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1

Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22902601

Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

2013-02-01

2

Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM  

E-print Network

to aerobic metabolsm. This said, it is not uncommon to hear microbiologists talk about anaerobic respiration it for respiration. However, in many animals anaerobic metabolism may occur even when there are large amounts of O2Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM 1 Introduction About the Next Three Sets of Class Notes

Prestwich, Ken

3

Inorganic types of fermentation and anaerobic respirations in the evolution of energy-yielding metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed long ago the following sequence as one of the main pathways in the evolution of energy-yielding metabolism: fermentation?nitrate fermentation?nitrate respiration?oxygen respiration. In the present report our concept is presented in a more general form: (1) fermentation? ?(2) fermentation with H2 release?(3) inorganic types of fermentation?(4) anaerobic respirations ?(5) oxygen respiration, based upon recent biological and physical information. The

Fujio Egami

1974-01-01

4

Early anaerobic metabolisms  

PubMed Central

Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

2006-01-01

5

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

2003-12-01

6

Effects of cadmium on anaerobic energy metabolism and mRNA expression during air exposure and recovery of an intertidal mollusk Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

Marine organisms are exposed to periodical oxygen deficiency and pollution stress in estuarine and coastal zones which may strongly affect their performance and survival. We studied the combined effects of exposure to a common pollutant, cadmium (Cd), and intermittent anoxia on anaerobic metabolism, energy status and mRNA expression of 13 genes involved in and/or controlled by the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in hepatopancreas of an intertidal bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. In control oysters, prolonged anoxia resulted in a selective suppression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) while the levels of other transcripts remained unchanged. During post-anoxic recovery, mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) was elevated, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NOS and LON protease suppressed, and mRNA expression of other studied genes not changed. Notably, most of the key glycolytic genes that are stimulated by HIF-1 in mammals, either remained unchanged or were downregulated in anoxic oysters suggesting a different mechanism of molecular response to oxygen deficiency. Patterns of transcriptional response during anoxia and reoxygenation were significantly altered by Cd exposure in a gene-specific manner. Anaerobic metabolism (indicated by accumulation of l-alanine, succinate and acetate during anoxia) was also suppressed in Cd-exposed oysters. In control oysters, ATP turnover rate (M(ATP)) during anoxia was mostly sustained by anaerobic glycolysis with negligible contributions from ATP and PLA breakdown. In contrast, in Cd-exposed oysters ATP breakdown contributed significantly to anaerobic M(ATP). Thus, while control oysters could efficiently defend the ATP levels and tissue energy status during prolonged anoxia, Cd-exposed oysters experienced a disturbance in tissue energy balance indicated by the depletion of ATP, a rapid decline in adenylate energy charge and increase in ADP/ATP ratios. This energy deficiency combined with suppression of anaerobic metabolism may strongly affect performance and survival of oysters in polluted estuaries where metal pollution may co-occur with "dead zones". PMID:20538354

Ivanina, Anna V; Sokolov, Eugene P; Sokolova, Inna M

2010-09-01

7

Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

8

Bevacizumab treatment induces metabolic adaptation toward anaerobic metabolism in glioblastomas.  

PubMed

Anti-angiogenic therapy in glioblastoma (GBM) has unfortunately not led to the anticipated improvement in patient prognosis. We here describe how human GBM adapts to bevacizumab treatment at the metabolic level. By performing (13)C6-glucose metabolic flux analysis, we show for the first time that the tumors undergo metabolic re-programming toward anaerobic metabolism, thereby uncoupling glycolysis from oxidative phosphorylation. Following treatment, an increased influx of (13)C6-glucose was observed into the tumors, concomitant to increased lactate levels and a reduction of metabolites associated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This was confirmed by increased expression of glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in the treated tumors. Interestingly, L-glutamine levels were also reduced. These results were further confirmed by the assessment of in vivo metabolic data obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Moreover, bevacizumab led to a depletion in glutathione levels indicating that the treatment caused oxidative stress in the tumors. Confirming the metabolic flux results, immunohistochemical analysis showed an up-regulation of lactate dehydrogenase in the bevacizumab-treated tumor core as well as in single tumor cells infiltrating the brain, which may explain the increased invasion observed after bevacizumab treatment. These observations were further validated in a panel of eight human GBM patients in which paired biopsy samples were obtained before and after bevacizumab treatment. Importantly, we show that the GBM adaptation to bevacizumab therapy is not mediated by clonal selection mechanisms, but represents an adaptive response to therapy. PMID:25322816

Fack, Fred; Espedal, Heidi; Keunen, Olivier; Golebiewska, Anna; Obad, Nina; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel; Bähr, Oliver; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Stuhr, Linda; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Ø; Stieber, Daniel; Rygh, Cecilie B; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Zheng, Liang; Gottlieb, Eyal; Niclou, Simone P; Bjerkvig, Rolf

2015-01-01

9

Integrated Analysis of Protein Complexes and Regulatory Networks Involved in Anaerobic Energy Metabolism of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic Nitrate Reduction. Nitrate is an extensive co-contaminant at some DOE sites making metal and radionuclide reduction problematic. Hence, we sought to better understand the nitrate reduction pathway and its control in S. oneidensis MR-1. It is not known whether the nitrate reduction is by denitrification or dissimilatory nitrate reduction into ammonium (DNRA). By both physiological and genetic evidence, we proved that DNRA is the nitrate reduction pathway in this organism. Using the complete genome sequence of S. oneidensis MR-1, we identified a gene encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase based on its 72% sequence identity with the napA gene in E. coli. Anaerobic growth of MR-1 on nitrate was abolished in a site directed napA mutant, indicating that NapA is the only nitrate reductase present. The anaerobic expression of napA and nrfA, a homolog of the cytochrome b552 nitrite reductase in E. coli, increased with increasing nitrate concentration until a plateau was reached at 3 mM KNO3. This indicates that these genes are not repressed by increasing concentrations of nitrate. The reduction of nitrate can generate intermediates that can be toxic to the microorganism. To determine the genetic response of MR-1 to high concentrations of nitrate, DNA microarrays were used to obtain a complete gene expression profile of MR-1 at low (1 mM) versus high (40 mM) nitrate concentrations. Genes encoding transporters and efflux pumps were up-regulated, perhaps as a mechanism to export toxic compounds. In addition, the gene expression profile of MR-1, grown anaerobically with nitrate as the only electron acceptor, suggested that this dissimilatory pathway contributes to N assimilation. Hence the nitrate reduction pathway could serve a dual purpose. The role of EtrA, a homolog of Fnr (global anaerobic regulator in E. coli) was examined using an etrA deletion mutant we constructed, S. oneidensis EtrA7-1.

Tiedje, James M.

2005-06-01

10

Intermediary Metabolism in Protists: a Sequence-based View of Facultative Anaerobic Metabolism in Evolutionarily Diverse Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Protists account for the bulk of eukaryotic diversity. Through studies of gene and especially genome sequences the molecular basis for this diversity can be determined. Evident from genome sequencing are examples of versatile metabolism that go far beyond the canonical pathways described for eukaryotes in textbooks. In the last 2–3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or are predicted (Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Amoebidium parasiticum) to produce H2 in their metabolism. It is possible that some enzymes of anaerobic metabolism were acquired and distributed among eukaryotes by lateral transfer, but it is also likely that the common ancestor of eukaryotes already had far more metabolic versatility than was widely thought a few years ago. The discussion of core energy metabolism in unicellular eukaryotes is the subject of this review. Since genomic sequencing has so far only touched the surface of protist diversity, it is anticipated that sequences of additional protists may reveal an even wider range of metabolic capabilities, while simultaneously enriching our understanding of the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:21036663

Ginger, Michael L.; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Fulton, Chandler; Cande, W. Zacheus; Dawson, Scott C.

2011-01-01

11

Slow swimming, fast strikes: effects of feeding behavior on scaling of anaerobic metabolism in epipelagic squid.  

PubMed

Many pelagic fishes engage prey at high speeds supported by high metabolic rates and anaerobic metabolic capacity. Epipelagic squids are reported to have among the highest metabolic rates in the oceans as a result of demanding foraging strategies and the use of jet propulsion, which is inherently inefficient. This study examined enzymatic proxies of anaerobic metabolism in two species of pelagic squid, Dosidicus gigas and Doryteuthis pealeii (Lesueur 1821), over a size range of six orders of magnitude. We hypothesized that activity of the anaerobically poised enzymes would be high and increase with size as in ecologically similar fishes. In contrast, we demonstrate that anaerobic metabolic capacity in these organisms scales negatively with body mass. We explored several cephalopod-specific traits, such as the use of tentacles to capture prey, body morphology and reduced relative prey size of adult squids, that may create a diminished reliance on anaerobically fueled burst activity during prey capture in large animals. PMID:25079893

Trueblood, Lloyd A; Seibel, Brad A

2014-08-01

12

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-01-01

13

Carbohydrate oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction, a novel form of anaerobic metabolism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An isolate, designated GC-29, that could incompletely oxidize glucose to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the electron acceptor was recovered from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. This metabolism yielded energy to support cell growth. Strain GC-29 is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative motile rod which, in addition to glucose, also used sucrose, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract, casamino acids or H2 as alternative electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. Stain GC-29 could reduce NO-3, Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, malate, S2O32-, and colloidal S0 as well as the humics analog, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA sequence indicated that strain GC-29 belongs in the Shewanella genus in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The name Shewanella saccharophilia is proposed. Shewanella saccharophilia differs from previously described fermentative microorganisms that metabolize glucose with the reduction of Fe(III) because it transfers significantly more electron equivalents to Fe(III); acetate and carbon dioxide are the only products of glucose metabolism; energy is conserved from Fe(III) reduction; and glucose is not metabolized in the absence of Fe(III). The metabolism of organisms like S. saccharophilia may account for the fact that glucose is metabolized primarily to acetate and carbon dioxide in a variety of sediments in which Fe(III) reduction is the terminal electron accepting process.

Coates, J.D.; Councell, T.; Ellis, D.J.; Lovley, D.R.

1998-01-01

14

Metabolic Interactions Between Methanogenic Consortia and Anaerobic Respiring Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective\\u000a electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic\\u000a respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron\\u000a acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect

A. J. M. Stams; S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink; P. Westermann

2003-01-01

15

Metabolism of alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and other hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and its refined products. Whereas degradation of hydrocarbons by oxygen-respiring microorganisms has been known for about a century, utilization of hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions has been investigated only during the past decade. Diverse strains of anaerobic bacteria have been isolated that degrade toluene anaerobically, using nitrate, iron(III), or sulfate as

Alfred M. Spormann; Friedrich Widdel

2000-01-01

16

Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during activity in small rodents.  

PubMed

Analysis of oxygen consumption and lactic acid formation during five minutes of maximal activity by the rodents Microtus montanus (Cricetidae) and Dipodomys merriami (Hetermyidae) indicates that: (1) anaerobiosis provides approximately 10% of total energy utilized during the 5-minute activity period; (2) anaerobiosis may account for as much as one-third of total energy utilized during the first 30 seconds of activity. In addition, these data indicate at least one species of lizard may be capable of a higher total rate of metabolism during "burst" activity than are the rodents investigated here. PMID:381568

Ruben, J A; Battalia, D E

1979-04-01

17

Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria, exemplifed byRhodobacter capsulatus andRhodobacter sphaeroides, exhibit a remarkable versatility in their anaerobic metabolism. In these bacteria the photosynthetic apparatus, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and pathways of anaerobic respiration are all induced upon a reduction in oxygen tension. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of molecular properties of the photosynthetic apparatus and the

Alastair G. McEwan

1994-01-01

18

Anaerobic Metabolism at Thermal Extremes: A Metabolomic Test of the Oxygen Limitation Hypothesis in an Aquatic Insect  

PubMed Central

Thermal limits in ectotherms may arise through a mismatch between supply and demand of oxygen. At higher temperatures, the ability of their cardiac and ventilatory activities to supply oxygen becomes insufficient to meet their elevated oxygen demand. Consequently, higher levels of oxygen in the environment are predicted to enhance tolerance of heat, whereas reductions in oxygen are expected to reduce thermal limits. Here, we extend previous research on thermal limits and oxygen limitation in aquatic insect larvae and directly test the hypothesis of increased anaerobic metabolism and lower energy status at thermal extremes. We quantified metabolite profiles in stonefly nymphs under varying temperatures and oxygen levels. Under normoxia, the concept of oxygen limitation applies to the insects studied. Shifts in the metabolome of heat-stressed stonefly nymphs clearly indicate the onset of anaerobic metabolism (e.g., accumulation of lactate, acetate, and alanine), a perturbation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., accumulation of succinate and malate), and a decrease in energy status (e.g., ATP), with corresponding decreases in their ability to survive heat stress. These shifts were more pronounced under hypoxic conditions, and negated by hyperoxia, which also improved heat tolerance. Perturbations of metabolic pathways in response to either heat stress or hypoxia were found to be somewhat similar but not identical. Under hypoxia, energy status was greatly compromised at thermal extremes, but energy shortage and anaerobic metabolism could not be conclusively identified as the sole cause underlying thermal limits under hyperoxia. Metabolomics proved useful for suggesting a range of possible mechanisms to explore in future investigations, such as the involvement of leaking membranes or free radicals. In doing so, metabolomics provided a more complete picture of changes in metabolism under hypoxia and heat stress. PMID:23604617

Verberk, W. C. E. P.; Sommer, U.; Davidson, R. L.; Viant, M. R.

2013-01-01

19

Anaerobic metabolism of phthalate and other aromatic compounds by a denitrifying bacterium. [Pseudomonas sp  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic metabolism of phthalate and other aromatic compounds by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain P136 was studied. Benzoate, cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylate, 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate, and pimelate were detected as predominant metabolic intermediates during the metabolism of three isomers of phthalate, m-hydroxybenzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and cyclohex-3-ene-carboxylate. Inducible acyl-coeznyme A synthetase activities for phthalates, benzoate, cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylate, and cyclohex-3-ene-carboxylate were detected in the cells grown on aromatic compounds. Simultaneous adaptation to these aromatic compounds also occurred. A similar phenomenon was observed in the aerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by this strain. A new pathway for the anaerobic metabolism of phthalate and a series of other aromatic compounds by this strain was proposed. Some properties of the regulation of this pathway were also discussed.

Nozawa, T.; Maruyama, Y. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1988-12-01

20

Stepwise metabolic adaption from pure metabolization to balanced anaerobic growth on xylose explored for recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background To effectively convert lignocellulosic feedstocks to bio-ethanol anaerobic growth on xylose constitutes an essential trait that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains normally do not adopt through the selective integration of a xylose assimilation route as the rate of ATP-formation is below energy requirements for cell maintenance (mATP). To enable cell growth extensive evolutionary and/or elaborate rational engineering is required. However the number of available strains meeting demands for process integration are limited. In this work evolutionary engineering in just two stages coupled to strain selection under strict anaerobic conditions was carried out with BP10001 as progenitor. BP10001 is an efficient (Yethanol?=?0.35 g/g) but slow (qethanol?=?0.05?±?0.01 g/gBM/h) xylose-metabolizing recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that expresses an optimized yeast-type xylose assimilation pathway. Results BP10001 was adapted in 5 generations to anaerobic growth on xylose by prolonged incubation for 91 days in sealed flasks. Resultant strain IBB10A02 displayed a specific growth rate ? of 0.025?±?0.002 h-1 but produced large amounts of glycerol and xylitol. In addition growth was strongly impaired at pH below 6.0 and in the presence of weak acids. Using sequential batch selection and IBB10A02 as basis, IBB10B05 was evolved (56 generations). IBB10B05 was capable of fast (??=?0.056?±?0.003 h-1; qethanol?=?0.28?±?0.04 g/gBM/h), efficient (Yethanol?=?0.35?±?0.02 g/g), robust and balanced fermentation of xylose. Importantly, IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 displayed a stable phenotype. Unlike BP10001 both strains displayed an unprecedented biphasic formation of glycerol and xylitol along the fermentation time. Transition from a glycerol- to a xylitol-dominated growth phase, probably controlled by CO2/HCO3-, was accompanied by a 2.3-fold increase of mATP while YATP (= 87?±?7 mmolATP/gBM) remained unaffected. As long as glycerol constituted the main by-product energetics of anaerobic growth on xylose and glucose were almost identical. Conclusions In just 61 generation IBB10B05, displaying ~530% improved strain fitness, was evolved from BP10001. Its excellent xylose fermentation properties under industrial relevant conditions were proven and rendered it competitive. Based on detailed analysis of growth energetics we showed that mATP was predominantly determined by the type of polyol formed rather than, as previously assumed, substrate-specific. PMID:24606998

2014-01-01

21

Exercise- and Hypoxia-Induced Anaerobic Metabolism and Recovery: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anaerobic metabolism is recruited in vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a…

Rees, B. B.; Boily, P.; Williamson, L. A. C.

2009-01-01

22

Misconceptions about Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Expenditure  

PubMed Central

The measurement of gas exchange has played an invaluable role in metabolic interpretation. The uptake of 1 liter of oxygen is often converted into an energy expenditure estimate of 21.1 kilojoules (e.g., 1 L O2 = 21.1 kJ or ~5 kcal). This article demonstrates both the importance of such a conversion and the potential for misinterpretation. Oxygen uptake during heavy and severe exercise will also be discussed. PMID:18500953

Scott, Christopher

2005-01-01

23

The metabolism of benzoate by Moraxella species through anaerobic nitrate respiration. Evidence for a reductive pathway.  

PubMed Central

Moraxella sp. isolated from soil grows anaerobically on benzoate by nitrate respiration; nitrate or nitrite are obligatory electron acceptors, being reduced to molecular N2 during the catabolism of the substrate. This bacterium also grows aerobically on benzoate. 2. Aerobically, benzoate is metabolized by ortho cleavage of catechol followed by the beta-oxoadipate pathway. 3. Cells of Moraxella grown anaerobically on benzoate are devoid of ortho and meta cleavage enzymes; cyclohexanecarboxylate and 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate were detected in the anaerobic culture fluid. 4. [ring-U-14C]Benzoate, incubated anaerobically with cells in nitrate-phosphate buffer, gave rise to labelled 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate and adipate. When [carboxy-14C]benzoate was used, 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate was radioactive but the adipate was not labelled. A decarboxylation reaction intervenes at some stage between these two metabolites. 5. The anaerobic metabolism of benzoate by Moraxella sp. through nitrate respiration takes place by the reductive pathway (Dutton & Evans, 1969). Hydrogenation of the aromatic ring probably occurs via cyclohexa-2,5-dienecarboxylate and cyclohex-1-enecarboxylate to give cyclohexanecarboxylate. The biochemistry of this reductive process remains unclear. 6. CoA thiol esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylate followed by beta-oxidation via the unsaturated and hydroxy esters, would afford 2-oxocyclohexanecarboxylate. Subsequent events in the Moraxella culture differ from those occurring with Rhodopseudomonas palustris; decarboxylation precedes hydrolytic cleavage of the alicyclic ring to produce adipate in the former, whereas in the latter the keto ester undergoes direct hydrolytic fission to pimelate. PMID:1156389

Williams, R J; Evans, W C

1975-01-01

24

Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

Boopathy, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1994-06-01

25

Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden  

SciTech Connect

Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

Not Available

1982-02-01

26

Genome-scale analysis of anaerobic benzoate and phenol metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus  

PubMed Central

Insight into the mechanisms for the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus is expected to improve understanding of the degradation of aromatics in hot (>80°?C) environments and to identify enzymes that might have biotechnological applications. Analysis of the F. placidus genome revealed genes predicted to encode enzymes homologous to those previously identified as having a role in benzoate and phenol metabolism in mesophilic bacteria. Surprisingly, F. placidus lacks genes for an ATP-independent class II benzoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) reductase (BCR) found in all strictly anaerobic bacteria, but has instead genes coding for a bzd-type ATP-consuming class I BCR, similar to those found in facultative bacteria. The lower portion of the benzoate degradation pathway appears to be more similar to that found in the phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris, than the pathway reported for all heterotrophic anaerobic benzoate degraders. Many of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate metabolism were found in one of two gene clusters. Genes for phenol carboxylation proceeding through a phenylphosphate intermediate were identified in a single gene cluster. Analysis of transcript abundance with a whole-genome microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate or phenol metabolism had higher transcript abundance during growth on those substrates vs growth on acetate. These results suggest that the general strategies for benzoate and phenol metabolism are highly conserved between microorganisms living in moderate and hot environments, and that anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds might be analyzed in a wide range of environments with similar molecular targets. PMID:21776029

Holmes, Dawn E; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A; Lovley, Derek R

2012-01-01

27

Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria.  

PubMed

Purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria, exemplified by Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exhibit a remarkable versatility in their anaerobic metabolism. In these bacteria the photosynthetic apparatus, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and pathways of anaerobic respiration are all induced upon a reduction in oxygen tension. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of molecular properties of the photosynthetic apparatus and the control of the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. In addition, anaerobic respiratory pathways have been characterised and their interaction with photosynthetic electron transport has been described. This review will survey these advances and will discuss the ways in which photosynthetic electron transport and oxidation-reduction processes are integrated during photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth. PMID:7747929

McEwan, A G

1994-01-01

28

The Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West Falmouth Harbor  

E-print Network

, respectively. Anaerobic respiration rates were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than aerobic ratesThe Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West 02543 #12;Abstract Carbon quality, rates of respiration, and rates of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN

Vallino, Joseph J.

29

Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production. PMID:23969939

Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

2013-01-01

30

Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

SciTech Connect

Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1991-07-01

31

Exercise- and hypoxia-induced anaerobic metabolism and recovery: a student laboratory exercise using teleost fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anaerobic metabolism is recruited in vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a laboratory exercise developed as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology class that demonstrates the effects of exercise and hypoxia exposure on blood lactate in fish and the subsequent decrease in lactate during recovery. Typically, the results obtained by students demonstrate that both treatments cause significant increases in blood lactate concentrations (two to three times higher than control values) that decrease back to normal values within 3 h of recovery under normoxia. The procedures described are generally applicable to other fish species and provide an alternative to using humans or other mammalian species to investigate anaerobic metabolism.

B B Rees (University of New Orleans Biological Sciences)

2009-03-01

32

Anaerobic metabolism of immediate methane precursors in Lake Mendota.  

PubMed Central

Lake Mendota sediments and the immediate overlying water column were studied to better understand the metabolism of the methanogenic precursors H2/CO2 and acetate in nature. The pool size of acetate (3.5 microns M) was very small, and the acetate turnover time (0.22h) was very rapid. The dissolved inorganic carbon pool was shown to be large (6.4 to 8.3 mM), and the turnover time was slow (111 H.). CO2 was shown to account for 41 +/- 5.5% of the methane produced in sediment. Acetate and H2/CO2 were simultaneously converted to CH4. The addition of H2 to sediments resulted in an increase specific activity of CH4 from H(14)CO3- and a decrease in specific activity of CH4 from [2-14C]acetate. Acetate addition resulted in a decrease in specific activity of CH4 from H(14)CO3-. The metabolism of H(14)CO3- or [2-14C]acetate to 14CH4 was not inhibited by addition of acetate or H2. After greater than 99% of added [2-14C]acetate had been turned over, 42% of the label was recovered as 14CH4 20% was recovered as 14CO2 and 38% was incorporated into sediment. Inhibitor studies of [2-14C]acetate metabolism in sediments demonstrated that CHCl3 completely inhibited CH4 formation, but not CO2 production. Air and nitrate addition inhibited CH4 formation and stimulated CO2 production, whereas fluoroacetate addition totally inhibited acetate metabolism. The oxidation of [2-14C]acetate to 14CO2 was shown to decrease with time when sediment was incubated before the addition of label, suggesting depletion of low levels of an endogenous sediment electron acceptor. Acetate metabolism varied seasonally and was related to the concentration of sulfate in the lake and interstitial water. Methanogenesis occurred in the sediment and in the water immediately overlying the sediment during period of lake stratification and several centimeters below the sediment-water interface during lake turnovers. These data indicate that methanogenesis in Lake Mendota sediments was limited by "immediate" methane precursor availability (i.e., acetate and H2), by competition for these substrates by nonmethanogens, and by seasonal variations which altered sediment and water chemistry. PMID:434807

Winfrey, M R; Zeikus, J G

1979-01-01

33

Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of Planctomycetes from Anaerobic, Sulfide- and Sulfur-Rich Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic capabilities of members of the phylum Planctomycetes in the anaerobic, sulfide-saturated sediments of a mesophilic spring (Zodletone Spring) in southwestern Oklahoma. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences generated using Planctomycetes-biased primer pairs suggested that an extremely diverse community of Planctomycetes is present at the spring. Although sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with cultured heterotrophic Planctomycetes were identified, the majority of the sequences belonged to several globally distributed, as-yet-uncultured Planctomycetes lineages. Using complex organic media (aqueous extracts of the spring sediments and rumen fluid), we isolated two novel strains that belonged to the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade within the Planctomycetes. The two strains had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, and their closest relatives were isolates from Kiel Fjord (Germany), Keauhou Beach (HI), a marine aquarium, and tissues of marine organisms (Aplysina sp. sponges and postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon). The closest recognized cultured relative of strain Zi62 was Blastopirellula marina (93.9% sequence similarity). Detailed characterization of strain Zi62 revealed its ability to reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide under anaerobic conditions, as well as its ability to produce acids from sugars; both characteristics may potentially allow strain Zi62 to survive and grow in the anaerobic, sulfide- and sulfur-rich environment at the spring source. Overall, this work indicates that anaerobic metabolic abilities are widely distributed among all major Planctomycetes lineages and suggests carbohydrate fermentation and sulfur reduction as possible mechanisms employed by heterotrophic Planctomycetes for growth and survival under anaerobic conditions. PMID:17545322

Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Luo, Qingwei; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sisk, Tracy M.; Bühring, Solveig I.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Krumholz, Lee R.

2007-01-01

34

Biomarkers of Microbial Metabolism for Monitoring in-situ Anaerobic PAH Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds found in petroleum and its products are subject to biodegradation in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobic pathways reveal novel mechanism of microbial transformation through a series of metabolites and intermediates which are unique to the anaerobic degradation process. The presence of these compounds in-situ, then conceptually can serve as indicators that anaerobic degradation is taking place. We have laboratory studies and field samples which support this concept for BTX and PAH compounds. Environments in which these anaerobic degradation processes have been observed include freshwater and estuarine sediments, groundwater from impacted aquifers at a former manufactured gas plant and gasoline station, and a creosote-contaminated aquifer. Analytical protocols were developed to detect nanomolar concentrations from soil slurries and groundwater samples and microcosm studies verified their formation from field samples and use as biomarkers of activity. Recent studies on the mechanisms of anaerobic naphthalene and methylnaphthalene metabolism have identified several unusual compounds that can serve as biomarkers for monitoring in situ PAH biodegradation. For naphthalene these include 2-naphthoic acid (2-NA), tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid (TH-2-NA), hexahydro-2-naphthoic acid (HH-2-NA) and methylnaphthoic acid (MNA) generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria degrading naphthalene or methylnaphthalene. Groundwater samples were analyzed from wells distributed throughout an anaerobic, creosote-contaminated aquifer and also from a leaking underground storage site. Samples were extracted, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. The concentration of 2-NA at each monitoring well was quantified and correlated to the zones of naphthalene contamination. Taken together with measurements of the aquifer's physical characteristics, these biomarker data can be used to describe the extent of naphthalene biodegradation at these site.

Young, L.; Phelps, C.; Battistelli, J.

2002-12-01

35

Fermentative metabolism of pyruvate by Rhodospirillum rubrum after anaerobic growth in darkness.  

PubMed

Rhodospirillum rubrum grew anaerobically in darkness and fermented sodium pyruvate by a pyruvate formate-lyase reaction. During 30 min of anaerobic dark or light incubation with sodium pyrivate, crude extracts from fermentatively grown cells produced about 6 micronmol of acetylphosphate and formate per mg of protein in reactions performed at pH 8.3. Cell extracts also catalyzed the exchange of sodium [14C]formate into sodium pyruvate at an apparent pH optimum of 7.3 to 7.5, but only about 2.5 micronmol of acetylphosphate was produced at this lower pH value. R. rubrum may also form pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity, as evidenced by low bicarbonate exchange activity. However, its participation in pyruvate metabolism in anaerobic dark-grown cells was not understood. During anaerobic, dark growth with pyruvate, formate was an intermediate in H2 and CO2 gas evolution. In contrast with H2 production by a light-dependent H2-nitrogenase system in photosynthetically grown cells, H2 formation in fermenting R. rubrum occurred through a carbon monoxide-sensitive formic hydrogenlyase reaction not influenced by light. PMID:18439

Gorrell, T E; Uffen, R L

1977-08-01

36

Effects of a commercially available energy drink on anaerobic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance, athletes and fitness enthusiasts consume a variety of supplements. Because of this, energy drinks are quickly becoming more and more popular every day. Despite its highly addictive nature, caffeine, which is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, is gaining recognition as an ergogenic aid. However, due to the many factors

Jason J Downing

2009-01-01

37

Total solids content: a key parameter of metabolic pathways in dry anaerobic digestion  

PubMed Central

Background In solid-state anaerobic digestion (AD) bioprocesses, hydrolytic and acidogenic microbial metabolisms have not yet been clarified. Since these stages are particularly important for the establishment of the biological reaction, better knowledge could optimize the process performances by process parameters adjustment. Results This study demonstrated the effect of total solids (TS) content on microbial fermentation of wheat straw with six different TS contents ranging from wet to dry conditions (10 to 33% TS). Three groups of metabolic behaviors were distinguished based on wheat straw conversion rates with 2,200, 1,600, and 1,400 mmol.kgVS-1 of fermentative products under wet (10 and 14% TS), dry (19 to 28% TS), and highly dry (28 to 33% TS) conditions, respectively. Furthermore, both wet and dry fermentations showed acetic and butyric acid metabolisms, whereas a mainly butyric acid metabolism occurred in highly dry fermentation. Conclusion Substrate conversion was reduced with no changes of the metabolic pathways until a clear limit at 28% TS content, which corresponded to the threshold value of free water content of wheat straw. This study suggested that metabolic pathways present a limit of TS content for high-solid AD. PMID:24261971

2013-01-01

38

In vitro metabolism of rebaudioside B, D, and M under anaerobic conditions: comparison with rebaudioside A.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis of the steviol glycosides rebaudioside A, B, D, and M, as well as of steviolbioside (a metabolic intermediate) to steviol was evaluated in vitro using human fecal homogenates from healthy donors under anaerobic conditions. Incubation of each of the rebaudiosides resulted in rapid hydrolysis to steviol. Metabolism was complete within 24h, with the majority occurring within the first 8h. There were no clear differences in the rate or extent of metabolism of rebaudioside B, D, or M, relative to the comparative control rebaudioside A. The hydrolysis of samples containing 2.0mg/mL of each rebaudioside tended to take slightly longer than solutions containing 0.2mg/mL. There was no apparent gender differences in the amount of metabolism of any of the rebaudiosides, regardless of the concentrations tested. An intermediate in the hydrolysis of rebaudioside M to steviol, steviolbioside, was also found to be rapidly degraded to steviol. The results demonstrate that rebaudiosides B, D, and M are metabolized to steviol in the same manner as rebaudioside A. These data support the use of toxicology data available on steviol, and on steviol glycosides metabolized to steviol (i.e., rebaudioside A) to substantiate the safety of rebaudiosides B, D, and M. PMID:24361573

Purkayastha, Sidd; Pugh, George; Lynch, Barry; Roberts, Ashley; Kwok, David; Tarka, Stanley M

2014-03-01

39

Energy and macronutrient metabolism.  

PubMed

In general, obesity is a state of high energy stores, high energy intake, and high energy expenditure. The high energy expenditure is largely due to the increased fat-free mass. The failure to find a positive relationship between reported energy intake and body size reflects a greater under-reporting of calorie intake among obese individuals. Obesity, therefore, develops as a consequence of a chronic imbalance between intake and expenditure, although the cause of this is not apparent from the energy balance equation. However, this equation can be dissected into its component nutrient balance equations because net de novo lipogenesis is negligible in free-living humans. Fat calories are handled very differently from non-fat calories. Non-fat nutrient oxidation rates rise and fall to match the fluctuations in non-fat intake so that non-fat calorie balance is actively maintained. In contrast, changes in fat intake do not acutely affect fat oxidation but are matched by changes in storage. Therefore, within the fat balance equation there is ample scope for a chronic imbalance between fat intake and oxidation. Also, there is some evidence that carbohydrate balance may be an important signal for hunger and satiety. These concepts imply that, under free-living, ad libitum eating conditions, changes in nutrient intake composition (e.g. an increased proportion of fat in the diet) or changes in nutrient oxidation composition (e.g. a decrease in the proportion of fat oxidized) will lead to body weight change (in these cases, to weight gain). Considering obesity as a consequence of normal physiology (with its normal variation between individuals) in a 'pathological' environment (high fat diet, low exercise) offers an important perspective for explaining the interpopulation and interindividual differences in obesity and for formulating treatment and prevention options. Low energy expenditure (relative to body size), high respiratory quotient and insulin sensitivity have been shown to be predictors of weight gain, although upon gaining weight these metabolic factors tend to 'normalize'. Metabolic responses to underfeeding or overfeeding are largely predictable from the changes in calorie intake and changes in body composition, but some adaptive changes may occur. PMID:7980346

Swinburn, B A; Ravussin, E

1994-07-01

40

Central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic, oxygen-limited and fully aerobic steady-state conditions and following a shift to anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A was grown in glucose-limited chemostat culture with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.8% or 20.9% O2 in the inlet gas (D=0.10 h(-1), pH 5, 30 degrees C) to determine the effects of oxygen on 17 metabolites and 69 genes related to central carbon metabolism. The concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolites and all glycolytic metabolites except 2-phosphoglycerate+3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate were higher in anaerobic than in fully aerobic conditions. Provision of only 0.5-1% O2 reduced the concentrations of most metabolites, as compared with anaerobic conditions. Transcription of most genes analyzed was reduced in 0%, 0.5% or 1.0% O2 relative to cells grown in 2.8% or 20.9% O2. Ethanol production was observed with 2.8% or less O2. After steady-state analysis in defined oxygen concentrations, the conditions were switched from aerobic to anaerobic. Metabolite and transcript levels were monitored for up to 96 h after the transition, and this showed that more than 30 h was required for the cells to fully adapt to anaerobiosis. Levels of metabolites of upper glycolysis and the TCA cycle increased following the transition to anaerobic conditions, whereas those of metabolites of lower glycolysis generally decreased. Gene regulation was more complex, with some genes showing transient upregulation or downregulation during the adaptation to anaerobic conditions. PMID:17425669

Wiebe, Marilyn G; Rintala, Eija; Tamminen, Anu; Simolin, Helena; Salusjärvi, Laura; Toivari, Mervi; Kokkonen, Juha T; Kiuru, Jari; Ketola, Raimo A; Jouhten, Paula; Huuskonen, Anne; Maaheimo, Hannu; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

2008-02-01

41

Global transcriptomic analysis uncovers a switch to anaerobic metabolism in tellurite-exposed Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Tellurite (TeO3(2-)) is harmful for most microorganisms, especially Gram-negative bacteria. Even though tellurite toxicity involves a number of individual aspects, including oxidative stress, malfunctioning of metabolic enzymes and a drop in the reduced thiol pool, among others, the general mechanism of toxicity is rather complex and not completely understood to date. This work focused on DNA microarray analysis to evaluate the Escherichia coli global transcriptomic response when exposed to the toxicant. Confirming previous results, the induction of the oxidative stress response regulator soxS was observed. Upregulation of a number of genes involved in the global stress response, protein folding, redox processes and cell wall organization was also detected. In addition, downregulation of aerobic respiration-related genes suggested a metabolic switch to anaerobic respiration. The expression results were validated through oxygen consumption experiments, which corroborated that tellurite-exposed cells effectively consume oxygen at lower rates than untreated controls. PMID:25049169

Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Loyola, David E; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo A; Arenas, Felipe A; Urzúa, Ulises; Pérez-Donoso, José M; Vásquez, Claudio C

2014-09-01

42

Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress. PMID:24723105

Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

43

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery  

E-print Network

LIM J.W. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery Jun Wei LIM waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION). The anaerobic digestion of food waste and animal manure (El-Mashad and Zhang, 2010; Neves et al., 2008; Ahn et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production. Progress report, June 1990--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period, progress is reported on the following: metabolic pathway of solvent production in B. methylotrophicum; the biochemical mechanism for metabolic regulation of the succinate fermentation; models to understand the physiobiochemical function of formate metabolism in anaerobes and; models for understanding the influence of low pH on one carbon metabolism. (CBS)

Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.K.

1992-04-01

45

Microbial metabolism of pyridine, quinoline, acridine, and their derivatives under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Our review of the metabolic pathways of pyridines and aza-arenes showed that biodegradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds occurs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Depending upon the environmental conditions, different types of bacteria, fungi, and enzymes are involved in the degradation process of these compounds. Our review indicated that different organisms are using different pathways to biotransform a substrate. Our review also showed that the transformation rate of the pyridine derivatives is dependent on the substituents. For example, pyridine carboxylic acids have the highest transformation rate followed by mono-hydroxypyridines, methylpyridines, aminopyridines, and halogenated pyridines. Through the isolation of metabolites, it was possible to demonstrate the mineralization pathway of various heterocyclic aromatic compounds. By using 14C-labeled substrates, it was possible to show that ring fission of a specific heterocyclic compound occurs at a specific position of the ring. Furthermore, many researchers have been able to isolate and characterize the microorganisms or even the enzymes involved in the transformation of these compounds or their derivatives. In studies involving 18O labeling as well as the use of cofactors and coenzymes, it was possible to prove that specific enzymes (e.g., mono- or dioxygenases) are involved in a particular degradation step. By using H2 18O, it could be shown that in certain transformation reactions, the oxygen was derived from water and that therefore these reactions might also occur under anaerobic conditions. PMID:8840783

Kaiser, J P; Feng, Y; Bollag, J M

1996-01-01

46

Metabolic adaptation to sugar/O2 deficiency for anaerobic germination and seedling growth in rice.  

