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1

[Epidemiology of odontogenous soft-tissue infections].  

PubMed

Between 1950 and 1986, 11,839 patients were ambulant and stationary treated with odontogenous soft-tissue infections. In the aetiology the Periodontitis apicalis and wounds after tooth extractions are in the highest position. Odontogenous infections were rearly found in tenderage. In ambulant patients the subperiosteal submucous localisation was predominated, in stationary the position near the border of the lower jaw. The first molar and the premolares were the chief cause of the infections. PMID:2636500

Andrä, A

1989-09-01

2

Management of complex multi-space odontogenic infections.  

PubMed

The successful management of multi-space orofacial odontogenic infections involves identification of the source of the infection, the anatomical spaces encountered, the predominant microorganisms that are found during the various stages of odontogenic fascial space infection, the impact of the infectious process on defense systems, the ability to use and interpret laboratory data and imaging studies, and a thorough understanding of contemporary antibiotic and supportive care. The therapeutic goals, when managing multi-space odontogenic infections, are to restore form and/or function while limiting patient disability and preventing recurrence. Odontogenic infections are commonly the result of pericoronitis, carious teeth with pulpal exposure, periodontitis, or complications of dental procedures. The second and third molars are frequently the etiology of these multi-space odontogenic infections. Of the two teeth, the third molar is the more frequent source of infection. Diagnostic imaging modalities are selected based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, physical findings and laboratory results. Periapical and panoramic x-rays are reliable initial screening instruments used in determining etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are ideal imaging studies that permit assessment of the soft tissue involvement to include determining fluid collections, distinguishing abscess from cellulitis, and offering insight as to airway patency. Antibiotics are administered to assist the host immune system's effort to control and eliminate invading microorganisms. Early infections, first three (3) days of symptoms, are primarily caused by aerobic streptococci which are sensitive to penicillin. Amoxicillin is classified as an extended spectrum penicillin. The addition of clavulanic acid to amoxicillin (Augmentin) increases the spectrum to staphylococcus and other anaerobes by conferring beta-lactamase resistance. In late infections, more than three (3) days of symptoms, the predominant microorganisms are anaerobes, predominantly Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, or Bacteroides, that are resistant to penicillin. Clindamycin is an attractive alternative drug for first line therapy in the treatment of these infections. The addition of metronidazole to penicillin is also an excellent treatment choice. Alternatively, Unasyn (Ampicillin/Sublactam), should be considered. The mainstay of management of these infections remains appropriate culture for bacterial identification, timely and aggressive incision and drainage, and removal of the etiology. It is usually preferable to drain multi-space infections involving the submandibular, submental, masseteric, pterygomandibular, temporal, and/or lateral pharyngeal masticator spaces, as early as possible from an extraoral approach. Trismus and airway management are important considerations and may preclude the selection of other surgical approaches. The patients with multi-space infections should be hospitalized and patient care provided by experienced clinicians capable of management of airway problems, in administration of parenteral antibiotics and fluids, utilization of interpretation of laboratory and diagnostic imaging studies, and control of possible surgical complications. PMID:12572406

Bratton, Terrance A; Jackson, D Carl; Nkungula-Howlett, Tania; Williams, Charles W; Bennett, C Ray

2002-01-01

3

[Relationship between odontogenic infections and infective endocarditis].  

PubMed

Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by national and international associations in the last years do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, some of them still recommend its use in high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteremia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment. PMID:21632067

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muńoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime

2011-05-31

4

The management of odontogenic infections. A rationale for appropriate chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Odontogenic infections are one of the most frequently occurring infectious processes known to health practice. Significant changes have occurred in the use of antibiotics and antimicrobials since the use of chemotherapeutic agents became widespread. This article provides some important considerations for selecting appropriate chemotherapeutic agents during the management of odontogenic infections. PMID:7805942

Baker, K A; Fotos, P G

1994-10-01

5

Severe versus Local Odontogenic Bacterial Infections: Comparison of Microbial Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the clinical and microbiological differences between severe and local odontogenic abscesses. Methods: Thirty patients were prospectively enrolled. Sixteen of 30 patients suffered from a severe life-threatening abscess of the head and neck, whereas 14\\/30 patients presented with a localized submucous abscess. Anaerobic bacteria were identified and susceptibility testing was performed

B. Al-Nawas; M. Maeurer

2008-01-01

6

Mediastinitis from odontogenic and deep cervical infection. Anatomic pathways of propagation.  

