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Sample records for anaerobic odontogenic infections

  1. Treatment of orofacial infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Heimdahl, A; Nord, C E

    1985-01-01

    Acute purulent orofacial infections are often of odontogenic origin. The microorganisms and the anatomical site involved, largely determine the clinical manifestations. The infections are usually self-limiting but serious complications may ensue. Direct invasion of different anatomical spaces may cause mediastinitis, airway obstruction and also intracranial spread. Anaerobic bacteria belonging to the normal oropharyngeal flora (anaerobic cocci, bacteroides and fusobacteria) are usually isolated from orofacial abscesses. Surgical treatment including incision and drainage is essential. The drug of choice for antimicrobial therapy is penicillin. Penicillin resistant anaerobic bacteria may however make penicillin ineffective and antimicrobial agents such as metronidazole or clindamycin are then recommended to be used. PMID:3865348

  2. Evaluation of microbial flora in orofacial space infections of odontogenic origin

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Amod; Dugal, Arun; Kshirsagar, Rajesh; Hariram; Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Background: The microbiology of acute dental infections has been in the midst of many researches. Various bacteriological studies show variations in their conclusion. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the microbial flora in orofacial space infections of odontogenic origin, which is essential for appropriate antibiotic selection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with odontogenic infection causing fascial space involvement were included. Aspirated specimen was transported in nutrient broth and thyoglycollate media within an hour for further culture and sensitivity testing. Result and Conclusion: This study indicates that orofacial odontogenic infections are usually polymicrobial, consisting of a complex mixture of both anaerobes and aerobes. PMID:25937727

  3. Odontogenic infection secondary to Leuconostoc species.

    PubMed Central

    Wenocur, H S; Smith, M A; Vellozzi, E M; Shapiro, J; Isenberg, H D

    1988-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are gaining importance as pathogenic organisms. We present the first case of odontogenic infection caused by Leuconostoc spp. Isolates initially identified as streptococci were found to be vancomycin resistant. Rigorous bacteriologic investigation subsequently classified these organisms as Leuconostoc mesenteroides. PMID:3183032

  4. The management of odontogenic infections. A rationale for appropriate chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baker, K A; Fotos, P G

    1994-10-01

    Odontogenic infections are one of the most frequently occurring infectious processes known to health practice. Significant changes have occurred in the use of antibiotics and antimicrobials since the use of chemotherapeutic agents became widespread. This article provides some important considerations for selecting appropriate chemotherapeutic agents during the management of odontogenic infections. PMID:7805942

  5. Mediastinitis secondary to an odontogenic infection. A case report.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Kouros; Lazow, Stewart K; Berger, Julius R

    2003-12-01

    Infectious mediastinitis of odontogenic etiology is a rare occurrence in the United States. The mortality associated with descending necrotizing mediastinitis is estimated at 40% to 50%, even with advances made in management of such serious infections. The early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of odontogenic infections has made this entity relatively obsolete, but we have not been able to eliminate the disease process altogether. We report on a case that was managed successfully, albeit with a long, protracted course. PMID:14974190

  6. A Case of Thrombocytopenia due to Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Verma, Dinesh; Rajan, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in surgical patients is a potentially serious condition,faced by surgeons. A close relationship between sepsis and thrombocytopenia has been suggested. Thrombocytopenia has even been suggested to be indicative of an acute infection. Platelet count in a septicemic patient may also serve as a prognostic tool. There are many reports of thrombocy-topenia due to septicemia in the literature but the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in maxillofacial infections is rare. Thrombocytopenia in a patient with odontogenic infection presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. A case report of an adult male patient with odontogenic infection, who developed life-threatening thrombocytopenia, is presented. PMID:22991625

  7. Suspect Odontogenic Infection Etiology for Canine Lymphoplasmacytic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Stepaniuk, Kevin S; Gingerich, Wade

    2015-01-01

    The role of odontogenic infection as an etiology for lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs was evaluated. An association between odontogenic infection and inflammatory rhinitis was identified in 55% of cases evaluated. Odontogenic infection was unlikely or undetermined in 10% and 35% of the cases, respectively. Cases of lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis had roentgen signs associated with endodontic disease, periodontal disease, or retained tooth roots in 60%, 45%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. A collaborative team based approach assessing inflammatory nasal disease is recommended. Based on the history and signalment of the individual patient, diagnostic modalities should be chosen wisely. In some cases, oral examination and intraoral radiographs may be a more direct and cost effective approach for diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory rhinitis. PMID:26197687

  8. Actinomyces Colonization in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an anaerobic infection that involves the craniofacial region and its colonization has rarely been reported in the developmental odontogenic cysts. In the present report, a case of odontogenic keratocyst (which is now called keratocystic odontogenic tumor) with the colonization of actinomyces is introduced and its significance is discussed.  PMID:26046110

  9. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly encountered anaerobic organisms associated with PJI. Since anaerobic PJI has also been linked to dental procedures, we also reviewed information on the use of dental procedures and prophylaxis, when available. PMID:26341272

  10. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  11. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  12. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  13. Deep Neck Infection and Descending Mediastinitis as a Complication of Propionibacterium acnes Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Refaely, Yael; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which causes numerous types of infections. Isolated Propionibacterium acnes deep neck infections are very rare. We present an interesting case of deep neck infection complicated by descending mediastinitis of isolated Propionibacterium acnes infection. PMID:26693363

  14. Deep Neck Infection and Descending Mediastinitis as a Complication of Propionibacterium acnes Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Refaely, Yael; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which causes numerous types of infections. Isolated Propionibacterium acnes deep neck infections are very rare. We present an interesting case of deep neck infection complicated by descending mediastinitis of isolated Propionibacterium acnes infection. PMID:26693363

  15. Lemierre's syndrome from odontogenic infection: Review of the literature and case description

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Dani; Rachmiel, Adi; Levy-Faber, Dan; Emodi, Omri

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare potentially fatal sequel of head and neck infection, classically described as thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with cervical space infection extending into the thorax. Our objective was to answer the clinical question: “Does Lemierre syndrome (LS) from odontogenic infection differ from nonodontogenic LS in regard to clinical sequence, treatment, and survival.” We reviewed the literature on the management of LS over the last two decades, with a focus on LS from odontogenic infection. Such a case is presented in order to portray the clinical sequence. Only 10 cases met the inclusion criteria (including the case presented). The recorded data were analyzed in comparison to large case series reviewing LS. Our data reflect the moderate differences in regard to IJV thrombosis and bacteriogram. There is an overall rise in published LS cases in the last 20 years. Odontogenic infection leading to LS is scarce, yet with survival rates similar to nonodontogenic LS. Repeated surgical interventions and aggressive wide spectrum antibiotic therapy remain the treatment of choice. PMID:26981474

  16. A comparative analysis of odontogenic maxillofacial infections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: an institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Shetye, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is an outcome of evolution. Most patients presenting with odontogenic space infections also have associated systemic co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus resulting in impaired host defense. The present study aims to compare the odontogenic spaces involved, antibiotic susceptibility of microorganisms, length of hospital stay, and the infl uence of systemic comorbidities on treatment outcome in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods A 2-year prospective study from January 2012 to January 2014 was conducted on patients with odontogenic maxillofacial space infections. The patients were divided into two groups based on their glycemic levels. The data were compiled and statistically analyzed. Results A total of 188 patients were included in the study that underwent surgical incision and drainage, removal of infection source, specimen collection for culture-sensitivity, and evaluation of diabetic status. Sixty-one out of 188 patients were found to be diabetic. The submandibular space was the most commonly involved space, and the most prevalent microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae in diabetics and group D Streptococcus in the nondiabetic group. Conclusion The submandibular space was found to be the most commonly involved space, irrespective of glycemic control. Empiric antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metronidazole with optimal glycemic control and surgical drainage of infection led to resolution of infection in diabetic as well as nondiabetic patients. The average length of hospital stay was found to be relatively longer in diabetic individuals. PMID:26339575

  17. Efficiency of Empirically Administered Antibiotics in Patients with Cervical Infections of Odontogenic Origin

    PubMed Central

    JUNCAR, MIHAI; ONI?OR-GLIGOR, FLORIN; BRAN, SIMION; JUNCAR, RALUCA-IULIA; B?CIU?, MIHAELA-FELICIA; DUMITRA?CU, DINU-IULIU; B?CIU?, GRIGORE; MOLDOVAN, IULIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic infections are among the main types of disorders located in the cephalic extremity. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of empirically administered antibiotics on the bacterial strains identified at the infection sites. Patients and method. The study included 10 randomly selected patients with odontogenic cervical soft tissue infections, who received antibiotic treatment prescribed by the family doctor or the dentist. The bacterial flora involved in the development of the septic process, the type of antibiotic administered to the patient and the sensitivity of the identified bacterial flora to the administered antibiotic were determined. Results. In the 10 selected patients, 14 bacterial strains were detected; 7 patients had a single bacterial strain, and 3 patients had two or three types of bacteria. Of the administered antibiotics, amoxicillin was the most widely used (33.3% of the cases), followed by amoxicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitors (25% of the cases). In half of the patients, there was no sensitivity of the bacteria detected in the septic focus to the empirically administered antibiotic, and in 10% of the cases, partial sensitivity was evidenced. Conclusions. Empirical administration of antibiotics without the association of surgery did not prove to be effective in the treatment of cervical infections of odontogenic origin. PMID:26528050

  18. Spectrum and treatment of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobes, the antimicrobial chosen should provide for adequate coverage of both. The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobes are: metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline, cefoxitin and clindamycin. PMID:26620376

  19. A fatal case of descending necrotizing mediastinitis as a complication of odontogenic infection. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Bogumi?; Wo?ek, Wojciech; Jednakiewicz, Mariusz; Nicpo?, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 26-year-old female patient in whom descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) developed as a complication of an odontogenic purulent infection of the mouth. Despite the efforts of a multidisciplinary treatment team, the patient died with symptoms of septic shock and multiple organ failure. According to the literature, and as confirmed by our own observations, successful treatment requires early tomographic diagnosis, radical surgery, combination antibiotic therapy, and intensive care. PMID:26336443

  20. Occurrence of odontogenic infections in patients treated in a postgraduation program on maxillofacial surgery and traumatology.

    PubMed

    Saito, Celia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Gulinelli, Jessica Lemos; Marão, Heloisa Fonseca; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; Filho, Osvaldo Magro; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and characteristics of oral and maxillofacial infections in patients treated at a Brazilian oral and maxillofacial emergency service during a 7-year period. The clinical files of all patients treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology Service of the Araçatuba Dental School, São Paulo State University, Brazil, between 2002 and 2008 were reviewed. From a population of 3645 patients treated in this period, the study sample consisted of 93 subjects who presented odontogenic infections. Data referring to the patients' sex, age, medical history, and the etiology, diagnosis, complications, drug therapy/treatment, and evolution of the pathologic diseases were collected and analyzed using the Epi Info 2000 software. Of these patients, 54 were men (58.1%) and 39 were women (41.9%). Most patients were in the 31- to 40-year-old (20.7%) and 21- to 30-year-old (19.6%) age groups. The most frequent etiology was pulp necrosis due to caries (80.6%). Regarding the treatment, antibiotics were administered to all patients, surgical drainage was done in 75 patients (82.4%), and 44 patients (47.3%) needed hospital admission. First-generation cephalosporin alone or combined with other drugs was the most prescribed antibiotic (n = 26) followed by penicillin G (n = 25). Most patients (n = 85, 91.4%) responded well to the treatment. Five cases had complications: 3 patients needed hospital readmission, 1 case progressed to descending mediastinitis, and 1 patient died. Odontogenic infections can be life-threatening and require hospital admission for adequate patient care. Complications from odontogenic infections, although rare, may be fatal if not properly managed. PMID:21959414

  1. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    PubMed Central

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A. S. Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  2. Odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L

    1999-11-01

    The odontogenic fibroma is a rare tumor that has generated controversy, perhaps disproportionately to its importance in the family of odontogenic tumors. The clinical and radiographic features are well documented but the histologic aspects have generated controversy. The behavior is benign, and published accounts indicate a low recurrence rate following treatment by curettage. The tumor recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) is the legitimate odontogenic fibroma. Histologic variants include the granular cell type and the hybrid odontogenic fibroma giant cell-like tumor. Although the extraosseous "peripheral" odontogenic fibroma presents as a gingival enlargement clinically indistinguishable from other gingival lesions, its histomorphology is similar to the central tumor. A normal dental follicle around the crown of an unerupted tooth may histologically mimic the odontogenic fibroma and other odontogenic tumors. PMID:10587271

  3. Bilateral septic cavernous sinus thrombosis following the masticator and parapharyngeal space infection from the odontogenic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kiddee, Weerawat; Preechawai, Passorn; Hirunpat, Siriporn

    2010-09-01

    Neglect of odontogenic infections can have serious consequences. If they spread through fascial planes and intracranially they can cause an abscess, orbital cellulitis, and eventually cavernous sinus thrombosis. The authors report a case of rapid progressive bilateral orbital cellulitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis that originated from dental caries. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is a medical emergency. Early recognition and prompt treatments direct to the underlying sources of infection are crucial. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality from this lethal condition. Management should be based on early diagnosis and prompt management with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical intervention. PMID:20873087

  4. Joint and bone infections due to anaerobic bacteria in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    The current review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacteria in children. Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae type-b, and Group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Kingela kingae, Neisseria meningiditis and Salmonella spp are the predominant aerobic bacteria that cause arthritis in children. Gonococcal arthritis can occur in sexually active adolescents. The predominant aerobes causing osteomyelitis in children are S. aureus, H. influenzae type-b, Gram-negative enteric bacteria, beta-hemolytic streptococci, S. pneumoniae, K. kingae, Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi. Anaerobes have rarely been reported as a cause of these infections in children. The main anaerobes in arthritis include anaerobic Gram negative bacilli including Bacteroides fragilis group, Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. Most of the cases of anaerobic arthritis, in contrast to anaerobic osteomyelitis, involved a single isolate. Most of the cases of anaerobic arthritis are secondary to hematogenous spread. Many patients with osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacteria have evidence of anaerobic infection elsewhere in the body, which is the source of the organisms involved in osteomyelitis. Treatment of arthritis and osteomyelitis involving anaerobic bacteria includes symptomatic therapy, immobilization in some cases, adequate drainage of purulent material and antibiotic therapy effective to these organisms. PMID:12396847

  5. Anaerobes in genitourinary infections in men.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Duerden, B I

    1983-01-01

    Urethral and sub-preputial swabs from 150 men were examined. There was a strong association between the isolation of anaerobic bacteria, particularly Bacteroides spp, and a clinical diagnosis of balanoposthitis, non-specific urethritis (NSU), or both. Aerobic bacteria formed the predominant flora in 28 healthy controls whereas anaerobes were predominant in specimens from 79 patients with balanoposthitis, from 24 with NSU, and from 19 with both. Bacteroides spp were the commonest isolates in all patient groups; B asaccharolyticus, B melaninogenicus ss intermedius, B ureolyticus, and B bivius were the most common species. The results obtained with the two swabs were identical except that Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated from the urethral swab only in five patients. PMID:6871653

  6. Meningitis and shunt infection caused by anaerobic bacteria in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-02-01

    This review describes the microbiology and management of meningitis and shunt infections caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. The predominant anaerobes recovered in meningitis are Bacteriodes spp., Bacteriodes fragilis, Fusobacterium spp., and Clostridium spp. Peptostreptococcus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Propionibacterium acnes, and Eubacterium are less commonly isolated. The predisposing conditions for meningitis are acute or chronic middle-ear infection, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and pulmonary infections. In newborn and preterm infants the predisposing conditions are rupture of membranes, amnionitis, fetal distress, necrotizing enterocolitis, gastric perforation and subsequent ileus followed by bacteremia, aspiration pneumonitis and septicemia, infected ventriculoperitoneal or ventriculoatrial shunt, and complicating dermal sinus tract infections. Shunt infection with Propionibacterium spp. has been reported in children, especially in association with ventriculoauricular and ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Clostridium perfringens has been recovered from infants with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Multiple-organism meningitis was reported as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal and lumboperitoneal shunts that perforated the gastrointestinal tract. Early recognition and effective therapy are essential to recovery. Management of meningitis includes the use of antimicrobials effective against anaerobes that penetrate the blood-brain barrier. These include metronidazole, chloramphenicol, the combination of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor, and carbapenems. The treatment of shunt infection includes antimicrobial therapy and removal of the shunt. PMID:11897473

  7. Odontogenic infection involving the secondary fascial space in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Je-Shin; Yoo, Kil-Hwa; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Ha, Jiwon; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk; Park, Hong-Ju; Ryu, Sun-Youl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus on the prognosis in secondary space infection. Materials and Methods Medical records, radiographic images, computed tomography, and microbial studies of 51 patients (25 diabetic patients and 26 non-diabetic patients) were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed as secondary fascial space infections with odontogenic origin and underwent treatment at Chonnam National University Hospital, in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, from January 2007 to February 2009. Results Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were presented with the following characteristics: older age (diabetic patients: 62.9 years, non-diabetic patients, 47.8 years), more spaces involved (diabetic patients, 60%; non-diabetic patients, 27.3%), more intense treatment, longer hospitalization (diabetic patients, 28.9 days; non-diabetic patients, 15.4 days), higher white blood cell and C-reactive protein values, higher incidence of complication (diabetic patients, 40%; non-diabetic patients, 7.7%), and distinctive main causative microorganisms. Conclusion These results suggest that the prognosis of diabetic patients is poorer than that of non-diabetic patients in secondary space infections since they had greater incidence rates of involved spaces, abnormal hematologic findings, more complications, and additional procedures, such as tracheostomy. PMID:24471039

  8. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  9. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  10. Cerebral Abscess Potentially of Odontogenic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hadj Hassine, Marouene; Oualha, Lamia; Derbel, Amine; Douki, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic origins are rarely implicated in the formation of brain abscesses. The relative paucity of this kind of infection and the difficulty in matching the causative microorganisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source can explain the late management of patients. We herein describe a case of a 46-year-old man with a cerebellar abscess that was probably due to an odontogenic infection. The diagnosis supported by imaging and microscopic identification, mini craniectomy for abscess drainage followed by eradication of all potential dental infectious foci, and an antibiotic regimen based on cephalosporins, metronidazole, and vancomycine contributed to a successful outcome. PMID:25705523

  11. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M.; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. PMID:26770859

  12. Moxifloxacin versus Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone in the management of odontogenic maxillofacial infectious processes: A preliminary, intrahospital, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arámbula, Hansel; Hidalgo-Hurtado, Antonio; Rodríguez-Flores, Rosaura; González-Amaro, Ana-María; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the days of hospitalization length between patients treated with Moxifloxacin with that of patients treated with a Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination and additionally, to isolate and identify the oral pathogens involved in orofacial odontogenic infections. Material and Methods A pilot-controlled-clinical-trial was carried out on hospitalized patients with cervicofacial odontogenic abscesses or cellulitis, who were randomly asigned to two study groups: 1) patients who received Moxifloxacin, and 2) patients receiving Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination. Infiltrate samples were collected through transdermic or transmucosal punction and later cultured on a media specific for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Mean hospitalization duration in days until hospital discharge and susceptibility assessment in rates were established. Results Mean hospitalization time in days of patients treated with Moxifloxacin was 7.0 ± 1.6 days, while in the Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone group, this was 8.4 ± 1.8 days, although significant difference could not be demonstrated (p=0.074). A total of 43 strains were isolated, all of these Gram-positive. These strains appeared to be highly sensitive to Moxifloxacin (97.5%) and Ceftriaxone (92.5%). Conclusions Moxifloxacin and Ceftriaxone appear to be potential convenient and rational alternatives to traditional antibiotics, for treating severe odontogenic infections, in conjunction with surgical extraoral incision, debridement, and drainage. Key words:Orofacial odontogenic infections, antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26644841

  13. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  14. Midline maxillary odontogenic keratocyst.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Julie T; Steger, Jamie; Sorensen, Douglas

    2004-09-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts are odontogenic cysts of the jaw, usually the mandible. We present a recurrent case in the maxilla. Immunohistochemical staining is necessary to distinguish the entity from other cystic lesions of the jaw, and aggressive surgical management is required. PMID:15453523

  15. Enhancement of Experimental Anaerobic Infections by Blood, Hemoglobin, and Hemostatic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Gale B.

    1978-01-01

    Certain foreign materials have been demonstrated to enhance the infectivity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Whole blood and other protein compounds encountered in surgical settings or trauma were tested for their effect on infectivity of nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. Infectious synergistic mixtures of Bacteroides fragilis plus Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides melaninogenicus plus Fusobacterium necrophorum were each diluted to a barely noninfectious or minimally infectious concentration (subinfective inoculum) that was injected intraperitoneally into mice alone and in combination with test proteins. Infectivity was measured by deaths from sepsis or abscess(es) within the abdominal cavity at autopsy at 1 week. Two hemostatic agents, Gelfoam powder and Avitene (final concentrations, 10 mg/ml), and crystalline hemoglobin (4 g/100 ml) each produced a marked increase (P < 0.001) in the rate of infection when mixed with a normally subinfective inoculum of either bacterial mixture. Fresh homologous mouse blood (0.25 ml) injected intraperitoneally without anticoagulant also significantly enhanced infectivity (P < 0.01) of a subinfective inoculum of B. fragilis plus P. anaerobius. These studies demonstrated the capacity of whole blood, hemoglobin, and hemostatic agents to enhance the infectivity of certain nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. The high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria in the gastrointestinal, female genital, and respiratory tracts produce an increased risk of human infection after surgery or trauma in these sites; the protein agents studied here may further enhance infection. PMID:631883

  16. Central odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; de Moraes, Maiara; Neto, Antonio Capistrano; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas

    2011-12-01

    Odontogenic fibroma (OF) is a benign odontogenic tumor characterized by various amounts of odontogenic epithelium in a mature fibrous stroma. Two variants can be distinguished: an intraosseous or central OF (COF) and an extraosseous or peripheral. The intraosseous variant is an extremely rare tumor that presents clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic variable findings. A thorough review of the English literature revealed 78 cases of COF so far. Thus, we report an additional case of COF occurring in the maxilla of a 36-year-old woman. In addition, we performed a brief description and discussion of the cases reported in the maxilla and mandible. PMID:20971024

  17. Microbiology of Odontogenic Bacteremia: beyond Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Parahitiyawa, N. B.; Jin, L. J.; Leung, W. K.; Yam, W. C.; Samaranayake, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The human gingival niche is a unique microbial habitat. In this habitat, biofilm organisms exist in harmony, attached to either enamel or cemental surfaces of the tooth as well as to the crevicular epithelium, subjacent to a rich vascular plexus underneath. Due to this extraordinary anatomical juxtaposition, plaque biofilm bacteria have a ready portal of ingress into the systemic circulation in both health and disease. Yet the frequency, magnitude, and etiology of bacteremias due to oral origin and the consequent end organ infections are not clear and have not recently been evaluated. In this comprehensive review, we address the available literature on triggering events, incidence, and diversity of odontogenic bacteremias. The nature of the infective agents and end organ infections (other than endocarditis) is also described, with an emphasis on the challenge of establishing the link between odontogenic infections and related systemic, focal infections. PMID:19136433

  18. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Daley, T D; Wysocki, G P

    1994-09-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma is characterized by a fibrous or fibromyxomatous proliferation that contains varying amounts of odontogenic or presumed odontogenic epithelium. It has been considered a rare gingival neoplasm that, because of a lack of follow-up information in most reported cases, has had an unknown biologic behavior. Clinical data from this study indicate that the lesion is more common than previously reported and that it has a significant recurrence rate. Light and electron microscopic data reveal a relatively broad spectrum of epithelial and mesenchymal components, including a rare granular cell type. Because the presence of both epithelial and mesenchymal elements are required for its diagnosis, the lesion is logically classified as a mixed epithelial/mesenchymal odontogenic tumor, rather than a purely mesenchymal tumor. PMID:7970594

  19. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A; Ficarra, G; Hansen, L S

    1987-10-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) is an uncommon lesion of the gingiva; 18 well-documented cases have been published. It is considered to be the extraosseous counterpart of the central odontogenic fibroma. Because of the paucity of reported cases, the full histomorphologic spectrum of this lesion has not yet been established. This article presents nine cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma that illustrate the variety of its histopathologic findings. The connective tissue ranged from loose (almost myxomatous) to markedly cellular to relatively acellular and well-collagenized. Islands and/or strands of odontogenic epithelium were present in all lesions. Matrix of mineralized material was present in three cases, and juxtaepithelial hyalinization was seen in one case. To avoid the introduction of additional diagnostic terms, we suggest that all these lesions be considered a spectrum of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type). We also suggest that the term WHO type be used to distinguish peripheral odontogenic fibromas from the peripheral ossifying fibroma with which they have often been confused. PMID:3477764

  20. Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

  1. A rare benign odontogenic neoplasm: peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sasidhar V; Medikonda, Suresh Kumar; Konda, Amarnath; Natta, Sreelakshmi

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a relatively rare, benign, unencapsulated and gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue, considered to be the extraosseous counterpart of the central odontogenic fibroma. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma was earlier quite commonly confused with peripheral ossifying fibroma, until WHO classification (1992), classified it under odontogenic tumours. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is seen so infrequently that little is known about this neoplasm; the largest series of cases have been that of Farman who found five cases in the literature and added another 10 cases. Through this case report we try to clarify the features of this condition and attempt to clear its distinction with other commonly occurring conditions. PMID:24920510

  2. [Benign epithelial odontogenic tumors].

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Jundt, G

    2008-05-01

    The group of benign epithelial odontogenic tumors consists of the four member types of the ameloblastoma family (solid/multicystic, extraosseous/peripheral, desmoplastic, unicystic), squamous odontogenic tumors, calcifying odontogenic tumors, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors, the former "keratocysts" that were recently reclassified by the World Health Organization and are now regarded as tumors. The latter are by far the most frequent tumors in this group, followed by solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Although the etiology of these lesions is still unknown, a close relationship to normal tooth development is obvious, which is partially imitated by some tumors. Despite some similarities to each other, at least in part, the biological behavior of these lesions is quite different, as are treatment modalities. The diagnosis is essentially based on localization (intraosseous vs. extraosseous/peripheral) and histology, whereupon the correlation of histological findings with radiographic morphology may be of additional diagnostic value. Because of the range of variation, immunohistochemical investigations are not helpful in diagnosing a particular case. PMID:18389236

  3. Extrafollicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Guru; Nair, Preeti; Thomas, Shaji; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Neha; Bhambal, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is an uncommon, benign tumour that represents 3–7% of all odontogenic tumours. It is slow growing, occurs twice as common in females and usually in the second decade of life. There are three subclinical types of this tumour with identical histology: follicular type (73%), extrafollicular variant (24%) and peripheral form (3%). Here, the authors have presented two rare cases of extrafollicular varieties of AOT in 25-year-old female patients, of which one was situated in the maxillary canine area and the other one situated in an unusual location of mandibular premolar area. Such lesions may be confused as an odontogenic cyst and should be carefully differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions arising in this region. PMID:22693275

  4. Maxillary adenomatoid odontogenic tumour.

    PubMed

    Barodiya, Animesh; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Vyawahare, Saket

    2013-01-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a benign, slow-growing, relatively rare oral tumour, which accounts for about 3-7% of all odontogenic tumours as reported in the literature. It is an unusual benign neoplasm which shares clinical and radiographical characteristics with odontogenic cystic lesions denoting a distinct behaviour. The three variants-follicular, extrafollicular and peripheral-present with identical histological findings. This report describes a patient with an AOT in the anterior maxilla. Radiographically, the lesion was characterised by a well circumscribed unilocular radiolucent area displacing left maxillary lateral incisor, canine and first premolars. The final diagnosis was AOT. The lesion was enucleated under local anaesthesia. The patient was followed-up for one year. This paper also provides a refresher for general dental practitioners about various diagnostic aspects of this tumour and highlights the controversies regarding its origin and management in the light of recent findings. PMID:23771977

  5. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  6. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  7. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, G; Kavitha, B; Saraswathi, T R; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2008-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in the jaws. OM commonly occurs in the second and third decade, and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. A case of OM of the maxilla with unusual radiographic and histologic features is described in a 30-year-old male. A panoramic radiograph revealed a well-demarcated, multilocular radiolucent lesion with 'tennis racket' appearance involving maxillary antrum. The histopathology showed loosely arranged spindle-shaped stellate cells and few areas of inactive odontogenic epithelium in a mucoid intercellular substance. PMID:18245926

  8. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

    2013-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

  9. The identification of gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from clinical infections.

    PubMed Central

    Duerden, B. I.

    1980-01-01

    Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from specimens submitted to the routine diagnostic bacteriology laboratory and regarded as significant pathogens were identified by conventional bacteriological tests; 399 strains isolated from 356 specimens submitted from 332 patients were studied and most were readily identified by the results of a combined set of morphological, biochemical, tolerance and antibiotic disk resistance tests; B. fragilis has particular pathogenic potential and was the commonest species isolated, accounting for greater than 50% of strains. The next commonest was B. asaccharolyticus with 55 strains, and 16 other species or groups were represented by smaller numbers. Many (68%) were from infections related to the gastro-intestinal tract, but there were significant numbers from infections of the male and female genito-urinary tracts, the head, neck and central nervous system and from a variety of soft tissue infections. Most infections were mixed, and a pure culture of a Bacteroides sp. was obtained from only 26% of infections; two or more strains of Bacteroides were recovered from 55 infections. The specific identification of Bacteroides may help the bacteriologist to judge the significance of laboratory findings, influence the patient's management and prognosis and help determine the source of infection. PMID:6987300

  10. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, followed by ... In most cases, the bacteria are resistant to penicillin drugs. If an abscess has formed, it may ...

  11. Peripheral granular cell odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Rinaggio, Joseph; Cleveland, Deborah; Koshy, Ranie; Gallante, Albert; Mirani, Neena

    2007-11-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare lesion that arises on the gingiva and can clinically mimic a variety of reactive lesions, benign neoplasms, and metastases. We describe a symptomatic lesion arising on the mandibular gingiva of a 58-year-old female with no history of trauma or dental disease in the area. An excisional biopsy showed the lesional stroma to contain numerous polyhedral granular cells with occasional interspersed islands of inactive odontogenic epithelium. We believe this to represent the fourth case of peripheral granular cell odontogenic fibroma to be reported in detail in the literature. PMID:17223586

  12. Bone and joint infections due to anaerobic bacteria: an analysis of 61 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Walter, G; Vernier, M; Pinelli, P O; Million, M; Coulange, M; Seng, P; Stein, A

    2014-08-01

    The diagnosis of anaerobic bone and joint infections (BJI) were underestimated before the advent of molecular identification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We report 61 cases of anaerobic infections based on our 4-year experience with the management of BJI. A total of 75% of cases were post-surgical infections, associated with osteosynthesis devices (65%). Early infections occurred in 27% of cases, delayed infections in 17.5% of cases, and late infections in 55% of cases. We recorded 36 species of 93 anaerobic strains using MALDI-TOF MS (91) and molecular methods (2). We identified 20 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 13 of Finegoldia magna, six of Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, and six of P. harei. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 50 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in 93.5% of cases. The antibiotic treatments included amoxicillin (30%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), metronidazole (30%), and clindamycin (26%). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in 17 cases (28%). The relapse rate (27%) was associated with lower limbs localization (p = 0.001). P. acnes BJI was associated with shoulder (p = 0.019), vertebra (p = 0.021), and head flap localization (p = 0.011), and none of these cases relapsed (p = 0.007). F. magna BJI was associated with ankle localization (p = 0.014). Anaerobic BJI is typically considered as a post-surgical polymicrobial infection, and the management of this infection combines surgical and medical treatments. MALDI-TOF MS and molecular identification have improved diagnosis. Thus, physicians should be aware of the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic BJI to establish immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the post-surgical period until accurate microbiological results have been obtained. PMID:24577953

  13. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma with clear cell odontogenic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Siar, C H; NG, K H

    1995-01-01

    The clinical and histological features of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma are briefly outlined. A case arising from the attached lingual gingiva between the mandibular right permanent first molar and the second molar in a 67 year old Indian female is reported here. The unusual occurrence of marked clear cell differentiation within the odontogenic epithelial component, and histogenetic link to the clear cell rests of the dental lamina and surface epithelium are discussed. PMID:9227094

  14. Dominant obligate anaerobes revealed in lower respiratory tract infection in horses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

    2014-04-01

    Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152

  15. Dominant Obligate Anaerobes Revealed in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Horses by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    KINOSHITA, Yuta; NIWA, Hidekazu; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari; HARIU, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella—especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica—are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152

  16. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 ?g/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 ?g/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 ?g/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm activity revealed significant results--MICB50 lay between 7.8 and 62.5 ?g/mL, and dehydroabietic acid prevented all the evaluated bacteria from forming a biofilm. Hence, the chemical constituents of P. elliottii are promising biomolecules to develop novel therapeutic strategies to fight against endodontic infections. PMID:25270831

  17. Report of Two Cases of Combined Odontogenic Tumors: Ameloblastoma with Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastic Fibroma with Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Ashley Nicole; Montague, Lindsay; Cohen, Donald; Islam, Nadim; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2015-09-01

    Combined odontogenic neoplasms have rarely been documented. Such tumors have also been described by other researchers as "hybrid" lesions. The histologic features are often identical to other individually well-established odontogenic neoplasms such as ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma (AF), and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Their clinical presentation is variable, ranging from cysts to neoplasms showing varying degrees of aggressive behavior. Most combined tumors contain features of one of the odontogenic tumors in combination with either a calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) or a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor. We present two new cases of combined odontogenic tumors: an ameloblastoma with an odontogenic keratocyst and an AF with COC. Predicting clinical outcome is challenging when a combination tumor is encountered due to the paucity of such lesions. One must understand salient features of these entities and differentiate them from the more common conventional neoplasms to expand classification and provide prognostic criteria. PMID:25552434

  18. Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

  19. Giant odontogenic fibroma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Baser, Brajendra; Kinger, Arvind; Mitra, Geeti V; Roy, Manya Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic fibroma is a benign ectomesenchymal tumor classified as central and peripheral on the basis of its location and as an epithelium rich or epithelium poor based on its histological features. Radiological findings consist of radiolucent areas with well-defined bony margins. The lesion is detected early because of its location and usually treated with surgical excision and curettage. We present a case of giant odontogenic fibroma of right maxilla presenting as gross facial deformity and posing a dual challenge of excising the tumor mass and reconstructing the ensuing defect. PMID:25593878

  20. Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shraddha; Nagpure, Prakash S; Singh, Roohie; Garg, Deepika

    2008-07-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp. The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting. PMID:19561990

  1. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of Simple Type

    PubMed Central

    Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha V.; Amudala, Rajesh; Yanadi, Prashanthi; Rahamthullah, S. A. K. Uroof; Botu, Meeramma

    2014-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an extremely rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth resembling dentigerous cyst. In this report, a 10-year-old male patient is presented, who was diagnosed with central odontogenic fibroma of simple type from clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. PMID:25506436

  2. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Amrutha, N

    2013-12-01

    Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of proteins that may be formed due to infections or genetic disorders. Asteroid body is one such inclusion that is eosinophilic and spider like that are usually found in infections like sarcoidosis and sporotrichosis. Inclusions are usually pathognomonic of certain diseases and conditions, navigating the pathologist to arrive at a diagnosis. But, here we report an unusual finding of an asteroid body encountered in an inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Amrutha N. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):131-3 . PMID:24453458

  3. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Amrutha, N

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of proteins that may be formed due to infections or genetic disorders. Asteroid body is one such inclusion that is eosinophilic and spider like that are usually found in infections like sarcoidosis and sporotrichosis. Inclusions are usually pathognomonic of certain diseases and conditions, navigating the pathologist to arrive at a diagnosis. But, here we report an unusual finding of an asteroid body encountered in an inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Amrutha N. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):131-3 . PMID:24453458

  4. Specific character of anaerobic bacterial infections in patients treated in transplantation wards at one of the clinical hospitals in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska, M; Majewska, A; Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Mlynarczyk, A; Chmura, A; Durlik, M; Deborska-Materkowska, D; Paczek, L; Mlynarczyk, G

    2014-10-01

    Immunocompromised patients and patients undergoing invasive procedures are predisposed to bacterial infections, due to the possibility of micro-organism translocation from their physiological habitat. Infectious complications may occur both in the early and late post-transplantation periods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion as well as susceptibility profiles of obligatory anaerobes in the etiology of infections in patients hospitalized at transplantation wards of a large clinical hospital in Warsaw. A total of 104 strains of obligatory anaerobes derived from patients hospitalized in two transplantation clinics at a clinical hospital in Warsaw were evaluated. The strains were isolated from 87 clinical samples collected from 84 patients of two transplantation wards between 2007 and 2012. A total of 104 obligatory anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated and identified, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria constituting 60.6% and 39.4% of the isolates, respectively. Almost exclusively non-spore-forming anaerobes were detected in evaluated samples. The present study showed all isolated Gram-positive bacteria to be susceptible to ß-lactam antibiotics. Metronidazole-resistant bacteria were found among the genera Propionibacterium and Actinomyces. All Gram-negative rods were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. Among them, Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis showed resistance to penicillin G (100%). Because of their pathogenicity and altered antibiotic susceptibility profiles, the bacteria of the genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides are of greatest clinical importance. Approximately 25% of isolates exhibit also resistance to clindamycin. Because of the growing rates of clindamycin resistance, the role of metronidazole in the treatment of Bacteroides spp. is of increasing importance. PMID:25380872

  5. Odontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, fibroosseous, and giant cell lesions of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Regezi, Joseph A

    2002-03-01

    Odontogenic cysts that can be problematic because of recurrence and/or aggressive growth include odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), calcifying odontogenic cyst, and the recently described glandular odontogenic cyst. The OKC has significant growth capacity and recurrence potential and is occasionally indicative of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. There is also an orthokeratinized variant, the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, which is less aggressive and is not syndrome associated. Ghost cell keratinization, which typifies the calcifying odontogenic cyst, can be seen in solid lesions that have now been designated odontogenic ghost cell tumor. The glandular odontogenic cyst contains mucous cells and ductlike structures that may mimic central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Several odontogenic tumors may provide diagnostic challenges, particularly the cystic ameloblastoma. Identification of this frequently underdiagnosed cystic tumor often comes after one or more recurrences and a destructive course. Other difficult lesions include malignant ameloblastomas, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, squamous odontogenic tumor, and clear-cell odontogenic tumor. Histologic identification of myxofibrous lesions of the jaws (odontogenic myxoma, odontogenic fibroma, desmoplastic fibroma) is necessary to avoid the diagnostic pitfall of overdiagnosis of similar-appearing follicular sacs and dental pulps. Fibroosseous lesions of the jaws show considerable microscopic overlap and include fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, periapical cementoosseous dysplasia, and low-grade chronic osteomyelitis. The term fibrous dysplasia is probably overused in general practice and should be reserved for the rare lesion that presents as a large, expansile, diffuse opacity of children and young adults. The need to use clinicopathologic correlation in assessing these lesions is of particular importance. Central giant cell granuloma is a relatively common jaw lesion of young adults that has an unpredictable behavior. Microscopic diagnosis is relatively straightforward; however, this lesion continues to be somewhat controversial because of its disputed classification (reactive versus neoplastic) and because of its management (surgical versus. medical). Its relationship to giant cell tumor of long bone remains undetermined. PMID:11904346

  6. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A

    1989-04-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) is a relatively rare, benign, unencapsulated, exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue. Odontogenic epithelium is found within the gingival mass, but usually appears to play a minor role when compared to the fibrous component. According to the present concept, cases reported in the literature under the terms "odontogenic gingival epithelial harmartoma" "hamartoma of the dental lamina" and "peripheral ameloblastic fibrodentinoma" are actually examples of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Review of the literature revealed only 30 acceptable cases that fit the present concept of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Because of the paucity of reported cases, the histomorphological spectrum and the clinical features of this lesion have not yet been fully established. This article presents five new cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The connective tissue ranged from markedly cellular to relatively acellular well collagenized. Islands and strands of epithelium were present in all five cases: in four they were scanty and in one abundant. A matrix of mineralized material was present in four cases. The peripheral odontogenic fibroma must be differentiated histologically from peripheral ossifying fibroma, which is a reactive lesion, and from the peripheral ameloblastoma and the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. PMID:2651484

  7. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction. PMID:25013415

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Anila; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Nellithady, Ganesh Shreekanth; Krishnapillai, Rekha; Prabhu, Sudeendra

    2014-01-01

    Calretinin is expressed primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system and extensively studied in colon adenocarcinoma and mesotheliomas. Calretinin is known to be expressed in the odontogenic epithelium and odontogenic tumors. However, the role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors is yet to be confirmed. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and role of calretinin in selected odontogenic tumors. The study included 30 ameloblastomas, 30 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, and 30 keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Staining intensity, pattern, and localization of the immunopositive cells were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results showed that 90% ameloblastomas and 80% keratocystic odontogenic tumors were immunopositive to calretinin, whereas none of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors showed reactivity. Intensity was higher in the ameloblastomas compared with the keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Statistically significant differences were observed when the expression of calretinin was compared, except between the ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. However, the intensity of calretinin was significantly higher in the ameloblastoma when compared with the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that calretinin might be used as a specific immunohistochemical marker for the ameloblastomas and could play an important role in the differentiation of aggressiveness of different odontogenic tumors. Depending on the cell regulatory processes, we suggest a possible role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas and have to be further studied along with other proliferative cell cycle and apoptotic markers with larger sample size. PMID:25046230

  9. Pediatric Odontogenic Cysts of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Arce, Kevin; Streff, Christopher S; Ettinger, Kyle S

    2016-02-01

    Odontogenic cysts represent a common form of pathology of the jaws, and the natural history, clinicopathologic findings, and appropriate management strategies are important to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Odontogenic cysts in the pediatric populations are important pathologic entities given their potential impact on the growth and development of the maxillofacial complex. Inappropriate management strategies can severely affect the form and function of the growing child. Categorizing pediatric odontogenic cysts into inflammatory or developmental causes provides a convenient way of conceptualizing these various entities and helps facilitate the appropriate diagnosis and the subsequent management. PMID:26614698

  10. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: an uncommonly overviewed lesion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carolina Amália Barcellos; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Moraes, Paulo de Camargo; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2013-05-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is considered a gingival tumor characterized by a proliferation of relatively cellular fibrous or fibromyxomatous connective tissue which exhibits variable amounts of odontogenic epithelium and sometimes foci of calcification in the form of dentinoid, cementicles, or bone. It is considered the extraosseous counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. This lesion usually is presented as a focal swelling in the gingiva, occurring in a wide age range, and the anterior region of the gingiva is the most frequent anatomic site. Conservative local excision is the treatment frequently adopted and its recurrence rate varies widely, and its biologic behavior is still unknown. In this study, the authors discuss 3 cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and present their clinical and histopathological features and management. PMID:23714966

  11. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions. PMID:26155575

  12. [Hyalin substance in odontogenic cysts. Histological observations].