PubMed

Rice is characterized by a broad range of metabolic and morphological adaptations to flooding, such as germination and mobilization of stored nutrients under submergence until seedlings reach the water surface to carry out photosynthesis, and sustainable growth of mature plants for long durations under partial submergence. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular basis of adaptation to anaerobic germination and seedling growth in rice are being uncovered. Induction of an ensemble of hydrolases to mobilize endosperm nutrient reserves is one of the key factors for successful germination and coleoptile elongation in rice under submergence. To compensate for reduced efficiency of Tricarboxylic Acid cycle and oxidative respiration in mitochondria under O2 deficient conditions, ?-amylases play a central role in the hydrolysis of starch to provide sugar substrates for glycolysis and alcohol fermentation for generating ATP. We review the progress on the molecular mechanism regulating ?-amylase expression that involves the integration of signals generated by the hormone gibberellin (GA), sugar starvation and O2 deprivation that results in germination and sustainable seedling growth in rice under anaerobic conditions. Comparisons are also made between dicots and monocots for the molecular mechanism of induction of genes involved in alcohol fermentation and sugar/O2 deficiency sensing system. PMID:24575721

Lee, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Peng Wen; Yu, Su-May

2014-10-01

47

Rapid Method for the Radioisotopic Analysis of Gaseous End Products of Anaerobic Metabolism  

PubMed Central

A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 14C-labeled and unlabeled metabolic gases from microbial methanogenic systems is described. H2, CH4, and CO2 were separated within 2.5 min on a Carbosieve B column and were detected by thermal conductivity. Detector effluents were channeled into a gas proportional counter for measurement of radioactivity. This method was more rapid, sensitive, and convenient than gas chromatography-liquid scintillation techniques. The gas chromatography-gas proportional counting procedure was used to characterize the microbial decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic lake sediments and to monitor 14CH4 formation from H2 and 14CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri. PMID:4854029

Nelson, David R.; Zeikus, J. G.

1974-01-01

48

Anaerobic Central Metabolic Pathways in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Reinterpreted in the Light of Isotopic Metabolite Labeling?  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that during growth under anaerobic or oxygen-limited conditions, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway common to many methylotrophic anaerobes, in which formaldehyde produced from pyruvate is condensed with glycine to form serine. The serine is then transformed through hydroxypyruvate and glycerate to enter central metabolism at phosphoglycerate. To examine its use of the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway under anaerobic conditions, we grew S. oneidensis MR-1 on [1-13C]lactate as the sole carbon source, with either trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) or fumarate as an electron acceptor. Analysis of cellular metabolites indicated that a large percentage (>70%) of lactate was partially oxidized to either acetate or pyruvate. The 13C isotope distributions in amino acids and other key metabolites indicate that under anaerobic conditions, although glyoxylate synthesized from the isocitrate lyase reaction can be converted to glycine, a complete serine-isocitrate pathway is not present and serine/glycine is, in fact, oxidized via a highly reversible degradation pathway. The labeling data also suggest significant activity in the anapleurotic (malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) reactions. Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often observed to be incomplete in many other anaerobes (absence of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity), isotopic labeling supports the existence of a complete TCA cycle in S. oneidensis MR-1 under certain anaerobic conditions, e.g., TMAO-reducing conditions. PMID:17114268

Tang, Yinjie J.; Meadows, Adam L.; Kirby, James; Keasling, Jay D.

2007-01-01

49

Contribution of dialysate acetate to energy metabolism: Metabolic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contribution of dialysate acetate to energy metabolism: Metabolic implications. During hemodialysis large amounts of acetate enter the bloodstream. Generally, it is assumed that this exogenous acetate load is oxidized immediately to carbon dioxide and water; however, the rate of plasma acetate oxidation and the effect of acetate oxidation on energy metabolism during hemodialysis has not been determined previously. The rates

Charles L Skutches; Miles H Sigler; Brendan P Teehan; Joseph H Cooper; George A Reichard

1983-01-01

50

PPARs: diverse regulators in energy metabolism and metabolic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear receptor PPARs are fundamentally important for energy homeostasis. Through their distinct yet overlapping functions and tissue distribution, the PPARs regulate many aspects of energy metabolism at the transcriptional level. Functional impairment or dysregulation of these receptors leads to a variety of metabolic diseases, while their ligands offer many metabolic benefits. Studies of these receptors have advanced our knowledge

Yong-Xu Wang

2010-01-01

51

Metabolic profiling of Staphylococcus aureus cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with (1)H NMR-based nontargeted analysis.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in the medical area and food-producing sector. Detailed analyses of its basic cell physiology will help comprehensively understand this pathogen, which will be useful for developing novel diagnostic and treatment tools. Oxygen is one of the most crucial growth-limiting factors for S. aureus. In this study, to characterize and distinguish metabolic profiles of S. aureus cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, nontargeted analyses of both types of cultures were carried out using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fifty compounds were identified by Chenomx software. Characteristics of metabolic profiles were achieved by using principal components analysis. During aerobic growth, S. aureus mainly consumed glucose, alanine, arginine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and acetate. Meanwhile, it accumulated 17 metabolites, mainly 2-oxoglutarate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, succinate, and ethanol. Under anaerobic condition, S. aureus mainly consumed glucose, arginine, and threonine. Meanwhile, it accumulated 13 metabolites, mainly ethanol, lactate, and ornithine. The representative metabolites that could most significantly differentiate metabolic profiles of S. aureus were isobutyrate, isovalerate, and succinate in aerobic cultivation; and lactate, ethanol, and ornithine in anaerobic cultivation. Among these metabolites, isobutyrate and ornithine were present only in aerobic and anaerobic culture, respectively. PMID:22571732

Sun, Ji-Lu; Zhang, Shao-Kang; Chen, Jing-Yu; Han, Bei-Zhong

2012-06-01

52

Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-05-20

53

Energy Metabolism in the Liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial ? oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1?, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

Rui, Liangyou

2014-01-01

54

Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.  

PubMed

The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13?000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic bioprocesses in energy positive wastewater management is discussed. PMID:24671159

Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

2014-05-01

55

Biogas generation potential by anaerobic digestion for sustainable energy development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of biogas generation from anaerobic digestion of different waste biomass in India has been studied. Renewable energy from biomass is one of the most efficient and effective options among the various other alternative sources of energy currently available. The anaerobic digestion of biomass requires less capital investment and per unit production cost as compared to other renewable energy

P. Venkateswara Rao; Saroj S. Baral; Ranjan Dey; Srikanth Mutnuri

2010-01-01

56

Carboxylation of phenylphosphate by phenol carboxylase, an enzyme system of anaerobic phenol metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that the first step in the anaerobic metabolism of phenol is phenol carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate; this reaction is considered a biological Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation. A phenol carboxylase system was characterized by using a denitrifying Pseudomonas strain, K 172, which catalyzes an isotope exchange between 14CO2 and the carboxyl group of 4-hydroxybenzoate. The enzymatic isotope exchange activity (100 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein) requires Mn2+ and K+. We show that this system also catalyzes the carboxylation of phenylphosphate (the phosphoric acid monophenyl ester) to 4-hydroxybenzoate and phosphate. The specific activity of phenylphosphate carboxylation at the optimal pH of 6.5 is 12 nmol of CO2 fixed min-1 mg-1 of protein. Phenylphosphate cannot be replaced by Mg(2+)-ATP and phenol. The carboxylase activity requires Mn2+ but, in contrast to the isotope exchange activity, does not require K+. The apparent Km values are 1.5 mM dissolved CO2 and 0.2 mM phenylphosphate. Several convenient assays for phenylophosphate carboxylation are described. The isotope exchange reaction and the net carboxylation reaction are catalyzed by the same oxygen-sensitive enzyme, which has a half-life in an air-saturated solution of less than 1 min. Both activities cochromatographed with a protein with a Mr of 280,000, and both activities were induced only after anaerobic growth on phenol. The carboxylation of phenylphosphate suggests that phenylphosphate itself is the physiological CO2 acceptor molecular of this novel CO2 fixation reaction. Alternatively, phenylphosphate could simulate the unknown natural precursor. It is suggested that the formation of an enzyme-bound phenolate anion from the activated phenolic compound is the rate-determining step in the carboxylation reaction. PMID:1592817

Lack, A; Fuchs, G

1992-01-01

57

Anaerobic Digesters: From Waste to Energy Crops as an Alternative Energy Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to investigate the integrated organic waste-anaerobic digester-energy crop production system as a eco-agricultural system and to use anaerobically digested cattle slurry as fertilizer for safflower production. The value of slurry as fertilizer for growing safflower was compared with commercial organic and chemical fertilizers. According to the results of this study, higher yields

G. Kocar

2008-01-01

58

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

59

A low dose of doxorubicin improves antioxidant defence system and modulates anaerobic metabolism during the development of lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study is to find low dose of doxorubicin (DOX) with cancer preventive activity and to check the implication of this low dose of DOX on antioxidant defence system during lymphoma growth in mice, as the clinical utility of anthracycline anticancer drugs, especially DOX is limited by a progressive cardiotoxicity linked to mitochondrial damage. Materials and Methods: We selected a dose of DOX (0.90 mg/kg body weight of mouse), which is about 20 folds lower than clinically used dose for cancer treatment. The cancer preventive action is monitored by modulation of anaerobic metabolism. The effect of this dose on antioxidant defence system is analyzed by testing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The activities of these enzymes were monitored at different intervals during the growth of lymphoma in mice. Results: The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT, SOD, and GST, were found to decrease gradually during the growth of lymphoma in mice. The anaerobic metabolism was increasing with lymphoma growth. We report that about 20 folds lower dose of DOX enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreases anaerobic metabolism during the development of lymphoma. These enzymes of antioxidant defence system suppress oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, whereas a decrease in anaerobic metabolism checks cancer growth. Conclusions: The result suggests that dose cumulative cellular toxicity of DOX may be avoided by treating cancer in animals with lower doses of DOX in combination with other drugs. PMID:22701237

Verma, Nibha; Vinayak, Manjula

2012-01-01

60

Modelling the energy demands of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper presents a modelling study in which the energy requirements of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been assessed in order to compare these two wastewater treatment technologies. The model took in consideration: the aeration required for biological oxidation in aerobic MBR (AeMBRs), the energy recovery from methane production in the anaerobic MBR (AnMBRs) as well as

I. Martin; M. Pidou; A. Soares; S. Judd; B. Jefferson

2011-01-01

61

Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

SciTech Connect

EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

2011-03-30

62

Engineering an anaerobic metabolic regime in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the anoxic biodegradation of 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a microbial cell factory of reference for industrial whole-cell biocatalysis, is unable to support biochemical reactions that occur under anoxic conditions, limiting its utility for a large number of relevant biotransformations. Unlike (facultative) anaerobes, P. putida resorts to NADH oxidation via an oxic respiratory chain and completely lacks a true fermentation metabolism. Therefore, it cannot achieve the correct balances of energy and redox couples (i.e., ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+)) that are required to sustain an O(2)-free lifestyle. To overcome this state of affairs, the acetate kinase (ackA) gene of the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli and the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) genes of the aerotolerant Zymomonas mobilis were knocked-in to a wild-type P. putida strain. Biochemical and genetic assays showed that conditional expression of the entire enzyme set allowed the engineered bacteria to adopt an anoxic regime that maintained considerable metabolic activity. The resulting strain was exploited as a host for the heterologous expression of a 1,3-dichloroprop-1-ene degradation pathway recruited from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170, enabling the recombinants to degrade this recalcitrant chlorinated compound anoxically. These results underscore the value of P. putida as a versatile agent for biotransformations able to function at progressively lower redox statuses. PMID:23149123

Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

2013-01-01

63

Metabolic and energetic aspects of the growth of Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 on glucose in anaerobic chemostat culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 was cultured anaerobically in chemostat cultures (pH 6.8; 35° C) under carbon, phosphate-, ammonia-, sulphate- and potassium-limited conditions with glucose as the sole carbon- and energy source. The rates of uptake of glucose and excretion of fermentation products were quantitatively determined and carbon, hydrogen- and oxygen balances were constructed with recoveries better than 90%.

M. J. Teixeira de Mattos; D. W. Tempest

1983-01-01

64

Computational Approaches for Understanding Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

There has been a surge of interest in understanding the regulation of metabolic networks involved in disease in recent years. Quantitative models are increasingly being used to i nterrogate the metabolic pathways that are contained within this complex disease biology. At the core of this effort is the mathematical modeling of central carbon metabolism involving glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (referred to as energy metabolism). Here we discuss several approaches used to quantitatively model metabolic pathways relating to energy metabolism and discuss their formalisms, successes, and limitations. PMID:23897661

Shestov, Alexander A; Barker, Brandon; Gu, Zhenglong; Locasale, Jason W

2013-01-01

65

Anaerobic Sulfur Metabolism Coupled to Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in the Extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans  

PubMed Central

Gene transcription (microarrays) and protein levels (proteomics) were compared in cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on elemental sulfur as the electron donor under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using either molecular oxygen or ferric iron as the electron acceptor, respectively. No evidence supporting the role of either tetrathionate hydrolase or arsenic reductase in mediating the transfer of electrons to ferric iron (as suggested by previous studies) was obtained. In addition, no novel ferric iron reductase was identified. However, data suggested that sulfur was disproportionated under anaerobic conditions, forming hydrogen sulfide via sulfur reductase and sulfate via heterodisulfide reductase and ATP sulfurylase. Supporting physiological evidence for H2S production came from the observation that soluble Cu2+ included in anaerobically incubated cultures was precipitated (seemingly as CuS). Since H2S reduces ferric iron to ferrous in acidic medium, its production under anaerobic conditions indicates that anaerobic iron reduction is mediated, at least in part, by an indirect mechanism. Evidence was obtained for an alternative model implicating the transfer of electrons from S0 to Fe3+ via a respiratory chain that includes a bc1 complex and a cytochrome c. Central carbon pathways were upregulated under aerobic conditions, correlating with higher growth rates, while many Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle components were upregulated during anaerobic growth, probably as a result of more limited access to carbon dioxide. These results are important for understanding the role of A. ferrooxidans in environmental biogeochemical metal cycling and in industrial bioleaching operations. PMID:23354702

Osorio, Héctor; Mangold, Stefanie; Denis, Yann; Ñancucheo, Ivan; Esparza, Mario; Johnson, D. Barrie; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Dopson, Mark

2013-01-01

66

Anaerobic sulfur metabolism coupled to dissimilatory iron reduction in the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

Gene transcription (microarrays) and protein levels (proteomics) were compared in cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on elemental sulfur as the electron donor under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using either molecular oxygen or ferric iron as the electron acceptor, respectively. No evidence supporting the role of either tetrathionate hydrolase or arsenic reductase in mediating the transfer of electrons to ferric iron (as suggested by previous studies) was obtained. In addition, no novel ferric iron reductase was identified. However, data suggested that sulfur was disproportionated under anaerobic conditions, forming hydrogen sulfide via sulfur reductase and sulfate via heterodisulfide reductase and ATP sulfurylase. Supporting physiological evidence for H2S production came from the observation that soluble Cu(2+) included in anaerobically incubated cultures was precipitated (seemingly as CuS). Since H(2)S reduces ferric iron to ferrous in acidic medium, its production under anaerobic conditions indicates that anaerobic iron reduction is mediated, at least in part, by an indirect mechanism. Evidence was obtained for an alternative model implicating the transfer of electrons from S(0) to Fe(3+) via a respiratory chain that includes a bc(1) complex and a cytochrome c. Central carbon pathways were upregulated under aerobic conditions, correlating with higher growth rates, while many Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle components were upregulated during anaerobic growth, probably as a result of more limited access to carbon dioxide. These results are important for understanding the role of A. ferrooxidans in environmental biogeochemical metal cycling and in industrial bioleaching operations. PMID:23354702

Osorio, Héctor; Mangold, Stefanie; Denis, Yann; Ñancucheo, Ivan; Esparza, Mario; Johnson, D Barrie; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

2013-04-01

67

Involvement of cytochrome c CymA in the anaerobic metabolism of RDX by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.  

PubMed

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a cyclic nitramine explosive commonly used for military applications that is responsible for severe soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was shown to efficiently degrade RDX anaerobically (3.5 µmol·h(-1)·(g protein)(-1)) via two initial routes: (1) sequential N-NO(2) reductions to the corresponding nitroso (N-NO) derivatives (94% of initial RDX degradation) and (2) denitration followed by ring cleavage. To identify genes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of RDX, a library of ~2500 mutants of MR-1 was constructed by random transposon mutagenesis and screened for mutants with a reduced ability to degrade RDX compared with the wild type. An RDX-defective mutant (C9) was isolated that had the transposon inserted in the c-type cytochrome gene cymA. C9 transformed RDX at ~10% of the wild-type rate, with degradation occurring mostly via early ring cleavage caused by initial denitration leading to the formation of methylenedinitramine, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Genetic complementation of mutant C9 restored the wild-type phenotype, providing evidence that electron transport components have a role in the anaerobic reduction of RDX by MR-1. PMID:22260206

Perreault, Nancy N; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Hawari, Jalal

2012-02-01

68

Energy flows, metabolism and translation  

PubMed Central

Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the abovementioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation. PMID:21930587

Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent

2011-01-01

69

Hydroxylation and hydrolysis: two main metabolic ways of spiramycin I in anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation behaviors of five macrolides including spiramycin I, II, III, midecamycin and josamycin by sludge were investigated. Within 32days, 95% of spiramycin I, II or III was degraded, while the remove rate of midecamycin or josamycin was 75%. SPM I degradation was much higher in nutrition supplementation than that just in sludge. The degradation products and processes of spiramycin I were further characterized. Three molecules, designated P-1, P-2 and P-3 according to their order of occurrence, were obtained and purified. Structural determination was then performed by nuclear magnetic resonance and MS/MS spectra, and data indicated that hydroxylation and hydrolysis were main reactions during the anaerobic digestion of spiramycin I. P-1 is the intermediate of hydroxylation, and P-2 is the intermediate of hydrolysis. P-3 is the final product of the both reaction. This study revealed a hydroxylation and hydrolysis mechanism of macrolide in anaerobic digestion. PMID:24345568

Zhu, Pei; Chen, Daijie; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Jianbin; Shao, Lei; Li, Ji-an; Chu, Ju

2014-02-01

70

Energy expenditure during tennis play: a preliminary video analysis and metabolic model approach.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate, using video analysis, what proportion of the total energy expenditure during a tennis match is accounted for by aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively. The method proposed involved estimating the metabolic power (MP) of 5 activities, which are inherent to tennis: walking, running, hitting the ball, serving, and sitting down to rest. The energy expenditure concerned was calculated by sequencing the activity by video analysis. A bioenergetic model calculated the aerobic energy expenditure (EEO2mod) in terms of MP, and the anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated by subtracting this (MP - EEO2mod). Eight tennis players took part in the experiment as subjects (mean ± SD: age 25.2 ± 1.9 years, weight 79.3 ± 10.8 kg, VO2max 54.4 ± 5.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The players started off by participating in 2 games while wearing the K4b2, with their activity profile measured by the video analysis system, and then by playing a set without equipment but with video analysis. There was no significant difference between calculated and measured oxygen consumptions over the 16 games (p = 0.763), and these data were strongly related (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). The EEO2mod was quite weak over all the games (49.4 ± 4.8% VO2max), whereas the MP during points was up to 2 or 3 times the VO2max. Anaerobic metabolism reached 32% of the total energy expenditure across all the games 67% for points and 95% for hitting the ball. This method provided a good estimation of aerobic energy expenditure and made it possible to calculate the anaerobic energy expenditure. This could make it possible to estimate the metabolic intensity of training sessions and matches using video analysis. PMID:21904239

Botton, Florent; Hautier, Christophe; Eclache, Jean-Paul

2011-11-01

71

Optimization of biogas production by anaerobic digestion for sustainable energy development in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing international interest in developing low carbon renewable energy technologies. Biomass is increasingly being utilized as an energy source throughout the world. Several modern technologies have been developed that convert biomass to bioenergy. Anaerobic digestion is a mature energy technology for converting biomass to biogas, which is a renewable primary energy source. Biogas is a robust fuel that

Raphael M. Jingura; Rutendo Matengaifa

2009-01-01

72

Overflow metabolism during anaerobic growth of Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 on glycerol and dihydroxyacetone in chemostat culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with glycerol as source of carbon and energy. Glycerol-limited cultures did not ferment the carbon source with maximal efficiency but produced considerable amounts of 1,3-propanediol. The fraction of glycerol converted to this product depended on the growth rate and on the limitation: faster growing cells produced relatively more of this

H. Streekstra; M. J. Teixeira de Mattos; O. M. Neijssel; D. W. Tempest

1987-01-01

73

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

74

Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspensions of isolated epithelial cells (colonocytes) from the human colon were used to assess utilisation of respiratory fuels which are normally available to the colonic mucosa in vivo. Cells were prepared from operative specimens of the ascending colon (seven) and descending colon (seven). The fuels that were used were the short chain fatty acid n-butyrate, produced only by anaerobic bacteria

W E Roediger

1980-01-01

75

Simultaneous Involvement of a Tungsten-Containing Aldehyde:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase and a Phenylacetaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Anaerobic Phenylalanine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH. PMID:24214948

Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg

2014-01-01

76

Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

77

Practical markers of the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism during exercise: rationale and a case for affect-based exercise prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The high rates of dropout from exercise programs may be attributed in part to the poor ability of most individuals to accurately self-monitor and self-regulate their exercise intensity. The point of transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism may be an appropriate level of exercise training intensity as it appears to be effective and safe for a variety of populations.

Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Eric E. Hall; Steven J. Petruzzello

2004-01-01

78

Aerobic metabolism of carbon reserves by the "obligate anaerobe" Desulfovibrio gigas.  

PubMed

The sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio gigas, is shown by in vivo 31P-NMR to be capable of generating NTP from the utilization of internal carbon reserves both in anaerobic and in aerobic conditions. Acetate, glycerol and ethanol are the major end-products, but the production of alcohols decreases strongly when oxygen is present. When the glycolytic pathway is inhibited with fluoride, NTP levels decrease drastically but can be remarkably restored when an electron acceptor, such as oxygen, is provided. Our data are in favour of a NADH-linked electron transfer chain enabling transfer of reducing power derived from polyglucose to oxygen which provides this so-called "strict anaerobe" with the capability of surviving to oxic environments. PMID:8373395

Santos, H; Fareleira, P; Xavier, A V; Chen, L; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J

1993-09-15

79

Alterations in aerobic-anaerobic proportions of metabolism during work in heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  With a view to investigating the aerobic and anaerobic proportions of oxygen supply during different grades of muscular activity in varying thermal stress, studies have been conducted on six young healthy Indians naturally acclimatized to heat. The subjects were given submaximal exercises of 400, 500, and 600 kgm\\/min (equivalent to 65.40, 81.75, and 98.10 W) for 6 min on a

G. P. Dimri; M. S. Malhotra; J. Sen Gupta; T. Sampath Kumar; B. S. Arora

1980-01-01

80

Carboxylation as an Initial Reaction in the Anaerobic Metabolism of Naphthalene and Phenanthrene by Sulfidogenic Consortia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biodegradation of naphthalene (NAP) and phenanthrene (PHE) was investigated by using sediment collected from the Arthur Kill in New York\\/New Jersey harbor. The initial cultures were composed of 10% sediment and 90% mineral medium containing 20 mM sulfate. Complete loss of NAP and PHE (150 to 200 mM) was observed after 150 days of incubation. Upon refeeding, NAP

XIAOMING ZHANG; L. Y. YOUNG

1997-01-01

81

Probing the redox metabolism in the strictly anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-producing Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus using amperometry.  

PubMed

Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular electron flow were observed when cells were supplied with different carbon sources. A higher electrochemical response was detected when cells were supplied with xylose than with sucrose or glucose. Moreover, using the mediated electrochemical method, it was possible to detect differences in the electron flow between cells harvested in the exponential and stationary growth phases. The electron flow of C. saccharolyticus was dependent on the NADH- and reduced ferredoxin generation flux and the competitive behavior of cytosolic and membrane-associated oxidoreductases. Sodium oxamate was used to inhibit the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo. PMID:21132340

Kostesha, Natalie; Willquist, Karin; Emneus, Jenny; van Niel, Ed W J

2011-01-01

82

Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component and overall performance. The overall systems model software, ENRAT, predicted that a full-scale operation to treat 18,750 L leachate/day would need an Ammonia Recovery process consisting of 88,300 L of total gas transfer column volume, an activated sludge system of 74,417 L, and an algal post treatment raceway of 683 m2 (30 cm depth). The ARP would consume 262.5 L/day of 6N sulfuric acid and produce 16.12 kg-N/day ammonium sulfate. The activated sludge system and algal post treatment would produce 900 g-VS/day (or 44.6 L 2% sludge) and 6.83 kg-VS/day (or 341.6 L 2% sludge) of bacterial and algal biomass.

Henrich, Christian-Dominik

83

The metabolic costs of improving ethanol yield by reducing glycerol formation capacity under anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Finely regulating the carbon flux through the glycerol pathway by regulating the expression of the rate controlling enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), has been a promising approach to redirect carbon from glycerol to ethanol and thereby increasing the ethanol yield in ethanol production. Here, strains engineered in the promoter of GPD1 and deleted in GPD2 were used to investigate the possibility of reducing glycerol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae without jeopardising its ability to cope with process stress during ethanol production. For this purpose, the mutant strains TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 with different GPD1 residual expression were studied in Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP) fed-batch process under anaerobic conditions. Results Both strains showed a drastic reduction of the glycerol yield by 44 and 61% while the ethanol yield improved by 2 and 7% respectively. TEFmut2 strain showing the highest ethanol yield was accompanied by a 28% reduction of the biomass yield. The modulation of the glycerol formation led to profound redox and energetic changes resulting in a reduction of the ATP yield (YATP) and a modulation of the production of organic acids (acetate, pyruvate and succinate). Those metabolic rearrangements resulted in a loss of ethanol and stress tolerance of the mutants, contrarily to what was previously observed under aerobiosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the potential of fine-tuned pathway engineering, particularly when a compromise has to be found between high product yield on one hand and acceptable growth, productivity and stress resistance on the other hand. Previous study showed that, contrarily to anaerobiosis, the resulting gain in ethanol yield was accompanied with no loss of ethanol tolerance under aerobiosis. Moreover those mutants were still able to produce up to 90 gl-1 ethanol in an anaerobic SSF process. Fine tuning metabolic strategy may then open encouraging possibilities for further developing robust strains with improved ethanol yield. PMID:23537043

2013-01-01

84

Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.  

PubMed

Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2013-07-01

85

Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a relatively low dose of creatine on skeletal muscle metabolism and oxygen supply in a group of training athletes. METHODS: 31P magnetic resonance and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to study calf muscle metabolism in a group of 10 female members of a university swimming team. Studies were performed before and after a six week

C H Thompson; G J Kemp; A L Sanderson; R M Dixon; P Styles; D J Taylor; G K Radda

1996-01-01

86

Effects of different garlic-derived allyl sulfides on peroxidative processes and anaerobic sulfur metabolism in mouse liver.  

PubMed

Biological activity of garlic has been attributed to organosulfur compounds, most of all to oil-soluble allyl sulfides, such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS). This study evaluated the effectiveness of garlic-derived allyl sulfides in influencing peroxidative processes, levels of thiols and sulfane sulfur and its metabolic enzymes in normal mouse liver cells. Various allyl sulfides (DAS, DADS and DATS) dissolved in corn oil were given intraperitoneally to mice for 10 days. After sacrificing the mice, biochemical assays were performed in liver homogenates and in plasma in order to establish liver function. All allyl sulfides under study had a beneficial effect in the mouse liver since they decreased reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione S-transferase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group level. Moreover, DADS and DATS elevated total sulfane sulfur pool and activity of sulfane sulfur biosynthetic enzymes. The increase in sulfane sulfur level entailed augmentation of its antioxidant and regulatory capacities. Garlic-derived allyl sulfides exhibited antioxidant action in the liver and elevated anaerobic cysteine metabolism leading to the formation of sulfane sulfur-containing compounds. Thus, DADS and DATS showed beneficial action in the liver, which can be used for protection of normal liver cells during chemotherapy or for alleviation of liver damage. PMID:21815229

Iciek, Ma?gorzata B; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Kwiecie?, Inga; Dudek, Magdalena B

2012-03-01

87

FNR Is a Global Regulator of Virulence and Anaerobic Metabolism in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (ATCC 14028s)? †  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successfully transition the broad fluctuations in oxygen concentrations encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, FNR is one of the main regulatory proteins involved in O2 sensing. To assess the role of FNR in serovar Typhimurium, we constructed an isogenic fnr mutant in the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and compared their transcriptional profiles and pathogenicities in mice. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, 311 genes (6.80% of the genome) are regulated directly or indirectly by FNR; of these, 87 genes (28%) are poorly characterized. Regulation by FNR in serovar Typhimurium is similar to, but distinct from, that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in aerobic metabolism, NO· detoxification, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, chemotaxis, and anaerobic carbon utilization are regulated by FNR in a fashion similar to that in E. coli. However, genes/operons existing in E. coli but regulated by FNR only in serovar Typhimurium include those coding for ethanolamine utilization, a universal stress protein, a ferritin-like protein, and a phosphotransacetylase. Interestingly, Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by FNR include numerous virulence genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), newly identified flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV), and the virulence operon (srfABC). Furthermore, the role of FNR as a positive regulator of motility, flagellar biosynthesis, and pathogenesis was confirmed by showing that the mutant is nonmotile, lacks flagella, is attenuated in mice, and does not survive inside macrophages. The inability of the mutant to survive inside macrophages is likely due to its sensitivity to the reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH phagocyte oxidase. PMID:17220229

Fink, Ryan C.; Evans, Matthew R.; Porwollik, Steffen; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Troxell, Bryan; Libby, Stephen J.; McClelland, Michael; Hassan, Hosni M.

2007-01-01

88

Anaerobic metabolism in the roots of seedlings of the invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidium latifolium is an invasive exotic crucifer that is widely distributed in riparian zones and wetlands. In this study, anoxic carbohydrate metabolism and post-anoxic injury in the roots of L. latifolium seedlings were examined. A significant increase in the activity of the fermentative enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in roots occurred under anoxia and increased with the

Hongjun Chen; Robert G. Qualls

2003-01-01

89

Energy Balance and Metabolism after Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Unfavorable physiological, biological, and behavioral alterations during and following treatment for cancer may lead to chronic energy imbalance predisposing to a myriad of deleterious health conditions including obesity, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal effects of these conditions, energy imbalance and metabolic changes after cancer treatment can also affect cancer-related morbidity and mortality. To this end, lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical activity are especially relevant to mitigate the deleterious impact of chronic energy imbalance in cancer survivors. PMID:24331194

Tonorezos, Emily S.; Jones, Lee W.

2013-01-01

90

Energy metabolism of the visual system  

PubMed Central

The visual system is one of the most energetically demanding systems in the brain. The currency of energy is ATP, which is generated most efficiently from oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria. ATP supports multiple neuronal functions. Foremost is repolarization of the membrane potential after depolarization. Neuronal activity, ATP generation, blood flow, oxygen consumption, glucose utilization, and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are all interrelated. In the retina, phototransduction, neurotransmitter utilization, and protein/organelle transport are energy-dependent, yet repolarization-after-depolarization consumes the bulk of the energy. Repolarization in photoreceptor inner segments maintains the dark current. Repolarization by all neurons along the visual pathway following depolarizing excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission preserves cellular integrity and permits reactivation. The higher metabolic activity in the magno- versus the parvo-cellular pathway, the ON- versus the OFF-pathway in some (and the reverse in other) species, and in specialized functional representations in the visual cortex all reflect a greater emphasis on the processing of specific visual attributes. Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes at the cellular and even at the molecular levels. Deficiencies in energy metabolism, such as in diabetes, mitochondrial DNA mutation, mitochondrial protein malfunction, and oxidative stress can lead to retinopathy, visual deficits, neuronal degeneration, and eventual blindness. PMID:23226947

Wong-Riley, Margaret T.T.

2012-01-01

91

Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency. PMID:24185054

Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

2013-01-01

92

Organ specific analysis of the anaerobic primary metabolism in rice and wheat seedlings II: light exposure reduces needs for fermentation and extends survival during anaerobiosis.  

PubMed

Low oxygen stress in plants can occur during flooding and compromise the availability and utilization of carbohydrates in root and shoot tissues. Low-oxygen-tolerant rice and -sensitive wheat plants were analyzed under anaerobiosis in light to evaluate main factors of the primary metabolism that affect sensitivity against oxygen deprivation: activity of glycolysis and the rate of photosynthesis. Relatively stable ATP contents (93 and 58% of aerated control levels after 24 h anaerobiosis) in illuminated shoot tissues account for enhanced tolerance of rice and wheat seedlings to anaerobiosis upon light exposure in comparison to anoxia in darkness. Although the photosynthetic process was inhibited during low oxygen stress, which was partly due to CO(2) deficiency, more light-exposed than dark-incubated seedlings survived. Illuminated plants could tolerate a 70% lower anaerobic ethanol production in shoots in comparison to darkness, although still an 18-times higher ethanol production rate was determined in rice than in wheat leaves. In conclusion, light-exposed plants grown under anaerobiosis may recycle low amounts of generated oxygen between photosynthesis and dissimilation and generate additional energy not only from substrate phosphorylation during glycolysis but also from other sources like cyclic electron transport. PMID:16802177

Mustroph, Angelika; Boamfa, Elena I; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Pörs, Yvonne; Grimm, Bernhard

2006-12-01

93

Isolation, growth, and metabolism of an obligately anaerobic, selenate- respiring bacterium, strain SES-3  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, motile vibrio was isolated from a selenate-respiring enrichment culture. The isolate, designated strain SES-3, grew by coupling the oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2 with the concomitant reduction of selenate to selenite or of nitrate to ammonium. No growth was observed on sulfate or selenite, but cell suspensions readily reduced selenite to elemental selenium (Se0). Hence, SES-3 can carry out a complete reduction of selenate to Se0. Washed cell suspensions of selenate- grown cells did not reduce nitrate, and nitrate-grown cells did not reduce selenate, indicating that these reductions are achieved by separate inducible enzyme systems. However, both nitrate-grown and selenate-grown cells have a constitutive ability to reduce selenite or nitrite. The oxidation of [14C]lactate to 14CO2 coupled to the reduction of selenate or nitrate by cell suspensions was inhibited by CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m- chlorophenylhydrazone), cyanide, and azide. High concentrations of selenite (5 mM) were readily reduced to Se0 by selenate-grown cells, but selenite appeared to block the synthesis of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Tracer experiments with [75Se]selenite indicated that cell suspensions could achieve a rapid and quantitative reduction of selenite to Se0. This reduction was totally inhibited by sulfite, partially inhibited by selenate or nitrite, but unaffected by sulfate or nitrate. Cell suspensions could reduce thiosulfate, but not sulfite, to sulfide. These results suggest that reduction of selenite to Se0 may proceed, in part, by some of the components of a dissimilatory system for sulfur oxyanions.

Oremland, R.S.; Blum, J.S.; Culbertson, C.W.; Visscher, P.T.; Miller, L.G.; Dowdle, P.; Strohmaier, F.E.

1994-01-01

94

ANAEROBIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment differs from conventional aerobic treatment. The absence of oxygen leads to controlled conversion of complex organic pollutions, mainly to carbon dioxide and methane. Anaerobic treatment has favourable effects like removal of higher organic loading, low sludge production, high pathogen removal, biogas gas production and low energy consumption. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment can be an attractive option to conventional

B. Mrowiec; J. Suschka

95

Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. PMID:25022835

Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

2014-10-01

96

Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism[S  

PubMed Central

Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1? was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:24443561

Braga, Melissa; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Vergnes, Laurent; Pervin, Shehla; Grijalva, Victor; Stout, David; David, John; Li, Xinmin; Tomasian, Venina; Reid, Christopher B.; Norris, Keith C.; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Reue, Karen; Singh, Rajan

2014-01-01

97

Acute effect of erythromycin on metabolic transformations of volatile fatty acid mixture under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The study explored the acute inhibitory impact of erythromycin on the methanogenic activity of acclimated biomass fed with a volatile fatty acid mixture and acetate alone. Parallel batch reactors were operated for six days, with increasing erythromycin dosing in the range of 1-1000mgL(-1). Substrate removal was monitored by means of soluble COD and volatile fatty acid (VFA) measurements together with parallel observations on biogas and methane generation. The inhibitory impact was variable with the initial erythromycin dose: At lower doses, the VFA mixture was completely removed but partially utilized, leading to reduced biogas and methane generation, suggesting the analogy of uncompetitive inhibition. At higher doses, propionate utilization was totally impaired and butyrate removal was reduced, but acetate was still fully removed. Remaining VFAs were partly converted to new VFA compound through isomerization and polymerization reactions. High erythromycin doses induced total inactivation of microbial metabolism with negligible methane generation. PMID:25542637

Cetecioglu, Z; Ince, B; Ince, O; Orhon, D

2015-04-01

98

Pluripotent stem cell energy metabolism: an update.  

PubMed

Recent studies link changes in energy metabolism with the fate of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Safe use of PSC derivatives in regenerative medicine requires an enhanced understanding and control of factors that optimize in vitro reprogramming and differentiation protocols. Relative shifts in metabolism from naïve through "primed" pluripotent states to lineage-directed differentiation place variable demands on mitochondrial biogenesis and function for cell types with distinct energetic and biosynthetic requirements. In this context, mitochondrial respiration, network dynamics, TCA cycle function, and turnover all have the potential to influence reprogramming and differentiation outcomes. Shifts in cellular metabolism affect enzymes that control epigenetic configuration, which impacts chromatin reorganization and gene expression changes during reprogramming and differentiation. Induced PSCs (iPSCs) may have utility for modeling metabolic diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA, for which few disease models exist. Here, we explore key features of PSC energy metabolism research in mice and man and the impact this work is starting to have on our understanding of early development, disease modeling, and potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25476451

Teslaa, Tara; Teitell, Michael A

2014-12-01

99

High Ethanol Titers from Cellulose by Using Metabolically Engineered Thermophilic, Anaerobic Microbes ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D. Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Feinberg, Lawrence F.; Olson, Daniel G.; Foden, Justine M.; Miller, Bethany B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

2011-01-01

100

Phosphoinositides: Key modulators of energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositides are key players in many trafficking and signaling pathways. Recent advances regarding the synthesis, location and functions of these lipids have dramatically improved our understanding of how and when these lipids are generated and what their roles are in animal physiology. In particular, phosphoinositides play a central role in insulin signaling, and manipulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels in particular, may be an important potential therapeutic target for the alleviation of insulin resistance associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In this article we review the metabolism, regulation and functional roles of phosphoinositides in insulin signaling and the regulation of energy metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25463477

Bridges, Dave; Saltiel, Alan R

2014-11-20

101

Role of oxytocin in energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The basic mechanisms that lead obesity are not fully understood; however, several peptides undoubtedly play a role in regulating body weight. Obesity, a highly complex metabolic disorder, involves central mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure. Previous studies have shown that central or peripheral oxytocin administration induces anorexia. Recently, in an apparent discrepancy, rodents that were deficient in oxytocin or the oxytocin receptor were shown to develop late-onset obesity without changing their total food intake, which indicates the physiological importance of oxytocin to body metabolism. Oxytocin is synthesized not only within magnocellular and parvocellular neurons but also in several organs, including the ovary, uterus, placenta, testis, thymus, kidney, heart, blood vessels, and skin. The presence of oxytocin receptors in neurons, the myometrium and myoepithelial cells is well recognized; however, this receptor has also been identified in other tissues, including the pancreas and adipose tissue. The oxytocin receptor is a typical class I G protein-coupled receptor that is primarily linked to phospholipase C-? via Gq proteins but can also be coupled to other G proteins, leading to different functional effects. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge of the effects of oxytocin on controlling energy metabolism, focusing primarily on the role of oxytocin on appetite regulation, thermoregulation, and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23628372

Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Tilelli, Cristiane Queixa; Brito, Nilton Almeida; Brito, Márcia Nascimento

2013-07-01

102

Influence of temperature on energetics of hydrogen metabolism in homoacetogenic, methanogenic, and other anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen consumption by various thermophilic, mesophilic and\\/or psychrotrophic homoacetogens and methanogens was measured at temperatures between 4 and 80°C. Within the tolerated temperature range H2 was consumed until a final H2 threshold partial pressure was reached. H2 thresholds generally decreased with temperature, parallel to the values calculated from the thermodynamics prevailing under culture conditions, i.e. the Gibbs free energy (?G)

Ralf Conrad; Bettina Wetter

1990-01-01

103

Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments  

PubMed Central

Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network. PMID:20497531

2010-01-01

104

Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy  

PubMed Central

With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

2013-01-01

105

The energetics of anaerobic muscle metabolism: a reappraisal of older and recent concepts.  

