Baraona, Fernando; Llevaneras, Silvana; Hernández, Claudia; Godoy, Iván; Jalil, Jorge E; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Orellana, Pilar; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

2010-08-01

244

Energy Metabolism During Diapause in Culex pipiens Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Diapause in overwintering adult female Culex pipiens mosquitoes plays an important role in the transmission of West Nile and other encephalitis-inducing flaviviruses. To investigate the dynamic metabolic processes that control Cx. pipiens diapause, we used radioactive tracer techniques with [14C]-glucose to investigate the metabolic fate and flux of glucose in adult mosquitoes reared under diapause (18°C, short day) and nondiapause (27°C, long day) conditions. We found that by 72 hours post-14C-labeling of 1-day-old mosquitoes, the diapause-destined mosquitoes had converted 46% more 14C-labled glucose into 14C-labled lipid than mosquitoes reared under nondiapausing conditions. When 5-day-old mosquitoes were fed [14C]-glucose, and then switched to water only, the nondiapausing mosquitoes oxidized nearly three times more 14C-labled glycogen and lipid by day 7 than diapausing mosquitoes. This increased energy expenditure in nondiapausing mosquitoes is most likely due to temperature- and light-dependent increases in the basal metabolic rate. Amongst the diapausing mosquitoes we analyzed over a subsequent 7 week period, we found that the amount of 14C-labeled glycogen decreased steadily for the first month of diapause, whereas, 14C-labeled-lipid levels were not significantly decreased until after day 35 of diapause, indicating that flux through glycogenolysis is higher than lipolysis during the first month of diapause. Lastly, our analysis revealed that 38% of the initial 14C-labled lipid that was synthesized during the adult pre-diapause phase was still present following the first gonotrophic cycle. About 33% of this remaining 14C-labeled lipid was localized to the newly developed eggs, suggesting that lipid sparing processes during a minimal 7 week long diapause may enhance egg production. PMID:18992753

Zhou, Guoli; Miesfeld, Roger L.

2009-01-01

245

Anaerobic thermophiles.  

PubMed

The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

246

Anaerobic Thermophiles  

PubMed Central

The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed.

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

247

Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic bacteria include diverse species that can grow at environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, substrate toxicity, or available free energy. The first evolved archaebacterial and eubacterial species appear to have been anaerobes adapted to high temperatures. Thermoanaerobes and their stable enzymes have served as model systems for basic and applied studies of microbial cellulose and starch degradation, methanogenesis, ethanologenesis, acetogenesis, autotrophic CO2 fixation, saccharidases, hydrogenases, and alcohol dehydrogenases. Anaerobes, unlike aerobes, appear to have evolved more energy-conserving mechanisms for physiological adaptation to environmental stresses such as novel enzyme activities and stabilities and novel membrane lipid compositions and functions. Anaerobic syntrophs do not have similar aerobic bacterial counterparts. The metabolic end products of syntrophs are potent thermodynamic inhibitors of energy conservation mechanisms, and they require coordinated consumption by a second partner organism for species growth. Anaerobes adapted to environmental stresses and their enzymes have biotechnological applications in organic waste treatment systems and chemical and fuel production systems based on biomass-derived substrates or syngas. These kinds of anaerobes have only recently been examined by biologists, and considerably more study is required before they are fully appreciated by science and technology. Images PMID:8336675

Lowe, S E; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

1993-01-01

248

Ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism in pygoscelid penguin chicks.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism of chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (P. papua) penguins was studied on King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. The major findings of this study are: Chinstrap and gentoo penguin chicks hatched completely poikilothermic, due to their poor heat-production ability at low ambient temperatures. They were able to maintain high body temperatures and metabolic rates only by being brooded by adults. Newly hatched chinstrap penguin chicks had, at a specified ambient temperature, significantly higher metabolic rates than newly hatched gentoos. Moreover, chinstrap chicks maintained a significantly higher body temperature. It is suggested that this is a non-acclimatory metabolic adaptation of chinstrap penguin chicks to the lower mean temperatures of their breeding areas. On the 15th day after hatching, chinstrap chicks were completely, and gentoo chicks almost completely, homeothermic. In spite of their high thermogenic capacity from about day 10, chicks were not at that time capable of controlling heat dissipation, and were still dependent on their parents. In older downy chicks and fledglings, heat loss at low temperatures, expressed as heat conductance (CA), was similar to that found for the adults of other penguin species. Just before moulting the CA of chicks was lower than after moulting. Moulting alone did not cause a clear increase in CA. Towards the end of their stay on land the CA of pre-fledged gentoos decreased by 31%. This decrease was not connected with the development of feathers or growth in the chicks' weight. The combination of the low CA and high SMR of chicks gave very low lower critical temperatures, near -15 degrees C. The wide thermoneutral zones of the chicks covered the whole range of air temperature variations in the breeding colonies of both species studied on King George Island. The CA values of homeothermic chinstrap chicks were not lower than those of gentoos, despite the more southern breeding range of the former species. The older chicks of both species are well protected against cold. Any further increase in insulation in chinstrap chicks would be of no adaptative importance. PMID:3837032

Taylor, J R

1985-01-01

249

Actions of juglone on energy metabolism in the rat liver  

SciTech Connect

Juglone is a phenolic compound used in popular medicine as a phytotherapic to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, it also acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated liver mitochondria and, thus, may interfere with the hepatic energy metabolism. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of juglone on several metabolic parameters in the isolated perfused rat liver. Juglone, in the concentration range of 5 to 50 {mu}M, stimulated glycogenolysis, glycolysis and oxygen uptake. Gluconeogenesis from both lactate and alanine was inhibited with half-maximal effects at the concentrations of 14.9 and 15.7 {mu}M, respectively. The overall alanine transformation was increased by juglone, as indicated by the stimulated release of ammonia, urea, L-glutamate, lactate and pyruvate. A great increase (9-fold) in the tissue content of {alpha}-ketoglutarate was found, without a similar change in the L-glutamate content. The tissue contents of ATP were decreased, but those of ADP and AMP were increased. Experiments with isolated mitochondria fully confirmed previous notions about the uncoupling action of juglone. It can be concluded that juglone is active on metabolism at relatively low concentrations. In this particular it resembles more closely the classical uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Ingestion of high doses of juglone, thus, presents the same risks as the ingestion of 2,4-dinitrophenol which comprise excessive compromising of ATP production, hyperthermia and even death. Low doses, i.e., moderate consumption of natural products containing juglone, however, could be beneficial to health if one considers recent reports about the consequences of chronic mild uncoupling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated how juglone acts on liver metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The actions on hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and ureogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Juglone stimulates glycolysis and ureagenesis and inhibits gluconeogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cellular ATP content is diminished. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Juglone can be consired a toxic compound for the cell economy.

Saling, Simoni Cristina; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Mito, Marcio Shigueaki; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar, E-mail: adebracht@uol.com.br

2011-12-15

250

Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation via Phenol in Geobacter metallireducens  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic activation of benzene is expected to represent a novel biochemistry of environmental significance. Therefore, benzene metabolism was investigated in Geobacter metallireducens, the only genetically tractable organism known to anaerobically degrade benzene. Trace amounts (<0.5 ?M) of phenol accumulated in cultures of Geobacter metallireducens anaerobically oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide with the reduction of Fe(III). Phenol was not detected in cell-free controls or in Fe(II)- and benzene-containing cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a Geobacter species that cannot metabolize benzene. The phenol produced in G. metallireducens cultures was labeled with 18O during growth in H218O, as expected for anaerobic conversion of benzene to phenol. Analysis of whole-genome gene expression patterns indicated that genes for phenol metabolism were upregulated during growth on benzene but that genes for benzoate or toluene metabolism were not, further suggesting that phenol was an intermediate in benzene metabolism. Deletion of the genes for PpsA or PpcB, subunits of two enzymes specifically required for the metabolism of phenol, removed the capacity for benzene metabolism. These results demonstrate that benzene hydroxylation to phenol is an alternative to carboxylation for anaerobic benzene activation and suggest that this may be an important metabolic route for benzene removal in petroleum-contaminated groundwaters, in which Geobacter species are considered to play an important role in anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:24096430

Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Smith, Jessica A.; Bain, Timothy S.; Lovley, Derek R.

2013-01-01

251

[Endocannabinoid system and energy metabolism: physiology and pathophysiology].  

PubMed

The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food intake and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The endocannabinoid system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptor and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake. Interestingly, the endocannabinoid system has recently been shown to control several metabolic functions by acting on peripheral tissues, such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, the skeletal muscles and the endocrine pancreas. The relevance of the system is further strengthened by the notion that visceral obesity seems to be a condition in which an overactivation of the endocannabinoid system occurs, therefore drugs interfering with this overactivation by blocking CB1 receptor are considered as valuable candidates for the treatment of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:18773754

Pagotto, Uberto; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

2008-04-01

252

Spermatozoa: models for studying regulatory aspects of energy metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells, and they offer advantages for studying several basic aspects of metabolic control such as the role of adenosine triphosphate-(ATP)-homeostasis for cell function, the mechanisms of fatigue and metabolic depression, the metabolic channelling through the cytoplasm and the organization and regulation of glycolytic enzymes. Spermatozoa of four species with different reproductive modes are, introduced and the

G. Kamp; G. Büsselmann; J. Lauterwein

1996-01-01

253

Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer: review and hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are often unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration, malignant brain cancer is potentially manageable through changes in metabolic environment. A radically different approach to brain cancer management is proposed that combines metabolic control analysis with the evolutionarily conserved capacity of normal

Thomas N Seyfried; Purna Mukherjee

2005-01-01

254

Treatment of Biogas Produced in Anaerobic Reactors for Domestic Wastewater: Odor Control and Energy\\/Resource Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic municipal wastewater treatment in developing countries has important potential applications considering their huge\\u000a lack of sanitation infrastructure and their advantageous climatic conditions. At present, among the obstacles that this technology\\u000a encounters, odor control and biogas utilization or disposal should be properly addressed. In fact, in most of small and medium\\u000a size anaerobic municipal treatment plants, biogas is just vented,

Adalberto Noyola; Juan Manuel Morgan-Sagastume; Jorge E. López-Hernández

2006-01-01

255

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: Breathing Circulating blood Controlling body temperature Contracting muscles Digesting food and nutrients Eliminating waste through urine and feces Functioning of the brain ...

256

Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.  

PubMed

Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

2013-11-01

257

[Energy metabolism of chicks at low environmental temperatures].  

PubMed

The daily energy metabolism of growing chickens for meat production (origin T 82) fed ad libitum was measured from the 5th up to the 65th day of life at environmental temperatures decreasing in the course of development (25, 20, 15, 15, 15, 10, 10, 5 and 5 degrees C, resp.). Further in each period the heat production was measured through a wide range of temperatures (Maximum 40 degrees C to 5 degrees C in steps of 5 K) by 30-minute short time measurements. The mean live weight of the chickens was 75 g at the beginning of the experiment and 3416 g (male) or 2952 g (female) at the end of the experiment. The digestibility of energy and nutrients was independent of the stage of development. On average the total efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy was 39.2 +/- 4.8% and the partial efficiency of utilization was 69.7 +/- 2.1%. 15-38% of the produced heat, caused by thermoregulation. The thermoneutral temperature decreased in the course of development from 35 to 18 degrees C and in the same way the thermoregulatory heat production decreased from 23 to 12 kJ/kg LW0.75.d.K. In the 2nd period the thermoregulatory heat production was extraordinarily high at an amount of 28 kJ/kg LW0.75.d.K. PMID:8512454

Hoffmann, L; Klein, M

1993-01-01

258

Use of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study the Effect of Cortical Magnesium and Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flow metabolism coupling ensures adequate cerebral oxygenation. When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs, the flow metabolism coupling lost its balance and results in cerebral ischemia and infarction second to cortical magnesium and energy metabolism alternation. During chronic vasospasm, change in cortical energy metabolism is coupled with change in cerebral blood flow after SAH. Methods: What kind of noninvasive technique can

Heping Yang; Xiangqi Tang; Lihua Tan; Liuwang Zeng; Zhiping Hu

2008-01-01

259

Effect of puuC overexpression and nitrate addition on glycerol metabolism and anaerobic 3-hydroxypropionic acid production in recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae ?glpK?dhaT.  

PubMed

3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), an industrially important platform chemical, is used as a precursor during the production of many commercially important chemicals. Recently, recombinant strains of K. pneumoniae overexpressing an NAD(+)-dependent ?-glutamyl-?-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (PuuC) enzyme of K. pneumoniae DSM 2026 were shown to produce 3-HP from glycerol without the addition coenzyme B(12), which is expensive. However, 3-HP production in K. pneumoniae is accompanied with NADH generation, and this always results in large accumulation of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) and lactic acid. In this study, we investigated the potential use of nitrate as an electron acceptor both to regenerate NAD(+) and to prevent the formation of byproducts during anaerobic production of 3-HP from glycerol. Nitrate addition could improve NAD(+) regeneration, but decreased glycerol flux towards 3-HP production. To divert more glycerol towards 3-HP, a novel recombinant strain K. pneumoniae ?glpK?dhaT (puuC) was developed by disrupting the glpK gene, which encodes glycerol kinase, and the dhaT gene, which encodes 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase. This strain showed improved cellular NAD(+) concentrations and a high carbon flux towards 3-HP production. Through anaerobic cultivation in the presence of nitrate, this recombinant strain produced more than 40±3mM 3-HP with more than 50% yield on glycerol in shake flasks and 250±10mM 3-HP with approximately 30% yield on glycerol in a fed-batch bioreactor. PMID:23022570

Ashok, Somasundar; Mohan Raj, Subramanian; Ko, Yeounjoo; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Zhou, Shengfang; Kumar, Vinod; Park, Sunghoon

2013-01-01

260

The metabolic and cognitive energy costs of stabilising a high-energy interlimb coordination task.  