    PubMed

    Palattella, G; Minarchi, C; Ruggeri, B; Massi, C; Palattella, A

    1989-05-15

    The odontogenic cysts contain the hyaline deposits in 69.2%. The hyaline deposits appear as a zone that was continuous with basament membrane or as an irregular deposit within the connective tissue. PMID:2484170

  13. Diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, M; Matsuzaki, H; Yanagi, Y; Hara, M; Katase, N; Hisatomi, M; Unetsubo, T; Konouchi, H; Nagatsuka, H; Asaumi, J-I

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours. Materials and methods: 51 patients with odontogenic tumours were subjected to pre-operative MRI examinations. For tumours with liquid components, i.e. ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), the signal intensity (SI) uniformity of their cystic components (U?) was calculated and then their U? values were compared. For tumours with solid components that had been examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), their CImax (maximum contrast index), Tmax (the time when CImax occurred), CIpeak (CImax?×?0.90), Tpeak (the time when CIpeak occurred) and CI300 (i.e. the CI observed at 300?s after contrast medium injection) values were determined from CI curves. We then classified the odontogenic tumours according to their DCE-MRI parameters. Results: Significant differences between the U? values of the ameloblastomas and KCOT were observed on T1 weighted images, T2 weighted images and short TI inversion recovery images. Depending on their DCE-MRI parameters, we classified the odontogenic tumours into the following five types: Type A, CIpeak?>?2.0 and Tpeak??2.0 and Tmax??2.0 and Tmax?>?600?s; Type E, CI300??600?s. Conclusion: Cystic component SI uniformity was found to be useful for differentiating between ameloblastomas and KCOT. However, the DCE-MRI parameters of odontogenic tumours, except for odontogenic fibromas and odontogenic myxomas, contributed little to their differential diagnosis. PMID:23468124

  14. Disseminated necrotic mediastinitis spread from odontogenic abscess: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Filiaci, Fabio; Riccardi, Emiliano; Mitro, Valeria; Piombino, Pasquale; Rinna, Claudio; Agrillo, Alessandro; Ungari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims Deep neck infections are rare but potentially fatal complication of pulpal abscess of the teeth. If an infection can progress rapidly from a toothache to a life threatening infection, then it is critical that dentists be able to recognize the danger signs and identify the patients who are at risk. Mediastinitis is a severe inflammatory process involving the connective tissues that fills the intracellular spaces and surrounds the organs in the middle of the chest. This pathology has both an acute and a chronic form and, in most cases, it has an infectious etiology. This study want to expose the experience acquired in the Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences Department, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, regarding two clinical cases of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis starting from an odontogenic abscess. Methods We report two clinical cases of disseminated necrotic mediastinitis with two different medical and surgical approaches. The radiographic and photographic documentation of the patients was collected in the pre-and post-operatively. All patients underwent a CT scan and MRI. Results Mediastinitis can result from a serious odontogenic abscess, and the extent of its inflammation process must be never underestimated. Dental surgeons play a key role as a correct diagnosis can prevent further increasing of the inflammation process. Conclusions A late diagnosis and an inadequate draining represent the major causes of the elevated mortality rate of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:26330907

  15. Odontogenic keratocyst mimicking paradental cyst.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola; Rizza, Federica; Re, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

  16. Microbiological analysis of infected root canals from symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with periapical periodontitis and the antimicrobial susceptibility of some isolated anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, R C; Gomes, B P F A; Ferraz, C C R; Zaia, A A; Filho, F J Souza

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the composition of the bacterial flora isolated from infected root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis with the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, and to test the antibiotic susceptibility of five anaerobic bacteria mostly commonly found in the root canals of symptomatic teeth against various substances using the E-test. Microbial samples were taken from 48 root canals, 29 symptomatic and 19 asymptomatic, using adequate techniques. A total of 218 cultivable isolates were recovered from 48 different microbial species and 19 different genera. Root canals from symptomatic teeth harbored more obligate anaerobes and a bigger number of bacterial species than the asymptomatic teeth. More than 70% of the bacterial isolates were strict anaerobes. Statistical analysis used a Pearson Chi-squared test or a one-sided Fisher's Exact test as appropriate. Suggested relationships were found between specific microorganisms, especially gram-negative anaerobes, and the presence of spontaneous or previous pain, tenderness to percussion, pain on palpation and swelling amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate and cephaclor were effective against all the strains tested. The lowest susceptibility rate was presented by Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens against Penicillin G. Our results suggested that specific bacteria are associated with endodontic symptoms of infected teeth with periapical periodontitis and the majority of the anaerobic bacterial species tested were susceptible to all antibiotics studied. PMID:12930519

  17. [The results of treatment of chronic prostatitis on the background of anaerobic bacterial and fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Zabkowski, T; Peterek, J; Stawarz, B; Bejm, J; Sulik, M; Ba?cer, M

    1999-01-01

    More than 25% of patients who declare indisposition of the urinary tract suffer from prostate infection. Progress in the medical treatment of this type of infection has been achieved largely due to the introduction of new sorts of antibiotics and development of modern diagnostic methods. The aim of the study is to determine the causes of prostate infections. A bacteriological examination of the prostate secretion in 28 patients after "per rectum" massage were conducted in the Urology Clinic of the Central Clinical Hospital of Military Academy in Warsaw from March 1995 to September 1997. All the patients had previously undergone medical treatment and long-term pharmacotherapy. A high percentage of fungal infections as well as the increased occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis have been observed. PMID:10628269

  18. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  19. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monali; Kale, Hemant; Ranginwala, Amena; Patel, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst of jaws with a relative frequency between 0.012 and 1.3%. GOC is very rare and only 111 cases have been documented in the English literature so far. Generally, this cyst is encountered in the anterior areas of the mandible and is more common with a wide age range, the mean age being 49.5 years and has a tendency to recur. GOC is often misdiagnosed because of its overlapping histopathological features with that of other odontogenic cysts such as lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) or botryoid cyst and central low-grade Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of GOC is challenging for pathologist. Here, we present a case of GOC in a 40 year old male patient in left mandibular region that crossed the midline. PMID:24959044

  20. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of amelogenins in odontogenic epithelial tumours and cysts.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Yamada, K; Kasai, T; Yamada, T; Shimokawa, H; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Amelogenins, enamel proteins in odontogenic tumours, were detected immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody. They were strongly expressed in amyloid-like material, ghost cells, and the cells surrounding ghost cells of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts, whereas calcified bodies within the tumours and cysts showed negative staining. The expression of amelogenins was also positive in tumour cells of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, squamous odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic fibroma. Peripheral tumour cells of the follicular ameloblastoma were positive with relatively intense staining. Undifferentiated or flattened tumour cells of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour and non-keratinized tumour cells of the squamous odontogenic tumour showed marked staining. Reduced ameloblasts in the odontoma displayed the strongest staining for amelogenins. The study suggests that biosynthesis of amelogenins may occur in the homogeneous materials of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts. PMID:2024453

  2. Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC. PMID:24082717

  3. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Stavan; Vakkas, John; Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF), an extraosseous variant of the central odontogenic fibroma, is considered an uncommon benign gingival lesion with a small recurrence rate. Clinically, it mimics a variety of benign neoplasms, metastases and reactive lesions, but it is most commonly confused with the peripheral ossifying fibroma. In this report, we describe a healthy 32-year-old male who was seen with a recurrent POF of the right maxilla. The surgical excision site was repaired using a free palatal graft, leading to a favorable outcome in an esthetic region of the oral cavity. PMID:21894830

  4. Spondylodiscitis due to anaerobic bacteria about a case of Parvimonas micra infection.

    PubMed

    Pilmis, B; Israel, J; Le Monnier, A; Mizrahi, A

    2015-08-01

    Parvimonas micra is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We report a case of spondylodiscitis caused by P. micra, a rarely reported Gram positive cocci. The case was an elderly patient with joint surgery and ischaemic heart disease history. Infection resolved after adequate antibiotic therapy. PMID:26067839

  5. A rare case of hybrid odontogenic tumor: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor combined with ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwan, Vijay; Sharma, Preeti; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. Nevertheless, such tumors have been reported in the literature for academic and research interest. However, it is still obscure whether they behave as a new entity or they solely present separate histopathologic patterns. Here, we present a true hybrid neoplasm of combined ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor showing intermixed histopathologic patterns of both the tumors. PMID:26604514

  6. Biochemical and Cytological Comparison of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours to Nonkeratinising Odontogenic Cysts Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pushparaj; Patidar, Nitesh; Mittal, Sugandh; Singh, Hanspal; Chethna

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the levels of albumin, prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and presence of keratinocytes in the cystic fluid for the diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning of keratocystic odontogenic tumours and other non keratinizing odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods Fifteen keratocystic odontogenic tumour and 15 controls were studied. The cystic fluid was aspirated and analysed to determine the levels of albumin, prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and the presence of keratinocytes. The data collected was statistically evaluated using Mann Whitney U-Test and Student’s t-test. Results A highly significant difference (p<0.0001) was seen when a comparison of Prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and presence of keratinocytes was made between keratocystic odontogenic tumour and non keratinizing odontogenic cysts. The presence of albumin also showed a significant difference (p<0.01). Conclusion A combined analysis of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, inorganic phosphorous and detection of epithelial squames may be used as a diagnostic adjunct in the preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a minimally invasive and highly accurate fashion. PMID:26393202

  7. Odontogenic fibroma, including amyloid and ossifying variants.

    PubMed

    Eversole, Lewis R

    2011-12-01

    Sixty-five cases of odontogenic fibroma (OdonF) are herein presented having been segregated into peripheral, extra bony tumors (n = 40) and tumors arising in bone or centrally (n = 25). All cases were characterized microscopically by a fibrous proliferation that varied within and between cases in cellularity and collagen fibril diameter, with intermixed odontogenic epithelial islands and cords. All central lesions presented as well demarcated radiolucencies and resorption of contiguous tooth roots was a common finding. These intraosseous lesions were of the WHO type; the so-called nonWHO type was excluded as all lesions with this diagnosis were devoid of an epithelial component and could be reclassified as other soft tissue fibrogenic tumors. Neither the central tumors nor the peripheral lesions recurred following enucleation/curettage, with a mean follow-up of 4 and 3.4 years respectively. Three distinct microscopic variations were encountered in this series: (1) two cases of OdonF with giant cell reaction, (2) two instances of OdonF with ossifying fibroma; and (3) four instances of OdonF with odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), an amyloid-like protein found deposited adjacent to epithelial cords plus CD1a+/S-100+ Langerhans dendritic cells entwined around the epithelial element. A single instance of the odontogenic fibroma-like hamartoma/enamel hypoplasia syndrome has been included in this series. PMID:21751042

  8. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions. PMID:25587387

  9. Surgical and prosthetic management of maxillary odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Haroon; Bashir, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are uncommon tumors of comprising of 3% of all the tumors of odontogenic origin. They usually occur during the second and third decades of life and are more commonly seen in females. The current case report sheds light upon the surgical treatment of a myxoma of odontogenic origin in posterior maxilla of a young female patient. Prosthodontic rehabilitation stages are also briefly described following complete healing of the lesion after surgery. PMID:26038664

  10. Amelogenin in odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Anigol, Praveen; Kamath, Venkatesh V.; Satelur, Krishnanand; Anand, Nagaraja; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amelogenins are the major enamel proteins that play a major role in the biomineralization and structural organization of enamel. Aberrations of enamel-related proteins are thought to be involved in oncogenesis of odontogenic epithelium. The expression of amelogenin is possibly an indicator of differentiation of epithelial cells in the odontogenic lesions. Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to observe the expression of amelogenin immunohistochemically in various odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Paraffin sections of 40 odontogenic lesions were stained immunohistochemically with amelogenin antibodies. The positivity, pattern and intensity of expression of the amelogenin antibody were assessed, graded and statistically compared between groups of odontogenic cysts and tumors. Results: Almost all the odontogenic lesions expressed amelogenin in the epithelial component with the exception of an ameloblastic carcinoma. Differing grades of intensity and pattern were seen between the cysts and tumors. Intensity of expression was uniformly prominent in all odontogenic lesions with hard tissue formation. Statistical analysis however did not indicate significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The expression of amelogenin antibody is ubiquitous in odontogenic tissues and can be used as a definitive marker for identification of odontogenic epithelium. PMID:25937729

  11. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

    2013-01-01

    The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position. PMID:24396609

  12. Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

    2013-09-01

    Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

  13. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  14. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R; Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-07-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  15. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  16. Central odontogenic fibroma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    El Harti, Karima; Oujilal, Abdelilah; El Wady, Wafaa

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an uncommon tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors; it has been defined as a benign neoplasm of the jaw. Clinically, the lesion grows slowly and leads to cortical expansion. Radiologically, the most common finding is multilocular radiolucency. The lesions are associated with the crown of an unerupted molar, premolar, or incisor tooth and in some cases, with root resorption or displacement. Histologically, the lesion is characterized by mature collagen fibers and numerous fibroblasts. COF responds well to surgical enucleation with no tendency for malignancy or recurrence. We report a case of a 15-year-old female patient presented with painless swelling of the left side of the maxilla since her childhood. Radiographs revealed an expanding ill-defined radiolucency with a displacement of the adjacent tooth. The impacted tooth was pushed posteriorly. The lesion was removed surgically. There were no postoperative complications. PMID:26752885

  17. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, K; Kumar, Senthil; Vijayasamundeeswari; Vigneswari, Srivel

    2012-04-01

    Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed. PMID:22919236

  18. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    de Villiers Slabbert, H; Altini, M

    1991-07-01

    The clinicopathologic features of 30 cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma are reviewed. The age distribution is wide (11 to 76 years), and there is a slight predilection for males. The majority of the lesions (93%) occurred in blacks on the attached gingiva, and with equal frequency in the maxilla and mandible. Size varied between 1 and 3 cm in diameter. One case recurred after 14 months. Histologically, the lesions are nonencapsulated and poorly delineated. The amount of odontogenic epithelium varies considerably and consists usually of small islands or strands, although larger follicles are sometimes present. In one case the epithelial cells had a clear cytoplasm, whereas in another it was granular and eosinophilic. Origin from the surface oral mucosa can sometimes be seen. The connective tissue component is usually cellular, but collagenous, myxomatous, and mixed forms occur. Calcifications were present in 22 cases and consisted of tissue interpreted as either dentinoid, cementum, bone, or dystrophic calcific material. PMID:1891248

  19. Multiple orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Liang, Hui; Wright, John; Teenier, Tom

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the clinical, radiographic, pathological and molecular findings of the first case of multiple orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOCs). Multiple odontogenic keratocysts are one of the major features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), and loss of heterozygosity in the PTCH gene, the culprit gene for NBCCS, has recently been found in sporadic OOC cases. Therefore, in this presenting case, we also investigated the possibility that this patient might also have NBCCS, by comparing the available clinical information and the molecular findings of this case to the diagnostic criteria for NBCCS (as proposed by the First International Colloquium on NBCCS in 2011). However, this patient with multiple OOCs showed no evidence of having NBCCS. This conclusion supports the findings from previous case series based on sporadic cases that OOC does not appear to be associated with NBCCS. PMID:24737103

  20. [Spontaneous bone regeneration following ceratocystic odontogenic tumor].

    PubMed

    Kroll, T; Streckbein, P; Kähling, C; Wittekindt, C; Sharma, S J; Klußmann, J P; Litzlbauer, D

    2016-01-01

    A patient presents with a keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the left maxillary sinus. In computed tomography scans, extensive pressure-induced osseous atrophy of the sinus walls is detected. Endoscopic cystectomy of the tumour was performed, with subsequent clinical follow-up. A second computed tomography scan revealed almost complete regeneration of the sinus walls. Where spontaneous regeneration of osseous structures is possible, restraint should be exercised when assessing indications for bony reconstruction during initial conservative surgery such as enucleation. PMID:26169211

  1. Epithelial odontogenic tumours in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K M; Denholm, L J; Cooper, B J

    1987-09-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumours are uncommon, poorly understood and often difficult to diagnose, oral neoplasms. Dental organ pre-ameloblasts and basal lamina induce development of mesenchymal cells into odontoblasts, which produce dentin and induce pre-ameloblasts to mature into secretory ameloblasts. These reciprocal sequential inductive interactions between dental epithelium and mesenchyme form the basis for classifying epithelial odontogenic tumours. There are three tumours classified as non-inductive: ameloblastoma characterized by cords and islands of stellate reticulum with peripheral palisades of polarized columnar cells, adenomatoid ameloblastoma which has acini, rosettes and ducts of polarized columnar cells and stellate reticulum and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour which contains foci of Congo-red-positive material surrounded by pleomorphic polygonal epithelial cells. There are five tumours in which induction of mesenchymal tissue is evident: ameloblastic fibroma with characteristics of ameloblastoma plus proliferation of closely associated pulp-like mesenchyme; dentinoma consisting of masses of dentin, often with minimal cellular component; ameloblastic odontoma which contains palisaded epithelium and stellate reticulum as in ameloblastoma, as well as foci of dentin and/or enamel; complex odontoma which is a disorderly array of dentin, enamel, ameloblastic epithelium and odontoblasts; and compound odontoma containing denticles with well-organized tooth morphology. This paper reviews the embryogenesis of teeth and describes six types of epithelial odontogenic tumours in 13 animals. The literature concerning these tumours in nearly 250 animals is reviewed. The most commonly reported tumour is ameloblastoma and the species in which all types are most commonly reported is the dog. PMID:3316314

  2. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma with chondroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sen, R; Kalra, K

    1996-10-01

    An unusual case of peripheral odontogenic fibroma, presenting as a swelling on gingiva involving hard palate in a 3-year-old female child, is described. Even with cellular stroma and unencapsulation these tumors behave in a benign fashion. To the best of our knowledge, cartilagenous differentiation of stroma as observed in this case has not been reported in English literature so far. PMID:9009488

  3. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Mandible: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Ankur; Kaur, Gursheen; Sood, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst. It is a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling, usually affecting middle aged men and has tendency to reoccur. Here, we report a case of GOC in the anterior portion of mandible diagnosed by histopathology. PMID:26813085

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of P63 expression in odontogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Eini, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (P = 0.86). Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells. PMID:24350278

  5. Small central odontogenic fibroma mimicking hyperplastic dental follicle and dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Freire-Maia, Belini; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2014-09-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma has been defined as a benign odontogenic tumor, representing the intraosseous counterpart of a peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The odontogenic fibroma is a rare tumor. Differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions in the molar-premolar region of mandible which involve impacted tooth may include central odontogenic fibroma, hyperplastic dental follicle, dentigerous cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. We describe an example of a small central odontogenic fibroma mimicking hyperplastic dental follicle and dentigerous cyst, resulting in uneruption of a primary tooth. PMID:25018609

  6. Molecular and genetic aspects of odontogenic tumors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kavita; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Fareed, Wamiq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors contain a heterogeneous collection of lesions that are categorized from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of inconstant aggressiveness. Odontogenic tumors are usually extraordinary with assessed frequency of short of 0.5 cases/100,000 population for every year. The lesions such as odontogenic tumors are inferred from the components of the tooth-structuring contraption. They are discovered solely inside the maxillary and mandibular bones. This audit speaks to experiences and cooperation of the molecular and genetic variations connected to the development and movement of odontogenic tumors which incorporate oncogenes, tumor-silencer genes, APC gene, retinoblastoma genes, DNA repair genes, onco-viruses, development components, telomerase, cell cycle controllers, apoptosis-related elements, and regulators/conttrollers of tooth development. The reasonable and better understanding of the molecular components may prompt new ideas for their detection and administrating a better prognosis of odontogenic tumors. PMID:26221475

  7. Extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: An uncommon variant.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Navin; Sah, Kunal; Chandra, Sunira; Gupta, Suchitra; Mittal, Shaksham; Agarwal, Mansi

    2013-07-01

    Odontogenic cysts comprise a diverse group of exceptional lesions derived from epithelial elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a rare odontogenic lesion, which represents about 2% of all odontogenic tumors and cysts. It may occur in a central (intraosseous) or peripheral (extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor [ECCOT]) location. ECCOT in contrast to central, tends to affect the older patients, commonly located in the anterior lower jaw, is less aggressive and the recurrence is rare. Here, we report clinico-pathological and radiographic features of ECCOT located in relation to 48 (posterior lower jaw) measuring about 1 cm in the greatest diameter in a 17-year-old male. PMID:24665187

  8. Peripheral odontogenic tumours--differential diagnosis in gingival lesions.

    PubMed

    Manor, Y; Mardinger, O; Katz, J; Taicher, S; Hirshberg, A

    2004-04-01

    Peripheral odontogenic tumours (POT) are rare benign focal overgrowths of the oral soft tissue, usually occurring in the gingiva. Between 1996-2000, 6 out of 406 excised gingival lesions were diagnosed as POT (1.5%). Tumours included peripheral odontogenic fibroma (2 patients), peripheral calcifying odontogenic cyst (2 patients), peripheral ameloblastoma (1 patient), and peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (1 patient). Review of the literature reveals that peripheral odontogenic fibroma and peripheral ameloblastoma were the most common POT. The purpose of this article was to analyse the clinical data of these tumours according to the presented cases and the literature review, to elucidate typical features of each tumour type and enhance easy identification. PMID:15287310

  9. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Baiju, C S; Rohatgi, Sumidha

    2011-07-01

    Odontogenic tumors mainly occur as intraosseous growths but sometimes may present in a peripheral location on the gingiva where they are referred to as peripheral odontogenic tumors (POTs) which are a rare entity, the most common of them being the peripheral odontogenic fibroma that is an otherwise uncommon, slowly growing, benign odontogenic neoplasm of the periodontal soft tissues. In fact, peripheral odontogenic fibroma is the only POT that is more frequent than its central counterpart. Although considered to be with a potential to recur after excision, the actual recurrence rate is not known due to paucity of literature. This paper presents a case report along with review of the available literature and reinforces the importance of patient follow-up in addition to radiographic and histological examination of seemingly innocuous gingival exophytic lesions. PMID:22028517

  10. Epithelial expression of SHH signaling pathway in odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xin-Ming; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Ming-Wen; Chen, Zhi

    2006-04-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway plays a critical role in tooth development. Recent studies indicate that SHH signaling pathway activation occurs both in the odontogenic cyst and ameloblastoma. However, the association of SHH pathway with other subtypes of odontogenic tumor is not well documented. The objective of this paper is to investigate the protein distribution of SHH and its receptor PTC, SMO and transcription factor GLI1 in various odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic tumor tissues including 34 epithelial derived, 24 epithelial-mesenchymal derived, and 26 mesenchymal derived were examined by immunohistochemistry for SHH, PTC, SMO and GLI1. Immunoreactivity for SHH, PTC, SMO and GLI1 was detected in both epithelial derived odontogenic tumors and epithelial-mesenchymal derived odontogenic tumors with or without dental hard tissue formation. Mesenchymal derived odontogenic tumors showed no positive staining except for the focal epithelial cells in island or cord forms within the central portion of the tumor. The protein expression of SHH signaling pathway in malignant odontogenic tumors was no stronger than that in benign tumors. Each of the genes in the pathway was expressed in similar patterns in the same tumor subtype. SHH, PTC, SMO and GLI1 were detected more in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells than in stromal cells. Immunoreactivity for GLI1 was also detected in the base membrane of the tumor cells. The findings suggest SHH, PTC, SMO and GLI1 protein are predominantly located in epithelial components in various odontogenic tumors and might participate in the proliferation of epithelial components of odontogenic tumors. PMID:16376138

  11. Evaluation of stromal myofibroblasts expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumor and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Swati; Garg, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has an aggressive clinical course and a high tendency of recurrence, while orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) has different characteristics and does not show aggressive behaviour. Even the treatment of these two lesions varies considerably. A large number of epithelial molecules have been studied in order to differentiate odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) from OOC, but stromal factors have not been adequately studied. Recently, tumor stroma has evolved as a particular field of interest. In the present study, we aim to evaluate and compare the expression of stromal myofibroblasts (MFs) in these entities and correlate it to its aggressive behavior. The term ‘keratocystic odontogenic tumor’ has been introduced by WHO in 2005 for odontogenic keratocyst keeping in mind its aggressive behavior, however still many pathologists and clinicians use the term OKC synonymously. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases of KCOT and 10 cases of OOC were stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) for demonstration of stromal MFs. MF frequency was assessed as the number of ?SMA-positive stromal cells in 10 high power fields, presented as the mean number of positive cells per field. Results: Counts showed that the mean number of positive cells in KCOT (20.6 ± 2.05) was significantly higher than that seen in OOC (10.4 ± 1.06) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The different behaviors of these lesions are compatible with the finding of the present study. The increased number of stromal MFs in KCOT in comparison to OOC correlates with its aggressive behavior and increased tendency towards recurrence. PMID:24250080

  12. Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C), and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications. PMID:21396085

  13. Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-02-01

    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

  14. Peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor - Case report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepthi; Jayade, Bhushan V; Jayade, Gautam; Gopalkrishnan, K

    2014-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), Pindborg tumor is a benign, slow growing, but locally invasive neoplasm. It is known to have a common intraosseous variant and a very rare extraosseous variant. We report an unusual case of an extraosseous variant of CEOT of unusual large size and maxillary anterior location, the treatment was planned considering the clinical, radiological and histological features. Though peripheral types are less aggressive and had no recurrence, in our case regular follow up is required considering the aggressiveness of the lesion and its proximity to important adjacent structures. PMID:25737934

  15. Application of dynamic MRI to differentiating odontogenic myxomas from ameloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Hisatomi, Miki; Konouchi, Hironobu; Shigehara, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2002-07-01

    It is often difficult to radiographically distinguish odontogenic myxomas from ameloblastomas. In the present study, we tried to differentiate odontogenic myxomas from ameloblastomas using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dynamic MRI). Two cases of ameloblastoma with cystic components and two cases of odontogenic myxoma were compared by dynamic MRI. The dynamic MRI features of solid areas of ameloblastomas showed a rapid enhancement, reaching maximum contrast at 45-60 s, and maintained these enhancement levels or showed a gradual wash-out to 600 s thereafter; in contrast, those of the cystic areas of ameloblastomas showed no enhancement. The dynamic MRI features of the whole area of odontogenic myxomas (we considered the whole area to be the tumor substance in the odontogenic myxomas, as based on histopathological examinations) showed a gradual increase in enhancement at 500-600 s. The central portions of the odontogenic myxomas, which did not appear to be enhanced on Gd-T1 weighted images also showed a gradual increase in enhancement at 500-600 s, though the increase was minimal. These results indicate that the dynamic MRI features of odontogenic myxomas are different from those of ameloblastomas. Therefore, dynamic MRI may be a useful tool for diagnosis of myxoma. PMID:12065119

  16. Immunocytochemical expression of growth factors by odontogenic jaw cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T.; Browne, R. M.; Matthews, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine the immunocytochemical pattern of expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and TGF beta in the three most common types of odontogenic jaw cyst. METHODS: Growth factor expression was detected in paraffin wax sections of odontogenic cysts (27 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, and 10 radicular cysts) using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase technique with monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF alpha (clone 213-4.4) and TGF beta (clone TB21) and a polyclonal antibody directed against EGF (Z-12). RESULTS: The epithelial linings of all cysts showed reactivity for TGF alpha which was mainly localised to basal and suprabasal layers. Odontogenic keratocyst linings expressed higher levels of TGF alpha than those of dentigerous and radicular cysts, with 89% (24/27) of odontogenic keratocysts exhibiting a strong positive reaction compared with 50% (five of 10) of dentigerous and radicular cysts, respectively. EGF reactivity was similar in all cyst groups, weaker than that for TGF alpha and predominantly suprabasal. TGF alpha and EGF were also detected in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells within the cyst walls. The most intense TGF beta staining in odontogenic cysts was extracellular within the fibrous tissue capsules, irrespective of cyst type. CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with previous studies of EGF receptor, indicate differential expression of TGF alpha, EGF and their common receptor between the different types of odontogenic cyst, suggesting that these growth factors (via autocrine or paracrine, or both, pathways) may be involved in their pathogenesis. Images PMID:9208810

  17. Cytological findings of odontogenic myxofibroma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akriti; Joshi, Deepti; Majumdar, Kaushik; Gupta, Vikas; Goel, Garima; Kapoor, Neelkamal

    2016-04-01

    Odontogenic myxofibroma represents a rare slow-growing benign neoplasm, which usually occurs in the second and third decades of life and rarely in children or adults over 50 years of age. Myxomas in general represent from 2.3% to 17.7% of all odontogenic tumors, and myxofibromas represent a small number of all myxomas. Limited evidence is present in literature regarding the cytological diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma/myxofibroma. We hereby report the cytomorphological features of a histologically confirmed case of odontogenic myxofibroma and the pitfalls of the cytological diagnosis. A painless jaw swelling in a young boy was aspirated. Scanty mucoid material was obtained. Cytology Smears were moderately cellular and showed a population comprising predominantly of singly scattered plump to fusiform cells with bipolar cytoplasmic processes showing mild to moderate atypia embedded within dense myxoid matrix and another population of cells arranged in clusters. Case was interpreted as low grade mesenchymal tumor. Subsequent biopsy confirmed it as odontogenic myxofibroma arising in a odontogenic keratocyst. Precise interpretation of intraosseous jaw lesions FNAC may not always be possible, but an attempt should be made to broadly classify the lesion as an inflammatory lesion, cystic lesion, giant cell lesion, fibro-osseous lesion or as an odontogenic tumor. If dual population of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal cells embedded in myxoid matrix are identified in such aspirates, a possibility of myxoid odontogenic tumor may be suggested. Triple correlation of cytological, clinical and radiological findings can guide the surgeon for taking appropriate therapeutic decisions. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:329-333. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26801006

  18. Aerobic to anaerobic transition in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) infected with different miracidial doses of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie and Basch, 1967) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Lustrino, Danilo; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; de Lurdes de Azevedo Rodrigues, Maria; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2013-04-01

    The glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to different parasite doses (5 and 50 miracidia) of Echinostoma paraensei as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analyses were also performed to determine the concentrations of four organic acids (oxalic, succinic, pyruvic and lactic) present in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails, to better understand the effect of infection on the host's energetic/oxidative metabolism. The snails were dissected 1-4 weeks after infection to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. There was alteration in the glycemia of the snails at both parasite doses, with a significant increase of glycemia from of the third week after infection in comparison to the control group. Changes were also observed in the lactate dehydrogenase activity, with increased activity as the infection progressed. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content in the storage tissues, with a markedly greater reduction in the digestive gland-gonad complex (larval development site) in comparison with the cephalopedal mass. Additionally, the infection by both miracidial doses resulted in an increase of oxalic and lactic acid levels, as well as in a decline of piruvic and succinic acid levels in B. glabrata, thus explaining the reduction of the oxidative decarboxylation rate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and acceleration of the anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the snails, through lactic fermentation, which is essential to ensure energy supply and success of the infection. PMID:23376444

  19. Ameloblastomatous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour: a rare variant.

    PubMed

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Gantala, Ramlal; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-03-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  20. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  1. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with unerupted first primary molar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Seo; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Ok-Jun; Kim, Young-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are an uncommon benign odontogenic tumor. Both central and peripheral forms occur. Radiographically, the central variants are comprised of a follicular type (those associated with the crown of an embedded tooth) and an extrafollicular type (those with no embedded tooth). A review of the literature showed that only 3 cases of an association between AOT and unerupted primary teeth have been published. The purpose of this paper was to report a rare case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted primary first molar in a 7-year-old boy. PMID:23265168

  2. Peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ramesh K; Mohammad, Shadab

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growth potential and exceptionally low recurrence rate. The tumor is predominantly found in females in the second decade of life, involving the maxilla more frequently than the mandible. The tumor presents in three variants–intrafollicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The peripheral variant is very rare and only few reports have been published. We present a rare case of peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a 10-year-old male child in the anterior region of the mandible. PMID:25756035

  3. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  4. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Vrinda Sunil; Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-07-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  5. Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Renu; Somanathan, Thara; Kattoor, Jayasree

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC) is an exceptionally rare malignant odontogenic epithelial tumor. It is characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinization in the form of ghost cells with varying amounts of dysplastic dentin. Malignant histological characteristics include infiltration, cellular pleomorphism, numerous mitosis and necrosis. Its biological behavior varies from slow-growing locally invasive lesions to rapidly growing highly aggressive tumors. OGCC metastasizing to distant sites is extremely rare. Only three cases of metastasis have been reported in literature. We are reporting the case of a 54-year-old male patient who presented with tender swelling in the malar region. Histopathological examination revealed OGCC and he received postoperative radiotherapy. Two years later, he presented with a lung mass. Biopsy from the lung lesion showed the same morphology as that of maxillary tumor with scattered ghost cells. This case points to the aggressive behavior of OGCC and its metastatic potential. It also highlights the need for long-term follow-up of these patients. PMID:26980967

  6. Current concepts and occurrence of epithelial odontogenic tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Yeon Sook

    2013-06-01

    Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

  7. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

  8. Transnasal endoscopic resection of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Daniel; Cure, Joel; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2014-08-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare histologic subtype of odontogenic tumor. Treatment requires complete enucleation. We report what we believe is the first case of CCOT to be removed via a transnasal endoscopic approach. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our department by his dentist for evaluation of an expansile mass of the left maxillary sinus. The dentist had noted an area of hyperlucency of the left palate during a routine examination. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of a large tumor. Complete resection of the tumor was achieved via a transnasal endoscopic surgical approach. Resection of odontogenic tumors is necessary because of their tendency to expand and produce a mass effect on surrounding structures. We believe resection via an entirely transnasal endoscopic approach is a valuable and important technique in the treatment of odontogenic tumors that leaves the patient with a more cosmetically acceptable postoperative appearance. PMID:25181672

  9. Odontogenic carcinosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Pae, Sang-Pill; Cho, Hyun-Young; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, In-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Odontogenic carcinosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor with only a few reported cases. It is characterized by a true mixed tumor showing malignant cytology of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It has been assumed to arise from pre-existing lesions such as ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma, and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. To date, the reported cases have exhibited considerably aggressive clinical behavior. The case of an odontogenic carcinosarcoma in the mandible of a 61-year-old male is described herein. The tumor destroyed the cortex of the mandible and invaded the adjacent tissues. Treatment was performed by surgical resection and reconstruction. The purposes of this article are to introduce odontogenic carcinosarcoma through this case study, to distinguish it from related diseases and to discuss features of the tumor in the existing literature. PMID:26131431