PubMed

This paper discusses under an energetic perspective the recent and older evidence supporting the classical notion that the 'oxygen debt', as originally defined by Margaria et al. (1933) [Am. J. Physiol. 106, 689-714], consists of two major components: the alactic oxygen debt, with a half-time of the order of 30 sec, and the lactic oxygen debt, with a much longer half-time, similar to that of lactic acid removal from blood after exercise (approximately 15 min). In particular, two ensuing concepts are treated, namely (i) the energetic equivalent of blood lactate accumulation in blood, whence the notions of lactic power and lactic capacity, and (ii) the energy sources allowing contraction of the oxygen deficit at the onset of square-wave exercise. The notion of alactic oxygen deficit is rediscussed on the basis of recent evidence in humans. The analogies between lactate accumulation during supramaximal exercise and during exercise transients are discussed under an energetic perspective. PMID:10647856

di Prampero, P E; Ferretti, G

1999-12-01

106

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John H Wiley and Sons; 2013: ...

107

Anaerobic growth and improved fermentation of Pichia stipitis bearing a URA1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Respiratory and fermentative pathways coexist to support growth and product formation in Pichia stipitis. This yeast grows rapidly without ethanol production under fully aerobic conditions, and it ferments glucose or xylose under oxygen-limited conditions, but it stops growing within one generation under anaerobic conditions. Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA1 (ScURA1) in P. stipitis enabled rapid anaerobic growth in minimal defined medium containing glucose when essential lipids were present. ScURA1 encodes a dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that uses fumarate as an alternative electron acceptor to confer anaerobic growth. Initial P. stipitis transformants grew and produced 32 g/l ethanol from 78 g/l glucose. Cells produced even more ethanol faster following two anaerobic serial subcultures. Control strains without ScURA1 were incapable of growing anaerobically and showed only limited fermentation. P. stipitis cells bearing ScURA1 were viable in anaerobic xylose medium for long periods, and supplemental glucose allowed cell growth, but xylose alone could not support anaerobic growth even after serial anaerobic subculture on glucose. These data imply that P. stipitis can grow anaerobically using metabolic energy generated through fermentation but that it exhibits fundamental differences in cofactor selection and electron transport with glucose and xylose metabolism. This is the first report of genetic engineering to enable anaerobic growth of a eukaryote. PMID:9802219

Shi, N Q; Jeffries, T W

1998-09-01

108

A metabolic profiling approach to human disorders of energy metabolism  

E-print Network

The integrated network of biochemical reactions known collectively as metabolism is essential for life, and dysfunction in parts of this network causes human disease - both rare, inherited disorders and common diseases ...

Shaham, Oded

2009-01-01

109

Caffeine improves supramaximal cycling but not the rate of anaerobic energy release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if improved supramaximal exercise performance in trained cyclists following caffeine\\u000a ingestion was associated with enhanced O2 uptake ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{2} $$ kinetics), increased anaerobic energy provision (accumulated O2—AO2—deficit), or a reduction in the accumulation of metabolites (for example, K+) associated with muscular fatigue. Six highly trained male cyclists ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{2} $$peak 68 ± 8 mL kg?1 min?1) performed

Michael J. Simmonds; Clare L. Minahan; Surendran Sabapathy

2010-01-01

110

Melatonin, energy metabolism, and obesity: a review.  

PubMed

Melatonin is an old and ubiquitous molecule in nature showing multiple mechanisms of action and functions in practically every living organism. In mammals, pineal melatonin functions as a hormone and a chronobiotic, playing a major role in the regulation of the circadian temporal internal order. The anti-obesogen and the weight-reducing effects of melatonin depend on several mechanisms and actions. Experimental evidence demonstrates that melatonin is necessary for the proper synthesis, secretion, and action of insulin. Melatonin acts by regulating GLUT4 expression and/or triggering, via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptors, the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its intracellular substrates mobilizing the insulin-signaling pathway. Melatonin is a powerful chronobiotic being responsible, in part, by the daily distribution of metabolic processes so that the activity/feeding phase of the day is associated with high insulin sensitivity, and the rest/fasting is synchronized to the insulin-resistant metabolic phase of the day. Furthermore, melatonin is responsible for the establishment of an adequate energy balance mainly by regulating energy flow to and from the stores and directly regulating the energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue and participating in the browning process of white adipose tissue. The reduction in melatonin production, as during aging, shift-work or illuminated environments during the night, induces insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, sleep disturbance, and metabolic circadian disorganization characterizing a state of chronodisruption leading to obesity. The available evidence supports the suggestion that melatonin replacement therapy might contribute to restore a more healthy state of the organism. PMID:24654916

Cipolla-Neto, J; Amaral, F G; Afeche, S C; Tan, D X; Reiter, R J

2014-05-01

111

Homofermentative lactate production cannot sustain anaerobic growth of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: possible consequence of energy-dependent lactate export.  

PubMed

Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export. PMID:15128549

van Maris, Antonius J A; Winkler, Aaron A; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

2004-05-01

112

Substrate-level phosphorylation is the primary source of energy conservation during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1.  

PubMed

It is well established that respiratory organisms use proton motive force to produce ATP via F-type ATP synthase aerobically and that this process may reverse during anaerobiosis to produce proton motive force. Here, we show that Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a nonfermentative, facultative anaerobe known to respire exogenous electron acceptors, generates ATP primarily from substrate-level phosphorylation under anaerobic conditions. Mutant strains lacking ackA (SO2915) and pta (SO2916), genes required for acetate production and a significant portion of substrate-level ATP produced anaerobically, were tested for growth. These mutant strains were unable to grow anaerobically with lactate and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with substrate-level phosphorylation yielding a significant amount of ATP. Mutant strains lacking ackA and pta were also shown to grow slowly using N-acetylglucosamine as the carbon source and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with some ATP generation deriving from the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with this substrate. A deletion strain lacking the sole F-type ATP synthase (SO4746 to SO4754) demonstrated enhanced growth on N-acetylglucosamine and a minor defect with lactate under anaerobic conditions. ATP synthase mutants grown anaerobically on lactate while expressing proteorhodopsin, a light-dependent proton pump, exhibited restored growth when exposed to light, consistent with a proton-pumping role for ATP synthase under anaerobic conditions. Although S. oneidensis requires external electron acceptors to balance redox reactions and is not fermentative, we find that substrate-level phosphorylation is its primary anaerobic energy conservation strategy. Phenotypic characterization of an ackA deletion in Shewanella sp. strain MR-4 and genomic analysis of other sequenced strains suggest that this strategy is a common feature of Shewanella. PMID:20400539

Hunt, Kristopher A; Flynn, Jeffrey M; Naranjo, Belén; Shikhare, Indraneel D; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

2010-07-01

113

Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The potential for anaerobic digester energy production must be balanced with the sustainability of reusing the resultant biosolids for land application. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temperature-phased, and high temperature (60 or 70 °C) batch pre-treatment digester configurations have been systematically evaluated for net energy production and pathogen inactivation potential. Energy input requirements and net energy production were modeled for each digester scheme. First-order inactivation rate coefficients for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and bacteriophage MS-2 were measured at each digester temperature and full-scale pathogen inactivation performance was estimated for each indicator organism and each digester configuration. Inactivation rates were found to increase dramatically at temperatures above 55 °C. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U.S. EPA time and temperature constraints predicts a 1-2 log inactivation in mesophilic treatment, and a 2-5 log inactivation in 50-55 °C thermophilic and temperature-phased treatments. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C batch pre-treatment phase resulted in dramatically higher potency, achieving MS-2 inactivation of 14 and 16 logs respectively, and complete inactivation (over 100 log reduction) of E. coli and E. faecalis. For temperatures less than 70 °C, viability staining of thermally-treated E. coli showed significantly reduced inactivation relative to standard culture enumeration. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy production for all digesters was similar (less than 20% difference) with the 60 or 70 °C batch treatment configurations producing the most net energy and the mesophilic treatment producing the least. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C pre-treatment phase can dramatically increase pathogen inactivation performance without decreasing net energy capture from anaerobic digestion. Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against improving the pathogen quality of biosolids. PMID:21764416

Ziemba, Christopher; Peccia, Jordan

2011-10-15

114

Nanosilver incurs an adaptive shunt of energy metabolism mode to glycolysis in tumor and nontumor cells.  

PubMed

Due to its significant antimicrobial properties, nanosilver (nAg) has been substantially used in a wide spectrum of areas. This has raised the concerns on the detrimental effects on environment and human health. Although numerous studies have documented nAg-mediated toxicity to cells or organisms, little attempt has been made to study the biological impacts of nAg on cells at nontoxic concentrations, namely, the distinct biological effects that can be separated from direct cytotoxicity. Here, we studied nAg-mediated effects on energy metabolism in cells under sublethal exposure. Treatment of nAg at nontoxic concentrations resulted in a decline of ATP synthesis and attenuation of respiratory chain function in nontumor HEK293T cells and tumor cells with differential respiration rate, including HepG2, HeLa, A498, and PC3 cells. Cellular energy homeostasis was switched from oxidative phosphorylation-based aerobic metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis, which is an adaption process to satisfy the energy demand for cell survival. Nanospheres with smaller size showed greater capability to alter cellular energy metabolism than those with larger size or nanoplates. Mechanistic investigation manifested that inhibition of PGC-1? by nAg was, at least partially, accountable for the transition from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Additionally, altered expression of a few energy metabolism-related genes (such as PFKFB3 and PDHA1) was also involved in the transition process. We further showed nAg-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduction of respiratory chain complex activity. Together, our combined results uncovered the mechanisms by which nAg induced energy metabolism reprogramming in both tumor and nontumor cells under sublethal dosage. PMID:24810997

Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Xia, Tian; Zhao, Jincai; Jiang, Guibin; Xu, Yong; Liu, Sijin

2014-06-24

115

Two-stage anaerobic digestion of energy crops: methane production, nitrogen mineralisation and heavy metal mobilisation.  

PubMed

Energy crops (willow, sugar beet and grass silage) were digested in pilot scale two-stage anaerobic digesters. The specific methane yields obtained were 0.16, 0.38 and 0.39 m3 kg(-1) added volatile solids (VSadded) for willow, sugar beet and grass, respectively, corresponding to yearly gross energy yields of 15, 53 and 26 megawatt-hours (MWh) per hectare. With grass and sugar beets as substrate, 84-85% of the harvestable methane was obtained within 30 days. In pilot scale two-stage digestion of willow and sugar beet, 56 and 85% of the laboratory scale methane yields were obtained, but digestion of grass in two-stage reactors yielded 5% more methane than digestion in laboratory scale completely mixed low solids systems, possibly due to the pH conditions favourable to hydrolysis in the two-stage system. In digestion of grass and sugar beet the liquid at the end of digestion was rich in ammonium nitrogen, and the nitrogen in the substrate was efficiently mineralised. The results show that heavy metal concentrations are not likely to limit the utilisation of residues from digestion of nonmetal accumulating crops. Efficient mobilisation of heavy metals during the acidic phase of digestion revealed the possibility of removing metals from leachate generated in two-stage anaerobic digestion of phytoextracting crops. PMID:16506517

Lehtomäki, A; Björnsson, L

2006-02-01

116

Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.  

PubMed

Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and ?-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study. PMID:25603149

Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

2015-02-17

117

Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation  

SciTech Connect

Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72.

Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

2008-11-17

118

The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the end products of fermentation of dietary fibers by the anaerobic intestinal microbiota, have been shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on mammalian energy metabolism. The mechanisms underlying these effects are the subject of intensive research and encompass the complex interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism. This review summarizes the role of SCFAs in host energy metabolism, starting from the production by the gut microbiota to the uptake by the host and ending with the effects on host metabolism. There are interesting leads on the underlying molecular mechanisms, but there are also many apparently contradictory results. A coherent understanding of the multilevel network in which SCFAs exert their effects is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on actual fluxes of SCFAs and metabolic processes regulated by SCFAs. In this review we address questions that, when answered, will bring us a great step forward in elucidating the role of SCFAs in mammalian energy metabolism. PMID:23821742

den Besten, Gijs; van Eunen, Karen; Groen, Albert K.; Venema, Koen; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.

2013-01-01

119

Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.  

PubMed

Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. PMID:21975301

Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

2012-01-01

120

An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.  

PubMed

The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

2014-06-19

121

A Comparative Genomic Analysis of Energy Metabolism in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Archaea  

PubMed Central

The number of sequenced genomes of sulfate reducing organisms (SRO) has increased significantly in the recent years, providing an opportunity for a broader perspective into their energy metabolism. In this work we carried out a comparative survey of energy metabolism genes found in 25 available genomes of SRO. This analysis revealed a higher diversity of possible energy conserving pathways than classically considered to be present in these organisms, and permitted the identification of new proteins not known to be present in this group. The Deltaproteobacteria (and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii) are characterized by a large number of cytochromes c and cytochrome c-associated membrane redox complexes, indicating that periplasmic electron transfer pathways are important in these bacteria. The Archaea and Clostridia groups contain practically no cytochromes c or associated membrane complexes. However, despite the absence of a periplasmic space, a few extracytoplasmic membrane redox proteins were detected in the Gram-positive bacteria. Several ion-translocating complexes were detected in SRO including H+-pyrophosphatases, complex I homologs, Rnf, and Ech/Coo hydrogenases. Furthermore, we found evidence that cytoplasmic electron bifurcating mechanisms, recently described for other anaerobes, are also likely to play an important role in energy metabolism of SRO. A number of cytoplasmic [NiFe] and [FeFe] hydrogenases, formate dehydrogenases, and heterodisulfide reductase-related proteins are likely candidates to be involved in energy coupling through electron bifurcation, from diverse electron donors such as H2, formate, pyruvate, NAD(P)H, ?-oxidation, and others. In conclusion, this analysis indicates that energy metabolism of SRO is far more versatile than previously considered, and that both chemiosmotic and flavin-based electron bifurcating mechanisms provide alternative strategies for energy conservation. PMID:21747791

Pereira, Inês A. Cardoso; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Grein, Fabian; Marques, Marta Coimbra; da Silva, Sofia Marques; Venceslau, Sofia Santos

2011-01-01

122

[Energy metabolism and energy requirements of growing boars].  

PubMed

The nitrogen and energy metabolism and the energy consumption of growing boars were measured in 2 metabolic and feeding trials using 8 parallel animals each. The studies covered the 30 to 150 kg live weight range. The growth intensity of the boars was found strongly influenced by the protein level of the ration. At a crude protein level of 18% in the ration, the boars gained, on the average, 780 g per day during the fattening period under study. Energy conversion was found to decline as the protein amount went up. The energy expediture for protein deposition was estimated at 1.8 to 2.0 kcal metabolizable energy per kg deposited. The energy and feed expenditures were calculated to be 7.1 Mcal net energy--fat retention for the whole development period or 3.0 kg dry matter per kg live weight. Boars proved to have an energy requirement differing from that of barrows and gilts; equations are presented for derivation. PMID:678115

Hoffmann, L; Jentsch, W; Schiemann, R

1978-05-01

123

Myostatin is a key mediator between energy metabolism and endurance capacity of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Myostatin (Mstn) participates in the regulation of skeletal muscle size and has emerged as a regulator of muscle metabolism. Here, we hypothesized that lack of myostatin profoundly depresses oxidative phosphorylation-dependent muscle function. Toward this end, we explored Mstn(-/-) mice as a model for the constitutive absence of myostatin and AAV-mediated overexpression of myostatin propeptide as a model of myostatin blockade in adult wild-type mice. We show that muscles from Mstn(-/-) mice, although larger and stronger, fatigue extremely rapidly. Myostatin deficiency shifts muscle from aerobic toward anaerobic energy metabolism, as evidenced by decreased mitochondrial respiration, reduced expression of PPAR transcriptional regulators, increased enolase activity, and exercise-induced lactic acidosis. As a consequence, constitutively reduced myostatin signaling diminishes exercise capacity, while the hypermuscular state of Mstn(-/-) mice increases oxygen consumption and the energy cost of running. We wondered whether these results are the mere consequence of the congenital fiber-type switch toward a glycolytic phenotype of constitutive Mstn(-/-) mice. Hence, we overexpressed myostatin propeptide in adult mice, which did not affect fiber-type distribution, while nonetheless causing increased muscle fatigability, diminished exercise capacity, and decreased Pparb/d and Pgc1a expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that myostatin endows skeletal muscle with high oxidative capacity and low fatigability, thus regulating the delicate balance between muscle mass, muscle force, energy metabolism, and endurance capacity. PMID:24965795

Mouisel, Etienne; Relizani, Karima; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Denis, Raphaël; Hourdé, Christophe; Agbulut, Onnik; Patel, Ketan; Arandel, Ludovic; Morales-Gonzalez, Susanne; Vignaud, Alban; Garcia, Luis; Ferry, Arnaud; Luquet, Serge; Billat, Véronique; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Schuelke, Markus; Amthor, Helge

2014-08-15

124

Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

1975-01-01

125

CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max – a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Pozna? and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI?) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI?/? (GG) and NcoI?/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels. PMID:24511349

Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kry?ciak, Jakub; Stanis?awski, Daniel

2013-01-01

126

CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism.  

PubMed

The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max - a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Pozna? and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI-) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI-/- (GG) and NcoI-/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels. PMID:24511349

Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kry?ciak, Jakub; Stanis?awski, Daniel

2013-12-18

127

Changes in protein expression in the salt marsh mussel Geukensia demissa: evidence for a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during prolonged aerial exposure  

PubMed Central

During aerial exposure (emersion), most sessile intertidal invertebrates experience cellular stress caused by hypoxia, and the amount and types of hypoxia-induced stress will differ as exposure time increases, likely leading to altered metabolic responses. We examined proteomic responses to increasing emersion times and decreasing recovery (immersion) times in the mussel Geukensia demissa, which occurs in salt marshes along the east coast of North America. Individuals are found above mean tide level, and can be emersed for over 18 h during spring tides. We acclimated mussels to full immersion at 15°C for 4 weeks, and compared changes in gill protein expression between groups of mussels that were continually immersed (control), were emersed for 6 h and immersed during recovery for 18 h (6E/18R), were emersed for 12 h and recovered for 12 h (12E/12R), or were emersed for 18 h with a 6 h recovery (18E/6R). We found clear differences in protein expression patterns among the treatments. Proteins associated with anaerobic fermentation increased in abundance in 6E/18R but not in 12E/12R or 18E/6R. Increases in oxidative stress proteins were most apparent in 12E/12R, and in 18E/6R changes in cytoskeletal protein expression predominated. We conclude that G. demissa alters its strategy for coping with emersion stress over time, relying on anaerobic metabolism for short- to medium-duration exposure, but switching to an air-gaping strategy for long-term exposure, which reduces hypoxia stress but may cause structural damage to gill tissue. PMID:24501137

Fields, Peter A.; Eurich, Chris; Gao, William L.; Cela, Bekim

2014-01-01

128

DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

129

Critical comparison of different model structures for the applied simulation of the anaerobic digestion of agricultural energy crops.  

PubMed

Different model structures were compared to simulate the characteristic process variables of the anaerobic digestion of maize, sugar beet and grain silage. Depending on the type and number of the required components, it can be shown that in comparison to the complex Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) different simplified model structures can describe the gas production rate, ammonia nitrogen and acetate concentration or pH value equally well. Since the reduction of the predominantly fast kinetics of the methanogenesis, acetogenesis or acidogenesis will only have little effect on the simulation of the specific gas production, it can be proven that the hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step during the uninhibited anaerobic digestion of complex particulate substrates. However, the stoichiometric comparison reveals that the model protein gelatine is not suitable for a representative characterization of agricultural energy crops. PMID:25497056

Weinrich, Sören; Nelles, Michael

2015-02-01

130

Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1). The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. PMID:24963093

Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

2014-06-24

131

Energy metabolism and the skeleton: Reciprocal interplay  

PubMed Central

The relation between bone remodelling and energy expenditure is an intriguing, and yet unexplained, challenge of the past ten years. In fact, it was only in the last few years that the skeleton was found to function, not only in its obvious roles of body support and protection, but also as an important part of the endocrine system. In particular, bone produces different hormones, like osteocalcin (OC), which influences energy expenditure in humans. The undercarboxylated form of OC has a reduced affinity for hydroxyapatite; hence it enters the systemic circulation more easily and exerts its metabolic functions for the proliferation of pancreatic ?-cells, insulin secretion, sensitivity, and glucose tolerance. Leptin, a hormone synthesized by adipocytes, also has an effect on both bone remodelling and energy expenditure; in fact it inhibits appetite through hypothalamic influence and, in bone, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and inhibits apoptosis. Leptin and serotonin exert opposite influences on bone mass accrual, but several features suggest that they might operate in the same pathway through a sympathetic tone. Serotonin, in fact, acts via two opposite pathways in controlling bone remodelling: central and peripheral. Serotonin product by the gastrointestinal tract (95%) augments bone formation by osteoblast, whereas brain-derived serotonin influences low bone mineral density and its decrease leads to an increase in bone resorption parameters. Finally, amylin (AMY) acts as a hormone that alters physiological responses related to feeding, and plays a role as a growth factor in bone. In vitro AMY stimulates the proliferation of osteoblasts, and osteoclast differentiation. Here we summarize the evidence that links energy expenditure and bone remodelling, with particular regard to humans. PMID:23330074

D'Amelio, Patrizia; Panico, Anna; Spertino, Elena; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

2012-01-01

132

Metabolic energy requirements for space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

Lane, Helen W.

1992-01-01

133

Metabolism as a tool for understanding human brain evolution: Lipid energy metabolism as an example.  

PubMed

Genes and the environment both influence the metabolic processes that determine fitness. To illustrate the importance of metabolism for human brain evolution and health, we use the example of lipid energy metabolism, i.e. the use of fat (lipid) to produce energy and the advantages that this metabolic pathway provides for the brain during environmental energy shortage. We briefly describe some features of metabolism in ancestral organisms, which provided a molecular toolkit for later development. In modern humans, lipid energy metabolism is a regulated multi-organ pathway that links triglycerides in fat tissue to the mitochondria of many tissues including the brain. Three important control points are each suppressed by insulin. (1) Lipid reserves in adipose tissue are released by lipolysis during fasting and stress, producing fatty acids (FAs) which circulate in the blood and are taken up by cells. (2) FA oxidation. Mitochondrial entry is controlled by carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1). Inside the mitochondria, FAs undergo beta oxidation and energy production in the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain. (3) In liver mitochondria, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway produces ketone bodies for the brain and other organs. Unlike most tissues, the brain does not capture and metabolize circulating FAs for energy production. However, the brain can use ketone bodies for energy. We discuss two examples of genetic metabolic traits that may be advantageous under most conditions but deleterious in others. (1) A CPT1A variant prevalent in Inuit people may allow increased FA oxidation under nonfasting conditions but also predispose to hypoglycemic episodes. (2) The thrifty genotype theory, which holds that energy expenditure is efficient so as to maximize energy stores, predicts that these adaptations may enhance survival in periods of famine but predispose to obesity in modern dietary environments. PMID:25488255

Wang, Shu Pei; Yang, Hao; Wu, Jiang Wei; Gauthier, Nicolas; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant A

2014-12-01

134

StudentsÃÂ Misconception About Energy-Yielding Metabolism: Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy-yielding metabolism is a subject that is particularly important, because energy production is a fundamental requirement for cells even though they execute many other processes simultaneously. An integrated view of metabolism is essential for understanding how the whole organism functions, including activities of studentsÃÂ daily life, such as eating, dieting, and physical exercise. In fact, the media constantly exert pressure on young people, stimulating students to undergo countless diet and exercise programs. Additionally, diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are diseases with close ties to metabolism, have been increasing among adolescents.

Dr. Gabriel A. Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica); Dr. Cristiane R. Sousa (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Departamento de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular); Dr. Andrea T. Da Poian (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Departamento de Bioquímica Médica,); Dr. Maurício R. M. P. Luz (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Setor Curricular de Biologia)

2003-09-01

135

CCN2 as a novel molecule supporting energy metabolism of chondrocytes.  

PubMed

CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a unique molecule that promotes both chondrocytic differentiation and proliferation through its matricellular interaction with a number of extracellular biomolecules. This apparently contradictory functional property of CCN2 suggests its certain role in basic cellular activities such as energy metabolism, which is required for both proliferation and differentiation. Comparative metabolomic analysis of costal chondrocytes isolated from wild-type and Ccn2-null mice revealed overall impaired metabolism in the latter. Among the numerous metabolites analyzed, stable reduction in the intracellular level of ATP, GTP, CTP, or UTP was observed, indicating a profound role of CCN2 in energy metabolism. Particularly, the cellular level of ATP was decreased by more than 50% in the Ccn2-null chondrocytes. The addition of recombinant CCN2 (rCCN2) to cultured Ccn2-null chondrocytes partly redeemed the cellular ATP level attenuated by Ccn2 deletion. Next, in order to investigate the mechanistic background that mediates the reduction in ATP level in these Ccn2-null chondrocytes, we performed transcriptome analysis. As a result, several metabolism-associated genes were found to have been up-regulated or down-regulated in the mutant mice. Up-regulation of a number of ribosomal protein genes was observed upon Ccn2 deletion, whereas a few genes required for aerobic and anaerobic ATP production were down-regulated in the Ccn2-null chondrocytes. Among such genes, reduction in the expression of the enolase 1 gene was of particular note. These findings uncover a novel functional role of CCN2 as a metabolic supporter in the growth-plate chondrocytes, which is required for skeletogenesis in mammals. PMID:24288211

Maeda-Uematsu, Aya; Kubota, Satoshi; Kawaki, Harumi; Kawata, Kazumi; Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hattori, Takako; Nishida, Takashi; Moritani, Norifumi; Lyons, Karen M; Iida, Seiji; Takigawa, Masaharu

2014-05-01

136

Milestones in the history of research on cardiac energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The present study summarizes the history of research on cardiac metabolism from antiquity till the 21st century. It describes important landmarks regarding the discovery of oxygen and of the 3 steps of cellular respiration, as well as major research on cardiac energy metabolism. For this purpose, we conducted a thorough search of original manuscripts, books, and contemporary reviews published in PubMed. The first views and concepts about the heart's function appear in Greek philosophic manuscripts of 2500 years ago. According to Aristotle, the heart is responsible for heat production, which is essential for life. The understanding of cardiac metabolism awaited new discoveries. The discovery of oxygen during the 18th century, along with the idea of energy conservation, or what is now known as one of the first versions of the first law of thermodynamics, played an important role in initiating the study of energy metabolism in general and heart metabolism later. The discovery of glycolysis, of the Krebs cycle, and of adenosine triphosphate offered a better understanding of cellular respiration, necessary for later research. Indeed, many researchers dedicated their studies to energy metabolism, but Richard John Bing, the renowned German research cardiologist, is the one who guided the exploration of cardiac metabolism, and he is therefore considered to be the father of cardiac energy metabolism. Since then, encouraging new research has been taking place, offering important clinical applications for heart patients. PMID:23351886

Beloukas, Apostolos I; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Tsoumakas, Theofanis L; Kosma, Alexandra G; Diamantis, Aristidis

2013-11-01

137

Energy metabolism in astrocytes: high rate of oxidative metabolism and spatiotemporal dependence on glycolysis\\/glycogenolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytic energy demand is stimulated by K+ and glutamate uptake, signaling processes, responses to neurotransmitters, Ca2+ fluxes, and filopodial motility. Astrocytes derive energy from glycolytic and oxidative pathways, but respiration, with its high-energy yield, provides most adenosine 5? triphosphate (ATP). The proportion of cortical oxidative metabolism attributed to astrocytes (?30%) in in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and autoradiographic

Leif Hertz; Liang Peng; Gerald A Dienel

2007-01-01

138

Energy metabolism and rheumatic diseases: from cell to organism  

PubMed Central

In rheumatic and other chronic inflammatory diseases, high amounts of energy for the activated immune system have to be provided and allocated by energy metabolism. In recent time many new insights have been gained into the control of the immune response through metabolic signals. Activation of immune cells as well as reduced nutrient supply and hypoxia in inflamed tissues cause stimulation of glycolysis and other cellular metabolic pathways. However, persistent cellular metabolic signals can promote ongoing chronic inflammation and loss of immune tolerance. On the organism level, the neuroendocrine immune response of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, which is meant to overcome a transient inflammatory episode, can lead to metabolic disease sequelae if chronically activated. We conclude that, on cellular and organism levels, a prolonged energy appeal reaction is an important factor of chronic inflammatory disease etiology. PMID:22747923

2012-01-01

139

Use of metabolic inhibitors to estimate protozooplankton grazing and bacterial production in a monomictic eutrophic lake with an anaerobic hypolimnion  

SciTech Connect

Inhibitors of eucaryotes (cycloheximide and amphotericin B) and procaryotes (penicillin and chloramphenical) were used to estimate bacterivory and bacterial production in a eutrophic lake. Bacterial production appeared to be slightly greater than protozoan grazing in the aerobic waters of Lake Oglethorpe. Use of penicillin and cycloheximide yielded inconsistent results in anaerobic water and in aerobic water when bacterial production was low. Production measured by inhibiting eucaryotes with cycloheximide did not always agree with (/sup 3/H)thymidine estimates or differential filtration methods. Laboratory experiments showed that several common freshwater protozoans continued to swim and ingest bacterium-size latex beads in the presence of the eucaryote inhibitor. Penicillin also affected grazing rates of some ciliates. The authors recommended that caution and a corroborating method be used when estimating ecologically important parameters with specific inhibitors.

Sanders, R.W.; Porter, K.G.

1986-07-01

140

Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

Nges, Ivo Achu, E-mail: Nges.Ivo_Achu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2012-01-15

141

Anaerobic Oxidation of Benzene by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ferroglobus placidus?†  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]benzene to [14C]carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism, and [14C]benzoate was produced from [14C]benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not upregulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- than in benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. placidus. This is the first demonstration of a microorganism in pure culture that can grow on benzene under strict anaerobic conditions and for which there is strong evidence for degradation of benzene via clearly defined anaerobic metabolic pathways. Thus, F. placidus provides a much-needed pure culture model for further studies on the anaerobic activation of benzene in microorganisms. PMID:21742914

Holmes, Dawn E.; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A.; Lovley, Derek R.

2011-01-01

142

Energy transduction in the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus is exclusively coupled to sodium ions.  

PubMed Central

The thermophilic, peptidolytic, anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus is unable to generate a pH gradient in the range of 5.5-8.0, which limits growth of the organism to a narrow pH range (6.3-7.7). A significant membrane potential (delta psi approximately -60 mV) and chemical gradient of Na+ (-Z delta pNa approximately -60 mV) are formed in the presence of metabolizable substrates. Energy-dependent Na+ efflux is inhibited by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin but is stimulated by uncouplers, suggesting that the Na+ gradient is formed by a primary pumping mechanism rather than by secondary Na+/H+ antiport. This primary sodium pump was found to be an ATPase that has been characterized in inside-out membrane vesicles and in proteoliposomes in which solubilized ATPase was reconstituted. The enzyme is stimulated by Na+, resistant to vanadate, and sensitive to nitrate, which is indicative of an F/V-type Na(+)-ATPase. In the proteoliposomes Na+ accumulation depends on the presence of ATP, is inhibited by the ATPase inhibitor nitrate, and is completely prevented by the ionophore monensin but is stimulated by protonophores and valinomycin. These and previous observations, which indicated that secondary amino acid transport uses solely Na+ as coupling ion, demonstrate that energy transduction at the membrane in C. fervidus is exclusively dependent on a Na+ cycle. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8367451

Speelmans, G; Poolman, B; Abee, T; Konings, W N

1993-01-01

143

The techno-economic potential of renewable energy through the anaerobic digestion of microalgae.  

PubMed

The potential of microalgae as feedstock for methane production is evaluated from a process technical and economic point of view. Production of mixed culture algae in raceway ponds on non-agricultural sites, such as landfills, was identified as a preferred approach. The potential of straightforward bio-methanation, which includes pre-concentration of microalgae and utilization of a high rate anaerobic reactor was examined based on the premises of achievable up-concentration from 0.2-0.6 kg m(-3) to 20-60 kg dry matter (DM) m(-3) and an effective bio-methanation of the concentrate at a loading rate of 20 kg DM m(-3) d(-1). The costs of biomass available for bio-methanation under such conditions were calculated to be in the range of €86-€124 ton(-1) DM. The levelized cost of energy by means of the process line "algae biomass--biogas--total energy module" would be in the order of €0.170-0.087 kWh(-1), taking into account a carbon credit of about €30 ton(-1) CO2(eq). PMID:20933389

Zamalloa, Carlos; Vulsteke, Elien; Albrecht, Johan; Verstraete, Willy

2011-01-01

144

FACT SHEET Agriculture and Natural Resources AEX-653.1-11 Manure to Energy Through Anaerobic Digestion  

E-print Network

Manure is one of the most commonly digested materials to produce energy (EPA AgStar). (See Table 1.) The most desirable product of anaerobic digestion is biogas, which can be used for heating, lighting, electricity generation, and cooking. Biogas generally contains 60–70% methane and 30–40 % carbon dioxide (Beck). The energy content of biogas with 60 % methane content is about 600 Btu/ft3 compared to natural gas at 1,000 Btu/ft3 (Balsam). The effluent slurry from a biogas digester is another key by-product of anaerobic digestion. The effluent can be used as soil amendments and liquid fertilizers, and it can be composted and reused as a bedding material.

Phil Cherosky; Graduate Student

145

Energy metabolism and energy-sensing pathways in mammalian embryonic and adult stem cell fate  

PubMed Central

Summary Metabolism is influenced by age, food intake, and conditions such as diabetes and obesity. How do physiological or pathological metabolic changes influence stem cells, which are crucial for tissue homeostasis? This Commentary reviews recent evidence that stem cells have different metabolic demands than differentiated cells, and that the molecular mechanisms that control stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are functionally connected to the metabolic state of the cell and the surrounding stem cell niche. Furthermore, we present how energy-sensing signaling molecules and metabolism regulators are implicated in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Finally, we discuss the emerging literature on the metabolism of induced pluripotent stem cells and how manipulating metabolic pathways might aid cellular reprogramming. Determining how energy metabolism regulates stem cell fate should shed light on the decline in tissue regeneration that occurs during aging and facilitate the development of therapies for degenerative or metabolic diseases. PMID:23420198

Rafalski, Victoria A.; Mancini, Elena; Brunet, Anne

2012-01-01

146

Automatic purification of animal wastewater by dual means of energy-retaining anaerobic fermentation and ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of purifying animal wastewater and recovering energy during the operation, an automatic bench-scale unit was manufactured and operated. It consisted of three pieces of an anaerobic fermentation digester, a sedimentation tank and an ultrafiltration module. The digester was equipped with fixed bacteria beds(bioreactor) and tape heaters. The sedimentation tank was equipped with a heat exchanger, through which fresh slurry passed. During automatic operations the slurry samples were taken out before, during and after the operation, and turbidity and organic matter contents were analyzed. Comparing nylon mesh, chips of vinyl chloride pipe and crushed cement blocks, the crushed blocks were recognized best as a fixed bacteria bed. In the operating process, the supernatant fluid in the sedimentation tank was sent to the ultrafiltration module. After filtration a daily reverse cleansing was performed. All the operations worked according to the command programmed in the Controller PL40M III. The average removal rates of organic matters in the compound slurry by the dual operations were as follows: 76.6% T-S, 100.0% T-SS, 92.6% COD, 96.5% BOD, 86.8% NH[sub 4]-N, 69.0% T-N, and 98.8% T-P. The result of pre-heating fresh slurry by effluent from the digester was also evaluated. 14 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Kobayashi, Shigeki; Masuda, Yoshiko (Meiji Univ., Kawasaki (Japan)); Etou, Yasushi (Sanshin Technological Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

1993-11-01

147

Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium isolated from marine sediments.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium (Marinobacter sp. strain CAB) isolated from marine sediments. Under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, this strain efficiently degraded this ubiquitous isoprenoid ketone. Several bacterial metabolites, 4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecan-1-ol, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanal, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid, Z-3,7-dimethylocten-2-oic acid, Z-3,7,11-trimethyldodecen-2-oic acid, and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol, were formally identified, and different pathways were proposed to explain the formation of such isoprenoid compounds. PMID:9023941

Rontani, J F; Gilewicz, M J; Michotey, V D; Zheng, T L; Bonin, P C; Bertrand, J C

1997-01-01

148

Energy metabolism characterization of a novel cancer stem cell-like line 3AB-OS.  

PubMed

Cancer stem cells (CSC) have a central role in driving tumor growth. Since metabolism is becoming an important diagnostic and therapeutic target, characterization of CSC line energetic properties is an emerging need. Embryonic and adult stem cells, compared to differentiated cells, exhibit a reduced mitochondrial activity and a stronger dependence on aerobic glycolysis. Here, we aimed to comparatively analyze bioenergetics features of the human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS CSC-like line, and the parental osteosarcoma MG63 cells, from which 3AB-OS cells have been previously selected. Our results suggest that 3AB-OS cells depend on glycolytic metabolism more strongly than MG63 cells. Indeed, growth in glucose shortage or in presence of galactose or pyruvate (mitochondrial specific substrates) leads to a significant reduction of their proliferation compared to MG63 cells. Accordingly, 3AB-OS cells show an increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and a larger accumulation of lactate in the culture medium. In line with these findings 3AB-OS cells as compared to MG63 cells present a reduced mitochondrial respiration, a stronger sensitivity to glucose depletion or glycolysis inhibition and a lessened sensitivity to oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors. Additionally, in contrast to MG63 cells, 3AB-OS display fragmented mitochondria, which become networked as they grow in glucose-rich medium, while almost entirely loose these structures growing in low glucose. Overall, our findings suggest that 3AB-OS CSC energy metabolism is more similar to normal stem cells and to cancer cells characterized by a glycolytic anaerobic metabolism. PMID:24030970

Palorini, Roberta; Votta, Giuseppina; Balestrieri, Chiara; Monestiroli, Andrea; Olivieri, Sandro; Vento, Renza; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando

2014-02-01

149

The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

2014-05-01

150

Dissecting the energy metabolism in Mycoplasma pneumoniae through genome-scale metabolic modeling  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a threatening pathogen with a minimal genome, is a model organism for bacterial systems biology for which substantial experimental information is available. With the goal of understanding the complex interactions underlying its metabolism, we analyzed and characterized the metabolic network of M. pneumoniae in great detail, integrating data from different omics analyses under a range of conditions into a constraint-based model backbone. Iterating model predictions, hypothesis generation, experimental testing, and model refinement, we accurately curated the network and quantitatively explored the energy metabolism. In contrast to other bacteria, M. pneumoniae uses most of its energy for maintenance tasks instead of growth. We show that in highly linear networks the prediction of flux distributions for different growth times allows analysis of time-dependent changes, albeit using a static model. By performing an in silico knock-out study as well as analyzing flux distributions in single and double mutant phenotypes, we demonstrated that the model accurately represents the metabolism of M. pneumoniae. The experimentally validated model provides a solid basis for understanding its metabolic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23549481

Wodke, Judith A H; Pucha?ka, Jacek; Lluch-Senar, Maria; Marcos, Josep; Yus, Eva; Godinho, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Serrano, Luis; Klipp, Edda; Maier, Tobias

2013-01-01

151

Metabolic sensing neurons and the control of energy homeostasis.  