PubMed

Kinematic (relative phase error), metabolic (oxygen consumption, heart rate) and attentional (baseline and cycling reaction times) variables were measured while participants practised a high energy-demanding, intrinsically unstable 90 degrees relative phase coordination pattern on independent bicycle ergometers. The variables were found to be strongly inter-correlated, suggesting a link between emerging performance stability with practice and minimal metabolic and attentional cost. The effects of practice of 90 degrees relative phase coordination on the performance of in-phase (0 degrees-phase) and antiphase (180 degrees-phase) coordination were investigated by measuring the relative phase attractor layouts and recording the metabolic and attentional cost of the three coordination patterns before and after practice. The attentional variables did not differ significantly between coordination patterns and did not change with practice. Before practice, the coordination performance was most accurate and stable for in-phase cycling, with antiphase next and 90 degrees-phase the poorest. However, metabolic cost was lower for antiphase than either in-phase or 90 degrees-phase cycling, and the pre-practice attractor layout deviated from that predicted on the basis of dynamic stability as an attractor state, revealing an attraction to antiphase cycling. After practice of 90 degrees-phase cycling, in-phase cycling remained the most accurate and stable, with 90 degrees-phase next and antiphase the poorest, but antiphase retained the lowest metabolic energy cost. The attractor layout had changed, with new attractors formed at the practised 90 degrees-phase pattern and its symmetrical partner of 270 degrees-phase. Considering both the pre- and post-practice results, attractors were formed at either a low metabolic energy cost but less stable (antiphase) pattern or at a more stable but higher metabolic energy cost (90 degrees-phase) pattern, but in neither case at the most stable and accurate (in-phase) pattern. The results suggest that energetic factors affect coordination dynamics and that coordination modes lower in metabolic energy expenditure may compete with dynamically stable modes. PMID:16337022

Lay, B S; Sparrow, W A; O'Dwyer, N J

2005-01-01

261

Glycerol: An unexpected major metabolite of energy metabolism by the human malaria parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a global health emergency, and yet our understanding of the energy metabolism of the principle causative agent of this devastating disease, Plasmodium falciparum, remains rather basic. Glucose was shown to be an essential nutritional requirement nearly 100 years ago and since this original observation, much of the current knowledge of Plasmodium energy metabolism is based on early

Lu-Yun Lian; Mohammed Al-Helal; Abd Majid Roslaini; Nicholas Fisher; Patrick G Bray; Stephen A Ward; Giancarlo A Biagini

2009-01-01

262

Evidence for a relationship between body mass and energy metabolism in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral energy metabolism has been suggested to have an important function in body weight regulation. We therefore examined whether there is a relationship between body mass and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism in the human brain. On the basis of our earlier findings indicating a neuroprotective preferential energy supply of the brain, as compared with peripheral muscle on experimentally induced hypoglycemia,

André Schmoller; Torben Hass; Olga Strugovshchikova; Uwe H Melchert; Harald G Scholand-Engler; Achim Peters; Ulrich Schweiger; Fritz Hohagen; Kerstin M Oltmanns

2010-01-01

263

Effects of Hypothermia on Energy Metabolism in Mammalian Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review analyzes, in some depth, results of studies on the effect of lowered temperatures on cerebral energy metabolism in animals under normal conditions and in some selected pathologic situations. In sedated and paralyzed mammals, acute uncomplicated 0.5- to 3-h hypothermia decreases the global cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) and oxygen (CMRO2) but maintains a slightly better energy level,

Maria Erecinska; Marianne Thoresen; Ian A. Silver

2003-01-01

264

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Solid Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues can be converted to methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of agricultural residues to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes that help digest dying plants in anaerobic conditions. Agricultural solid residues (ASR) represent a potential energy resource

Ayhan Demirbas; Temel Ozturk

2005-01-01

265

Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

2012-01-01

266

DESIGN OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM FOR ENERGY GENERATION FROM DAIRY WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Dairy waste was found to have a natural population of microorganisms capable of seeding an MFC. Dairy wastewater also proved to be a very effective substrate. Different graphite electrode materials provided varying levels of electrical energy generation, demonstrating with gr...

267

Effect of sulfonamides as carbonic anhydrase VA and VB inhibitors on mitochondrial metabolic energy conversion.  

PubMed

Obesity is quickly becoming an increasing problem in the developed world. One of the major fundamental causes of obesity and diabetes is mitochondria dysfunction due to faulty metabolic pathways which alter the metabolic substrate flux resulting in the development of these diseases. This paper examines the role of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes in the metabolism of pyruvate, acetate, and succinate when specific isozyme inhibitors are present. Using a sensitive electrochemical approach of wired mitochondria to analytically measure metabolic energy conversion, we determine the resulting metabolic difference after addition of an inhibitory compound. We found that certain sulfonamide analogues displayed broad spectrum inhibition of metabolism, where others only had significant effect on some metabolic pathways. Pyruvate metabolism always displayed the most dramatically affected metabolism by the sulfonamides followed by fatty acid metabolism, and then finally succinate metabolism. This allows for the possibility of using designed sulfonamide analogues to target specific mitochondrial CA isozymes in order to subtly shift metabolism and glucogenesis flux to treat obesity and diabetes. PMID:22854196

Arechederra, Robert L; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Supuran, Claudiu T; Minteer, Shelley D

2013-03-15

268

Adaptations of energy metabolism during cerebellar neurogenesis are co-opted in medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that metabolic patterns typical of cancer cells, including aerobic glycolysis and increased lipogenesis, are not unique to malignancy, but rather originate in physiologic development. In the postnatal brain, where sufficient oxygen for energy metabolism is scrupulously maintained, neural progenitors nevertheless metabolize glucose to lactate and prioritize lipid synthesis over fatty acid oxidation. Medulloblastoma, a cancer of neural progenitors that is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, recapitulates the metabolic phenotype of brain progenitor cells. During the physiologic proliferation of neural progenitors, metabolic enzymes generally associated with malignancy, including Hexokinase 2 (Hk2) and Pyruvate kinase M2 (PkM2) configure energy metabolism to support growth. In these non-malignant cells, expression of Hk2 and PkM2 is driven by transcriptional regulators that are typically identified as oncogenes, including N-myc. Importantly, N-myc continues to drive Hk2 and PkM2 in medulloblastoma. Similarly E2F transcription factors and PPAR? function in both progenitors and medulloblastoma to optimize energy metabolism to support proliferation. These findings show that the "metabolic transformation" that is a hallmark of cancer is not specifically limited to cancer. Rather, metabolic transformation represents a co-opting of developmental programs integral to physiologic growth. Despite their physiologic origins, the molecular mechanisms that mediate metabolic transformation may nevertheless present ideal targets for novel anti-tumor therapy. PMID:24569090

Tech, Katherine; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Gershon, Timothy R

2015-01-28

269

The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

2012-01-01

270

Gibbs energies of reaction and microbial mutualism in anaerobic deep subseafloor sediments of ODP Site 1226  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ Gibbs energies of reaction (? G) for acetate-oxidizing sulfate reduction, acetate-oxidizing iron reduction, and acetoclastic methanogenesis, and sulfate-reducing methanotrophy are consistently negative and relatively constant throughout most of the sediment column at the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1226. The energy yields (-? G) closely match the values (for acetate-oxidizing sulfate reduction and acetoclastic methanogenesis) in published culturing experiments with actively growing cells and, for sulfate-reducing methanotrophy, in other environments. Although microbes mediating these reactions compete for substrates, mutualistic interactions between them appear to sustain their co-existence in deep subseafloor sediments for millions of years (the interval over which the sediments have been deposited). These competing and mutualistic interactions collectively constitute a highly coupled reaction network where relative rates of reaction are regulated by the in situ Gibbs energies of reaction.

Wang, Guizhi; Spivack, Arthur J.; D'Hondt, Steven

2010-07-01

271

Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11  

SciTech Connect

Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe [Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi (Japan)

2007-09-15

272

Enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of meta-substituted halobenzoates.  

PubMed

Organohalides are environmentally relevant compounds that can be degraded by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The denitrifying Thauera chlorobenzoica is capable of degrading halobenzoates as sole carbon and energy source under anaerobic conditions. LC-MS/MS-based coenzyme A (CoA) thioester analysis revealed that 3-chloro- or 3-bromobenzoate were preferentially metabolized via non-halogenated CoA-ester intermediates of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. In contrast, 3-fluorobenzoate, which does not support growth, was converted to dearomatized fluorinated CoA ester dead-end products. Extracts from cells grown on 3-chloro-/3-bromobenzoate catalysed the Ti(III)-citrate- and ATP-dependent reductive dehalogenation of 3-chloro/3-bromobenzoyl-CoA to benzoyl-CoA, whereas 3-fluorobenzoyl-CoA was converted to a fluorinated cyclic dienoyl-CoA compound. The reductive dehalogenation reactions were identified as previously unknown activities of ATP-dependent class I benzoyl-CoA reductases (BCR) present in all facultatively anaerobic, aromatic compound degrading bacteria. A two-step dearomatization/H-halide elimination mechanism is proposed. A halobenzoate-specific carboxylic acid CoA ligase was characterized in T.?chlorobenzoica; however, no such enzyme is present in Thauera aromatica, which cannot grow on halobenzoates. In conclusion, it appears that the presence of a halobenzoate-specific carboxylic acid CoA ligase rather than a specific reductive dehalogenase governs whether an aromatic compound degrading anaerobe is capable of metabolizing halobenzoates. PMID:22010634

Kuntze, Kevin; Kiefer, Patrick; Baumann, Sven; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Vorholt, Julia A; Boll, Matthias

2011-11-01

273

The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic  

E-print Network

occurs naturally in landfills that contain organic waste, such as food scraps, paper products, and yardThe Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California, these energy alternatives could provide a number of benefits, including reducing the United States' dependence

Iglesia, Enrique

274

Anaerobic Electron Acceptor Chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shewanella putrefaciensMR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability

KENNETH H. NEALSON; DUANE P. MOSER; ANDDAAD A. SAFFARINI

1995-01-01

275

Municipal anaerobic digesters for codigestion, energy recovery, and greenhouse gas reductions.  

PubMed

Codigestion of five wastes and municipal wastewater sludge was evaluated using full-scale testing. Synergistic, antagonistic, and neutral outcomes were observed depending on codigestate identity and concentration, highlighting the value of careful blending. Yeast waste resulted in notable synergism, increasing biogas production by over 50%, whereas aircraft deicing waste resulted in antagonism at high loadings and neutral outcomes at lower loadings. Restaurant waste codigestion resulted in neutral outcomes. The synergisim with yeast codigestates may have resulted from trace nutrients (i.e., iron, nickel, and cobalt) in the wastes that increased microbiological activity. Antagonist outcomes with deicing waste may have been the result of organic overload or inhibitory deicer constituents. Codigestion of wastes at the feed rates investigated was estimated to produce 0.50 ML/d of methane having an energy equivalent of 17 500 MJ/d. This was estimated to reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by 560 tonnes/y. PMID:18419011

Zitomer, Daniel H; Adhikari, Prasoon; Heisel, Craig; Dineen, Dennis

2008-03-01

276

Metabolic costs of growth in free-living Garter Snakes and the energy budgets of ectotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The metabolic or respiratory cost of growth ( RG) is the increase in metabolic rate of a growing animal, and it represents chemical potential energy expended in support of net biosynthesis but not deposited as new tissue. 2. Two statistical methods (multiple non-linear regression and analysis of regression residuals) were used to calculate RG from data (n =

C. C. Peterson; B. M. Walton; A. F. Bennett

1999-01-01

277

Teaching Energy Metabolism Using Scientific Articles: Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work describes the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) applied to the biochemistry class for undergraduate, first-year medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The course focused on the integration of energy metabolism, exploring metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as…

de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Giannella, Tais Rabetti; Struchiner, Miriam; da Silva, Wagner S.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2010-01-01

278

Enhanced Energy Metabolism Contributes to the Extended Life Span of Calorie-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans*  

PubMed Central

Caloric restriction (CR) markedly extends life span and improves the health of a broad number of species. Energy metabolism fundamentally contributes to the beneficial effects of CR, but the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for this effect remain enigmatic. A multidisciplinary approach that involves quantitative proteomics, immunochemistry, metabolic quantification, and life span analysis was used to determine how CR, which occurs in the Caenorhabditis elegans eat-2 mutants, modifies energy metabolism of the worm, and whether the observed modifications contribute to the CR-mediated physiological responses. A switch to fatty acid metabolism as an energy source and an enhanced rate of energy metabolism by eat-2 mutant nematodes were detected. Life span analyses validated the important role of these previously unknown alterations of energy metabolism in the CR-mediated longevity of nematodes. As observed in mice, the overexpression of the gene for the nematode analog of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase caused a marked extension of the life span in C. elegans, presumably by enhancing energy metabolism via an altered rate of cataplerosis of tricarboxylic acid cycle anions. We conclude that an increase, not a decrease in fuel consumption, via an accelerated oxidation of fuels in the TCA cycle is involved in life span regulation; this mechanism may be conserved across phylogeny. PMID:22810224

Yuan, Yiyuan; Kadiyala, Chandra S.; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hakimi, Parvin; Saha, Sudipto; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Chao; Mullangi, Vennela; Wang, Liwen; Fivenson, Elayne; Hanson, Richard W.; Ewing, Rob; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Miyagi, Masaru; Feng, Zhaoyang

2012-01-01

279

Feasibility and strategies for anaerobic digestion of solid waste for energy production in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania, the most serious solid waste management problem currently is disposal, but since the largest fraction of the waste is organics which are amenable to anaerobic digestion and composting, it makes environmental and economic sense to explore these options. This prompted the conception of the Taka (waste) Gas Project which is meant to utilise organic solid waste from Dar

Stephen E Mbuligwe; Gabriel R Kassenga

2004-01-01

280

CO sub 2 incorporation and 4-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid formation during anaerobic metabolism of m-cresol by a methanogenic consortium  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of m-cresol by methanogenic cultures enriched from domestic sewage sludge was investigated. In the initial studies, bromoethanesulfonic acid was used to inhibit methane production. This led to the accumulation of 4.0 {+-} 0.8 mol of acetate per mol of m-cresol metabolized. These results suggested that CO{sub 2} incorporation occurred because each molecule of m-cresol contained seven carbon atoms, whereas four molecules of acetate product contained a total of eight carbon atoms. To verify this, ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate was added to bromoethanesulfonic acid-inhibited cultures, and those cultures yielded ({sup 14}C)acetate. Of the label recovered as acetate, 89% was found in the carboxyl position. Similar cultures fed (methyl-{sup 14}C)m-cresol yielded methyl-labeled acetate. A {sup 14}C-labeled transient intermediate was detected in cultures given either m-cresol and ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate or bicarbonate and (methyl-{sup 14}C)m-cresol. The intermediate was identified as 4-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid. In addition, another metabolite was detected and identified as 2-methylbenzoic acid. This compound appeared to be produced only sporadically, and it accumulated in the medium, suggested that the dehydroxylation of 4-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid led to an apparent dead-end product.