  10. Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis. PMID:24124309

  11. Bilateral orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pimpalkar, Rahul Devidas; Barpande, Suresh R; Bhavthankar, Jyoti D; Mandale, Mandakini S

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst of jaw and was initially considered by the World Health Organization (1992) as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). However, studies have shown that OOC has peculiar clinicopathologic aspects when compared with other developmental odontogenic cysts, especially OKC. So orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst now stands out to be a distinct entity. Clinically, it occurs as a single cyst, shows a predilection for males and is most often found in the second to the fifth decade. Its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. The purpose of the article is to present a rare case of bilateral OOC arising in the mandible and review the literature on bilateral occurrence of this lesion. PMID:25328309

  12. Odontogenic carcinosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Sang-Pill; Cho, Hyun-Young; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, In-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor with only a few reported cases. It is characterized by a true mixed tumor showing malignant cytology of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It has been assumed to arise from pre-existing lesions such as ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma, and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. To date, the reported cases have exhibited considerably aggressive clinical behavior. The case of an odontogenic carcinosarcoma in the mandible of a 61-year-old male is described herein. The tumor destroyed the cortex of the mandible and invaded the adjacent tissues. Treatment was performed by surgical resection and reconstruction. The purposes of this article are to introduce odontogenic carcinosarcoma through this case study, to distinguish it from related diseases and to discuss features of the tumor in the existing literature. PMID:26131431

  13. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla- A Rare case Report

    PubMed Central

    Subramaiam, Ramkumar; Narasimhan, Malathi; Giri, Veda; Kumar, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive, non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme that usually occurs in the tooth bearing areas of the jaws. These lesions arouse special interest as they pose high diagnostic challenge. Here, we present a rare case of OM of the maxilla in an 18-year-old male. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed in this paper. PMID:26155585

  14. The keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT)-an odyssey.

    PubMed

    Pogrel, M A

    2015-12-01

    The most appropriate management for the lesion now known as the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (previously known as the odontogenic keratocyst) remains controversial. This article reviews the different management protocols adopted by one surgical unit over the last 30 years and the results obtained from the different treatment modalities. A current treatment protocol consisting of initial decompression followed by aggressive curettage and peripheral ostectomy with methylene blue staining appears to be successful, but our longest follow-up is only 6 years. PMID:26003518

  15. Conservative management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Pavan; Laverick, Sean; Bounds, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Since the term odontogenic keratocyst first appeared in the literature, controversy has surrounded its terminology and surgical management. Recent articles would suggest that surgical opinion is still divided between aggressive radical resection and a more conservative approach. We present an interesting case of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour shown to have eroded through bony cortices and present within soft tissues that was satisfactorily managed conservatively by decompression and secondary enucleation. PMID:25210136

  16. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, K. S.; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation “keratocyst” was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  17. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma-a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A Ravi; Sairam, V; Srinivas Reddy, P

    2015-03-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare odontogenic tumour with female predilection occurring in the anterior region of the mandible with peak age incidence of 5th and 7th decade of life. Here we report a case occurred in the posterior mandible of a 42 year old male patient which highlights the clinicopathologic features of CCOC that were confirmed by histopathologic examination. We add up yet another case of CCOC to the published literature. PMID:25838670

  18. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumor of the Jaw – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Muddana, Keerthi; Pasupula, Ajay prakash; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Thokala, Madhusudan Rao; Muppallai, Jaya Nagendra Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Central jaw tumors (intra osseous) in children occur infrequently and few oral pathologists have had the opportunity or experience in diagnosing these lesions and predicting their biological behavior. Some children are not diagnosed correctly at the initial stages as having a neoplasm and are wrongly treated for infections by antibiotic administration. Subsequent to an unresponsive antibiotic therapy radiographs are taken to reveal a radiolucent or radio dense lesion in the jaws. Finally a tissue diagnosis becomes necessary in order to diagnose and initiate proper therapy. One among the central jaw tumors that occur infrequently in children is Ameloblastoma. It is often aggressive and destructive, with the capacity to attain great size, erode bone and invade adjacent structures. Ameloblastoma not only accounts for 1% of all tumors of maxilla and mandible but also 11% of all odontogenic tumors. It has a high percentage of local recurrence rate and possible malignant development when treated inadequately. Here we present a central jaw tumor in an 8-year-old child which was a case of unusually large plexiform ameloblastoma involving entire ramus up to the condyle, and part of body of the mandible. PMID:24701548

  19. Smoothened gene alterations in keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been widely demonstrated that the hedgehog pathway is strongly associated with basal cell carcinoma of the skin (NBCCS). To assess potential DNA alterations related to keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), we sequenced smoothened (SMO) genes in 12 sporadic KCOTs. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), capillary electrophoresis and dideoxy chain-termination sequencing were used to examine potential DNA alterations in sporadic KCOTs. Results Five alterations in SMO genes were detected. Four of these mutations consisted of two synonymous and three missense mutations; two of which have not been reported to date (c.T776A, c.T1281G). Conclusions SMO genes may play an important role in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway and could also be responsible for generating KCOTs and NBCCS. However, their influence on SHH signaling remains to be elucidated. PMID:25189937

  20. Primordial Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lee J; Eftimie, Liviu F; Herford, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) was first described in 2014. It typically presents in the posterior mandible of a child or adolescent as a "dentigerous cyst-like" well-circumscribed radiolucency associated with an unerupted molar. POT consists of an ellipsoidal mass of dental papilla-like myxoid connective tissue entirely enveloped in a delicate membrane of ameloblastic epithelium. It shows features of a developing tooth with a huge dental papilla, and because it is devoid of dental hard tissue, it could be regarded a soft tissue odontoma. The lesion histologically mimics early (primordial) stages of tooth development. This report describes a case of POT and POT-like proliferations in an unrelated complex odontoma. PMID:26408843

  1. Botryoid Odontogenic Cyst: A Diagnostic Chaos

    PubMed Central

    U, Urmila; Srinivas G, Vijay; Deviramisetty, Sabitha; HK, Puneeth

    2014-01-01

    Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics. PMID:25654045

  2. [An update: keratocystic odontogenic tumor--a cyst to a tumor].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2005 WHO classification of head neck tumors the parakeratinized form of the odontogenic keratocyst (primordial cyst) is listed as benign odontogenic tumor and is classified as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). In this short communication the surgical regimen as well as KCOT as an entity are discussed. PMID:23945714

  3. Infratemporal Space Infection Following Maxillary Third Molar Extraction in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Gok, Gul?en; Zarghami, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    Infratemporal space infection is a rare but serious sequel of odontogenic infection. The diagnosis is difficult due to non spe-cific signs and symptoms. Diabetes mellitus as a definitive risk factor for odontogenic infections needs more consideration during clinical procedures. We report a case of an undiagnosed diabetic patient with isolated infratemporal space infection after tooth extraction with presentation of similar signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint and muscle problem. PMID:22991649

  4. Presentation of a keratocystic odontogenic tumor with agenesis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed the etiopathogenetic, clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, particularly in association with dental anomalies of number, with the aim of providing useful information for their correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. Case presentation A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented for observation of bilateral agenesis of the upper incisors, which was diagnosed by orthopantomography. Approximately one year after starting orthodontic treatment, the patient went to the emergency department because of a phlegmonous tumefaction of the lateroposterior upper left maxillary region. Diagnostic orthopantomography and axial computed tomography scan results of the facial skeleton revealed a large lesion occupying the left maxillary sinus, rhizolysis of dental elements 26 and 27, and dislocation of dental element 28. The lesion and infected sinus mucosa were removed through surgical antral-cystectomy with the Caldwell-Luc approach. Histological examination of the lesion confirmed the suspected diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The 12-month follow-up orthopantomography and computed tomography scan results showed good trabecular bone formation in the lesion area. The 24-month follow-up results showed optimal healing in the area of the lesion, positive pulp vitality tests for teeth 26 and 27, and good periodontal tissue healing, as verified through periodontal probing. Conclusions Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. More likely, they are caused by related environmental factors. Management of this case required the multidisciplinary collaboration of different specializations and careful planning to devise a correct therapeutic protocol and reach a favorable prognosis. PMID:24716509

  5. Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.

    PubMed

    Smith, M M; Hall, B K

    1990-08-01

    This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

  6. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  7. Anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, E.R.; Humphrey, W.J.; Cave, J.P.

    1982-12-28

    This invention provides for the anaerobic treatment of acidic petrochemical wastes in an anaerobic filter at high loadings and high recycle rates. The effluent from the top of the filter passes into a gas-disengaging/solids-settling zone containing a quiescent body of the effluent liquid. The settled solids are withdrawn and recycled to the base of the filter together with fresh acidic waste and an inorganic alkaline material (preferably magnesium oxide or carbonate) to maintain a neutral pH. The liquid portion of the effluent is sent to an aerobic digester to remove the rest of the organic material, which is used to support the growth of bacteria and fed back to the anaerobic system.

  8. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vezhavendan, N.; Shabana, F.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Arunakiry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  9. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  10. Etiologies and Treatments of Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Fahimeh; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Safai, Pooria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maxillary sinusitis is an important issue in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. This study aims to present a systematic review of etiologies and treatments of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic database search was performed based on related MeSH keywords. Articles published between January 2001 and December 2014 was selected according to the inclusion criteria. The information extracted from various studies was categorized in various tables. Results: The study selected 19 studies. In most studies, oroantral fistula (OAF) was the most common etiology of odontogenic sinusitis. Alpha-hemolytic streptococcus was the most common flora in sinusitis with dental origin. The literature shows that the Caldwell-Luc approach may be the best method for treating sinusitis in cases of displaced teeth. Conclusions: OAF is a common cause of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and may easily be treated by endoscopy and fistula closure. Maxillofacial surgeons and dentists should consider this problem to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent complications. PMID:26756016

  11. Odontogenic calcificant cystic tumor: a report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Daniel; Villanueva, Julio; Espinosa, Sebastián; Cornejo, Marco

    2007-03-01

    Odontogenic Calcificant Cystic Tumor (OCCT) is an infrequent injury. It arises from odontogenic epithelial rests present in the maxilla, jaw or gum. Gorlin and col. described the OCCT for first time as an own pathological entity in 1962. Clinically, the OCCT represents 1% of the odontogenic injuries. It is possible to be found from the first decade to the eighth decade. It affects in same proportion the maxilla and the jaw, being the most common in the dented zones, with greater incidence in the first molar area. Two case reports of OCCT in two different ages, both in female individuals, one at 5 years old and the other at 35 years old are presented. Enucleation of the tumor was the treatment chosen. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature related to these two cases of OCCT and its treatment, putting an emphasis on its aetiology, biological behaviour and treatment. PMID:17322800

  12. Odontogenic myxofibroma synchronous with primary angiosarcoma of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Hadidy, A; Alsharif, A; Sheikh-Ali, R; Abukhalaf, M; Awidi, A; Abukaraki, A; Nimri, C; Omari, A

    2010-01-01

    Odontogenic myxofibroma of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare tumour; moreover, primary splenic angiosarcoma (PAS) in paediatric patients is extremely rare. We report on a 15-year-old boy who presented with right TMJ swelling and subsequently developed epigastric and right upper quadrant pain. The TMJ swelling proved to be odontogenic myxofibroma and the abdominal pain was a result of primary splenic angiosarcoma with hepatic metastasis. We report for the first time the synchronous presentation of PAS and odontogenic myxofibroma in a paediatric patient, and we describe the radiological features along with the histological diagnosis and clinical outcome. Uptake in 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is also described for the first time for both these tumours. PMID:20139242

  13. Epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour of the mandibular gingiva.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, T; Küffer, R; Di Felice, R; Samson, J

    1999-07-01

    The epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour (EOGCT) is considered as a solid 'neoplastic' variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst and is an uncommon lesion for which various names have been proposed over the years. We describe here an extraosseous case occurring on the edentulous mandibular gingiva in the right bicuspid area of a 70-year-old woman. The lesion was a painless nodule that appeared clinically as a hyperplastic mass, which was considered to be of reactive nature. Radiographic examination showed a localised resorption of the underlying mandibular bone. The tumour was excised; there was no recurrence at a 2-year follow-up examination. PMID:10645413

  14. An unusual case of gingival enlargement: peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Livada, Rania; Fine, Norman; Anderson, K Mark; Shiloah, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is an uncommon gingival enlargement. It is a benign, unencapsulated exophytic gingival mass, which is composed of fibrous connective tissue associated with various amounts of calcifications and islands of odontogenic epithelium.The lesion is usually firm to palpation and non-tender, and it could be mistaken for other more common exophytic gingival lesions, such as peripheral ossifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma, or peripheral giant cell granuloma. Therefore, a histopathologic examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis. This article presents a well-documented case of POdF and a review of the literature in regards to its diagnostic features, treatment modalities, and recurrence. PMID:24564729

  15. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kornafel, Olga; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Pakulski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. Case Report The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Conclusions Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision. PMID:25566331

  16. Diffuse peripheral odontogenic fibroma: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Weber, A; van Heerden, W F; Ligthelm, A J; Raubenheimer, E J

    1992-02-01

    Since peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) is characteristically described as a solitary lesion and no diffuse POF had been reported in the literature, our cases should be considered as extremely unusual. Three diffuse cases of POF are described of which one case was seen in association with ocular and skin lesions. The question arises whether POF should be considered as a true odontogenic tumor rather than a diffuse hamartomatous lesion caused by uncontrolled induction of the gingiva. It is also possible that such lesions could be part of a yet undescribed syndrome. PMID:1556666

  17. Usefulness of cone beam computed tomography for odontogenic myxoma.

    PubMed

    Araki, M; Kameoka, S; Matsumoto, N; Mastumoto, N; Komiyama, K

    2007-10-01

    A case of odontogenic myxoma is reported as showing a cyst-like pattern with a partially thick but vague and unclear radiopaque border between the left mandibular second premolar and first molar on rotational panoramic radiography. Internal structure of the lesion displayed radiolucency with a sparse and coarse trabecular pattern. No expansion of bucco-lingual cortical bone was apparent. The radiographic pattern of odontogenic myxoma did not resemble a tennis racket-like or straight, curved and coarse septal appearance on panoramic radiography, but characteristic findings were noted on cone beam CT. Cone beam CT may prove extremely useful in clarifying detailed internal structure and the state of margins. PMID:17881604

  18. Microbiological examination and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck. Has anything changed?

    PubMed

    Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J; Kotecha, Rushina; Sisodia, Bijal

    2014-09-01

    Because of the growing concern about antibiotic resistance, we aimed to investigate whether the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck have changed in the last 30-40 years. We retrospectively studied 150 patients admitted for inpatient treatment of infections in the head and neck, and searched published reports from the last 30 - 40 years for comparison. There were 85 male and 65 female patients (mean age 39 years, range 1-95). Most infections originated from the teeth (n = 111) and skin (n = 16), and the submandibular (69%) and buccal (67%) spaces were involved most often. Multiple spaces were involved in 94 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity in 102 cases, and microorganisms were isolated in 91 (89%), of which 67 (74%) were aerobic infections and 24 (26%) were anaerobic. Bacteria were isolated in 87 (96%) cultures of which 60 (69%) were Gram-positive. Gram-positive cocci were isolated in 62% of cultures. The most common bacteria isolated were streptococci. Seventy percent of the bacteria were sensitive to amoxicillin and 84% to amoxicillin and metronidazole; 14% (Staphylococcus aureus from infections of the skin) were resistant to penicillin. A comparison of our results with those found in previous reports shows no significant change in the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of odontogenic infections in the head and neck over the last 30 - 40 years. Amoxicillin still treats these infections effectively. PMID:24906249

  19. Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst: A Report of Three Clinical Cases

    PubMed Central

    González Galván, María del Carmen; García-García, Abel; Anitua-Aldecoa, Eduardo; Martinez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Surgery is the usual treatment, and recurrence or association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been described. In this report, we presented three cases of this pathology, and we review the principal clinical, histological, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Case 1. A 73-year-old female presents with a slight swelling on the right mandible, associated with an unilocular well-defined radiolucent lesion. Case 2. A 27-year-old female presents with a painful mandibular swelling associated with an unilocular radiolucent lesion posterior to the 4.8. Case 3. A 61-year-old male was casually detected presents with an unilocular radiolucent lesion distal to the 4.8. Conclusion. The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a completely different biological behaviour. PMID:24191203

  20. HSP70 expression in dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Fakharian, Mehrnaz

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) work as molecular chaperones that can assist cells to deal with stressful situations. Members of the HSP70 family can regulate cell growth and transformation and are involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In view of the distinct clinical behavior of odontogenic lesions, the objective of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of HSP70 in these lesions. In this study, 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion-16 unicystic ameloblastomas (UAs), 17 solid ameloblastomas (SAs), 18 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DCs)-were reviewed by immunohistochemistry for HSP70 staining. In this study, HSP70 immunostaining was evident in all groups of the specimen. Mean percentage of HSP70 staining in SAs (84.2 ± 11.3) and OKCs (83.4 ± 6.8) were significantly higher than UAs (64.4 ± 9.8) and DCs (12.6 ± 10.2) (p = 0.00). But, there was no statistically significant difference between HSP70 expression in SAs and OKCs. The result of this study proposes that high expression rate of HSP70 has a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma and OKC and is one of the reasons for the aggressive behavior of ameloblastoma and high recurrence role of OKC, reinforcing the classification of OKC as an odontogenic tumor. PMID:25854321

  1. Comparison between the peripheral ossifying fibroma and peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J N; Kaugars, G E; Abbey, L M

    1989-04-01

    This study presents previously unreported data on a series of 400 peripheral ossifying fibromas (POFs) and 13 peripheral odontogenic fibromas (PODFs). The differences between the two lesions are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reports in the literature. It is concluded that the lesions represent separate pathologic entities. PMID:2926546

  2. A Clinicopathological Study of Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors in Hamadan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Najmi, Hamidreza; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most frequent osseous destructive lesions of the jaws; however, there is little information regarding the relative frequency of these lesions among the Iranian population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of clinically and histologically- diagnosed odontogenic cysts and tumors during a period of 13 years in Hamadan, and also its correlation with age, gender, and the site of the lesion. Materials and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 413 oral and maxillofacial specimens during 1996 to 2008.The age and the gender of patients, as well as the site of lesion were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Totally, 70 specimens were recorded as odontogenic cysts and 11 specimens were diagnosed as odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cysts (27.2%), followed by radicular cysts (18.6%) and odontogenic keratocysts (18.6%). In addition, cysts were more frequent in male than female individuals. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (64%). Conclusion: Odontogenic cysts were in correlation with age, gender and location. These results showed that dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst were more frequent than other studies. More investigations should be performed to determine the frequency of odontogenic tumors in Iran. PMID:25469355

  3. Central odontogenic fibroma of the mandible: A case report with diagnostic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Angela; Pannone, Giuseppe; Ramaglia, Luca; Bufo, Pantaleo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Saviano, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Odontogenic fibroma (OF), a rare odontogenic tumor of mesodermal origin, has been thought to originate from either dental follicle, periodontal ligament, or dental papilla [1]. Different studies reported high variability in the incidence rate as being between 3 and 23% of all odontogenic tumors [2,3]. OF manifests a dual character at the histopathological examination showing odontogenic epithelial structures mimicking those observed in biopsy of ameloblastoma and, in addition, peculiar fragments of cellular stroma. The clinical and radiological features of OF are similar to other odontogenic and/or non-odontogenic tumours and the differential diagnosis may first occur at fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Presentation of case In the case reported, a young patient showed a localized gingival enlargement involving radiologically the superior margin of the right angle of the mandible and associated with an un-erupted tooth. The morphological characteristics together with clinical and radiologic findings confirmed the tumor to be a central odontogenic fibroma (COF) with secondary gingival involvement. Discussion and conclusion Benign odontogenic tumors may be distinguished from other odontogenic/non-odontogenic neoplasias and from malignant tumours through a cytologic differential diagnosis as treatment differs accordingly. PMID:26793312

  4. An intraosseous sclerosing odontogenic tumor predominantly composed of epithelial cells: relation to (so-called) sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and epithelial-rich central odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sze Hwa; Yeo, Jin Fei; Kheem Pang, Brendan Nghee; Petersson, Fredrik

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an asymptomatic sclerosing odontogenic tumor in a 31-year-old woman. Radiologically, the tumor was well circumscribed, was predominantly radiolucent, and had a peripheral sclerotic margin. Histopathologically, the tumor showed small clusters, strands, and cords of small to medium-sized epithelial tumor cells in a sclerotic collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for broad-spectrum cytokeratins (CKs) (CK7, CK5/6, CK19, and CAM 5.2) and p63. Membranous staining for E-cadherin was present. There was weak to moderate nuclear expression of p16 in 30% of cells. Rare tumor cells were positive for p53. Progesterone receptors were expressed in about 60% of the tumor cells. The proliferative activity (Ki-67) was approximately 2%. A molecular genetic (fluorescence in situ hybridization) study showed no EWSR1 (EWS RNA-binding protein 1) gene rearrangement. No recurrence or metastatic events have been documented at 1-year follow-up. This tumor represents a classification dilemma mainly between epithelial-rich central odontogenic fibroma and the so-called sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:24767700

  5. A brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin in a child with cyanotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, Moti; Birenboim, Ravit; Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Perles, Zeev; Averbuch, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to present a rare case of a brain abscess in a child with heterotaxy syndrome, severe cardiac anomalies, and extensive dental caries. The pathogen was Streptococcus intermedius isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The source of the pathogen was probably an infection of a primary molar with a dentoalveolar abscess involving the bud of the permanent successor. After a long course of antibiotic regimens followed by a craniotomy with abscess drainage, a shunt, and comprehensive dental treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any neurological sequel. At home, she completed an additional 3 months of oral antibiotics. This is the only known documented case of a toddler with a brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin without previous dental intervention. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration between cardiologists and pediatric dentists, especially in referring children with congenital heart defects for early dental checkups. PMID:23211917

  6. Odontogenic osteomyelitis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of mandible of patient with autoimmune disease: clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len; Cox, Darren; Javid, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    The key to appropriate treatment of odontogenic osteomyelitis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the mandible in patients with autoimmune diseases lies in making the correct diagnosis based on meticulous review of signs and symptoms. As this complex case involving a patient with multiple comorbidities illustrates, diagnosis can be difficult, because these conditions may overlap or be mistaken for other conditions. However, prompt treatment is essential to limit the progression, which can be devastating for these medically complex patients. It is, therefore, important to understand local and systemic conditions that can weaken the immune system and predispose patients to chronic bone infection, meticulously go through signs and symptoms, and have a complete medical history, including patient medications. PMID:23631533

  7. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature.

  8. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  9. [A case of the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg's tumor). Reported and literature review].

    PubMed

    Peña-Torres, Leandro Miguel; Monterrubio-Guerrero, Alejandro; Díaz de León-Sandoval, Laura Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor known as Pindborg's tumor, is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws. One of their characteristics is the cortical expansion and the relationship with a non erupted tooth. Since the original description in 1955, only 200 cases approximately have been described in the world literature. This article reviews the literature and describes a case of patient who presented calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor in the jaw undergoing surgical excision treatment with an evolution without complications. PMID:20929626

  10. Surgical management of peripheral variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A rare case report with review.

    PubMed

    Jindwani, Karuna; Paharia, Y K; Kushwah, Atul Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion constituting around 3% of all odontogenic tumours and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It manifests as a beningn growth which affects young individuals, with a female predeliction usually in the second decade of life, exhibiting more often in the anterior region of maxilla. The current article enumerates the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of a rare case of extraosseous AOT with its therapeutic consideration. PMID:25684929

  11. Fibromatous epulis in dogs and peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings: two equivalent lesions.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G; Baker, D C

    1991-03-01

    This article compares the clinical and histopathologic features of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings and the fibromatous epulis in dogs. They are apparently equivalent lesions. Both are odontogenic tumors of limited growth potential that do not recur if adequately excised; both occur in middle and late adulthood of the species concerned. The one difference is that the peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare condition, whereas the canine fibromatous epulis is common. PMID:2011354

  12. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: reclassification of the odontogenic keratocyst from cyst to tumour.

    PubMed

    Madras, Jonathan; Lapointe, Henry

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the features and behaviour of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), now officially known as the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT); to analyze a series of histologically confirmed KCOT cases; and to review and discuss the redesignation of KCOT and the implications for treatment. Redesignation of the OKC as the KCOT by the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on the well-known aggressive behaviour of this lesion, its histology and new information regarding its genetics. Abnormal function of PTCH, a tumour suppressor gene, is noted to be involved in both nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and sporadic KCOTs. Normally, PTCH forms a receptor complex with the oncogene SMO for the SHH ligand. PTCH binding to SMO inhibits growth-signal transduction. SHH binding to PTCH releases inhibition of the signal transduction pathway. If normal functioning of PTCH is lost, the proliferation-stimulating effects of SMO are permitted to predominate. A review of the literature was conducted and results were tabulated to determine whether treatment modality is related to recurrence rate. More aggressive treatment - resection or enucleation supplemented with Carnoy"s solution with or without peripheral ostectomy - results in a lower recurrence rate than enucleation alone or marsupialization. Notably, the recurrence rate after marsupialization followed by enucleation is not significantly higher than that following the so-called aggressive modalities. Our case series consists of 21 patients treated for KCOTs. Results were organized to demonstrate recurrence as it relates to size of lesion and time since treatment and incidence as it relates to patient age and location in the jaws. In our series, the average KCOT surface area measured radiographically was 14 cm2. Most lesions were within the 0-15 cm2 range and lesions in this range resulted in the greatest number and proportion of recurrences. The recurrence rate of 29% in our case series was consistent with previously established data; all recurrences occurred within 2 years post-intervention. The incidence of primary lesions was highest in the age group 70-79 years; most lesions occurred in the posterior mandible. WHO"s reclassification of the OKC as the KCOT based on behaviour, histology and genetics underscores the aggressive nature of the lesion and should motivate clinicians to manage the disease in a correspondingly aggressive manner. The most effective interventions for the KCOT are either enucleation with Carnoy"s solution, or marsupialization with later cystectomy. Future treatment may involve molecular-based modalities, which may reduce or eliminate the need for aggressive surgical management. PMID:18353202

  13. Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor – A Report of Two Cases with Histopathology Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Pavitra; Misra, Satyaranjan; Kumar, M. Sathya; Mithra, R.

    2011-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon, hamartomatous, benign, epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin that was first described by Driebaldt in 1907, as a pseudo-adenoameloblastoma. The current World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of odontogenic tumors defines AOT as being composed of the odontogenic epithelium in a variety of histoarchitectural patterns, embedded in mature connective tissue stroma, and characterized by slow, but progressive growth. The current article reports two cases with different presentations; first in a young female patient and the second in a middle-aged male patient. The importance of biopsy, which is the gold standard for diagnosis, and its use in planning of the treatment is discussed. PMID:22347682

  14. Odontogenous sinus tract to the chin--case report.

    PubMed

    Grocholewicz, Katarzyna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Kacperski, ?ukasz

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of a rare case of an odontogenic sinus tract to the chin. Despite the absence of caries, fillings, or crown damage, both lower central incisors were involved in a bony lesion. No history of any traumatic facial or dental injury was reported, and no orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was performed. The findings on panoramic radiograph were incidental--the patient applied to the dental clinic due to a toothache in a lower first molar. The patient's history comprised seven-year-long unsuccessful dermatologic therapy. This included intraoral antibiotic and antihistamine intake, as well as topical antibiotic and steroid application. Endodontic treatment was proceeded, followed by recovery of the skin lesion. In the case of a single chronic suppurative or nodulocystic facial lesion, a dental clinical examination as well as a radiological assessment of the maxillary and mandibular dentition should be performed to exclude any odontogenic cause. PMID:25026757

  15. Clinical enigma: A rare case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Cheshta; Chatterjee, Rudra Prasad; Kundu, Sanchita; Roy, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm of the jaw with only 74 reported cases. It occurs predominantly in the mandibular anterior region during fifth to seventh decades of life. Clinically it manifests as intra-bony swelling with a variable degree of pain. Microscopically, it reveals nests of cells with clear cytoplasm in connective tissue stroma arranged in different patterns. It is often misdiagnosed due to the rarity of lesion and confusing histopathology. Immunohistochemical staining plays an intricate role to uncertain the native of the clear cell to reach a confirmative diagnosis. The article aims to highlight the clinicopathologic features of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma in a middle-aged man with special emphasis on its differential diagnosis. PMID:26681866

  16. Carnoy's solution in the mangement of odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivanmalai, Sivaraj; Kandhasamy, Kohila; Prabu, Neetika; Prince, Christo Naveen; Prabu, Chandrakala Shekarappa Annapurna Pannaikadu Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Carnoy's solution is a substance used as a complementary treatment after the conservative excision of odontogenic keratocyst. The application of Carnoy's solution promotes a superficial chemical necrosis and is intended to reduce recurrence rates. However, the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus can occasionally be exposed after the removal of a lesion. The safety of the application of Carnoy's solution over this plexus has been reported, but to date, no clinical report has been made. The authors present a case that was given Carnoy's solution over the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus as a complementary treatment for the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Effective control of recurrence with low and transient neural morbidity was suggested with this technique. PMID:23066248

  17. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: case report with CT and ultrasonography findings

    PubMed Central

    Sumer, Mahmut; Celenk, Peruze; Danaci, Murat; Gunhan, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor with a potentially aggressive and infiltrative behavior. KCOT is most commonly occurred in mandible and demonstrate a unilocular, round, oval, scalloped radiolucent area, while large lesions may appear multilocular. An important characteristic of KCOT is its propensity to grow in an antero-posterior direction within medullary cavity of bone causing minimal expansion. Definitive diagnosis relies on histological examination. In this report, a KCOT that had an expansion both buccal and lingual cortical bone is described including its features in computed tomography and ultrasonographic exams. The lesion was removed surgically via an intraoral approach under local anesthesia and histologically reported as a KCOT. PMID:22474650

  18. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

  19. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

  20. Mixed odontogenic tumour with dentinoid and ghost cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Patil, Shruthi; Zingade, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastomas do not generally show evidence of induction, however, rare cases associated with odontome have been reported and are referred to as odontoameloblastomas. We report an unusual case of an ameloblastoma with features of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, showing evidence of induction of dentinoid by tumour cells--but without concomitant formation of enamel--and with features of ghost cells. The lesion occurred on the left side of the maxilla in a 31-year-old woman. PMID:26698201

  1. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    More, Chandramani B; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  2. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Three Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta Guimarães, Alexandre; Dutra de Cassia Ferreira Santos, Mariana; Machado de Carvalho, Guilherme; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign intra-bone mass originating from dental lamina or its residue. It represents 2–11% of jaw cysts, and has a slow but aggressive growth. The evaluation of molecular characteristics, immunohistochemistry, and genetic expression currently have no established classification regarding the evolution and pathophysiologic pattern of these lesions. Case Report: This is a clinical retrospective study with a full analysis of patient history regarding physical evaluation, radiologic images, pathology results, and surgical resection. We performed a major literature review concerning current concepts relating to its biological characterization. Three cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were identified. Two of the cases were large, with aggressive behavior and significant bone destruction and recurrence, which had been overlooked for more than a decade. The third case had an early diagnosis, and the treatment led to full recovery and complete healing. Conclusion: The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign lesion with slow growth, which lends itself to a more conservative treatment, even in cases of large lesions. A better understanding of these tumors, both at the biological and molecular level, could lead to guidelines for treatment and prognosis of such patients. PMID:24303448

  3. Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Saravani, Shirin; Kamyab, Nazanin; Jahantigh, Mehdi; Torabi Parizi, Molouk

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs. Conclusions: The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor. PMID:26734469

  4. [Revision of the 1992 edition of the WHO histological typing of odontogenic tumors. A suggestion].

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Philipsen, H P

    2003-03-01

    The WHO classification of odontogenic tumors (1992, OT) was revised. The following main changes were proposed: (1) OT are not only "related to" odontogenic tissues but are derived from these; (2) the stroma of the epithelial tumor group (1.1.1) is of a fibrous nature and does not contain any ectomesenchymal component; (3) subtypes of ameloblastomas have to be differentiated (intra-, extraosseous, desmoplastic, unicystic); (4) eponyms are no longer used in the revised classification; (5) the AOT is reclassified as an epithelial OT; (6) a neoplastic and non-neoplastic line of the ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is proposed; (7) the calcifying ghost cell odontogenic tumor is included in the classification; (8) the simple and the WHO type of odontogenic fibroma are included in the classification; (9) the classification of malignant OT is adapted from Eversole (1999) with a few changes. In particular, ameloblastic carcinoma is differentiated from malignant ( metastasizing) ameloblastoma; (10) the term carcinoma in intraosseous (peripheral) ameloblastoma is introduced. Also, the malignant epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumor is termed calcifying ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma; (11) the clear cell odontogenic tumor is termed clear cell odontogenic carcinoma; (12) the so-called pseudocysts are termed "cavities" (aneurysmal bone cavity, simple bone cavity, lingual and buccal mandibular bone cavity, focal marrow-containing jaw cavity). PMID:12664253

  5. [Ki-67 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the follicular cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, and ameloblastoma].

    PubMed

    Bibichenko, I I; Semkin, V A; Katushkina, A A

    2013-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study using antibodies against Ki-67 protein was conducted, which characterized the proliferative activity of cells and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in follicular cyst, variants of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (with a preponderance of hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis), and ameloblastoma. The marked proliferative activity of a parabasal cell layer (28.0+/-8.4%) was found in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of parakeratosis; the proliferative activity of the peripheral layer of ameloblastoma cells was equal to 7.0+/-5.6%. The maximal matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a predominance of hyperkeratosis was 1.1 +/-0.9 conventional units (CU) and that in the ameloblastoma was 1.9+/-1.3 CU versus 0.4+/-0.5 CU in the follicular cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of hyperkeratosis. The values of Ki-67 and MMP-9 expression allow one to distinguish benign odontogenic cysts and tumors (follicular cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a predominance of hyperkeratosis) and odontogenic tumors characterized by an aggressive clinical course (keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of parakeratosis and ameloblastoma). PMID:23805466

  6. Diffuse peripheral odontogenic fibroma with concomitant plasma cell gingivitis--a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wood, N H; Carim, R; Ngwenya, S P

    2012-09-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm that occurs on the gingiva, and cases of diffuse gingival involvement are most uncommon. An example of such a case compounded by superimposed plasma cell gingivtis is presented together wth a review of the literature. PMID:23951810

  7. Odontogenic tumors: A retrospective study of four Brazilian diagnostic pathology centers

    PubMed Central

    da-Costa, Daniela O P.; Maurício, Almir S.; de-Faria, Paulo A S.; da-Silva, Licínio E.; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the results of a retrospective study of the frequency and classification of odontogenic tumors recorded at four centers of diagnostic pathology in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Study Design: All medical records and microscopic slides of odontogenic tumor specimens for the years 1997 to 2007 were retrieved from the files of four services of diagnostic pathology in Rio de Janeiro City. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Results: A total of 201 odontogenic tumors were found among 15,758 oral biopsies (1.3%). The frequencies of these tumors at the four centers ranged from 0.5% at the National Cancer Institute to 3.3% in a private laboratory. Chi-square analysis revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the proportions of odontogenic tumors in the studied centers. Of these, 94.5% were benign and 5.5% were malignant. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (32.3%) was the most frequent lesion, followed by ameloblastoma (29.8%) and odontoma (18.4%). Conclusions: Odontogenic tumors are uncommon in Brazil. Different pathology laboratories reported divergent frequencies of odontogenic tumors, which may reflect institutional specializations and the patient populations served. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, WHO classification. PMID:22143740

  8. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma of the attached gingiva: a case report.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, P L

    1992-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is an uncommon, benign, unencapsulated, exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue covered with a surface epithelium. Odontogenic epithelium and mineralized material may be found in the mass. A case is reported of a lesion that recurred in the attached gingiva following initial excision. Differential diagnosis of exophytic gingival lesions and post-operative management are also discussed. PMID:1507044

  9. [Odontogenic fibroma of the jaws. Report of a clinical case and etiopathogenic considerations].

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Dell'Aquila, A; De Rosa, I; Russo, S; Sica, G S

    1998-05-01

    A case of peripheral odontogenic fibroma is reported and its epidemiology, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis are discussed. It is supposed that the epithelial component may be related to odontogenic embrionary tissue inclusions: These inclusions may stimulate a local mesenchymal reaction giving place to a proliferative lesion, as observed. PMID:9677820

  10. Anaerobic endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus saccharolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Westblom, T U; Gorse, G J; Milligan, T W; Schindzielorz, A H

    1990-01-01

    The first case of infective endocarditis caused by the anaerobe Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is reported. The infection occurred in a previously healthy 61-year-old male with no known predisposing valvular heart disease. The patient was successfully treated with a combination of 2 g of nafcillin every 4 h and 90 mg of gentamicin every 8 h for 6 weeks. PMID:2280017

  11. Er:YAG Laser Assisted Treatment of Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Magalhães, João; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma is a very rare benign odontogenic tumour characterized by a fibrous mature stroma with variable strands or islands of inactive-looking odontogenic epithelium. Our aim is to report a case of a central odontogenic fibroma and describe the clinical usefulness of Er:YAG laser for the surgical treatment of this tumour. A 74-year-old woman presented with an expansive lesion located in a mandible with multilocular and mixed radiographic appearance. A conservative excision using Er:YAG laser was performed. Complete removal was obtained. There were no postoperative complications. The histopatologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of central odontogenic fibroma of rich-epithelium type. No recurrence was observed during follow-up. PMID:26457211

  12. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with an odontome – a diverse lesion encountered

    PubMed Central

    Radheshyam, Chourasia; Alokenath, Bandyopadhyay; Kumar, Harish; Abikshyeet, Panda

    2015-01-01

    The human jaw is an exclusive habitat for odontogenic lesions. Ghost cells associated odontogenic lesions are a diverse group with a variety of presentations in the jaws. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin which demonstrates ghost cells in the epithelial component. This tumor sometimes mimics the features of a cyst clinically and radiographically, but histopathologically as well as behavior-wise shows the features of a tumor. Many classification systems have been proposed and revised from time to time. Presently a dualistic concept is highlighted to classify this group of lesions. The present case highlights a case of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with a complex composite odontome, which appeared like a cyst clinically and radiographically. PMID:26345145

  13. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  14. Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Externa) Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Pneumocystis Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Immunizations Flu Center ...