PubMed

The brain and periphery carry on a constant conversation; the periphery informs the brain about its metabolic needs and the brain provides for these needs through its control of somatomotor, autonomic and neurohumoral pathways involved in energy intake, expenditure and storage. Metabolic sensing neurons are the integrators of a variety of metabolic, humoral and neural inputs from the periphery. Such neurons, originally called "glucosensing", also respond to fatty acids, hormones and metabolites from the periphery. They are integrated within neural pathways involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Unlike most neurons, they utilize glucose and other metabolites as signaling molecules to regulate their membrane potential and firing rate. For glucosensing neurons, glucokinase acts as the rate-limiting step in glucosensing while the pathways that mediate responses to metabolites like lactate, ketone bodies and fatty acids are less well characterized. Many metabolic sensing neurons also respond to insulin and leptin and other peripheral hormones and receive neural inputs from peripheral organs. Each set of afferent signals arrives with different temporal profiles and by different routes and these inputs are summated at the level of the membrane potential to produce a given neural firing pattern. In some obese individuals, the relative sensitivity of metabolic sensing neurons to various peripheral inputs is genetically reduced. This may provide one mechanism underlying their propensity to become obese when exposed to diets high in fat and caloric density. Thus, metabolic sensing neurons may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:16899262

Levin, Barry E

2006-11-30

152

Economic Viability of Phytoremediation of a Cadmium Contaminated Agricultural Area Using Energy Maize. Part II: Economics of Anaerobic Digestion of Metal Contaminated Maize in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead

T. Thewys; N. Witters; E. Meers; J. Vangronsveld

2010-01-01

153

ENERGY AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS AND BIOFUELS FOR RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A technological and socioeconomic assessment of anaerobic digester feasibility for small to mid-size livestock operations was undertaken. Three full scale digesters and one pilot scale facility were under various degrees of monitoring and evaluation to assess design and operation...

154

Recovery of energy from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs).  

PubMed

We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance. Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25% of the total volume, was separated from the upper by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cow dung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the digester led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The bioleachate, rich in the VFAs, passed through the perforated PVC disk and was collected in the lower compartment of the digester. The other type of digesters, referred to as anaerobic multi-phase high-solids digesters (AMHDs), had the same type of compartmentalized digester unit as the first type and an additional methaniser unit. Up-flow anaerobic filters (UAFs) were used as methaniser units, which converted the bioleachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 60% methane. All SOFADs developed a consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 20 weeks from the start. Among the two types of digesters studied, the AMHDs were found to perform better with a twofold increase in biogas yield compared to the first type of digesters. PMID:17382532

Bindu, T; Ramasamy, E V

2008-01-01

155

Metabolic sources of energy for hummingbird flight.  

PubMed

It has been known for some two decades that hovering flight in hummingbirds is the most energetically expensive muscle work known among vertebrates, but the metabolic support for such work has never been clarified. Measurement of the maximum activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate, fat, and amino acid catabolism in flight muscle and heart of rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) reveals that the high ATP requirements of short-term hovering flight can only be supported by the oxidation of carbohydrate. Fat oxidation can support a substantially lower maximum rate of ATP turnover, indicating that this process can power only the lower +.++energetic requirements of long-term forward or migratory flight. Mitochondria isolated from flight muscle oxidize pyruvate and palmitoyl-CoA equally well. The inhibition of pyruvate oxidation by palmitoyl-CoA oxidation provides a mechanism by which fat oxidation inhibits carbohydrate oxidation in the transition from short- to long-term flight. PMID:3752286

Suarez, R K; Brown, G S; Hochachka, P W

1986-09-01

156

Cardiac energy metabolism is positively associated with skeletal muscle energy metabolism in physically active adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

(31)Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P?MRS) is a well-validated, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that has been used to determine cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in vivo. Few studies have documented cardiac energy metabolism in adolescents and young adult cohorts. This cross-sectional study sought to explore the association among cardiac energy metabolism, skeletal muscle energy metabolism, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and age in adolescents and young adults. Ten healthy, active participants (40% male) with a mean ± SD age of 18.6 ± 4.9 years, body mass index of 21.1 ± 2.4 kg·m(-2), and median MVPA level of 83 min per weekday (lower quartile: 45 min per weekday; upper quartile: 114 min per weekday) completed the following study assessments: a (31)P?MRS scan to determine cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism, cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine aerobic power, and accelerometry to determine MVPA over 7 days. Resting cardiac energy metabolism, as measured by the ratio of phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP?, mean ± SD: 2.76 ± 0.65), was positively associated with skeletal muscle aerobic oxidative function (Estimate (SE): -0.1(0.01), p < 0.001), as measured by PCr recovery half-time following 60 s of exercise (34 ± 9 s). This association, which was adjusted for peak aerobic power, MVPA, age, and sex, suggests the development of an association between cardiac and skeletal muscle health at any early age. Larger studies are needed to establish normative data for both physically active and sedentary males and females that may be used for comparison in future studies involving clinical cohorts. PMID:24552379

Banks, Laura; Wells, Greg D; McCrindle, Brian W

2014-03-01

157

Novel Bone Endocrine Networks Integrating Mineral and Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is an endocrine organ that regulates energy metabolism through the release of the osteoblast-derived hormone, osteocalcin (Ocn), and phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis through the secretion by osteoblasts and osteocytes of the novel hormone, FGF23 Ocn activates a widely expressed G-protein coupled receptor, GPRC6A, to regulate insulin secretion by pancreatic ?–cells, testosterone secretion by testicular Leydig cells, fatty acid metabolism in the liver, and insulin sensitivity of muscle and fat, as well as other functions. FGF23 targets a limited number of tissues, including kidney, parathyroid gland, choroid plexus and pituitary gland that co-express FGF receptors and ?-Klotho complexes. Ectodomain shedding and secretion of a soluble form of Klotho also is purported to act as an anti-ageing hormone. Further elucidation of these novel endocrine networks is likely to lead to new appreciation of the cooperation between various organ systems to regulate phosphate, vitamin D, and energy metabolism. PMID:24193547

Pi, Min; Quarles, L. Darryl

2014-01-01

158

ECO-ENERGY DEMONSTRATION MODEL: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, ALGAE AND ENERGY PROSPERITY  

EPA Science Inventory

For the project, we: Designed and constructed an ecological energy model system. Investigated and characterized locally abundant agricultural and domestic waste resources that can have significant environmental impacts (dairy manure, poultry m...

159

The anaerobic digestion process  

SciTech Connect

The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-01-01

160

Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

2012-01-01

161

Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

Yazdani, Ramin, E-mail: ryazdani@sbcglobal.net [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Augenstein, Don, E-mail: iemdon@aol.com [Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94306 (United States); Kayhanian, Masoud, E-mail: mdkayhanian@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tchobanoglous, George, E-mail: gtchobanoglous@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2012-05-15

162

Fatty Acids in Energy Metabolism of the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain's energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile ?-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups. PMID:24883315

Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vavilin, Valentin; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav

2014-01-01

163

PGC-1{alpha}: a key regulator of energy metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. This makes it an inviting target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Huiyun Liang (University of Texas Health Science Center Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies); Walter F. Ward (University of Texas Health Science Center Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies)

2006-12-01

164

Energy metabolism of Macaca mulatta during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mean daily energy expenditure rates of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined during spaceflight on the joint U.S./Russian Bion 11 mission by the doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method. Control values were obtained from two studies performed under flight-like conditions (n = 4). The mean inflight energy expenditure for the two Bion 11 monkeys was 81.3 kcal/kg/day, which was higher than that seen previously. The average energy expenditure (77.6 +/- 4.4 kcal/kg/day) for the four ground control monkeys was slightly lower than had been measured previously.

Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Stein, T. P.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Fuller, C. A.

2000-01-01

165

Glial ?-Oxidation regulates Drosophila Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The brain's impotence to utilize long-chain fatty acids as fuel, one of the dogmas in neuroscience, is surprising, since the nervous system is the tissue most energy consuming and most vulnerable to a lack of energy. Challenging this view, we here show in vivo that loss of the Drosophila carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), an enzyme required for mitochondrial ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids as substrates for energy production, results in the accumulation of triacylglyceride-filled lipid droplets in adult Drosophila brain but not in obesity. CPT2 rescue in glial cells alone is sufficient to restore triacylglyceride homeostasis, and we suggest that this is mediated by the release of ketone bodies from the rescued glial cells. These results demonstrate that the adult brain is able to catabolize fatty acids for cellular energy production. PMID:25588812

Schulz, Joachim G.; Laranjeira, Antonio; Van Huffel, Leen; Gärtner, Annette; Vilain, Sven; Bastianen, Jarl; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Dotti, Carlos G.

2015-01-01

166

Glial ?-Oxidation regulates Drosophila Energy Metabolism.  

PubMed

The brain's impotence to utilize long-chain fatty acids as fuel, one of the dogmas in neuroscience, is surprising, since the nervous system is the tissue most energy consuming and most vulnerable to a lack of energy. Challenging this view, we here show in vivo that loss of the Drosophila carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), an enzyme required for mitochondrial ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids as substrates for energy production, results in the accumulation of triacylglyceride-filled lipid droplets in adult Drosophila brain but not in obesity. CPT2 rescue in glial cells alone is sufficient to restore triacylglyceride homeostasis, and we suggest that this is mediated by the release of ketone bodies from the rescued glial cells. These results demonstrate that the adult brain is able to catabolize fatty acids for cellular energy production. PMID:25588812

Schulz, Joachim G; Laranjeira, Antonio; Van Huffel, Leen; Gärtner, Annette; Vilain, Sven; Bastianen, Jarl; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Dotti, Carlos G

2015-01-01

167

On the kinetics of anaerobic power  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a treadmill at different exercise intensities. The aerobic power, based on the measured oxygen uptake, was used as input to the models, whereas the simulated blood lactate concentration was compared with experimental results. Thereafter, the metabolic rate from phosphocreatine break down was calculated theoretically. Finally, the models were used to compare phosphocreatine break down during continuous and interval exercises. Results Good similarity was found between experimental and simulated blood lactate concentration during steady state exercise intensities. The measured blood lactate concentrations were lower than simulated for intensities above the lactate threshold, but higher than simulated during recovery after high intensity exercise when the simulated lactate concentration was averaged over the whole lactate space. This fit was improved when the simulated lactate concentration was separated into two compartments; muscles + internal organs and blood. Model 2 gave a better behavior of alactic energy than Model 1 when compared against invasive measurements presented in the literature. During continuous exercise, Model 2 showed that the alactic energy storage decreased with time, whereas Model 1 showed a minimum value when steady state aerobic conditions were achieved. During interval exercise the two models showed similar patterns of alactic energy. Conclusions The current study provides useful insight on the kinetics of anaerobic power. Overall, our data indicate that blood lactate levels can be accurately modeled during steady state, and suggests a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. PMID:22830586

2012-01-01

168

The techno-economic potential of renewable energy through the anaerobic digestion of microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of microalgae as feedstock for methane production is evaluated from a process technical and economic point of view. Production of mixed culture algae in raceway ponds on non-agricultural sites, such as landfills, was identified as a preferred approach. The potential of straightforward bio-methanation, which includes pre-concentration of microalgae and utilization of a high rate anaerobic reactor was examined

Carlos Zamalloa; Elien Vulsteke; Johan Albrecht; Willy Verstraete

2011-01-01

169

Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation  

PubMed Central

Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979

Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

2010-01-01

170

USE OF SOLAR ENERGY TO HEAT ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS. PART I. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY. PART II. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Two distinct, yet related studies were conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy as the source of heat for the anaerobic digestion process. Retrofitting a solar energy collection and heat transfer system to a digester at Annapolis, Maryla...

171

PPARs Integrate the Mammalian Clock and Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of numerous target genes. PPARs play an essential role in various physiological and pathological processes, especially in energy metabolism. It has long been known that metabolism and circadian clocks are tightly intertwined. However, the mechanism of how they influence each other is not fully understood. Recently, all three PPAR isoforms were found to be rhythmically expressed in given mouse tissues. Among them, PPAR? and PPAR? are direct regulators of core clock components, Bmal1 and Rev-erb?, and, conversely, PPAR? is also a direct Bmal1 target gene. More importantly, recent studies using knockout mice revealed that all PPARs exert given functions in a circadian manner. These findings demonstrated a novel role of PPARs as regulators in correlating circadian rhythm and metabolism. In this review, we summarize advances in our understanding of PPARs in circadian regulation. PMID:24693278

Chen, Lihong; Yang, Guangrui

2014-01-01

172

Urocortins: emerging metabolic and energy homeostasis perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of stress on energy balance and the involvement of the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor in modulating the anorexia of stress and sympath- etic nervous system tone are well recognized. Currently, studies centered on the roles of the more recently described members of this family of ligands, the urocor- tins, and their preferred receptor, the corticotropin releasing factor type

Yael Kuperman; Alon Chen

2008-01-01

173

ENERGY METABOLISM OF THE FAILING HEART  

E-print Network

Starling (1915) showed that the normal heart dilates only when increased work is thrown upon it. In disease the heart dilates without any increase in work imposed upon it. It is obviously of importance to know in what particulars the failing heart differs from the normal. The experiments recorded here amplify the results of Starling and Visscher (1927) in elucidating this problem. In their experiments it was found that the energy liberation in the normal heart is fixed by the size of the heart at the beginning of contraction; i.e., at the end of diastole. The size of the heart is a measure of the length of the muscle fibers; consequently their results may be expressed by saying that the quantity of energy liberated in contraction is determined by the length of the fiber at the time of contraction. As a matter of fact, we are more fundamentally interested in the amount of work the heart can do than we are in the total energy it can liberate. Therefore the proportion of the total energy which can be

George Decherd; Am Maurice; B. Visscher

174

Economic viability of anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

175

13C NMR spectroscopy applications to brain energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the method of choice for studying brain metabolism. Indeed, the most convincing data obtained to decipher metabolic exchanges between neurons and astrocytes have been obtained using this technique, thus illustrating its power. It may be difficult for non-specialists, however, to grasp thefull implication of data presented in articles written by spectroscopists. The aim of the review is, therefore, to provide a fundamental understanding of this topic to facilitate the non-specialists in their reading of this literature. In the first part of this review, we present the metabolic fate of 13C-labeled substrates in the brain in a detailed way, including an overview of some general neurochemical principles. We also address and compare the various spectroscopic strategies that can be used to study brain metabolism. Then, we provide an overview of the 13C NMR experiments performed to analyze both intracellular and intercellular metabolic fluxes. More particularly, the role of lactate as a potential energy substrate for neurons is discussed in the light of 13C NMR data. Finally, new perspectives and applications offered by 13C hyperpolarization are described. PMID:24367329

Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Valette, Julien; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

2013-01-01

176

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

2013-09-01

177

Methods of assessing microbial activity and inhibition under anaerobic conditions: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the existing methodologies for assessing microbial activity and inhibition under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion process consists of several metabolic steps–the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has attempted to describe these steps in the form of a mathematical model with the intention of providing a reference base for all further efforts in the modelling of anaerobic

Alberto Rozzi; Enrico Remigi

2004-01-01

178

STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons.  

PubMed

STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emmanuelle; Giorgio, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

2014-01-01

179

Economic and environmental analysis of four different configurations of anaerobic digestion for food waste to energy conversion using LCA for: a food service provider case study.  

PubMed

The US disposes of more than 34 million tons of food waste in landfills per year. As this food waste decomposes it generates methane gas and negatively contributes to global warming. Diverting theses organic food wastes from landfills and to emerging technologies will prevent these wastes and greenhouse gas emissions while at the same time generating a source renewable energy by collecting the emitted gases. From a waste prevention standpoint, instead of the food waste decomposing at local landfills, it is being converted into an energy source and the by-product may be used as a fertilizer (Fine and Hadas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to compare four different configurations of anaerobic digestion of organic waste to energy technologies from an economic, energy, and emissions standpoint using LCA via a case study at a large food services provider in Northwest Ohio, USA. The technologies studied included two-stage anaerobic digestion system using ultrasound pre-treating, two stage continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic with recirculation of the digested sludge, long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements, and single stage anaerobic digestion. Using LCA, these scenarios were compared to landfill disposal of the food waste. The findings from the case study indicated that implementing on-site waste to energy systems will result in lower operation costs and lower environmental impacts. In addition, a standardized environmental and economic comparison of competing food waste to energy technologies is provided. PMID:23583791

Franchetti, Matthew

2013-07-15

180

Medium chain fatty acid metabolism and energy expenditure: Obesity treatment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids undergo different metabolic fates depending on their chain length and degree of saturation. The purpose of this review is to examine the metabolic handling of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) with specific reference to intermediary metabolism and postprandial and total energy expenditure. The metabolic discrimination between varying fatty acids begins in the GI tract, with MCFA being absorbed

Andrea A. Papamandjaris; Diane E. Macdougall; Peter J. H. Jones

1998-01-01

181

Anaerobic respiration in the polychaete Euzonus (Thoracophelia) mucronata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intertidal polychaete Euzonus mucronata (Treadwell) is found in great numbers within beach sands that undergo periodic anoxia. Short-term exposures (2 to 4 h) to anaerobicity are withstood through the use of a supply of oxyhemoglobin to support continued aerobic metabolism. Longer periods of environmental anoxia activate an anaerobic metabolism capable of sustaining life for up to 20 days, and

E. G. Ruby; D. L. Fox

1976-01-01

182

Liver Energy Metabolism of Anguilla anguillaafter Exposure to Fenitrothion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the effect of fenitrothion (0.04 mg\\/liter) on the energy metabolism of the European eel,Anguilla anguilla, and its recovery from intoxication. Various parameters such as glycogen, lactate, proteins, total lipids, and glucose in eel liver and blood were analyzed after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h of fenitrothion exposure. Subsequently, the fish

E. Sancho; M. D. Ferrando; C. Fernández; E. Andreu

1998-01-01

183

Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis  

SciTech Connect

Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.

Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

2007-11-01

184

Energy Metabolism of Intervertebral Disc Under Mechanical Loading  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is closely associated with low back pain (LBP), which is a major health concern in the U.S. Cellular biosynthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM), which is important for maintaining tissue integrity and preventing tissue degeneration, is an energy demanding process. Due to impaired nutrient support in avascular IVD, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply could be a limiting factor for maintaining normal ECM synthesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) of porcine IVD under static and dynamic compressions. Under compression, pH decreased and the contents of lactate and ATP increased significantly in both AF and NP regions, suggesting that compression can promote ATP production via glycolysis and reduce pH by increasing lactate accumulation. A high level of extracellular ATP content was detected in the NP region and regulated by compressive loading. Since ATP can serve not only as an intra-cellular energy currency, but also as a regulator of a variety of cellular activities extracellularly through the purinergic signaling pathway, our findings suggest that compression-mediated ATP metabolism could be a novel mechanobiological pathway for regulating IVD metabolism. PMID:23843186

Wang, Chong; Gonzales, Silvia; Levene, Howard; Gu, Weiyong; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles

2013-01-01

185

Energy metabolism of intervertebral disc under mechanical loading.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is closely associated with low back pain (LBP), which is a major health concern in the U.S. Cellular biosynthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM), which is important for maintaining tissue integrity and preventing tissue degeneration, is an energy demanding process. Due to impaired nutrient support in avascular IVD, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply could be a limiting factor for maintaining normal ECM synthesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) of porcine IVD under static and dynamic compressions. Under compression, pH decreased and the contents of lactate and ATP increased significantly in both AF and NP regions, suggesting that compression can promote ATP production via glycolysis and reduce pH by increasing lactate accumulation. A high level of extracellular ATP content was detected in the NP region and regulated by compressive loading. Since ATP can serve not only as an intra-cellular energy currency, but also as a regulator of a variety of cellular activities extracellularly through the purinergic signaling pathway, our findings suggest that compression-mediated ATP metabolism could be a novel mechanobiological pathway for regulating IVD metabolism. PMID:23843186

Wang, Chong; Gonzales, Silvia; Levene, Howard; Gu, Weiyong; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles

2013-11-01

186

DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. he fuel cell is being used for this application becaus...

187

Involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in product formation in pyruvate-limited anaerobic chemostat cultures of Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with pyruvate as the energy source. At low culture pH values, high in vivo and in vitro activities were found for both pyruvate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. At high culture pH values the carbon flux was shifted towards pyruvate formate lyase. Some mechanisms possibly involved in this metabolic switch are

Jacky L. Snoep; M. Joost Teixeira de Mattos; Pieter W. Postma; Oense M. Neijssel

1990-01-01

188

[Modifications in myocardial energy metabolism in diabetic patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capacity of cardiac myocyte to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. Because FA is the main heart fuel (although the most expensive one in oxygen, and prompt to induce deleterious effects), this process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Several pathological situations are associated with an accumulation of FA or derivatives, or with an excessive b-oxidation. The diabetic cardiomyocyte is characterised by an over consumption of FA. The control of the FA/glucose balance clearly appears as a new strategy for cytoprotection, particularly in diabetes and requires a reduced FA contribution to ATP production. Cardiac myocytes can control FA mitochondrial entry, but display weak ability to control FA uptake, thus the fate of non beta-oxidized FA appear as a new impairment for the cell. Both the trigger and the regulation of cardiac contraction result from membrane activity, and the other major FA function in the myocardium is their role in membrane homeostasis, through the phospholipid synthesis and remodeling pathways. Sudden death, hypercatecholaminemia, diabetes and heart failure have been associated with an altered PUFA content in cardiac membranes. Experimental data suggest that the 2 metabolic pathways involved in membrane homeostasis may represent therapeutic targets for cytoprotection. The drugs that increase cardiac phospholipid turnover (trimetazidine, ranolazine,...) display anti-ischemic non hemodynamic effect. This effect is based on a redirection of FA utilization towards phospholipid synthesis, which decrease their availability for energy production. A nutritional approach gave also promising results. Besides its anti-arrhythmic effect, the dietary docosahexaenoic acid is able to reduce FA energy consumption and hence oxygen demand. The cardiac metabolic pathways involving FA should be considered as a whole, precariously balanced. The diabetic heart being characterised by a different metabolic "status" with similarities to that of myocardium in coronary disease. Diabetes and other chronic cardiac diseases share common FA metabolism disorders leading to an altered energy balance, a decrease in long chain polyunsaturated Fas, and altered FA profiles in cardiac membranes. These disturbances, however, do not represent independent therapeutic targets, and should be considered as a whole.

Grynberg, A.

2001-01-01

189

Insulin, osteoblasts, and energy metabolism: why bone counts calories  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that insulin stimulates bone cells to produce and activate osteocalcin, an endocrine hormone that increases the efficiency of glucose metabolism through its actions on the pancreas and other peripheral tissues. In this issue of the JCI, Wei and colleagues directly explore the contribution of insulin signaling in osteoblasts to the disturbances in whole-body glucose metabolism associated with a high-fat diet. In mice fed a high-fat diet, increased uptake of saturated fatty acids by the osteoblast accelerates the ubiquitination and degradation of the insulin receptor. In this setting, impairments in osteoblast insulin signaling reduce serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which in turn exacerbate insulin resistance in muscle and white adipose tissue. These findings underscore the importance of insulin-responsive skeletal cells as components of a newly appreciated endocrine network critical for regulating global energy homeostasis. PMID:24642463

Riddle, Ryan C.; Clemens, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

190

Economic feasibility of anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Farms which have existing adequate manure utilization, such as storage and field application, would normally only consider an anaerobic digestion system based on its energy producing benefits relative to all costs of the system. This paper presents an economic feasibility analysis of a particular on-farm anaerobic digestion system and assesses the impact on feasibility of varying the oil and electricity prices. (Refs. 2).

Criner, G.K.

1987-01-01

191

RECOVERY FROM ANAEROBIOSIS IN THE INTERTIDAL WORM SIPUNCULUS NUDUS I. RESTORATION OF AEROBIC, STEADY-STATE ENERGY METABOLISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Recovery from 24 h of anaerobiosis was investigated in Sipunculus nudus L. by monitoring changes in the concentrations of anaerobic metabolites in the muscu- lature and in the coelomic plasma. The metabolic events in animals collected during March and October were compared. Anaerobiosis led to an increase of succinate, propionate and acetate in the muscle tissues and the coelomic

H. O. PORTNER; S. VOGELER; M. K. GRIESHABER

192

Organ-specific analysis of the anaerobic primary metabolism in rice and wheat seedlings. I: Dark ethanol production is dominated by the shoots.  

PubMed

During anaerobiosis in darkness the main route for ATP production in plants is through glycolysis in combination with fermentation. We compared the organ-specific anaerobic fermentation of flooding-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. A sensitive laser-based photoacoustic trace gas detection system was used to monitor emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde by roots and shoots of intact seedlings. Dark-incubated rice seedlings released 3 times more acetaldehyde and 14 times more ethanol than wheat seedlings during anaerobiosis. Ninety percent of acetaldehyde originated from shoots of both species. In comparison to wheat shoots, the high ethanol production of rice shoots correlated with larger amounts of soluble carbohydrates, and higher activities of fermentative enzymes. After 24 h of anaerobiosis in darkness rice shoots still contained 30% of aerated ATP level, which enabled seedlings to survive this period. In contrast, ATP content declined almost to zero in wheat shoots and roots, which were irreversibly damaged after a 24-h anaerobic period. When plants were anaerobically and dark incubated for 4 h and subsequently transferred back to aeration, shoots showed a transient peak of acetaldehyde release indicating prompt re-oxidation of ethanol. Post-anoxic acetaldehyde production was lower in rice seedlings than in wheat. This observation accounts for a more effective acetaldehyde detoxification system in rice. Compared to wheat the greater tolerance of rice seedlings to transient anaerobic periods is explained by a faster fermentation rate of their shoots allowing a sufficient ATP production and an efficient suppression of toxic acetaldehyde formation in the early re-aeration period. PMID:16845530

Mustroph, Angelika; Boamfa, Elena I; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Albrecht, Gerd; Grimm, Bernhard

2006-12-01

193

Development and application of liquid and gas-chromatographic speciation techniques with element specific (ICP-MS) detection to the study of anaerobic arsenic metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the observation of volatile hydride and methylated arsenic species in the gases released from sewage treatment facilities\\u000a and municipal landfills, we have developed a method for investigating the production of such gases by an anaerobic organism.\\u000a Here we report the application of high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), hydride generation gas chromatography (HG-GC),\\u000a and purge and trap gas chromatography (PT-GC),

E. B. Wickenheiser; K. Michalke; C. Drescher; A. V. Hirner; R. Hensel

1998-01-01

194

Thermal hydrolysis integration in the anaerobic digestion process of different solid wastes: energy and economic feasibility study.  

PubMed

An economic assessment of thermal hydrolysis as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion has been achieved to evaluate its implementation in full-scale plants. Six different solid wastes have been studied, among them municipal solid waste (MSW). Thermal hydrolysis has been tested with batch lab-scale tests, from which an energy and economic assessment of three scenarios is performed: with and without energy integration (recovering heat to produce steam in a cogeneration plant), finally including the digestate management costs. Thermal hydrolysis has lead to an increase of the methane productions (up to 50%) and kinetics parameters (even double). The study has determined that a proper energy integration design could lead to important economic savings (5 €/t) and thermal hydrolysis can enhance up to 40% the incomes of the digestion plant, even doubling them when digestate management costs are considered. In a full-scale MSW treatment plant (30,000 t/year), thermal hydrolysis would provide almost 0.5 M€/year net benefits. PMID:24582388

Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Fdz-Polanco, M

2014-09-01

195

Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans  

PubMed Central

Energy is the fundamental currency of life—needed for growth, repair, and reproduction—but little is known about the metabolic physiology and evolved energy use strategies of the great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. Here we report daily energy use in free-living orangutans (Pongo spp.) and test whether observed differences in energy expenditure among orangutans, humans, and other mammals reflect known differences in life history. Using the doubly labeled water method, we measured daily energy expenditure (kCal/d) in orangutans living in a large indoor/outdoor habitat at the Great Ape Trust. Despite activity levels similar to orangutans in the wild, Great Ape Trust orangutans used less energy, relative to body mass, than nearly any eutherian mammal ever measured, including sedentary humans. Such an extremely low rate of energy use has not been observed previously in primates, but is consistent with the slow growth and low rate of reproduction in orangutans, and may be an evolutionary response to severe food shortages in their native Southeast Asian rainforests. These results hold important implications for the management of orangutan populations in captivity and in the wild, and underscore the flexibility and interdependence of physiological, behavioral, and life history strategies in the evolution of apes and humans. PMID:20679208

Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A.; Shumaker, Robert W.; Ocobock, Cara; Wich, Serge A.

2010-01-01

196

Alternative energy systems for Puerto Rico : analysis and comparison of anaerobic waste digestion  

E-print Network

Energy prices in Puerto Rico are increasing constantly, making evident the need for alternative energy sources. Several methods to produce power have been developed as alternatives to burning petroleum, such as solar energy ...

Cuevas, Emil A. (Emil André Cuevas Meléndez)

2006-01-01

197

Myocardial energy metabolism in ischemic preconditioning and cardioplegia: a metabolic control analysis.  

PubMed

For both, cardioplegia (CP) and ischemic preconditioning (IP), increased ischemic tolerance with reduction in infarct size is well documented. These cardioprotective effects are related to a limitation of high energy phosphate (HEP) depletion. As CP and IP have to be assumed to act by different mechanisms, their effects on myocardial HEP metabolism cannot be assumed to be identical. Therefore, a systematic analysis of myocardial HEP metabolism for both procedures and their combination was performed, addressing the question whether there are different effects on myocardial HEP metabolism by IP and CP. In this study, metabolic control analysis was used to analyze the regulation of HEP metabolism. In open chest pigs subjected to 45 min LAD occlusion (index ischemia), CP and IP preserved myocardial ATP (control (C) 0.14 +/- 0.05 micromol/g wwt; CP: 0.95 +/- 0.14, IP: 0.61 +/- 0.12; p<0.05 C vs. CP and IP) and reduced myocardial necrosis (infarct size IA/RA: C: 90.0 +/- 3.0%; CP: 0.0 +/- 0.0% but patchy necroses; IP: 5.05 +/- 2.1%; p<0.05 C vs. CP and IP). The effects on HEP metabolism, however, were different: CP acted predominantly by slowing down the breakdown of phosphocreatine (PCr) during early phases of ischemia (C: DeltaPCr 0-2 min: 5.24 +/- 0.32 micromol/g wwt; CP: DeltaPCr 0-2 min: 3.38 +/- 0.23 micromol/g wwt, p<0.05 vs. C), leaving ATP breakdown during later stages unaffected (C: DeltaATP 5-45 min: 1.77 +/- 0.11 micromol/g wwt CP: DeltaATP 5-45 min: 1.59 +/- 0.28 micromol/g wwt, n.s. vs. C). In contrast to CP, in IP PCr breakdown was even increased (IP: DeltaPCr 0-2 min: 7.06 +/- 0.34 micromol/g wwt, p<0.05 vs. C), but ATP depletion greatly attenuated (IP: DeltaATP 5-45 min: 0.48 +/- 0.10 micromol/g wwt, p<0.05 vs. C and CP). Combining IP and CP yielded an additive effect with slowing down the breakdown of both PCr (IP+CP: DeltaPCr 0-2 min: 5.09+/- 0.35 micromol/g wwt, p<0.05 vs. C and IP) and ATP (IP+CP: DeltaATP 5-45 min: 0.56 +/- 0.48 micromol/g wwt, p<0.05 vs. C and CP), resulting in a higher ATP content at the end of index ischemia (1.86 +/- 0.46 micromol/g wwt, p<0.05 vs. C, CP and IP). Compared to IP, combining IP+CP achieved also a further reduction in infarct size (IA/RA: 0.0 +/- 0.0%, p<0.05 vs IP) and--compared to CP--a disappearance of the patchy necroses. The concept of major differences in myocardial HEP metabolism during CP and IP is further supported at a molecular level by metabolic control analysis. CP but not IP slowed down the CK reaction velocity at high PCr levels. In contrast to CP exerting a continuous decline in vATPase for any given ATP level, in IP myocardium ATPase reaction velocity was even increased at higher ATP contents, whereas a marked decrease in ATPase reaction velocity was found if ATP levels decreased. The equilibrium of the CK-reaction remained unchanged following CP, whereas IP induced a changing CK equilibrium, which was the more shifted towards PCr the more myocardial HEP content decreased. The data demonstrate different effects of CP and IP on myocardial HEP metabolism, i.e. PCr and ATP breakdown as well as the apparent equilibrium of the creatine kinase (CK)-reaction. For these reasons the combination of the two protective interventions has an additive effect. PMID:16180108

Vogt, Achim M; Elsässer, Albrecht; Pott-Beckert, Anja; Ackermann, Cordula; Vetter, Sven Y; Yildiz, Murat; Schoels, Wolfgang; Fell, David A; Katus, Hugo A; Kübler, Wolfgang

2005-10-01

198

Modular organization of cardiac energy metabolism: energy conversion, transfer and feedback regulation  

PubMed Central

To meet high cellular demands, the energy metabolism of cardiac muscles is organized by precise and coordinated functioning of intracellular energetic units (ICEUs). ICEUs represent structural and functional modules integrating multiple fluxes at sites of ATP generation in mitochondria and ATP utilization by myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma ion-pump ATPases. The role of ICEUs is to enhance the efficiency of vectorial intracellular energy transfer and fine tuning of oxidative ATP synthesis maintaining stable metabolite levels to adjust to intracellular energy needs through the dynamic system of compartmentalized phosphoryl transfer networks. One of the key elements in regulation of energy flux distribution and feedback communication is the selective permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) which represents a bottleneck in adenine nucleotide and other energy metabolite transfer and microcompartmentalization. Based on the experimental and theoretical (mathematical modelling) arguments, we describe regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis within ICEUs allowing heart workload to be linearly correlated with oxygen consumption ensuring conditions of metabolic stability, signal communication and synchronization. Particular attention was paid to the structure–function relationship in the development of ICEU, and the role of mitochondria interaction with cytoskeletal proteins, like tubulin, in the regulation of MOM permeability in response to energy metabolic signals providing regulation of mitochondrial respiration. Emphasis was given to the importance of creatine metabolism for the cardiac energy homoeostasis. PMID:24666671

Guzun, R.; Kaambre, T.; Bagur, R.; Grichine, A.; Usson, Y.; Varikmaa, M.; Anmann, T.; Tepp, K.; Timohhina, N.; Shevchuk, I.; Chekulayev, V.; Boucher, F.; Santos, P. Dos; Schlattner, U.; Wallimann, T.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Dzeja, P.; Aliev, M.; Saks, V.

2014-01-01

199

Adaptive Evolution of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism Genes Associated with Increased Energy Demand in Flying Insects  

PubMed Central

Insects are unique among invertebrates for their ability to fly, which raises intriguing questions about how energy metabolism in insects evolved and changed along with flight. Although physiological studies indicated that energy consumption differs between flying and non-flying insects, the evolution of molecular energy metabolism mechanisms in insects remains largely unexplored. Considering that about 95% of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation, we examined 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes to test whether adaptive evolution of energy metabolism-related genes occurred in insects. The analyses demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA protein-encoding genes are subject to positive selection from the last common ancestor of Pterygota, which evolved primitive flight ability. Positive selection was also found in insects with flight ability, whereas no significant sign of selection was found in flightless insects where the wings had degenerated. In addition, significant positive selection was also identified in the last common ancestor of Neoptera, which changed its flight mode from direct to indirect. Interestingly, detection of more positively selected genes in indirect flight rather than direct flight insects suggested a stronger selective pressure in insects having higher energy consumption. In conclusion, mitochondrial protein-encoding genes involved in energy metabolism were targets of adaptive evolution in response to increased energy demands that arose during the evolution of flight ability in insects. PMID:24918926

Yang, Yunxia; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Guo, Yan; Yang, Guang

2014-01-01

200

Modular organization of cardiac energy metabolism: energy conversion, transfer and feedback regulation.  

PubMed

To meet high cellular demands, the energy metabolism of cardiac muscles is organized by precise and coordinated functioning of intracellular energetic units (ICEUs). ICEUs represent structural and functional modules integrating multiple fluxes at sites of ATP generation in mitochondria and ATP utilization by myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma ion-pump ATPases. The role of ICEUs is to enhance the efficiency of vectorial intracellular energy transfer and fine tuning of oxidative ATP synthesis maintaining stable metabolite levels to adjust to intracellular energy needs through the dynamic system of compartmentalized phosphoryl transfer networks. One of the key elements in regulation of energy flux distribution and feedback communication is the selective permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) which represents a bottleneck in adenine nucleotide and other energy metabolite transfer and microcompartmentalization. Based on the experimental and theoretical (mathematical modelling) arguments, we describe regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis within ICEUs allowing heart workload to be linearly correlated with oxygen consumption ensuring conditions of metabolic stability, signal communication and synchronization. Particular attention was paid to the structure-function relationship in the development of ICEU, and the role of mitochondria interaction with cytoskeletal proteins, like tubulin, in the regulation of MOM permeability in response to energy metabolic signals providing regulation of mitochondrial respiration. Emphasis was given to the importance of creatine metabolism for the cardiac energy homoeostasis. PMID:24666671

Guzun, R; Kaambre, T; Bagur, R; Grichine, A; Usson, Y; Varikmaa, M; Anmann, T; Tepp, K; Timohhina, N; Shevchuk, I; Chekulayev, V; Boucher, F; Dos Santos, P; Schlattner, U; Wallimann, T; Kuznetsov, A V; Dzeja, P; Aliev, M; Saks, V

2015-01-01

201

Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1? was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:24443561

Braga, Melissa; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Vergnes, Laurent; Pervin, Shehla; Grijalva, Victor; Stout, David; David, John; Li, Xinmin; Tomasian, Venina; Reid, Christopher B; Norris, Keith C; Devaskar, Sherin U; Reue, Karen; Singh, Rajan

2014-03-01

202

Cell energy budget platform for assessment of cell metabolism.  