Roberts, D.J.; Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1990-02-01

281

Energy metabolism and fertility--a balance preserved for female health.  

PubMed

In female animals, energy metabolism and fertility are tightly connected, and reciprocally regulated. However, the relative contributions of metabolic and reproductive pathways have changed over the course of evolution. In oviparous animals, metabolic factors take precedence over fertility, enabling egg production to be inhibited in a nutritionally poor environment. By contrast, in placental mammals, the opposite occurs: the need to feed a developing embryo and neonate forces metabolic pathways to adapt to these reproductive needs. This physiological necessity explains why in female mammals alterations of gonadal activity, including age-dependent cessation of ovarian functions, are associated with a disruption of metabolic homeostasis and consequent inflammatory reactions that trigger the onset of metabolic, cardiovascular, skeletal and neural pathologies. This Review discusses how metabolic homeostasis and reproductive functions interact to optimize female fertility and explains the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disordered energy metabolism associated with human ovarian dysfunction owing to menopause, polycystic ovary syndrome and Turner syndrome. Finally, this article highlights how hormone replacement therapy might aid the restoration of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunction. PMID:24146033

Della Torre, Sara; Benedusi, Valeria; Fontana, Roberta; Maggi, Adriana

2014-01-01

282

Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field-and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements-we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia). Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE) are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR). RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species. PMID:23789108

Elliott, Kyle H; Welcker, Jorg; Gaston, Anthony J; Hatch, Scott A; Palace, Vince; Hare, James F; Speakman, John R; Anderson, W Gary

2013-06-15

283

Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds  

PubMed Central

Summary Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia). Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE) are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR). RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species. PMID:23789108

Elliott, Kyle H.; Welcker, Jorg; Gaston, Anthony J.; Hatch, Scott A.; Palace, Vince; Hare, James F.; Speakman, John R.; Anderson, W. Gary

2013-01-01

284

The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

1990-01-01

285

Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure culture studies. Our recent work has extended the study of hydrogen to cyanobacterial mat communities. The large amounts of reducing power generated during photosynthetic activity carry the potential to contribute a swamping term to the H2 economy of the anaerobic microbial populations within the mat - and thereby to alter the population structure and biogeochemical function of the mat as a whole. In hypersaline microbial mats, we observe a distinct diel cycle in H2 production and a substantial corresponding flux. On an early Earth dominated by microbial mats, this transmission of photosynthetic reducing power may have carried important implications for both biospheric and atmospheric evolution.

Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

286

Energy Metabolism and Drug Efflux in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The inherent drug susceptibility of microorganisms is determined by multiple factors, including growth state, the rate of drug diffusion into and out of the cell, and the intrinsic vulnerability of drug targets with regard to the corresponding antimicrobial agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality, further exacerbated by its ability to readily evolve drug resistance. It is well accepted that drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is driven by the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in genes encoding drug targets/promoter regions; however, a comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms that fuel drug resistance in the clinical setting is currently lacking. In this context, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that active extrusion of drugs from the cell is critical for drug tolerance. M. tuberculosis encodes representatives of a diverse range of multidrug transporters, many of which are dependent on the proton motive force (PMF) or the availability of ATP. This suggests that energy metabolism and ATP production through the PMF, which is established by the electron transport chain (ETC), are critical in determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. In this review, we detail advances in the study of the mycobacterial ETC and highlight drugs that target various components of the ETC. We provide an overview of some of the efflux pumps present in M. tuberculosis and their association, if any, with drug transport and concomitant effects on drug resistance. The implications of inhibiting drug extrusion, through the use of efflux pump inhibitors, are also discussed. PMID:24614376

Black, Philippa A.; Warren, Robin M.; Louw, Gail E.; van Helden, Paul D.; Victor, Thomas C.

2014-01-01

287

Energy metabolism and drug efflux in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The inherent drug susceptibility of microorganisms is determined by multiple factors, including growth state, the rate of drug diffusion into and out of the cell, and the intrinsic vulnerability of drug targets with regard to the corresponding antimicrobial agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality, further exacerbated by its ability to readily evolve drug resistance. It is well accepted that drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is driven by the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in genes encoding drug targets/promoter regions; however, a comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms that fuel drug resistance in the clinical setting is currently lacking. In this context, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that active extrusion of drugs from the cell is critical for drug tolerance. M. tuberculosis encodes representatives of a diverse range of multidrug transporters, many of which are dependent on the proton motive force (PMF) or the availability of ATP. This suggests that energy metabolism and ATP production through the PMF, which is established by the electron transport chain (ETC), are critical in determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. In this review, we detail advances in the study of the mycobacterial ETC and highlight drugs that target various components of the ETC. We provide an overview of some of the efflux pumps present in M. tuberculosis and their association, if any, with drug transport and concomitant effects on drug resistance. The implications of inhibiting drug extrusion, through the use of efflux pump inhibitors, are also discussed. PMID:24614376

Black, Philippa A; Warren, Robin M; Louw, Gail E; van Helden, Paul D; Victor, Thomas C; Kana, Bavesh D

2014-05-01

288

Interaction of acute changes in exercise energy expenditure and energy intake on resting metabolic rate.  

PubMed

The effects on resting metabolic rate (RMR) of energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were examined in eight trained men under four conditions: 1) high energy flux (HF), 90 min of exercise at 75% VO2max on 3 d while in energy balance; 2) low energy flux (LF), no exercise for 3 d while in energy balance; 3) negative energy balance (NEB), exercise on 3 d while consuming low-flux meals; and 4) positive energy balance (PEB), no exercise for 2 d while consuming high-flux meals. Eight untrained men were studied in LF. There were effects of exercise energy expenditure and energy intake on RMR, and an exercise x diet interaction (P < 0.05). RMR was greater in trained than in untrained subjects only when trained subjects were in HF. These data indicate that RMR is influenced by exercise, energy intake, and their interaction and suggest that higher RMR in trained vs untrained individuals results from acute effects of HF rather than from a chronic adaptation to exercise training. PMID:7872209

Bullough, R C; Gillette, C A; Harris, M A; Melby, C L

1995-03-01

289

Indirect calorimetry is a commonly used method for estimating an animal's metabolic energy expenditure based on  

E-print Network

Indirect calorimetry is a commonly used method for estimating an animal's metabolic energy. Historically, indirect calorimetry has relied largely upon measurements of oxygen consumption Determination of animal power consumption by indirect calorimetry relies upon accurate estimation of the thermal

Wolf, Blair O.

290

Energy, substrate and protein metabolism in morbid obesity before, during and after massive weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of surgically induced weight loss on energy, substrate and protein metabolism of morbidly obese patients.DESIGN: A prospective, clinical intervention study of morbidly obese patients before and after surgical treatment.SUBJECTS: Eight morbidly obese patients (BMI 47.88±7.03).METHODS: Total energy expenditure (TEE; doubly labeled water method), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR; respiration chamber), body composition (deuterium oxide component of

WG van Gemert; KR Westerterp; BAC van Acker; AJM Wagenmakers; D Halliday; JM Greve; PB Soeters

2000-01-01

291

Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

1995-01-01

292

The endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis and the etiopathology of metabolic disorders.  

PubMed

Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid CB1 receptors are known to play a generalized role in energy homeostasis. However, clinical trials with the first generation of CB1 blockers, now discontinued due to psychiatric side effects, were originally designed to reduce food intake and body weight rather than the metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. In this review, we discuss how, in addition to promoting energy intake, endocannabinoids control lipid and glucose metabolism in several peripheral organs, particularly the liver and adipose tissue. Direct actions in skeletal muscle and pancreas are also emerging. This knowledge may help in the design of future therapies for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23562074

Silvestri, Cristoforo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2013-04-01

293

In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism. PMID:23412419

Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Sakadzic, Sava; Wu, Weicheng; Becker, Wolfgang; Kasischke, Karl A.; Boas, David A.

2013-01-01

294

Boron affects energy metabolism in the streptozotocin-injected, vitamin D3-deprived rat.  

PubMed

Dietary boron, in amounts usually found in human diets comprised mainly of fruits and vegetables, apparently affects both mineral and energy metabolism. Therefore, the effects of boron on a model system with a perturbed metabolic insulin-vitamin D3 axis was examined. Weanling male rats were fed a ground corn-high protein casein-corn oil-based diet (0.06 micrograms B/g and no supplemental vitamin D3) supplemented with B (as orthoboric acid) at 0 or 2.4 mg/kg. After 55 days, all rats were equilibrated in individual metabolic cages. After another 6 days, one half of the rats in both dietary groups were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (STZ). All rats were killed 3 days after STZ treatment. STZ affected many aspects of energy metabolism. In the non-STZ rats, supplemental dietary boron substantially depressed plasma insulin, plasma pyruvate concentrations, and creatine kinase activity and increased plasma thyroxine (T4) concentrations. The finding that boron did not affect growth, but did affect several indices of energy metabolism in the non-STZ animals suggests that boron functions as a regulator of energy metabolism in the rat. A decrease in plasma aspartate transaminase activity (an indicator of enhanced cell membrane integrity) in the non-STZ rats suggests that boron exerts a protective influence over normal liver metabolism. PMID:1669021

Hunt, C D; Herbel, J L

295

The Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism of Marine Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved. PMID:24957995

Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

2013-01-01

296

The central carbon and energy metabolism of marine diatoms.  

PubMed

Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved. PMID:24957995

Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

2013-01-01

297

Metabolic Plasticity and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the hypoxic niches can both self-renew and give rise to progeny. Multiple regulatory mechanisms for these cellular processes have been identified. Emerging evidence has revealed that metabolism and bioenergetics play important roles in determining stem cell fate in concert with other regulatory networks. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in this field. Recent findings Recent studies have helped define and redefine metabolic regulation of HSCs. Resting quiescent stem cells use primarily anaerobic glycolysis for energy production and this metabolic program is required to maintain a functional quiescent state. However, when they exit this state and rapidly proliferate and differentiate into different blood cell types, a robust upregulation of energy metabolism is expected to meet the quickly rising energy demand. Dysregulation of metabolism in HSCs results in various blood disorders, including leukemia. Summary Energy metabolism and HSC activity influence and interlink each other in a highly sophisticated and orchestrated manner. Understanding metabolic regulation of HSC function has significant implications for HSC-based therapies and leukemogenesis research. PMID:23615055

Hsu, Peter; Qu, Cheng-Kui

2013-01-01

298

Assessing Risk Factors for Obesity Between Childhood and Adolescence: II. Energy Metabolism and Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the effect of energy expenditure, including resting metabolic rate (RMR), to- tal energy expenditure (TEE), and activity energy expen- diture (AEE), as well as substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient (RQ)), on the development of obesity in a large cohort of Native American children with a high propen- sity for obesity. Methods. During the summer months of 1992 to

Arline D. Salbe; Christian Weyer; Inge Harper; Robert S. Lindsay; Eric Ravussin; P. Antonio Tataranni

299

Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to

B. Chen; G. Q. Chen

2009-01-01

300

Methodological and metabolic considerations in the study of caffeine-containing energy drinks.  

PubMed

Caffeine-containing energy drinks are popular and widely available beverages. Despite large increases in consumption, studies documenting the nutritional, metabolic, and health implications of these beverages are limited. This review provides some important methodological considerations in the examination of these drinks and highlights their potential impact on the gastrointestinal system, liver, and metabolic health. The gastrointestinal system is important as it comes into contact with the highest concentration of energy drink ingredients and initiates a chain of events to communicate with peripheral tissues. Although energy drinks have diverse compositions, including taurine, ginseng, and carnitine, the most metabolically deleterious ingredients appear to be simple sugars (such as glucose and fructose) and caffeine. In combination, these last two ingredients have the greatest metabolic impact and potential influence on overall health. PMID:25293552

Shearer, Jane

2014-10-01

301

Endocarditis due to Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of endocarditis due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of endocarditis. Most cases of anaerobic endocarditis are caused by anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes and Bacteroides fragilis group. Predisposing factors and signs and symptoms of endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria are similar to those seen in endocarditis with

Itzhak Brook

2002-01-01

302

THERMOREGULATION AND ENERGY METABOLISM IN THE NEONATAL PIG  

E-print Network

of colostrum is associated with a conside- rable increase in the metabolic rate wich contributes to maintenance temperature are closely related to the level of colostrum intake. Failure to provide an adequate thermal environment reduces colostrum intake in the neonatal pig with corresponding effects on the development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1997-04-01

304

Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.  

PubMed

The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-10-15

305

Unique metabolic features of stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and their progenitors.  

PubMed

Recently, growing attention has been directed toward stem cell metabolism, with the key observation that the plasticity of stem cells also reflects the plasticity of their energy substrate metabolism. There seems to be a clear link between the self-renewal state of stem cells, in which cells proliferate without differentiation, and the activity of specific metabolic pathways. Differentiation is accompanied by a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic switch of differentiating stem cells is required to cover the energy demands of the different organ-specific cell types. Among other metabolic signatures, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism is most prominent in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, whereas the fatty acid metabolic signature is unique in cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells. Identifying the specific metabolic pathways involved in pluripotency and differentiation is critical for further progress in the field of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. The recently generated knowledge on metabolic key processes may help to generate mature stem cell-derived somatic cells for therapeutic applications without the requirement of genetic manipulation. In the present review, the literature about metabolic features of stem cells and their cardiovascular cell derivatives as well as the specific metabolic gene signatures differentiating between stem and differentiated cells are summarized and discussed. PMID:24723659

Gaspar, John Antonydas; Doss, Michael Xavier; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Cadenas, Cristina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sachinidis, Agapios

2014-04-11

306

Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

Yasuda, Kayo [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan) [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Hartman, Philip S. [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)] [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ishii, Takamasa [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Suda, Hitoshi [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan)] [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Akatsuka, Akira [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Shoyama, Tetsuji [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan)] [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Miyazawa, Masaki [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Ishii, Naoaki, E-mail: nishii@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

2011-01-21

307

Energy requirements and metabolism of the Phillip's dikdik (Madoqua saltiana phillipsi).  