  15. Anaerobic bacteria in chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Jokipii, A M; Karma, P; Ojala, K; Jokipii, L

    1977-05-01

    The bacteriology of 70 consecutive cases of active chronic otitis media was studied. Using appropriate technology, anaerobic bacteria were recovered in 33%, Bacteroides species accounting for one half of them. They were always found in mixed infections involving the average of 3.8 bacteria, 1.9 anaerobic, and 1.9 facultative species. The bacteriology was relatively stable from one ear to the other in the ten bilateral cases studied. The results were alike in the groups differing with respect to local antimicrobial therapy or appearance of the middle ear discharge. The cases with chronic otitis in spite of previous radical surgery presented more often with anaerobic infection than the unoperated ones, and none of them yielded sterile cultures. The recognition of anerobic middle ear infections may be clinically significant because the susceptibilities of the organisms to antimicrobial agents and to air are characteristically different from those of aerobic or facultative bacteria. PMID:857789

  16. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: a rare histological variant.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Venkatesh, S; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurs mainly as an intraosseous lesion in mandible or maxilla, but the peripheral variation of COC has also been reported. The confusion regarding its nature as cyst or tumour has not been resolved and a vast diversity has been noted in clinicopathological aspects of COC. We report a case of COCs with minimal mural ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with a painless swelling in the left jaw causing mild facial asymmetry. PMID:23696143

  17. Diagnostic Factors of Odontogenic Cysts in Iranian Population: A Retrospective Study Over the Past Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Hassan; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Sabour, Siamak; Aghdashi, Farzad; Dehghani, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of odontogenic cysts due to their silent progression is always a challenging problem for clinicians. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the frequency of odontogenic cysts and related factors in a selected Iranian population. Patients and Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 312 patients’ recorded data in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April 1993 to December 2013. All related data were extracted from the records and categorized in tables. The correlation between the variables was analyzed by either chi-square or multinominal logistic regression tests. The P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Evaluation of 312 patients’ records (185 males and 127 females) with the mean age of 27.6 showed that Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) was the most common odontogenic cyst of all followed by the dentigerous cyst as the second most common lesion. Most of the patients were in the second or third decades of their lives, although there was no statistically significant age distribution. The finding of the current study showed that calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurrence was significantly related to the history of trauma. Enucleation and curettage of the odontogenic cysts were the most common treatment plans of all. Conclusions: The current study showed that clinicians should consider the many factors associated with the occurrence of odontogenic cysts. PMID:26357548

  18. Defects of the Carney complex's gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Sílvia F; Gomez, Ricardo S; Diniz, Marina G; Bernardes, Vanessa F; Soares, Flávia FC; Brito, João Artur R; Liu, Sophie; Pontes, Hélder Antônio R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of some odontogenic tumors often leads to tooth and maxillary bone loss as well as facial deformity. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in their pathogenesis may result in alternative molecular therapies. The PRKAR1A gene shows loss of protein expression, as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ectomesenchymal neoplasm. We used a combination of qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, LOH analysis and direct sequencing of all PRKAR1A exons to assess if this gene is altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. Thirteen tumors were included, being six ameloblastic fibromas, four ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, one ameloblastic fibrodentinoma and two ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The epithelial component of the tumors was separated from the mesenchymal by laser microdissection in most of the cases. We also searched for odontogenic pathology in Prkar1a+/− mice. PRKAR1A mRNA/protein expression was decreased in the benign mixed odontogenic tumors in association with LOH at markers around PRKAR1A gene. We also detected a missense and two synonymous mutations, besides two 5’-UTR and four intronic mutations in the mixed odontogenic tumors. Prkar1a+/− mice did not show evidence of odontogenic tumor formation, suggesting that additional genes may be involved in their pathogenesis, at least in rodents. We conclude that the PRKAR1A gene and its locus are altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. PRKAR1A's expression is decreased in a subset of tumors but not in all, and Prkar1a+/− mice do not show abnormalities, suggesting that additional genes play a role in this tumor's pathogenesis. PMID:25870248

  19. Valuable Radiographic Tool for Odontogenic Jaw Keratocyst Diagnosis and Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Lai, R-F; Li, Z-J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of patients with odontogenic jaw keratocyst and to guide computer-aided surgical treatment planning. Methods: Imaging, image processing, and visualization technologies were used to produce clear diagnosis, provide proper treatment, and formulate favourable prognosis. Cone beam computed tomography was used to collect medical information including site, extent, shape, and other characteristic features of a patient with large odontogenic jaw keratocyst. Results: The imaging technique produced excellent results in imaging, image processing and threedimensional (3D) visualization. Conclusion: The 3D digital reconstruction model of the odontogenic jaw keratocyst was shown intuitively. PMID:25429483

  20. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with dentigerous cyst: Report of a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikramjeet; Goyal, Sunder; Sheikh, Soheyl; Shambulingappa, P; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ravinder

    2012-09-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion derived from the complex system of dental lamina or its remnant. It is categorized into three variants (follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral). We present a rare case of AOT arising from a dentigerous cyst around the unerupted canine in a 28-year-old female. We believe that this case z an odontogenic cyst with neoplastic development, containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components. As more cases accumulate, we will be able to study these rare lesions further whether the AOTs derived from an odontogenic cyst could represent a distinct "hybrid" variant separate to the three variants described thus far. PMID:23230373

  1. Peripheral odontogenic myxoma: a review of the literature and report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, Erich J; Noffke, Claudia E

    2012-03-01

    Two cases of peripheral odontogenic myxoma with a verifiable location in gingival soft tissue and without bone involvement were compared with those reported in the literature. This study showed that they form a distinct albeit rare clinical entity with a potential to grow into large disfiguring lesions. The probability that small peripheral odontogenic myxomas are interpreted as edematous irritation fibromas may contribute to the small number of peripheral odontogenic myxomas recorded in the literature. The differential diagnosis of soft tissue myxoid proliferations is discussed. PMID:23449257

  2. Ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible resembling odontogenic cyst in a panoramic radiograph.

    PubMed

    Suomalainen, Anni; Hietanen, Jarkko; Robinson, Soraya; Peltola, Jaakko Sakari

    2006-05-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histologic evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor, regardless of whether it has metastasized or not. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo, with few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastoma being apparent. A case is reported of a 21-year-old caucasian female with ameloblastic carcinoma in the left angulus area of the mandible resembling an odontogenic cyst in the panoramic radiograph. In addition to the panoramic radiograph, computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images were taken preoperatively. This report demonstrates that CT or MR examinations may be crucial in differentiating odontogenic tumors from cysts. PMID:16632277

  3. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A rare presentation in an elderly female

    PubMed Central

    Vijayabanu, B.; Sreeja, C.; Bharath, N.; Aesha, I.; Kannan, V. Sadesh; Devi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are rare benign neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, comprising 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors. They are slow growing, non-metastasizing, often asymptomatic with local aggressiveness due to its infiltrative nature and hence high recurrence rate, with a high incidence of occurrence in the mandible. Most frequently occurs in second to third decade of life, seldom occurs beyond these age groups. Hereby, we present a case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla in a 65-year-old female managed by partial maxillectomy. PMID:26538962

  4. [THE ROLE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ODONTOGENIC CYSTS].

    PubMed

    Lytvynets-Holutyak, Y E

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 67 patients with odontogenic cysts (OC) aged 18 to 45 years, who were divided into groups: Group 1 (n = 67) patients with OC aged 18 to 45 years, group 2--control group, consisted of 20 healthy persons of similar age. We studied the characteristics of immune status and immunoreactivity in patients with odontogenic cysts. Condition of cellular and humoral immunity was assessed by using the methods of direct rosette developing with erythrocytes coated with monoclonal antibodies to CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD22+, CD4/CD8 indicators of immunoregulatory index and phagocytic immunity. State of nonspecific resistance was studied by determining the phagocytic activity of neutrophils and their oxygen dependent metabolism in NBT test. The concentration of cytokines (IL-6 and IL-4) in serum was determined by ELISA. During the study we found that in patients with (OC) developed significant changes in the structure of the immune response at the cellular as well as at the humoral level that makes it necessary to develop new individualized preventive measures along with existing therapies OC. PMID:26827437

  5. The central odontogenic fibroma: How difficult can be making a preliminary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pippi, Roberto; Santoro, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor derived from the dental ectomesenchymal tissues. A 16-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred by her dentist for a radiolucent asymptomatic area associated with the crown of the impacted lower right third molar. A preliminary diagnosis of a follicular cyst was supposed. The lesion was surgically removed under general anesthesia together with the impacted tooth. The microscopic diagnosis of the excised tissue revealed an odontogenic fibroma. No clinical or radiographic signs of recurrence were found five years after surgical excision. Despite the various differential diagnoses of homogeneous unilocular and well delimited radiolucencies of the jaws, enucleation with peripheral curettage, without any other pre-operative imaging exams or biopsies, can be considered as the treatment of choice. Key words:Differential diagnosis, impacted third molar, radiographic imaging, microscopic diagnosis, odontogenic fibroma.

  6. Metastatic Ghost Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: Description of a Case and Search for Actionable Targets

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Maximilien J.; Showell, Darion L.; Edenfield, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is an exceedingly rare malignant tumor on the spectrum of already uncommon odontogenic or dentinogenic tumors. We describe here the case of metastatic GCOC in a patient with a history of recurrent dentinogenic ghost cell tumor of the mandible, now presenting with bilateral pleural effusions. We will discuss typical histopathologic and histochemical features of GCOC, along with results of genomic testing and their role in directing therapy. PMID:26500725

  7. Bimaxillary Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Case of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Okoje-Adesomoju, Victoria Nwebuni; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Olajide, Mofoluwaso Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) is a benign cystic intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin that is usually solitary except when syndromic. It rarely occurs in the maxilla; therefore a rapidly progressive, nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT with locoregional extension poses significant diagnostic and management challenges. To the best of the authors' knowledge, documentation of a nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT is nonexistent in the English literature. We therefore present the case of an extensive bimaxillary KCOT in a 38-year-old Nigerian male. PMID:24790606

  8. Maxillary Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: An Uncommon Entity at an Unusual Site.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sunira; Reddy, Enja Siva Prasad; Sah, Kunal; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2016-03-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental cyst that was described in 1988 by Gardner, et al. This lesion demonstrates non-specific clinical course and radiological findings. Hence, often confused with other lesions, but specific histopathlogical features help in establishing its correct diagnosis. This article presents a rare case of a maxillary glandular odontogenic cyst in a 70-year-old female patient. PMID:26923896

  9. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  10. Rare and massive odontogenic parakeratotic cyst treated by endoscopic sinus surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Keratocystic odontogenic tumors are benign neoplasms of odontogenic origin with a potential for aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Many different treatments for this type of lesion have been reported. However, no common consensus has emerged to date regarding the most effective therapeutic approach. Cases of maxillary sinus giant keratocystic odontogenic tumors completely excised by enucleation or marsupialization via endoscopic sinus surgery are extremely rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been described in the literature since 2005. Case presentation We report a case of a 24-year-old Italian man who came to our department with maxillary sinus region swelling, pain and left nasal obstruction. A massive keratocystic odontogenic tumor involving the right maxillary sinus and causing focal erosions of the bony walls was diagnosed. The keratocystic odontogenic tumor was removed as much as possible by a transnasal approach using endoscopic sinus surgery, which produced optimal surgical and prognostic outcomes. Follow-up is reported for an 8-year period. Conclusion Conservative management in this case demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy with a low risk of recurrence. For injuries involving the maxillary sinus, the possibility of decompression or marsupialization by endoscopic sinus surgery should always be considered because it demonstrated the potential to lead to excellent results even after 8 years of follow-up in our patient. To our knowledge, no case report has described follow-up longer than 8 years for a maxillary sinus keratocystic odontogenic tumor treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:25193270

  11. Imaging features contributing to the diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours: logistic regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ariji, Y; Morita, M; Katsumata, A; Sugita, Y; Naitoh, M; Goto, M; Izumi, M; Kise, Y; Shimozato, K; Kurita, K; Maeda, H; Ariji, E

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristic imaging features that can be used to differentiate ameloblastomas from keratocystic odontogenic tumours and to examine the significant imaging features contributing to a correct diagnosis. Methods 60 observers (39 specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology and 21 non-specialists) examined CT and/or panoramic images of 10 ameloblastomas and 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumours shown on a webpage and made diagnoses. Their correct answer ratios were then calculated. The imaging features of the tumours were evaluated and expressed as binary numbers or quantitative values. The imaging features that contributed to a correct diagnosis were elucidated using logistic regression analysis. Results The mean correct answer ratio was 61.3% ± 17.2% for the diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours. CT images produced higher correct answer ratios for diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumours by specialists. The significantly different imaging features between ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours were the degree of bone expansion and the presence of high-density areas. The significant imaging features contributing to a correct imaging diagnosis were the number of locules, the presence of high-density areas and the inclusion of impacted teeth. Conclusion The presence of high-density areas is the most useful feature in the differential diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours based on comparison of the imaging features of both tumours and examination of the diagnostic contributions of these features. PMID:21346078

  12. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus. PMID:25411856

  13. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  14. Nasal Sinus Tract of Odontogenic Origin: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Sagar; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Divya; Sajjanhar, Isha; Goel, Kopal; Gupta, Vaibhav Sheel

    2015-01-01

    Extraoral sinus tract often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician owing to its rare occurrence and absence of symptoms. The accurate diagnosis and comprehensive management are inevitable as the aetiology of such lesions is often masked and requires holistic approach. The present case report encompasses the management of an extraoral discharging sinus tract at the base of the right nostril in a chronic smoker. The lesion which was earlier diagnosed to be of nonodontogenic origin persisted even after erratic treatment modalities. Our investigations showed the aetiology of sinus tract to be odontogenic. Initially, a five-step program as recommended by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was used for smoking cessation followed by root canal therapy (RCT) and surgical management of the sinus tract. The patient has been under stringent follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. PMID:26649208

  15. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Gingiva: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soolari, Ahmad; Khan, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case of an uncommon and slow-growing tumor known as a central odontogenic fibroma (COF). The patient in question is a 53-year-old African-American man who was referred for periodontal evaluation of asymptomatic space formation between the mandibular central incisors. Clinical and radiological evaluations disclosed tumor-like tissue expanding the alveolar ridge in the buccolingual dimension, along with thinning of the cortical plates. Surgical excision was performed, and the specimen was sent for histopathology, which later confirmed that the lesion was a COF. Periodontal regenerative therapy was performed to rebuild the hard and soft tissue that had been compromised as a result of tumor expansion. The site was grafted, with excellent results. PMID:25646136

  16. Surgical treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    KCOT is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cysts with a high recurrence rate, this was explained histopathologically as it typically shows a thin, friable wall, which is often difficult to enucleate from the bone in one piece, and have small satellite cysts within the fibrous wall. Multiple surgical approaches were introduced including decompression, marsupilization, enucleation with or without adjunct (Carnoy’s solution, enucleation) and resection. Depending on other studies KCOT can be conservatively treated with enucleation and application of Carnoy’s solution or cryotherapy. This can be used specially in the large lesions that when treated with resection, the continuity of the jaw will be interrupted. This technique shows comparable results to other more aggressive techniques. PMID:24151416

  17. An ultrastructural study of calcifying odontogenic cyst, especially calcified material.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kimijima, Yutaka; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sasaki, Kodo; Amagasa, Teruo

    2002-06-01

    The ultrastructural features of calcification in a case of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) were studied. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the inner parts of the cyst wall revealed many short microvilli, and X-ray microanalysis of the high-density masses in the intercellular parts showed prominent calcium peaks, which meant that these masses were calcified materials. On transmission electron microscopic observations, many calcifications exhibited a distinctive ring formation around the periphery of a central core that consisted of an amorphous structure. These calcifications were observed with necrotic remnants of nuclear material and many identifiable mitochondria, thin fibers, and epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of ghost cells consisted of numerous short electron-dense tonofilament bundles. Needle-like structures were shown in the tonofilament bundles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the needle-like crystals were hydroxyapatite. It is suggested that calcification in a COC may be related to degenerative mitochondria and tonofilament bundles of ghost cells. PMID:12181653

  18. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization.

    PubMed

    Telles, Déborah Campos; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively), morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate. PMID:24346047

  19. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Sapdhare, Swati; Pujar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is of particular interest because its recurrence rate is high and its behavior is aggressive. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), which is also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and with a predisposition to neoplasms. These multiple KCOTs have warranted an aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications. Recurrence of these lesions is a characteristic feature that has to be considered while explaining the prognosis to the patient. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old boy with clinical features of basal cell nevus syndrome and multiple KCOTs. In addition to the other common features, congenitally missing third molars in all the four quadrants is a feature which has not been previously reported in association with NBCCS in Indian patients. PMID:26981489

  20. Syndromic odontogenic keratocyst: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Fazil

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) may occur in two different forms, either as solitary (nonsyndromic OKCs) or as multiple OKCs (syndromic OKCs). Multiple OKCs usually occur as one of the findings in Gorlin–Goltz syndrome with other features such as skin carcinomas and rib, eye, and neurologic abnormalities. We report a rare case of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in a 20-year-old male patient who presented with a slow growing swelling on lower right and left back teeth region since 2 months. Apart from these, other findings were frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, ocular hypertelorism, prominent supra orbital ridge, and mild mandibular prognathism. Excision was done and microscopic study revealed OKC and the follow-up could not be carried out for the complete management. We also presented a review of its pathogenesis, criterion, and differences between syndromic and nonsyndromic OKCs and suggest to thoroughly examine any patient who presents with multiple OKCs to rule out syndromic variety. PMID:27011939

  1. S100, alpha-smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 19 immunohistochemistry in odontogenic and soft tissue myxomas.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, T; Lock, C; Samson, J; Odell, E W

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the expression of S100 protein, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and keratin 19 in odontogenic myxomas and non-odontogenic myxoid lesions. METHODS--Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from seven odontogenic myxomas, three soft tissue myxomas, six hyperplastic myxoid dental follicles, two intramuscular myxomas, 12 cardiac myxomas, and seven normal dental follicles were examined immunocytochemically for S100 protein, alpha-SMA and cytokeratin 19 using the Streptavidin-biotin method. RESULTS--A minority of odontogenic myxomas (three of seven) were positive for S100 and the staining was of moderate intensity and in all myxofibroblasts. Soft tissue myxomas, normal dental follicles, intramuscular myxomas, and most enlarged myxoid follicles were negative. In the cardiac myxomas the cells forming cords and islands were positive in approximately half (seven of 12), but the dispersed stellate myxoblasts were positive in only two cases. A population of cells in all the odontogenic myxomas and hyperplastic dental follicles contained alpha-SMA, but such cells were sparse in cardiac myxomas and present in only four cases. Cytokeratin 19 was present in odontogenic epithelium of odontogenic myxoma and follicles. CONCLUSIONS--A minority of odontogenic myxomas, but not other oral myxoid lesions, may express S100 protein and this could cause difficulty distinguishing myxoma from myxoid nerve sheath tumours. Sparse myofibroblastic cells occurred in all types of myxoma tested. The epithelium sometimes found within jaw myxomas expresses cytokeratin 19 and this is consistent with an odontogenic origin. Images PMID:7560205

  2. A rare case of extrafollicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in the posterior region of the mandible: misdiagnosed as residual cyst.

    PubMed

    Shivali, Vaid; Pandey, Anil; Khanna, Vidhi D; Khanna, Prateek; Singh, Ashish; Ahuja, Tarun

    2013-10-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a relatively uncommon distinct odontogenic neoplasm. It is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin with varying number of ductlike structures and inductive changes in the stroma. It is a benign and slow growing epithelial tumor and represents 3% of all odontogenic tumors. Its occurrence is more common in anterior region of the maxilla than mandible. Most of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors occur intra-osseously but few peripheral variant have been reported which are attached to the gingival structures. The intra-osseous Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor may be related to unerrupted tooth (follicular varient) or may not (extrafollicular varient) be related to unerrupted tooth. This paper is to present a rare case of an extrafollicular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor occurring in the body of the mandible in a male patient which is distinct and secondly it was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as residual cyst. The diagnosis of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was confirmed by Histopathological investigation. How to cite this article: Shivali V, Khanna VD, Khanna P, Singh A, Pandey A, Ahuja T. A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):124-8. PMID:24324316

  3. Assessment of BRAFV600E and SMOF412E mutations in epithelial odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Guimarães, Bruna Viana Antonini; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Cardoso, Sergio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia Amaral; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2015-07-01

    The classification of ameloblastoma in multicystic or unicystic variants is associated with its clinical behaviour. Recently, BRAF and SMO mutations have been reported in ameloblastomas. However, it is not clear if such mutations are shared by the multi- and unicystic variants of ameloblastoma or by odontogenic carcinomas. We assessed BRAFV600E and SMOF412E in multicystic, unicystic and desmoplastic ameloblastomas. In addition, we investigated whether the BRAFV600E mutation occurs in odontogenic carcinomas. A total of 28 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, comprising 17 ameloblastomas and 11 odontogenic carcinomas, were included. The BRAFV600E mutation was assessed by real-time PCR with a specific TaqMan probe and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The SMOF412E mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing. Fourteen out of 17 (82 %) ameloblastomas showed the BRAFV600E mutation, specifically, 5/6 (83 %) unicystic, 7/9 (78 %) multicystic and 2/2 desmoplastic ameloblastomas. BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 4/11 (36 %) malignant tumours, specifically, 3/8 (38 %) ameloblastic carcinomas and 1/1 clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, while the two ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas did not harbour this mutation. The SMOF412E mutation was not detected in ameloblastoma. The BRAFV600E-activating mutation is a common event in ameloblastomas, occurring regardless of site or histological type. This mutation is also detected in odontogenic carcinomas. SMO somatic mutation is a secondary genetic event in the ameloblastoma pathogenesis. Our findings support the possibility for personalised, molecular-targeted therapy for ameloblastomas and odontogenic carcinomas harbouring the BRAFV600E mutation. PMID:25854168

  4. Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Flu) Is it a Medical Emergency? Listeria Infections Lyme Disease MRSA Mad Cow Disease Measles Meningitis Middle Ear ... Disease Hives (Urticaria) Impetigo Infections That Pets Carry Lyme Disease Measles Molluscum Contagiosum Oral Thrush Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea ...

  5. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  6. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  7. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  8. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alberola-Ferranti, Margarita; Hueto-Madrid, Juan Antonio; Bescós-Atín, Coro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare condition characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinitation in the form of Ghost cell with varying amounts of dysplastic dentina. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 70 year-old woman with a rapid onset of painful swelling right maxillary tumor. Magnetic resonance showed a huge tumor dependent on the right half of the right hard palate with invasion of the pterygoid process and focally to the second branch of the trigeminal. Radiological stage was T4N0. The patient underwent a right subtotal maxillectomy with clear margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given. The patient was free of residual or recurrent disease 12 months after surgery. Results: The tumor was 3,9cm in diameter. It was spongy and whitish gray. Microscopically the tumor was arranged in nets and trabeculae, occasionally forming palisade. Tumoral cells had clear cytoplasm with vesicular nuclei. There was atipia and mitosi with vascular and perineural invasion. The excised tumor was diagnosed as a GCOC. Conclusions: Ghost cell carcinoma is a rare odontogenic carcinoma. Its course is unpredictable, ranging from locally invasive tumors of slow growth to highly aggressive and infiltrative ones. Wide surgical excision with clean margins is the treatment of choice although its combination with postoperative radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, remains controversial. Key words:Ameloblastic carcinoma, calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell carcinoma, keratinizing epithelial odontogenic cyst, maxillary tumor, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:25674335

  9. Podoplanin expression profiles characteristic of odontogenic tumor-specific tissue architectures.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2012-03-15

    Podoplanin, a representative immunohistochemical marker for lymphatic endothelial cells, is also expressed in many other kinds of cancer cells, although its pathophysiological function is largely unknown. Our aim was to determine immunolocalization modes of podoplanin among odontogenic tumors to discuss possible roles of podoplanin in their characteristic tissue architecture formation. Immunohistochemical profiles of podoplanin were investigated in 40 surgical specimens from ameloblastoma (AM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in comparison with those of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), integrin ?1, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Podoplanin was localized in the basal cell layer or in the peripheral zone of AM foci. It was found in spindle-shaped tumor cells of AOT, in both the basal and polyhedral cells of CCOT, and in the basal and parabasal cells of KCOT linings. Podoplanin-positive (+) cells were located within areas of PCNA+ cells, and integrin ?1 was localized in the cell membrane of podoplanin+ cells in the intercellular space where fibronectin and MMP-9 were deposited. In conclusion, podoplanin+ cells and areas in odontogenic tumors are in close associations with extracellular matrix signalings as well as cell proliferation. PMID:22326634

  10. Odontogenic tumors: a 14-year retrospective study in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Porto, Juliana Cristina; Vieira, Daniella Serafim Couto; Siqueira, Filipe Modolo; Rivero, Elena Riet Correa

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are lesions that develop exclusively on maxillary bones, and form a heterogeneous group. They vary from hamartomatous lesions to benign and malign tumors. Although they are rarely observed in dentistry clinics, it is extremely important for the dentist to be aware of them. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of odontogenic tumors diagnosed in the population of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Cases of odontogenic tumors were selected from the anatomopathological diagnostic services at Federal University of Santa Catarina from 1998 to 2011. Clinical data on these cases were collected from biopsy reports and patient files. Seventy-eight cases of odontogenic tumors were surveyed. Of these diagnoses, 51% were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs); the remaining cases were mainly ameloblastomas and odontomas. The most frequently observed lesion in this retrospective study was KCOT (more than half of cases). Thus, this study shows that modifying the classification of the OTs altered the frequency of the lesions, possibly making KCOT the most common lesion observed in diagnostic services worldwide. PMID:25000597

  11. Odontogenic myxofibroma: A concise review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Giovannacci, Ilaria; Corradi, Domenico; Manfredi, Maddalena; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Vescovi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a review of the literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and radiographic features as well as treatment of odontogenic myxofibroma (MF). Methods: The PubMed database was searched using the following keywords: “odontogenic myxofibroma”, “odontogenic fibromyxoma”, “myxofibroma of the jaw” and “fibromyxoma of the jaw”. Results: Fifteen articles reporting the experience with 24 patients were identified. Male/female ratio was 1:1.4 and the average age was 29.5 years. The most frequent location was the mandible. In 66.7% of the cases the radiographic appearance was a multilocular radiolucency. Swelling was observed in 13 patients (92.86%), varying degrees of pain in 5 (35.71%) and paresthesia in only one patient (7.14%). Six out of 24 patients (26.09%) were treated with radical surgery and 17 (73.91%) with a conservative approach. In two out of 21 cases (9.52%) a recurrence was reported. Conclusions: MF is an extremely rare tumor and no agreement exists on the causes of its development. According to the present review, the choice of treatment should depend on variables such as localization, presence of a primary or of a recurrent lesion, age, general medical conditions and aesthetic needs of the patient. Key words:Odontogenic myxofibroma, myxofibroma of the jaw, odontogenic tumors, oral surgery, oral pathology. PMID:25129249

  12. Surgical management of dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor in children: a conservative approach and 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    DEBONI, Maria Cristina Zindel; BROZOSKI, Mariana Aparecida; TRAINA, Andreia Aparecida; ACAY, Renata Rodrigues; NACLÉRIO-HOMEM, Maria da Graça

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the jaws and rarely recurs. On the other hand, keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), is considered a benign unicystic or multicystic intraosseous neoplasm and one of the most aggressive odontogenic lesions presenting relatively high recurrence rate and a tendency to invade adjacent tissue. Two cases of these odontogenic lesions occurring in children are presented. They were very similar in clinical and radiographic characteristics, and both were treated by marsupialization. The treatment was chosen in order to preserve the associated permanent teeth with complementary orthodontic treatment to direct eruption of the associated permanent teeth. At 7-years of follow-up, none of the cases showed recurrence. PMID:22666848

  13. Anaerobic benzene degradation.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R

    2000-01-01

    Although many studies have indicated that benzene persists under anaerobic conditions in petroleum-contaminated environments, it has recently been documented that benzene can be anaerobically oxidized with most commonly considered electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. These include: Fe(III), sulfate, nitrate, and possibly humic substances. Benzene can also be converted to methane and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions. There is evidence that benzene can be degraded under in situ conditions in petroleum-contaminated aquifers in which either Fe(III) reduction or methane production is the predominant terminal electron-accepting process. Furthermore, evidence from laboratory studies suggests that benzene may be anaerobically degraded in petroleum-contaminated marine sediments under sulfate-reducing conditions. Laboratory studies have suggested that within the Fe(III) reduction zone of petroleum-contaminated aquifers, benzene degradation can be stimulated with the addition of synthetic chelators which make Fe(III) more available for microbial reduction. The addition of humic substances and other compounds that contain quinone moieties can also stimulate anaerobic benzene degradation in laboratory incubations of Fe(III)-reducing aquifer sediments by providing an electron shuttle between Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and insoluble Fe(III) oxides. Anaerobic benzene degradation in aquifer sediments can be stimulated with the addition of sulfate, but in some instances an inoculum of benzene-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing microorganisms must also be added. In a field trial, sulfate addition to the methanogenic zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer stimulated the growth and activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms and enhanced benzene removal. Molecular phylogenetic studies have provided indications of what microorganisms might be involved in anaerobic benzene degradation in aquifers. The major factor limiting further understanding of anaerobic benzene degradation is the lack of a pure culture of an organism capable of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:11440238

  14. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  15. Radiological and clinical features of peripheral keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling; Yang, Jie; Zheng, Jia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (PKCOT) is rare and has not been reported with imaging findings. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore CT and MR imaging characteristics of two PKCOTs in lateral facial deep region (LFDR), and to present a review of the literature regarding their anatomic locations and characteristics of epidemiology and Radiology. Methods and material: Eighteen PKCOTs, sixteen from the previous literatures and two new cases of the authors, were reviewed. Fifteen of them had original sites in the gingival, one in buccal space and two in LFDR. CT imaging features were based on one PKCOT in the buccal space and two in LFDR. MR imaging features on one PKCOT in LFDR, and conventional radiographic characteristics on eight PKCOTs were analyzed. Results: The subjects’ ages ranged from 37 to 81 years, with a mean of 54.7 years. The male and female ratio was 1:1.14, with no predilection for either gender. Buccal space (6%) and LFDR (11%) were relatively rare original sites to PKCOTs, compared to gingival (83%). PKCOTs were clearly depicted on CT and MR imaging as they had cystic changes. Contents of the cysts were further analyzed by using different series of MRI. No radiological features were found on radiographs except one subject with minimal bone resorption in the alveolar crest. Conclusions: LFDR is rare original site for PKCOT. PKCOT should be included as one of differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion found in LFDR on CT and MR imaging. PMID:24482721

  16. Altered expression of podoplanin in keratocystic odontogenic tumours following decompression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOMIN; WANG, JING; DING, XU; XING, SHUZHONG; ZHANG, WEI; WANG, LIZHEN; WU, HEMING; WANG, LIN

    2014-01-01

    Marsupialisation or decompression is frequently performed as a conservative therapy for keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Positive podoplanin (PDPN) expression in the epithelium of KCOT has been previously reported and may be associated with neoplastic invasion. In the present study, changes in PDPN expression were observed in the epithelium of KCOTs following decompression. In total, 16 pairs of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at the time of decompression and at two-stage curettage or enucleation were collected and immunohistochemically examined using an antibody against PDPN. The intensity of PDPN staining was evaluated with a semi-quantitative detection method and statistically analysed. The immunohistochemical reactivity of PDPN was consistently markedly positive in 93.8% of KCOT samples prior to decompression. The positive staining was immunolocalised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of cells in the basal layer and extended into the suprabasal layer for two to three cell layers. At the time of curettage, 2 of the 16 (12.5%) cases were completely negative, 11 of the 16 (68.8%) cases were locally positive and 3 of the 16 (18.7%) cases showed a ‘linear staining’ pattern, as the PDPN-positive cells were restricted to within the single basal layer. The expression level of PDPN was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and a significant loss or reduction of PDPN expression was observed in KCOTs following decompression. Larger sample groups are required to further verify this result. PMID:24527067

  17. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: biologic profile based on 499 cases.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, H P; Reichart, P A; Zhang, K H; Nikai, H; Yu, Q X

    1991-04-01

    Topographically, the AOT occurs in peripheral and central variants, the latter further in follicular (with embedded tooth) and extrafollicular (no embedded tooth) types. The AOT is slow growing with few or no symptoms. Tumor growth may cause displacement of teeth rather than root resorption. The follicular AOT mimics a follicular cyst, the extrafollicular a residual or "globulo-maxillary" cyst and the peripheral a gingival fibroma. All variants of AOT show identical histologic features. The central variants account for 97.2%, 73.0% of which are follicular. The follicular variant (M:F ratio 1 to 1.9) is three times as frequent as the extrafollicular. The follicular variant is diagnosed earlier in life (mean age 17 yr) than the extrafollicular (mean age 24 yr). 53.1% of all variants occur within the teens (13-19 yr). Follicular AOT is associated with one embedded tooth in 93.2%. Maxillary permanent canines account for 41.7% and all four canines for 60.1% of AOT-associated embedded teeth. Ranking four among the odontogenic tumors the AOT is not a particularly rare tumor. Conservative surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Documented recurrences have not been reported. PMID:2061853

  18. Mandibular intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma lesion associated with odontogenic keratocyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Kyul; Kim, Tae-Seop; Geum, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Kim, Uk-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the oral cavity, and it accounts for about 90% of all oral cancers. Several risk factors for oral SCC have been identified; however, SCC associated with odontogenic keratocysts have rarely been reported. The present study describes the case of a 36-year-old man with SCC of the right ramus of the mandible, which was initially diagnosed as a benign odontogenic cyst. He underwent enucleation at another hospital followed by segmental mandibulectomy and fibular free flap reconstruction at our institution. In this case, we introduce a patient with oral cancer associated with odontogenic cyst on the mandible and report a satisfactory outcome with wide resection and immediate free flap reconstruction. PMID:25922819

  19. Using the condylar prosthesis after resection of a large odontogenic myxoma tumor in the mandible.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Willian Morais; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Brêda, Marcus Antônio; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Serra e Silva, Fabrício Moreira

    2012-09-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are considered to be a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior. Because these neoplasms are rare in the oral cavity, the possible surgical management can be quite variable. Literature recommendation can vary from simple curettage and peripheral ostectomy to segmental resection. The authors report a case of a 20-year-old patient with an odontogenic myxoma tumor located in the left mandibular angle, ascending ramus, and mandibular symphysis. It was treated by radical resection followed by titanium reconstruction with condylar prosthesis, which allowed rapid return of function with improvement in quality of life and restoration of cosmetic and functional deficits. The lesion did not recur after surgical procedure. PMID:22976683

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression between Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Priyadharsini, Nataraj; Gnanaselvi, U Punitha; Sathishkumar, Srinivasan; Srikanth, R P; Nagarathinam, A E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with an aggressive clinical behavior suggesting a change in its terminology from a cyst to a tumor and has now been renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The purpose of this study was to assess and compare angiogenesis in ameloblastoma and OKC. Materials and Methods: Angiogenesis was assessed by studying the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The study samples included 15 ameloblastomas and 15 KCOTs. The immunoreactivity was statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: VEGF expression was higher in ameloblastoma than KCOTs. However, a non-significant difference of VEGF expression was noted between ameloblastoma and KCOTs (P = 0.345). Conclusion: The results suggest that tumor angiogenesis may play a significant role in aggressive biologic behavior of KCOT. Thus, angiogenesis could be a potent target for developing anatiangiogenic therapeutic strategies. PMID:25709368

  1. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; Romañach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25810830

  2. Mandibular intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma lesion associated with odontogenic keratocyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Seop; Geum, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Cho, Yeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the oral cavity, and it accounts for about 90% of all oral cancers. Several risk factors for oral SCC have been identified; however, SCC associated with odontogenic keratocysts have rarely been reported. The present study describes the case of a 36-year-old man with SCC of the right ramus of the mandible, which was initially diagnosed as a benign odontogenic cyst. He underwent enucleation at another hospital followed by segmental mandibulectomy and fibular free flap reconstruction at our institution. In this case, we introduce a patient with oral cancer associated with odontogenic cyst on the mandible and report a satisfactory outcome with wide resection and immediate free flap reconstruction. PMID:25922819

  3. Optimization of FNAC findings as a preoperative diagnostic aid for odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Garima; Shetty, Pushparaja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not a definitive preoperative diagnostic procedure done for all cases of odontogenic cysts. This is because of the inconsistent results obtained with it. Aims: This study was done to optimize FNAC findings and help in preoperative characterization of odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods: Cystic fluid was collected and centrifuged from 50 odontogenic cysts that were planned for excision. Three smears were prepared from the cell sediment obtained after centrifugation and stained. The stained sections were examined for presence and type of epithelial cells, to formulate a preopererative diagnosis. Results: Epithelial cells were detected in 46% cases in smear 1, 48% cases in smear 2, and 52% cases in smear 3. When all three smears from one case were studied, 86% cases showed epithelial cells for evaluation. Conclusion: Cystic aspirate should be centrifuged and the entire cell sediment should be examined by making multiple smears for evaluation of cystic epithelial lining cells.