PubMed

Changes in bioenergetic parameters report on metabolic rearrangement, dysfunction of major pathways, and regulatory processes within the cell, adaptation to energy stress, or new physiological condition. A combined measurement of oxidative phosphorylation, glycolytic flux, the Krebs cycle activity, ATP levels, and total biomass allows detailed metabolic assessment. We describe a simple methodology for high-throughput multiparametric assessment of cell bioenergetics, called cell energy budget (CEB) platform, and demonstrate its practical use with cell models. The CEB relies on a standard multi-label reader with time-resolved fluorescence capabilities, the lanthanide probe pH-Xtra™ to measure extracellular acidification (ECA) associated with lactate (L-ECA) and combined lactate/CO2 (T-ECA) extrusion, the phosphorescent probe MitoXpress®-Xtra to measure oxygen consumption rate (OCR), the bioluminescent total ATP assay, and absorbance-based total protein assay. This approach can be further extended with the measurement of other cellular parameters, such as NAD(P)H, Ca(2+), mitochondrial pH, membrane potential, and redox state, using the corresponding fluorescent or luminescent probes. PMID:25634285

Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Zhdanov, Alexander V

2015-01-01

203

Endocrine regulation of bone and energy metabolism in hibernating mammals.  

PubMed

Precise coordination among organs is required to maintain homeostasis throughout hibernation. This is particularly true in balancing bone remodeling processes (bone formation and resorption) in hibernators experiencing nutritional deprivation and extreme physical inactivity, two factors normally leading to pronounced bone loss in non-hibernating mammals. In recent years, important relationships between bone, fat, reproductive, and brain tissues have come to light. These systems share interconnected regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism that potentially protect the skeleton during hibernation. This review focuses on the endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of bone/fat/energy metabolism in hibernators. Hibernators appear to have unique mechanisms that protect musculoskeletal tissues while catabolizing their abundant stores of fat. Furthermore, the bone remodeling processes that normally cause disuse-induced bone loss in non-hibernators are compared to bone remodeling processes in hibernators, and possible adaptations of the bone signaling pathways that protect the skeleton during hibernation are discussed. Understanding the biological mechanisms that allow hibernators to survive the prolonged disuse and fasting associated with extreme environmental challenges will provide critical information regarding the limit of convergence in mammalian systems and of skeletal plasticity, and may contribute valuable insight into the etiology and treatment of human diseases. PMID:24556365

Doherty, Alison H; Florant, Gregory L; Donahue, Seth W

2014-09-01

204

Regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton: osteocalcin and beyond.  

PubMed

The skeleton has recently emerged as an endocrine organ implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. This function of bone is mediated, at least in part, by osteocalcin, an osteoblast-derived protein acting as a hormone stimulating insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and energy expenditure. Osteocalcin secretion and bioactivity is in turn regulated by several hormonal cues including insulin, leptin, the sympathetic nervous system and glucocorticoids. Recent findings support the notion that osteocalcin functions and regulations are conserved between mice and humans. Moreover, studies in mice suggest that osteocalcin could represent a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on osteocalcin functions, its various modes of action and the mechanisms implicated in the control of this hormone. PMID:24893146

Ferron, Mathieu; Lacombe, Julie

2014-11-01

205

Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure  

E-print Network

be the minimum size required for economic feasibility of methane production. Morris et al. (1975) concluded that anaerobic digestion was not feasible for a 100 cow dairy. Ifeadi and Brown (1975) estimated that the break even size for methane production from a... and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic...

Egg, Richard P

2012-06-07

206

Energy reserves and metabolism as indicators of coral recovery from bleaching Lisa J. Rodrigues1  

E-print Network

Energy reserves and metabolism as indicators of coral recovery from bleaching Lisa J. Rodrigues1 of energy reserves (i.e., lipid, carbohydrate, protein) and heterotrophy to survive and recover. To understand the dynamics of energy reserves and metabolism during long-term recovery, Porites compressa

Grottoli, Andréa G.

207

CHAPTER TWO Vibrio fischeri Metabolism  

E-print Network

. fischeri Metabolic Pathways are Used in the Host? 49 4.1 Aerobic respiration 49 4.2 Anaerobic respiration: Fur and H-NOX 55 5.3 Anaerobic respiration: FNR 56 5.4 Acetate metabolism: LitR 57 5.5 Summary 57 6

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

208

Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic bacteria include diverse species that can grow at environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, substrate toxicity, or available free energy. The first evolved archaebacterial and eubacterial species appear to have been anaerobes adapted to high temperatures. Thermoanaerobes and their stable enzymes have served as model systems for basic and applied studies of microbial cellulose and starch degradation, methanogenesis, ethanologenesis, acetogenesis, autotrophic CO2 fixation, saccharidases, hydrogenases, and alcohol dehydrogenases. Anaerobes, unlike aerobes, appear to have evolved more energy-conserving mechanisms for physiological adaptation to environmental stresses such as novel enzyme activities and stabilities and novel membrane lipid compositions and functions. Anaerobic syntrophs do not have similar aerobic bacterial counterparts. The metabolic end products of syntrophs are potent thermodynamic inhibitors of energy conservation mechanisms, and they require coordinated consumption by a second partner organism for species growth. Anaerobes adapted to environmental stresses and their enzymes have biotechnological applications in organic waste treatment systems and chemical and fuel production systems based on biomass-derived substrates or syngas. These kinds of anaerobes have only recently been examined by biologists, and considerably more study is required before they are fully appreciated by science and technology. Images PMID:8336675

Lowe, S E; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

1993-01-01

209

Energy Metabolism During Diapause in Culex pipiens Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Diapause in overwintering adult female Culex pipiens mosquitoes plays an important role in the transmission of West Nile and other encephalitis-inducing flaviviruses. To investigate the dynamic metabolic processes that control Cx. pipiens diapause, we used radioactive tracer techniques with [14C]-glucose to investigate the metabolic fate and flux of glucose in adult mosquitoes reared under diapause (18°C, short day) and nondiapause (27°C, long day) conditions. We found that by 72 hours post-14C-labeling of 1-day-old mosquitoes, the diapause-destined mosquitoes had converted 46% more 14C-labled glucose into 14C-labled lipid than mosquitoes reared under nondiapausing conditions. When 5-day-old mosquitoes were fed [14C]-glucose, and then switched to water only, the nondiapausing mosquitoes oxidized nearly three times more 14C-labled glycogen and lipid by day 7 than diapausing mosquitoes. This increased energy expenditure in nondiapausing mosquitoes is most likely due to temperature- and light-dependent increases in the basal metabolic rate. Amongst the diapausing mosquitoes we analyzed over a subsequent 7 week period, we found that the amount of 14C-labeled glycogen decreased steadily for the first month of diapause, whereas, 14C-labeled-lipid levels were not significantly decreased until after day 35 of diapause, indicating that flux through glycogenolysis is higher than lipolysis during the first month of diapause. Lastly, our analysis revealed that 38% of the initial 14C-labled lipid that was synthesized during the adult pre-diapause phase was still present following the first gonotrophic cycle. About 33% of this remaining 14C-labeled lipid was localized to the newly developed eggs, suggesting that lipid sparing processes during a minimal 7 week long diapause may enhance egg production. PMID:18992753

Zhou, Guoli; Miesfeld, Roger L.

2009-01-01

210

Cerebral carbohydrate and energy metabolism during hypoglycemia in newborn dogs.  

PubMed

The metabolic responses of the perinatal brain to hypoglycemia were studied in newborn dogs. Hypoglycemia, induced by the intravenous injection of regular insulin (0.2-0.3 U/g body wt), resulted in final blood glucose concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 mmol/l; blood lactate levels were little changed from normoglycemic values. Righting, sucking, and nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were progressively lost during the course of hypoglycemia. Slowing of the electroencephalogram was apparent at or below 1.5 mmol/l blood glucose and advanced to paroxysmal discharges and convulsive activity as glucose approached 0.5 mmol/l. In lightly anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated puppies, blood glucose concentrations approximating 1.0 mmol/l were associated with a 91% reduction in cerebral glucose; the concentrations of other glycolytic intermediates (glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, pyruvate, lactate) were unchanged from control. Further declines in blood glucose resulted in cerebral glucose levels below 0.1 mmol/kg as well as in partial depletions of all measured glycolytic intermediates including lactate. These changes reflect reduced cerebral glucose consumption and glycolytic flux. Despite the alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, both lactate/pyruvate ratios and high-energy phosphate reserves (phosphocreatine, ATP, ADP) in brain were well preserved even at the extreme of hypoglycemia. The present data, coupled with previous findings of enhanced lactic acid entry into and consumption by newborn dog brain, suggest that this metabolite serves as an important, if not the predominant, substitute fuel for cerebral oxidative metabolism during perinatal hypoglycemia. PMID:6782896

Vannucci, R C; Nardis, E E; Vannucci, S J; Campbell, P A

1981-03-01

211

Lactate Dehydrogenase C and Energy Metabolism in Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD+ cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC. PMID:21565994

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A.; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E.; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M.

2011-01-01

212

Novel metabolic roles of L-arginine in body energy metabolism and possible clinical applications.  

PubMed

Although the body can synthesize L-arginine, exogenous supplementation may be sometimes necessary, especially in particular conditions which results in depleted endogenous source. Among diseases and states when exogenous supplementation may be necessary are: burns, severe wounds, infections, insufficient circulation, intensive physical activity or sterility. In recent time, the attention was paid to the use of L-arginine supplementation by athletes during intensive sport activity, to enhance tissue growth and general performance, to potentiate the ergogenic potential and muscle tolerance to high intensive work and gas exchange threshold, to decrease ammonia liberation and recovery performance period and to improve wound healing. High-intensity exercise produces transient hyperammoniemia, presumably due to AMP catabolism. Catabolic pathways of AMP may involve its deamination or dephosphorylation, mainly in order to compensate fall in adenylate enrgy charge (AEC), due to AMP rise. The enzymes of purine metabolism have been documented to be particularly sensitive to the effect of dietary L-arginine supplementation. L-arginine supplementation leads to redirection of AMP deamination on account of increased AMP dephosphorylation and subsequent adenosine production and may increase ATP regeneration via activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) pathway. The central role of AMPK in regulating cellular ATP regeneration, makes this enzyme as a central control point in energy homeostasis. The effects of L-arginine supplementation on energy expenditure were successful independently of age or previous disease, in young sport active, elderly, older population and patients with angina pectoris. PMID:24522477

Hristina, K; Langerholc, T; Trapecar, M

2014-01-01

213

Anaerobic thermophiles.  

PubMed

The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

214

Actions of juglone on energy metabolism in the rat liver  

SciTech Connect

Juglone is a phenolic compound used in popular medicine as a phytotherapic to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, it also acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated liver mitochondria and, thus, may interfere with the hepatic energy metabolism. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of juglone on several metabolic parameters in the isolated perfused rat liver. Juglone, in the concentration range of 5 to 50 {mu}M, stimulated glycogenolysis, glycolysis and oxygen uptake. Gluconeogenesis from both lactate and alanine was inhibited with half-maximal effects at the concentrations of 14.9 and 15.7 {mu}M, respectively. The overall alanine transformation was increased by juglone, as indicated by the stimulated release of ammonia, urea, L-glutamate, lactate and pyruvate. A great increase (9-fold) in the tissue content of {alpha}-ketoglutarate was found, without a similar change in the L-glutamate content. The tissue contents of ATP were decreased, but those of ADP and AMP were increased. Experiments with isolated mitochondria fully confirmed previous notions about the uncoupling action of juglone. It can be concluded that juglone is active on metabolism at relatively low concentrations. In this particular it resembles more closely the classical uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Ingestion of high doses of juglone, thus, presents the same risks as the ingestion of 2,4-dinitrophenol which comprise excessive compromising of ATP production, hyperthermia and even death. Low doses, i.e., moderate consumption of natural products containing juglone, however, could be beneficial to health if one considers recent reports about the consequences of chronic mild uncoupling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated how juglone acts on liver metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The actions on hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and ureogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Juglone stimulates glycolysis and ureagenesis and inhibits gluconeogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cellular ATP content is diminished. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Juglone can be consired a toxic compound for the cell economy.

Saling, Simoni Cristina; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Mito, Marcio Shigueaki; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar, E-mail: adebracht@uol.com.br

2011-12-15

215

Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10 gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50 mg/L for general reuse was 6 gCOD/L/d and 0.63 gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6 gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300 ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382 ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026 gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m(2)/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. PMID:24926606

Wei, Chun-Hai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

2014-08-01

216

Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.  

PubMed

Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

2013-11-01

217

Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer: review and hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are often unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration, malignant brain cancer is potentially manageable through changes in metabolic environment. A radically different approach to brain cancer management is proposed that combines metabolic control analysis with the evolutionarily conserved capacity of normal

Thomas N Seyfried; Purna Mukherjee

2005-01-01

218

Use of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study the Effect of Cortical Magnesium and Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flow metabolism coupling ensures adequate cerebral oxygenation. When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs, the flow metabolism coupling lost its balance and results in cerebral ischemia and infarction second to cortical magnesium and energy metabolism alternation. During chronic vasospasm, change in cortical energy metabolism is coupled with change in cerebral blood flow after SAH. Methods: What kind of noninvasive technique can

Heping Yang; Xiangqi Tang; Lihua Tan; Liuwang Zeng; Zhiping Hu

2008-01-01

219

Potential application of anaerobic extremophiles for hydrogen production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In processes of the substrate fermentation most anaerobes produce molecular hydrogen as a waste end product, which often controls the culture growth as an inhibitor. Usually in nature the hydrogen is easily removed from an ecosystem, due to its physical features, and an immediate consumption by the secondary anaerobes that sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors; a classical example of this kind of substrate competition in anaerobic microbial communities is the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur-reducers. Previously, on the mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH, it was demonstrated that bacterial hydrogen production could provide a good alternative energy source. At neutral pH the original cultures could easily contaminated by methanogens, and the most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and furthermore, the cultivation with pathogenic contaminants on an industrial scale would create an unsafe situation. In our laboratory the experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria producing hydrogen as an end metabolic product were performed at different conditions. The mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic and obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T was studied and various cultivation regimes were compared for the most effective hydrogen production. In a highly mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many known methanogens are capable of growth, and the probability of developing pathogenic contaminants is theoretically is close to zero (in medicine carbonate- saturated solutions are applied as antiseptics). Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as a safe and economical process for large-scale industrial bio-hydrogen production in the future. Here we present and discuss the experimental data with the rates of hydrogen productivity for S. americana ASpG1 isolated from soda Mono Lake in California.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-11-01

220

Microbial activity measurements for anaerobic sludge digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of particulate substrate in the anaerobic sludge digestion process makes it difficult to measure the biomass in these reactors. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were investigated as indicators of the sludge activity for the anaerobic sludge digestion process. ATP measures the energy pools in the biomass and is therefore a measure of the total sludge activity.

Chung

1988-01-01

221

Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae  

PubMed Central

Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

2013-01-01

222

Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

2012-01-01

223

Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

224

Variation in energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes in response to geological carbon storage.  

PubMed

Microorganisms can strongly influence the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface. Changes in microbial activity caused by geological CO(2) storage, therefore, have the potential to influence the capacity, injectivity, and integrity of CO(2) storage reservoirs and ultimately the environmental impact of CO(2) injection. This analysis uses free energy calculations to examine variation in energy available to Fe(III) and SO(4)(2-) reducers and methanogens because of changes in the bulk composition of brine and shallow groundwater following subsurface CO(2) injection. Calculations were performed using data from two field experiments, the Frio Formation experiment and an experiment at the Zero Emission Research and Technology test site. Energy available for Fe(III) reduction increased significantly during CO(2) injection in both experiments, largely because of a decrease in pH from near-neutral levels to just below 6. Energy available to SO(4)(2-) reducers and methanogens varied little. These changes can lead to a greater rate of microbial Fe(III) reduction following subsurface CO(2) injection in reservoirs where Fe(III) oxides or oxyhydroxides are available and the rate of Fe(III) reduction is limited by energy available prior to injection. PMID:21740040

Kirk, Matthew F

2011-08-01

225

Dynamic changes in energy metabolism upon embryonic stem cell differentiation support developmental toxicant identification.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are widely used to study embryonic development and to identify developmental toxicants. Particularly, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) is well known as in vitro model to identify developmental toxicants. Although it is clear that energy metabolism plays a crucial role in embryonic development, the modulation of energy metabolism in in vitro models, such as the EST, is not yet described. The present study is among the first studies that analyses whole genome expression data to specifically characterize metabolic changes upon ESC early differentiation. Our transcriptomic analyses showed activation of glycolysis, truncated activation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activation of lipid synthesis, as well as activation of glutaminolysis during the early phase of ESC differentiation. Taken together, this energy metabolism profile points towards energy metabolism reprogramming in the provision of metabolites for biosynthesis of cellular constituents. Next, we defined a gene set that describes this energy metabolism profile. We showed that this gene set could be successfully applied in the EST to identify developmental toxicants known to modulate cellular biosynthesis (5-fluorouracil and methoxyacetic acid), while other developmental toxicants or the negative control did not modulate the expression of this gene set. Our description of dynamic changes in energy metabolism during early ESC differentiation, as well as specific identification of developmental toxicants modulating energy metabolism, is an important step forward in the definition of the applicability domain of the EST. PMID:25089837

van Dartel, Dorien A M; Schulpen, Sjors H; Theunissen, Peter T; Bunschoten, Annelies; Piersma, Aldert H; Keijer, Jaap

2014-10-01

226

The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

2012-01-01

227

Energy Metabolism in Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK: Insights from Transcript Expression Analyses Following Two States of Induction  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK, a pyrene degrading bacterium, has been the subject of functional studies aimed at elucidating mechanisms related to its outstanding pollutant bioremediation/biodegradation activities. Several studies have investigated energy production and conservation in Mycobacterium, however, they all focused on the pathogenic strains using their various hosts as induction sources. To gain greater insight into Mycobacterium energy metabolism, mRNA expression studies focused on respiratory functions were performed under two different conditions using the toxic pollutant pyrene as a test substrate and glucose as a control substrate. This was done using two transcriptomic techniques: global transcriptomic RNA-sequencing and quantitative Real-Time PCR. Growth in the presence of pyrene resulted in upregulated expression of genes associated with limited oxygen or anaerobiosis in M.gilvum PYR-GCK. Upregulated genes included succinate dehydrogenases, nitrite reductase and various electron donors including formate dehydrogenases, fumarate reductases and NADH dehydrogenases. Oxidative phosphorylation genes (with respiratory chain complexes I, III –V) were expressed at low levels compared to the genes coding for the second molecular complex in the bacterial respiratory chain (fumarate reductase); which is highly functional during microaerophilic or anaerobic bacterial growth. This study reveals a molecular adaptation to a hypoxic mode of respiration during aerobic pyrene degradation. This is likely the result of a cellular oxygen shortage resulting from exhaustion of the oxygenase enzymes required for these degradation activities in M.gilvum PYR-GCK. PMID:24927157

Badejo, Abimbola Comfort; Chung, Won Hyong; Kim, Nam Shin; Chai, Jin Choul; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Hyo Joon; Chai, Young Gyu

2014-01-01

228

Metyrapone effects on systemic and cerebral energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Metyrapone is a cytochrome P(450) inhibitor that protects against ischemia- and excitotoxicity-induced brain damages in rodents. This study examines whether metyrapone would act on energy metabolism in a manner congruent with its neuroprotective effect. In a first investigation, the rats instrumented with telemetric devices measuring abdominal temperature, received i.p. injection of either metyrapone or saline. One hour after injection, their blood and hippocampus were sampled. Hippocampus metabolite concentrations were measured using (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H HRMAS-MRS). The hippocampus levels in phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were measured by Western Blot analysis and those of c-fos and HSP70-2 mRNA were quantified by RT-PCR. In a second investigation, the rats received the same treatment and were sacrificed 1h after. The functioning of mitochondria was immediately studied on their whole brain. Metyrapone provoked a slight hypothermia which was correlated to the increase in blood glucose concentration. Metyrapone also increased blood lactate concentrations without modifying hippocampus lactate content. In the hippocampus, metyrapone decreased ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate levels but increased glutamine and N-acetyl-aspartate contents (NAA). Phosphorylated mTOR and AMPK and the c-fos and HSP70-2 mRNA levels were similar between treatment groups. Metyrapone did not modify blood corticosterone levels. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was similar in both groups whatever the substrate used. These metabolic modifications, which take place without modifying blood glucocorticoid levels, are consistent with the neuroprotective properties of metyrapone as demonstrated in animal models. PMID:22387859

Drouet, Jean-Baptiste; Fauvelle, Florence; Batandier, Cécile; Peinnequin, André; Alonso, Antonia; Fidier, Nadine; Maury, Renaud; Poulet, Laurent; Buguet, Alain; Cespuglio, Raymond; Canini, Frédéric

2012-05-01

229

Energy metabolism in graded perinatal asphyxia of the rat.  

PubMed

Although information on energy metabolism during hypoxemic-ischemic states is abundant, data on perinatal asphyxia (PA) are limited. As results from hypoxia-ischemia cannot be directly extrapolated to PA, a clinical entity characterized by acidosis, hypoxemia and hypercapnia, we decided to use a rat model of graded PA during delivery. Cesarean section was performed at the 21st day of gestation and the pups, still in the uterus horns, were asphyxiated from 0 to 20 minutes. In this model survival decreases with the length of asphyxia. Early changes of energy-rich phosphates in brain, heart and kidney were determined by HPLC. ATP and phosphocreatine gradually decreased with the length of asphyxia, with highest ATP depletion rate occurring in the kidney. ATP: brain 1.39 +/- 0.71 (0 min) to 0.06 microM/g wwt (20 min); heart 4.73 +/- 0.34 (0 min) to 1.08 +/- 0.47 (20 min); kidney 1.62 +/- 0.11 (0 min) to 0.02 +/- 0.02 (20 min). Phosphocreatine: brain 1.65 +/- 0.68 (0 min) to 0.51 +/- 0.45 microM/g (20 min); heart 6.98 +/- 0.38 (0 min) to 6.17 +/- 1.07 (20 min); kidney 8.23 +/- 0.86 (0 min) to 3.76 +/- 0.54 (20 min). We present data on energy derangement in a rat model of PA, closely resembling the clinical situation, showing that energy depletion precedes cell damage and death. PMID:11003052

Seidl, R; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S; Rolinski, B; Kohlhauser, C; Herkner, K R; Lubec, B; Lubec, G

2000-06-16

230

Impact of exercise on energy metabolism in anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive physical activity is one of the most paradoxical features of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is individual variation in the degree of physical activity found in AN-patients. As a result, marked differences in energy expenditure may be expected. Furthermore, exercise has a positive impact on a variety of psychological disorders and the psychopathology may be different in AN displaying high exercise levels versus AN displaying low exercise levels. We analyzed the energy metabolism and psychological data in low-level exercise and high-level exercise AN-patients compared with healthy, age matched controls. Physical activity, energy expenditure (EE) by the doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry, hormone status as well as psychopathology by questionnaires for eating disorders (EDI-SC, EDI-2), eating attitude (EAT) and depression (BDI) were assessed in twelve AN patients and twelve controls. Results REE was decreased in AN-patients compared with controls but not when adjusted for body surface area or lean body mass. No differences in TDEE between AN- patients and controls were observed. Subgroup analyses showed that the percentage of high-level AN- exercisers was higher compared with controls. This subgroup had increased resting EE, total daily EE and scored higher on depression and the EDI-item “Drive for thinness” compared with low-level AN-exercisers. Conclusions We identified a significant subgroup of high-level AN-exercisers (66%) with consecutive increased energy requirements. An easy way for clinicians to assess the amount of exercise before and in the course of treatment is a single question in the established Eating Disorder Inventory-SC (EDI-SC). PMID:24499685

2013-01-01

231

Ontogeny of Hepatic Energy Metabolism Genes in Mice as Revealed by RNA-Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The liver plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis by coordinating synthesis, storage, breakdown, and redistribution of nutrients. Hepatic energy metabolism is dynamically regulated throughout different life stages due to different demands for energy during growth and development. However, changes in gene expression patterns throughout ontogeny for factors important in hepatic energy metabolism are not well understood. We performed detailed transcript analysis of energy metabolism genes during various stages of liver development in mice. Livers from male C57BL/6J mice were collected at twelve ages, including perinatal and postnatal time points (n?=?3/age). The mRNA was quantified by RNA-Sequencing, with transcript abundance estimated by Cufflinks. One thousand sixty energy metabolism genes were examined; 794 were above detection, of which 627 were significantly changed during at least one developmental age compared to adult liver. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three major clusters dependent on age: GD17.5–Day 5 (perinatal-enriched), Day 10–Day 20 (pre-weaning-enriched), and Day 25–Day 60 (adolescence/adulthood-enriched). Clustering analysis of cumulative mRNA expression values for individual pathways of energy metabolism revealed three patterns of enrichment: glycolysis, ketogenesis, and glycogenesis were all perinatally-enriched; glycogenolysis was the only pathway enriched during pre-weaning ages; whereas lipid droplet metabolism, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and lipid metabolism were all enriched in adolescence/adulthood. This study reveals novel findings such as the divergent expression of the fatty acid ?-oxidation enzymes Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, indicating a switch from mitochondrial to peroxisomal ?-oxidation after weaning; as well as the dynamic ontogeny of genes implicated in obesity such as Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and Elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 3. These data shed new light on the ontogeny of homeostatic regulation of hepatic energy metabolism, which could ultimately provide new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases. PMID:25102070

Renaud, Helen J.; Cui, Yue Julia; Lu, Hong; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2014-01-01

232

Energy metabolism of some representatives of the Haemophilus group.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the carbohydrate catabolism and the constellation of the respiratory chain components of Haemophilus influenzae RAMC 18 Bensted, H. parainfluenzae 1 Fleming, H. parainfluenzae 429 Pittman and H. aegyptius 180a Pittman. These strains represent several physiological types with respect to respiratory quinones and glucose catabolism. On addition of glucose or lactate to the complex growth medium a remarkable increase in cell mass was observed. Depending on the growth rate, carbohydrate degradation varied with the strains examined so that at the end of the exponential growth phase only small amounts of the supplements could be demonstrated. All strains were found to possess functional enzymes of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas-, Entner-Doudoroff-pathways, hexosemonophosphate shunt, tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis with an extremely high activity of malate dehydrogenase. The concentration of cytochromes varied according to culture conditions. The cytochromes a1, d, o and b + c were found to occur under aerobic conditions. In cells grown anaerobically in the presence of fumarate cytochromes a1 and d could not be demonstrated. Under aerobic conditions preparations of H. parainfluenzae 1 Fleming exhibited an alpha-maximum at 558 nm, whereas under anaerobic culture conditions with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor an alpha-maximum at 552 nm occurred, suggesting different roles of b and c type cytochromes in aerobic and anaerobic electron transport to fumarate, respectively. PMID:1087860

Holländer, R

1976-01-01

233

Discovery and therapeutic potential of drugs that shift energy metabolism from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis  

PubMed Central

Most cells can dynamically shift their relative reliance on glycolytic versus oxidative metabolism in response to nutrient availability, during development, and in disease. Studies in model systems have shown that re-directing energy metabolism from respiration to glycolysis can suppress oxidative damage and cell death in ischemic injury. At present we have a limited set of drugs that safely toggle energy metabolism in humans. Here, we introduce a quantitative, nutrient sensitized screening strategy that can identify such compounds based on their ability to selectively impair growth and viability of cells grown in galactose versus glucose. We identify several FDA approved agents never before linked to energy metabolism, including meclizine, which blunts cellular respiration via a mechanism distinct from canonical inhibitors. We further show that meclizine pretreatment confers cardioprotection and neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine models. Nutrient-sensitized screening may offer a useful framework for understanding gene function and drug action within the context of energy metabolism. PMID:20160716

Gohil, Vishal M.; Sheth, Sunil A.; Nilsson, Roland; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Perocchi, Fabiana; Chen, William; Clish, Clary B.; Ayata, Cenk; Brookes, Paul S.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

2010-01-01

234

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... digestive system called enzymes break proteins down into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into simple ... for example, glucose). In addition to sugar, both amino acids and fatty acids can be used as energy ...

235

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... digestive system called enzymes break proteins down into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into simple ... e.g., glucose). In addition to sugar, both amino acids and fatty acids can be used as energy ...

236

Energy Metabolism and the Evolution of Reproductive Suppression in the Human Female  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction places severe demands on the energy metabolism in human females. When physical work entails higher energy expenditure, not enough energy will be left for the support of the reproductive processes and temporal suppression of the reproductive function is expected. While energy needed for reproduction may be obtained by increases in energy intake, utilization of fat reserves, or reallocation of

Grazyna Jasienska

2003-01-01

237

Effects of copper exposure on the energy metabolism in juveniles of the marine clam Mesodesma mactroides.  

PubMed

In freshwater osmoregulating mollusks, Cu can cause toxicity by inducing ionoregulatory disturbances. In mussels, it inhibits the activity of key enzymes involved in Na(+) uptake and consequently induces ionic and osmotic disturbances. In snails, Cu induces disruption of the Ca(2+) homeostasis leading to effects in shell deposition and snail growth. However, the mechanisms involved in Cu toxicity in osmoconforming sweater mollusks remain unclear. Recent findings from our laboratory have suggested that Cu toxicity in marine invertebrates can be associated with both ionic and respiratory disturbances. In the present study, metabolic changes induced by waterborne Cu exposure were evaluated in the osmoconforming clam Mesodesma mactroides, a bivalve species widely distributed along the South American sandy beaches. Juvenile clams were kept under control conditions (no Cu addition in the water) or acutely (96h) exposed to Cu (96-h LC10=150?gL(-1)) in artificial seawater (30ppt). ATP, protein, lipid, glycogen and glucose contents were analyzed in gills, digestive gland, pedal muscle and hemolymph. Dinucleotide (NAD(+) and NADH) content was also analyzed in gills, digestive gland and pedal muscle while pyruvate and lactate content was determined in pedal muscle and hemolymph. In all tissues analyzed, Cu exposure did not affect ATP content and NAD(+)/NADH ratio, except in the hemolymph, where a decrease in ATP content was observed. These findings indicate that clam cells, except those from hemolymph, were able to maintain a constant level of free energy. A significant increase in total protein content was observed in the digestive gland, which could be a compensatory mechanism to counteract the higher level of protein oxidation previously observed in M. mactroides exposed to Cu under the same experimental conditions. Finally, reduced glucose content in the pedal muscle paralleled by increased lactate content in the pedal muscle and hemolymph was observed in Cu-exposed clams. Overall, these findings indicate that Cu exposure is leading to an increased reliance upon the anaerobic energy production to maintain the overall cellular ATP production in the clam M. mactroides. PMID:24727213

Giacomin, Marina; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Bianchini, Adalto

2014-07-01

238

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation motivated by being able to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither

239

Impact of Ocean Acidification on Energy Metabolism of Oyster, Crassostrea gigas—Changes in Metabolic Pathways and Thermal Response  

PubMed Central

Climate change with increasing temperature and ocean acidification (OA) poses risks for marine ecosystems. According to Pörtner and Farrell [1], synergistic effects of elevated temperature and CO2-induced OA on energy metabolism will narrow the thermal tolerance window of marine ectothermal animals. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of an acute temperature rise on energy metabolism of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas chronically exposed to elevated CO2 levels (partial pressure of CO2 in the seawater ~0.15 kPa, seawater pH ~ 7.7). Within one month of incubation at elevated Pco2 and 15 °C hemolymph pH fell (pHe = 7.1 ± 0.2 (CO2-group) vs. 7.6 ± 0.1 (control)) and Peco2 values in hemolymph increased (0.5 ± 0.2 kPa (CO2-group) vs. 0.2 ± 0.04 kPa (control)). Slightly but significantly elevated bicarbonate concentrations in the hemolymph of CO2-incubated oysters ([HCO? 3]e = 1.8 ± 0.3 mM (CO2-group) vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mM (control)) indicate only minimal regulation of extracellular acid-base status. At the acclimation temperature of 15 °C the OA-induced decrease in pHe did not lead to metabolic depression in oysters as standard metabolism rates (SMR) of CO2-exposed oysters were similar to controls. Upon acute warming SMR rose in both groups, but displayed a stronger increase in the CO2-incubated group. Investigation in isolated gill cells revealed a similar temperaturedependence of respiration between groups. Furthermore, the fraction of cellular energy demand for ion regulation via Na+/K+-ATPase was not affected by chronic hypercapnia or temperature. Metabolic profiling using 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed substantial changes in some tissues following OA exposure at 15 °C. In mantle tissue alanine and ATP levels decreased significantly whereas an increase in succinate levels was observed in gill tissue. These findings suggest shifts in metabolic pathways following OA-exposure. Our study confirms that OA affects energy metabolism in oysters and suggests that climate change may affect populations of sessile coastal invertebrates such as mollusks. PMID:20948910

Lannig, Gisela; Eilers, Silke; Pörtner, Hans O.; Sokolova, Inna M.; Bock, Christian

2010-01-01

240

The Pim protein kinases regulate energy metabolism and cell growth.  

PubMed

The serine/threonine Pim kinases are overexpressed in solid cancers and hematologic malignancies and promote cell growth and survival. Here, we find that a novel Pim kinase inhibitor, SMI-4a, or Pim-1 siRNA blocked the rapamycin-sensitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) activity by stimulating the phosphorylation and thus activating the mTORC1 negative regulator AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for all three Pim kinases [triple knockout (TKO) MEFs] demonstrated activated AMPK driven by elevated ratios of AMPATP relative to wild-type MEFs. Consistent with these findings, TKO MEFs were found to grow slowly in culture and have decreased rates of protein synthesis secondary to a diminished amount of 5'-cap-dependent translation. Pim-3 expression alone in TKO MEFs was sufficient to reverse AMPK activation, increase protein synthesis, and drive MEF growth similar to wild type. Pim-3 expression was found to markedly increase the protein levels of both c-Myc and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), enzymes capable of regulating glycolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis, which were diminished in TKO MEFs. Overexpression of PGC-1? in TKO MEFs elevated ATP levels and inhibited the activation of AMPK. These results demonstrate the Pim kinase-mediated control of energy metabolism and thus regulation of AMPK activity. We identify an important role for Pim-3 in modulating c-Myc and PGC-1? protein levels and cell growth. PMID:21187426

Beharry, Zanna; Mahajan, Sandeep; Zemskova, Marina; Lin, Ying-Wei; Tholanikunnel, Baby G; Xia, Zuping; Smith, Charles D; Kraft, Andrew S

2011-01-11

241

Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is a promising alternative to aerobic biodegradation treatments in bioremediation processes. It is now proven that, besides toluene, benzene and ethylbenzene can be oxidized under anaerobic redox conditions. Anaerobic bacteria have also been shown capable of utilizing substrates not only in the pure form, but also in complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as crude

Christof Holliger; Alexander JB Zehnder

1996-01-01

242

Teaching Energy Metabolism Using Scientific Articles: Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work describes the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) applied to the biochemistry class for undergraduate, first-year medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The course focused on the integration of energy metabolism, exploring metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as…

de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Giannella, Tais Rabetti; Struchiner, Miriam; da Silva, Wagner S.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

2010-01-01

243

Transcriptional regulation and energetics of alternative respiratory pathways in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli is able to grow by aerobic and by anaerobic respiration. Despite the large difference in the amount of free energy that could maximally be conserved from aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, the proton potential and ?g?Phos are similar under both conditions. O2 represses anaerobic respiration, and nitrate represses fumarate respiration. By this the terminal reductases of

Gottfried Unden

1998-01-01

244

Squid (Lolliguncula brevis) life in shallow waters: oxygen limitation of metabolism and swimming performance.  

PubMed

Squid (Lolliguncula brevis) were exercised in a tunnel respirometer during a stepwise increase in water velocity in order to evaluate the anaerobic threshold, i.e. the critical swimming speed above which anaerobic metabolism contributes to energy production. The average anaerobic threshold was found at speeds of 1.5-2 mantle lengths s-1. Above this velocity, alpha-glycerophosphate, succinate and octopine started to accumulate in the mantle tissue. ATP levels fell and phospho-L-arginine was progressively depleted, while the levels of glucose 6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate rose. The finding of a simultaneous onset of anaerobic metabolism in the cytosol and the mitochondria indicates that a limited oxygen supply to the mitochondria elicits anaerobic energy production. This finding is opposite to the situation found in many other vertebrate and invertebrate species, in which energy requirements in excess of aerobic energy production are covered by anaerobic metabolism, with mitochondria remaining aerobic. In L. brevis, swimming at higher speeds is associated with a small factorial increase in metabolic rate based on a high resting rate of oxygen consumption. Pressure recordings in the mantle cavity support this finding, indicating a high basal level of spontaneous activity at rest and a small rise in mean pressure at higher swimming velocity. Bursts of higher pressures from the jet support elevated swimming speeds and may explain the early transition to anaerobic energy production which occurs when pressure amplitudes exceed 1.2-1.5 kPa or when mean pressure rises above 0.22-0.25 kPa. The finding of mitochondrial hypoxia at a low critical speed in these squid is interpreted to be related to their life in shallow coastal and bay waters, which limits the necessity to maintain high swimming velocities. At increased swimming velocities, the animals oscillate between periods of high and low muscular activity. This behaviour is interpreted to reduce transport cost and to permit a longer-term net use of anaerobic resources when speed exceeds the critical value or when the squid dive into hypoxic waters. The simultaneous onset of anaerobic metabolism in the cytosol and the mitochondria emphasizes that squid generally make maximal use of available oxygen under resting conditions, when their energy requirements are the highest among marine invertebrates. PMID:8788088

Finke, E; Pörtner, H O; Lee, P G; Webber, D M

1996-04-01

245

Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion. PMID:25457225

Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

2014-12-01

246

The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

1990-01-01

247

Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion  

E-print Network

Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

2014-01-01

248

Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure culture studies. Our recent work has extended the study of hydrogen to cyanobacterial mat communities. The large amounts of reducing power generated during photosynthetic activity carry the potential to contribute a swamping term to the H2 economy of the anaerobic microbial populations within the mat - and thereby to alter the population structure and biogeochemical function of the mat as a whole. In hypersaline microbial mats, we observe a distinct diel cycle in H2 production and a substantial corresponding flux. On an early Earth dominated by microbial mats, this transmission of photosynthetic reducing power may have carried important implications for both biospheric and atmospheric evolution.

Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

249

Genome-wide analysis of redox reactions reveals metabolic engineering targets for D-lactate overproduction in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Most current metabolic engineering applications rely on the inactivation of unwanted reactions and the amplification of product-oriented reactions. All of the biochemical reactions involved with cellular metabolism are tightly coordinated with the electron flow, which depends on the cellular energy status. Thus, the cellular metabolic flux can be controlled either by modulation of the electron flow or the regulation of redox reactions. This study analyzed the genome-wide anaerobic fermentation products of 472 Escherichia coli single gene knockouts, which comprised mainly of dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, and redox-related proteins. Many metabolic pathways that were located far from anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation significantly affected the profiles of lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Unexpectedly, D-lactate overproduction was determined by a single gene deletion in dehydrogenases (e.g., guaB, pyrD, and serA) involved with nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the combined knockouts of guaB, pyrD, serA, fnr, arcA, or arcB genes, which are involved with anaerobic transcription regulation, enhanced D-lactate overproduction. These results suggest that the anaerobic fermentation profiles of E. coli can be tuned via the disruption of peripheral dehydrogenases in anaerobic conditions. PMID:23563322

Kim, Hyun Ju; Hou, Bo Kyeng; Lee, Sung Gun; Kim, Joong Su; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang Jun

2013-07-01

250

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

251

Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

1995-01-01

252

Energy Metabolism and Drug Efflux in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The inherent drug susceptibility of microorganisms is determined by multiple factors, including growth state, the rate of drug diffusion into and out of the cell, and the intrinsic vulnerability of drug targets with regard to the corresponding antimicrobial agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality, further exacerbated by its ability to readily evolve drug resistance. It is well accepted that drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is driven by the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in genes encoding drug targets/promoter regions; however, a comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms that fuel drug resistance in the clinical setting is currently lacking. In this context, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that active extrusion of drugs from the cell is critical for drug tolerance. M. tuberculosis encodes representatives of a diverse range of multidrug transporters, many of which are dependent on the proton motive force (PMF) or the availability of ATP. This suggests that energy metabolism and ATP production through the PMF, which is established by the electron transport chain (ETC), are critical in determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. In this review, we detail advances in the study of the mycobacterial ETC and highlight drugs that target various components of the ETC. We provide an overview of some of the efflux pumps present in M. tuberculosis and their association, if any, with drug transport and concomitant effects on drug resistance. The implications of inhibiting drug extrusion, through the use of efflux pump inhibitors, are also discussed. PMID:24614376

Black, Philippa A.; Warren, Robin M.; Louw, Gail E.; van Helden, Paul D.; Victor, Thomas C.

2014-01-01

253

Effect of a Thermogenic Beverage on 24Hour Energy Metabolism in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To test whether consumption of a beverage containing active ingredients will increase 24-hour energy metabolism in healthy, young, lean individuals.Research Method and Procedures:Thirty-one male and female subjects consumed 3 × 250-mL servings of a beverage containing green tea catechins, caffeine, and calcium for 3 days in a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design study. On the 3rd day, 23-hour energy metabolism,

Servane Rudelle; Mario G. Ferruzzi; Isabelle Cristiani; Julie Moulin; Katherine Macé; Kevin J. Acheson; Luc Tappy

2007-01-01

254

Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-Franois DUMAS, Damien ROUSSEL, Gilles SIMARD, Olivier DOUAY, Franoise  

E-print Network

metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme1 Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-François DUMAS, Damien restriction, energy metabolism, mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation, respiratory chain complexes. inserm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

In vivo versus in vitro protein abundance analysis of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 reveals changes in the expression of proteins involved in virulence, stress and energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. Quantitative proteome profiling of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) in vitro (derived from LB cell cultures) and in vivo (derived from gnotobiotic piglets) was performed by 2D-LC-MS/MS and APEX, a label-free computationally modified spectral counting methodology. Results Overall, 1761 proteins were quantitated at a 5% FDR (false discovery rate), including 1480 and 1505 from in vitro and in vivo samples, respectively. Identification of 350 cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane (OM) proteins (38% of in silico predicted SD1 membrane proteome) contributed to the most extensive survey of the Shigella membrane proteome reported so far. Differential protein abundance analysis using statistical tests revealed that SD1 cells switched to an anaerobic energy metabolism under in vivo conditions, resulting in an increase in fermentative, propanoate, butanoate and nitrate metabolism. Abundance increases of transcription activators FNR and Nar supported the notion of a switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration in the host gut environment. High in vivo abundances of proteins involved in acid resistance (GadB, AdiA) and mixed acid fermentation (PflA/PflB) indicated bacterial survival responses to acid stress, while increased abundance of oxidative stress proteins (YfiD/YfiF/SodB) implied that defense mechanisms against oxygen radicals were mobilized. Proteins involved in peptidoglycan turnover (MurB) were increased, while ?-barrel OM proteins (OmpA), OM lipoproteins (NlpD), chaperones involved in OM protein folding pathways (YraP, NlpB) and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis (Imp) were decreased, suggesting unexpected modulations of the outer membrane/peptidoglycan layers in vivo. Several virulence proteins of the Mxi-Spa type III secretion system and invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa proteins) required for invasion of colonic epithelial cells, and release of bacteria into the host cell cytosol were increased in vivo. Conclusions Global proteomic profiling of SD1 comparing in vivo vs. in vitro proteomes revealed differential expression of proteins geared towards survival of the pathogen in the host gut environment, including increased abundance of proteins involved in anaerobic energy respiration, acid resistance and virulence. The immunogenic OspC2, OspC3 and IpgA virulence proteins were detected solely under in vivo conditions, lending credence to their candidacy as potential vaccine targets. PMID:21702961

2011-01-01

256

Mapping determinants of variation in energy metabolism, respiration and flight in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

We employed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to dissect the genetic architecture of a hierarchy of functionally related physiological traits, including metabolic enzyme activity, metabolite storage, metabolic rate, and free-flight performance in recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We identified QTL underlying variation in glycogen synthase, hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, and trehalase activity. In each case variation mapped away from the enzyme-encoding loci, indicating that trans-acting regions of the genome are important sources of variation within the metabolic network. Individual QTL associated with variation in metabolic rate and flight performance explained between 9 and 35% of the phenotypic variance. Bayesian QTL analysis identified epistatic effects underlying variation in flight velocity, metabolic rate, glycogen content, and several metabolic enzyme activities. A region on the third chromosome was associated with expression of the glucose-6-phosphate branchpoint enzymes and with metabolic rate and flight performance. These genomic regions are of special interest as they may coordinately regulate components of energy metabolism with effects on whole-organism physiological performance. The complex biochemical network is encoded by an equally complex network of interacting genetic elements with potentially pleiotropic effects. This has important consequences for the evolution of performance traits that depend upon these metabolic networks. PMID:14573475

Montooth, Kristi L; Marden, James H; Clark, Andrew G

2003-01-01

257

The Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism of Marine Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved. PMID:24957995

Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

2013-01-01

258

Metabolic Plasticity and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the hypoxic niches can both self-renew and give rise to progeny. Multiple regulatory mechanisms for these cellular processes have been identified. Emerging evidence has revealed that metabolism and bioenergetics play important roles in determining stem cell fate in concert with other regulatory networks. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in this field. Recent findings Recent studies have helped define and redefine metabolic regulation of HSCs. Resting quiescent stem cells use primarily anaerobic glycolysis for energy production and this metabolic program is required to maintain a functional quiescent state. However, when they exit this state and rapidly proliferate and differentiate into different blood cell types, a robust upregulation of energy metabolism is expected to meet the quickly rising energy demand. Dysregulation of metabolism in HSCs results in various blood disorders, including leukemia. Summary Energy metabolism and HSC activity influence and interlink each other in a highly sophisticated and orchestrated manner. Understanding metabolic regulation of HSC function has significant implications for HSC-based therapies and leukemogenesis research. PMID:23615055

Hsu, Peter; Qu, Cheng-Kui

2013-01-01

259

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscles of meat-producing animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In meat-producing animals, skeletal muscle is a tissue of major economic importance. Energy metabolism of skeletal muscle should be assessed in relation to its main physiological functions which are growth as well as posture, physical activity and thermogenesis. These functions have specific energy requirements which may entail competition in the utilization of energy-yielding nutrients, and modify the efficiency of ATP

J. F Hocquette; I Ortigues-Marty; D Pethick; P Herpin; X Fernandez

1998-01-01

260

Energy metabolism reactions in ruminant muscle: responses to age, nutrition and hormonal status*  

E-print Network

Review Energy metabolism reactions in ruminant muscle: responses to age, nutrition and hormonal 1989; accepted 17 October 1989) Summary― Energy expenditure in muscle comprises reactions muscle protein syn- thesis responds to intake but effects on energy expenditure are less pronounced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Breeding of D(-)-lactic acid high producing strain by low-energy ion implantation and preliminary analysis of related metabolism.  

PubMed

The low-energy nitrogen ion beam implantation technique was used in the breeding of mutant D(-)-lactic-acid-producing strains. The wild strain Sporolactobacillus sp. DX12 was mutated by an N(+) ion beam with energy of 10keV and doses ranging from 0.4 x 10(15) to 6.60 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). Combined with an efficient screening method, an efficient mutant Y2-8 was selected after two times N(+) ion beam implantation. By using the mutant Y2-8, 121.6g/l of D-lactic acid was produced with the molar yields of 162.1% to the glucose. The yield of D-lactic acid by strain Y2-8 was 198.8% higher than the wild strain. Determination of anaerobic metabolism by Biolog MT2 was used to analyze the activities of the concerned enzymes in the lactic acid metabolic pathway. The results showed that the activities of the key enzymes responded on the substrates such as 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and D-lactate dehydrogenase were considerably higher in the mutants than the wild strain. These might be affected by ion beam implantation. PMID:18574566

Xu, Ting-Ting; Bai, Zhong-Zhong; Wang, Li-Juan; He, Bing-Fang

2010-01-01

262

Unique metabolic features of stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and their progenitors.  

PubMed

Recently, growing attention has been directed toward stem cell metabolism, with the key observation that the plasticity of stem cells also reflects the plasticity of their energy substrate metabolism. There seems to be a clear link between the self-renewal state of stem cells, in which cells proliferate without differentiation, and the activity of specific metabolic pathways. Differentiation is accompanied by a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic switch of differentiating stem cells is required to cover the energy demands of the different organ-specific cell types. Among other metabolic signatures, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism is most prominent in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, whereas the fatty acid metabolic signature is unique in cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells. Identifying the specific metabolic pathways involved in pluripotency and differentiation is critical for further progress in the field of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. The recently generated knowledge on metabolic key processes may help to generate mature stem cell-derived somatic cells for therapeutic applications without the requirement of genetic manipulation. In the present review, the literature about metabolic features of stem cells and their cardiovascular cell derivatives as well as the specific metabolic gene signatures differentiating between stem and differentiated cells are summarized and discussed. PMID:24723659

Gaspar, John Antonydas; Doss, Michael Xavier; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Cadenas, Cristina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sachinidis, Agapios

2014-04-11

263

Substrate availability regulates energy metabolism via transcriptional mechanism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study investigated the mechanisms by which enhanced substrate availability regulates cardiac metabolism and function. Chronic elevation of intracellular glucose levels were achieved by overexpressing GLUT1 in mouse hearts (TG), while chronic elevation of fatty acids (FA) availability wer...

264

Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations,

David P Chynoweth; John M Owens; Robert Legrand

2001-01-01

265

Connecting metabolism and reproduction: roles of central energy sensors and key molecular mediators.  

PubMed

It is well established that pubertal activation of the reproductive axis and maintenance of fertility are critically dependent on the magnitude of body energy reserves and the metabolic state of the organism. Hence, conditions of impaired energy homeostasis often result in deregulation of puberty and reproduction, whereas gonadal dysfunction can be associated with the worsening of the metabolic profile and, eventually, changes in body weight. While much progress has taken place in our knowledge about the neuroendocrine mechanisms linking metabolism and reproduction, our understanding of how such dynamic interplay happens is still incomplete. As paradigmatic example, much has been learned in the last two decades on the reproductive roles of key metabolic hormones (such as leptin, insulin and ghrelin), their brain targets and the major transmitters and neuropeptides involved. Yet, the molecular mechanisms whereby metabolic information is translated and engages into the reproductive circuits remain largely unsolved. In this work, we will summarize recent developments in the characterization of the putative central roles of key cellular energy sensors, such as mTOR, in this phenomenon, and will relate these with other molecular mechanisms likely contributing to the brain coupling of energy balance and fertility. In doing so, we aim to provide an updated view of an area that, despite still underdeveloped, may be critically important to fully understand how reproduction and metabolism are tightly connected in health and disease. PMID:25289807

Roa, Juan; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

2014-11-01

266

Long-chain acylcarnitine content determines the pattern of energy metabolism in cardiac mitochondria.  

PubMed

In the heart, a nutritional state (fed or fasted) is characterized by a unique energy metabolism pattern determined by the availability of substrates. Increased availability of acylcarnitines has been associated with decreased glucose utilization; however, the effects of long-chain acylcarnitines on glucose metabolism have not been previously studied. We tested how changes in long-chain acylcarnitine content regulate the metabolism of glucose and long-chain fatty acids in cardiac mitochondria in fed and fasted states. We examined the concentrations of metabolic intermediates in plasma and cardiac tissues under fed and fasted states. The effects of substrate availability and their competition for energy production at the mitochondrial level were studied in isolated rat cardiac mitochondria. The availability of long-chain acylcarnitines in plasma reflected their content in cardiac tissue in the fed and fasted states, and acylcarnitine content in the heart was fivefold higher in fasted state compared to the fed state. In substrate competition experiments, pyruvate and fatty acid metabolites effectively competed for the energy production pathway; however, only the physiological content of acylcarnitine significantly reduced pyruvate and lactate oxidation in mitochondria. The increased availability of long-chain acylcarnitine significantly reduced glucose utilization in isolated rat heart model and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that changes in long-chain acylcarnitine contents could orchestrate the interplay between the metabolism of pyruvate-lactate and long-chain fatty acids, and thus determine the pattern of energy metabolism in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:24878991

Makrecka, Marina; Kuka, Janis; Volska, Kristine; Antone, Unigunde; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Cirule, Helena; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija; Liepinsh, Edgars

2014-10-01

267

Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

Yasuda, Kayo [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan) [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Hartman, Philip S. [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)] [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ishii, Takamasa [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Suda, Hitoshi [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan)] [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Akatsuka, Akira [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Shoyama, Tetsuji [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan)] [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Miyazawa, Masaki [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Ishii, Naoaki, E-mail: nishii@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

2011-01-21

268

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

269

NF-?B controls energy homeostasis and metabolic adaptation by upregulating mitochondrial respiration  

PubMed Central

Cell proliferation is a metabolically demanding process1,2. It requires active reprogramming of cellular bioenergetic pathways towards glucose metabolism to support anabolic growth1,2. NF-?B/Rel transcription factors coordinate many of the signals that drive proliferation during Immunity, inflammation and oncogenesis3, but whether NF-?B regulates the metabolic reprogramming required for cell division during these processes is unknown. Here, we report that NF-?B organizes energy metabolism networks by controlling the balance between the utilization of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. NF-?B inhibition causes cellular reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis under basal conditions and induces necrosis on glucose starvation. The metabolic reorganization that results from NF-?B inhibition overcomes the requirement for tumour suppressor mutation in oncogenic transformation and impairs metabolic adaptation in cancer in vivo. This NF-?B-dependent metabolic pathway involves stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of mitochondrial synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2; ref. 4). Our findings identify NF-?B as a physiological regulator of mitochondrial respiration and establish a role for NF-?B in metabolic adaptation in normal cells and cancer. PMID:21968997

Mauro, Claudio; Leow, Shi Chi; Anso, Elena; Rocha, Sonia; Thotakura, Anil K.; Tornatore, Laura; Moretti, Marta; De Smaele, Enrico; Beg, Amer A.; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Franzoso, Guido

2012-01-01

270

Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis. PMID:24878366

Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

2014-08-01

271

GH and IGF1: roles in energy metabolism of long-living GH mutant mice.  

PubMed

Of the multiple theories to explain exceptional longevity, the most robust of these has centered on the reduction of three anabolic protein hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor, and insulin. GH mutant mice live 50% longer and exhibit significant differences in several aspects of energy metabolism as compared with wild-type mice. Mitochondrial metabolism is upregulated in the absence of GH, whereas in GH transgenic mice and dwarf mice treated with GH, multiple aspects of these pathways are suppressed. Core body temperature is markedly lower in dwarf mice, yet whole-body metabolism, as measured by indirect calorimetry, is surprisingly higher in Ames dwarf and Ghr-/- mice compared with normal controls. Elevated adiponectin, a key antiinflammatory cytokine, is also very likely to contribute to longevity in these mice. Thus, several important components related to energy metabolism are altered in GH mutant mice, and these differences are likely critical in aging processes and life-span extension. PMID:22466316

Brown-Borg, Holly M; Bartke, Andrzej

2012-06-01

272

Syntrophy in Anaerobic Global Carbon Cycles  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Syntrophy is an essential intermediary step in the anaerobic conversion of organic matter to methane where metabolically distinct microorganisms are tightly linked by the need to maintain the exchanged metabolites at very low concentrations. The need for syntrophy is thermodynamically constrained, and is probably a prime reason why it is difficult to culture microbes as these approaches disrupt consortia. Reconstruction of artificial syntrophic consortia has allowed uncultured syntrophic metabolizers and methanogens to be optimally grown and studied biochemically. The pathways for syntrophic acetate, propionate and longer chain fatty acid metabolism are mostly understood, but key steps involved in benzoate breakdown and cyclohexane carboxylate formation are unclear. Syntrophic metabolism requires reverse electron transfer, close physical contact, and metabolic synchronization of the syntrophic partners. Genomic analyses reveal that multiple mechanisms exist for reverse electron transfer. Surprisingly, the flagellum functions were implicated in ensuring close physical proximity and synchronization of the syntrophic partners. PMID:19897353

McInerney, Michael J.; Sieber, Jessica R.

2009-01-01

273

Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment  

SciTech Connect

This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

1996-01-01

274

D-Ribose as a Supplement for Cardiac Energy Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic support for the heart has been an attractive concept since the pioneering work of Sodi-Pallares et al. four decades ago.* Recently, interest has increased in the use of over-the-counter supplements and naturally occurring nutriceuticals for enhancement of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. These include amino acids such as creatine, L-carnitine, and L-arginine, as well as vitamins and cofactors such

Daniel F. Pauly; Carl J. Pepine

2000-01-01

275

Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extract regulates energy metabolism in myocytes.  

PubMed

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide. Herbs and spices have been used for the treatment of diabetes for centuries in folk medicine. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extracts (SE) have been shown to perform comparably to insulin by significantly reducing blood glucose levels in animal models; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effects of clove on metabolism in C2C12 myocytes and demonstrated that SE significantly increases glucose consumption. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was increased by SE treatment. SE also transcriptionally regulates genes involved in metabolism, including sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC1?). Nicotinamide, an SIRT1 inhibitor, diminished SE's effects on glucose consumption. Furthermore, treatment with SE dose-dependently increases muscle glycolysis and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. Overall, our study suggests that SE has the potential to increase muscle glycolysis and mitochondria function by activating both AMPK and SIRT1 pathways. PMID:24999964

Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

2014-09-01

276

Energy metabolism during anchorage-independence. Induction by osteopontin-c.  

PubMed

The detachment of epithelial cells, but not cancer cells, causes anoikis due to reduced energy production. Invasive tumor cells generate three splice variants of the metastasis gene osteopontin, the shortest of which (osteopontin-c) supports anchorage-independence. Osteopontin-c signaling upregulates three interdependent pathways of the energy metabolism. Glutathione, glutamine and glutamate support the hexose monophosphate shunt and glycolysis and can feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, leading to mitochondrial ATP production. Activation of the glycerol phosphate shuttle also supports the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Drawing substrates from glutamine and glycolysis, the elevated creatine may be synthesized from serine via glycine and supports the energy metabolism by increasing the formation of ATP. Metabolic probing with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-glutamate, or glycerol identified differential regulation of the pathway components, with mitochondrial activity being redox dependent and the creatine pathway depending on glutamine. The multiple skewed components in the cellular metabolism synergize in a flow toward two mechanisms of ATP generation, via creatine and the respiratory chain. It is consistent with a stimulation of the energy metabolism that supports anti-anoikis. Our findings imply a coalescence in cancer cells between osteopontin-a, which increases the cellular glucose levels, and osteopontin-c, which utilizes this glucose to generate energy. PMID:25157961

Shi, Zhanquan; Wang, Bo; Chihanga, Tafadzwa; Kennedy, Michael A; Weber, Georg F

2014-01-01

277

Energy Metabolism during Anchorage-Independence. Induction by Osteopontin-c  

PubMed Central

The detachment of epithelial cells, but not cancer cells, causes anoikis due to reduced energy production. Invasive tumor cells generate three splice variants of the metastasis gene osteopontin, the shortest of which (osteopontin-c) supports anchorage-independence. Osteopontin-c signaling upregulates three interdependent pathways of the energy metabolism. Glutathione, glutamine and glutamate support the hexose monophosphate shunt and glycolysis and can feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, leading to mitochondrial ATP production. Activation of the glycerol phosphate shuttle also supports the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Drawing substrates from glutamine and glycolysis, the elevated creatine may be synthesized from serine via glycine and supports the energy metabolism by increasing the formation of ATP. Metabolic probing with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-glutamate, or glycerol identified differential regulation of the pathway components, with mitochondrial activity being redox dependent and the creatine pathway depending on glutamine. The multiple skewed components in the cellular metabolism synergize in a flow toward two mechanisms of ATP generation, via creatine and the respiratory chain. It is consistent with a stimulation of the energy metabolism that supports anti-anoikis. Our findings imply a coalescence in cancer cells between osteopontin-a, which increases the cellular glucose levels, and osteopontin-c, which utilizes this glucose to generate energy. PMID:25157961

Shi, Zhanquan; Wang, Bo; Chihanga, Tafadzwa; Kennedy, Michael A.; Weber, Georg F.

2014-01-01

278

?-Adrenoceptor activity and resting energy metabolism in weight losing cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at comparing the blocking of ?-adrenoceptor activity to changes in the resting energy metabolism of 10 cancer patients with progressive weight loss due to solid malignant tumours. Resting energy expenditure (REE) as well as whole body carbohydrate and fat oxidation were investigated and related to plasma substrate levels (glucose, glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA)) before and

A. Hyltander; P. Daneryd; R. Sandström; U. Körner; K. Lundholm

2000-01-01

279

Effects of parasites on host energy expenditure: the resting metabolic rate stalemate  

E-print Network

Effects of parasites on host energy expenditure: the resting metabolic rate stalemate Nicholas Robar, Dennis L. Murray, and Gary Burness Abstract: Detrimental effects of parasitism on host fitness are frequently attributed to parasite-associated perturbations to host energy budgets. It has therefore been

280

Effect of an extract of Ginkgo biloba on rat brain energy metabolism in hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine brain energy metabolism under hypoxic conditions as influenced by an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB). Male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with EGB were exposed to hypobaric or hypoxic hypoxia, and at various time points during or after hypoxia the levels of high-energy phosphates and some substrates of glycolysis were measured in brain

L. Karcher; P. Zagermann; J. Krieglstein

1984-01-01

281

Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rising obesity rates have been linked to the consumption of energy-dense diets. We examined whether dietary energy density was associated with obesity and related disorders, including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative ...

282

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

283

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither of these factors was a motivator

284

Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with

J Galgani; E Ravussin

2008-01-01

285

Energy metabolism, body composition, and urea generation rate in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Hemodialysis (HD) adequacy is currently assessed using normalized urea clearance (Kt/V), although scaling based on Watson volume (V) may disadvantage women and men with low body weight. Alternative scaling factors such as resting energy expenditure and high metabolic rate organ mass have been suggested. The relationship between such factors and uremic toxin generation has not been established. We aimed to study the relationship between body size, energy metabolism, and urea generation rate. A cross-sectional cohort of 166 HD patients was studied. Anthropometric measurements were carried on all. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, fat-free mass by bio-impedance and total energy expenditure by combining resting energy expenditure with a questionnaire-derived physical activity data. High metabolic rate organ mass was calculated using a published equation and urea generation rate using formal urea kinetic modeling. Metabolic factors including resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure and fat-free mass correlated better with urea generation rate than did Watson volume. Total energy expenditure and fat-free mass (but not Watson Volume) were independent predictors of urea generation rate, the model explaining 42% of its variation. Small women (energy expenditure correlated significantly with urea generation rate. Energy metabolism, body composition and physical activity play important roles in small solute uremic toxin generation in HD patients and hence may impact on minimum dialysis requirements. Small women generate relatively more small solute toxins than other groups and thus may have a higher relative need for dialysis. PMID:23480424

Sridharan, Sivakumar; Vilar, Enric; Berdeprado, Jocelyn; Farrington, Ken

2013-10-01

286

Rhodanese Functions as Sulfur Supplier for Key Enzymes in Sulfur Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus. PMID:22496367

Aussignargues, Clément; Giuliani, Marie-Cécile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ilbert, Marianne

2012-01-01

287

Characterization of the acclimation period before anaerobic dehalogenation of halobenzoates.  

PubMed Central

The acclimation periods prior to detectable dehalogenation of halogenated benzoates in anaerobic lake sediments ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. These acclimation periods were reproducible over time and among sampling sites and were characteristic of the chemical tested. The lengthy acclimation period appears to represent an induction phase in which little or no aryl dehalogenation is observed, followed by an exponential increase in activity typical of an enrichment response. Continuous growth from the time of the first exposure to the chemical is inconsistent with the extremely low per-cell activities estimated for the early days of the acclimation period and the fact that the dehalogenation yields no carbon to support microbial growth. The finding of a characteristic acclimation time for each chemical argues against nutritional deficiency, inhibition, or predation as an explanation for this phase of metabolism, while the reproducibility of the findings with time and space and among replicates argues against genetic changes as the explanation. The acclimation times did correlate with the eventual dehalogenation rates. This may reflect the general energy limitations in the anaerobic communities and suggests that those chemicals with faster dehalogenation rates provide more energy for the induction and growth phases of the active population. PMID:2624458

Linkfield, T G; Suflita, J M; Tiedje, J M

1989-01-01

288

Participation of the central melanocortin system in metabolic regulation and energy homeostasis.  

PubMed

Obesity and metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, have attracted considerable attention as life-threatening diseases not only in developed countries but also worldwide. Additionally, the rate of obesity in young people all over the world is rapidly increasing. Accumulated evidence suggests that the central nervous system may participate in the development of and/or protection from obesity. For example, in the brain, the hypothalamic melanocortin system senses and integrates central and peripheral metabolic signals and controls the degree of energy expenditure and feeding behavior, in concert with metabolic status, to regulate whole-body energy homeostasis. Currently, researchers are studying the mechanisms by which peripheral metabolic molecules control feeding behavior and energy balance through the central melanocortin system. Accordingly, recent studies have revealed that some inflammatory molecules and transcription factors participate in feeding behavior and energy balance by controlling the central melanocortin pathway, and have thus become new candidates as therapeutic targets to fight metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:24894870

Jeong, Jin Kwon; Kim, Jae Geun; Lee, Byung Ju

2014-10-01

289

Metabolic Acclimation to Anoxia Induced by Low (2-4 kPa Partial Pressure) Oxygen Pretreatment (Hypoxia) in Root Tips of Zea mays.  

PubMed

Young intact plants of maize (Zea mays L. cv INRA 508) were exposed to 2 to 4 kilopascals partial pressure oxygen (hypoxic pretreatment) for 18 hours before excision of the 5 millimeter root apex and treatment with strictly anaerobic conditions (anoxia). Hypoxic acclimation gave rise to larger amounts of ATP, to larger ATP/ADP and adenylate energy charge ratios, and to higher rates of ethanol production when excised root tips were subsequently made anaerobic, compared with root tips transferred directly from aerobic to anaerobic media. Improved energy metabolism following hypoxic pretreatment was associated with increased activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and induction of ADH-2 isozymes. Roots of Adh1(-) mutant plants lacked constitutive ADH and only slowly produced ethanol when made anaerobic. Those that were hypoxically pretreated acclimated to anoxia with induction of ADH2 and a higher energy metabolism, and a rate of ethanol production comparable to that of nonmutants. All these responses were insensitive to the presence or absence of NO(3) (-). Additionally, the rate of ethanol production was about 50 times greater than the rate of reduction of NO(3) (-) to NO(2) (-). These results indicate that nitrate reductase does not compete effectively with ADH for NADH, or contribute to energy metabolism during anaerobic respiration in this tissue through nitrate reduction. Unacclimated root tips of wild type and Adhl(-) mutants appeared not to survive more than 8 to 9 hours in strict anoxia; when hypoxically pretreated they tolerated periods under anoxia in excess of 22 hours. PMID:16665894

Saglio, P H; Drew, M C; Pradet, A

1988-01-01

290

Anaerobic biodegradation of explosives and related compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria : a review.  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, research on microbial degradation of explosives and nitroaromatic compounds has increased. Most studies of the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used aerobic microorganisms. Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Few review papers exist, and those deal mainly with aerobic bacterial degradation of explosives; none deals with anaerobic bacteria. In this paper, we review the anaerobic metabolic processes in the degradation of explosives and nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions.

Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C. F.; Manning, J.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Notre Dame

1998-01-01

291

Global Gene Expression Profiles of Bacillus subtilis Grown under Anaerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis can grow under anaerobic conditions, either with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor or by fermentation. A DNA microarray containing 4,020 genes from this organism was constructed to explore anaerobic gene expression patterns on a genomic scale. When mRNA levels of aerobic and anaerobic cultures during exponential growth were compared, several hundred genes were observed to be induced or repressed under anaerobic conditions. These genes are involved in a variety of cell functions, including carbon metabolism, electron transport, iron uptake, antibiotic production, and stress response. Among the highly induced genes are not only those responsible for nitrate respiration and fermentation but also those of unknown function. Certain groups of genes were specifically regulated during anaerobic growth on nitrite, while others were primarily affected during fermentative growth, indicating a complex regulatory circuitry of anaerobic metabolism. PMID:10913079

Ye, Rick W.; Tao, Wang; Bedzyk, Laura; Young, Thomas; Chen, Mario; Li, Liao

2000-01-01

292

CceR and AkgR Regulate Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism in Alphaproteobacteria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT? Many pathways of carbon and energy metabolism are conserved across the phylogeny, but the networks that regulate their expression or activity often vary considerably among organisms. In this work, we show that two previously uncharacterized transcription factors (TFs) are direct regulators of genes encoding enzymes of central carbon and energy metabolism in the alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The LacI family member CceR (RSP_1663) directly represses genes encoding enzymes in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, while activating those encoding the F1F0 ATPase and enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and gluconeogenesis, providing a direct transcriptional network connection between carbon and energy metabolism. We identified bases that are important for CceR DNA binding and showed that DNA binding by this TF is inhibited by 6-phosphogluconate. We also showed that the GntR family TF AkgR (RSP_0981) directly activates genes encoding several TCA cycle enzymes, and we identified conditions where its activity is increased. The properties of single and double ?CceR and ?AkgR mutants illustrate that these 2 TFs cooperatively regulate carbon and energy metabolism. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that CceR and AkgR orthologs are found in other alphaproteobacteria, where they are predicted to have a conserved function in regulating central carbon metabolism. Our characterization of CceR and AkgR has provided important new insight into the networks that control central carbon and energy metabolism in alphaproteobacteria that can be exploited to modify or engineer new traits in these widespread and versatile bacteria. PMID:25650399

Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R.

2015-01-01

293

Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).  

PubMed

Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

Melis, Anastasios

2007-10-01

294

Mitochondrial energy metabolism and apoptosis regulation in glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive form of gliomas and is associated with short survival. Recent advancements in molecular genetics resulted in the identification of glioma genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic hallmarks, and multidimensional data allowed clustering of glioblastomas into molecular subtypes. Parallel with these developments, much scientific attention has been attracted by the exploration of two functional processes linked to mitochondrial regulation. One of these processes involves genomic and mitochondrial gene mutations, mitochondrial protein expression modifications and altered metabolic regulation that define glioblastoma. The second mitochondrially-centered process involves complex molecular interactions and pathways that influence the extrinsic or the intrinsic mechanisms of apoptosis regulation and may underlie the uncontrolled spreading, recurrence and drug resistance of glioblastoma. While the available data are not yet comprehensive, these two complex processes represent important aspects of tumor cell biology, which may provide complementary opportunities for therapeutic manipulations of this highly resistant tumor type. PMID:25451120

Nagy, Adam; Eder, Katalin; Selak, Mary A; Kalman, Bernadette

2014-11-01

295

Carbon metabolism and energy conversion of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 under mixotrophic conditions: comparison with photoautotrophic condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the carbon metabolism and energy conversion efficiency of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 under mixotrophic conditions, we studied its growth characteristics in mixotrophic cultures with glucose and\\u000a with acetate, respectively, and further discussed the carbon metabolism and energy utilization based on metabolic flux analysis.\\u000a Results showed that both glucose and acetate could enhance the growth of Synechococcus

Riming Yan; Du Zhu; Zhibin Zhang; Qingui Zeng; Ju Chu

296

The role of photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism in the energy status during seed development  

PubMed Central

Seeds are the major organs responsible for the evolutionary upkeep of angiosperm plants. Seeds accumulate significant amounts of storage compounds used as nutrients and energy reserves during the initial stages of seed germination. The accumulation of storage compounds requires significant amounts of energy, the generation of which can be limited due to reduced penetration of oxygen and light particularly into the inner parts of seeds. In this review, we discuss the adjustment of seed metabolism to limited energy production resulting from the suboptimal penetration of oxygen into the seed tissues. We also discuss the role of photosynthesis during seed development and its contribution to the energy status of developing seeds. Finally, we describe the contribution of amino acid metabolism to the seed energy status, focusing on the Asp-family pathway that leads to the synthesis and catabolism of Lys, Thr, Met, and Ile. PMID:25232362

Galili, Gad; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2014-01-01

297

Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

298

Osteocalcin: An Osteoblast-Derived Polypeptide Hormone that Modulates Whole Body Energy Metabolism.  

PubMed

Osteocalcin is a bone-specific protein that is regularly used in the clinical setting as a serum marker of bone turnover. Recent evidence indicates that osteocalcin plays a previously unsuspected role in the control of energy metabolism. Thus, osteocalcin-deficient mice have a profoundly deranged metabolic phenotype that includes insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and abnormal fat deposition. Additionally, osteocalcin administration in mice improves insulin sensitivity and decreases fat pad mass and serum triglyceride levels. The role of osteocalcin in human macronutrient metabolism is less clear but recent studies report positive correlations between serum osteocalcin levels and established indices of metabolic health. Herein, we review key physiological functions of osteocalcin, focussing on the roles of osteocalcin in the modulation of macronutrient metabolism, male reproductive function and foetal brain development. We consider the implications of these findings for the coordination of metabolism with development and fertility. We also consider evidence that a Class C G-protein-coupled receptor from a subgroup known to mediate nutrient-sensing acts as the osteocalcin receptor. PMID:25416346

Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Conigrave, Arthur D

2014-11-22

299

Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia - before severe fat loss - in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34 - 42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition. PMID:25457061

Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

2014-12-01

300

The Energy Sensor AMPK Regulates T Cell Metabolic Adaptation and Effector Responses In Vivo.  

PubMed

Naive T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of effector T cell function. However, how nutrient availability influences T cell metabolism and function remains poorly understood. Here we report plasticity in effector T cell metabolism in response to changing nutrient availability. Activated T cells were found to possess a glucose-sensitive metabolic checkpoint controlled by the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that regulated mRNA translation and glutamine-dependent mitochondrial metabolism to maintain T cell bioenergetics and viability. T cells lacking AMPK?1 displayed reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics and cellular ATP in response to glucose limitation in vitro or pathogenic challenge in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that AMPK?1 is essential for T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cell development and primary T cell responses to viral and bacterial infections in vivo. Our data highlight AMPK-dependent regulation of metabolic homeostasis as a key regulator of T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. PMID:25607458

Blagih, Julianna; Coulombe, François; Vincent, Emma E; Dupuy, Fanny; Galicia-Vázquez, Gabriela; Yurchenko, Ekaterina; Raissi, Thomas C; van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Viollet, Benoit; Pearce, Erika L; Pelletier, Jerry; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Krawczyk, Connie M; Divangahi, Maziar; Jones, Russell G

2015-01-20

301

Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between

M Elia; J H Cummings

2007-01-01

302

Energy Metabolism in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Differentiated Counterparts  

PubMed Central

Background Human pluripotent stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types present in the adult organism, therefore harboring great potential for the in vitro study of differentiation and for the development of cell-based therapies. Nonetheless their use may prove challenging as incomplete differentiation of these cells might lead to tumoregenicity. Interestingly, many cancer types have been reported to display metabolic modifications with features that might be similar to stem cells. Understanding the metabolic properties of human pluripotent stem cells when compared to their differentiated counterparts can thus be of crucial importance. Furthermore recent data has stressed distinct features of different human pluripotent cells lines, namely when comparing embryo-derived human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) reprogrammed from somatic cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the energy metabolism of hESCs, IPSCs, and their somatic counterparts. Focusing on mitochondria, we tracked organelle localization and morphology. Furthermore we performed gene expression analysis of several pathways related to the glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In addition we determined oxygen consumption rates (OCR) using a metabolic extracellular flux analyzer, as well as total intracellular ATP levels by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally we explored the expression of key proteins involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Conclusions/Findings Our results demonstrate that, although the metabolic signature of IPSCs is not identical to that of hESCs, nonetheless they cluster with hESCs rather than with their somatic counterparts. ATP levels, lactate production and OCR revealed that human pluripotent cells rely mostly on glycolysis to meet their energy demands. Furthermore, our work points to some of the strategies which human pluripotent stem cells may use to maintain high glycolytic rates, such as high levels of hexokinase II and inactive pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). PMID:21698063

Moura, Michelle B.; Momcilovic, Olga; Easley, Charles A.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Van Houten, Bennett; Schatten, Gerald

2011-01-01

303

Carbon metabolism in legume nodules. Progress report, July 1982-July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The goal is to understand how the legume nodule metabolizes carbohydrate to provide energy and reductant for symbiotic fixation. The working hypothesis has been that the plant cytosol is microacrobic and that some carbon metabolism may be via anaerobic pathways similar to those in roots of flood tolerant plants. A method of analyzing redox changes in intact mitochondria, bacteroids or bacteria was adapted; a method of manipulating nitrogenase activity by oxygen inhibition was developed; the production of alcohol by soybean nodules was studied; and enzymes metabolizing alcohol/aldehyde were found in other nitrogen fixing systems. (ACR)

LaRue, T.A.

1983-01-01

304

Effects of transgenic expression of HIV-1 Vpr on lipid and energy metabolism in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

HIV infection is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism, body fat redistribution, and altered energy expenditure. The pathogenesis of these complex abnormalities is unclear. Viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1 accessory protein, can regulate gene transcription mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor ...