PubMed

Basal metabolic rates in mammals are mainly determined by body mass, but also by ecological factors. Some mammalian species inhabiting hot, dry environments were found to have lower metabolic rates compared to temperate species. We studied energy metabolism in Phillip's dikdik (Madoqua saltiana phillipsi), a small antelope inhabiting xeric shrubland habitats in the Eastern 'horn' of Africa, and compared results to literature data. We measured body mass (BM) changes and digestibility in 12 adults kept on different food intake levels to determine, by extrapolation to zero BM change, maintenance energy requirements (MEm) for metabolizable energy (ME). The MEm averaged at 404±20kJMEkgBM(-0.75)d(-1). In addition we conducted 24h-chamber respirometry with seven fed (non-fasted) individuals. Their mean metabolic rate as calculated from oxygen consumption was 403±51kJkgBM(-0.75)d(-1), corroborating the results of the feeding experiments. Selecting the 20 lowest values of the respiration measurement period to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) resulted in a mean RMR of 244±39kJkgBM(-0.75)d(-1), which was not significantly lower than the expected basal metabolic rate of 293kJkgBM(-0.75)d(-1). Therefore, resting metabolism was similar to the expected average basal metabolism of a mammal of this size, which suggests a comparatively low metabolic rate in dikdiks. Compared to literature data Phillip's dikdiks have a MEm similar to measurements reported for small domestic ruminants, but considerably lower than those reported for other wild ruminant species inhabiting temperate and cold climates. PMID:24095724

Dittmann, Marie T; Hebel, Christiana; Hammer, Sven; Hummel, Jürgen; Ortmann, Sylvia; Arif, Abdi; Bouts, Tim; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

2014-01-01

308

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

309

Anaerobic digestion of cattail by rumen cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic digestion of aquatic plants could serve the dual roles for producing renewable energy and reducing waste. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of cattail (Typha latifolia linn), a lignocellulosic aquatic plant, by rumen microorganisms in batch cultures was investigated. At a substrate level of 12.4g\\/l volatile solids (VS) and pH 6.7, maximum VS conversion of 66% was achieved

Zhen-Hu Hu; Han-Qing Yu

2006-01-01

310

ENERGY METABOLISM OF DRAGONFLIES (ODONATA: ANISOPTERA) AT REST AND DURING ENDOTHERMIC WARM-UP  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Energy metabolism at rest and during pre-flight warm-up was measured in a variety of anisopterous dragonflies. 2. Resting oxygen consumption was similar in its relation to body temperature (Tb) and body mass to that of other insects. At 30 °C, log M = 0-91 log 771 + 0-44, where M is metabolism (W) and m is body mass

MICHAEL L. MAY

1979-01-01

311

Energy metabolism and metabolic sensors in stem cells: the metabostem crossroads of aging and cancer.  

PubMed

We are as old as our adult stem cells are; therefore, stem cell exhaustion is considered a hallmark of aging. Our tumors are as aggressive as the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) they bear because CSCs can survive treatments with hormones, radiation, chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted drugs, thus increasing the difficulty of curing cancer. Not surprisingly, interest in stem cell research has never been greater among members of the public, politicians, and scientists. But how can we slow the rate at which our adult stem cells decline over our lifetime, reducing the regenerative potential of tissues, while efficiently eliminating the aberrant, life-threatening activity of "selfish", immortal, and migrating CSCs? Frustrated by the gene-centric limitations of conventional approaches to aging diseases, our group and other groups have begun to appreciate that bioenergetic metabolism, i.e., the production of fuel & building blocks for growth and division, and autophagy/mitophagy, i.e., the quality-control, self-cannibalistic system responsible for "cleaning house" and "recycling the trash", can govern the genetic and epigenetic networks that facilitate stem cell behaviors. Indeed, it is reasonable to suggest the existence of a "metabostem" infrastructure that operates as a shared hallmark of aging and cancer, thus making it physiologically plausible to maintain or even increase the functionality of adult stem cells while reducing the incidence of cancer and extending the lifespan. This "metabostemness" property could lead to the discovery of new drugs that reprogram cell metabotypes to increase the structural and functional integrity of adult stem cells and positively influence their lineage determination, while preventing the development and aberrant function of stem cells in cancer tissues. While it is obvious that the antifungal antibiotic rapamycin, the polyphenol resveratrol, and the biguanide metformin already belong to this new family of metabostemness-targeting drugs, we can expect a rapid identification of new drug candidates (e.g., polyphenolic xenohormetins) that reverse or postpone "geroncogenesis", i.e., aging-induced metabolic decline as a driver of tumorigenesis, at the stem cell level. PMID:25038997

Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

2014-01-01

312

Effect of an extract of Ginkgo biloba on rat brain energy metabolism in hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine brain energy metabolism under hypoxic conditions as influenced by an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB). Male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with EGB were exposed to hypobaric or hypoxic hypoxia, and at various time points during or after hypoxia the levels of high-energy phosphates and some substrates of glycolysis were measured in brain

L. Karcher; P. Zagermann; J. Krieglstein

1984-01-01

313

Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing  

PubMed Central

Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

2009-01-01

314

Adenylate kinase and AMP signaling networks: metabolic monitoring, signal communication and body energy sensing.  

PubMed

Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

2009-04-01

315

Energy Metabolism during Anchorage-Independence. Induction by Osteopontin-c  

PubMed Central

The detachment of epithelial cells, but not cancer cells, causes anoikis due to reduced energy production. Invasive tumor cells generate three splice variants of the metastasis gene osteopontin, the shortest of which (osteopontin-c) supports anchorage-independence. Osteopontin-c signaling upregulates three interdependent pathways of the energy metabolism. Glutathione, glutamine and glutamate support the hexose monophosphate shunt and glycolysis and can feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, leading to mitochondrial ATP production. Activation of the glycerol phosphate shuttle also supports the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Drawing substrates from glutamine and glycolysis, the elevated creatine may be synthesized from serine via glycine and supports the energy metabolism by increasing the formation of ATP. Metabolic probing with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-glutamate, or glycerol identified differential regulation of the pathway components, with mitochondrial activity being redox dependent and the creatine pathway depending on glutamine. The multiple skewed components in the cellular metabolism synergize in a flow toward two mechanisms of ATP generation, via creatine and the respiratory chain. It is consistent with a stimulation of the energy metabolism that supports anti-anoikis. Our findings imply a coalescence in cancer cells between osteopontin-a, which increases the cellular glucose levels, and osteopontin-c, which utilizes this glucose to generate energy. PMID:25157961

Shi, Zhanquan; Wang, Bo; Chihanga, Tafadzwa; Kennedy, Michael A.; Weber, Georg F.

2014-01-01

316

Metabolic flux and robustness analysis of glycerol metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the mechanism of flux distribution will benefit understanding cell physiology and regulation of metabolism. In this study, the measured fluxes obtained under steady-state conditions were used to estimate intracellular fluxes and identify the robustness of branch points of the anaerobic glycerol metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae for the production of 1,3-propanediol by metabolic flux analysis. The biomass concentration increased as NADH(2)/NAD(+) decreased at low initial concentration and inversed at high initial glycerol concentration. The flux distribution revealed that the branch points of glycerol and dihydroxyacetonephosphate were rigid to the environmental conditions. However, the pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A metabolisms gave cells the flexibility to regulate the energy and intermediate fluxes under various environmental conditions. Additionly, it was found that the formation rate of ethanol and the ratio of pyruvate dehydrogenase to pyruvate formate lyase appeared visible fluctuations at high glycerol uptake rate. PMID:17713793

Zhang, Qingrui; Teng, Hu; Sun, Yaqin; Xiu, Zhilong; Zeng, Anping

2008-02-01

317

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

318

Rhodanese Functions as Sulfur Supplier for Key Enzymes in Sulfur Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus. PMID:22496367

Aussignargues, Clement; Giuliani, Marie-Cecile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese; Ilbert, Marianne

2012-01-01

319

Doctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for  

E-print Network

highlighting microbial community shifts in the bioreactor and biofilm during changes in membrane foulingDoctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Energy Recovery from Domestic such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are emerging as one option to recover energy during domestic

Kamat, Vineet R.

320

Anaerobic biodegradation of Para -cresol under three reducing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic degradation ofp-cresol was studied with one sediment source under three reducing conditions—denitrifying, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic.\\u000a Loss ofp-cresol (1 mM) in all the anaerobic systems took initially 3 to 4 weeks. In acclimated culturesp-cresol was degraded in less than a week.p-Cresol was completely metabolized under denitrifying, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic conditions, with formation of nitrogen\\u000a gas, loss of sulfate, and

Max M. Häggblom; Maria D. Rivera; Ingeborg D. Bossert; John E. Rogers; L. Y. Young

1990-01-01

321

Participation of the central melanocortin system in metabolic regulation and energy homeostasis.  

PubMed

Obesity and metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, have attracted considerable attention as life-threatening diseases not only in developed countries but also worldwide. Additionally, the rate of obesity in young people all over the world is rapidly increasing. Accumulated evidence suggests that the central nervous system may participate in the development of and/or protection from obesity. For example, in the brain, the hypothalamic melanocortin system senses and integrates central and peripheral metabolic signals and controls the degree of energy expenditure and feeding behavior, in concert with metabolic status, to regulate whole-body energy homeostasis. Currently, researchers are studying the mechanisms by which peripheral metabolic molecules control feeding behavior and energy balance through the central melanocortin system. Accordingly, recent studies have revealed that some inflammatory molecules and transcription factors participate in feeding behavior and energy balance by controlling the central melanocortin pathway, and have thus become new candidates as therapeutic targets to fight metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:24894870

Jeong, Jin Kwon; Kim, Jae Geun; Lee, Byung Ju

2014-10-01

322

The AMPK ?2 subunit is required for energy homeostasis during metabolic stress.  

PubMed

AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the regulatory network responsible for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis during exercise or nutrient deprivation. To understand the function of the regulatory ?2 subunit of AMPK in systemic energy metabolism, we characterized ?2 subunit-deficient mice. Using these mutant mice, we demonstrated that the ?2 subunit plays an important role in regulating glucose, glycogen, and lipid metabolism during metabolic stress. The ?2 mutant animals failed to maintain euglycemia and muscle ATP levels during fasting. In addition, ?2-deficient animals showed classic symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD), and were unable to maintain muscle ATP levels during exercise. Cell surface-associated glucose transporter levels were reduced in skeletal muscle from ?2 mutant animals on an HFD. In addition, they displayed poor exercise performance and impaired muscle glycogen metabolism. These mutant mice had decreased activation of AMPK and deficits in PGC1?-mediated transcription in skeletal muscle. Our results highlight specific roles of AMPK complexes containing the ?2 subunit and suggest the potential utility of AMPK isoform-specific pharmacological modulators for treatment of metabolic, cardiac, and neurological disorders. PMID:22586267

Dasgupta, Biplab; Ju, Jeong Sun; Sasaki, Yo; Liu, Xiaona; Jung, Su-Ryun; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Lindquist, Diana; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

2012-07-01

323

Solar-powered aeration and disinfection, anaerobic co-digestion, biological CO2 scrubbing and biofuel production: the energy and carbon management opportunities of waste stabilisation ponds.  

PubMed

Waste stabilisation pond (WSP) technology offers some important advantages and interesting possibilities when viewed in the light of sustainable energy and carbon management. Pond systems stand out as having significant advantages due to simple construction; low (or zero) operating energy requirements; and the potential for bio-energy generation. Conventional WSP requires little or no electrical energy for aerobic treatment as a result of algal photosynthesis. Sunlight enables WSP to disinfect wastewaters very effectively without the need for any chemicals or electricity consumption and their associated CO(2) emissions. The energy and carbon emission savings gained over electromechanical treatment systems are immense. Furthermore, because algal photosynthesis consumes CO(2), WSP can be utilised as CO(2) scrubbers. The environmental and financial benefits of pond technology broaden further when considering the low-cost, energy production opportunities of anaerobic ponds and the potential of algae as a biofuel. As we assess future best practice in wastewater treatment technology, perhaps one of the greatest needs is an improved consideration of the carbon footprint and the implications of future increases in the cost of electricity and the value of biogas. PMID:18653962

Shilton, A N; Mara, D D; Craggs, R; Powell, N

2008-01-01

324

Metabolic Myopathies  

MedlinePLUS

... muscles. [Metabolism refers to chemical reactions that provide energy and nutrients, or substances necessary for health and ... occur when muscle cells don’t get enough energy. Without enough energy, the muscle lacks enough fuel ...

325

Influence of NO-Containing Gas Flow on Various Parameters of Energy Metabolism in Erythrocytes.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of NO-containing gas phase on some parameters of energy metabolism in human erythrocytes. Whole blood samples were aerated with gas flows from the Plazon instrument (NO concentrations 800 and 80 ppm) and from the experimental generator (75 ppm). Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in direct and reverse reactions, lactate level, and a number of derived coefficients were estimated. Treatment of blood with 800 ppm NO inhibited erythrocyte energy metabolism, and its 10-fold dilution attenuated the effect. The use of ROS-free gas flow containing 75 ppm of NO promoted optimization of the process under investigation. PMID:25403392

Martusevich, A K; Solov'yova, A G; Peretyagin, S P; Karelin, V I; Selemir, V D

2014-11-01

326

Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to manifest the ecological status of the total river basin ecosystem.

Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

2009-03-01

327

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry  

E-print Network

Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

Scampini, Amanda C

2010-01-01

328

Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

Dudley, G. A.

1988-01-01

329

Metabolic Acclimation to Anoxia Induced by Low (2-4 kPa Partial Pressure) Oxygen Pretreatment (Hypoxia) in Root Tips of Zea mays  

PubMed Central

Young intact plants of maize (Zea mays L. cv INRA 508) were exposed to 2 to 4 kilopascals partial pressure oxygen (hypoxic pretreatment) for 18 hours before excision of the 5 millimeter root apex and treatment with strictly anaerobic conditions (anoxia). Hypoxic acclimation gave rise to larger amounts of ATP, to larger ATP/ADP and adenylate energy charge ratios, and to higher rates of ethanol production when excised root tips were subsequently made anaerobic, compared with root tips transferred directly from aerobic to anaerobic media. Improved energy metabolism following hypoxic pretreatment was associated with increased activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and induction of ADH-2 isozymes. Roots of Adh1? mutant plants lacked constitutive ADH and only slowly produced ethanol when made anaerobic. Those that were hypoxically pretreated acclimated to anoxia with induction of ADH2 and a higher energy metabolism, and a rate of ethanol production comparable to that of nonmutants. All these responses were insensitive to the presence or absence of NO3?. Additionally, the rate of ethanol production was about 50 times greater than the rate of reduction of NO3? to NO2?. These results indicate that nitrate reductase does not compete effectively with ADH for NADH, or contribute to energy metabolism during anaerobic respiration in this tissue through nitrate reduction. Unacclimated root tips of wild type and Adhl? mutants appeared not to survive more than 8 to 9 hours in strict anoxia; when hypoxically pretreated they tolerated periods under anoxia in excess of 22 hours. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16665894

Saglio, Pierre H.; Drew, Malcolm C.; Pradet, Alain

1988-01-01

330

New ways of defining protein and energy relationships in inborn errors of metabolism.  