  4. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour - a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tarakji, Bassel; Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  5. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour – a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  6. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Aditya, Amita; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  7. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  8. Case Presentation of Concomitant and Contiguous Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor and Focal Cemento-Ossifying Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Gita; Donoghue, Mandana; Reichart, Peter A; Pazuhi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year-old male was presented for the diagnosis of an asymptomatic bony expansion in relation to the right maxillary canine and first premolar. The unilocular radiolucent lesion with central foci of calcification had caused divergence of canine and first premolar roots without any resorption. This case report details a diagnosis of two distinct disease processes of different cellular origin namely, focal cemento-ossifying dysplasia and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a previously unreported concomitant and contiguous relationship. The diagnosis was determined by a combination of clinical, radiographic, histopathological and surgical evidence. This case highlights two points, first the need to examine all mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions with advanced imaging techniques to assess the number and extent of the lesions prior to treatment planning. Second a likely role of periodontal ligament as the tissue source for odontogenic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells required for the development of odontogenic tumors and cemento-osseous dysplasias. PMID:26464605

  9. Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shuichi; Yamabe, Shigeru; Moriishi, Takeshi; Okabe, Haruo; Tajima, Yoshifumi; Mizuno, Akio

    1998-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S phase of the cell cycle, and immunohistochemical detection of the protein represents a useful marker for the proliferating fraction of cells in tissue specimens. PCNA expression was studied in odontogenic keratocysts (n = 15) and ameloblastomas (n = 46) using an avidin–biotin–peroxidase complex method on routinely processed paraffin sections. The percentage of PCNA-positive cells determined by point counting was significantly lower in the ameloblastomas (mean 9.4%, standard deviation (SD) 11.0) than in odontogenic keratocysts (mean 29.9%, SD 24.0). In ameloblastomas, the mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells was lowest in the acanthomatous pattern and highest in plexiform pattern. The mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells in plexiform pattern was non-significantly higher than that in follicular pattern. The mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells in plexiform and follicular patterns was significantly higher than that in cyctic and acanthomatous patterns. The frequency of PCNA-positive cells was significantly higher in the peripheral cells of follicular and plexiform patterns than in the central cells of both patterns (p < 0.01). Therefore, peripheral cells were regarded as reserve cell of central cells. The mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst was not significantly different from those in the peripheral cells of follicular and plexiform patterns of ameloblastoma. In contrast, the odontogenic keratocyst exhibited a mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells which was statistically higher than that in other histological elements of ameloblastomas. The present study suggests that odontogenic keratocyst is regarded as benign odontogenic tumour. PMID:9762365

  10. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  11. Anaerobic yeast killer systems.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, L; Menozzi, M G; Campani, L; Gerloni, M; Conti, S; Morace, G; Chezzi, C

    1992-05-01

    The influence of anaerobic conditions on the expression of the killer phenomenon of several yeast isolates belonging to recognized killer systems coded by different genetic determinants (Pichia spp., Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was studied. Anaerobiosis influenced the activity of killer toxins from some individual isolates of the genera Pichia and Saccharomyces on sensitive strains of P. anomala, K. lactis and Candida albicans. However, no influence was detectable on a S. cerevisiae sensitive isolate. Thus, anaerobic conditions seem to interfere more with the metabolic process of sensitive strains than with toxin production by killer yeasts. The selection of a panel of killer yeasts, able to display their activity against reference sensitive yeast isolates under anaerobic conditions in a medium that favored the growth of anaerobes, allowed the use of the killer system to type Bacteroides fragilis isolates for epidemiological purposes. PMID:1397211

  12. Central Granular Cell Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case with CBCT Features

    PubMed Central

    Anbiaee, Najmeh; Saghafi, Shadi; Mohammadzadeh Rezaei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Central granular cell odontogenic tumor) CGCOT) of the jaw is an exceedingly rare benign odontogenic neoplasm with 35 reported cases in the literature. Among these, very few studies have focused on the cone-beam CT features of CGCOT. Here, we report a case of an asymptomatic CGCOT in a 16-year-old girl and focus on the cone-beam CT features. Only 36 cases of this lesion, including this one, have been reported so far. The case presented is of special importance due to the young age of the patient, the posterior location of the lesion and the multilocular pattern in the cone beam CT images PMID:25628673

  13. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Won-Gyo; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Park, Hae-Seo; Jang, Jong-Won; Chung, Woo-Yeol

    2015-12-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  14. Aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of mandible showing root resorption: A histological case report.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Ramandeep; Kaur, Gurkiran; Singh, Preetinder

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor with slow but progressive growth. The three variants: Follicular, extra follicular (both central type), and peripheral present with identical histologic findings. This case report describes a patient with a large AOT in the mandible of the extra follicular type which is the less common of the two central types. It also strikes as an unusual case as it shows significant root resorption of the involved displaced teeth which is not generally reported in AOT's. PMID:23946750

  15. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: a rare gingival neoplasm with clinico-pathological differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Shradha; Sharma, Aanchal; Andhare, Vinod; Sabir, Husain

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare gingival neoplasm, characterised by relatively mature collagenous fibrous tissue and varying amounts of odontogenic epithelium. It can be described as a slow growing, firmly attached, solid and smooth gingival mass which may be present asymptomatically for years, which may cause displacement of adjacent teeth. The purpose of this article is to discuss a case of POdF, occurring in the maxillary anterior region, with detailed clinico-pathological differential diagnosis to clarify characteristic features of various gingival overgrowths to enhance easy identification. PMID:26259385

  16. Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary sinus and zygoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIANHUA; WANG, LILI; CHEN, ZHENGGANG; QIU, JIANZHONG; DONG, QUANJIANG

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), formally known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign developmental tumors that are found primarily in the mandibular molar region and ascending ramus. The disease is characterized by aggressive growth and a high recurrence rate following surgical treatment. The present study reports the rare case of a 25-year-old male with a giant KCOT involving the right zygoma, maxillary bone and maxillary sinus. The tumor was removed using a modified treatment of enucleation, grinding and cryotherapy. Recurrence has not been observed within the eight-month follow-up period. The present study discusses the clinical features and surgical management of this case. PMID:25364448

  17. An immunohistochemical study of two cases of either peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) or peripheral ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chong Huat Siar; Kok Han, N g

    1996-03-01

    Two cases of either peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) (WHO type) or peripheral ameloblastoma are reported. Their immunohistochemical characteristics were investigated in an attempt to clarify their histogenesis. The results showed that the epithelial component of this neoplasm tended to retain its distinct odontogenic character and expressed a keratin profile different from that of the overlying oral epithelium from which both cases most probably originated. The connective tissue element of these tumors was vimentin-positive and S-100 protein negative, confirming their mesodermal nature but precluding the possibility of ectomesenchymal derivation. No reactivity for desmin was noted. PMID:8648412

  18. Mural Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour as Anterior Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Bhola; Grewal, Jessica; Grewal, Ripin; Bansal, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is an uncommon, benign, hamartomatous lesion that commonly affects the anterior maxilla and has two radiographic variants, follicular and extrafollicular where the former is more common than the latter. Here, we report a case of 15-year-old female with midline swelling of the mandible. Radiographically, impacted right permanent mandibular canine was associated with the radiolucent lesion. Dentigerous cyst was given as provisional diagnosis. However, histologically the lesion represented the features of cystic variant of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. PMID:25121073

  19. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  20. Clostridium difficile: the anaerobe that made the grade.

    PubMed

    Brazier, Jon S

    2012-04-01

    Unlike other anaerobic bacteria of clinical importance, Clostridium difficile has managed to enter into the realm of public awareness. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous "superbug" responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This report picks out key moments, particularly in the UK, which tracked the rise in both the public and political awareness of this organism. PMID:22293217

  1. Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use of Medical Lasers General Employer Employee Additional Information Downloads Healthcare Wide Hazards Infection Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community ...

  2. Odontogenic tumors: A collaborative study of 218 cases diagnosed over 12 years and comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nazl?m, Sinan; Etoz, Meryem; Den?z, Kemal; Yasa, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, and to compare the findings with those reported in the literature. Study Design: The records of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology Departments at Erciyes University, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization classification, 2005), over a 12-year period, were analyzed. The relative frequency of different types of tumors was also analyzed and compared with the literature. Results: OTs in the present study constituted 2.74% of all the 7,942 registered biopsies. A total of 218 cases of OTs were collected and reviewed. Of these, (94.04%) were benign and (5.96%) were malignant. The mandible was the most commonly affected anatomic location, with 170 cases (77.9%). Ameloblastoma with a predilection for the posterior mandible was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (30.28%), followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (19.5%), odontoma (13.4%), and odontogenic myxoma (8.5%). Conclusions: OTs are rare neoplasms and appear to show geographic variations in the world. In Cappadocia, Turkey, they are more common in the mandible, with ameloblastoma followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumors with the incidences observed in the present study being similar to those of previous studies from Asia and Africa, and in contrast to those reported from American countries. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, WHO classification, prevalence, jaws. PMID:25481228

  3. Recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumours: report of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Liu, B; Cheng, G; Wang, S-P; Wang, Y-N

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse 19 recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Methods 19 patients with recurrent KCOTs were retrospectively analysed. These patients had been treated by either enucleation or a combination of enucleation and Carnoy's solution. The analyses covered major aspects of primary KCOT and/or recurrent KCOT identities, including patient profile, clinical features, histopathology, radiology, treatment and prognosis. Results 19 (7.4%) out of 257 primary KCOT cases recurred, with an average patient age of 30.5 years (age range 18–45 years). 15 lesions were in the mandible and the remaining 4 were in the maxilla. There were more unilocular than multilocular occurrences for the primary tumours, with a ratio of 2.2:1. These KCOTs were initially treated by simple enucleation (12 cases) or enucleation with Carnoy's solution (7 cases). After the initial surgery, 15 out of 19 (78.9%) recurred within 6 years, while 4 (21.1%) recurred after 6 years. Evidently, the recurrent lesion was involved with the roots of the teeth in three out of six cases whose teeth were preserved. In addition, the recurrent KCOTs had a tendency to be more multilocular or multifocal than the primary cases, with a unilocular-to-multilocular ratio of 1.1:1. Conclusions 7.4% of primary KCOTs recurred within 6 years after initial treatment with either enucleation or a combination of enucleation and Carnoy's solution. The recurrent KCOTs were more likely to be multilocular or multifocal than the primary cases and often involved the teeth. The method of operation for these recurrent lesions would be considered as a more aggressive approach. PMID:22301637

  4. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors of Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Nurhan; ?ençift, Kemal; Demirkol, Özge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate different surgical treatment methods for keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and the outcome of those treatments over a 9-year period. Patients and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on 43 KCOTs in 39 patients. In radiographic evaluations for diagnosis, follow ups and before and after treatment, panoramic, 3D CT and MR images were used. The three groups of different surgical treatment were (1) enucleation for small unilocular lesions without certainty of histology; (2) enucleation with Carnoy's solution, for small unilocular lesions after previous histological confirmation of KOCT; (3) marsupialization followed by enucleation with Carnoy's solution implemented for large often multilocular KCOTs with intact or destruction of cortical bone without infiltration of neighbouring tissue. Results. 43 KCOT cases were mostly localized in mandible (76.7%), radiologically unilocular (72%), and parakeratocysts (88.4%). Inflammation and satellite cysts (daughter cysts) were detected histopathologically in 14 (32.5%) and 7 (16.3%), respectively. Among the 43 cysts, 20 (46.5%) were associated with the impacted third molar and of 21 (48.8%) was in tooth bearing area, and 5 (11, 6%) located on edentulous areas. It was located mostly in the anterior region of maxilla (90%) and in mandibular molar and ramus (62.8%). The treatments of KCOTs were 18 (41.9%) for group 1, and 10 (23.3%) group 2, and 15 (34.8%) group 3. A statistically significant relationship was found between the radiographic appearance and treatment methods (P = 0.00). No recurrence was found on 40.54 ± 23.02 months follow up. Conclusion. We concluded that successful treatment methods were enucleation and Carnoy's solution in small lesions and marsupialization in lesions that have reached a very large size, but because KCOT was observed in second decade mostly, long-term follows up are suggested. PMID:22454609

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  6. Expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Rashmi; Gupta, Kanupriya

    2013-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelium of the odontogenic apparatus or from its derivatives or remnants exhibit considerable histologic variation and are classified into several benign and malignant entities. A high proliferative activity of the odontogenic epithelium in ameloblastoma (AM) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has been demonstrated in some studies individually. However, very few previous studies have simultaneously evaluated cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes in AM and KCOT, comparing both lesions. The aim of this study was to assess and compare cell proliferation and apoptotic rates between these two tumors. Specimens of 15 solid AM and 15 KCOT were evaluated. The proliferation index (PI) was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and the apoptotic index (AI) by methyl green-pyronin stain. KCOT presented a higher PI than AM (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found in the AI between AM and KCOT. PI and AI were higher in the peripheral cells of AM and respectively in the suprabasal and superficial layers of KCOT. In conclusion, KCOT showed a higher cell proliferation than AM and the AI was similar between these tumors. These findings reinforce the classification of KCOT as an odontogenic tumor and should contribute to its aggressive clinical behavior. PMID:24090509

  7. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. PMID:24182558

  8. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Burgos, Rocío; González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy's solution. PMID:25136427

  9. Rare peripheral odontogenic tumors: report of 5 cases and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral odontogenic tumor (POT) is a rarely encountered lesion. We report 5 cases of POT including adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), ameloblastic fibroma (AF), developing odontoma (DO), and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), and also provide a review of relevant literature to define the tumor profile. Except for PCCOT with enough frequency (>100 cases), PAOT (n = 14), PKCOT (n = 15), PAF (n = 5), and PDO (n = 7) were scarce in the literature. As to the age distribution, PAOT, PAF, and PDO fell within the first 2 decades, whereas PKCOT arose in middle-aged adults. A marked female predominance was apparent in PAOT, PKCOT, and PAF. Approximately 90% of PAOT occurred in the maxilla. PAOT and PDO arose primarily in the incisor area, and PKCOT and PAF were typically located in permanent canine/premolar and deciduous molar regions, respectively. Although most PAOT and all PKCOT affected the buccal gingiva, PDO showed a strong predilection for the lingual aspect. With the exception of PKCOT, there was no propensity for recurrence in the above POT. At this time, it remains to be determined whether the biologic behavior of PKCOT is the same as for KCOT. In view of the reported cases, a true extraosseous origin of PAOT and PAF, for the most part, is challenging. PMID:18718792

  10. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: A Selective Review of 7 Jawbone Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Considerable variation in the clinicopathologic presentation of epithelial odontogenic tumors can sometimes be confusing and increase the chance of misdiagnosis. Seven diagnostically challenging jawbone lesions are described. There were 2 cases of mistaken identity in our ameloblastoma file. One unicystic type, initially diagnosed and treated as a lateral periodontal cyst, showed destructive recurrence 6 years postoperatively. The other globulomaxillary lesion was managed under the erroneous diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and recurred 4 times over an 11-year period. This tumor was found in retrospect to be consistent with an adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid. The diagnosis of cystic squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) occurring as a radicular lesion of an impacted lower third molar was one of exclusion. Of two unsuspected keratocystic odontogenic tumors, one depicted deceptive features of pericoronitis, while the other case has long been in our files with the diagnosis of globulomaxillary SOT. Two cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma appeared benign clinically and exhibited unexpected findings; an impacted third molar began to erupt in association with the growth of carcinoma and another periradicular carcinoma showed dentinoid formation. Cases selectively reviewed in this article present challenging problems which require clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:20596984

  11. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade

    PubMed Central

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy’s solution. PMID:25136427

  12. Odontogenic myxoma: Report of three cases and retrospective review of literature in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Zainab; Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Shalini; Mohanty, Sujata; Naithani, Manish; Jain, Anshul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the clinical pattern and treatment modalities meted out to patients of odontogenic myxoma (OM) in Indian population in last 30 years and also to report 3 cases of OM. Method: A retrospective review of radiograph and histopathology of three cases of odontogenic myxoma treated between 2005 and 2011 was done. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the pattern of vimentin and NSE. Also a computerized literature search using Medline and Google scholar was conducted for published articles on OM in Indian population in last 30 years. Result: A total of 32 OM cases reviewed from 25 articles retrieved. Out of them 24 myxomas were present in maxilla, only 8 were in mandible and a single case was present in supraglottic region (larynx). Surgical procedure carried out was excision and curettage in 16 patients and resection with safe margin followed by reconstruction 13 patients. All the three reported cases were successfully treated by tumor enucleation and peripheral ostectomy with no recurrence after 3 to 7 years. Conclusion: Odontogenic myxoma is a rare odontogenic tumor with inconclusive clinical and radiographic features, hence histopathological examination is mandatory to confirm its diagnosis. Although the immunohistochemical analysis may help in diagnosis but plays no role in guiding treatment planning or predicting the rate of recurrence. Currently we lack data on number of reported OM cases in Indian population as author feels more patients must have been treated then reported. PMID:26681859

  13. The orosomucoid 1 protein (α1 acid glycoprotein) is overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, but locally invasive, neoplasm occurring in the jaws. However, the molecules implicated in its development are unknown. OM as well as Dental Follicle (DF), an odontogenic tissue surrounding the enamel organ, is derived from ectomesenchymal/mesencyhmal elements. To identify some protein that could participate in the development of this neoplasm, total proteins from OM were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the profiles were compared with those obtained from DF, used as a control. Results We identified eight proteins with differential expression; two of them were downregulated and six upregulated in OM. A spot consistently overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma, with a molecular weight of 44-kDa and a pI of 3.5 was identified as the orosomucoid 1 protein. Western blot experiments confirmed the overexpression of this protein in odontogenic myxoma and immunohistochemical assays showed that this protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of stellate and spindle-shaped cells of this neoplasm. Conclusion Orosomucoid 1, which belongs to a group of acute-phase proteins, may play a role in the modulation of the immune system and possibly it influences the development of OM. PMID:22888844

  14. Bibliography on anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishna, J.; Pruett, D.M.; Santerre, M.T.; Toyoshiba, T.S.

    1980-09-01

    The priority assigned to biogas systems by participants in A.I.D's Energy for Rural Development Program spurred the compilation of this 373-item bibliography on anaerobic digestion. The materials focus on energy technologies that are especially suited to the social, economic, and institutional concerns of rural Asia and the Pacific. Entries are presented in two sections. The first presents largely non-technical reports on anaerobic digesters in South and Southeast Asia, for the years 1956-80, with emphasis on the period 1970-80. The second section, which includes both technical and non-technical references, is a condensation of a computerized search of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Research Abstracts published during the period 1977-80. The search revealed a lack of reliable data, pointing to the need for further research on the technology and potential of anaerobic digestion.

  15. Developments of anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.; Jones, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Two modifications of anaerobic fermentation of biomass were studied: separation of acid and CH4 phases of the anaerobic process used in CH4 production from the biomass and the use of attached growth methanogenesis. A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used for the acid phase. Effluent from the acid reactor was fed simultaneously to a conventional CSTR and an anaerobic rotating biological contactor (ARBC) operating in parallel for the CH4 phase. The temperature of all the reactors was 35 plus or minus 1 degree, the pH of the acid phase was 4.3, and the CH4 phase was studied at pH 7.5. The retention time for the acid phase CSTR was 4.5 h, and that for the ARBC and CSTR in the CH4 phase was 36 h.

  16. THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

  17. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Jia, Lingfei; Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Dandan; Hu, Waner; Chen, Shubin; Zhao, Yuming; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing; Ge, Lihong; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs) from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-?/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegf?, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGF?, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegf?, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs. PMID:26925321

  18. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Dandan; Hu, Waner; Chen, Shubin; Zhao, Yuming; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs) from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-β/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGFα, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs. PMID:26925321

  19. The Role of ORAI1 in the Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S; Park, Y; Srikanth, S; Arai, A; Song, M; Yu, B; Shin, K-H; Kang, M K; Wang, C; Gwack, Y; Park, N-H; Kim, R H

    2015-11-01

    Pulp capping, or placing dental materials directly onto the vital pulp tissues of affected teeth, is a dental procedure that aims to regenerate reparative dentin. Several pulp capping materials are clinically being used, and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) released from these materials is known to mediate reparative dentin formation. ORAI1 is an essential pore subunit of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), which is a major Ca(2+) influx pathway in most nonexcitable cells. Here, we evaluated the role of ORAI1 in mediating the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). During the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs, the expression of ORAI1 increased in a time-dependent manner. DPSCs knocked down with ORAI1 shRNA (DPSC/ORAI1sh) or overexpressed with dominant negative mutant ORAI1(E106Q) (DPSC/E106Q) exhibited the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and suppression of odontogenic differentiation and mineralization as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/staining as well as alizarin red S staining when compared with DPSCs of their respective control groups (DPSC/CTLsh and DPSC/CTL). The gene expression for odontogenic differentiation markers such as osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) was also suppressed. When DPSC/CTL or DPSC/E106Q cells were subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice, DPSC/CTL cells induced mineralized tissue formation with significant increases in ALP and DMP1 staining in vivo, whereas DPSC/E106Q cells did not. Collectively, our data showed that ORAI1 plays critical roles in the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of DPSCs by regulating Ca(2+) influx and that ORAI1 may be a therapeutic target to enhance reparative dentin formation. PMID:26403672

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of odontogenic cysts and tumours

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, K; Seith Bhalla, A; Sharma, R; Kumar, A; Roychoudhury, A; Bhutia, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The differentiation between keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) and other cystic/predominantly cystic odontogenic tumours is difficult on conventional CT and MR sequences as there is overlap in the imaging characteristics of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to assess the performance of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the differential diagnosis of odontogenic cysts and tumours. Methods 20 patients with odontogenic cysts and tumours of the maxillomandibular region were examined with DWI. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained with a single-shot echoplanar technique with b-values of 0, 500 and 1000 s mm?2. An ADC map was obtained at each slice position. Results The cystic areas of ameloblastoma (n=10) showed free diffusion with a mean ADC value of 2.192±0.33×10?3 mm2 s?1, whereas the solid areas showed restricted diffusion with a mean ADC value of 1.041±0.41×10?3 mm2 s?1. KCOT (n=5) showed restricted diffusion with a mean ADC value of 1.019±0.07×10?3 mm2 s?1. There was a significant difference between the ADC values of KCOT and cystic ameloblastoma (p<0.01, Mann–Whitney U-test). The cut-off with which KCOT and predominantly cystic ameloblastomas were optimally differentiated was 2.013×10?3 mm2 s?1, which yielded 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusion DWI can be used to differentiate KCOT from cystic (or predominantly cystic) odontogenic tumours. PMID:22553294

  1. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Enucleation, Excision of the Overlying Mucosa and Electrocauterization - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, A; Rani, G

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst remains an enigma for clinicians and researchers, although gains in knowledge in recent years have improved the understanding of this interesting lesion. The diagnostic problems are mainly related to the relative lack of specific clinical and radiographic features that unequivocally point to a proper diagnosis. Of particular interest to clinicians is the biologic behaviour of keratocysts which includes high rates of recurrence and potential existence as a benign odontogenic neoplasm, keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Various surgical modalities have evolved in an attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, including curettage, peripheral ostectomy, removal of overlying mucosa in cases of cortical perforation and osseous resection in the form of marginal or segmental osteotomies. The present case report describes the conservative surgical management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a young patient with no evidence of recurrence at two years follow-up. PMID:25867564

  2. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Enucleation, Excision of the Overlying Mucosa and Electrocauterization – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, A; Rani, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Odontogenic keratocyst remains an enigma for clinicians and researchers, although gains in knowledge in recent years have improved the understanding of this interesting lesion. The diagnostic problems are mainly related to the relative lack of specific clinical and radiographic features that unequivocally point to a proper diagnosis. Of particular interest to clinicians is the biologic behaviour of keratocysts which includes high rates of recurrence and potential existence as a benign odontogenic neoplasm, keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Various surgical modalities have evolved in an attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, including curettage, peripheral ostectomy, removal of overlying mucosa in cases of cortical perforation and osseous resection in the form of marginal or segmental osteotomies. The present case report describes the conservative surgical management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a young patient with no evidence of recurrence at two years follow-up. PMID:25867564

  3. Metronidazole in prevention and treatment of bacteroides infections after appendicectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, A T; Ferguson, I R; Jones, P H; Phillips, K D; Tearle, P V; Berry, R B; Fiddian, R V; Graham, D F; Harland, D H; Innes, D B; Mee, W M; Rothwell-Jackson, R L; Sutch, I; Kilbey, C; Edwards, D

    1976-01-01

    The frequency of non-clostridial anaerobic infection was studied in 95 patients who had undergone acute appendicectomy: 49 received prophylactic metronidazole and 46 received placebo. Anaerobic infection did not develop in any of the metronidazole-treated patients, but infections did develop in nine (19%) of the 46 controls. Metronidazole is conveniently administered by suppository to patients who cannot take oral drugs. Five patients with intra-abdominal infections caused by non-clostridial anaerobes were successfully treated with metronidazole. PMID:764935

  4. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  5. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  6. Odontogenic myxoma containing osteocement-like spheroid bodies: report of a case with an unusual histopathological feature.

    PubMed

    Oygür, T; Dolanmaz, D; Tokman, B; Bayraktar, S

    2001-09-01

    The odontogenic myxoma is a rare, benign, but locally invasive tumour of the jaws. Radiographically, it is a bone destroying lesion and has ill-defined borders. Histological characteristics are spindle and stellate-shaped tumour cells and a distinct myxomatous stroma. Bony islands that represent residual trabeculae are found scattered throughout the lesion. This report describes a case of odontogenic myxoma that shows diffusely dispersed osteocement-like spherular calcified bodies, unlike residual bone trabeculae, and discusses its differential diagnosis. PMID:11545243

  7. Concomitant occurrence of cemento-ossifying fibroma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with bilateral impacted permanent canines in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A Ravi; Reddy, P Sreenivas; Bavle, Radhika M

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon, benign and slow growing odontogenic tumor, which is usually located in an anterior region of the maxilla without pain. Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a relatively rare benign tumor of the jaw. Here we present 2 lesions presenting in unusual forms, follicular variant of AOT in the mandible and COF associated with impacted canine in the mandible, occurring concomitantly in the same patient. Both lesions presented classic histopathologic features. PMID:23059596

  8. An Immunohistochemical Survey to Evaluate the Expression of CD105 and CD34 in Ameloblastoma and Odontogenic Keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Baghaei, Fahime; Shojaei, Setareh; Zare Mahmoodabadi, Reza; Dehghan, Arash; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor which is slow-growing, locally invasive and exhibit specific biologic behavior and high recurrence rate. Likewise, odontogenic keratocyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst that has a high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. There are limited studies considering the relationship between the angiogenesis factors and the biologic behavior of these lesions. Purpose: the aim of this study was to evaluate the mean density of vessels in odontogenic keratocysts and ameloblastoma and investigate its possible relationship with biological behavior of these lesions. Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 40 cases, comprising 10 odontogenic keratocysts and 30 ameloblastomas (10 plexiform, 10 follicular, and 10 unicystic type) were selected and were stained immuno-histochemically with CD34 and CD105. The micro vessel density was assessed and compared in all groups. T- test for the independent samples’ One- way Anova, Wilcoxon test and Tukey tests were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in mean vascular density (MVD) between the odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma groups concerning the CD105 and CD34 markers (p= 0.005, p= 0.000, respectively). The MVD was significantly higher in ameloblastomas than odontogenic keratocyst. MVD with CD34 was significantly higher than MVD with CD105 in ameloblastomas (p= 0.00). Conclusion: It can be suggested that angiogenesis might be one of the mechanisms that is more possible to contribute the aggressive biological behaviors in ameloblastoma rather than odontogenic keratocyst. PMID:25469359

  9. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Mast Cells and Small Blood Vessels in Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Periapical Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Jamali, Golshan; Farnia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the density of mast cells (MCs) and microvessels in odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, the correlation between MCs and microvessels was evaluated to assess the contribution of MCs to angiogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. This approach may be a basis for the development of future pharmaceuticals addressed to MCs performance to manage odontogenic cysts. To our knowledge, no study investigating the correlation between MCs and microvessels has been performed to date. Methods: 60 cases of odontogenic cysts consisting of 20 radicular cysts (RCs), 20 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and 20 dentigerous cysts (DCs) were included in this study. Five high power fields in superficial connective tissue and five high power fields in deep connective tissue were counted for each sample. Moreover, a total mean of ten fields was calculated. Results: RC showed the highest mean numbers of MCs and microvessels (p<0.05). The subepithelial zones of all cysts contained more MCs and microvessels compared to the deeper zones. A statistically significant correlation between the numbers of MCs and microvessels was not observed (r=0.00, p=0.49). Conclusion: Although the number of MCs was not significantly associated with microvessels, these cells may be related to the growth of odontogenic lesions, particularly RCs. Further studies on the in vivo functions of MCs will make the concept more clear. PMID:26793609

  10. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895

  11. Anaerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Roopathy, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used aerobic tempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic microorganisms. In many cases attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions results in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. Trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitrate from trinitrotoluene is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the production of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. This presentation will review the data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT and other nitroaromatics.

  12. Simultaneous occurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma in the mandible: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GAMOH, SHOKO; AKIYAMA, HIRONORI; TOMINAGA, KAZUYA; NAKAJIMA, MASAHIRO; KAKUDO, KENJI; TANAKA, AKIO; SHIMIZUTANI, KIMISHIGE

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and ameloblastomas are benign odontogenic tumors that primarily occur in the molar region of the mandible. However, it is uncommon for these tumors to arise simultaneously in a patient's jaw. The present study reported the diagnostic process and features of a rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of KCOT and ameloblastoma in the mandible of a 45-year-old male. Image-based diagnosis was challenging due to several conditions, including the intactness of the teeth and bone cortex as well as the sizes and locations of the lesions. Based on radiographic evidence, the patient was initially misdiagnosed and underwent a biopsy for a radicular cyst and a simple bone cyst prior to the correct diagnoses of KCOT and ameloblastoma, respectively. In addition, the present study discussed the diagnostic process of the present case and reviewed previous literature regarding the simultaneous occurrence of benign tumors of the jaw. PMID:26622570

  13. Oral pulse granuloma associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumor: Report of a case and review on etiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S.; Angadi, Punnya V.; Mane, Deepa R.; Hallikerimath, Seema R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulse granuloma is a distinct oral entity characterized as a foreign body reaction occurring either centrally or peripherally. It is usually seen in the periapical or in the sulcus area. Occasionally the lesions occur in the wall of the cyst, commonest being the inflammatory odontogenic cyst. Histologically, they present as eosinophilic hyaline mass with giant cell inclusions and inflammatory cells. They may show different histological characteristics, possibly related to the length of time in the tissue. Adequate recognition is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Many authors suggest that pulse granuloma results due to implantation of food particles of plant or vegetable origin into the tissue following tooth extraction. This paper aims to report a case of pulse granuloma associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumor with its histochemical and polarizing microscopic features and discuss on etiopathogenesis of pulse granuloma. PMID:23482677

  14. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gerusa O M; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N R; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  15. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Extraosseal Spread: Evaluation of the Effect Carnoy's Solution.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Macho?, Vladimír; Grill, Pavel; Hirjak, Dušan; Foltán, René

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour is relatively rare benign tumour. It is characterized by its fast aggressive growth and high risk of recurrence. Treatment is always surgical: conservative (enucleation, marsupialization) or aggressive (enucleation followed by application of Carnoy's solution, cryotherapy; peripheral ostectomy or en block resection of the jaw). Authors analysed retrospectively 22 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria, i.e. had odontogenic keratocystic tumour of mandible, wherein antero-posterior dimension was at least 30 mm, and the tumour penetrated into the surrounding soft tissues. All patients underwent tumour enucleation, in 11 patients Carnoy's solution was given into the bone cavity after enucleation. The recurrence rate in the evaluation at least 36 months after surgery was both patient groups the same: 45.4%. PMID:26654803

  16. Peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumour - is it really peripheral?: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, N; Rajeshwari, M R C; Bharathi, R; Shaheen, A

    2013-07-01

    A Peripheral Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (PAOT) is quite a rare entity which has been infrequently reported in the literature. These uncommon clinical variants of an Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (AOT), typically manifest as a soft tissue mass of the gingiva, which mimick a common epulis, but yet have an identical histopathologic presentation as their intraosseous counterpart. These lesions, though they are indolent in nature, have a tendency to cause well defined deep bony pockets. Only fourteen cases have been adequately documented so far. We are reporting a case of a PAOT of the anterior maxillary gingiva, with a periodontal bone defect in a 12 year old girl. The relevant literature has been briefly reviewed, with an insight into the probable origin of PAOTs with bony defects. PMID:23998113

  17. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  18. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

  19. Obstruction of the eruption pathway by peripheral odontogenic fibroma: report of a patient.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri; Marini, Ida; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Checchi, Luigi

    2008-02-01

    The diagnostic process and interdisciplinary treatment of a healthy 12-year-old boy with impactions due to a localized peripheral odontogenic fibroma are presented. The treatment consisted of the surgical excision of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma and interceptive orthodontic treatment with an activator appliance to allow the passive eruption of the impacted teeth. Complete orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was used later to level and coordinate the arches. This report illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of tooth impactions associated with diffuse gingival enlargement. The cooperation of various specialists in making a differential diagnosis, developing a comprehensive plan for conservative treatment, and delivering excellent care led to a successful result for this patient. PMID:18249298

  20. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

  1. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports.

    PubMed

    Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

  2. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma mimicking a cystic lesion: a case of misdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minkyu; Cho, Eunae; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare jaw tumor that was classified as a malignant tumor of odontogenic origin in 2005 by the World Health Organization because of its aggressive and destructive growth capacity and metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes. We report a case of a 66-year-old female who had swelling, incision and drainage history and a well-defined unicystic radiolucent lesion that was comparable to a cystic lesion. At first, the patient received decompression, and the lesion size decreased. Three months after decompression, cyst enucleation was performed. The pathologic result indicated that the lesion was CCOC. In this report we emphasize that patients with painful cystic lesions in addition to jaw enlargement and loosening teeth should be considered for the possibility of malignancy. PMID:25247151

  3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-12-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  4. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-01-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  5. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  6. A comparative analysis of LEF-1 in odontogenic and salivary tumors.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A; Acquafondata, Marie; Barnes, E Leon; Seethala, Raja R

    2015-02-01

    LEF-1 is a nuclear transcription factor of the Wnt pathway that regulates multipotent skin stem cell differentiation. ?-Catenin is considered a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with LEF-1.This study evaluates LEF-1 in a variety of odontogenic and salivary tumors and determines the prevalence of ?-catenin coexpression. Ninety-eight salivary gland tumors and 51 odontogenic tumors were evaluated for LEF-1 and ?-catenin immunohistochemical staining. Positivity was defined as at least 2+ intensity in more than 50% of tumor cells, which required a composite score of 6 or more. LEF-1 was positive in 64% (7/11) of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT). Nuclear ?-catenin was present in 82% (9/11) of CCOT. Coexpression of LEF-1 and nuclear ?-catenin was noted in all LEF-1-positive CCOT. Strong and diffuse LEF-1 expression was seen in 69% (11/16) of basal cell adenocarcinomas (BCAC) and 63% (5/8) of basal cell adenomas (BA). Nuclear ?-catenin was present in 50% (4/8) of BA and 43% (6/14) of BCAC. For BA, 4 of 5 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression of ?-catenin, and for BCAC, 5 of 9 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression. In conclusion, this study documents for the first time the presence of LEF-1 expression and nuclear ?-catenin coexpression in select basaloid salivary gland tumors and various odontogenic tumors. We demonstrate LEF-1 expression in both BA and BCAC preferentially over other salivary gland tumors suggesting some utility as a diagnostic marker. PMID:25497834

  7. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor with Unusual Localization and Appearance: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sucheta; Joshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Squamous odontogenic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and may affect multiple sites in the mouth. SOT was first described by Pullon et al. (1975). Since then, there have been less than 50 reported cases. The tumor is often asymptomatic, although it can present with symptoms of pain and tooth mobility. We report a case of SOT occurring in a 26-year-old female in the anterior mandible with unusual localization and appearance. PMID:23606851

  8. Dentigerous Cyst or Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: Clinical Radiological and Histopathological Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Shivesh; Goyal, Ashima; Rattan, Vidya; Vaiphei, Kim; Kaur Bhatia, Sarabjot

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a well-recognised slow growing benign tumor derived from complex system of dental lamina or its remnants. This lesion is categorised into three variants of which the more common variant is follicular type which is often mistaken for dentigerous cyst. We present a case of AOT in a 14-year-old male who was misdiagnosed as dentigerous cyst. Clinical radiological and therapeutic characteristics of the case are commented on in detail. PMID:25097553

  9. Treatment of intraabdominal infection.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, S L

    1984-05-15

    Intraabdominal infections are derived from the flora of the gastrointestinal tract. The upper intestine, from the stomach to the mid-ileum, harbors a sparse microflora. The lower tract harbors a luxuriant flora comprised predominantly of anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriodes fragilis is the leading pathogen in anaerobic infections. In a recent nationwide survey of the susceptibility patterns of B. fragilis the most active beta-lactam antibiotics were cefoxitin, piperacillin and moxalactam. The other active drugs included metronidazole, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol. Many other penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as tetracyclines, showed poor activity. Clinical trials of antimicrobial drugs in intraabdominal infections generally have verified in vitro susceptibility tests. Before accepting a new drug for treating anaerobic infections, it is necessary to establish its efficacy in susceptibility tests, animal models and clinical trials. PMID:6372458

  10. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago. PMID:24972654

  11. Evaluation and comparison of expression of p63 in odontogenic keratocyst, solid ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Varsha, BK; Gharat, A Leena; Nagamalini, BR; Jyothsna, M; Mothkur, Sahana T; Swaminathan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The behavior of odontogenic lesions varies with some tumors behaving like a cyst and some cysts behaving like tumors. p63, a member of the p53 family of tumor suppressor genes has recently come into light in view of its role as an oncogene. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of p63 protein in OKC, Solid ameloblastoma, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Follicular tissue. Materials and Methods: p63 expression was compared in 12 cases of OKC, 12 Solid Ameloblastoma, 14 cases of Unicystic ameloblastoma and 10 cases of Follicular tissue using immunohistochemical technique. All 48 cases were subjected to heat-induced antigen retrieval method using citrate buffer in a pressure cooker. Then the sections were stained with anti-p63 polyclonal antibody and visualized using super sensitive polymer HRP detection system. In each case, number of cells showing p63 positivity were assessed in two compartments - basal and suprabasal and compared. Results: Statistical analysis showed that p63 expression in the suprabasal compartment in Odontogenic keratocysts was equivalent to that of central neoplastic cells of Solid Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma type 3. Statistically significant difference in the expression of p63 was observed between OKC and Unicystic Ameloblastoma Type 1 and Solid Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma Type 1. Conclusion: We conclude that the higher expression of p63 in these odontogenic lesions correlates well with their aggressive behavior and thereby suggesting alterations in treatment modalities. PMID:25328303

  12. A 44-year analysis of ghost cell odontogenic tumour subtypes in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Baghaee, Fereshteh; Dadafarid, Zahra; Alaeddini, Mojgan

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate the relative frequency of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumours (CCOTs), dentinogenic ghost cell tumours (DGCTs) and ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas (GCOCs), collectively known as ghost cell odontogenic tumours (GCOTs), in an Iranian population and to classify these lesions according to the 2005 WHO guidelines. Clinical/demographic data were recorded for all COCs referred to our Department from 1966 to 2010. H&E-stained slides were re-evaluated by two observers and all cases were reclassified according to the 2005 WHO guidelines. The male to female ratio of 37 retrieved COCs was 1.6 with most cases occurring intraosseously and in the second decade of life. Involvement of the mandible was significantly higher than the maxilla (P = 0.033). Histopathologically, most lesions demonstrated a cystic morphology and there were no GCOCs among our cases. Eight cases were followed for 4-20 years and 3 of them showed a total of 5 recurrences. Considering the variations among clinicopathologic reports of COC from different countries, presentation of epidemiologic data based on a universally accepted classification system would be extremely helpful in providing a better understanding of this lesion and comparing results between studies. PMID:24556524

  13. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1?g/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:25813393

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Robert A.; Rumpho, Mary E.; Fox, Theodore C.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to oxygen deficits is more widespread in biological systems than is commonly believed. Until recently, the general perception of anaerobic metabolism was often limited to the induction of alcoholic or lactic acid fermentation as the sole biochemical response to hypoxia/anoxia. Developments in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of anaerobic responses in invertebrates, lower plants, and higher plants have demonstrated that, depending upon the species, anaerobic metabolism may encompass much more than simple glycolytic metabolism. Here, recent progress in elucidating the mechanism(s) determining tolerance versus intolerance to anaerobic environments in higher plants is discussed, drawing most heavily on experimental systems using seeds or seedlings. PMID:16652929