305

CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID  

EPA Science Inventory

Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

306

Variation in energy intake and basal metabolic rate of a bird migrating in a wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. We studied the changes in body mass, metabolizable energy intake rate (ME) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a Thrush Nightingale, Luscinia luscinia, following repeated 12-h migratory flights in a wind tunnel. In total the bird flew for 176 h corresponding to 6300 km. This is the first study where the fuelling phase has been investigated in a bird

Å. Lindström; M. R. J. Klaassen; A. Kvist

1999-01-01

307

Effect of feeding frequency, feeding level and temperature on energy metabolism in Sparus aurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of temperature, ration size and food distribution on the energy metabolism of Sparus aurata were studied by monitoring oxygen consumption.For each factor combination rates of oxygen consumption (Rmean) were partitioned into components, representing resting rates (Rrest) and apparent specific dynamic action rates (Rsda). Maximal hourly rates (Rpeak) were also determined.Feeding led to an increase in oxygen consumption rates

J. Guinea; F. Fernandez

1997-01-01

308

EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS-WAVE, PULSED, AND SINUSOIDAL-AMPLITUDE-MODULATED MICROWAVES ON BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...

309

Perinatal Exposure to High-Fat Diet Programs Energy Balance, Metabolism and Behavior in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perinatal environment plays an important role in programming many aspects of physiology and behavior including metabolism, body weight set point, energy balance regulation and predisposition to mental health-related disorders such as anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Maternal health and nutritional status heavily influence the early environment and have a long-term impact on critical central pathways, including the

Elinor L. Sullivan; M. Susan Smith; Kevin L. Grove

2011-01-01

310

Energy metabolism in pig colonocytes after adaptation to a high fibre diet.  

E-print Network

Energy metabolism in pig colonocytes after adaptation to a high fibre diet. B Darcy-Vrillon MT- hydrates in the diet leads to an increased short chain fatty acid production in the colon, the ef- fect fuel substrates in colonic epithelial cells isolated from pigs adapted to a high vs low fibre diet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF THE PREGNANT EWE  

E-print Network

of Physiology, University of New Englan!d, Avmidale, (Australia) INTRODUCTION The metabolism of the uterus uterus uses about 28 p. 100 of the total metabolizable energy available to the ewe L10J, Blood flow to the uterus is also high in late pregnancy, b3ing 15-20 p. roo of cardiac output, with the foetus utilizing 6

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Myoglobin content and the activities of enzymes of energy metabolism in red and white fish hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myoglobin content of representative red and white coloured fish hearts was quantitated. It was confirmed that the macroscopic difference in appcarance is due to the presence or absence of myoglobin. Thereafter, the cytochrome c content as well as the maximal activities of key enzymes of energy metabolism were assessed in myoglobin-rich sea raven (Hemitripterus americanus) and myoglobin-poor ocean pout

William R. Driedzic; John M. Stewart

1982-01-01

313

Anaerobic metabolism during activity in lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique developed for the determination of total lactate production in small animals was used to evaluate the role of anaerobiosis during activity at different temperatures in lizards. Measurements on six species of small lizards indicate little interspecific variation or thermal effect in resting lactate levels (0.35 mg lactate\\/g body weight) or maximal lactate levels achieved at exhaustion (1.4

Albert F. Bennett; Paul Licht

1972-01-01

314

Protein and energy metabolism of lactating Granadina goats.  

PubMed

Twelve goats of the Granadina breed in mid- and late lactation were used in two consecutive years to determine their protein and energy requirements for lactation. The animals were individually fed on diets based on pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay and barley. A total of six balance experiments were carried out. Gas exchange was measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. Milk yield ranged widely from 0.649 to 1.742 kg/d in the first year and from 0.222 to 1.989 kg/d in the second year, a steady decline in milk output being observed as lactation progressed. Milk composition remained rather constant during the midstage of lactation, with an average content (/kg milk) for total solids, total nitrogen, fat and gross energy of 149.7 g, 5.39 g, 58.8 g and 3.59 MJ respectively. Total endogenous N, endogenous urinary N and maintenance requirement for N in lactating goats were estimated to be 244, 218 mg N/kg body-weight (W)0.75 per d and 478 mg total N/kg W0.75 per d respectively from regression equations. A constant efficiency of use of dietary N for milk N plus retained N of 51.0% was found. By regressing milk energy plus apparent body energy retention or loss on metabolizable energy (ME) intake, the maintenance energy requirement was estimated to be 401 kJ ME/kg W0.75 per d. When estimating the corrected milk yield as milk energy + (0.84 x negative energy retentio) + (1.05 x positive energy retention), regression analysis indicated that the overall efficiency of use of ME for lactation was 66.7%. Also, from a plot of apparent body energy retention v. milk energy yield, both expressed as a percentage of ME intake above maintenance, the efficiency with which ME was used to promote energy retention in the body during lactation was calculated to be 0.907 times that for milk secretion. PMID:2334659

Aguilera, J F; Prieto, C; Fonollá, J

1990-03-01

315

Hispidulin: antioxidant properties and effect on mitochondrial energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Hispidulin (6-methoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone) and eupafolin (6-methoxy-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), are flavonoids found in the leaves of Eupatorium litoralle. They have recognized antioxidant and antineoplastic properties, although their action mechanisms have not been previously described. We now report the effects of hispidulin on the oxidative metabolism of isolated rat liver mitochondria (Mit) and have also investigated the prooxidant and antioxidant capacity of both flavonoids. Hispidulin (0.05-0.2 mM) decreased the respiratory rate in state III and stimulated it in state IV, when glutamate or succinate was used as oxidizable substrate. Hispidulin inhibited enzymatic activities between complexes I and III of the respiratory chain. In broken Mit hispidulin (0.2 mM) slightly inhibited ATPase activity (25%). However, when intact Mit were used, the flavonoid stimulated this activity by 100%. Substrate energized mitochondrial swelling was markedly inhibited by hispidulin. Both hispidulin and eupafolin were able to promote iron release from ferritin, this effect being more accentuated with eupafolin with the suggestion of a possible involvement of H2O2 in the process. Hispidulin was incapable of donating electrons to the stable free radical DPPH, while eupafolin reacted with it in a similar way to ascorbic acid. The results indicate that hispidulin as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, is able to release iron from ferritin, but has distinct prooxidant and antioxidant properties when compared to eupafolin. PMID:16298860

Dabaghi-Barbosa, Priscila; Mariante Rocha, Andreia; Franco da Cruz Lima, Anderson; Heleno de Oliveira, Brás; Benigna Martinelli de Oliveira, Maria; Gunilla Skare Carnieri, Eva; Cadena, Sílvia M S C; Eliane Merlin Rocha, Maria

2005-12-01

316

Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene Compounds by Dechloromonas Strain RCB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dechloromonas strain RCB has been shown to be capable of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to nitrate reduction. As a continuation of these studies, the metabolic versatility and hydrocarbon biodegradative capability of this organism were investigated. The results of these revealed that in addition to nitrate, strain RCB could alternatively degrade benzene both aerobically and anaerobically with perchlorate or chlorate

Romy Chakraborty; Susan M. O'Connor; Emily Chan; John D. Coates

2005-01-01

317

The role of redox balances in the anaerobic fermentation of xylose by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of glucose and xylose utilization by batch cultures of Candida utilis were studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions during growth in complex media. Rapid ethanol formation occurred during growth on glucose when aerobic cultures were shifted to anaerobic conditions. However, with xylose as a substrate, transfer to anaerobiosis resulted in an immediate cessation of metabolic activity, as evidenced

Peter M. Bruinenberg; Peter H. M. Bot; Johannes P. Dijken; W. Alexander Scheffers

1983-01-01

318

Changes in energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries stored at low temperature.  

PubMed

Low-temperature storage and transport of blueberries is widely practiced in commercial blueberry production. In this research, the storage life of blueberries was extended at low temperature, but fruit stored for 30 d at 0°C pitted after 2d at room-temperature. Fruit cellular structure and physiological parameters accompanying pitting in blueberries were changed. The objective of this research was to characterise properties of energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries during storage, including adenosine phosphates and mitochondrial enzymes involved in stress responses. Physiological and metabolic disorders, changes in cell ultrastructure, energy content and ATPase enzyme activity were observed in pitting blueberries. Energy shortages and increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were observed in fruit kept at shelf life. The results suggested that sufficient available energy status and a stable enzymatic system in blueberries collectively contribute to improve chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating pitting and maintaining quality of blueberry fruit in long-term cold storage. PMID:24996362

Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shunchang; Wei, Baodong; Liu, Xiuying; Ji, Shujuan

2014-12-01

319

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

320

Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

PubMed Central

A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H+-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts. PMID:25322701

Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

2014-01-01

321

Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Redox Signaling in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity is essential for the maintenance of neuronal function, and the impairment of energy metabolism and redox homeostasis is a hallmark of brain aging, which is particularly accentuated in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: The communications between mitochondria and the rest of the cell by energy- and redox-sensitive signaling establish a master regulatory device that controls cellular energy levels and the redox environment. Impairment of this regulatory devise is critical for aging and the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Critical Issues: This review focuses on a coordinated metabolic network—cytosolic signaling, transcriptional regulation, and mitochondrial function—that controls the cellular energy levels and redox status as well as factors which impair this metabolic network during brain aging and neurodegeneration. Future Directions: Characterization of mitochondrial function and mitochondria-cytosol communications will provide pivotal opportunities for identifying targets and developing new strategies aimed at restoring the mitochondrial energy-redox axis that is compromised in brain aging and neurodegeneration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 353–371. PMID:22793257

Yin, Fei; Boveris, Alberto

2014-01-01

322

?-Opioid receptors control the metabolic response to a high-energy diet in mice  

PubMed Central

General opioid receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight in rodents, but the contributions of specific receptor subtypes are unknown. We examined whether genetic deletion of the ?-opioid receptor (KOR) in mice alters metabolic physiology. KOR-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-energy diet (HED) for 16 wk. KO mice had 28% lower body weight and 45% lower fat mass when compared to WT mice fed an HED. No differences in caloric intake were found. An HED reduced energy expenditure in WT mice, but not in KO mice. KOR deficiency led to an attenuation of triglyceride synthesis in the liver. Malonyl CoA levels were also reduced in response to an HED, thereby promoting hepatic ?-oxidation. Glycemic control was also found to be improved in KO mice. These data suggest a key role for KORs in the central nervous system regulation of the metabolic adaptation to an HED, as we were unable to detect expression of KOR in liver, white adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle in WT mice. This study provides the first evidence that KORs play an essential physiological role in the control of hepatic lipid metabolism, and KOR activation is a permissive signal toward fat storage.—Czyzyk, T. A., Nogueiras, R., Lockwood, J. F., McKinzie, J. H., Coskun, T., Pintar, J. E., Hammond, C., Tschöp, M. H., Statnick, M. A. ?-Opioid receptors control the metabolic response to a high-energy diet in mice. PMID:19917675

Czyzyk, Traci A.; Nogueiras, Ruben; Lockwood, John F.; McKinzie, Jamie H.; Coskun, Tamer; Pintar, John E.; Hammond, Craig; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Statnick, Michael A.

2010-01-01

323

Energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain: a stoichiometric modeling perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The energetics of cerebral activity critically relies on the functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Important open questions include the relation between neuronal versus astrocytic energy demand, glucose uptake and intercellular lactate transfer, as well as their dependence on the level of activity. Results We have developed a large-scale, constraint-based network model of the metabolic partnership between astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons that allows for a quantitative appraisal of the extent to which stoichiometry alone drives the energetics of the system. We find that the velocity of the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc) explains part of the uncoupling between glucose and oxygen utilization at increasing Vcyc levels. Thus, we are able to characterize different activation states in terms of the tissue oxygen-glucose index (OGI). Calculations show that glucose is taken up and metabolized according to cellular energy requirements, and that partitioning of the sugar between different cell types is not significantly affected by Vcyc. Furthermore, both the direction and magnitude of the lactate shuttle between neurons and astrocytes turn out to depend on the relative cell glucose uptake while being roughly independent of Vcyc. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in absence of ad hoc activity-related constraints on neuronal and astrocytic metabolism, the glutamate-glutamine cycle does not control the relative energy demand of neurons and astrocytes, and hence their glucose uptake and lactate exchange. PMID:24112710

2013-01-01

324

Metabolic evolution of energy-conserving pathways for succinate production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

During metabolic evolution to improve succinate production in Escherichia coli strains, significant changes in cellular metabolism were acquired that increased energy efficiency in two respects. The energy-conserving phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (pck), which normally functions in the reverse direction (gluconeogenesis; glucose repressed) during the oxidative metabolism of organic acids, evolved to become the major carboxylation pathway for succinate production. Both PCK enzyme activity and gene expression levels increased significantly in two stages because of several mutations during the metabolic evolution process. High-level expression of this enzyme-dominated CO2 fixation and increased ATP yield (1 ATP per oxaloacetate). In addition, the native PEP-dependent phosphotransferase system for glucose uptake was inactivated by a mutation in ptsI. This glucose transport function was replaced by increased expression of the GalP permease (galP) and glucokinase (glk). Results of deleting individual transport genes confirmed that GalP served as the dominant glucose transporter in evolved strains. Using this alternative transport system would increase the pool of PEP available for redox balance. This change would also increase energy efficiency by eliminating the need to produce additional PEP from pyruvate, a reaction that requires two ATP equivalents. Together, these changes converted the wild-type E. coli fermentation pathway for succinate into a functional equivalent of the native pathway that nature evolved in succinate-producing rumen bacteria. PMID:19918073

Zhang, Xueli; Jantama, Kaemwich; Moore, Jonathan C.; Jarboe, Laura R.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

2009-01-01

325

The gut microbiota modulates host energy and lipid metabolism in mice[S  

PubMed Central

The gut microbiota has recently been identified as an environmental factor that may promote metabolic diseases. To investigate the effect of gut microbiota on host energy and lipid metabolism, we compared the serum metabolome and the lipidomes of serum, adipose tissue, and liver of conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free mice. The serum metabolome of CONV-R mice was characterized by increased levels of energy metabolites, e.g., pyruvic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, while levels of cholesterol and fatty acids were reduced. We also showed that the microbiota modified a number of lipid species in the serum, adipose tissue, and liver, with its greatest effect on triglyceride and phosphatidylcholine species. Triglyceride levels were lower in serum but higher in adipose tissue and liver of CONV-R mice, consistent with increased lipid clearance. Our findings show that the gut microbiota affects both host energy and lipid metabolism and highlights its role in the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:20040631

Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Hezaveh, Rahil; Reigstad, Christopher S.; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Yetukuri, Laxman; Islam, Sama; Felin, Jenny; Perkins, Rosie; Borén, Jan; Oreši?, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

2010-01-01

326

Rethinking energy in parkinsonian motor symptoms: a potential role for neural metabolic deficits  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized as a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in a variety of debilitating symptoms, including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Research spanning several decades has emphasized basal ganglia dysfunction, predominantly resulting from dopaminergic (DA) cell loss, as the primarily cause of the aforementioned parkinsonian features. But, why those particular features manifest themselves remains an enigma. The goal of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework that parkinsonian motor features are behavioral consequence of a long-term adaptation to their inability (inflexibility or lack of capacity) to meet energetic demands, due to neural metabolic deficits arising from mitochondrial dysfunction associated with PD. Here, we discuss neurophysiological changes that are generally associated with PD, such as selective degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), in conjunction with metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction. We then characterize the cardinal motor symptoms of PD, bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and gait disturbance, reviewing literature to demonstrate how these motor patterns are actually energy efficient from a metabolic perspective. We will also develop three testable hypotheses: (1) neural metabolic deficits precede the increased rate of neurodegeneration and onset of behavioral symptoms in PD; (2) motor behavior of persons with PD are more sensitive to changes in metabolic/bioenergetic state; and (3) improvement of metabolic function could lead to better motor performance in persons with PD. These hypotheses are designed to introduce a novel viewpoint that can elucidate the connections between metabolic, neural and motor function in PD. PMID:25610377

Amano, Shinichi; Kegelmeyer, Deborah; Hong, S. Lee

2015-01-01

327

Energy Metabolism in Uncoupling Protein 3 Gene Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a member of the mito- chondrial anion carrier superfamily. Based upon its high homology with UCP1 and its restricted tissue dis- tribution to skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue, UCP3 has been suggested to play important roles in regulating energy expenditure, body weight, and ther- moregulation. Other postulated roles for UCP3 include regulation of fatty

Antonio J. Vidal-Puig; Danica Grujic; Chen-Yu Zhang; Thilo Hagen; Olivier Boss; Yasuo Ido; Alicja Szczepanik; Jennifer Wade; Vamsi Mootha; Ronald Cortrighti; Deborah M. Muoioi; Bradford B. Lowell

2000-01-01

328

Energy metabolism of the thermogenic tropical water lily, Victoria cruziana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy turnover in the giant water lily, Victoria cruziana was determined by indirect calorimetry (oxygen consumption rate) and different kinds of thermometry. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse pond of the Botanical Gardens, Free University of Berlin, Germany at constant water and air temperatures (30 and 24°C, respectively). Flowers were investigated (i) in situ as a whole floating on the

I Lamprecht; E Schmolz; L Blanco; C. M Romero

2002-01-01

329

The TRH neuron: a hypothalamic integrator of energy metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis not only through effects on thyroid function orchestrated through hypophysiotropic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but also through central effects on feeding behavior, thermogenesis, locomotor activation and autonomic regulation. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons are located in the medial and periventricular parvocellular subdivisions of the PVN and

Ronald M. Lechan; Csaba Fekete

2006-01-01

330

Production of nitrous oxide from anaerobic digester centrate and its use as a co-oxidant of biogas to enhance energy recovery.  

PubMed

Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) is a new process for wastewater treatment that removes nitrogen from wastewater and recovers energy from the nitrogen in three steps: (1) NH4(+) oxidation to NO2(-); (2) NO2(-) reduction to N2O gas; and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy production. In this work, we optimize Steps 1 and 2 for anaerobic digester centrate, and we evaluate Step 3 for a full-scale biogas-fed internal combustion engine. Using a continuous stirred reactor coupled to a bench-scale sequencing batch reactor, we observed sustained partial oxidation of NH4(+) to NO2(-) and sustained (3 months) partial reduction of NO2(-) to N2O (75-80% conversion, mass basis), with >95% nitrogen removal (Step 2). Alternating pulses of acetate and NO2(-) selected for Comamonas (38%), Ciceribacter (16%), and Clostridium (11%). Some species stored polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and coupled oxidation of PHB to reduction of NO2(-) to N2O. Some species also stored phosphorus as polyphosphate granules. Injections of N2O into a biogas-fed engine at flow rates simulating a full-scale system increased power output by 5.7-7.3%. The results underscore the need for more detailed assessment of bioreactor community ecology and justify pilot- and full-scale testing. PMID:24780056

Scherson, Yaniv D; Woo, Sung-Geun; Criddle, Craig S

2014-05-20

331

Compensatory elevation of voluntary activity in mouse mutants with impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Mitochondria play a crucial role in determining whole-body metabolism and exercise capacity. Genetic mouse models of mild mitochondrial dysfunction provide an opportunity to understand how mitochondrial function affects these parameters. MCLK1 (a.k.a. Coq7) is an enzyme implicated in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (UQ; Coenzyme Q). Low levels of MCLK1 in Mclk1(+/-) heterozygous mutants lead to abnormal sub-mitochondrial distribution of UQ, impaired mitochondrial function, elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress, and increased lifespan. Here, we report that young Mclk1(+/-) males, but not females, show a significant decrease in whole-body metabolic rate as measured by indirect calorimetry. Such a sex-specific effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on energy metabolism has also been reported for heterozygous mice carrying a mutation for the gene encoding the "Rieske" protein of mitochondrial complex III (RISP(+/P224S)). We find that both Mclk1(+/-) and RISP(+/P224S) males are capable of restoring their defective metabolic rates by making significantly more voluntary use of a running wheel compared to wild type. However, this increase in voluntary activity does not reflect their exercise capacity, which we found to be impaired as revealed by a shorter treadmill distance run before exhaustion. In contrast to what is observed in Mclk1(+/-) and RISP(+/P224S) mutants, Sod2(+/-) mice with elevated oxidative stress and major mitochondrial dysfunction did not increase voluntary activity. Our study reveals a sex-specific effect on how impaired mitochondrial function impacts whole-body energy metabolism and locomotory behavior, and contributes to the understanding of the metabolic and behavioral consequences of mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25413331

Lapointe, Jérôme; G Hughes, Bryan; Bigras, Eve; Hekimi, Siegfried

2014-11-01

332

Hepatic ERK activity plays a role in energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38, have been reported to play important roles in energy homeostasis. In this study, we show that the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is increased in the livers of diet induced and genetically obese mice. Activation of ERK in the livers of lean mice by over-expressing the constitutively active MAPK kinase 1 (MEK CA) results in decreased energy expenditure, lowered expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, increases fasting hyperglycemia and causes systemic insulin resistance. Interestingly, hepatic glycogen content is markedly increased and expression of G6Pase gene is decreased in mice over-expressing MEK CA compared to control mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), therefore hepatic glucose output is not likely the major contributor of hyperglycemia. One potential mechanism of decreased expression of G6Pase gene by MEK CA is likely due to ERK mediated phosphorylation and cytosolic retention of FOXO1. Adipocytes isolated from MEK CA mice display increased lipolysis. Circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in these mice are also increased, which possibly contribute to systemic insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia. Consistent with these results, knocking down ERK expression in the liver of diet induced obese (DIO) mice improves systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. These results indicate that increased hepatic ERK activity in DIO mice may contribute to rincreased liver glycogen content and decreased energy expenditure in obesity. PMID:23732116

Jiao, Ping; Feng, Bin; Li, Yujie; He, Qin; Xu, Haiyan

2013-01-01

333

AMP-activated protein kinase in the regulation of hepatic energy metabolism: from physiology to therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

Because the liver is central in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and energy storage, knowledge of the physiology as well as physiopathology of hepatic energy metabolism is a prerequisite to our understanding of whole body metabolism. Hepatic fuel metabolism changes considerably depending on physiological circumstances (fed vs fasted state). In consequence, hepatic carbohydrate, lipid and protein synthesis/utilization are tightly regulated according to needs. Fatty liver and hepatic insulin resistance (both frequently associated with the metabolic syndrome) or increased hepatic glucose production (as observed in type 2 diabetes) resulted of alterations in substrates oxidation/storage balance in the liver. Because AMPK is considered as a cellular energy sensor, it is important to gain understanding of the mechanism by which hepatic AMPK coordinates hepatic energy metabolism. AMPK has been implicated as a key regulator of physiological energy dynamics by limiting anabolic pathways (to prevent further ATP consumption) and by facilitating catabolic pathways (to increase ATP generation). Activation of hepatic AMPK leads to increased fatty acid oxidation and simultaneously inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and glucose production. In addition to a short-term effect on specific enzymes, AMPK also modulates the transcription of genes involved in lipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. The identification of AMPK targets in hepatic metabolism should be useful in developing treatments to reverse metabolic abnormalities of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19245656

Viollet, Benoit; Guigas, Bruno; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Hébrard, Sophie; Lantier, Louise; Mounier, Rémi; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Foretz, Marc

2009-01-01

334

Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gross work completed and relative to body weight. However, these differences are reduced when data is adjusted for body weight and further reduced when corrected for FFM. The study found no significant differences between men and women in either anaerobic power or anaerobic capacity when values were given relative to FFM. PMID:3730753

Maud, P J; Shultz, B B

1986-01-01

335

Altered Mitochondrial Function and Energy Metabolism Is Associated with a Radioresistant Phenotype in Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is increasingly the standard of care for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. A complete pathological response to CRT is associated with a favourable outcome. Radiation therapy is important for local tumour control, however, radioresistance remains a substantial clinical problem. We hypothesise that alterations in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism are involved in the radioresistance of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). To investigate this, we used an established isogenic cell line model of radioresistant OAC. Radioresistant cells (OE33 R) demonstrated significantly increased levels of random mitochondrial mutations, which were coupled with alterations in mitochondrial function, size, morphology and gene expression, supporting a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the radioresistance of this model. OE33 R cells also demonstrated altered bioenergetics, demonstrating significantly increased intracellular ATP levels, which was attributed to enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Radioresistant cells also demonstrated metabolic plasticity, efficiently switching between the glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathways, which were accompanied by enhanced clonogenic survival. This data was supported in vivo, in pre-treatment OAC tumour tissue. Tumour ATP5B expression, a marker of oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly increased in patients who subsequently had a poor pathological response to neoadjuvant CRT. This suggests for the first time, a role for specific mitochondrial alterations and metabolic remodelling in the radioresistance of OAC. PMID:24968221

Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Maher, Stephen G.; Maguire, Aoife; Phelan, James; Muldoon, Cian; Reynolds, John V.; O’Sullivan, Jacintha

2014-01-01

336

Effect of ultraviolet radiation on the energy metabolism of the corneal epithelium of the rabbit.  

PubMed

The present research was directed at quantifying possible alterations in corneal epithelial metabolic activity secondary to in vivo exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Microfluorometric energy metabolite assays on microgram (microgram) sized, freeze-dried tissue samples were used as an in vitro means of assessing overall metabolic activity in the epithelium of control rabbit corneas and in the epithelium of UVR-exposed rabbit corneas 2 min after discontinuation of exposure. The specific assays were for glucose, glycogen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and phosphocreatine (PCr). The radiant exposures were kept constant at 0.05 J cm-2 for all UVR wavelengths utilized (290, 300, 310 and 360 nm). Experimental UVR exposure conditions served to increase epithelial glucose and glycogen concentrations. Although the epithelial ATP concentrations were unchanged, the epithelial PCr concentrations (a high energy phosphate bond reservoir) decreased as a result of UVR exposure. Overall, the data demonstrate a decrease in corneal epithelial metabolic activity, which may be wavelength-dependent, as a result of UVR exposure. It is suggested that immediate metabolic stress can be responsible for the pattern of epithelial cell loss seen in photokeratitis. PMID:2710826

Lattimore, M R

1989-02-01

337

An integrative approach to energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

SciTech Connect

The team of the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG) under the leadership of Ross Overbeek, began working on this Project in November 2003. During the previous year, the Project was performed at Integrated Genomics Inc. A transition from the industrial environment to the public domain prompted us to adjust some aspects of the Project. Notwithstanding the challenges, we believe that these adjustments had a strong positive impact on our deliverables. Most importantly, the work of the research team led by R. Overbeek resulted in the deployment of a new open source genomic platform, the SEED (Specific Aim 1). This platform provided a foundation for the development of CyanoSEED a specialized portal to comparative analysis and metabolic reconstruction of all available cyanobacterial genomes (Specific Aim 3). The SEED represents a new generation of software for genome analysis. Briefly, it is a portable and extendable system, containing one of the largest and permanently growing collections of complete and partial genomes. The complete system with annotations and tools is freely available via browsing or via installation on a user's Mac or Linux computer. One of the important unique features of the SEED is the support of metabolic reconstruction and comparative genome analysis via encoding and projection of functional subsystems. During the project period, the FIG research team has validated the new software by developing a significant number of core subsystems, covering many aspects of central metabolism (Specific Aim 2), as well as metabolic areas specific for cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophic organisms (Specific Aim 3). In addition to providing a proof of technology and a starting point for further community-based efforts, these subsystems represent a valuable asset. An extensive coverage of central metabolism provides the bulk of information required for metabolic modeling in Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803. Detailed analysis of several subsystems covering energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and other cyanobacteria has been performed (Specific Aim 4). The main objectives for this year (adjusted to reflect a new, public domain, setting of the Project research team) were: Aim 1. To develop, test, and deploy a new open source system, the SEED, for integrating community-based annotation, and comparative analysis of all publicly available microbial genomes. Develop a comprehensive genomic database by integrating within SEED all publicly available complete and nearly complete genome sequences with special emphasis on genomes of cyanobacteria, phototrophic eukaryotes, and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria--invaluable for comparative genomic studies of energy and carbon metabolism in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Aim 2. To develop the SEED's biological content in the form of a collection of encoded Subsystems largely covering the conserved cellular machinery in prokaryotes (and central metabolic machinery in eukaryotes). Aim 3. To develop, utilizing core SEED technology, the CyanoSEED--a specialized WEB portal for community-based annotation, and comparative analysis of all publicly available cyanobacterial genomes. Encode the set of additional subsystems representing key metabolic transformations in cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophs. We envisioned this resource as complementary to other public access databases for comparative genomic analysis currently available to the cyanobacterial research community. Aim 4. Perform in-depth analysis of several subsystems covering energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and all other cyanobacteria with available genome sequences. Reveal inconsistencies and gaps in the current knowledge of these subsystems. Use functional and genome context analysis tools in CyanoSEED to predict, whenever possible, candidate genes for inferred functional roles. To disseminate freely these conjectures and predictions by publishing them on CyanoSEED (http://cyanoseed.thefig.info/) and the Subsystems Forum (http://brucella.uchicago.edu/Su

Ross Overbeek, Veronika Fonstein, Andrei Osterman, Svetlana Gerdes, Olga Vassieva, Olga Zagnitko, Dmitry Rodionov

2005-02-15

338

A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50?% may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1? is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (v?C16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with v?C16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1?. PMID:25351724

Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D.; Griffin, Julian L.

2015-01-01

339

A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50?% may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1? is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (v?C16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with v?C16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1?. PMID:25351724

Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D; Griffin, Julian L; Smith, Geoffrey L

2015-02-01

340

ALTERATIONS IN THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) AS INDICATORS OF STRESS FROM CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for different life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the organophosphate pesticide fenthion. Dose-response relationships were developed for several metabolic rate functions (oxyge...

341

THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

342

An improved titration model reducing over estimation of total volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion of energy crop, animal slurry and food waste.  

PubMed

Titration methodologies have been used for the many years for low cost routine monitoring of full scale anaerobic digestion plants. These methodologies have been correlated to indicate the carbonate alkalinity and the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content within digesters. Two commonly used two end-point titration methods were compared using a dataset of 154 samples from energy crop and animal slurry digestates and were shown to be inaccurate in the estimation of tVFA. Using this dataset correlated with HPLC VFA analysis, two empirical bivariate linear regression equations were derived, where the validation dataset showed an absolute tVFA mean error improvement from ±3386 and ±3324 mg kg(-1) tVFA to ±410 and ±286 mg kg(-1) tVFA, respectively. The same equation was then applied to a food waste dataset where an absolute tVFA mean error was improved from ±3828 to ±576 mg kg(-1) tVFA. The newly derived titration equations can provide greater confidence in digester performance monitoring and are tools that can improve digester management. PMID:24911562

Purser, B J Jobling; Thai, S-M; Fritz, T; Esteves, S R; Dinsdale, R M; Guwy, A J

2014-09-15

343

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent  

E-print Network

at an existing wastewater treatment plant. Based on scale-up evaluation, the test system should yield an energy.6 acre, which is on the same scale currently used at the host wastewater treatment facility to treat Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated

344

Effects of hyperammonemia on brain energy metabolism: controversial findings in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

The literature related to the effects of elevated plasma ammonia levels on brain energy metabolism is abundant, but heterogeneous in terms of the conclusions. Thus, some studies claim that ammonia has a direct, inhibitory effect on energy metabolism whereas others find no such correlation. In this review, we discuss both recent and older literature related to this controversial topic. We find that it has been consistently reported that hepatic encephalopathy and concomitant hyperammonemia lead to reduced cerebral oxygen consumption. However, this may not be directly linked to an effect of ammonia but related to the fact that hepatic encephalopathy is always associated with reduced brain activity, a condition clearly characterized by a decreased CMRO2. Whether this may be related to changes in GABAergic function remains to be elucidated. PMID:24577633

Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K

2014-12-01

345

Melatonin Regulates Aging and Neurodegeneration through Energy Metabolism, Epigenetics, Autophagy and Circadian Rhythm Pathways  

PubMed Central

Brain aging is linked to certain types of neurodegenerative diseases and identifying new therapeutic targets has become critical. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, associates with molecules and signaling pathways that sense and influence energy metabolism, autophagy, and circadian rhythms, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Forkhead box O (FoxOs), sirtuins and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current understanding of how melatonin, together with molecular, cellular and systemic energy metabolisms, regulates epigenetic processes in the neurons. This information will lead to a greater understanding of molecular epigenetic aging of the brain and anti-aging mechanisms to increase lifespan under healthy conditions. PMID:25247581

Jenwitheesuk, Anorut; Nopparat, Chutikorn; Mukda, Sujira; Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Govitrapong, Piyarat

2014-01-01

346

Comparison of anodic metabolisms in bioelectricity production during treatment of dairy wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cell.  

PubMed

Energy generation from dairy industry wastewater was investigated using a dual chambered Microbial Fuel Cell by aerobic and anaerobic anodic metabolism, operating with initial COD concentration of 1600 mg/L and anolyte pH of 7 produced highest power density of 192, 161 mW/m(2) and volumetric power of 3.2, 2.7 W/m(3) with COD removal efficiency of 91% and 90%, respectively. The columbic efficiency was 3.7-folds lower for aerobic metabolism compared to anaerobic metabolism with 17.17%. Effect of operating parameters such as anolyte pH and COD concentration on MFC performance was also evaluated. Anaerobic metabolism operated with COD concentration of 1600 mg/L and anolyte pH 7 showed best performances. Biofilm formation by inherent microbes of wastewater on anode was visualized by instrumental techniques. Milk processing operation runs almost through the year, hence MFC utilizing dairy industry wastewater would be a sustainable and reliable source of bio-energy generation. PMID:23567709

Elakkiya, E; Matheswaran, Manickam

2013-05-01

347

A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Tetrasphaera are considered to be putative polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Although abundant in Danish full-scale wastewater EBPR plants, how similar their ecophysiology is to 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' is unclear, although they may occupy different ecological niches in EBPR communities. The genomes of four Tetrasphaera isolates (T. australiensis, T. japonica, T. elongata and T. jenkinsii) were sequenced and annotated, and the data used to construct metabolic models. These models incorporate central aspects of carbon and phosphorus metabolism critical to understanding their behavior under the alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions encountered in EBPR systems. Key features of these metabolic pathways were investigated in pure cultures, although poor growth limited their analyses to T. japonica and T. elongata. Based on the models, we propose that under anaerobic conditions the Tetrasphaera-related PAOs take up glucose and ferment this to succinate and other components. They also synthesize glycogen as a storage polymer, using energy generated from the degradation of stored polyphosphate and substrate fermentation. During the aerobic phase, the stored glycogen is catabolized to provide energy for growth and to replenish the intracellular polyphosphate reserves needed for subsequent anaerobic metabolism. They are also able to denitrify. This physiology is markedly different to that displayed by 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis', and reveals Tetrasphaera populations to be unusual and physiologically versatile PAOs carrying out denitrification, fermentation and polyphosphate accumulation. PMID:23178666

Kristiansen, Rikke; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Wimmer, Reinhard; Le, Vang Quy; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J; Calteau, Alexandra; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

2013-03-01

348

Energy metabolism of a thermoacidophilic archaebacterium,Sulfolobus acidocaldarius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To elucidate the phylogenic status of the archaebacterium and mechanisms of acidophily, membrane bound ATPase, cytochromes and NADH dehydrogenase of a thermoacidophilic archaebacterium,Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, were studied. Typea cytochrome was found in the membrane. The organism was sensitive to cyanide and azide, and though cytochromec is lacking in this organism, these respiratory poisons inhibited a terminal oxidase, when assayed with cytochromec from other sources. NADH dehydrogenase was highly purified from the crude extract of the cells. The enzyme was able to transfer electrons from NADH to caldariellaquinone, a unique benzothiophenequinone in the genusSulfolobus. Thus, the enzyme is a possible member of the respiratory chain. Membrane fraction contained two types of ATPase, one was active at neutral pH and slightly activated by sulfate; the other was an acid apyrase and inhibited by sulfate. Typical characteristics of F0F1ATPase could not be found in these enzymes. These results suggest that (1) the thermoacidophilic archaebacteria are phylogenically distant from both eubacteria and eukaryotes, (2) the archaebacterial thermoacidophiles can be classified in a different subgroup from methanogens and extreme halophiles, and (3) in spite of the aerobic nature of the organism, the energy yielding mechanisms appear quite unique, when compared to those of other aerobes and mitochondria.

Wakagi, Takayoshi; Oshima, Tairo

1987-09-01

349

Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. PMID:20184925

Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

2010-05-17

350

Spawning induces a shift in energy metabolism from glucose to lipid in rainbow trout white muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic changes that occur in the white somatic muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to spawning were investigated, and the evenness of their distribution across the ventral-dorsal plane of this muscle was assessed. Four enzymes that are involved in energy metabolism were measured (phosphofructokinase: glycolytic capacity, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase: ß-oxidation, citrate synthase: citric acid cycle, cytochrome oxidase: oxidative capacity).

A. Kiesslingl; L. Larsson; K.-H. Kiessling; P. B. Lutes; T. Storebakken; S. S. S. Hung

1995-01-01

351

Effect of Carnitine Deprivation on Carnitine Homeostasis and Energy Metabolism in Mice with Systemic Carnitine Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs–\\/–) mice lack the activity of the carnitine transporter OCTN2 and are dependent on carnitine substitution. The effects of carnitine deprivation on carnitine homeostasis and energy metabolism are not known in jvs–\\/– mice. Methods: jvs–\\/– mice were studied 3, 6 and 10 days after carnitine deprivation, and compared to jvs–\\/– mice substituted with carnitine, wild-type (jvs+\\/+)

Andrea Caroline Knapp; Liliane Todesco; Michael Török; Konstantin Beier; Stephan Krähenbühl

2008-01-01

352

Consumption of redox energy by glutathione metabolism contributes to hypoxia\\/ reoxygenation-induced injury in astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of glutathione during ischemia\\/reperfusion is still a controversial issue. Glutathione should exert beneficial effects\\u000a in the situation of ischemia\\/reperfusion due to its antioxidative potency. However, increasing survival time after transient\\u000a ischemia and hypoxia has been reported for glutathione depleted cells. This work was aimed to analyse whether glutathione\\u000a metabolism essentially contributes to redox energy failure and subsequent cell

Petr Makarov; Siegfried Kropf; Ingrid Wiswedel; Wolfgang Augustin; Lorenz Schild

2006-01-01

353

Carbohydrate versus Energy Restriction: Effects on Weight Loss, Body Composition and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To compare weight loss, body composition, and metabolic changes in response to carbohydrate versus dietary energy restriction (DER) in obese mice. Methods: One hundred C57BL\\/6 mice were randomized into five groups of 20. The group of high-carbohydrate (HC) mice consumed an HC diet ad libitum and the group of high-fat (HF) mice consumed an HF diet ad libitum for

Elizabeth A. Williams; Susan N. Perkins; Nicole C. P. Smith; Stephen D. Hursting

2007-01-01

354

Characterization of energy conversion based on metabolic flux analysis in mixotrophic liverwort cells, Marchantia polymorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterize the contributions of respiratory and photosynthetic actions to energy conversions, the mixotrophic cells of Marchantia polymorpha were cultivated in the medium containing 10kg\\/m3 glucose as an organic carbon source. The cultures were conducted with the supply of ordinary air (0.03% CO2) at constant incident light intensities of 50 and 180W\\/m2. From the results of metabolic analysis,

Jun-ichi Hata; Qiang Hua; Chen Yang; Kazuyuki Shimizu; Masahito Taya

2000-01-01

355

Predicting Changes of Body Weight, Body Fat, Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Fuel Selection in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed ordinary differential equations representing the dynamics of body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as a function of dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE). The EE model included the cost of tissue deposition, physical activity, diet-induced thermogenesis, and the influence of FM and FFM on metabolic rate. The model was calibrated using previously published data and validated by comparing its predictions to measurements in five groups of male C57/BL6 mice (N?=?30) provided ad libitum access to either chow or high fat diets for varying time periods. The mathematical model accurately predicted the observed body weight and FM changes. Physical activity was predicted to decrease immediately upon switching from the chow to the high fat diet and the model coefficients relating EE to FM and FFM agreed with previous independent estimates. Metabolic fuel selection was predicted to depend on a complex interplay between diet composition, the degree of energy imbalance, and body composition. This is the first validated mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism and it provides a quantitative framework for investigating energy balance relationships in mouse models of obesity and diabetes. PMID:21246038

Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D.