PubMed

Dietary restrictions required to manage individuals with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are essential for metabolic control, however may result in an increased risk to both short and long-term nutritional status. Dietary factors most likely to influence nutritional status include energy intake, protein quality and quantity, micronutrient intake and the frequency and extent to which the diet must be altered during periods of increased physical or metabolic stress. Patients on the most restrictive diets, including those with intakes consisting of low levels of natural protein or those with recurrent illness or frequent metabolic decompensation carry the most nutritional risk. Due to the difficulties in determining condition specific requirements, dietary intake recommendations and nutritional monitoring tools used in patients with IEM are the same as, or extrapolated from, those used in healthy populations. As a consequence, evidence is lacking for the safest dietary prescriptions required to manage these patients long term, as tolerance to dietary therapy is generally described in terms of metabolic stability rather than long term nutritional and health outcomes. As the most frequent therapeutic dietary manipulation in IEM is alteration in dietary protein, and as protein status is critically dependent on adequate energy provision, the use of a Protein to Energy ratio (P:E ratio) as an additional tool will better define the relationship between these critical components. This could accurately define dietary quality and ensure that not only an adequate, but also a safe and balanced intake is provided. PMID:24916709

Humphrey, Maureen; Truby, Helen; Boneh, Avihu

2014-08-01

331

Mitochondrial oxidative energy metabolism in guanethidine-induced sympathectomized ducklings.  

PubMed

Here we investigate the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the respiratory properties of intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial populations from heart and gastrocnemius muscles. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was assessed polarographically by using succinate (plus rotenone), and ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenyl-enediamine (plus antimycin) as respiratory substrates. We report that chronic chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine (150 mg/kg, daily for 3 weeks) induced a marked decrease in whole body metabolic and heart rates, in plasma metabolites (fatty acids and glucose) and norepinephrine levels. Guanethidine treatment decreased mainly the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of subsarcolemmal mitochondria in heart, irrespective of the substrate used. In contrast, both mitochondrial populations were affected by the treatment in skeletal muscle. This suggests that sympathetic nervous system activity can alter the energetic status of muscle cells, and to some extent play a thermogenic role in birds. PMID:24334534

Filali-Zegzouti, Younes; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Fechtali, Toufiq; Roussel, Damien

2014-01-01

332

Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

1982-01-01

333

Macrophages, meta-inflammation, and immuno-metabolism.  

PubMed

Current research depicts specific modes of immunity and energy metabolism as being interrelated at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism level. Hence, whereas M2 (alternatively-activated) macrophages dominate insulin-sensitive adipose tissue in the lean, M1-skewed (classically-activated) macrophages accumulate in parallel to adiposity in the obese, and promote inflammation and insulin resistance, that is, meta-inflammation. The latest frontier of immuno-metabolism explores the coregulation of energy metabolism and immune function within hematopoietic cells. M1-skewed macrophages are sustained in edematous, hypoxic tissues by anaerobic glycolysis, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration dominates in M2 cells. We review the underlying mechanisms and the consequences of the transition from M2 to M1 predominance in adipose tissue, as well as the extracellular signals and transcription factors that control macrophage phenotypes and impose distinct metabolic modes. PMID:22235182

Shapiro, Haim; Lutaty, Aviv; Ariel, Amiram

2011-01-01

334

Macrophages, Meta-Inflammation, and Immuno-Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Current research depicts specific modes of immunity and energy metabolism as being interrelated at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism level. Hence, whereas M2 (alternatively-activated) macrophages dominate insulin-sensitive adipose tissue in the lean, M1-skewed (classically-activated) macrophages accumulate in parallel to adiposity in the obese, and promote inflammation and insulin resistance, that is, meta-inflammation. The latest frontier of immuno-metabolism explores the coregulation of energy metabolism and immune function within hematopoietic cells. M1-skewed macrophages are sustained in edematous, hypoxic tissues by anaerobic glycolysis, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration dominates in M2 cells. We review the underlying mechanisms and the consequences of the transition from M2 to M1 predominance in adipose tissue, as well as the extracellular signals and transcription factors that control macrophage phenotypes and impose distinct metabolic modes. PMID:22235182

Shapiro, Haim; Lutaty, Aviv; Ariel, Amiram

2011-01-01

335

Energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain: a stoichiometric modeling perspective  

E-print Network

The energetics of cerebral activity critically relies on the functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Important open questions include the relation between neuronal versus astrocytic energy demand, glucose uptake and intercellular lactate transfer, as well as their dependence on the level of activity. We have developed a large-scale, constraint-based network model of the metabolic partnership between astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons that allows for a quantitative appraisal of the extent to which stoichiometry alone drives the energetics of the system. We find that the velocity of the glutamate-glutamine cycle ($V_{cyc}$) explains part of the uncoupling between glucose and oxygen utilization at increasing $V_{cyc}$ levels. Thus, we are able to characterize different activation states in terms of the tissue oxygen-glucose index (OGI). Calculations show that glucose is taken up and metabolized according to cellular energy requirements, and that partitioning of the sugar between d...

Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Giove, Federico; Maraviglia, Bruno; Castillo, Isaac Perez; Marinari, Enzo; De Martino, Andrea

2013-01-01

336

Degradation of IF1 controls energy metabolism during osteogenic differentiation of stem cells  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) requires the rewiring of energy metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is expressed in hMSCs and in prostate and colon stem cells but is not expressed in the differentiated cells. IF1 inhibits oxidative phosphorylation and regulates the activity of aerobic glycolysis in hMSCs. Silencing of IF1 in hMSCs mimics the metabolic changes observed in osteocytes and accelerates cellular differentiation. Activation of IF1 degradation acts as the switch that regulates energy metabolism during differentiation. We conclude that IF1 is a stemness marker important for maintaining the quiescence state. PMID:23722655

Sanchez-Arago, Maria; Garcia-Bermudez, Javier; Martinez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Santacatterina, Fulvio; Cuezva, Jose M

2013-01-01

337

Energy conservationby formation swimming: metabolic evidence from ducklings  

E-print Network

. FISH Department of Biology, West Chester C'niversity, West Chester, PA 19383, USA Formation movement, particularly during swimming and flying, has been hypoth- esized to reduce an individuai animal's energy comprise a significant com- ponent of an animal's overall energy budget (Weihs & Webb, 1983; Fish, 1992

Fish, Frank

338

Does low daily energy expenditure drive low metabolic capacity in the tropical robin, Turdus grayi?  

PubMed

Temperate and tropical birds possess divergent life history strategies. Physiological parameters including energy metabolism correlate with the life history such that tropical species with a slower 'pace of life' have lower resting and maximal metabolic rates than temperate congeners. To better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these differences, we investigated the relationship of metabolic capacity, muscle oxidative capacity and activity patterns to variation in life history patterns in American robins (Turdus migratorius), while resident in central North America and Clay-colored robins (Turdus grayi) resident in Panama. We measured summit metabolism [Formula: see text] in birds from both tropical and temperate habitats and found that the temperate robins have a 60 % higher metabolic capacity. We also measured the field metabolic rate (FMR) of free-living birds using heart rate (HR) telemetry and found that temperate robins' daily energy expenditure was also 60 % higher. Thus, [Formula: see text] and FMR both reflect life history differences between the species. Further, both species operate at a nearly identical ~50 % of their thermogenic capacity throughout a given day. As a potential mechanism to explain differences in activity and metabolic capacity, we ask whether oxidative properties of flight muscle are altered in accordance with life history variation and found minimal differences in oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. These data demonstrate a close relationship between thermogenic capacity and daily activity in free-living birds. Further, they suggest that the slow pace of life in tropical birds may be related to the maintenance of low activity rather than functional capacity of the muscle tissue. PMID:23456167

Wagner, Dominique N; Mineo, Patrick M; Sgueo, Carrie; Wikelski, Martin; Schaeffer, Paul J

2013-08-01

339

Eyeless Mexican Cavefish Save Energy by Eliminating the Circadian Rhythm in Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The eyed surface form and eyeless cave form of the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus experience stark differences in the daily periodicities of light, food and predation, factors which are likely to have a profound influence on metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of Pachón cave and surface fish at a fixed swimming speed under light/dark and constant dark photoperiods. In constant darkness surface forms exhibited a circadian rhythm in metabolism with an increase in oxygen demand during the subjective daytime, whereas cave forms did not. The lack of circadian rhythm in metabolism leads to a 27% energy savings for Pachón cave fish compared to surface fish when comparing both forms in their natural photoperiods. When surface forms were tested under constant dark conditions they expended 38% more energy than cave forms under equivalent conditions. Elimination of the circadian rhythm in metabolism may be a general feature of animals that live in perpetually dark food-limited environments such as caves or the deep sea. PMID:25251018

Moran, Damian; Softley, Rowan; Warrant, Eric J.

2014-01-01

340

Inhibition of brain energy metabolism by the ?-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the in vitro effect of the branched chain ?-keto acids (BCKA) accumulating in MSUD on some parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral

Angela M. Sgaravatti; Rafael B. Rosa; Patr??cia F. Schuck; César A. J. Ribeiro; Clóvis M. D. Wannmacher; Angela T. S. Wyse; Carlos S. Dutra-Filho; Moacir Wajner

2003-01-01

341

Applied nutritional investigation Energy metabolism in infants with congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure to thrive is common in children with congenital heart disease and influences the metabolic response to injury and outcome after corrective cardiac surgery. Energy imbalance is a major contributing factor. However, the published literature is difficult to interpret as studies generally involve small patient numbers with a diverse range of types and severity of cardiac lesions and genetic and\\/or

Andreas Nydegger; Julie E. Bines

342

CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

343

Hispidulin: antioxidant properties and effect on mitochondrial energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Hispidulin (6-methoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone) and eupafolin (6-methoxy-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), are flavonoids found in the leaves of Eupatorium litoralle. They have recognized antioxidant and antineoplastic properties, although their action mechanisms have not been previously described. We now report the effects of hispidulin on the oxidative metabolism of isolated rat liver mitochondria (Mit) and have also investigated the prooxidant and antioxidant capacity of both flavonoids. Hispidulin (0.05-0.2 mM) decreased the respiratory rate in state III and stimulated it in state IV, when glutamate or succinate was used as oxidizable substrate. Hispidulin inhibited enzymatic activities between complexes I and III of the respiratory chain. In broken Mit hispidulin (0.2 mM) slightly inhibited ATPase activity (25%). However, when intact Mit were used, the flavonoid stimulated this activity by 100%. Substrate energized mitochondrial swelling was markedly inhibited by hispidulin. Both hispidulin and eupafolin were able to promote iron release from ferritin, this effect being more accentuated with eupafolin with the suggestion of a possible involvement of H2O2 in the process. Hispidulin was incapable of donating electrons to the stable free radical DPPH, while eupafolin reacted with it in a similar way to ascorbic acid. The results indicate that hispidulin as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, is able to release iron from ferritin, but has distinct prooxidant and antioxidant properties when compared to eupafolin. PMID:16298860

Dabaghi-Barbosa, Priscila; Mariante Rocha, Andreia; Franco da Cruz Lima, Anderson; Heleno de Oliveira, Brás; Benigna Martinelli de Oliveira, Maria; Gunilla Skare Carnieri, Eva; Cadena, Sílvia M S C; Eliane Merlin Rocha, Maria

2005-12-01

344

Carbon metabolism in legume nodules. Progress report, July 1982-July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The goal is to understand how the legume nodule metabolizes carbohydrate to provide energy and reductant for symbiotic fixation. The working hypothesis has been that the plant cytosol is microacrobic and that some carbon metabolism may be via anaerobic pathways similar to those in roots of flood tolerant plants. A method of analyzing redox changes in intact mitochondria, bacteroids or bacteria was adapted; a method of manipulating nitrogenase activity by oxygen inhibition was developed; the production of alcohol by soybean nodules was studied; and enzymes metabolizing alcohol/aldehyde were found in other nitrogen fixing systems. (ACR)

LaRue, T.A.

1983-01-01

345

Transcriptional Regulation of Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism in Bacteria by Redox-Responsive Repressor Rex  

PubMed Central

Redox-sensing repressor Rex was previously implicated in the control of anaerobic respiration in response to the cellular NADH/NAD+ levels in Gram-positive bacteria. We utilized the comparative genomics approach to infer candidate Rex-binding DNA motifs and assess the Rex regulon content in 119 genomes from 11 taxonomic groups. Both DNA-binding and NAD-sensing domains are broadly conserved in Rex orthologs identified in the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogales, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Proteobacteria. The identified DNA-binding motifs showed significant conservation in these species, with the only exception detected in Clostridia, where the Rex motif deviates in two positions from the generalized consensus, TTGTGAANNNNTTCACAA. Comparative analysis of candidate Rex sites revealed remarkable variations in functional repertoires of candidate Rex-regulated genes in various microorganisms. Most of the reconstructed regulatory interactions are lineage specific, suggesting frequent events of gain and loss of regulator binding sites in the evolution of Rex regulons. We identified more than 50 novel Rex-regulated operons encoding functions that are essential for resumption of the NADH:NAD+ balance. The novel functional role of Rex in the control of the central carbon metabolism and hydrogen production genes was validated by in vitro DNA binding assays using the TM0169 protein in the hydrogen-producing bacterium Thermotoga maritima. PMID:22210771

Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Latif, Haythem; Zengler, Karsten; Leyn, Semen A.; Korostelev, Yuri D.; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Osterman, Andrei L.

2012-01-01

346

Waste to energy applications in the Wisconsin canning industry: Economic and environmental evaluation of anaerobic treatment of vegetable processing wastewaters using a fixed film reactor: Project report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the economic and environmental consequences of anaerobic wastewater treatment applied to a vegetable canning plant owned by Our Best Foods, Inc., Pulaski, Wisconsin. A pilot scale, upflow fixed film anaerobic reactor was utilized to determine pollutant removal efficiency, operational parameters, and basis of design of conceptual full scale conceptual full scale systems. Hydraulic retention

C. R. Stack; E. L. Stover

1987-01-01

347

Energy metabolism during the postexercise recovery in man.  