  15. Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures. PMID:22070833

  16. Anaerobic CO2 Cabinet for the Cultivation of Strict Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Leach, P. Ann; Bullen, J. J.; Grant, I. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design and construction of an anaerobic CO2 cabinet are described. Air is displaced by a stream of oxygen-free CO2, and anerobic conditions are produced in 3 hr. The equipment is simple and cheap to operate and has been found to be satisfactory for the isolation of strict anaerobes from the mouse intestine. Images PMID:4943587

  17. A retrospective study of 21 cases of malignant odontogenic tumours from two tertiary health centres in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Akinyamoju, Akindayo Olufunto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant odontogenic tumours (MOTs) are relatively rare tmours and only few cases have been reported in the sub-Sahara African literature. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic distribution of malignant odontogenic tumours in two tertiary health centres based on the current WHO 2005 classification scheme. Methods We reviewed 21 malignant odontogenic tumours out of a total of 374 odontogenic tumours from two Tertiary Health Centres. Information regarding histology, location, patients age and gender for MOTs were analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results Twenty one (5.6%) MOTs out of a total of 374 odontogenic tumours were seen from the two institutions over the study period. The median age for MOTs was 42.0 (±19.0) years (range = 16-66 years). The male: female ratio was 2.5:1 and 85.7% occurred in the mandible. Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) with 13 (61.9%) cases was the most common MOT. AC had a mean age of 37.5 (±11.9) years. AC had a mandible: maxilla ratio of 5.5:1 with majority (84.6%) occurring in the posterior mandible. Conclusion This study showed that MOTs are rare lesions. AC was the most common MOT and majority of MOTs occurred in the posterior mandible of male patients. The study helps to better elucidate the demography of MOTs in sub-Sahara Africans. PMID:26185562

  18. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in pre-existing keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    BAI, MING-RU; SHEN, TING; CHEN, YU; GENG, NING

    2016-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare type of odontogenic carcinoma that arises within the jaws. PIOSCC has no initial connection with oral mucosa and possibly develops from the residues of the odontogenic epithelium or from an odontogenic cyst or tumor. The diagnosis of PIOSCC can be difficult as it must be differentiated from other odontogenic carcinomas, such as malignant ameloblastoma, from SCCs arising from the overlying oral mucosa, from the primary tumors of the maxillary sinus or nasal mucosa, and from the tumors that have metastasized to the jaws from other primary sites. The present study reported a rare case of a 59-year-old male patient with a course of keratocystic odontogenic tumor for 25 years, between 1988 and 2013, which eventually transformed into PIOSCC after at least five recurrences and corresponding treatments. The mandible excision and titanium plate reconstruction was performed. Follow-up examinations have revealed no sign of recurrence thus far. The present study discussed this case from three aspects of clinical history, radiological examination and pathological features. PMID:26893858

  19. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  20. Recovery of anaerobic bacteria from wounds after lawn-mower injuries.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2005-02-01

    Accidental injury while using lawn mowers can cause serious infectious complications in the injured extremity. Anaerobic bacteria were rarely recovered from this infection. Two children who sustained injury in their foot by a lawn mower developed severe wound infection. Culture of the wound from 1 patient had heavy growth of Clostridium bifermentans and Peptostreptococcus magnus, and the culture from the other child grew Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrobial therapy directed at the pathogens and vigorous surgical irrigation and debridement led to complete recovery from the infection. This report illustrates the recovery of anaerobic bacteria from children that had wound infection after lawn-mower injury. PMID:15699821

  1. Aggressive Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor of the Maxillary Sinus with Extraosseous Oral Mucosal Involvement: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Vidya; Masthan, Mahaboob Kadar; Aravindha, Babu; Leena, Sankari

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors are benign odontogenic neoplasms whose occurrence in the maxillary sinus is rare. Maxillary tumors tend to be locally aggressive and may rapidly involve the surrounding vital structures. We report a case of a large calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of the maxilla, involving the maxillary sinus in a 48-year-old woman. The tumor was largely intraosseous. In the canine and first premolar regions, the loss of bone could be palpated but the oral mucosa appeared normal. Histologically, the tumor tissue could be seen in the connective tissue below the oral epithelium. The most significant finding was the presence of an intraosseous tumor with an extraosseous involvement in a single tumor, indicating aggressive behavior and warranting aggressive treatment. In this article, we discuss the rare presentation of the tumor and its radiological appearance and histological features. We also highlight the importance of a detailed histopathological examination of the excised specimen. PMID:26989286

  2. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour of the Mandible: a case report of decompression with a customised removable tube and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Smit, R B; Moore, B K; Lou, S M Y

    2015-09-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT or KCOT) is defined by the WHO to be 'a benign uni- or multicystic, intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin'. In 2005, the World Health Organization renamed the lesion; previously known as an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) as the KCOT. WHO recommends the term KCOT as it reflects its neoplastic nature. In this case report, a 21-year-old female with a histologically proven large parakeratinised KCOT of the right mandible underwent treatment that involved a 14-month period of decompression, followed by enucleation (with Carnoys application) of the residual cyst. During the period of decompression, a custom made removable mandibular chrome-cobalt appliance was used to hold the decompression tube in the oral cavity. PMID:26502597

  3. Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

    2000-12-01

    Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

  4. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    PubMed

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown. PMID:21491069

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Chaperones, Bip/GRP78 and Calnexin are Overexpressed in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Pavli, Maria; Farmaki, Elena; Merkourea, Stavroula; Vastardis, Helen; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Tzerbos, Fotios

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts that have been reclassified according World Health Organization (WHO), to keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), a term that better reflects their neoplastic nature. The aim of present study is to evaluate the induction of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and execution of the resulting unfolded protein response in keratinocystic odontogenic tumours. Material and Methods We analyzed by immunohistochemistry the expression of the chaperones BiP/GRP78 and calnexin in 24 cases of KCOTs. As controls, we have used 9 cases of periapical or radicular cysts (PACs) and 5 cases of Fibromas (FBs). The PACs and the FBs were included in the analysis, as PACs are the most common type of inflammatory odontogenic cysts of and FBs, as lesions of the connective tissue with unaffected epithelium. Results Analysis revealed a strong association between both BiP/GRP78 and calnexin expression and KCOTs: 18 out of 24 (75%) KCOTs expressed BiP/GRP78 as opposed to 1 out of 9 (13%) PACs, and none of 5 FBs evaluated (P < 0.001, x2-test). Calnexin was expressed in 11 out of 24 KCOTs (46%) but only one out of 9 (13%) PACs, and none of the 5 FBs analyzed (P < 0.001, x2-test). Conclusions Study results imply that induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress maybe of diagnostic value in keratocystic odontogenic tumours characterization. In addition to recent findings suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a causative role in keratinization of epithelia, pharmacological interference with the execution of the unfolded protein response should be considered for the management of keratocystic odontogenic tumours. PMID:24800053

  6. The histone acetyltransferase p300 regulates the expression of pluripotency factors and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Liu, Huijuan; Ning, Yanyang; Xu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    p300 is a well-known histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and coactivator that plays vital roles in many physiological processes. Despite extensive research on the involvement of p300 in the regulation of transcription in numerous cell lines, the roles of this protein in regulating pluripotency genes and odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the expression of OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 and the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation capacity of HDPCs following p300 overexpression. We found that p300 overexpression did not overtly affect the ability of HDPCs to proliferate. The overexpression of p300 upregulated the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression of NANOG and SOX2. The HAT activity of p300 appeared to partially mediate the regulation of these factors; indeed, when a mutant form of p300 lacking the HAT domain was overexpressed, the promoter activity and expression of NANOG and SOX2 decreased relative to p300 overexpression but was greater than in the control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA levels of the odontogenic marker genes dentine matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly decreased in HDPCs overexpressing p300 cultured under normal culture conditions and increased in HDPCs inducted to undergo odontogenic differentiation. This finding was further confirmed by measuring levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and assessing the formation of mineralized nodules. The HAT activity of p300 had no significant effect on odontogenic differentiation. p300 was recruited to the promoter regions of OCN and DSPP and might be acting as a coactivator to increase the acetylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 of OCN and DSPP. Collectively, our results show that p300 plays an important role in regulating the expression of key pluripotency genes in HDPCs and modifying odontogenic differentiation. PMID:25007265

  7. Novel PTCH1 Mutations in Patients with Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Screened for Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Guarneri, Carmelo; Ghiorzo, Paola; Longo, Caterina; Bruno, William; Giusti, Francesca; Bassoli, Sara; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Ruini, Cristel; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic tumors that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, KCOTs of the jaws and a variety of other tumors. PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs. The aim of the current study was to assess whether a combined clinical and bio-molecular approach could be suitable for the detection of NBCCS among patients with a diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). The authors collected keratocystic odontogenic tumors recorded in the database of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia during the period 1991–2011. Through interviews and examinations, family pedigrees were drawn for all patients affected by these odontogenic lesions. We found out that 18 of the 70 patients with KCOTs and/or multiple basal cell carcinomas actually met the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of NBCCS. A wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was evident in the families. Ameloblastomas (AMLs) were reported in two probands that are also carriers of the PCTH1 germline mutations. Nine germline mutations in the PTCH1 gene, 5 of them novel, were evident in 14 tested probands. The clinical evaluation of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors can be used as screening for the detection of families at risk of NBCCS. Keratocystic odontogenic lesions are uncommon, and their discovery deserves the search for associated cutaneous basal cell carcinomas and other benign and malignant tumors related to NBCCS. PMID:22952776

  8. Novel PTCH1 mutations in patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumors screened for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (NBCC) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Guarneri, Carmelo; Ghiorzo, Paola; Longo, Caterina; Bruno, William; Giusti, Francesca; Bassoli, Sara; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Ruini, Cristel; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic tumors that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, KCOTs of the jaws and a variety of other tumors. PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs. The aim of the current study was to assess whether a combined clinical and bio-molecular approach could be suitable for the detection of NBCCS among patients with a diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). The authors collected keratocystic odontogenic tumors recorded in the database of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia during the period 1991-2011. Through interviews and examinations, family pedigrees were drawn for all patients affected by these odontogenic lesions. We found out that 18 of the 70 patients with KCOTs and/or multiple basal cell carcinomas actually met the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of NBCCS. A wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was evident in the families. Ameloblastomas (AMLs) were reported in two probands that are also carriers of the PCTH1 germline mutations. Nine germline mutations in the PTCH1 gene, 5 of them novel, were evident in 14 tested probands. The clinical evaluation of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors can be used as screening for the detection of families at risk of NBCCS. Keratocystic odontogenic lesions are uncommon, and their discovery deserves the search for associated cutaneous basal cell carcinomas and other benign and malignant tumors related to NBCCS. PMID:22952776

  9. Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla: A report of a rare case and review on histogenetic and diagnostic concepts

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ajaz; Lone, Parveen; Latoo, Suhail; Ahmed, Irshad; Malik, Altaf; Hassan, Shahid; Naik, Aijaz; Rashid, Rizwan Ur

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm (comprising of 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors) found exclusively in the jaws. OM commonly occurs in the second and third decades, and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 37-year-old female patient with a brief review of the pathogenesis, clinical, radiological, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of OM. PMID:22639512

  10. Paradoxical anaerobism in desert pupfish.

    PubMed

    Heuton, Matt; Ayala, Luis; Burg, Chris; Dayton, Kyle; McKenna, Ken; Morante, Aldo; Puentedura, Georgina; Urbina, Natasha; Hillyard, Stanley; Steinberg, Spencer; van Breukelen, Frank

    2015-12-01

    In order to estimate metabolic demands of desert pupfish for conservation purposes, we measured oxygen consumption in fish acclimated to the ecologically relevant temperatures of 28 or 33°C. For these experiments, we used fish derived from a refuge population of Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). Measurement of routine oxygen consumption (V̇O2,routine) revealed some 33°C-acclimated fish (10% of 295 assayed fish) periodically exhibited periods of no measurable oxygen consumption despite available ambient oxygen tensions that were above the critical PO2. We call this phenomenon paradoxical anaerobism. The longest observed continuous bout with no oxygen consumption was 149 min, although typical bouts were much shorter. Fish maintained normal posture and ventilation rate (>230 ventilations per minute) during paradoxical anaerobism. Fish rarely demonstrated a compensatory increase in oxygen use following a period of paradoxical anaerobism. In contrast, only one out of 262 sampled fish acclimated at 28°C spontaneously demonstrated paradoxical anaerobism. Muscle lactate concentration was not elevated during periods of paradoxical anaerobism. However, the amount of ethanol released by the 33°C-acclimated fish was 7.3 times greater than that released by the 28°C acclimation group, suggesting ethanol may be used as an alternative end product of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure to exogenous ethanol, in concentrations as low as 0.1%, produced periods of paradoxical anaerobism even in 28°C-acclimated fish. PMID:26632453

  11. Study of immunohistochemical demonstration of Bcl-2 protein in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sindura, CS; Babu, Chaitanya; Mysorekar, Vijaya; Kumar, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma) gene product also known as apoptotic inhibitor is expressed in many normal and tumor tissues. This Bcl-2 gene protects the cell by blocking postmitotic differentiation from apoptosis, thus maintaining the stem cell pool. Objective: To study the expression of Bcl-2 protein in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) to determine their apoptotic behaviors and to analyze biological nature of KCOT, which has higher proliferative potential and aggressive clinical behavior like odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of ameloblastoma (n = 20) and KCOT (n = 20) are considered for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody against antihuman Bcl-2 oncoprotein. Lymphomas (n = 3) were used as controls. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was performed using software package of social science version 16. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Student's t test. In all the above tests, P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: The positive ratio of Bcl-2 was 85% (17/20) in ameloblastoma, 85% (17/20) in KCOT and 100% (3/3) in lymphomas. Bcl-2 was expressed in peripheral cells and few scattered cells of stellate reticulum in ameloblastoma. KCOT showed strong positivity for Bcl-2 mainly in the basal layer. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the aggressive nature of KCOT and intrinsic growth potential of its lining epithelium. This study clearly demonstrates that KCOT like ameloblastoma demonstrates aggressive clinical and noticeable invasive behavior. Therefore, it is now considered as no longer a developmental cyst but as odontogenic tumor. PMID:24250074

  12. Desmoplastic ameloblastoma: a rare odontogenic neoplasm with unusual radiographic and histomorphological presentation.

    PubMed

    Belgaumi, U I; Sundaresh, K J; Varma, Siddhartha; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a newly recognised, rare odontogenic neoplasm that is a histological variant of ameloblastoma. In this type, the islands of ameloblastoma are surrounded and often compressed by a dense and sometimes hyalinised fibrous connective tissue. Although ameloblastomas are usually located in the mandible, this variant often occurs in the anterior maxilla. In view of the paucity of DA case series and only limited understanding of its biological behaviour and prognosis, proper treatment strategies for DA are not entirely defined so far. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and to demonstrate a rare case for an improved understanding of the behaviour and prognosis of DA. PMID:23645643

  13. Desmoplastic ameloblastoma: a rare odontogenic neoplasm with unusual radiographic and histomorphological presentation

    PubMed Central

    Belgaumi, U I; Sundaresh, K J; Varma, Siddhartha; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a newly recognised, rare odontogenic neoplasm that is a histological variant of ameloblastoma. In this type, the islands of ameloblastoma are surrounded and often compressed by a dense and sometimes hyalinised fibrous connective tissue. Although ameloblastomas are usually located in the mandible, this variant often occurs in the anterior maxilla. In view of the paucity of DA case series and only limited understanding of its biological behaviour and prognosis, proper treatment strategies for DA are not entirely defined so far. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and to demonstrate a rare case for an improved understanding of the behaviour and prognosis of DA. PMID:23645643

  14. Clinicopathological study of peripheral odontogenic fibromas (WHO-type) in Malaysians (1967-95).

    PubMed

    Siar, C H; Ng, K H

    2000-02-01

    Analysis of case records of 46 patients with peripheral odontogenic fibroma (1967-95) diagnosed in the Division of Stomatology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, disclosed a relatively young age of onset (mean, 32.2 years; range 5 months-64 years; peak incidence second decade of life), a slight female preponderance (M:F ratio 1:1.3), no racial predilection, a slight bias towards location in the mandible (52%) and a wide histomorphological range. All cases were treated by simple excision. Follow-up records were generally not available, so we do not know what the recurrence rate is. PMID:10783442

  15. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with a dilacerated maxillary central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Baliga, Vidya; Prasad, Umesh Chandra

    2011-10-01

    The authors report a case of a 16-year-old male with peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) in the anterior maxilla associated with dilaceration of a tooth in its vicinity. A solitary, exophytic and sessile growth was present between the maxillary right central and lateral incisors and extended from the labial mucosa to the palatal gingiva. A periapical radiograph of the maxillary right central incisor revealed a shortened and dilacerated root. The growth was excised and sent for histopathologic examination. A diagnosis of POF (World Health Organization type) was rendered. The clinical and microscopic features are discussed. PMID:23738522

  16. Maxillary odontogenic carcinoma with distant metastasis to axillary skin, brain, and lung: case report.

    PubMed

    Kao, S Y; Pong, B Y; Li, W Y; Gallagher, G T; Chang, R C

    1995-06-01

    We present a case of odontogenic carcinoma with ghost-cell keratinization of the right maxilla, with a history of 23 years after initial treatment. Within this period, multiple local recurrence, as well as metastasis to axilla, brain, and lung, was noted. Several attempts at resection of the primary lesion were unsuccessful at achieving local control, even when supplemented with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Metastatic tumors were studied histologically, and their morphology coincided with that of the primary tumor. The medical history of the patient and pathologic findings of the tumor are reviewed. PMID:7594758

  17. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, João Gustavo Oliveira; Claus, Jonathas Daniel Paggi; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Gil, José Nazareno; Cardoso, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants. PMID:25580309

  18. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma of the maxilla: a case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Elneel Ahmed Mohamed; karrar, Musadak Ali; El-Siddig, Abeer Abdalla; Gafer, Nahla; satir, Ali Abdel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a rare case of a Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) of a 21-year-old man with review of the literature. The patient was treated surgically, and one of the surgical margins was involved, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy for local control. Five months later, patient presented with infraorbital lesion which was proven histological to be GCOC. Radiological images, histological sections and clinical photographs are also presented. One year after the second surgery, the patient was tumor free. The only effective treatment modality was surgical removal. PMID:26523195

  19. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  20. Odontogenic tumours manifesting in the first two decades of life in a rural African population sample: a 26 year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mamabolo, M; Noffke, C; Raubenheimer, E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequencies and clinico-pathological features of odontogenic tumours affecting the jaw bones of patients in the first two decades of life and of rural and periurban African extract. Methods Files of patients younger than 20 years of age diagnosed over a period of 26 years with odontogenic tumours were retrieved and analysed for gender, site, tumour size and radiographic appearance. Results 33% of odontogenic tumours diagnosed in the population sample presented during the first 2 decades of life. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent benign tumour (43%) followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumour (19%) and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (10%). Four patients (1.6%) presented with ameloblastic carcinoma. Conclusions Owing to the unique population demographics of South Africa, odontogenic tumours in the first two decades of life comprise a larger percentage of the total number of cases than in other communities. The frequency of the different odontogenic tumour types generally follows the pattern of those reported in Africa, China and parts of South America. Radiographic examination is indispensable in establishing an accurate diagnosis. PMID:21831971

  1. Identification of clinically important anaerobic bacteria by an oligonucleotide array.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Tzu; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Huang, Ay Huey; Teng, Lee Jene; Chen, Hung-Mo; Su, Shu-Li; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2010-04-01

    Anaerobic bacteria can cause a wide variety of infections, and some of these infections can be serious. Conventional identification methods based on biochemical tests are often lengthy and can produce inconclusive results. An oligonucleotide array based on the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences was developed to identify 28 species of anaerobic bacteria and Veillonella. The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS regions with universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to a panel of 35 oligonucleotide probes (17- to 30-mers) immobilized on a nylon membrane. The performance of the array was determined by testing 310 target strains (strains which we aimed to identify), including 122 reference strains and 188 clinical isolates. In addition, 98 nontarget strains were used for specificity testing. The sensitivity and the specificity of the array for the identification of pure cultures were 99.7 and 97.1%, respectively. The array was further assessed for its ability to detect anaerobic bacteria in 49 clinical specimens. Two species (Finegoldia magna and Bacteroides vulgatus) were detected in two specimens by the array, and the results were in accordance with those obtained by culture. The whole procedure of array hybridization took about 8 h, starting with the isolated colonies. The array can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional methods for the identification of clinically important anaerobes. PMID:20129959

  2. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  3. How do we manage oral infections in allogeneic stem cell transplantation and other severely immunocompromised patients?

    PubMed

    Palmason, Stefan; Marty, Francisco M; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2011-11-01

    The oral cavity is among the sites in the body most susceptible to infections. In the immunocompetent population these are most frequently localized odontogenic infections caused by bacteria. In severely immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation, fungal and viral infections become especially prominent. Infections in this population can present in an unusual fashion, can spread rapidly to other organs in the body, and are more frequently resistant to therapies. This article discusses the current knowledge of the most frequent presentations of infections in this patient population and reviews contemporary approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21982611

  4. Vismodegib hedgehog-signaling inhibition and treatment of basal cell carcinomas as well as keratocystic odontogenic tumors in Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Booms, Patrick; Harth, Marc; Sader, Robert; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib hedgehog signaling inhibition treatment has potential for reducing the burden of multiple skin basal cell carcinomas and jaw keratocystic odontogenic tumors. They are major criteria for the diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome, also called nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Clinical features of Gorlin syndrome are reported, and the relevance of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition by oral vismodegib for maxillofacial surgeons is highlighted. In summary, progressed basal cell carcinoma lesions are virtually inoperable. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors have an aggressive behavior including rapid growth and extension into adjacent tissues. Interestingly, nearly complete regression of multiple Gorlin syndrome-associated keratocystic odontogenic tumors following treatment with vismodegib. Due to radio-hypersensitivity in Gorlin syndrome, avoidance of treatment by radiotherapy is strongly recommended for all affected individuals. Vismodegib can help in those instances where radiation is contra-indicated, or the lesions are inoperable. The effect of vismodegib on basal cell carcinomas was associated with a significant decrease in hedgehog-signaling and tumor proliferation. Vismodegib, a new and approved drug for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma, is a specific oncogene inhibitor. It also seems to be effective for treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors and basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome, rendering the surgical resections less challenging. PMID:26389028

  5. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with clear langerhans cells: a novel variant, report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Afrogheh, Amir; Schneider, Johann; Mohamed, Noor; Hille, Jos

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CCEOT) is a rare variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT). While it is not surprising to find clear cells in odontogenic lesions, the exact nature of the clear cells in CCEOT has not been elucidated. Herein, we report a case of peripheral CCEOT of anterior mandible in a 37 year old black female. Histologically, the tumour consisted of cords and small nests of clear cells surrounded by dense deposits of amyloid and basophilic calcifications. The cells possessed abundant clear cytoplasm and eccentrically located indented nuclei. Admixed with the clear cells were eosinophilic cuboidal to polyhedral cells. The clear cells were PAS negative and immunoreactive for S100 protein, CD1a and Langerin. The clear cells were negative for MNF-116, SMA, Desmin and CK-19. It is therefore recommended to recognize two variants of CCEOT, namely, CEOT with clear cell change and CEOT with clear Langerhans cells (LC). We further suggest that the contradictory term "non-calcifying variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with LC" to be abandoned, as the current case clearly indicates that LC could be seen in CEOT irrespective of the presence or absence of calcifications. PMID:24037599

  6. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour and Variants of Ameloblastoma – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    R, Maya; B, Sekar; S, Murali; K, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a histopathologiocally and behaviourally unique and specific entity. It is the most aggressive and recurrent of all the cysts and shows characteristics resembling both cyst and a tumour. The unique nature of OKC and the recent shift of OKC as a tumour made us evaluate yet another factor, Inducible nitric oxide synthase an (iNos) enzyme which has been implicated in the tumourigenesis of various neoplasms. Aims and Objects: The objective of the study was to analyse and compare the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC’s) in variants of ameloblastoma affecting the oral cavity, to determine the neoplastic potential of OKC and to reinforce the classification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Materials and Methods: Thirty two specimens, eight specimens each in OKC, follicular ameloblastoma, plexiform ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma, taken from the Oral Pathology Department were randomly selected for this study and were evaluated for epithelial expression of iNOS by immunohistochemistry Results: Epithelial immunoreactivity to iNOS was strongly positive in 93.5% of follicular ameloblastomas, 68.7% of plexiform ameloblastomas, 66.9% of odontogenic keratocysts and 66.2% of unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusion: iNOS may be an important marker involved in the biological behaviour of OKC. Furthermore the presence of increased expression of iNOS in Follicular ameloblastomas followed by Plexiform ameloblastomas, OKCs and Unicystic ameloblastomas is yet another evidence to support that OKC could be considered as a neoplasm. PMID:25584300

  7. A prospective epidemiological study on odontogenic tumours in a black African population, with emphasis on the relative frequency of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oginni, F O; Stoelinga, P J W; Ajike, S A; Obuekwe, O N; Olokun, B Aluko; Adebola, R A; Adeyemo, W L; Fasola, O; Adesina, O A; Akinbami, B O; Iwegbu, I O; Ogunmuyiwa, S A; Obimakinde, O S; Uguru, C C

    2015-09-01

    The persistent view in the literature is that the relative frequency of ameloblastomas is higher in the black population than in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of all odontogenic tumours (OT) in a 100% black population and to compare our findings with those of previous studies. A prospective study was undertaken of all patients presenting with OT to all 16 Nigerian departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over a 4-year period. The following data were obtained: patient demographics, delay to presentation, extent of the lesion, and histological diagnosis. Six hundred and twenty-two cases were studied. A slight male preponderance was observed (male to female ratio 1.17:1). Patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the third decade. The relative frequency of OT was 0.99 per million and that of ameloblastoma was 0.76 per million. Ameloblastoma was the most prevalent OT (76.5%), followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (5.6%), odontogenic myxoma (4.5%), and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) (3.1%). The relative frequency of ameloblastoma among Nigerians was not different from frequencies reported previously among Caucasian and Tanzanian black populations. KCOTs were, however, rarely diagnosed in Nigerians as compared to the white population in the Western world. PMID:25937364

  8. Metallothionein immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Aline-Cristina-Batista-Rodrigues; Caliari, Marcelo-Vidigal; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Aguiar, Maria-Cássia-Ferreira; Mesquita, Ricardo-Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the metallothionein (MT) immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT), to correlate MT with cellular proliferation, and to evaluate the influence of inflammation in MT. Material and Methods Fourteen cases of KOT were submitted to immunohistochemistry for MT and Ki-67 analysis. The lesions were grouped according to their grade of inflammation, and statistical analysis was performed. Results MT was higher in non-syndromic KOT than in syndromic KOT (p<0.05). No statistical difference in Ki-67 could be identified; however, an inverse correlation was observed between MT and Ki-67 in both lesions. When analysing inflammation, non-syndromic KOT showed no differences in either MT or Ki-67. Conclusions The MT immunophenotype of syndromic KOT was different from non-syndromic KOT. MT might not be involved in the proliferation control of both KOT. MT and Ki-67 immunoexpressions proved to be unaffected by inflammation in non-syndromic KOT. Key words: Odontogenic tumours, basal cell nevus syndrome, metallothionein, Ki-67 Antigen, immunohistoche-mistry. PMID:25858080

  9. Odontogenic effects of a fast-setting calcium-silicate cement containing zirconium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-A; Yang, Yeon-Mi; Kwon, Young-Sun; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Min, Kyung-San

    2015-01-01

    A fast-setting calcium-silicate cement (Endocem) was introduced in the field of dentistry for use in vital pulp therapy. Similar to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), it contains bismuth oxide to provide radiopacity. Recently, another product, EndocemZr, which contains zirconium oxide (ZrO2) as a radiopacifier, was developed by the same company. In this study, the biological/odontogenic effects of EndocemZr were investigated in human primary dental pulp cells (hpDPCs) in vitro and on capped rat teeth in vivo. The biocompatibility of EndocemZr was similar to that of ProRoot and Endocem on the basis of cell viability tests and cell morphological analysis. The mineralization nodule formation, expression of odontogenic-related markers, and reparative dentin formation of EndocemZr group was similar to those of other material groups. Our results suggest that EndocemZr has the potential to be used as an effective material for vital pulp therapy, similar to ProRoot and Endocem. PMID:25948141

  10. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: Predictive Factors of Recurrence by Ki-67 and AgNOR Labelling

    PubMed Central

    Selvi, Firat; Tekkesin, Merva Soluk; Cakarer, Sirmahan; Isler, S. Cemil; Keskin, Cengizhan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Ki-67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR) between the recurrent and nonrecurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). Another aim was to compare the correlation between these two markers. Materials and Methods: 22 KCOTs were evaluated retrospectively. The actual proliferative activity of the KCOT was measured by Ki-67 labelling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions AgNOR count per nucleus. Results: Recurrence occurred in 3 patients (13.6%) during the follow-up period (mean follow-up, 37.8 months) The Ki-67 and AgNOR counts were significantly higher in the recurrent lesions comparing to the non-recurrent lesions. (p=0,045; p=0,049) The correlation between Ki-67 and AgNOR counts was found to be positive (r=0,853 p=0,0001). Conclusion: Within the limit of the present study, it is thought that Ki-67 and AgNOR might be helpful as a prognostic marker for the recurrences of KCOTs. These markers reinforced the meaning of the new classification of the lesion as an odontogenic tumor. Enucleation with curettage or decompression following enucleation with curettage is a simple and appropriate surgical model for the treatment of KCOT despite the relative high recurrence rate. On the other hand, the conservative treatment can be chosen only if there is no coronoid invasion, no interruptive cortical lysis and no tissular invasion. PMID:22639545

  11. Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory.

    PubMed

    Shabuer, Gulimila; Ishida, Keishi; Pidot, Sacha J; Roth, Martin; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Around 25% of vegetable food is lost worldwide because of infectious plant diseases, including microbe-induced decay of harvested crops. In wet seasons and under humid storage conditions, potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium puniceum). We found that these anaerobic plant pathogens harbor a gene locus (type II polyketide synthase) to produce unusual polyketide metabolites (clostrubins) with dual functions. The clostrubins, which act as antibiotics against other microbial plant pathogens, enable the anaerobic bacteria to survive an oxygen-rich plant environment. PMID:26542569

  12. Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K

    2000-05-01

    We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated. PMID:10809852

  13. Radical enzymes in anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Buckel, Wolfgang; Golding, Bernard T

    2006-01-01

    This review describes enzymes that contain radicals and/or catalyze reactions with radical intermediates. Because radicals irreversibly react with dioxygen, most of these enzymes occur in anaerobic bacteria and archaea. Exceptions are the families of coenzyme B(12)- and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent radical enzymes, of which some members also occur in aerobes. Especially oxygen-sensitive radical enzymes are the glycyl radical enzymes and 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases. The latter are activated by an ATP-dependent one-electron transfer and act via a ketyl radical anion mechanism. Related enzymes are the ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase and the ATP-independent 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase. Ketyl radical anions may also be generated by one-electron oxidation as shown by the flavin-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD)- and [4Fe-4S]-containing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase. Finally, two radical enzymes are discussed, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and methane-forming methyl-CoM reductase, which catalyze their main reaction in two-electron steps, but subsequent electron transfers proceed via radicals. PMID:16704345

  14. Anaerobic urinary tract infection caused by Veillonella parvula identified using cystine-lactose-electrolyte deficient media and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Berenger, Byron M.; Chui, Linda; Borkent, Amy; Lee, Mao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Veillonella parvula causing a urinary tract infection. The organism was isolated from urine using cystine-lactose-electrolyte deficient media and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed by 16s RNA. This case highlights important clinical and microbiological considerations for urinary tract infections. PMID:26793452

  15. Comparison of Lysis Filtration and an Automated Blood Culture System (BACTEC) for Detection, Quantification, and Identification of Odontogenic Bacteremia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Victoria S.; Lytra, Vasiliki; Hassan, Thoraya; Tatham, Helen; Wilson, M.; Roberts, Graham J.

    2002-01-01

    Lysis filtration (LyF) was compared with BACTEC PAEDS PLUS in estimating the prevalence of, and sensitivity for, detection of odontogenic bacteremia. Both real bacteremia and simulated bacteremia (seeded blood or saline samples) were assessed to determine the validity of LyF in estimating bacteremia. The simulated bacteremia was also used to assess the reliability of LyF to estimate intensity of bacteremia in CFU per milliliter of blood. Reference organisms were used to assess the abilities of LyF and BACTEC to isolate known oral streptococci. There was no difference in the number of CFU per milliliter of seeded saline, seeded blood, and drop cultures of the organisms plated directly onto agar. Blood cell volume had a negligible effect on the yield of organisms for simulated bacteremia. When LyF and BACTEC were compared, the time to detection of bacteremia was always significantly shorter for BACTEC. For aerobic cultures, these times were 43.7 and 9.6 h, respectively (P < 0.01). For anaerobic cultures, these times were 45.1 and 9.9 h, respectively (P < 0.01). These differences occurred as well for bacteremia following the extraction of a single tooth, with LyF and BACTEC aerobic cultures taking 78 and 30.5 h, respectively (P < 0.0001). For anaerobic cultures, the times were 90.8 and 45 h, respectively (P < 0.0004). A preextraction bacteremia was detected on 2.1% of occasions with BACTEC compared to 31% of occasions with LyF (P < 0.05) The use of LyF was an effective and reliable means of estimating the intensity of pre- and postextraction bacteremia. The values were 3.6 and 5.9 CFU/ml, respectively (P < 0.4729), and the difference was not statistically significant. In summary, BACTEC is quicker than LyF, but less sensitive. LyF provides additional important information in estimating the intensity of bacteremia. PMID:12202586

  16. Comparative in vitro activity of Ro 40-6890, Ro 41-3399, and other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wüst, J; Hardegger, U

    1992-10-01

    The in vitro activity of the ester Ro 41-3399 and its free active acid Ro 40-6890 was tested against 189 strains of anaerobic bacteria in comparison to other oral cephalosporins and to antimicrobial agents established in the treatment of anaerobic infections. Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium and Clostridium spp. were susceptible to Ro 40-6890, with few exceptions. Due to its lack of activity against the major pathogens of the Bacteriodes fragilis group, Ro 40-6890 does not promise to be of major use in the treatment of infections caused by anaerobes. PMID:1486894

  17. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance. PMID:11148007

  18. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species. PMID:23648369

  19. Low temperature anaerobic biofiltration in upflow reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Koziarski, S.

    1982-11-01

    Anaerobic biofilters offer an alternative to the suspended sludge systems for the anaerobic digestion of dilute wastewaters (water content exceeding 99%). They are a form of contact system that provides supportive media for anaerobic organisms and thus effectively increases the solids retention time over the usually short hydraulic retention time. The present study evaluated tha applicability of upflow fixed bed anaerobic reactors (anaerobic biofilters) to treatment of wastewater containing significant quantities of proteinaceous matter and ammonia. The aim was to define the feasibility of attaining high removal efficiency at low retention times and at low ambient temperatures and at relative high organic loadings of the anaerobic bilfilter reactors. (Refs. 13).

  20. Anaerobic digestion of woody biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Jerger, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Woody biomass without pretreatment is generally considered to be refractive to anaerobic decomposition. This refractory property is attributed to its low moisture content, crystalline nature of the cellulose, and complex association of the component carbohydrates with lignin. This study investigated the methane fermentation (anaerobic digestion) of various wood species using conventional anaerobic digestion and batch anaerobic biogasification potential assays. Most experiments were conducted at 35/sup 0/C with a particle size in the range of 1 to 2 mm, and with a full complement of inorganic nutrient supplements. Conventional CSTR semicontinuous feed anaerobic digestion resulted in low methane yields and low conversion (less than 5% organic reduction). Significantly higher conversion (as high as 54%) and higher methane yields (as high as 5.4 SCF/lb VS added) were observed for several hardwood species in ABP assays employing low loading and long residence times (60 days). One softwood (loblolly pine) and eucalyptus were refractory under these conditions. Pretreatments, including particle size reduction and NaOH, increased rates but not total conversion. These results demonstrate that woody biomass can be decomposed by the methane fermentation and support the potential for development of this process for commercial wood conversion applications. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans?Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen?dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene?degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ‘key players’ of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:21450012

  2. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal-spatial visualization of bacteria. Methods used in this study can be applied to any cultivable anaerobe and any eukaryotic cell type. PMID:26709454

  3. PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

  4. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps in the medicinally relevant microaerobic and anaerobic pathogens and their implications in the effort to combat drug-resistant infections.

  5. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

  6. Management of industrial pollutants by anaerobic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obayashi, A.W.; Gorgan, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this book, the management of industrial pollutants by anaerobic processes as an industrial waste management option is fully described. The document brings together information on current and potential anaerobic process applications.

  7. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  8. ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic conditions predominate in contaminated aquifers and are not uncommon in noncontaminated areas. Comparatively little is known about degradative processes and nutrient cycling under anaerobic conditions. However, it is apparent these processes are fundamentally differen...

  9. An unusual cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Lang, Josef M; Hornef, Mathias; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-08-01

    Infection associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt implantation can be a significant problem. VP shunt infection with Serratia marcescens, a gram-negative anaerobic rod, usually is related to underlying abdominal disease. This article describes treatment of two patients suffering from a VP shunt infection with S. marcescens without underlying abdominal disease. PMID:26208014

  10. Pigmented intraosseous odontogenic carcinoma of the maxilla: a pediatric case report and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, R; Onuma, K; Ikeda, M; Kato, K; Toyoda, Y; Nagashima, Y; Ito, Y; Abiko, Y; Tanaka, Y

    2001-08-01

    We report a pigmented intraosseous odontogenic carcinoma of the maxilla occurring in a 6-year-old Japanese boy. Grossly, the tumor showed solid, gray-yellow, and markedly pigmented appearance. Histology showed neoplastic growths of atypical epithelial cells that occasionally contained melanin pigments. Melanocytes with dendritic processes were often found in the tumor cell clusters, and solitary or aggregated melanophages were scattered within the dense fibrovascular stroma. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, and focally positive for vimentin, neuron specific enolase, neurofilament protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and amelogenin. Ultrastructural studies showed well-developed intercellular junctions, mainly desmosomes, and glycogen particles. In addition, some tumor cells contained melanosomes and/or a few neurosecretory granules. We consider that the present tumor suggests a close association of ectoderm, mesenchyma, and neuroectoderm in embryogenesis of the tooth, and can raise a diagnostic confusion with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor. PMID:11521234

  11. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti; de Souza, Lélia Batista; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the expression of fibronectin, tenascin and type I collagen in ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) aiming to contribute with the comprehension of the differences in the biological behavior of these tumors. Immunohistochemical technique was performed in 20 cases of ameloblastoma (16 solid and 4 desmoplastic) and in 10 cases of AOT. All tumors presented moderate fibronectin expression in the stroma. Solid ameloblastomas showed intense expression of fibronectin at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, whereas desmoplastic ameloblastomas revealed no immunoexpression of fibronectin at this site. Ameloblastomas presented stronger immunoreactivity to tenascin than AOTs, especially at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. AOTs and desmoplastic ameloblastomas showed intense labeling for type I collagen. The patterns of expression of the proteins studied agree with the locally more invasive behavior of ameloblastomas in comparison to AOTs. Our results might suggest a less invasive behavior of desmoplastic ameloblastoma in comparison to solid ameloblastoma. PMID:19466441

  12. [Use of miramistin for the treatment of patients with odontogenic phlegmons in the maxillofacial area].