2011-01-01

356

Irradiation Induced Injury Reduces Energy Metabolism in Small Intestine of Tibet Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Background The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) in Tibet minipigs. Methods and Results 30 Tibet minipigs were assigned into 6 groups including 5 experimental groups and one control group with 6 animals each group. The minipigs in these experimental groups were subjected to a TBI of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 Gy, respectively. Small intestine tissues were collected at 24 h following X-ray exposure and analyzed by histology and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA contents in this tissue were also examined. Irradiation causes pathologic lesions and mitochondrial abnormalities. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content-corrected and uncorrected adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) and total adenine nucleotides (TAN) were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 2–8 Gy exposure, and no further reduction was observed over 8 Gy. Conclusion TBI induced injury is highly dependent on the irradiation dosage in small intestine and inversely correlates with the energy metabolism, with its reduction potentially indicating the severity of injury. PMID:23527059

Song, Jun; Guo, Kun-Yuan; Wang, Gang; Wu, Qing-Hong; Gu, Wei-Wang

2013-01-01

357

Glucosylceramide synthase in the fat body controls energy metabolism in Drosophila[S  

PubMed Central

Glucosylceramide synthase (GlcT-1) catalyzes the synthesis of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), the core structure of major glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Obesity is a metabolic disorder caused by an imbalance between energy uptake and expenditure, resulting in excess stored body fat. Recent studies have shown that GSL levels are increased in obese rodents and that pharmacologically reducing GSL levels by inhibiting GlcCer synthesis improves adipocyte function. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these processes is still not clearly understood. Using Drosophila as a model animal, we report that GlcT-1 expression in the fat body, which is equivalent to mammalian adipose tissue, regulates energy metabolism. Overexpression of GlcT-1 increases stored nutrition (triacylglycerol and carbohydrate) levels. Conversely, reduced expression of GlcT-1 in the fat body causes a reduction of fat storage. This regulation occurs, at least in part, through the activation of p38-ATF2 signaling. Furthermore, we found that GlcCer is the sole GSL of the fat body, indicating that regulation of GlcCer synthesis by GlcT-1 in the fat body is responsible for regulating energy homeostasis. Both GlcT-1 and p38-ATF2 signaling are evolutionarily conserved, leading us to propose an evolutionary perspective in which GlcT-1 appears to be one of the key factors that control fat metabolism. PMID:21550991

Kohyama-Koganeya, Ayako; Nabetani, Takuji; Miura, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

2011-01-01

358

Regional cerebral energy metabolism during intravenous anesthesia with etomidate, ketamine or thiopental  

SciTech Connect

Regional brain glucose utilization (rCMRglc) was measured in rats during steady-state levels of intravenous anesthesia to determine if alterations in brain function due to anesthesia could provide information on the mechanisms of anesthesia. Intravenous anesthetics from three different chemical classes were studied: etomidate, ketamine and thiopental. All rCMRglc experiments were conducted in freely moving rats in isolation chambers, with the use of (6-/sup 14/C) glucose and guantitative autoradiography. Etomidate caused a rostral-to-caudal gradient of depression of rCMRglc. The four doses of etomidate did not differ in their effects on energy metabolism. Sub-anesthetic (5 mg kg/sup -1/) and anesthetic (30 mg kg /sup -1/) doses of ketamine produced markedly different patterns of behavior. Brain energy metabolism during the sub-anesthetic dose was stimulated in most regions, while the anesthetic dose selectively stimulated the hippocampus, leaving most brain regions unaffected. Thiopental produced a dose-dependent reduction of rCMRglc in all gray matter regions. No brain region was selectively affected. Comparison of the drug-specific alterations of cerebral energy metabolism suggests these anesthetics do not act through a common mechanism. The hypothesis that each acts by binding to specific cell membrane receptors is consistent with these observations.

Davis, D.W.

1987-01-01

359

Carnosine: can understanding its actions on energy metabolism and protein homeostasis inform its therapeutic potential?  

PubMed Central

The dipeptide carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has contrasting but beneficial effects on cellular activity. It delays cellular senescence and rejuvenates cultured senescent mammalian cells. However, it also inhibits the growth of cultured tumour cells. Based on studies in several organisms, we speculate that carnosine exerts these apparently opposing actions by affecting energy metabolism and/or protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Specific effects on energy metabolism include the dipeptide’s influence on cellular ATP concentrations. Carnosine’s ability to reduce the formation of altered proteins (typically adducts of methylglyoxal) and enhance proteolysis of aberrant polypeptides is indicative of its influence on proteostasis. Furthermore these dual actions might provide a rationale for the use of carnosine in the treatment or prevention of diverse age-related conditions where energy metabolism or proteostasis are compromised. These include cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and the complications of type-2 diabetes (nephropathy, cataracts, stroke and pain), which might all benefit from knowledge of carnosine’s mode of action on human cells. PMID:23442334

2013-01-01

360

Anaerobic digestion in rural China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

Henderson, J.P. [City of Vancouver (Canada)

1997-01-01

361

Metabolic myopathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metabolic myopathies are disorders of muscle energy production that result in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Cardiac and systemic metabolic dysfunction may coexist. Symptoms are often intermittent and provoked by exercise or changes in supply of lipid and carbohydrate fuels. Specific disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in muscle are reviewed. Evaluation often requires provocative exercise testing. These tests may include ischemic forearm exercise, aerobic cycle exercise, and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy with exercise.

Martin, A.; Haller, R. G.; Barohn, R.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

362

Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes  

PubMed Central

Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30) and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells. The data further show that the mitochondria remain functional in Krebs' cycle activity and respiratory electron transfer that enables continued accelerated glycolysis. This may be a common adaptive strategy in cancer cells. PMID:18939998

Fan, Teresa WM; Kucia, Magda; Jankowski, Kacper; Higashi, Richard M; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Marius Z; Lane, Andrew N

2008-01-01

363

Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism  

E-print Network

Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism) and hydrogen (Reimann et al., 1996). Anaerobic fermentative bacteria belonging to the genus Clos- tridia

Johnson, Peter D.

364

Gaseous metabolism of the chicken embryo and hatchling during post-hypoxic recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neonatal mammals, the drop in oxygen consumption (V?O2) during moderate degrees of hypoxia is a manifestation of metabolic depression, and occurs without anaerobic energy compensation. We examined the possibility that embryos also respond to hypoxia with a similar hypometabolic response, by measuring the extent of the O2 debt during post-hypoxic recovery. In chicken embryos at incubation days 11 (E11)

Jacopo P. Mortola; Aaron D. Besterman

2007-01-01

365

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

366

Methyl sulfides as intermediates in the anaerobic oxidation of methane.  

PubMed

While it is clear that microbial consortia containing Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can mediate the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), the interplay between these microorganisms remains unknown. The leading explanation of the AOM metabolism is 'reverse methanogenesis' by which a methanogenesis substrate is produced and transferred between species. Conceptually, the reversal of methanogenesis requires low H(2) concentrations for energetic favourability. We used (13)C-labelled CH(4) as a tracer to test the effects of elevated H(2) pressures on incubations of active AOM sediments from both the Eel River basin and Hydrate Ridge. In the presence of H(2), we observed a minimal reduction in the rate of CH(4) oxidation, and conclude H(2) does not play an interspecies role in AOM. Based on these results, as well as previous work, we propose a new model for substrate transfer in AOM. In this model, methyl sulfides produced by the Archaea from both CH(4) oxidation and CO(2) reduction are transferred to the SRB. Metabolically, CH(4) oxidation provides electrons for the energy-yielding reduction of CO(2) to a methyl group ('methylogenesis'). Methylogenesis is a dominantly reductive pathway utilizing most methanogenesis enzymes in their forward direction. Incubations of seep sediments demonstrate, as would be expected from this model, that methanethiol inhibits AOM and that CO can be substituted for CH(4) as the electron donor for methylogenesis. PMID:17903217

Moran, James J; Beal, Emily J; Vrentas, Jennifer M; Orphan, Victoria J; Freeman, Katherine H; House, Christopher H

2008-01-01

367

Periplasmic Manganese in a Subsurface Bacterium During Anaerobic Growth on Birnessite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subsurface environments, where oxygen is not metabolically available for energy production, bacteria use alternate terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) to respire and grow. Anaerobic TEAs include, but are not limited to, Fe3+ and Mn4+. These metals can be present as mineral phases (e.g., ferrihydrite and hematite in the case of iron; birnessite and pyrolusite in the case of manganese). Bacteria bind strongly to minerals and reduce the metal by a process called dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR). Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of DMR. In previous reports, when this organism was grown on birnessite, we observed cytoplasmic granules of a Mn-rich mineral phase, and an unusual deposition of electron-dense material within the periplasm (that region of the cell located between the inner and outer membranes). In an attempt to characterize the periplasmic precipitates, CN32 was inoculated into an anaerobic defined medium (DM), supplemented with 20 mM Mn (birnessite) and incubated in an anaerobic chamber. Reduced and total Mn concentrations were monitored using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and cell numbers determined by viable counts on trypticase soy agar. TEM, combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), was used to localize and confirm the presence of any Mn-rich depositions. Soluble Mn concentration increased steadily after inoculation, indicating active metabolism and metal reduction by the cells. Viable counts indicated that the cells reached their maximum number on day 9. Stained thin sections from 4-day-old samples examined with TEM showed cells in close association with the mineral. Secondary mineral products derived from birnessite reduction were evident (e.g., manganese phosphate). TEM-EDS also revealed the presence of ~30 nm-thick deposits of electron-dense material in the periplasm of some cells. However, examination of similar sections which had not been previously stained with osmium tetroxide (an oxidizing EM stain), failed to reveal similar periplasmic depositions. We therefore speculate that soluble manganese accumulated within the periplasm of the cells. This pool of soluble manganese was then precipitated upon addition of the oxidizing osmium stain, and appeared as the electron-dense precipitates in stained sections. We believe this is the first report of a pool of soluble manganese accumulating within the periplasm of cells during DMR. At this point, we do not know whether the accumulation is related to the anaerobic metabolism of the cells (i.e., biologically induced), or is simply a passive by-product of their growth on manganese minerals. Further studies are needed to fully investigate this point.

Langley, S.; Glasauer, S.; Beveridge, T.

2002-12-01

368

Pyruvate Formate-Lyase Is Essential for Fumarate-Independent Anaerobic Glycerol Utilization in the Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11  

PubMed Central

Although anaerobic glycerol metabolism in Enterococcus faecalis requires exogenous fumarate for NADH oxidation, E. faecalis strain W11 can metabolize glycerol in the absence of oxygen without exogenous fumarate. In this study, metabolic end product analyses and reporter assays probing the expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism were performed to investigate this fumarate-independent anaerobic metabolism of glycerol in W11. Under aerobic conditions, the metabolic end products of W11 cultured with glycerol were similar to those of W11 cultured with glucose. However, when W11 was cultured anaerobically, most of the glucose was converted to l-lactate, but glycerol was converted to ethanol and formate. During anaerobic culture with glycerol, the expression of the l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1?? genes in W11 was downregulated, whereas the expression of the pyruvate formate-lyase (Pfl) and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase genes was upregulated. These changes in the expression levels caused the change in the composition of end products. A pflB gene disruptant (?pfl mutant) of W11 could barely utilize glycerol under anaerobic conditions, but the growth of the ?pfl mutant cultured with either glucose or dihydroxyacetone (DHA) under anaerobic conditions was the same as that of W11. Glucose metabolism and DHA generates one NADH molecule per pyruvate molecule, whereas glycerol metabolism in the dehydrogenation pathway generates two NADH molecules per pyruvate molecule. These findings demonstrate that NADH generated from anaerobic glycerol metabolism in the absence of fumarate is oxidized through the Pfl-ethanol fermentation pathway. Thus, Pfl is essential to avoid the accumulation of excess NADH during fumarate-independent anaerobic glycerol metabolism. PMID:24769696

Ikegami, Yuki

2014-01-01

369

A link between hepatic glucose production and peripheral energy metabolism via hepatokines  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a deterioration of glucose tolerance, which associates insulin resistance of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and increased endogenous glucose production. Here we report that the specific suppression of hepatic glucose production positively modulates whole-body glucose and energy metabolism. We used mice deficient in liver glucose-6 phosphatase that is mandatory for endogenous glucose production. When they were fed a high fat/high sucrose diet, they resisted the development of diabetes and obesity due to the activation of peripheral glucose metabolism and thermogenesis. This was linked to the secretion of hepatic hormones like fibroblast growth factor 21 and angiopoietin-like factor 6. Interestingly, the deletion of hepatic glucose-6 phosphatase in previously obese and insulin-resistant mice resulted in the rapid restoration of glucose and body weight controls. Therefore, hepatic glucose production is an essential lever for the control of whole-body energy metabolism during the development of obesity and diabetes. PMID:25061558

Abdul-Wahed, Aya; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Casteras, Sylvie; Soty, Maud; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Guillou, Hervé; Tourette, Jean-André; Pleche, Nicolas; Zitoun, Carine; Gri, Blandine; Sardella, Anne; Rajas, Fabienne; Mithieux, Gilles

2014-01-01

370

Host cell metabolic energy is not required for injection of bacteriophage T5 DNA.  

PubMed Central

The addition of various metabolic inhibitors (uncouplers, cyanide, arsenate, ionophores) separately or together (for example, arsenate and an uncoupler) or even harsher methods of energy depletion did not prevent bacteriophage T5 from injecting its first-step-transfer DNA (a DNA segment 3 micron long) into the cytoplasm of host cells. The same indifference to metabolic energy was observed if first-step-transfer DNA was decapsidated and uncoiled before injection, thus precluding any energetic help from the phage capsid or from some tension stored in DNA tightly packed in the head. Penetration of the second-step-transfer DNA across the cytoplasmic membrane was studied by determining injection of superinfecting T5 A2- amber phages into Sup- bacteria containing proteins A1 and A2 previously encoded by the first-step-transfer DNA of a primary wild-type phage. The addition of various metabolic inhibitors after synthesis of proteins A1 and A2 but before superinfection did not prevent this penetration of second-step-transfer DNA. Thus, we conclude that traversal of the cytoplasmic membrane by the entire T5 DNA (a molecule 34 micron long) must occur by diffusion through protein channels. PMID:6336728

Filali Maltouf, A; Labedan, B

1983-01-01

371

Depletion of reduction potential and key energy generation metabolic enzymes underlies tellurite toxicity in Deinococcus radiodurans.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress resistant Deinococcus radiodurans surprisingly exhibited moderate sensitivity to tellurite induced oxidative stress (LD50 = 40 ?M tellurite, 40 min exposure). The organism reduced 70% of 40 ?M potassium tellurite within 5 h. Tellurite exposure significantly modulated cellular redox status. The level of ROS and protein carbonyl contents increased while the cellular reduction potential substantially decreased following tellurite exposure. Cellular thiols levels initially increased (within 30 min) of tellurite exposure but decreased at later time points. At proteome level, tellurite resistance proteins (TerB and TerD), tellurite reducing enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogense subunits E1 and E3), ROS detoxification enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase), and protein folding chaperones (DnaK, EF-Ts, and PPIase) displayed increased abundance in tellurite-stressed cells. However, remarkably decreased levels of key metabolic enzymes (aconitase, transketolase, 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, and beta) involved in carbon and energy metabolism were observed upon tellurite stress. The results demonstrate that depletion of reduction potential in intensive tellurite reduction with impaired energy metabolism lead to tellurite toxicity in D. radiodurans. PMID:25331933

Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Gupta, Alka; Joseph, Daisy; Apte, Shree Kumar

2015-01-01

372

Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg?0.8 d?1) and growth (g kg?0.8 d?1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ?20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

2012-01-01

373

Relating tissue/organ energy expenditure to metabolic fluxes in mouse and human: experimental data integrated with mathematical modeling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mouse models of human diseases are used to study the metabolic and physiological processes leading to altered whole?body energy expenditure (EE), which is the sum of EE of all body organs and tissues. Isotopic techniques, arterio?venous difference of substrates, oxygen, and blood flow measurements can provide essential information to quantify tissue/organ EE and substrate oxidation. To complement and integrate experimental data, quantitative mathematical model analyses have been applied in the design of experiments and evaluation of metabolic fluxes. In this study, a method is presented to quantify the energy expenditure of the main mouse organs using metabolic flux measurements. The metabolic fluxes and substrate utilization of the main metabolic pathways of energy metabolism in the mouse tissue/organ systems and the whole body are quantified using a mathematical model based on mass and energy balances. The model is composed of six organ/tissue compartments: brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, muscle, and adipose tissue. Each tissue/organ is described with a distinct system of metabolic reactions. This model quantifies metabolic and energetic characteristics of mice under overnight fasting conditions. The steady?state mass balances of metabolites and energy balances of carbohydrate and fat are integrated with available experimental data to calculate metabolic fluxes, substrate utilization, and oxygen consumption in each tissue/organ. The model serves as a paradigm for designing experiments with the minimal reliable measurements necessary to quantify tissue/organs fluxes and to quantify the contributions of tissue/organ EE to whole?body EE that cannot be easily determined currently. PMID:25263208

Kummitha, China M.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Saidel, Gerald M.; Lai, Nicola

2014-01-01

374

The Ribosomal Protein-Mdm2-p53 Pathway and Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Cellular growth and division are two fundamental processes that are exquisitely sensitive and responsive to environmental fluctuations. One of the most energetically demanding functions of these processes is ribosome biogenesis, the key component to regulating overall protein synthesis and cell growth. Perturbations to ribosome biogenesis have been demonstrated to induce an acute stress response leading to p53 activation through the inhibition of Mdm2 by a number of ribosomal proteins. The energy status of a cell is a highly dynamic variable that naturally contributes to metabolic fluctuations, which can affect both the rates of ribosome biogenesis and p53 function. This, in turn, determines whether a cell is in an anabolic, growth-promoting state or a catabolic, growth-suppressing state. Here the authors integrate the known functions of p53 to postulate how changes in nutrient availability may induce the ribosomal protein–Mdm2-p53 signaling pathway to modulate p53-dependent metabolic regulation. PMID:21779508

Deisenroth, Chad; Zhang, Yanping

2011-01-01

375

Who controls the ATP supply in cancer cells? Biochemistry lessons to understand cancer energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Applying basic biochemical principles, this review analyzes data that contrasts with the Warburg hypothesis that glycolysis is the exclusive ATP provider in cancer cells. Although disregarded for many years, there is increasing experimental evidence demonstrating that oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) makes a significant contribution to ATP supply in many cancer cell types and under a variety of conditions. Substrates oxidized by normal mitochondria such as amino acids and fatty acids are also avidly consumed by cancer cells. In this regard, the proposal that cancer cells metabolize glutamine for anabolic purposes without the need for a functional respiratory chain and OxPhos is analyzed considering thermodynamic and kinetic aspects for the reductive carboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase. In addition, metabolic control analysis (MCA) studies applied to energy metabolism of cancer cells are reevaluated. Regardless of the experimental/environmental conditions and the rate of lactate production, the flux-control of cancer glycolysis is robust in the sense that it involves the same steps: glucose transport, hexokinase, hexosephosphate isomerase and glycogen degradation, all at the beginning of the pathway; these steps together with phosphofructokinase 1 also control glycolysis in normal cells. The respiratory chain complexes exert significantly higher flux-control on OxPhos in cancer cells than in normal cells. Thus, determination of the contribution of each pathway to ATP supply and/or the flux-control distribution of both pathways in cancer cells is necessary in order to identify differences from normal cells which may lead to the design of rational alternative therapies that selectively target cancer energy metabolism. PMID:24513530

Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Ralph, Stephen J; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara

2014-05-01

376

Anaerobic digestion of crop and waste biomass: Impact of feedstock characteristics on process performance.  

E-print Network

??Anaerobic digestion provides an array of positive environmental benefits such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, replacing mineral fertilizers, producing renewable energy and treating waste. However,… (more)

Ivo Achu, Nges

2012-01-01

377

Coupling energy metabolism with a mechanism to support brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synaptic plasticity and behaviors are likely dependent on the capacity of neurons to meet the energy demands imposed by neuronal activity. We used physical activity, a paradigm intrinsically associated with energy consumption\\/expenditure and cognitive enhancement, to study how energy metabolism interacts with the substrates for neuroplasticity. We found that in an area critical for learning and memory, the hippocampus, exercise

S. Vaynman; Z. Ying; A. Wu; F. Gomez-Pinilla

2006-01-01

378

Gene and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidensis during anaerobic growth with different electron acceptors.  

SciTech Connect

Changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1 during switch from aerobic to fumarate-, Fe(III)-, or nitrate-reducing conditions were examined using DNA microarrays and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In response to changes in growth conditions, 121 of the 691 arrayed genes displayed at least a two-fold difference in transcript abundance as determined by microarray analysis. Genes involved in aerobic respiration encoding cytochrome c and d oxidases and TCA cycle enzymes were repressed under anaerobic conditions. Genes induced during anaerobic respiration included those involved in cofactor biosynthesis and assembly (moaACE, ccmHF, nosD, cysG), substrate transport (cysUP, cysTWA, dcuB), and anaerobic energy metabolism (dmsAB, psrC, pshA, hyaABC, hydA). Transcription of genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (napBHGA), cytochrome c{sub 552}, and prismane was elevated 8- to 56-fold in response to the presence of nitrate, while cymA, ifcA, and frdA were specifically induced three- to eightfold under fumarate-reducing conditions. The mRNA levels for two oxidoreductase-like genes of unknown function and several cell envelope genes involved in multidrug resistance increased two- to fivefold specifically under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Analysis of protein expression profiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 14 protein spots that showed significant differences in abundance on 2-D gels. Protein identification by mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of prismane, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, and alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis protein correlated with the microarray data.

Beliaev, A. S.; Thompson, D. K.; Khare, T.; Lim, H.; Brandt, C. C.; Li, G.; Murray, A. E.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Giometti, C. S.; Yates, J., III; Nealson, K. H.; Tiedje, J. M.; Zhou, J.; Biosciences Division; ORNL; Scripps Research Inst.; Michigan State Univ.; The Inst. for Genomic Research; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; California Inst. of Tech.

2002-01-01

379

Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.  

PubMed

Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs. PMID:24350482

Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

2013-01-01

380

Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

2013-09-01

381

Metabolic ecology.  

PubMed

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

382

Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions  

DOEpatents

The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

2012-01-17

383

Energy metabolism regulates clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes  

PubMed Central

Glucose is a master regulator of cell behavior in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It acts as both a metabolic substrate and a potent regulator of intracellular signaling cascades. Glucose starvation induces the transient delocalization and then partial relocalization of clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Although these localization responses are known to depend on the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, the molecular mechanism of this regulation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKA and the AMP-regulated kinase regulate adaptor localization through changes in energy metabolism. We show that genetic and chemical manipulation of intracellular ATP levels cause corresponding changes in adaptor localization. In permeabilized cells, exogenous ATP is sufficient to induce adaptor localization. Furthermore, we reveal distinct energy-dependent steps in adaptor localization: a step that requires the ADP-ribosylation factor ARF, an ATP-dependent step that requires the phosphatidyl-inositol-4 kinase Pik1, and third ATP-dependent step for which we provide evidence but for which the mechanism is unknown. We propose that these energy-dependent mechanisms precisely synchronize membrane traffic with overall proliferation rates and contribute a crucial aspect of energy conservation during acute glucose starvation. PMID:23345590

Aoh, Quyen L.; Hung, Chao-wei; Duncan, Mara C.

2013-01-01

384

Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-transforming bacteria in strictly anaerobic mixed cultures enriched on RDX as nitrogen source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five obligate anaerobes that were most closely related to Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium butyricum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by their 16S rRNA genes sequences were isolated from enrichment cultures using hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) as a nitrogen source. The above isolates transformed RDX at rates of 24.0, 5.4, 6.2, 2.5, 5.5 ?mol h?1 g (dry weight) of cells?1, respectively, to

Jian-Shen Zhao; Jim Spain; Jalal Hawari

2003-01-01

385

Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts  

PubMed Central

Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host–symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry. PMID:23619306

Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

2013-01-01

386

Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts.  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host-symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry. PMID:23619306

Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

2013-08-01

387

Energy metabolism and biotransformation as endpoints to pre-screen hepatotoxicity using a liver spheroid model  

SciTech Connect

The current study investigated liver spheroid culture as an in vitro model to evaluate the endpoints relevant to the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation after exposure to test toxicants. Mature rat liver spheroids were exposed to diclofenac, galactosamine, isoniazid, paracetamol, m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) and 3-nitroaniline (3-NA) for 24 h. Pyruvate uptake, galactose biotransformation, lactate release and glucose secretion were evaluated after exposure. The results showed that pyruvate uptake and lactate release by mature liver spheroids in culture were maintained at a relatively stable level. These endpoints, together with glucose secretion and galactose biotransformation, were related to and could reflect the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation in hepatocytes. After exposure, all of the test agents significantly reduced glucose secretion, which was shown to be the most sensitive endpoint of those evaluated. Diclofenac, isoniazid, paracetamol and galactosamine reduced lactate release (P < 0.01), but m-DNB increased lactate release (P < 0.01). Diclofenac, isoniazid and paracetamol also reduced pyruvate uptake (P < 0.01), while galactosamine had little discernible effect. Diclofenac, galactosamine, paracetamol and m-DNB also reduced galactose biotransformation (P < 0.01), by contrast, isoniazid did not. The metabolite of m-DNB, 3-NA, which served as a negative control, did not cause significant changes in lactate release, pyruvate uptake or galactose biotransformation. It is concluded that pyruvate uptake, galactose biotransformation, lactate release and glucose secretion can be used as endpoints for evaluating the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation after exposure to test agents using the liver spheroid model to pre-screen hepatotoxicity.

Xu Jinsheng [Centre for Research in Biomedicine, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jinsheng.xu@uwe.ac.uk; Purcell, Wendy M. [Health and Human Sciences Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts (United Kingdom)

2006-10-15

388

Growth factors and taurine protect against excitotoxicity by stabilizing calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Taurine, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are known to control the development of early postnatal cerebellar granule cells. This study attempted to investigate possible mechanisms of this control by determining neuronal survival, calcium homeostasis, and related calcium-mediated functions, as well as the site of action during glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. We report that stimulation of glutamate receptors induced a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and a decrease in mitochondrial energy metabolism. These effects of glutamate were time- and concentration-dependent and could be specifically blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists. Taurine and bFGF but not BDNF differently regulated [Ca(2+)](i), and preserved the mitochondrial energy metabolism in the presence of glutamate. The regulation of [Ca(2+)](i) by bFGF and taurine required pretreatment of cells with these factors. Confocal microscope analysis of [Ca(2+)](i) and (45)Ca(2+) uptake studies showed that bFGF reduced the magnitude of glutamate-induced calcium uptake with no apparent regulation thereafter. Taurine, on the other hand, did not affect the level of calcium uptake induced by glutamate but rather the duration of the maximal response; this maximal response was transient and returned to basal levels approximately 10 min after glutamate receptor stimulation. We conclude from these data that bFGF and taurine prevent glutamate excitotoxicity through regulation of [Ca(2+)](i) and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Furthermore, the neuroprotective role of taurine and bFGF was enhanced by their collaboration. PMID:10531449

El Idrissi, A; Trenkner, E

1999-11-01

389

Energy Status and Metabolism in Intracranial Space Occupying Lesions: A Prospective 31p Spectroscopic Study  

PubMed Central

Aim: Intracranial space occupying lesions can be infective or tumour. There are various advanced Magnetic resonance imaging techniques like perfusion, diffusion and proton spectroscopy which can differentiate between them. However, 31 Phosphorus spectroscopy studies the energy status and the metabolism pattern of various tissues and can be used potentially to differentiate between them depending on their Metabolism pattern. Thus, we aimed to study energy status of various intracranial lesions and try to differentiate between them including grades of gliomas. Materials and Methods: 31PMRS was done in 1.5T MRI in 43 patients prior to surgery or through/via stereo-tactic biopsy, of which 25 were men and 18 women with mean age 41.34 y ranging from 7-71 y. Single voxel phosphorus spectroscopy was done from the solid portion of the lesions and data was analysed and post processed. Results: Study includes Lymphoma (n=6), Grade 1 and 2 glioma (n=5), grade 3 glioma (n=9), grade 4 glioma(n=6), metastases (n=5), tuberculoma (n=7) and pyogenic abscesses (n=5). The integral values of PME, Pi, PDE, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ?-ATP with reference to the position of PCr were calculated along with various ratios. Integral values of Pi and PDE were significantly increased in metastases but decreased in gliomas grade 1-2 compared to other pathologic conditions. Mean integral values of LEP (low energy phosphates) and total phosphates were significantly decreased in gliomas grades 1 and 2 and increased in metastases when compared with other pathologic conditions. PCr /Pi was increased in glioma grades 1, 2 and 3 but decreased in metastases; the significance was observed only in gliomas grade 3 and metastases. Metabolic ratios of PDE/? ATP and Pi/?ATP were decreased in glioma grades 1 and 2 and increased in metastases with statistical significance. Conclusion: 31PMRS may help in differentiating primary from secondary lesions and assess grades of gliomas. PMID:25584283

Peruvumba N, Jayakumar; Shivashankar, Ravishankar

2014-01-01

390

Bone and Energy Metabolism Parameters in Professional Cyclists during the Giro d’Italia 3-Weeks Stage Race  

PubMed Central

Cycling is a not weight-bearing activity and is known to induce bone resorption. Stage races are really strenuous endurance performances affecting the energy homeostasis. The recently highlighted link, in the co-regulation of bone and energy metabolism, demonstrates a central role for the equilibrium between carboxylated and undercarboxylated forms of osteocalcin. Aim of this study was to understand the acute physiological responses to a cycling stage race in terms of bone turnover and energy metabolism and the possible co-regulative mechanisms underlying their relationship. We studied nine professional cyclists engaged in 2011 Giro d’Italia stage race. Pre-analytical and analytical phases tightly followed academic and anti-doping authority’s recommendations. Bone and energy metabolism markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, leptin and adiponectin) and related hormones (cortisol and testosterone) were measured, by Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassays, at days -1 (pre-race), 12 and 22 during the race. The power output and the energy expenditure (mean and accumulated) were derived and correlated with the biochemical indexes. During the race, bone metabolism showed that an unbalance in behalf of resorption, which is enhanced, occurred along with a relative increase in the concentration of the undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin that was indirectly related to the enhanced energy expenditure, through adipokines modifications, with leptin decrease (high energy consumption) and adiponectin increase (optimization of energy expenditure). The exertion due to heavy effort induced a decrease of cortisol, while testosterone levels resulted unchanged. In conclusion, during a 3-weeks stage race, bone metabolism is pushed towards resorption. A possible relationship between the bone and the energy metabolisms is suggested by the relative correlations among absolute and relative concentrations trends of undercarboxylated OC, adipokines concentrations, BMI, fat mass (%), power output and the derived energy expenditure. PMID:22848709

Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Graziani, Rosa; Colombini, Alessandra; Banfi, Giuseppe; Corsetti, Roberto

2012-01-01

391

High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats  

PubMed Central

To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt) deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals. PMID:23451227

Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun

2013-01-01

392

Systems genetics analysis of body weight and energy metabolism traits in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and phenotypic traits associated with this condition exhibit significant heritability in natural populations of most organisms. While a number of genes and genetic pathways have been implicated to play a role in obesity associated traits, the genetic architecture that underlies the natural variation in these traits is largely unknown. Here, we used 40 wild-derived inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster to quantify genetic variation in body weight, the content of three major metabolites (glycogen, triacylglycerol, and glycerol) associated with obesity, and metabolic rate in young flies. We chose these lines because they were previously screened for variation in whole-genome transcript abundance and in several adult life-history traits, including longevity, resistance to starvation stress, chill-coma recovery, mating behavior, and competitive fitness. This enabled us not only to identify candidate genes and transcriptional networks that might explain variation for energy metabolism traits, but also to investigate the genetic interrelationships among energy metabolism, behavioral, and life-history traits that have evolved in natural populations. Results We found significant genetically based variation in all traits. Using a genome-wide association screen for single feature polymorphisms and quantitative trait transcripts, we identified 337, 211, 237, 553, and 152 novel candidate genes associated with body weight, glycogen content, triacylglycerol storage, glycerol levels, and metabolic rate, respectively. Weighted gene co-expression analyses grouped transcripts associated with each trait in significant modules of co-expressed genes and we interpreted these modules in terms of their gene enrichment based on Gene Ontology analysis. Comparison of gene co-expression modules for traits in this study with previously determined modules for life-history traits identified significant modular pleiotropy between glycogen content, body weight, competitive fitness, and starvation resistance. Conclusions Combining a large phenotypic dataset with information on variation in genome wide transcriptional profiles has provided insight into the complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation in traits that have been associated with obesity. Our findings suggest that understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in metabolic traits in natural populations may require that we understand more fully the degree to which these traits are genetically correlated with other traits, especially those directly affecting fitness. PMID:20459830

2010-01-01

393

PHEX Mimetic (SPR4-Peptide) Corrects and Improves HYP and Wild Type Mice Energy-Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Context PHEX or DMP1 mutations cause hypophosphatemic-rickets and altered energy metabolism. PHEX binds to DMP1-ASARM-motif to form a complex with ?5?3 integrin that suppresses FGF23 expression. ASARM-peptides increase FGF23 by disrupting the PHEX-DMP1-Integrin complex. We used a 4.2 kDa peptide (SPR4) that binds to ASARM-peptide/motif to study the DMP1-PHEX interaction and to assess SPR4 for the treatment of energy metabolism defects in HYP and potentially other bone-mineral disorders. Design Subcutaneously transplanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse SPR4-peptide or vehicle (VE) into wild-type mice (WT) and HYP-mice (PHEX mutation) for 4 weeks. Results SPR4 partially corrected HYP mice hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1.25(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23 remained high and PTH was unaffected. WT-SPR4 mice developed hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia with increased PTH, FGF23 and 1.25(OH)2D3. SPR4 increased GAPDH HYP-bone expression 60× and corrected HYP-mice hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. HYP-VE serum uric-acid (UA) levels were reduced and SPR4 infusion suppressed UA levels in WT-mice but not HYP-mice. SPR4 altered leptin, adiponectin, and sympathetic-tone and increased the fat mass/weight ratio for HYP and WT mice. Expression of perlipin-2 a gene involved in obesity was reduced in HYP-VE and WT-SPR4 mice but increased in HYP-SPR4 mice. Also, increased expression of two genes that inhibit insulin-signaling, ENPP1 and ESP, occurred with HYP-VE mice. In contrast, SPR4 reduced expression of both ENPP1 and ESP in WT mice and suppressed ENPP1 in HYP mice. Increased expression of FAM20C and sclerostin occurred with HYP-VE mice. SPR4 suppressed expression of FAM20C and sclerostin in HYP and WT mice. Conclusions ASARM peptides and motifs are physiological substrates for PHEX and modulate osteocyte PHEX-DMP1-?5?3-integrin interactions and thereby FGF23 expression. These interactions also provide a nexus that regulates bone and energy metabolism. SPR4 suppression of sclerostin and/or sequestration of ASARM-peptides improves energy metabolism and may have utility for treating familial rickets, osteoporosis, obesity and diabetes. PMID:24839967

Zelenchuk, Lesya V.; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S. N.

2014-01-01

394

Reduced serum osteocalcin concentrations are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome components in postmenopausal women: the crosstalk between bone and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Although it has been shown that osteocalcin functions as a hormone in the regulation of glucose metabolism and fat mass, no population-based study to date has addressed serum osteocalcin levels in relation to energy metabolism concurrent with bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a population-based study, cardiovascular risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand, osteocalcin, CrossLaps, alkaline phosphatase, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the proximal femur were measured in 382 Iranian postmenopausal women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower osteocalcin and CrossLaps levels were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of having type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjustments were made for age, hs-CRP, cardiovascular risk factors, BMD, and markers of bone metabolism [OR 5.17, CI (2.66-10.04), p < 0.0001 and OR 2.51, CI (1.37-4.61), p = 0.003, respectively]. However, lower alkaline phosphatase levels were associated with a lower OR of having type 2 diabetes mellitus [OR 0.28, CI (0.15-0.52), p < 0.0001] in regression analysis. No significant difference was found between serum osteocalcin levels of those with and without metabolic syndrome. Among the metabolic syndrome components, low osteocalcin levels had significant associations with elevated blood glucose [OR 1.89, CI (1.16-3.07), p = 0.010] and elevated waist circumference [OR 2.53, CI (1.13-5.67), p = 0.024] in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, serum osteocalcin was independently associated with glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity as the components of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. Since CrossLaps and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the unique contribution of osteocalcin in glucose metabolism could not be concluded. PMID:22752126

Movahed, Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Nabipour, Iraj; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammadreza; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Farrokhnia, Maryam; Assadi, Majid; Amirinejad, Roya; Bargahi, Afshar; Sanjdideh, Zahra

2012-11-01

395

Effects of dietary history on energy metabolism and physiological parameters in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Understanding body weight regulation is essential to fight obesity. Mouse studies, using different types of diets, showed conflicting results in terms of body weight persistence after changing from an ad libitum high-fat diet to an ad libitum low-fat diet. In this study, we questioned specifically whether the energy content of the diet has a lasting effect on energy balance and body weight, using multiple switches and two purified diets with a different fat-to-sugar ratio, but otherwise identical ingredients. Young-adult obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were fed single or double switches of semi-purified diets with either 10 energy % (en%) fat (LF) or 40en% fat (HF), with starch replaced by fat, while protein content remained equal. After none, one or two dietary changes, energy metabolism was assessed at 5, 14 and 19 weeks. We observed no systematic continuous compensation in diet and energy intake when returning to LF after HF consumption. Body weight, white adipose tissue mass and histology, serum metabolic parameters, energy expenditure and substrate usage all significantly reflected the current diet intake, independent of dietary changes. This contrasts with studies that used diets with different ingredients and showed persistent effects of dietary history on body weight,