PubMed

In order to explore the magnitude and duration of the long-term residual effect of physical exercise, a mixed meal (55% CHO, 27% fat and 18% protein) was given to 10 young male volunteers on two occasions: after a 4-h resting period, and on the next day, 30 min after completion of a 3-h exercise at 50% VO2max. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization were determined by indirect calorimetry for 17 h after meal ingestion. The fuel mix oxidized after the meal was characterized by a greater contribution of lipid oxidation to total energy expenditure when the meal was ingested during the post-exercise period as compared with the meal ingested without previous exercise. During the night following the exercise, the stimulation of energy expenditure observed during the early recovery period gradually faded out. However, resting energy expenditure measured the next morning was significantly higher (+4.7%) than that measured without previous exercise. It is concluded that intense exercise stimulates both energy expenditure and lipid oxidation for a prolonged period. PMID:3893093

Bielinski, R; Schutz, Y; Jéquier, E

1985-07-01

348

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis are major public health concerns. Current estimates indicate that the US population consists\\u000a of 25% obese, 30% diabetic and prediabetic, and, among the elderly, 50% of all osteoporotic individuals. Mechanistically,\\u000a these pathologies share several features including common regulators of bone homeostasis and energy metabolism. Peroxisome\\u000a proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent a family of proteins that control energy

Beata Lecka-Czernik

2010-01-01

349

A distinction must be made between the ontogeny and the phylogeny of metabolism in order to understand the mass exponent of energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The discussion on the metabolism/body mass relationship in animals has been complicated, almost from the beginning, by a confusion between intra- and interspecific comparisons of energy metabolism. In this paper I argue that the ontogeny of metabolism is a complex process in which several phases can be distinguished, each with a specific metabolism/body mass relationship. In vertebrates at least the longest of these phases, encompassing the best part of adulthood, appears to follow the 'surface rule' of metabolism. According to this rule aerobic power (En) can be described by the equation En = an X M0.66 in which 'an' is the specific mass coefficient which itself depends on adult body mass according to the equation an = a X M0.09. Since, in a series of related species, the specific mass coefficient, an = En/M0.66, increases with body mass in a systematic manner, it follows that adult metabolism of these species can be described by a second function, E = a X M0.75, in which 'a' is the interspecific mass coefficient (3.34 W in mammals if M is in kg). This function represents the phylogeny of metabolism which can be interpreted only within an evolutionary context and not by introducing new parameters into Rubner's 'surface rule'. PMID:6709979

Wieser, W

1984-01-01

350

Importance of the methanogenic archaea populations in anaerobic wastewater treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane derived from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes has a great potential to be an alternative fuel. Abundant biomass from various industries could be a source for biomethane production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage. This article summarizes the importance of the microbial population, with a focus on the methanogenic archaea, on the anaerobic

Meisam Tabatabaei; Raha Abdul Rahim; Norhani Abdullah; André-Denis G. Wright; Yoshihito Shirai; Kenji Sakai; Alawi Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Hassan

2010-01-01

351

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

352

Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

2012-12-01

353

Efficiency of Energy Conversion by Aerobic Glucose Metabolism in Aphanocapsa 6714  

PubMed Central

Efficiency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation from glucose oxidation in Aphanocapsa 6714 was estimated by quantitative measurement of phosphorylated intermediary metabolites and glycogen (polyglucose) formed from 14C-glucose. P/2e ratios based on oxygen uptake ranged from 2.62 to 3.08, whereas those based on 14CO2 evolution ranged from 1.66 to 1.72. The synthesis of glycogen, which is the dominant energy-consuming process in resting cells exposed to exogenous glucose, was almost totally inhibited under anaerobic conditions, and the cellular concentration of ATP decreased steadily. Thus, both net synthesis of ATP and the steady-state concentration of ATP are obligatorily linked to respiration in this heterotrophic unicellular blue-green alga. PMID:4199518

Pelroy, Richard A.; Bassham, James A.

1973-01-01

354

Teaching the Role of Mitochondrial Transport in Energy Metabolism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies from our laboratories over recent years have uncovered the existence, and established the properties of a variety of mitochondrial transporters. The properties of these transporters throw light on a variety of biochemical phenomena that were previously poorly understood. In particular the role of mitochondrial transport in energy

Passarella, Salvatore; Atlante, Anna

2007-01-01

355

The gut microbiota modulates host energy and lipid metabolism in mice.  

PubMed

The gut microbiota has recently been identified as an environmental factor that may promote metabolic diseases. To investigate the effect of gut microbiota on host energy and lipid metabolism, we compared the serum metabolome and the lipidomes of serum, adipose tissue, and liver of conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free mice. The serum metabolome of CONV-R mice was characterized by increased levels of energy metabolites, e.g., pyruvic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, while levels of cholesterol and fatty acids were reduced. We also showed that the microbiota modified a number of lipid species in the serum, adipose tissue, and liver, with its greatest effect on triglyceride and phosphatidylcholine species. Triglyceride levels were lower in serum but higher in adipose tissue and liver of CONV-R mice, consistent with increased lipid clearance. Our findings show that the gut microbiota affects both host energy and lipid metabolism and highlights its role in the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:20040631

Velagapudi, Vidya R; Hezaveh, Rahil; Reigstad, Christopher S; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Yetukuri, Laxman; Islam, Sama; Felin, Jenny; Perkins, Rosie; Borén, Jan; Oresic, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

2010-05-01

356

The gut microbiota modulates host energy and lipid metabolism in mice[S  

PubMed Central

The gut microbiota has recently been identified as an environmental factor that may promote metabolic diseases. To investigate the effect of gut microbiota on host energy and lipid metabolism, we compared the serum metabolome and the lipidomes of serum, adipose tissue, and liver of conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free mice. The serum metabolome of CONV-R mice was characterized by increased levels of energy metabolites, e.g., pyruvic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, while levels of cholesterol and fatty acids were reduced. We also showed that the microbiota modified a number of lipid species in the serum, adipose tissue, and liver, with its greatest effect on triglyceride and phosphatidylcholine species. Triglyceride levels were lower in serum but higher in adipose tissue and liver of CONV-R mice, consistent with increased lipid clearance. Our findings show that the gut microbiota affects both host energy and lipid metabolism and highlights its role in the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:20040631

Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Hezaveh, Rahil; Reigstad, Christopher S.; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Yetukuri, Laxman; Islam, Sama; Felin, Jenny; Perkins, Rosie; Boren, Jan; Oresic, Matej; Backhed, Fredrik

2010-01-01

357

Energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain: a stoichiometric modeling perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The energetics of cerebral activity critically relies on the functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Important open questions include the relation between neuronal versus astrocytic energy demand, glucose uptake and intercellular lactate transfer, as well as their dependence on the level of activity. Results We have developed a large-scale, constraint-based network model of the metabolic partnership between astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons that allows for a quantitative appraisal of the extent to which stoichiometry alone drives the energetics of the system. We find that the velocity of the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc) explains part of the uncoupling between glucose and oxygen utilization at increasing Vcyc levels. Thus, we are able to characterize different activation states in terms of the tissue oxygen-glucose index (OGI). Calculations show that glucose is taken up and metabolized according to cellular energy requirements, and that partitioning of the sugar between different cell types is not significantly affected by Vcyc. Furthermore, both the direction and magnitude of the lactate shuttle between neurons and astrocytes turn out to depend on the relative cell glucose uptake while being roughly independent of Vcyc. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in absence of ad hoc activity-related constraints on neuronal and astrocytic metabolism, the glutamate-glutamine cycle does not control the relative energy demand of neurons and astrocytes, and hence their glucose uptake and lactate exchange. PMID:24112710

2013-01-01

358

A Scalable Algorithm to Explore the Gibbs Energy Landscape of Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks  

PubMed Central

The integration of various types of genomic data into predictive models of biological networks is one of the main challenges currently faced by computational biology. Constraint-based models in particular play a key role in the attempt to obtain a quantitative understanding of cellular metabolism at genome scale. In essence, their goal is to frame the metabolic capabilities of an organism based on minimal assumptions that describe the steady states of the underlying reaction network via suitable stoichiometric constraints, specifically mass balance and energy balance (i.e. thermodynamic feasibility). The implementation of these requirements to generate viable configurations of reaction fluxes and/or to test given flux profiles for thermodynamic feasibility can however prove to be computationally intensive. We propose here a fast and scalable stoichiometry-based method to explore the Gibbs energy landscape of a biochemical network at steady state. The method is applied to the problem of reconstructing the Gibbs energy landscape underlying metabolic activity in the human red blood cell, and to that of identifying and removing thermodynamically infeasible reaction cycles in the Escherichia coli metabolic network (iAF1260). In the former case, we produce consistent predictions for chemical potentials (or log-concentrations) of intracellular metabolites; in the latter, we identify a restricted set of loops (23 in total) in the periplasmic and cytoplasmic core as the origin of thermodynamic infeasibility in a large sample () of flux configurations generated randomly and compatibly with the prior information available on reaction reversibility. PMID:22737065

De Martino, Daniele; Figliuzzi, Matteo

2012-01-01

359

Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

PubMed Central

A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H+-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts. PMID:25322701

Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

2014-01-01

360

Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.  

PubMed

A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts. PMID:25322701

Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

2014-01-01

361

Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?  

PubMed Central

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-01-01

362

Energy Metabolism in Astrocytes and Neurons Treated With Manganese: Relation Among Cell-Specific Energy Failure, Glucose Metabolism, and Intercellular Trafficking Using Multinuclear NMR-Spectroscopic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central question in manganese neurotoxicity concerns mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cerebral energy failure. To obtain insight into the underlying mechanism(s), the authors investigated cell-specific pathways of [1–13C]glucose metabolism by high-resolution multinuclear NMR-spectroscopy. Five-day treatment of neurons with 100-?mol\\/L MnCl2 led to 50% and 70% decreases of ATP\\/ADP and phosphocreatine–creatine ratios, respectively. An impaired flux of [1–13C]glucose through pyruvate dehydrogenase,

Claudia Zwingmann; Dieter Leibfritz; Alan S. Hazell

2003-01-01

363

Bile Acid Binding Resin Improves Metabolic Control through the Induction of Energy Expenditure  

PubMed Central

Background Besides well-established roles of bile acids (BA) in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, it has recently become clear that BA is also a biological signaling molecule. We have shown that strategies aimed at activating TGR5 by increasing the BA pool size with BA administration may constitute a significant therapeutic advance to combat the metabolic syndrome and suggest that such strategies are worth testing in a clinical setting. Bile acid binding resin (BABR) is known not only to reduce serum cholesterol levels but also to improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in animal models and humans. However, the mechanisms by which BABR affects glucose homeostasis have not been established. We investigated how BABR affects glycemic control in diet-induced obesity models. Methods and Findings We evaluated the metabolic effect of BABR by administrating colestimide to animal models for the metabolic syndrome. Administration of BABR increased energy expenditure, translating into significant weight reduction and insulin sensitization. The metabolic effects of BABR coincide with activation of cholesterol and BA synthesis in liver and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Interestingly, these effects of BABR occur despite normal food intake and triglyceride absorption. Administration of BABR and BA had similar effects on BA composition and thermogenesis, suggesting that they both are mediated via TGR5 activation. Conclusion Our data hence suggest that BABR could be useful for the management of the impaired glucose tolerance of the metabolic syndrome, since they not only lower cholesterol levels, but also reduce obesity and improve insulin resistance. PMID:22952571

Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Houten, Sander M.; Kaneko-Iwasaki, Nao; Sugizaki, Taichi; Horai, Yasushi; Mataki, Chikage; Sato, Hiroyuki; Murahashi, Karin; Arita, Eri; Schoonjans, Kristina; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Itoh, Hiroshi; Auwerx, Johan

2012-01-01

364

Reprograming of gut microbiome energy metabolism by the FUT2 Crohn's disease risk polymorphism.  

PubMed

Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) is an enzyme that is responsible for the synthesis of the H antigen in body fluids and on the intestinal mucosa. The H antigen is an oligosaccharide moiety that acts as both an attachment site and carbon source for intestinal bacteria. Non-secretors, who are homozygous for the loss-of-function alleles of FUT2 gene (sese), have increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). To characterize the effect of FUT2 polymorphism on the mucosal ecosystem, we profiled the microbiome, meta-proteome and meta-metabolome of 75 endoscopic lavage samples from the cecum and sigmoid of 39 healthy subjects (12 SeSe, 18 Sese and 9 sese). Imputed metagenomic analysis revealed perturbations of energy metabolism in the microbiome of non-secretor and heterozygote individuals, notably the enrichment of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cofactor and vitamin metabolism and glycan biosynthesis and metabolism-related pathways, and the depletion of amino-acid biosynthesis and metabolism. Similar changes were observed in mice bearing the FUT2(-/-) genotype. Metabolomic analysis of human specimens revealed concordant as well as novel changes in the levels of several metabolites. Human metaproteomic analysis indicated that these functional changes were accompanied by sub-clinical levels of inflammation in the local intestinal mucosa. Therefore, the colonic microbiota of non-secretors is altered at both the compositional and functional levels, affecting the host mucosal state and potentially explaining the association of FUT2 genotype and CD susceptibility. PMID:24781901

Tong, Maomeng; McHardy, Ian; Ruegger, Paul; Goudarzi, Maryam; Kashyap, Purna C; Haritunians, Talin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Graeber, Thomas G; Schwager, Emma; Huttenhower, Curtis; Fornace, Albert J; Sonnenburg, Justin L; McGovern, Dermot Pb; Borneman, James; Braun, Jonathan

2014-11-01

365

Myosin heavy chain isoform content and energy metabolism can be uncoupled in pig skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Genetic selection for improved growth and overall meatiness has resulted in the occurrence of 2 major mutations in pigs, the Rendement Napole (RN) and Halothane (Hal) gene mutations. At the tissue level, these mutations influence energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and muscle fiber type composition, yet also influence total body composition. The RN mutation affects the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase gamma subunit and results in increased glycogen deposition in the muscle, whereas the Hal mutation alters sarcoplasmic calcium release mechanisms and results in altered energy metabolism. From a meat quality standpoint, these mutations independently influence the extent and rate of muscle energy metabolism postmortem, respectively. Even though these mutations alter overall muscle energy metabolism and histochemically derived muscle fiber type independently, their effects have not been yet fully elucidated in respect to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform content and those enzymes responsible for defining energetics of the tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the collective effects of the RN and Hal genes on genes and gene products associated with different muscle fiber types in pig skeletal muscle. To overcome potential pitfalls associated with traditional muscle fiber typing, real-time PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Western blotting were used to evaluate MyHC composition and several energy-related gene expressions in muscles from wild-type, RN, Hal, and Hal-RN mutant pigs. The MyHC mRNA levels displayed sequential transitions from IIb to IIx and IIa in pigs bearing the RN mutation. In addition, our results showed MyHC protein isoform abundance is correlated with mRNA level supporting the hypothesis that MyHC genes are transcriptionally controlled. However, transcript abundance of genes involved in energy metabolism, including lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, glycogen synthase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, was not different between genotypes. These data show that the RN and Hal gene mutations alter muscle fiber type composition and suggest that muscle fiber energy metabolism and speed of contraction, the 2 determinants of muscle fiber type, can be uncoupled. PMID:18820156

Park, S K; Gunawan, A M; Scheffler, T L; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E

2009-02-01

366

The role of natural wood constituents on the anaerobic treatability of forest industry wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic treatment has been shown to be an efficient and energy conserving method for treating various types of readily biodegradable non-inhibitory forest industry wastewaters. However, the high toxicity of paper mill effluents derived from chemical wood processing operations has hampered the wide spread application of anaerobic treatment in the forest industry.This dissertation describes research on the anaerobic treatment of inhibitory

R. Sierra-Alvarez

1990-01-01

367

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioremediation of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface necessitate an understanding of the metabolic capacities and interactions of the anaerobic microorganisms that are found there, including members of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Genetic ...