    PubMed

    Bazhanov, N N; Aleksandrov, M T; Cherkesov, I V

    2006-01-01

    In experimental and clinical conditions the use of miramystin (0.1% solution and liniment) was validated for complex treatment of patients with odontogenic maxillofacial phlegmons (110 patients with mild, moderate and severe inflammation). Significant efficacy of a wide spectrum antiseptic (miramystin) and laser fluorescent diagnostic method for achievement of objective assessment of the treatment of patients with phlegmons in maxillofacial area is shown. The disease duration (time from its onset till discharge from the hospital) varied from 8.2 to 24.1 days depending upon the degree of severity of the inflammatory process versus 13.7 to 30.4 days in controls, respectively. The developed treatment-and-diagnostic methodology is recommended for wide clinical practice. PMID:16858318

  13. Characteristic features of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumour on cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, M; Wang, H; Xu, L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To illustrate characteristic features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) on CBCT. Methods: The archived CBCT and panoramic radiographs of eight patients histopathologically diagnosed as AOT were analysed. The radiographic features displayed on both radiographic images were carefully described and compared. Results: All eight AOT cases presented as unilocular and well-demarcated lesions on both CBCT and panoramic images. CBCT images displayed three-dimensional interpretation of AOT lesions, especially the detailed intralesional radiopacities. Numerous discrete radiopaque foci scattered in the lesion with evident contrast to the radiolucent background could be considered as one of the characteristic features of AOT on CBCT. Conclusions: Compared with panoramic radiography, CBCT seems to possess better potential in diagnosing AOT. PMID:24940808

  14. Fibroblasts Regulate Variable Aggressiveness of Syndromic Keratocystic and Non-syndromic Odontogenic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Yu, F.-Y.; Qu, J.-F.; Chen, F.; Li, T.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are jaw lesions that can be either sporadic or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, which typically occurs as multiple, aggressive lesions that can lead to large areas of bone destruction and resorption and cause major impairment and even jaw fracture. To clarify the role of fibroblasts in the aggressivness of syndromic (S-) as compared with non-syndromic (NS-) KCOTs, we assessed fibroblasts derived from 16 S- and NS-KCOTs for differences in cell proliferation, multilineage differentiation potential, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteoclastogenic potential. S-KCOT fibroblasts had proliferative and osteoclastogenic capacity higher than those from NS-KCOTs, as evidenced by higher numbers of tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase-positive multinuclear cells, expression of cyclooxygenase 2, and ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor–kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin. The osteogenic potential was higher for S- than for NS-KCOT fibroblasts and was associated with lower mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type I ?1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin as well as reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggest that the distinct characteristics of fibroblasts in KCOTs are responsible for the greater aggressiveness observed in the syndromic subtype. Abbreviations: AP, alkaline phosphatase; CK, cytokeratin; COL1A1, collagen type I ?1; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL-1?, interleukin 1?; KCOT, keratocystic odontogenic tumor; NBCCS, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; NS-KCOT, non-syndrome-associated KCOT; OCN, osteocalcin; OPG, osteoprotegerin; OPN, osteopontin; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand; Runx2, runt-related transcription factor 2; S-KCOT, syndrome-associated KCOT; TAF, tumor-associated fibroblast; and TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. PMID:24972872

  15. Odontogenic stimulation of human dental pulp cells with bioactive nanocomposite fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Yong-Duk; Lee, So-Youn; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a composite nanofibrous matrix made of biopolymer blend polycaprolactone-gelatin (BP) and mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). BGN-BP nanomatrices, with BGN content of up to 20 wt%, were produced via electrospinning. The differentiation of the HDPCs was evaluated by using an ALP activity assay, calcified nodule formation, and mRNA expression for markers. Integrin and its underlying signal pathways were assessed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Although cell growth and attachment on the BGN-BP nanomatrix was similar to that on BP, ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and mRNA, expressions involving ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1 were greater on BGN-BP. BGN-BP upregulated the key adhesion receptors (integrin components ?1, ?2, ?5, and ?1) and activated integrin downstream pathways, such as phosphorylated-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and p-paxillin. In addition, BGN-BP activated BMP receptors, BMP-2 mRNA, and p-Smad 1/5/8, and such activation was blocked by the BMP antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, BGN-BP induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase 38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases and activated expression of the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix in HDPCs. Collectively, the results indicated for the first time that a BGN-BP composite nanomatrix promoted odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs through the integrin, BMP, and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Moreover, the nanomatrix is considered to be promising scaffolds for the culture of HDPCs and dental tissue engineering. PMID:25098335

  16. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo’s Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare disease, which is characterized by the triad of the following conditions: suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. The full triad may often not be present, but can develop if the condition is not treated correctly. Case presentation We report a case of a 3-year-old girl, who presented with fever and left-sided acute otitis media. She developed acute mastoiditis, which was initially treated by intravenous antibiotics, ventilation tube insertion and cortical mastoidectomy. After 6 days the clinical picture was complicated by development of left-sided abducens palsy. MRI-scanning showed osteomyelitis within the petro-mastoid complex, and a hyper intense signal of the adjacent meninges. Microbiological investigations showed Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. She was treated successfully with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage. After 8 weeks of follow-up there was no sign of recurrent infection or abducens palsy. Conclusion Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening complication to middle ear infection. It is most commonly caused by aerobic microorganisms, but anaerobic microorganisms may also be found why anaerobic coverage should be considered when determining the antibiotic treatment. PMID:22978305

  17. Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF TRIFLURALIN [ABSTRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dinitroaniline herbicides, such as trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine) persist in oxic terrestrial environments, yet are rapidly degraded under certain anaerobic conditions. We examined the roles of Fe(II) minerals and trifluralin bioavailability in fate of the her...

  19. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  20. [Odontogenic keratocysts].

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Fiore-Donno, G; Kuffer, R

    1975-05-01

    Keratocysts may develop from cellular multiplication, from recidivating growth of epithelial cells left after curettage, and they have an important potential growth, they can degenerate into malignancies. There are several etiological possibilities: tissues connected with crown formation, invagination of nucous epithelium, degeneration of follicular cysts producing keratin. The most important characteristic of these cysts is the frequent recidivation. Fron a clinical standpoint, they are classified as benign tumors. After enucleation, the walls of healthy tissue should be reduced, particularly in locations where the access of curettes is difficult. If necessary, apicetomy is performed in order to completely eliminate the cyst walls. Histological examination is mandatory. Finally, radiologic controls during at least six years should be made. PMID:1057247

  1. Anaerobic culture to detect periodontal and caries pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Anne C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaerobic culture has been critical in our understanding of the oral microbiotas. Highlight Studies in advanced periodontitis in the 1970’s revealed microbial complexes that associated with different clinical presentations. Taxonomy studies identified species newly-observed in periodontitis as Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus and other Campylobacter species, and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia. Anaerobic culture of initial periodontitis showed overlap in the microbiota with gingivitis, and added Selenomonas noxia and Filifactor alocis as putative periodontal pathogens. Porphyromonas gingivalis and T. forsythia were found to be associated with initial periodontitis in adults. The dominant microbiota of dental caries differs from that of periodontitis. The major cariogenic species are acidogenic and acid tolerant species particularly Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Anaerobic culture of severe early childhood caries revealed a widely diverse microbiota, comparable to that observed using cloning and sequencing. The PCR-based cloning approach, however, underestimated Actinobacteria compared with culture. Only a subset of the caries-associated microbiota was acid tolerant, with different segments of the microbiota cultured on blood agar compared to a low pH acid agar. While the major caries-associated species was S. mutans, a new species, Scardovia wiggsiae, was significantly associated with early childhood caries. Higher counts of S. wiggsiae were also observed in initial white spot carious lesions in adolescents. Conclusion In periodontitis and dental caries, anaerobic culture studies of advanced disease provided a comprehensive analysis of the microbiota of these infections. Anaerobic culture highlighted the limitation of PCR with standard primers that underestimate detection of Actinobacteria. PMID:25678835

  2. In vitro osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Durante, Sandra; Mazzotti, Antonio; Dicarlo, Manuela; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering. PMID:26578970

  3. Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to anaerobiosis. Here we performed deep sequencing to compare the gonococcal transcriptomes of aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. Using the information derived from this sequencing, we discuss the implications of the robust transcriptional response to anaerobic growth. Results We determined that 198 chromosomal genes were differentially expressed (~10% of the genome) in response to anaerobic conditions. We also observed a large induction of genes encoded within the cryptic plasmid, pJD1. Validation of RNA-seq data using translational-lacZ fusions or RT-PCR demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be very reproducible. Surprisingly, many genes of prophage origin were induced anaerobically, as well as several transcriptional regulators previously unknown to be involved in anaerobic growth. We also confirmed expression and regulation of a small RNA, likely a functional equivalent of fnrS in the Enterobacteriaceae family. We also determined that many genes found to be responsive to anaerobiosis have also been shown to be responsive to iron and/or oxidative stress. Conclusions Gonococci will be subject to many forms of environmental stress, including oxygen-limitation, during the course of infection. Here we determined that the anaerobic stimulon in gonococci was larger than previous studies would suggest. Many new targets for future research have been uncovered, and the results derived from this study may have helped to elucidate factors or mechanisms of virulence that may have otherwise been overlooked. PMID:21251255

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Brook, I

    1981-02-01

    Cholesteatoma specimens were obtained from 28 patients undergoing surgery for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. All specimens were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Bacterial growth was present in specimens of 24 of the 28 patients. A total of 74 bacterial isolates were present (40 aerobes and 34 anaerobes). Aerobes alone were isolated from 8 (33%) of culture positive patients, 4 patients (26.7%) yielded only anaerobes, and 12 (50%) had both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fifty isolates (27 aerobes and 23 aerobes) were present in a concentration greater than 10(6) CFU/gm. The most commonly isolated aerobic organisms were P. aeruginosa (9), Proteus sp. (7), K. pneumoniae (5), S. aureus (5), and E. coli (4). The anaerobic bacteria most commonly isolated were gram-positive anaerobic cocci (12), Bacteroides sp. (12, including 5 B. fragilis group), Clostridium sp. (3), and Bifidobacterium sp. (3). The above findings indicate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of cholesteatoma. PMID:7007762

  5. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

  6. [Reduced glutathione and anaerobic threshold].

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, F; Parisi, A; Di Luigi, L; Menchinelli, C; Marciano, R; Volta, B; Battista, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study the authors evaluate the relationship existing between reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased indexes of muscle performance. GSH has a protective action on the cell either against the oxidative stress or for its ability of removing through out the body xenobiotic substances circulating. 15 male competitive pentathlon athletes were the sample of this research. The aim of the research is to evaluate the possible role of GSH to determine the anaerobic threshold through its blotting function. PMID:8767952

  7. Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Fraser, J.; Klepp, B.E.; Mueller, P.A.

    1987-11-01

    This project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of wastewater dilution, GAC (granular activated carbon) replacement rate, GAC particle size, operating temperature, and reactor configuration on the treatment of coal gasification wastewater with the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic bioreactor. Coal gasification wastewater used was generated in a low BTU, elevated pressure, stirred fixed-bed, gasifier operated by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The treatability of another wastewater generated in a full-scale, slagging fixed-bed modification of a conventional dry-ash, pressurized gasifier located at the Great Plains gasification Association (GPGA) facility in North Dakota was also evaluated. Full-strength METC wastewater was found to be effectively treated at chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates as high as 19.4 g/kg GAC-day. At this rate, an excess of 50% of the applied COD was converted to methane, and a carbon utilization rate of 10 g GAC per liter of wastewater treated was employed. At these operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies across the treatment system exceeded 95%. Good COD removal and efficient COD conversion to methane were attainable at loading rates exceeding 70 g COD/kg GAC-day. Wastewater generated at the GPGA facility was found to be treatable at full-strength in the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor at COD loading rates as high as 48 g COD/kg GAC-day. COD removal efficiencies at this loading rate exceeded 90%. Coal gasification wastewater was found to resist treatment under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. The thermophilic expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor affected very poor conversion efficiencies of phenol, even when fed a synthetically prepared phenol bearing wastewater. 29 refs., 77 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Comparison of antioxidant enzymes activity and the concentration of uric acid in the saliva of patients with oral cavity cancer, odontogenic cysts and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Giebu?towicz, Joanna; Wroczy?ski, Piotr; Samolczyk-Wanyura, Danuta

    2011-10-01

    Chronic inflammation is related to oxidative stress and is still believed to be the cause of carcinogenesis. Patients with oral cavity cancer (OCC) exhibited lower total antioxidant capacity, uric acid (UA) concentration, salivary peroxidise (SPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in their saliva than did healthy subjects. This could be a risk factor for tumour induction. Odontogenic cysts also arise in response to locally acting proinflammatory factors, for example, a gangrenous tooth. Furthermore, cyst development is accompanied by chronic inflammation. There are some reports in the literature concerning primary tumours such as squamous cell carcinomas arising from odontogenic cysts. The reason for this transformation is still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the status of the antioxidant defence system in the saliva of the group with odontogenic cysts and OCC with that of the healthy control. Saliva samples were collected in the morning. SOD, SPO activity and UA concentration were determined using standard methods. Patients with odontogenic cysts and OCC exhibited lower activity of major antioxidants in their saliva (SPO, UA) than did healthy people. SOD activity and age are the main factors that distinguish these diseases. Discriminant function analysis showed that once data such as antioxidant status of saliva, age and smoking status are known 80% cases can be correctly classified as healthy, 80% as having odontogenic cysts and 40% as cancerous. To conclude, the decrease in concentrations of major antioxidants in the saliva of patients with cysts may increase the risk of neoplastic transformation especially in advanced age. PMID:21501233

  9. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: 1. ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED. 2. ANFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses two developing technologies for the treatment of municipal wastewaters. These technologies are anaerobic fluidized bed systems and an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor (ANFLOW). The report discusses: available laboratory data on system performance; fluidized b...

  10. Superoxide dismutase in anaerobic bacteria of clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tally, F P; Goldin, B R; Jacobus, N V; Gorbach, S L

    1977-04-01

    Twenty-two anaerobic bacteria isolated from infected sites and normal fecal flora were assayed for superoxide dismutase (SOD). The organisms were also classified according to their oxygen tolerance into aerotolerant, intermediate, and extremely oxygen-sensitive groups. There was a correlation between the enzyme level and the oxygen tolerance, in that the aerotolerant and intermediate organisms had SOD, whereas the extremely oxygen-sensitive isolates had low or undetectable enzyme. Among the oxygen-tolerant organisms, gram-negative bacteria had higher levels of SOD than gram-positive organisms. Oxygen was shown to induce SOD production in a strain of Bacteriodes fragilis grown in minimal medium under continuous-culture conditions. Enzyme levels in this isolate grown under static conditions were lower in minimal medium than in complex medium, indicating that other components in the complex medium were stimulating the production of SOD. Our data suggest that the variation in oxygen tolerance of anaerobes is usually related to their level of SOD. It is postulated that SOD may be a virulence factor that allows pathogenic anaerobes to survive in oxygenated tissues until the proper reduced conditions are established for their growth. PMID:326669

  11. Early dental epithelial transcription factors distinguish ameloblastoma from keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, K; Kurppa, K J; Laiho, A; Peltonen, S; Berdal, A; Bouattour, A; Ruhin, B; Catón, J; Thesleff, I; Leivo, I; Morgan, P R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the molecular relationship between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) by means of a genome-wide expression analysis. Total RNA from 27 fresh tumor samples of 15 solid/multicystic intraosseous ameloblastomas and 12 sporadic KCOTs was hybridized on Affymetrix whole genome arrays. Hierarchical clustering separated ameloblastomas and KCOTs into 2 distinct groups. The gene set enrichment analysis based on 303 dental genes showed a similar separation of ameloblastomas and KCOTs. Early dental epithelial markers PITX2, MSX2, DLX2, RUNX1, and ISL1 were differentially overexpressed in ameloblastoma, indicating its dental identity. Also, PTHLH, a hormone involved in tooth eruption and invasive growth, was one of the most differentially upregulated genes in ameloblastoma. The most differentially overexpressed genes in KCOT were squamous epithelial differentiation markers SPRR1A, KRTDAP, and KRT4, as well as DSG1, a component of desmosomal cell-cell junctions. Additonally, the epithelial stem cell marker SOX2 was significantly upregulated in KCOT when compared with ameloblastoma. Taken together, the gene expression profile of ameloblastoma reflects differentiation from dental lamina toward the cap/bell stage of tooth development, as indicated by dental epithelium-specific transcription factors. In contrast, gene expression of KCOT indicates differentiation toward keratinocytes. PMID:25398365

  12. A keratocyst in the buccal mucosa with the features of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  13. Vitamin D Promotes Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells via ERK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Su-Mi; Lim, Hae-Soon; Jeong, Kyung-Yi; Kim, Seon-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D such as 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known key regulatory factor in bone metabolism. However, little is known about the potential of vitamin D as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25(OH)2D3, on odontoblastic differentiation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from maxillary supernumerary incisors and third molars were directly cultured with 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the absence of differentiation-inducing factors. Treatment of HDPCs with 1α,25(OH)2D3 at a concentration of 10 nM or 100 nM significantly upregulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein1 (DMP1), the odontogenesis-related genes. Also, 1α,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in HDPCs. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), whereas the ERK inhibitor U0126 ameliorated the upregulation of DSPP and DMP1 and reduced the mineralization enhanced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)2D3 promoted odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via modulating ERK activation. PMID:26062551

  14. Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay

    2015-02-01

    Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

  15. The relationship between radiological features and clinical manifestation and dental expenses of keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yi, Won-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to identify correlations between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) data from CT sections, and data on the KCOT clinical manifestation and resulting dental expenses. Materials and Methods Following local Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a seven-years of retrospective study was performed regarding patients with KCOTs treated at the Seoul National University Dental Hospital. A total of 180 KCOT were included in this study. The following information was collected: age, gender, location and size of the lesion, radiological features, surgical treatment provided and dental expenses. Results There was no significant association between the size of the KCOT and age, gender, and presenting preoperative symptoms. In both jaws, it was unusual to find KCOTs under 10 mm. The correlation between the number of teeth removed and the size of the KCOT in the tooth bearing area was statistically significant in the mandible, whereas in the maxilla, no significant relationship was found. Dental expenses compared with the size of the KCOT were found to be significant in both jaws. Conclusion The size of KCOT was associated with a significant increase in dental expenses for both jaws and the number of teeth removed from the mandible. These findings emphasize the importance of routine examinations and early detection of lesions, which in turn helps preserving anatomical structures and reducing dental expenses. PMID:23807932

  16. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78-year-old female: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Moon-Ki; Choi, Eun-Joo; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features. PMID:25279347

  17. A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  18. Disruption of Smad4 in Odontoblasts Causes Multiple Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors and Tooth Malformation in Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuanrong; Yang, Guan; Weng, Tujun; Du, Juan; Wang, Xuejiu; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Songlin; Yang, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic epithelial neoplasias with a high recurrence rate. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of KCOTs are still largely unknown. Here, we show that specific ablation of Smad4 in odontoblasts unexpectedly resulted in spontaneous KCOTs in mice. The mutant mice exhibited malformed teeth characterized by fractured incisors and truncated molar roots. These abnormalities were mainly caused by disrupted odontoblast differentiation that led to irregular dentin formation. The cystic tumors arising from the reactivation of epithelial rests of Malassez (ERM), in which Smad4 remained intact, proliferated and formed stratified and differentiated squamous epithelia that exhibited a dramatic upregulation of Hedgehog signaling. Odontoblasts, which are responsive to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals, may produce signal molecules to inhibit the activation of ERM. Indeed, we observed a downregulation of BMP signals from Smad4 mutant odontoblasts to the adjacent Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). Intriguingly, KCOTs frequently emerged from Smad4-deficient ERM in keratinocyte-specific Smad4 knockout mice, suggesting a novel mechanism in which reciprocal TGF-?/BMP signaling between odontoblasts and HERS was required for tooth root development and suppression of KCOT formation. These findings provide insight into the genetic basis underlying KCOTs and have important implications for new directions in KCOT treatment. PMID:19703995

  19. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma in a Taiwan chinese population: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Tzu; Chuang, Fu-Hsiung; Chen, Jeng-Huey; Chen, Chun-Ming; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

    2008-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of 25 cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma (World Health Organization type) (PODF [WHO-type]) in a Taiwan Chinese population was performed at a single institution. The clinical findings, which included a wide age distribution, a female preponderance and no racial predilection, were consistent with those of previous case series reports; however, a slight preference for location in the maxilla was found in the current case series. It is noteworthy that one particularly sizable lesion was identified in a 30-year-old Chinese female who presented with a swollen mass in the right mandible that had been present for about 2 years. Intraoral examination revealed an exophytic firm mass that measured 4.5 x 4 cm, located over the right mandibular edentulous ridge from the second premolar to the second molar area. Both panoramic radiography and computerized tomography revealed multiple radiopacities within the tumor. In conclusion, the analysis of clinical data in the current case series of PODFs (WHO-type) occurring in Taiwan Chinese mostly corroborates other reports; however, an unusually large mandible lesion was noted, indicative of the apparent size that such tumors can reach unless they are surgically removed at an early stage. PMID:18926955

  20. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Possible Role in Locally Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wen-Qun; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Jian-Gang; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the pathogenesis and development of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The expression levels of EMT-related proteins and genes in normal oral mucosa (OM), radicular cyst (RC), and KCOT were determined and compared by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that the expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Pan-cytokeratin was significantly downregulated in KCOT with upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin compared to OM and RC. Importantly, TGF-?, a potent EMT inducer, and Slug, a master transcription factor, were also found highly expressed in KCOT. In addition, the results from Spearman rank correlation test and clustering analysis revealed the close relationship between Slug and MMP-9, which was further evidenced by double-labeling immunofluorescence that revealed a synchronous distribution for Slug with MMP-9 in KCOT samples. All the data suggested EMT might be involved in the locally aggressive behavior of KCOT. PMID:25879017

  1. Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

  2. Parietal subdural empyema as complication of acute odontogenic sinusitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To date intracranial complication caused by tooth extractions are extremely rare. In particular parietal subdural empyema of odontogenic origin has not been described. A literature review is presented here to emphasize the extreme rarity of this clinical entity. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man with a history of dental extraction developed dysarthria, lethargy, purulent rhinorrhea, and fever. A computed tomography scan demonstrated extensive sinusitis involving maxillary sinus, anterior ethmoid and frontal sinus on the left side and a subdural fluid collection in the temporal-parietal site on the same side. He underwent vancomycin, metronidazole and meropenem therapy, and subsequently left maxillary antrostomy, and frontal and maxillary sinuses toilette by an open approach. The last clinical control done after 3 months showed a regression of all symptoms. Conclusions The occurrence of subdural empyema is an uncommon but possible sequela of a complicated tooth extraction. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologist, neurosurgeons, clinical microbiologist, and neuroradiologist is essential. Antibiotic therapy with surgical approach is the gold standard treatment. PMID:25146384

  3. Recurrent squamous odontogenic tumor: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, BARBARA; WINTER, JOCHEN; WAHL, GERHARD; JANSKA, EMILIA

    2015-01-01

    Squamous odontogenic tumors (SOTs) are benign, locally infiltrative neoplasms that localize to the periodontium. In total, <50 cases have been reported since the first description of SOTs in 1975. Although the exact etiology of SOTs is unknown, the tumors are considered to derive from the epithelial cell rests of Malassez. SOTs are characterized by radiological and clinical signs and symptoms, including pain with increased sensitivity in the affected area, bone expansion and increased tooth mobility. The present study describes the case of a patient that experienced numerous SOT recurrences and also discusses recommendations for treatment. A locally invasive mandibular SOT was identified in a Caucasian 41-year-old female patient. The treatment involved recommended conservative surgery, including local curettage. In addition, 49 cases published in the literature were reviewed to assess the treatment strategies. The present patient experienced two recurrences of the tumor during the 6-year follow-up period. Ultimately, the vitality of the adjacent teeth was compromised. An apicoectomy with a small amount of resection of the marginal bone was necessary. In >50% of the reported cases of SOT in the literature the adjacent teeth were extracted. The present case of SOT and the associated literature were also discussed. It was concluded that the treatment of choice appears to be a conservative surgical removal, but the successful management of SOTs often requires the removal of the adjacent teeth. PMID:26722231

  4. The use of vismodegib to shrink keratocystic odontogenic tumors in basal cell nevus syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Mina S.; Tang, Jean Y.; Joseph, Timmy; Thompson, Bobbye; Lindgren, Joselyn; Raphael, Maria Acosta; Ulerio, Grace; Chanana, Anita M.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M.; Bickers, David R.; Epstein, Ervin H

    2014-01-01

    Importance Keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the jaw (KCOTs) affect more than 65% of patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Surgery frequently causes facial disfigurement and is not always curative. Most BCNS-related and some sporadic KCOTs have malignant activation of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Observations We examined the effect of vismodegib (an oral HH-pathway inhibitor) on KCOT size in BCNS patients enrolled in a clinical trial testing vismodegib for BCC prevention (NCT00957229), using pre and post-treatment MRIs. Four men and 2 women had pretreatment KCOTs, mean longest diameter 2.0cm (range: 0.7–3.3cm), occurring primarily in the mandible. Subjects were treated with vismodegib (150mg/day) for a mean 18 months (SD: 4.8, range: 11–24). Four subjects experienced a size reduction and 2 had no change. Vismodegib reduced the mean longest diameter of KCOTs in all subjects by 1.0cm (95% CI: 0.03, 1.94, p= 0.02) or 50% from baseline. We observed no enlargement of existing KCOTs or new KCOT development. Conclusions and relevance Vismodegib shrinks some KCOTs in BCNS patients and may offer an alternative to surgical therapy. These effects were maintained for at least 9 months after drug cessation in 1 patient. Further studies assessing long-term efficacy and optimal maintenance regimens should be performed. PMID:24623282

  5. M2-polarized macrophages in keratocystic odontogenic tumor: relation to tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wen-Qun; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Xue-Peng; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of M2-polarized macrophages and their relationships to angiogenesis in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). M2-polarized macrophages were detected in KCOT samples by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Meanwhile, microvessel density measured with antibody against CD31 was closely correlated with the presence of M2-polarized macrophages. In addition, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) significantly contributed to the activation of M2-polarized macrophages. Moreover, the results of in vitro wound healing, cell migration and tube formation assays further revealed the pro-angiogenic function of M2-polarized macrophage-like cells. This function might be associated with secretion of angiogenic cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9). This study demonstrates for the first time that M2-polarized macrophages are prevalent in KCOT, and their presence is dependent on M-CSF expression. More importantly, these tumor-supportive cells can also promote tumor angiogenesis by secreting angiogenic cytokines. PMID:26508096

  6. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the environment. PMID:26385434

  7. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  8. Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I

    PubMed Central

    White, Lisa J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM) in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I), one of the main components of dental pulp ECM. Methods DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF) supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining. Results When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions. Significance These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. PMID:26882351

  9. [Infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, D; Piper, C

    2015-04-01

    Colonization of native cardiac valves or polymer implants, e.g. valves, conduits, rings, electrode leads and polymer-associated endocarditis (PIE), by microorganisms, primarily gram-positive bacteria (infective endocarditis), constitutes a severe, prognostically unfavorable disease. Fever and in the majority of cases development of a valve regurgitant murmur are clinical landmark findings. The white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are regularly elevated. With a normal CRP level, infective endocarditis is extremely unlikely. Irrespective of body temperature, at least three blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) should be taken and if initiation of antimicrobial therapy is urgent, 1 h apart before therapy is initiated. Identification of the pathogen to the species level and testing antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics by a quantitative hemodilution test, not with agar diffusion tests, are obligatory. A minimum inhibitory concentration should be administered for antibiotics and usual combinations of antibiotics with an expected synergistic potential. Streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci are the most frequent causative organisms. Immediate initiation of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is mandatory followed by transesophageal echocardiography if imaging quality is poor, involvement of intracardiac implants is possible or TTE is insufficient to establish the diagnosis. An insufficiently long antimicrobial therapy promotes recurrent infections, thus a 4-week treatment is standard, while in special cases (e.g. PIE) treatment for 6 weeks should be the rule. If typical complications of infective endocarditis, such as uncontrolled local infection, systemic thromboembolism, central nervous involvement, development of a severe valve incompetence or mitral kissing vegetation in primary aortic valve endocarditis occur, urgent surgical intervention should be considered. If cardiac implants are involved, early surgical removal followed by a 6-week antimicrobial treatment is the rule. Adequate and timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to improve the overall prognosis. PMID:25822422

  10. Anaerobic and aerobic/anaerobic treatment for tetrachloroethylene (PCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Guiot, S.R.; Kuang, X.; Beaulieu, C.; Corriveau, A.; Hawari, J.

    1995-12-31

    The reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was studied in a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor using sucrose, lactic acid, propionic acid, and methanol as cosubstrates. Parallel experiments were performed to compare the novel coupled anaerobic/aerobic reactor with the conventional UASB. More than 95% of PCE was transformed in both reactors. Complete dechlorination in the UASB reactor decreased with increased PCE loading, declining from 45 to 19%. Minor concentrations of trichloroethylene and of undegraded PCE were detected in the liquid effluent throughout the experiment. Dichloroethylene was the dominant metabolite of all PCE loads, while vinyl chloride was not detected in the liquid effluent. For both reactor types, increased PCE loading led to lower chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates caused by a decrease in the specific acetate utilization rate. This, combined with a decline of the specific total PCE dechlorination activity, may cause long-term stability problems in the UASB reactor. The coupled reactor demonstrated higher specific PCE degradation rates at all PCE loading levels and a higher specific total dechlorination rate at the highest PCE loading. These characteristics may promote long-term stability of the coupled reactor system.

  11. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  12. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  13. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  14. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  15. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  16. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  17. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  18. Anaerobic digestion in rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

  19. Anaerobic acidogenesis of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krones, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if high rate acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure was possible, Whole dairy manure was ground and diluted to 4% total solids and fed to a 10 L anaerobic chemostat operating at 35C and with hydraulic retention times varying between 6 and 50 hours. Several physical and organic parameters of the influent and effluent were measured and compared. The results indicated that the manure was too refractory for high rate liquefaction and hydrolysis. A second experiment was conducted using the same techniques and substrate but varying the substrate pH between 5 and 7. The objectives were to further investigate the pH sensitivity of the acidogenic process and to determine if, by introducing a substrate with a low pH, acidogenesis might proceed more efficiently. The primary result of decreasing the pH was a smaller proportion of methane and an increased proportion of hydrogen in the gas. Liquefaction and hydrolysis continued to be rate limiting and appeared to be a major impediment to two phase anaerobic treatment of dairy manure.

  20. Anaerobic digestion for household organics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

  1. [Empyema due to an anaerobic Streptococcus in childhood].

    PubMed

    Sanna, C M; Corrias, A; Congiu, G; Dessì, S; Versace, R; Corda, R

    1991-01-01

    Anaerobic infections are quite rare in pediatric age, being that, they affect only neonates and immunodepressed patients. We think to be somewhat interesting to describe the case of our patient, a 9 year old boy, unaffected by any predisposing factor, came under our observation because of a severe respiratory distress. He showed evident clinical and radiological signs of pleural effusion in the right lung, together with a gas coil in the upper field and a left mediastinal shifting. A thoracentesis was then performed, giving rise to 600 ml of foul smelling purulent material; this procedure promptly improved his respiratory function. A permanent drainage trough the chest wall was set and an antibiotic therapy, based on the clinical picture and the character of the exudate, begun. In effect, the typical smell of the purulent material led us to suspect an anaerobic infection, and for this reason we employed the teicoplanin iv, a rarely used in the pediatric age drug. While blood cultures were negative for any organism, exudate cultures yielded Peptostreptococcus anaerobius; the last one resulted highly sensible following antibiogram to the previously chosen drug. The x-ray pattern and the rapid disappearing of the gas coil induced us to exclude further either congenital or acquired lung diseases. We conclude that, in absence of other proved sources of entry, the air presence in the pleural space was secondary to gas formation by the anaerobic micro-organism. The clinical course was very satisfactory allowing the patient to be dismissed on the 28th hospital day, with no need of further surgical therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1806927

  2. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal decarboxylation. The microbial consortia will be developed using a fermentor system first under batch and then in a continuous system. The main objectives for this quarter were to develop microbial consortia that would decarboxylate coal and isolate potential anaerobic microorganisms with decarboxylating, ability from these enriched microbial consortia, to continue to compare the known cultures with reward to their ability to decarboxylate coal, and to characterize the anaerobically biotreated coal using FTIR to confirm decarboxylation of coal. Significant achievements during the period include: coal decarboxylation was possible only under anaerobic conditions. microbial consortia that can anaerobically decarboxylate coal have been developed using anaerobic vials and batch fermentor system, and loss of carboxyl groups in biotreated coal has been confirmed by FT-IR.

  3. Problems encountered in clinical anaerobic bacteriology.

    PubMed

    Jousimies-Somer, H R; Finegold, S M

    1984-01-01

    Despite the rapid progress made in the technology of anaerobic bacteriology during the last 15 years, substantial variation in the practices and resources of different laboratories still exists. All steps, from the collection of the specimen to final identification, may involve pitfalls. Aspirated pus and tissue samples that are anaerobically transported are always preferable to swabs. Failure to examine gram-stained preparations and wet mounts and to inoculate the specimen promptly onto fresh supplemented media, including selective media, is still common. Generating and maintaining anaerobiosis requires careful monitoring. Plates often are discarded prematurely. The results of final identification with PRAS (prereduced, anaerobically sterilized) biochemicals and gas-liquid chromatography usually arrive too late to guide the clinician to proper therapy. Preliminary tests, along with growth on selective and differential media, are essential for prompt identification of clinically significant anaerobes. Future efforts should be directed toward diminishing the heavy work load of anaerobe laboratories by developing simpler and more rapid procedures. PMID:6201991

  4. Application of radiographic images in diagnosis and treatment of deep neck infections with necrotizing fasciitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Ju-Dong; Ryu, Hye-In; Cho, Yeon-Hee; Kong, Jun-Ha; Ohe, Joo-Young; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Joon; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2011-12-01

    The advent and wide use of antibiotics have decreased the incidence of deep neck infection. When a deep neck infection does occur, however, it can be the cause of significant morbidity and death, resulting in airway obstruction, mediastinitis, pericarditis, epidural abscesses, and major vessel erosion. In our clinic, a patient with diffuse chronic osteomyelitis of mandible and fascial space abscess and necrotic fasciitis due to odontogenic infection at the time of first visit came. We successfully treated the patient by early diagnosis using contrast-enhanced CT and follow up dressing through the appropriate use of radiographic images. PMID:22232730

  5. Critical evaluation of the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Becker, T; Buchner, A; Kaffe, I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOTs). Methods A total of 272 cases (267 from the English-language literature and 5 new cases) were analysed with special emphasis on their radiological features. Results The patients' ages at time of diagnosis ranged from 3 years to 82 years (mean 18.4 years). The maxilla-to-mandible ratio was 1.7:1. Mandibular lesions were significantly more frequent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.032). Expansion of the cortex was significantly more prominent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.045). There was a positive correlation between the size of the lesion and the age of the patient at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.016). The size was also associated with increased root resorption (p < 0.001), ill-defined borders (p < 0.001), expansion (p < 0.001) and perforation of the cortex (p < 0.001). Small opacities were present in 77% of lesions and were associated with expansion of the cortex (p = 0.043). The significant radiological features in patients aged 30 years and above were root resorption (p = 0.013) and lesions crossing the midline (p = 0.019). Conclusions The size of an AOT is influenced by the patient's age. It is also associated with root resorption, ill-defined borders, expansion and perforation of the cortex, but it cannot be ruled out that those changes reflect a longer duration of the lesion. PMID:22752319

  6. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lainoff, Alexis J; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2015-05-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  7. The effectiveness of decompression for patients with dentigerous cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, and unicystic ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Soo; Song, In-Seok; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the clinical effectiveness of decompression in decreasing the size of a cyst. In addition to the different types of cysts, we tried to reveal what effect host factors, such as the initial size of the lesion and the age of the patient, have on the velocity of cyst shrinkage. Materials and Methods With the aid of a panoramic view, we measured the size of the cysts before and after decompression in 13 dentigerous cysts (DCs), 14 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KTOCs), and 5 unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) cases. The velocity of shrinkage in the three cystic groups was calculated. Relationships between the age of the patient, the initial size of the cyst, and the shrinkage velocity were investigated. Results The three types of cysts showed no inter-type differences in their velocity of shrinkage. However, there was a statistically meaningful relationship between the initial size of the lesion and the absolute velocity of shrinkage in the DC group (P=0.02, R=0.65) and the KTOC group (P=0.02, R=0.56). There was also a significant relationship between the age of the patient and the absolute velocity of shrinkage in the KTOC group (P=0.04, R=0.45) and the UA group (P=0.04, R=0.46). Conclusion There was no difference in the decrease in size due to decompression among the different types of cysts. However, the age of the patient and the initial size of the lesion showed a significant relationship with the velocity of shrinkage. PMID:25551089

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst – Literature review and report of a paediatric case

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Ansar; Ansari, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an extremely rare lesion occurring in the jawbones. The present paper is a review of 181 cases of GOCs reported in English literature, since it was first reported by Padayache and Van Wyk in 1987. Mandible was involved in 130 cases and maxilla in 51 cases. Anterior mandible was the most common area of involvement. Radiographic appearance was that of a unilocular radiolucency in 98 of 176 reported cases. Rest presented as multilocular radiolucency. Cortical expansion was observed in 136 of the 180 reported cases while cortex breach or perforation was seen in 81 cases. The treatment of choice was that of minor procedures that included enucleation with or without curettage, peripheral ostectomy, cryotherapy, etc. in 157 of the total 177 reported cases. Marginal jaw resection, segmental mandibulectomy etc. was reported in 20 cases. Although minor surgical procedures were the treatment of choice in most studies, two major studies of Kaplan et al. and Fowler et al. involving 111 and 46 cases, recorded a recurrence rate of 35.9 and 19.6%, respectively. The age range was between 11 and 82 years. The respective mean age of patients in the above mentioned studies was 45.7 for Kaplan's and 51 years for Fowler's whereas in our study, the mean age was 45.9 years. Very rarely does GOC presents itself in a paediatric patient. The paper also reports a case of an 11-year-old child whose histopathogy came out to be a case of a GOC. PMID:26587384

  9. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Lainoff, Alexis J.; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  10. Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Jennifer R; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E; Ouellette, André J

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2-4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

  11. Effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-08-01

    The effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on the structure and activity of aerobic granules was studied. Aerobic granular sludge treating abattoir wastewater and achieving high levels of nutrient removal was subjected to 4-5 week starvation under anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Microscopic pictures of granules at the beginning of the starvation period presented a round and compact surface morphology with a much defined external perimeter. Under both starvation conditions, the morphology changed at the end of starvation with the external border of the granules surrounded by floppy materials. The loss of granular compactness was faster and more pronounced under anaerobic/aerobic starvation conditions. The release of Ca(2+) at the onset of anaerobic/aerobic starvation suggests a degradation of extracellular polymeric substances. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was reduced by 20 and 36% during anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation, respectively. When fresh wastewater was reintroduced, the granules recovered their initial morphology within 1 week of normal operation and the nutrient removal activity recovered fully in 3 weeks. The results show that both anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions are suitable for maintaining granule structure and activity during starvation. PMID:19524279

  12. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-10-01

    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with ?-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and ?-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation. PMID:25175224

  13. Importance of Different Modalities of Treatment For the Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Five year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, Vijay; Ramalingam, Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumors is a benign but one of most aggressive developmental cyst with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features and high recurrence rate. In the given study, authors have studied and presented their experience of managing Keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The aim of the study was to define an appropriate treatment protocol for the management of KCOT. Materials and Methods: Total 8 patients, whose histopathological reports confirmed Gorlin – Goltz syndrome and KCOT, with age between 10 – 50 years, were selected from cases being treated at Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, India. Enucleation and resection were the surgical techniques employed. Modality of treatment was based on parameters like age , size, aggressiveness and extent of the lesion. All the patients were operated under general anaesthesia. Cases were studied, reviewed and followed up for five years between 2007-2012. Results: The study included 8 cases in which three cases were opted for resection and five cases for enucleation followed by application of Carnoy’s solution. Conclusion: Treatment modality should be decided on age, extent, aggressiveness and nature of the tumour. PMID:24783143

  14. Tumor of the maxilla-odontogenic or glandular? A diagnostic challenge and the role of immunohistochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jaya; Manjunatha, B S; Kumar, Harish; Kumar, Pratiksha

    2015-01-01

    Today's practice in medicine has reached remarkable change mainly due to the advances in the field. Odontogenic tumors represent a spectrum of lesions ranging from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms. Rarely, odontogenic tumors pose a challenge due to varied histological features. But appropriate and accurate diagnosis is crucial for further treatment and follow-up as these have an influence on the prognosis. In such situations, immunohistochemical. (IHC) markers play a significant role in the differentiating various lesions. Within its palette of histology, there are multiple histopathological presentations, many a times these features come in an intermixed pattern simulating different origin. We here, report such a case presented in a 70-year-old female came with a complaint of swelling in the posterior maxilla. The microscopic findings were indicative of a benign neoplasm. To know the nature of the lesion and arrive at a diagnosis, many IHC markers were used. Based on all these findings, a final diagnosis of unicystic ameloblastoma was arrived. PMID:26881616

  15. [Use of the Etest method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of obligate anaerobes].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, A; Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Kot, K; Meszaros, J; ?uczak, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Etest usefulness for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of obligate anaerobes and to compare the activity of five antibacterial drugs against clinical strains of anaerobes. One hundred strains of obligate anaerobes were tested: 2 reference strains (B. fragilis ATCC 25285 and B. thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741) and 98 clinical strains isolated from patients of the Infant Jesus Clinical Hospital--Center for Trauma Treatment in Warsaw during the last three years (1997-1999). Strains of seven genera of obligate nonsporeforming anaerobes (Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium and Actinomyces) and strains of two sporeforming species (C. perfringens and C. difficile) were examined. The MIC values were determined by the gradient diffusion method Etest (AB BIODISK, Sweden). Wilkins-Chalgren solid medium supplemented with 5% of sheep blood was used. Test plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 hours in glove-box (85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2). The MIC values for each strain and antimicrobial agent, and the MIC ranges for bacteria of the same species were established. Ten strains resistant to clindamycin, ten resistant to piperacillin, and ten resistant to imipenem were detected. Seven strains were resistant to metronidazole and two strains to piperacillin combined with tazobactam. Tazobactam restored the susceptibility of eight strains to piperacillin. Obtained results confirm that Etest method is useful for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of obligate anaerobes. Older (clindamycin and metronidazole) and newer (piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem) antimicrobial agents revealed high and comparable activity against clinical strains of obligate anaerobes. The percentage of strains susceptible to tested antimicrobials was > or = 90. These antimicrobials may be still useful in the empiric treatment of infections caused by medically important anaerobes. PMID:11757426

  16. Early infection of hip joint prosthesis by Clostridium difficile in an HIV-1 infected patient.

    PubMed

    Brassinne, L; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Jonckheere, S; Dubuc, J E; Yombi, J C

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobes are less frequently described as causative pathogen of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We report the first case of early PJI after hip arthroplasty due to Clostridium difficile in a diabetic and HIV-1 infected patient with bacteremia. Our patient was successfully treated through surgical debridement and prosthesis retention combined with targeted antibiotic therapy. PMID:24705255

  17. Anaerobic filter for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavadej, S.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study evaluated the performance of an anaerobic filter in producing biogas from pig waste with 30,000 mg/l of COD. The filter packing was bamboo rings of 1 and 1/2 in. diameter, 1 in. long; the bamboo-bed filter operated satisfactorily in a wide COD loading range of 3.74-15.65 kg/cu m/d which corresponds to the hydraulic retention of 8.47 to 1.68 days. At the optimum loading of 7.299 kg COD/cu m/d, the largest gas rate of 0.212 cu m/kg of COD was produced. The required volume of the digester for 1.2 cu m/d of gas production would be only 1.5 cu m; in practical applications, consideration should be given to the gas collecting system and clogging problems.

  18. Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety and Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Öztürk, Levent; Kurt, Cem; Bulut, Erdogan; Sut, Necdet; Vardar, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02) whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance. Key pointsShort time total sleep deprivation (30 hours) increases state anxiety without any competition stress.Anaerobic performance parameters such as peak power, mean power and minimum power may not show a distinctive difference from anaerobic performance in a normal sleep day despite the high anxiety level induced by short time sleep deprivation.Partial sleep deprivation does not affect anxiety level and anaerobic performance of the next day. PMID:24149488

  19. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-28

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions. PMID:26718467

  20. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion. PMID:26337848

  1. Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

  2. [Fluoroquinolones in respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Mouton, Y; Leroy, O

    1994-11-12

    Given orally, currently marketed fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin are absorbed rapidly, have an excellent diffusion coefficient. They are wide-spectrum first intention antibiotics effective against Gram negative bacilli, staphylococci and intracellular germs such as Legionella, Chlamydiae and mycoplasms. The spectrum does however not include streptococci, and in particular pneumococci, and anaerobic germs. The development of resistant strains, particularly in hospital settings, have been observed and despite their fundamental properties, the use of fluoroquinolones has been restrained for infections of the respiratory tract. Actually, the insensitivity of pneumococci or anaerobic germs means that fluoroquinolones cannot be used empirically for isolated cases of pneumonia or sinusitis. They can however be used successfully, either empirically, in a combination regimen or after identification of the bacteria, for treating infections due to Gram negative bacilli (superinfection of chronic bronchitis or cystic fibrosis, otitis) or intracellular germs (pneumonia). In the near future, when new fluoroquinolones active against pneumococci or anaerobic germs are introduced, therapeutic options will be modified. PMID:7831243

  3. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER MIXING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design information report discusses the current problems and potential solutions associated with the selection, design, and operation of anaerobic digester mixing systems. The report describes the four major types of mixing systems and presents their advantages and disadvanta...

  4. Anaerobic biodegradation of sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Hutnan, M; Drtil, M; Mrafkova, L

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a by-product of sugar production and consists mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Its composition is suitable for biological degradation. A possible alternative for the utilization of this material (besides cattle feeding) can be anaerobic methanogenic degradation. It has an additional advantage--biogas production. Beet pulp was treated by a two-step anaerobic process. The first step consisted of hydrolysis and acidification. The second step was methanogenesis. In this paper, observation of the process of anaerobic degradation and determination of optimal parameters is discussed. A laboratory-scale model for sugar beet pulp anaerobic biodegradation was operated. Results of model performance have shown very good pulp digestion characteristics. In addition, high efficiency removal of organic matter was achieved. Methane yield was over 0.360 m3 kg(-1) dried pulp and excess sludge production was 0.094 g per gram COD added. PMID:11432579

  5. ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an international conference, microbiologists from five countries presented results of research into the anaerobic dehalogenation of compounds of environmental interest being performed at selected universities, government agencies, and private companies. he conference, held fro...

  6. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  7. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of intracranial abscesses.

    PubMed

    Brook, I

    1992-01-01

    The bacteriologic and clinical findings of 39 pediatric patients with intracranial abscess are presented. Twenty-three children presented with brain abscess and 16 with subdural empyema. Predisposing conditions were present in all instances. Sinusitis was present in 25 children and 4 patients each had chronic otitis media, dental abscess, and congenital heart disease. The abscess was located in the frontal area in 14 patients, parietal in 13, and temporal in 12. Anaerobic organisms alone were recovered in 22 patients (56%), aerobic bacteria alone in 7 (18%), and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 10 (26%) patients. There were 79 anaerobic isolates (2 per specimen). The predominant anaerobes were anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (29 isolates); Bacteroides sp. (12, including 5 Bacteroides fragilis group), Fusobacterium sp. (14 isolates); and Prevotella sp. and Actinomyces sp. (6 isolates each). A total of 17 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.4 per specimen), including 11 Gram-positive cocci and 6 Haemophilus sp., were recovered. Antimicrobial therapy was administered to all patients. Nine patients (i.e., 6 with sinusitis and subdural empyema, 3 with sinusitis and brain abscess) did not respond to antimicrobial therapy and aspiration of the abscess, and required surgical drainage of inflamed sinuses. These findings indicate the major role of anaerobic organisms in the polymicrobial etiology of intracranial abscess in children. PMID:1622518

  9. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  10. Gonococcal nitric oxide reductase is encoded by a single gene, norB, which is required for anaerobic growth and is induced by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Householder, T C; Fozo, E M; Cardinale, J A; Clark, V L

    2000-09-01

    The gene encoding a nitric oxide reductase has been identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The norB gene product shares significant identity with the nitric oxide reductases in Ralstonia eutropha and Synechocystis sp. and, like those organisms, the gonococcus lacks a norC homolog. The gonococcal norB gene was found to be required for anaerobic growth, but the absence of norB did not dramatically decrease anaerobic survival. In a wild-type background, induction of norB expression was seen anaerobically in the presence of nitrite but not anaerobically without nitrite or aerobically. norB expression is not regulated by FNR or NarP, but a functional aniA gene (which encodes an anaerobically induced outer membrane nitrite reductase) is necessary for expression. When aniA is constitutively expressed, norB expression can be induced both anaerobically and aerobically, but only in the presence of nitrite, suggesting that nitric oxide, which is likely to be produced by AniA as a product of nitrite reduction, is the inducing agent. This was confirmed with the use of the nitric oxide donor, spermine-nitric oxide complex, in an aniA null background both anaerobically and aerobically. NorB is important for gonococcal adaptation to an anaerobic environment, a physiologically relevant state during gonococcal infection. The presence of this enzyme, which is induced by nitric oxide, may also have implications in immune evasion and immunomodulation in the human host. PMID:10948150

  11. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  13. Co-occurrence of anaerobic bacteria in colorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous cancers have been linked to microorganisms. Given that colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths and the colon is continuously exposed to a high diversity of microbes, the relationship between gut mucosal microbiome and colorectal cancer needs to be explored. Metagenomic studies have shown an association between Fusobacterium species and colorectal carcinoma. Here, we have extended these studies with deeper sequencing of a much larger number (n = 130) of colorectal carcinoma and matched normal control tissues. We analyzed these data using co-occurrence networks in order to identify microbe-microbe and host-microbe associations specific to tumors. Results We confirmed tumor over-representation of Fusobacterium species and observed significant co-occurrence within individual tumors of Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia and Campylobacter species. This polymicrobial signature was associated with over-expression of numerous host genes, including the gene encoding the pro-inflammatory chemokine Interleukin-8. The tumor-associated bacteria we have identified are all Gram-negative anaerobes, recognized previously as constituents of the oral microbiome, which are capable of causing infection. We isolated a novel strain of Campylobacter showae from a colorectal tumor specimen. This strain is substantially diverged from a previously sequenced oral Campylobacter showae isolate, carries potential virulence genes, and aggregates with a previously isolated tumor strain of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Conclusions A polymicrobial signature of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria is associated with colorectal carcinoma tissue. PMID:24450771

  14. Infected cementoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudesh; Prabhakar, Vikram; Angra, Raman

    2011-07-01

    Cementoblastoma is a relatively uncommon, benign odontogenic neoplasm of jaws. Mandible is affected more than the maxilla. The lesions are generally diagnosed on a routine radiograph. The localized expansion of cortical plates is observed. Radiographically, it consists of well-defined radiopacity with a radiolucent band. Here is a case report of a female aged 55 years having swelling in the right mandibular angle with an extraoral draining sinus. A panoramic radiograph shows a dense radiopaque mass along the roots of the third molar surrounded by a radiolucent band. Surgical excision was carried out and a histopathological examination was carried out which was suggestive of cementoblastoma. PMID:22639514

  15. Enucleation of large keratocystic odontogenic tumor at mandible via unilateral sagittal split osteotomy: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Geun; Rhee, Seung-Hyun; Noh, Chung-Ah; Shin, Sang-Hun

    2015-08-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a common benign tumor of osseous lesions in dental and maxillofacial practice. We describe three cases of large KCOT located in the posterior part of the mandible extending to the angle and ramus region, which were enucleated via sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) of the mandible. There are cases in which a conventional enucleation procedure does not ensure complete excision of the entire lesion without damage to vital structures like the inferior alveolar nerve. In such cases, a SSO approach could be a better choice than conventional methods. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience using unilateral mandibular SSO for removal of a KCOT from the mandible. PMID:26339581

  16. Enucleation of large keratocystic odontogenic tumor at mandible via unilateral sagittal split osteotomy: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Geun; Rhee, Seung-Hyun; Noh, Chung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a common benign tumor of osseous lesions in dental and maxillofacial practice. We describe three cases of large KCOT located in the posterior part of the mandible extending to the angle and ramus region, which were enucleated via sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) of the mandible. There are cases in which a conventional enucleation procedure does not ensure complete excision of the entire lesion without damage to vital structures like the inferior alveolar nerve. In such cases, a SSO approach could be a better choice than conventional methods. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience using unilateral mandibular SSO for removal of a KCOT from the mandible. PMID:26339581

  17. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic keratocyst previously treated with marsupialization: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Rumayor-Piña, Alicia; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is presented here, with the clinical and histologic features of the first biopsy showing characteristics of OKC and the second biopsy disclosing a squamous cell carcinoma. Immunoprofile of this case was compared with five cases of classical OKC by using cytokeratins CK5, CK14, and CK19, CD138, p63, Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2. Classic OKCs showed expected positivity, mainly in the basal and/or suprabasal layers with most antibodies, except for p53, which was negative, whereas the present case showed irregular positivity in all layers, indicating that this can be useful for differential diagnosis and suggesting a possible role in malignant transformation into primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, immunohistochemical differences between the first biopsy of the present case and classic OKC suggest that immunohistochemistry can be helpful in cases with areas of subtle initial malignant transformation. PMID:26638715

  18. Odontogenic myxoma involving the orbit in a 3-year-old boy: removal, reconstruction and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Teis Schjals; Danielsson, Lina Isabella; Fast, Søren; Thygesen, Torben H

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of a 3-year-old boy with an odontogenic myxoma (OM) involving the orbita. Including our case, only nine cases of OM have been reported to involve the eye in children.There is no gold standard for treatment of OM in children with orbital involvement. The recurrence rate of OM in children seems low, which advocates for less invasive surgery. A gentle resection of the OM was carried out. The floor and medial wall of the orbit was reconstructed immediately using a non-resorbable Medpor implant with passive adaptation. Reconstruction with a Medpor implant in children has rarely been reported in the literature. No clinical or radiological recurrence was observed 24?months after surgical removal, and the patient presented with symmetric appearance and normal vision. PMID:26888044

  19. Expression of CD105 in tumor angiogenesis a comparative study (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dentigerous cyst)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dandena Vinay; Hemavathy, Satheavanthan; Kulkarni, Dinraj; Rudraiah, Pradeep Mattighatta; Sidramayya Mathpati, Santosh Kumar; Priya, Sharan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Demonstrate the expression of CD105 (angiogenetic marker) in ameloblastoma (AM), keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and dentigerous cyst (DC). Material and Methods: Assessment of microvessel density (MVD) in 70 cases, including 20 KCOT, 20 DC and 20 solid AMs. Assessment of MVD should be done as the mean number of microvessels per high-power-field. Results: AM and KCOT demonstrated a higher mean value of 7.98 (±2.70) and 6.25 (±2.88) respectively while DC demonstrated a lower mean of 3.75 (±1.42). There was no statistically significant difference between AM and KCOT (P > 0.05). The difference between AM and DC; and between KCOT and DC were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study suggested that angiogenesis may be one of the mechanisms possibly contributing to the different biological behaviors of KCOT, DCs and solid AMs. PMID:26124595

  20. Disruption of Smad4 in odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells influences the phenotype of multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weipeng; Yang, Guan; Chen, Feng; Yang, Xiao; Li, Tiejun

    2015-07-31

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic epithelial neoplasms with a high recurrence rate. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of KCOTs are still largely unknown. Previous research showed that specific ablation of Smad4 in odontoblasts and dental epithelia resulted in spontaneous KCOTs in mice, and that constitutively activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling was detected in the cyst epithelia of both Smad4(Co/Co) OC-Cre and Smad4(Co/Co) K5-Cre mice. Here, we ablated Smad4 in mouse odontoblasts and dental epithelia and compared the sizes and numbers of KCOTs. Both the number and size of KCOTs in Smad4(Co/Co) OC-Cre mice were larger than those in Smad4(Co/Co) K5-Cre mice, suggesting that paracrine signals from root odontoblasts play a more important role than those from Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells. PMID:26002469

  1. [Eikenella corrodens infections].

    PubMed

    Pichereau, P; Audurier, A

    1987-01-01

    E. corrodens is an anaerobic facultative Gram-negative rod whose natural habitat is the oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract. This work describes four new cases of verified infections associated with this bacterium. A literature review of cases from 1975 to 1984 has been made. In this report, we discuss the pathogenicity of E. corrodens and predisposing factors for infections including underlying diseases. Successful antibiotic therapy can be achieved with benzylpenicillin or ampicillin which are the drugs of choice. E. corrodens is a slow growing bacterium of low virulence, rarely isolated in current practice because of its unusual association with conditions such as human bites, infections of the oral cavity or immuno-suppressive therapy. PMID:3296904

  2. Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

  3. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cultivable anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage samples of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nabonita; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Ravi Bhushan; Singh, Lokendra

    2011-01-01

    Soil and sewage act as a reservoir of animal pathogens and their dissemination to animals profoundly affects the safety of our food supply. Moreover, acquisition and further spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic bacterial populations is the most relevant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Bacterial strains from soil and sewage are a potential reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. Accurate species determination for anaerobes from environmental samples has become increasingly important with the re-emergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Soil samples were collected from various locations of planar India and the diversity of anaerobic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Viable counts of anaerobic bacteria on anaerobic agar and SPS agar ranged from 1.0 × 10(2)cfu/g to 8.8 × 10(7)cfu/g and nil to 3.9 × 10(6)cfu/g, respectively. Among clostrdia, Clostridium bifermentans (35.9%) was the most dominant species followed by Clostridium perfringens (25.8%). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. perfringens beta2 toxin gene (cpb2) fragment indicated specific phylogenetic affiliation with cluster Ia for 5 out of 6 strains. Antibiotic susceptibility for 30 antibiotics was tested for 74 isolates, revealing resistance for as high as 16-25 antibiotics for 35% of the strains tested. Understanding the diversity of the anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage with respect to animal health and spread of zoonotic pathogen infections is crucial for improvements in animal and human health. PMID:20965279

  4. General method for determining anaerobic biodegradation potential.

    PubMed

    Shelton, D R; Tiedje, J M

    1984-04-01

    A simple, generalized method was refined and validated to test whether an organic chemical was susceptible to anaerobic degradation to CH4 + CO2. The method used digested sewage sludge diluted to 10% and incubated anaerobically in 160-ml serum bottles with 50 micrograms of C per ml of test chemical. Biodegradation was determined by the net increase in gas pressure in bottles with test chemicals over the pressure in nonamended sludge bottles. Gas production was measured by gas chromatography and by a pressure transducer. The latter method is recommended because of its speed, accuracy, and low cost. Sewage sludge from municipal digesters with 15- to 30-day retention times was found to be suitable. The sludge could be stored anaerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 4 weeks with satisfactory test results. p-Cresol, phthalic acid, and ethanol are suggested as reference chemicals to confirm sludge activity and method reliability. A revised anaerobic salts medium was developed which minimizes problems of a biological gas production (CO2), avoids precipitation, and meets the requirements of the anaerobic microbiota. When greater than 75% of the theoretical gas production was observed, the chemical was judged to be degradable, and when 30 to 75% of the expected gas was produced, it was termed partially degradable. This method has been tested on more than 100 chemicals of various physical properties and found to reproducibly determine anaerobic biodegradation potential. Of the chemicals tested, 46 were found to be anaerobically degraded. Sludges from nine different municipal treatment plants were surveyed for their ability to degrade nine chemicals which differed in susceptibility to degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6721493

  5. STAT3 is a key pathway in primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shu-Li; Ye, Wei-Min; Zheng, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) arising within an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is rare malignancy, entailing a poor prognosis for delayed diagnosis. The number of reports concerning this entity is extremely small. The aim of this study is to present the clinical and pathologic characteristics of PIOSCC and investigate its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: This study describes three patients with mandibular PIOSCC derived from an OKC over a seven-year period, each of which suffering from decompression in mandible. Important diagnostic criteria included the absence of overlying oral mucosal ulceration, the absence of a distant potential primary tumor, and the presence of a completely intraosseus lesion. The malignant transformation of OKC to PIOSCC was confirmed by pathologic evaluation of surgical resection specimens. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluating expression of Ki-67, p65, EGFR, phospho-AKT, and STAT3 in each of the three tumors and adjacent cyst walls. Results: Analysis by IHC indicated that Ki67, P65, EGFR and STAT3 were substantially elevated in PIOSCC. There was an obvious positive correlation between Ki67, P65, EGFR and STAT3 expression in adjacent benign epithelium. Each tumor exhibited long-standing chronic inflammation in the benign odontogenic cyst, suggesting that a sustained immune response may be partially responsible for malignant transformation of the benign cystic lining cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that inflammation may be the principal mediator in PIOSCC ex-OKC, and the STAT3 signaling pathway is an important contributor to this process. Combined detection of Ki67, P65, and EGFR in the lesional epithelium can support the diagnosis of PIOSCC. PMID:26692930

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in dentigerous cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Siadati, Sepideh; Moghaddam, Elham Alizadeh; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Najafi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an early response gene that is induced by growth factors, oncogenes and carcinogens and its expression is increased in various tumors. Increased expression of COX-2 plays a significant role in the development and growth of tumors by interfering in biological processes such as cell division, cellular immunity, cell adhesion, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) in comparison with ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst with regards to different clinical behavior and histopathological features of these lesions. Materials and Methods: Paraffined blocks of 45 cases including 15 cases of dentigerous cyst, 15 cases of KOT and 15 cases of ameloblastoma were stained with immunohistochemical method for COX-2. Five high-power fields of each sample were evaluated to determine the percentage of stained cells and the intensity of staining. Degree of immunoreactivity was obtained from the sum of two. Statistical evaluation was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). Results: Overexpression of COX-2 in ameloblastoma and KOT was observed compared with dentigerous cyst (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between the expression of COX-2 in ameloblastoma and KOT (P = 0.148). Conclusion: The COX-2 expression in odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma and cystic neoplasm with aggressive behavior such as KOT increases. However, it does not seem that COX-2 affects the development and growth of cysts with noninvasive behavior like dentigerous cyst. PMID:26005470

  7. Misdiagnosis of Extensive Maxillofacial Infection and Its Relationship with Periodontal Problems and Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Statkievicz, Cristian; Faverani, Leonardo P.; Gomes-Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Silva; Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Garcia-Junior, Idelmo Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Complex dental infections can reach distant areas of the alveolar process, invading the secondary fascial spaces. Objectives. This case report aims to show a misdiagnosis of odontogenic infection and a great need for dentist in the hospital environment. Case Report. A male patient presented facial asymmetry and trismus, while the facial CT examination showed a hyperdense mass involving the left masseteric, pterygomandibular, and superficial temporal regions. The patient was then referred to oral oncology center by emergency physician with cancer suspicion. After 15 days, the patient returned to the same emergency room and was attended by the surgical and maxillofacial trauma team, presenting tachycardia, tachypnea, dysphagia, and trismus. During anamnesis, the patient reported being an uncontrolled diabetic. In intraoral exam, a poor oral condition and generalized periodontitis were observed. Results. Correct diagnosis of odontogenic infection was established and adequately treated. Conclusions. Symptomatology bland may mask the severity of an infection; every increase in volume associated with trismus, poor oral hygiene with or without hyperglycemia should be heavily investigated for the presence of an infectious process. It emphasizes the importance of a dentist working with the physician in emergency room. PMID:26885412

  8. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  9. Anaerobic protocol for assessing industrial waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.C.; Khandaker, N.R.

    1996-11-01

    Recent promulgation of strict standards for industrial waste pretreatment has greatly increased the number of wastewaters that are candidates for anaerobic treatment. The challenge with industrial wastes is to determine the potential for anaerobic biodegradation prior to investing large amounts of time and expense in design and field investigation. Various methods have been used to assess the treatability of industrial wastewaters, but the methodology has varied significantly. In response to the need for a consistent procedure for determining the treatability of different industrial wastewaters by anaerobic processes, Young developed an anaerobic treatability screening protocol. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol and to report a number of case studies in which the test protocol was used to determine the feasibility of using anaerobic processes for treating specific industrial wastes. Specific examples include food processing wastes, chemical production wastes, petroleum wastes, and landfill leachate. Treatability was based on assessment of the rate and extent of biodegradation, identification of the presence of toxic substances, and dilution effects.

  10. Application of enzymes in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Bochmann, G; Herfellner, T; Susanto, F; Kreuter, F; Pesta, G

    2007-01-01

    Owing to the very low economic value of brewer's spent grains, its utilisation for biogas production is very promising. The hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose is the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Enzymatic pre-treatment promotes the hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose, breaking it down to lower molecular weight substances which are ready to be utilised by the bacteria. A cheap raw multi-enzyme produced by a solid state fermentation (SSF) process is a good substitute for expensive conventional enzyme. The SSF enzyme application to spent grain has been investigated by carrying out enzymatic solubility tests, hydrolytic experiments and two-step anaerobic fermentation of spent grain. Gas chromatograph analysis was conducted to quantify fatty acids concentrations, while CH(4), CO(2), O(2), H(2) and H(2)S were measured to determine biogas quality by means of a gas analyser. DS, oDS, pH were also measured to analyse the anaerobic digestion. The result shows that enzyme application promotes the hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose, indicated by higher enzymatic solubility and fatty acid concentration in a hydrolytic bioreactor. Moreover, biogas production is also increased. The quality of the gases produced is also enhanced. Since the anaerobic digestion can be operated in a stable performance, it can also be concluded that SSF enzyme is compatible with anaerobic digestion. PMID:18048974

  11. Pretreatment of swine wastewater using anaerobic filter.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho; Moon, Seo-Yeon; Shin, Kyung-Sook; Park, Soon-Chul

    2003-01-01

    Efforts were made to assess the efficiency of an anaerobic filter packed with porous floating ceramic media and to identify the optimum operational condition of anaerobic filter as a pretreatment of swine wastewater for the subsequent biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. A stepwise decrease in hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an increase in organic loading rate (OLR) were utilized in an anaerobic filter reactor at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). The optimum operating condition of the anaerobic filter was found to be at an HRT of 1 d. A soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 62% and a total suspended solids removal efficiency of 39% at an HRT of 1 d were achieved with an OLR of 16.0 kg total COD/(m3.d), respectively. The maximum methane production rate approached 1.70 vol of biogas produced per volume of reactor per day at an HRT of 1 d. It was likely that the effluent COD/total Kjeldahl nitrogen ratio of 22, the COD/total phosphorous ratio of 47, and the high effluent alkalinity >2500 mg/L as CaCO3 of the anaerobic filter operated at an HRT of 1 d was adequate for the subsequent biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:12794288

  12. Central odontogenic fibroma of the jawbone: 2 case reports describing its imaging features and an analysis of its DCE-MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Hara, Marina; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Katase, Naoki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Unetsubo, Teruhisa; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Odontogenic fibroma (OF) is a rare nonepithelial benign tumor arising from the odontogenic mesenchymal tissue in the jawbone. OFs are topographically categorized into 2 types, the central type and peripheral type, and are histopathologically divided into the epithelium-poor type and epithelium-rich type. The radiological findings of central OF commonly include a uni- or multilocular radiolucent area with a well-defined margin, which are similar to those of cysts and other benign tumors of the jawbone. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish OF from these jawbone lesions on radiographs because of their noncharacteristic radiological findings. In this article, we report the cases of 2 patients with central OF who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) examinations and describe the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for diagnosing OF. PMID:22668718

  13. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang; Gao, Lifen; Lu, Yating; Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan; Ma, Chunhong

    2016-01-15

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. PMID:26679602

  14. Submerged filter biotreatment of hazardous leachate in aerobic, anaerobic, and anaerobic/aerobic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of an industrial hazardous waste landfill leachate was evaluated in bench scale biofilm reactor systems operated under steady-and non-steady-state conditions. The leachate contained volatile and semi-volatile organics that exceeded the best-demonstrated-available-technology (BDAT) standard established for multi-source leachate wastewater under the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The influent leachate stream was continuously applied to three parallel systems: (1) an upflow anaerobic filter followed by a submerged aerobic filter, both plastic packing, (2) an anaerobic granular activated carbon column, and (3) an upflow, plastic packed aerobic filter. All systems achieved steady-state COD removals of 66-82 percent. The sequential anaerobic/aerobic filter system was most resistant to hydraulic and organic shock loading, whereas the aerobic filter performance deteriorated significantly. Though transformations of specific chemical compounds were achieved in both anaerobic and aerobic treatment, the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system was cost effective for meeting BDAT standards for hazardous organics. 25 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Anaerobes: a new aetiology in cavitary pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, J M; Hitado, J; Gea, G; Colmeiro, A; Lanza, A M; Muñoz, J A; Mosquera, J A

    1982-01-01

    The role of mycobacteria in the cavitation of large pneumoconiotic masses is well established. In other cases softness is attributed to an ischaemic or aseptic necrosis. Five cases are described in which cavitation of the pulmonary masses was caused by anaerobic bacteria, confirmed by the growth of such bacterial in cultures after transtracheal or transpleural puncture. Repeated cultures for mycobacteria gave negative results. Two cases were acute, having serious complications such as bronchopleural fistula, empyema, and serious respiratory insufficiency. The role of anaerobes in cavitary pneumoconiosis has not been recognised previously, probably because of the special conditions required to culture these bacteria and the infrequent use of transtracheal puncture in the diagnosis of this entity. The prevalence of anaerobes as agents capable of cavitating pneumoconiotic masses remains to be established. Images PMID:6128024

  16. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  17. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  18. Use of biochars in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mumme, Jan; Srocke, Franziska; Heeg, Kathrin; Werner, Maja

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the behavior of biochars from pyrolysis (pyrochar) and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochar) in anaerobic digestion regarding their degradability and their effects on biogas production and ammonia inhibition. A batch fermentation experiment (42°C, 63 days) was conducted in 100mL syringes filled with 30 g inoculum, 2g biochar and four levels of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN). For pyrochar, no clear effect on biogas production was observed, whereas hydrochar increased the methane yield by 32%. This correlates with the hydrochar's larger fraction of anaerobically degradable carbon (10.4% of total carbon, pyrochar: 0.6%). Kinetic and microbiota analyses revealed that pyrochar can prevent mild ammonia inhibition (2.1 g TANk g(-1)). Stronger inhibitions (3.1-6.6 g TAN kg(-1)) were not mitigated, neither by pyrochar nor by hydrochar. Future research should pay attention to biochar-microbe interactions and the effects in continuously-fed anaerobic digesters. PMID:24859210

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  20. A simple device for measuring anaerobic power

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, D. K.; Verma, S. K.; Sidhu, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    Having no funds to purchase sophisticated equipment to measure human anaerobic power, a simple cheaply made device was constructed based on the principle of the method introduced by Margaria et al (1966). This improvised apparatus consists of two contact pads each having a make and break provision of an electrical circuit with the help of leaf springs and can be used to measure human vertical velocity and anaerobic power. Details of the device are described and illustrated, and the results presented from a test of anaerobic power on 92 men and women athletes at national level in different sports. These results have been compared with the corresponding results available in the literature. Imagesp136-ap136-bp136-c PMID:7272658

  1. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, W.M.; Claassen, J.A.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-09-01

    Investigations on the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of high-strength wastewaters (14-65 kg COD/mT) are presented. Vinasse, the wastewater of alcohol distilleries, was used as an example of such wastewaters. Semicontinuously fed digestion experiments at high retention times revealed that the effluent quality of digestion at 55C is comparable with that at 30C at similar loading rates. The amount of methane formed per kilogram of vinasse drops almost linearly with increasing vinasse concentrations. The treatment of vinasse was also investigated using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection By Chromobacterium Violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:25302195

  4. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  5. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation: an alternative to soil fumigation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil disinfestation methods using anaerobic decomposition of organic matter were developed in the Netherlands and Japan as an ecological alternative to MeBr. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) works by creating a combination of anaerobic soil conditions and readily available carbon pools to stimula...

  6. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  7. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  8. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-06-01

    It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection. PMID:23805543

  9. Comparative in vitro activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rylander, M; Nord, C E; Norrby, S R

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 against 229 aerobic and 330 anaerobic clinical isolates was determined using the agar dilution technique. For comparison, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, erythromycin and metronidazole (only anaerobic bacteria) were tested. Bay v 3522 was found to have high activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens and fusobacteria. When tested against a higher inoculum or using the broth dilution technique, the activity of Bay v 3522 showed little dependence on inoculum size and the bactericidal activity was similar to inhibitory activity in most bacterial groups. Bay v 3522 may be useful in the treatment of skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections. Clinical studies are thus warranted. PMID:2261923

  10. Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, I; Blandino, G; Caccamo, F; Musumeci, R; Nicoletti, G; Speciale, A

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro activity of faropenem, an oral penem, was compared with those of penicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefoxitin, clindamycin, erythromycin and metronidazole against 106 isolates of anaerobic pathogens involved in systemic infections. The organisms tested comprised Porphyromonas gingivalis (29), Prevotella spp. (eight), Prevotella melaninogenica (seven), Prevotella intermedia (five), Actinomyces spp. (25), Fusobacterium nucleatum (14), Peptostreptococcus spp. (11), Bacteroides ureolyticus (five) and Bacteroides forsythus (two). The antimicrobial properties of faropenem were investigated by studying MICs, MBCs, time-kill kinetics and post-antibiotic effect (PAE). Faropenem was highly active against all the anaerobes tested (MIC(90) < or = 0.5 mg/L) and was bactericidal against both beta-lactamase-positive and -negative anaerobes, with a maximum bactericidal effect at 10 x MIC at between 12 and 24 h. In addition, faropenem had an in vitro PAE on all the tested isolates and this was not influenced by beta-lactamase production. Faropenem may be useful for treating infections caused by periodontal bacteria or oral flora. PMID:12615878

  11. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

  12. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs-acetogens and methanogens-look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. PMID:26684184

  13. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

  14. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  15. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to PD 131628.

    PubMed

    Nord, C E; Hagelbäck, A

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PD 131628 against anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides spp. and fusobacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. This activity was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol. PD 131628, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were the most active agents tested. PMID:1314176

  16. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  17. Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...

  18. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, itching, ... and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis ...

  19. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

  20. Effect of CO2 on susceptibilities of anaerobes to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin.

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1994-01-01

    The Oxyrase agar dilution method (Oxyrase, Inc., Mansfield, Ohio), which provides an anaerobic environment without added CO2, was compared with the reference agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (anaerobic chamber with 10% CO2) to test the susceptibilities of 302 gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobes to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin. For erythromycin, the overall MIC for 50% of isolates tested (MIC50) was 0.5 micrograms/ml and the MIC90 was 8.0 micrograms/ml by the Oxyrase method, whereas they were 4.0 and 64.0 micrograms/ml, respectively, under standard anaerobic conditions with CO2. At a breakpoint of 4.0 micrograms/ml, 88% of strains were susceptible to erythromycin by the Oxyrase method, whereas 63% were susceptible in the chamber. The corresponding MIC50s and MIC90s of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin by the Oxyrase method were 0.5 and 8.0, 0.25 and 4.0, and 0.5 and 16.0 micrograms/ml, respectively, whereas in the chamber they were 4.0 and > 64.0, 2.0 and 64.0, and 2.0 and 64.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. At a breakpoint of 8.0 micrograms/ml for these three drugs, 89, 92, and 85% of the isolates, respectively, were susceptible by the Oxyrase method, whereas 67%, 72, and 68% of the isolates, respectively, were susceptible in the chamber. Most strains resistant to all four compounds by both methods were Bacteroides distasonis, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium varium and non-Clostridium perfringens Clostridium species. Results of the study may lead to a reappraisal of the role played by macrolides and azalides in the treatment of anaerobic infections. PMID:8192445