J. D. Wall

2009-01-01

368

The Effect of the Creatine Analogue Beta-guanidinopropionic Acid on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Creatine kinase plays a key role in cellular energy transport. The enzyme transfers high-energy phosphoryl groups from mitochondria to subcellular sites of ATP hydrolysis, where it buffers ADP concentration by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the high-energy phosphate moiety (P) between creatine and ADP. Cellular creatine uptake is competitively inhibited by beta-guanidinopropionic acid. This substance is marked as safe for human use, but the effects are unclear. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the effect of beta-guanidinopropionic acid on energy metabolism and function of tissues with high energy demands. Methods We performed a systematic review and searched the electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and LILACS from their inception through March 2011. Furthermore, we searched the internet and explored references from textbooks and reviews. Results After applying the inclusion criteria, we retrieved 131 publications, mainly considering the effect of chronic oral administration of beta-guanidinopropionic acid (0.5 to 3.5%) on skeletal muscle, the cardiovascular system, and brain tissue in animals. Beta-guanidinopropionic acid decreased intracellular creatine and phosphocreatine in all tissues studied. In skeletal muscle, this effect induced a shift from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism, increased cellular glucose uptake and increased fatigue tolerance. In heart tissue this shift to mitochondrial metabolism was less pronounced. Myocardial contractility was modestly reduced, including a decreased ventricular developed pressure, albeit with unchanged cardiac output. In brain tissue adaptations in energy metabolism resulted in enhanced ATP stability and survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Chronic beta-guanidinopropionic acid increases fatigue tolerance of skeletal muscle and survival during ischaemia in animal studies, with modestly reduced myocardial contractility. Because it is marked as safe for human use, there is a need for human data. PMID:23326362

Oudman, Inge; Clark, Joseph F.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

2013-01-01

369

AMP-activated protein kinase in the regulation of hepatic energy metabolism: from physiology to therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

Because the liver is central in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and energy storage, knowledge of the physiology as well as physiopathology of hepatic energy metabolism is a prerequisite to our understanding of whole body metabolism. Hepatic fuel metabolism changes considerably depending on physiological circumstances (fed vs fasted state). In consequence, hepatic carbohydrate, lipid and protein synthesis/utilization are tightly regulated according to needs. Fatty liver and hepatic insulin resistance (both frequently associated with the metabolic syndrome) or increased hepatic glucose production (as observed in type 2 diabetes) resulted of alterations in substrates oxidation/storage balance in the liver. Because AMPK is considered as a cellular energy sensor, it is important to gain understanding of the mechanism by which hepatic AMPK coordinates hepatic energy metabolism. AMPK has been implicated as a key regulator of physiological energy dynamics by limiting anabolic pathways (to prevent further ATP consumption) and by facilitating catabolic pathways (to increase ATP generation). Activation of hepatic AMPK leads to increased fatty acid oxidation and simultaneously inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and glucose production. In addition to a short-term effect on specific enzymes, AMPK also modulates the transcription of genes involved in lipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. The identification of AMPK targets in hepatic metabolism should be useful in developing treatments to reverse metabolic abnormalities of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19245656

Viollet, Benoit; Guigas, Bruno; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Hebrard, Sophie; Lantier, Louise; Mounier, Remi; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Foretz, Marc

2009-01-01

370

Altered Mitochondrial Function and Energy Metabolism Is Associated with a Radioresistant Phenotype in Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is increasingly the standard of care for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. A complete pathological response to CRT is associated with a favourable outcome. Radiation therapy is important for local tumour control, however, radioresistance remains a substantial clinical problem. We hypothesise that alterations in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism are involved in the radioresistance of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). To investigate this, we used an established isogenic cell line model of radioresistant OAC. Radioresistant cells (OE33 R) demonstrated significantly increased levels of random mitochondrial mutations, which were coupled with alterations in mitochondrial function, size, morphology and gene expression, supporting a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the radioresistance of this model. OE33 R cells also demonstrated altered bioenergetics, demonstrating significantly increased intracellular ATP levels, which was attributed to enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Radioresistant cells also demonstrated metabolic plasticity, efficiently switching between the glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathways, which were accompanied by enhanced clonogenic survival. This data was supported in vivo, in pre-treatment OAC tumour tissue. Tumour ATP5B expression, a marker of oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly increased in patients who subsequently had a poor pathological response to neoadjuvant CRT. This suggests for the first time, a role for specific mitochondrial alterations and metabolic remodelling in the radioresistance of OAC. PMID:24968221

Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Maher, Stephen G.; Maguire, Aoife; Phelan, James; Muldoon, Cian; Reynolds, John V.; O’Sullivan, Jacintha

2014-01-01

371

Metabolism and Feeding in the Antarctic Brachiopod Liothyrella uva: A Low Energy Lifestyle Species with Restricted Metabolic Scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding on metabolism (specific dynamic action; SDA) was assessed in the articulate brachiopod Liothyrella uva (Broderip, 1833) at Signy Island, Antarctica. The response was low and on a much longer timescale than previously reported SDA responses. Oxygen consumption rose post-prandially to a peak which was 1.64 × higher than the prefeeding basal metabolic rate. The response peaked

L. S. Peck

1996-01-01

372

Metabolic Effects of Dark Chocolate Consumption on Energy, Gut Microbiota, and Stress-Related Metabolism in Free-Living Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary preferences influence basal human metabolism and gut microbiome activity that in turn may have long-term health consequences. The present study reports the metabolic responses of free living subjects to a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate for up to 14 days. A clinical trial was performed on a population of 30 human subjects, who were classified in

Francois-Pierre J. Martin; Serge Rezzi; Emma Pere?-Trepat; Beate Kamlage; Sebastiano Collino; Edgar Leibold; Ju?rgen Kastler; Dietrich Rein; Laurent B. Fay; Sunil Kochhar

2009-01-01

373

Energy replacement attenuates the effects of prior moderate exercise on postprandial metabolism in overweight\\/obese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The extent to which exercise-induced changes to postprandial metabolism are dependant on the associated energy deficit is not known.Objective:To determine the effects of exercise, with and without energy replacement, on postprandial metabolism.Design:Each subject underwent three 2-day trials in random order. On day 1 of each trial subjects rested (control), walked at 50% maximal oxygen uptake to induce a net energy

F L Burton; D Malkova; M J Caslake; J M R Gill; JMR Gill

2008-01-01

374

Genetic evidence points to an osteocalcin-independent influence of osteoblasts on energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The skeleton has been shown recently to regulate glucose metabolism through an osteoblast-specific hormone, osteocalcin, which favors ?-cell proliferation, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and energy expenditure. An implication of this finding is that a decrease in osteoblast numbers would compromise glucose metabolism in an osteocalcin-dependent manner. To test this hypothesis, osteoblasts were inducibly ablated by cross-breeding transgenic mice expressing a tamoxifen-regulated Cre under the control of the osteocalcin promoter with mice in which an inactive form of the diphtheria toxin A chain was introduced into a ubiquitously expressed locus. Ablation of osteoblasts in adult mice profoundly affected glucose metabolism. In a manner similar to what is seen in the case of osteocalcin deficiency, a partial ablation of this cell population resulted in hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and decreased insulin sensitivity. However, and unlike what is seen in osteocalcin-deficient mice, osteoblast ablation also decreased gonadal fat and increased energy expenditure and the expression of resistin, an adipokine proposed to mediate insulin resistance. While administration of osteocalcin reversed (fully) the glucose intolerance and reinstated normal blood glucose and insulin levels, it only partially restored insulin sensitivity and did not affect the improved gonadal fat weight and energy expenditure in osteoblast-depleted mice. These observations not only strengthen the notion that osteoblasts are necessary for glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure but also suggest that in addition to osteocalcin, other osteoblast-derived hormones may contribute to the emerging function of the skeleton as a regulator of energy metabolism. PMID:21557308

Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Kode, Aruna; Xu, Lili; Mosialou, Ioanna; Silva, Barbara C; Ferron, Mathieu; Clemens, Thomas L; Economides, Aris N; Kousteni, Stavroula

2011-09-01

375

31P NMR investigation of energy metabolism in perifused MMQ cells.  

PubMed

The MMQ cell line is a unique prolactin-secreting rat pituitary cell line. MMQ cells entrapped in agarose gel threads are metabolically active, as determined by the uptake and phosphorylation of creatine and the maintenance of high energy phosphates for over 15 h. Forskolin activates the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase and, in MMQ cells, elevates the level of cAMP and stimulates prolactin secretion. 31P NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the energy metabolism of the MMQ cells during stimulation by forskolin. The ability to measure small changes in the energy status of these cells was enhanced by increasing the PCr levels in the cells. Administration of forskolin to the perifused MMQ cells resulted in acute, reversible, and dose-dependent changes in the 31P NMR spectra of the cells within 12 to 24 min of the beginning of forskolin exposure. Several lines of evidence indicate that the changes observed in the MMQ cells are the composite result of the interaction of forskolin with adenylyl cyclase and the plasma membrane glucose transporter. Also, preincubation of the MMQ cells with the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine, attenuates the forskolin-stimulated decrease in the PCr resonance by approximately 50%. This attenuation indicates that the forskolin-stimulated changes in energy metabolism are probably related to the prolactin secretion process. PMID:7528870

Goger, M J; Login, I S; Fernandez, E J; Grisham, C M

1994-11-01

376

An integrative approach to energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

SciTech Connect

The team of the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG) under the leadership of Ross Overbeek, began working on this Project in November 2003. During the previous year, the Project was performed at Integrated Genomics Inc. A transition from the industrial environment to the public domain prompted us to adjust some aspects of the Project. Notwithstanding the challenges, we believe that these adjustments had a strong positive impact on our deliverables. Most importantly, the work of the research team led by R. Overbeek resulted in the deployment of a new open source genomic platform, the SEED (Specific Aim 1). This platform provided a foundation for the development of CyanoSEED a specialized portal to comparative analysis and metabolic reconstruction of all available cyanobacterial genomes (Specific Aim 3). The SEED represents a new generation of software for genome analysis. Briefly, it is a portable and extendable system, containing one of the largest and permanently growing collections of complete and partial genomes. The complete system with annotations and tools is freely available via browsing or via installation on a user's Mac or Linux computer. One of the important unique features of the SEED is the support of metabolic reconstruction and comparative genome analysis via encoding and projection of functional subsystems. During the project period, the FIG research team has validated the new software by developing a significant number of core subsystems, covering many aspects of central metabolism (Specific Aim 2), as well as metabolic areas specific for cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophic organisms (Specific Aim 3). In addition to providing a proof of technology and a starting point for further community-based efforts, these subsystems represent a valuable asset. An extensive coverage of central metabolism provides the bulk of information required for metabolic modeling in Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803. Detailed analysis of several subsystems covering energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and other cyanobacteria has been performed (Specific Aim 4). The main objectives for this year (adjusted to reflect a new, public domain, setting of the Project research team) were: Aim 1. To develop, test, and deploy a new open source system, the SEED, for integrating community-based annotation, and comparative analysis of all publicly available microbial genomes. Develop a comprehensive genomic database by integrating within SEED all publicly available complete and nearly complete genome sequences with special emphasis on genomes of cyanobacteria, phototrophic eukaryotes, and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria--invaluable for comparative genomic studies of energy and carbon metabolism in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Aim 2. To develop the SEED's biological content in the form of a collection of encoded Subsystems largely covering the conserved cellular machinery in prokaryotes (and central metabolic machinery in eukaryotes). Aim 3. To develop, utilizing core SEED technology, the CyanoSEED--a specialized WEB portal for community-based annotation, and comparative analysis of all publicly available cyanobacterial genomes. Encode the set of additional subsystems representing key metabolic transformations in cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophs. We envisioned this resource as complementary to other public access databases for comparative genomic analysis currently available to the cyanobacterial research community. Aim 4. Perform in-depth analysis of several subsystems covering energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and all other cyanobacteria with available genome sequences. Reveal inconsistencies and gaps in the current knowledge of these subsystems. Use functional and genome context analysis tools in CyanoSEED to predict, whenever possible, candidate genes for inferred functional roles. To disseminate freely these conjectures and predictions by publishing them on CyanoSEED (http://cyanoseed.thefig.info/) and the Subsystems Forum (http://brucella.uchicago.edu/Su

Ross Overbeek, Veronika Fonstein, Andrei Osterman, Svetlana Gerdes, Olga Vassieva, Olga Zagnitko, Dmitry Rodionov

2005-02-15

377

Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-Franois DUMAS, Damien ROUSSEL, Gilles SIMARD, Olivier DOUAY, Franoise  

E-print Network

1 Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-François DUMAS, Damien metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme, in food restricted rats, liver mitochondria displayed diminished state 3 (-30%), state 4-oligomycin (-26

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

379

Effects of hyperammonemia on brain energy metabolism: controversial findings in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

The literature related to the effects of elevated plasma ammonia levels on brain energy metabolism is abundant, but heterogeneous in terms of the conclusions. Thus, some studies claim that ammonia has a direct, inhibitory effect on energy metabolism whereas others find no such correlation. In this review, we discuss both recent and older literature related to this controversial topic. We find that it has been consistently reported that hepatic encephalopathy and concomitant hyperammonemia lead to reduced cerebral oxygen consumption. However, this may not be directly linked to an effect of ammonia but related to the fact that hepatic encephalopathy is always associated with reduced brain activity, a condition clearly characterized by a decreased CMRO2. Whether this may be related to changes in GABAergic function remains to be elucidated. PMID:24577633

Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K

2014-12-01

380

Melatonin Regulates Aging and Neurodegeneration through Energy Metabolism, Epigenetics, Autophagy and Circadian Rhythm Pathways  

PubMed Central

Brain aging is linked to certain types of neurodegenerative diseases and identifying new therapeutic targets has become critical. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, associates with molecules and signaling pathways that sense and influence energy metabolism, autophagy, and circadian rhythms, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Forkhead box O (FoxOs), sirtuins and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current understanding of how melatonin, together with molecular, cellular and systemic energy metabolisms, regulates epigenetic processes in the neurons. This information will lead to a greater understanding of molecular epigenetic aging of the brain and anti-aging mechanisms to increase lifespan under healthy conditions. PMID:25247581

Jenwitheesuk, Anorut; Nopparat, Chutikorn; Mukda, Sujira; Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Govitrapong, Piyarat

2014-01-01

381

Metabolic-energy-dependent movement of PML bodies within the mammalian cell nucleus.  

PubMed

Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear bodies are present in most mammalian cell nuclei. PML bodies are disrupted by PML retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) oncoproteins in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. These bodies contain numerous proteins, including Sp100, SUMO-1, HAUSP(USP7), CBP and BLM, and they have been implicated in aspects of transcriptional regulation or as nuclear storage depots. Here, we show that three classes of PML nuclear bodies can be distinguished, on the basis of their dynamic properties in living cells. One class of PML bodies is particularly noteworthy in that it moves by a metabolic-energy-dependent mechanism. This represents the first example of metabolic-energy-dependent transport of a nuclear body within the mammalian cell nucleus. PMID:11753375

Muratani, Masafumi; Gerlich, Daniel; Janicki, Susan M; Gebhard, Matthias; Eils, Roland; Spector, David L

2002-02-01

382

THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

383

Metabolic myopathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metabolic myopathies are disorders of muscle energy production that result in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Cardiac and systemic metabolic dysfunction may coexist. Symptoms are often intermittent and provoked by exercise or changes in supply of lipid and carbohydrate fuels. Specific disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in muscle are reviewed. Evaluation often requires provocative exercise testing. These tests may include ischemic forearm exercise, aerobic cycle exercise, and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy with exercise.

Martin, A.; Haller, R. G.; Barohn, R.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

384

Effect of Short-Term Thyroxine Administration on Energy Metabolism and Mitochondrial Efficiency in Humans  

PubMed Central

The physiologic effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on metabolic rate are well-documented; however, the effects of thyroxine (T4) are less clear despite its wide-spread use to treat thyroid-related disorders and other non-thyroidal conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of acute (3-day) T4 supplementation on energy expenditure at rest and during incremental exercise. Furthermore, we used a combination of in situ and in vitro approaches to measure skeletal muscle metabolism before and after T4 treatment. Ten healthy, euthyroid males were given 200 µg T4 (levothyroxine) per day for 3 days. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during exercise by indirect calorimetry, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function was assessed by in situ ATP flux (31P MRS) and in vitro respiratory control ratio (RCR, state 3/state 4 rate of oxygen uptake using a Clark-type electrode) before and after acute T4 treatment. Thyroxine had a subtle effect on resting metabolic rate, increasing it by 4% (p?=?0.059) without a change in resting ATP demand (i.e., ATP flux) of the vastus lateralis. Exercise efficiency did not change with T4 treatment. The maximal capacity to produce ATP (state 3 respiration) and the coupled state of the mitochondria (RCR) were reduced by approximately 30% with T4 (p?=?0.057 and p?=?0.04, respectively). Together, the results suggest that T4, although less metabolically active than T3, reduces skeletal muscle efficiency and modestly increases resting metabolism even after short-term supplementation. Our findings may be clinically relevant given the expanding application of T4 to treat non-thyroidal conditions such as obesity and weight loss. PMID:22844412

Johannsen, Darcy L.; Galgani, Jose E.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Zhang, Zhengyu; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Ravussin, Eric

2012-01-01

385

Aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold of wheelchair basketball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold of national level Israeli wheelchair basketball players. Subjects were tested working on a wheelchair rolling on a motor driven treadmill and on an arm cycle ergometer. Metabolic and cardiopulmunary parameters were measured during graded maximal exercise tests. Blood lactic acid (LA) concentration was measured in the intervals between loads during the

A Rotstein; M Sagiv; D Ben-Sira; G Werber; J Hutzler; H Annenburg

1994-01-01

386

Biogeochemical activity of anaerobic microorganisms from buried permafrost sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permafrost sediment samples, ranging in age from 7 thousand to 2 million years, from the northeastern region of Russian Arctic were analyzed for evidence of reducing conditions, viable populations of anaerobic bacteria and their metabolic end products. Field analyses of samples showed that all sediments were reduced with a redox potential ranging from +40 to —256 mV. Ferrous iron, acid?soluble

E. Rivkina; D. Gilichinsky; S. Wagener; J. Tiedje; J. McGrath

1998-01-01

387

Relationship Between Gluteus Medius Muscle Activity, Pelvic Motion, and Metabolic Energy in Running (P190)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between gluteus medius muscle (GM) activity, pelvic motion, and changes in metabolic\\u000a energy demands while running. METHODS: Five healthy, female subjects (mean age 22.8±2.2) were obtained from a sample of convenience.\\u000a Subjects were recreational runners who ran ? 5 miles per week (mean 28.0 miles±15.2). Subjects were asked to run on a treadmill\\u000a for 30

Evie N. Burnet; Ross A. Arena; Peter E. Pidcoe

388

LKB1 and AMPK family signaling: the intimate link between cell polarity and energy metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the LKB1 tumor suppressor protein mutated in cancer-prone Peutz-Jeghers patients has continued at a feverish pace following exciting developments linking energy metabolism and cancer development. This review summarizes the current state of research on the LKB1 tumor suppressor. The weight of the evidence currently indicates an evolutionary conserved role for the protein in the regulation of various aspects

M. Jansen; Klooster ten J. P; G. J. A. Offerhaus; H. Clevers

2009-01-01

389

A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal  

PubMed Central

Members of the genus Tetrasphaera are considered to be putative polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Although abundant in Danish full-scale wastewater EBPR plants, how similar their ecophysiology is to ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' is unclear, although they may occupy different ecological niches in EBPR communities. The genomes of four Tetrasphaera isolates (T. australiensis, T. japonica, T. elongata and T. jenkinsii) were sequenced and annotated, and the data used to construct metabolic models. These models incorporate central aspects of carbon and phosphorus metabolism critical to understanding their behavior under the alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions encountered in EBPR systems. Key features of these metabolic pathways were investigated in pure cultures, although poor growth limited their analyses to T. japonica and T. elongata. Based on the models, we propose that under anaerobic conditions the Tetrasphaera-related PAOs take up glucose and ferment this to succinate and other components. They also synthesize glycogen as a storage polymer, using energy generated from the degradation of stored polyphosphate and substrate fermentation. During the aerobic phase, the stored glycogen is catabolized to provide energy for growth and to replenish the intracellular polyphosphate reserves needed for subsequent anaerobic metabolism. They are also able to denitrify. This physiology is markedly different to that displayed by ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis', and reveals Tetrasphaera populations to be unusual and physiologically versatile PAOs carrying out denitrification, fermentation and polyphosphate accumulation. PMID:23178666

Kristiansen, Rikke; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Wimmer, Reinhard; Le, Vang Quy; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J; Calteau, Alexandra; Nielsen, Kare Lehmann; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

2013-01-01

390

Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.  

PubMed

In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:24809291

Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

2014-09-01

391

Regional cerebral energy metabolism during intravenous anesthesia with etomidate, ketamine or thiopental  

SciTech Connect

Regional brain glucose utilization (rCMRglc) was measured in rats during steady-state levels of intravenous anesthesia to determine if alterations in brain function due to anesthesia could provide information on the mechanisms of anesthesia. Intravenous anesthetics from three different chemical classes were studied: etomidate, ketamine and thiopental. All rCMRglc experiments were conducted in freely moving rats in isolation chambers, with the use of (6-/sup 14/C) glucose and guantitative autoradiography. Etomidate caused a rostral-to-caudal gradient of depression of rCMRglc. The four doses of etomidate did not differ in their effects on energy metabolism. Sub-anesthetic (5 mg kg/sup -1/) and anesthetic (30 mg kg /sup -1/) doses of ketamine produced markedly different patterns of behavior. Brain energy metabolism during the sub-anesthetic dose was stimulated in most regions, while the anesthetic dose selectively stimulated the hippocampus, leaving most brain regions unaffected. Thiopental produced a dose-dependent reduction of rCMRglc in all gray matter regions. No brain region was selectively affected. Comparison of the drug-specific alterations of cerebral energy metabolism suggests these anesthetics do not act through a common mechanism. The hypothesis that each acts by binding to specific cell membrane receptors is consistent with these observations.

Davis, D.W.

1987-01-01

392

Molecular basis of hippocampal energy metabolism in diabetic rats: the effects of SOD mimic.  

PubMed

Hippocampal structural changes associated with diabetes-related cognitive impairments are well described, but their molecular background remained vague. We examined whether/how diabetes alters molecular basis of energy metabolism in hippocampus readily after diabetes onset, with special emphasis on its redox-sensitivity. To induce diabetes, adult Mill Hill hybrid hooded rats received a single alloxan dose (120 mg/kg). Both non-diabetic and diabetic groups were further divided in two subgroups receiving (i) or not (ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic, [Mn(II)(pyane)Cl2] for 7 days, i.p. Treatment of the diabetic animals started after blood glucose level ?12 mM. Diabetes decreased protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components: complex III and ATP synthase. In contrast, protein amounts of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? - the key regulator of energy metabolism in stress conditions, were higher in diabetic animals. Treatment with SOD mimic restored/increased the levels of oxidative phosphorylation components and returned hypoxia-inducible factor-1? to control level, while diabetes-induced up-regulation of glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was additionally stimulated. To conclude, our results provide insight into the earliest molecular changes of energy-producing pathways in diabetes that may account for structural/functional disturbance of hippocampus, seen during disease progression. Also, data suggest [Mn(II)(pyane)Cl2] as potential therapeutic agent in cutting-edge approaches to threat this widespread metabolic disorder. PMID:24084255

Stan?i?, Ana; Otaševi?, Vesna; Jankovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?eti?, Milica; Ivanovi?-Burmazovi?, Ivana; Filipovi?, Miloš R; Kora?, Aleksandra; Markeli?, Milica; Veli?kovi?, Ksenija; Goli?, Igor; Buzadži?, Biljana; Kora?, Bato

2013-10-01

393

Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells  

PubMed Central

Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular contexts. In human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their differentiated progeny, this analysis can be challenging because of the unique cell properties, growth conditions and expense required to maintain these cell types. Here we provide protocols for analyzing energy metabolism in hPSCs and their early differentiated progenies that are generally applicable to mature cell types as well. Our approach has revealed distinct energy metabolism profiles used by hPSCs, differentiated cells, a variety of cancer cells and Rho-null cells. The protocols measure or estimate glycolysis on the basis of the extracellular acidification rate, and they measure or estimate oxidative phosphorylation on the basis of the oxygen consumption rate. Assays typically require 3 h after overnight sample preparation. Companion methods are also discussed and provided to aid researchers in developing more sophisticated experimental regimens for extended analyses of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:22576106

Zhang, Jin; Nuebel, Esther; Wisidagama, Dona R R; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Hong, Jason S; Van Horn, Christine M; Imam, Sarah S; Vergnes, Laurent; Malone, Cindy S; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

2013-01-01

394

Irradiation Induced Injury Reduces Energy Metabolism in Small Intestine of Tibet Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Background The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) in Tibet minipigs. Methods and Results 30 Tibet minipigs were assigned into 6 groups including 5 experimental groups and one control group with 6 animals each group. The minipigs in these experimental groups were subjected to a TBI of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 Gy, respectively. Small intestine tissues were collected at 24 h following X-ray exposure and analyzed by histology and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA contents in this tissue were also examined. Irradiation causes pathologic lesions and mitochondrial abnormalities. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content-corrected and uncorrected adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) and total adenine nucleotides (TAN) were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 2–8 Gy exposure, and no further reduction was observed over 8 Gy. Conclusion TBI induced injury is highly dependent on the irradiation dosage in small intestine and inversely correlates with the energy metabolism, with its reduction potentially indicating the severity of injury. PMID:23527059

Song, Jun; Guo, Kun-Yuan; Wang, Gang; Wu, Qing-Hong; Gu, Wei-Wang

2013-01-01

395

Carnosine: can understanding its actions on energy metabolism and protein homeostasis inform its therapeutic potential?  

PubMed Central

The dipeptide carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has contrasting but beneficial effects on cellular activity. It delays cellular senescence and rejuvenates cultured senescent mammalian cells. However, it also inhibits the growth of cultured tumour cells. Based on studies in several organisms, we speculate that carnosine exerts these apparently opposing actions by affecting energy metabolism and/or protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Specific effects on energy metabolism include the dipeptide’s influence on cellular ATP concentrations. Carnosine’s ability to reduce the formation of altered proteins (typically adducts of methylglyoxal) and enhance proteolysis of aberrant polypeptides is indicative of its influence on proteostasis. Furthermore these dual actions might provide a rationale for the use of carnosine in the treatment or prevention of diverse age-related conditions where energy metabolism or proteostasis are compromised. These include cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and the complications of type-2 diabetes (nephropathy, cataracts, stroke and pain), which might all benefit from knowledge of carnosine’s mode of action on human cells. PMID:23442334

2013-01-01

396

Anaerobic digestion in rural China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

Henderson, J.P. [City of Vancouver (Canada)

1997-01-01

397

Anaerobic digestion for household organics  

SciTech Connect

Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

Sincl