PubMed

Potentially lethal consequences can quickly occur once the mediastinum is subjected to the ravages of an anaerobic infection. Mediastinitis from odontogenic or deep cervical infections is extremely rare in the era of antibiotic drugs. We have recently encountered five such cases, with a rapid spread of the inflammatory process into the mediastinum resulting in a number of local and systemic complications. All were caused by anaerobic bacteria. Awareness of such complications and early roentgenographic diagnosis lead to prompt surgical drainage, proper antibiotic therapy, and survival after a stormy clinical course. The anatomic pathways between the various fascial planes of the neck and mediastinum will be described. PMID:630967

Moncada, R; Warpeha, R; Pickleman, J; Spak, M; Cardoso, M; Berkow, A; White, H

1978-04-01

7

Anaerobic Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human\\u000a skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin. Because\\u000a of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections\\u000a can occur in all body sites,

Itzhak Brook

8

Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin.  

PubMed

Odontogenic etiology accounts for 10% to 12% of cases of maxillary sinusitis. Although uncommon, direct spread of dental infections into the maxillary sinus is possible due to the close relationship of the maxillary posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus. If a periapical dental infection or dental/oral surgery procedure violates the schneiderian membrane integrity, infection will likely spread into the sinus, leading to sinusitis. An odontogenic source should be considered in individuals with symptoms of maxillary sinusitis and a history of dental or jaw pain; dental infection; oral, periodontal, or endodontic surgery; and in those people resistant to conventional sinusitis therapy. An odontogenic infection is a polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic infection, with anaerobes outnumbering the aerobes. Diagnosis requires a thorough dental and clinical evaluation, including radiographs. Management of sinus disease of odontogenic origin often requires medical treatment with appropriate antibiotics, surgical drainage when indicated, and treatment to remove the offending dental etiology. PMID:19348725

Mehra, Pushkar; Jeong, Daniel

2009-05-01

9

Odontogenic infections in the etiology of infective endocarditis.  

PubMed

Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by the American Heart Association in 2007 do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, they still recommend the use of prophylaxis for high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteraemia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment. PMID:19751184

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muńoz-Corcuera, Marta; Meurman, Jukka H

2009-12-01

10

Anaerobic infections in children.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin. Because of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. They colonize the newborn after delivery and have been recovered from several types of neonatal infections. These include cellulitis of the site of fetal monitoring, neonatal aspiration pneumonia, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, omphalitis, and infant botulism. The failure to direct adequate therapy against these organisms may lead to clinical failures. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, by their polymicrobial nature, and by the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy required, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because anaerobic bacteria generally are recovered mixed with aerobic organisms, the choice of appropriate antimicrobial agents should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogen. PMID:21120724

Brook, Itzhak

2011-01-01

11

Management of odontogenic infection of pulpal and periodontal origin.  

PubMed

The dental biofilm is a complex bacterial ecosystem that undergoes evolution, maturing and development, and thus leads to odontogenic infection. The infection is normally located in the tissues of the dental organ itself, and follows a chronic course of evolution. However, bacterial pathogens express virulence factors in the biofilm, and this together with changes in host immunity, may cause clinical exacerbations and spread of infection to other areas of the body. Odontogenic infection management should take into consideration the fact that therapeutic success lies in the control of the infectious aetiologic agent, using mechanical-surgical debridement and/or antimicrobial therapy. Debridement techniques have a fundamentally quantitative effect (by reducing the size of the inoculum) and therefore if these techniques are used alone to control infection, despite an initial clinical improvement that is sometimes prematurely considered as therapeutic success, odontopathogens may persist and the process may recur or become chronic. Microbiological examination may be helpful in defining therapeutic success in a more reliable way, it could define the prognosis of recurrence more precisely, and could enable the most appropriate antibiotic to be selected, thus increasing therapeutic efficacy. Antimicrobial therapy brings about a quantitative and qualitative change in the bacterial composition of the biofilm, in addition to being able to act on sites that are inaccessible through mechanical debridement. However, incorrect antimicrobial use can lead to a selection of resistant bacterial species in the biofilm, in addition to side effects and ecological alterations in the host. In order to minimise this risk, and obtain maximum antimicrobial effect, we need to know in which clinical situations their use is indicated, and the efficacy of different antibiotics with regard to bacteria isolated in odontogenic infection. PMID:17322806

López-Píriz, Roberto; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, Maria José

2007-03-01

12

[Resistance to chemotherapy of aerobic bacteria from nonspecific odontogenic infections].  

PubMed

Germs in patients suffering from nonspecific odontogenous infections described in a previous paper were analysed with regard to their resistance to chemotherapy (1964 to 1971). At the same time it was discovered that in the bacteria groups: staphyloccocus aureus, streptococci and pneumococci and enterobacteriaceae plus pseudomonas (344 strains) their sensitivity to penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracyclin, erythromycin, polymyxin B and nifurantin varied in several and significant ways. Significant changes were established in the resistance of staphylococcus aureus to all the potentially effective antibiotics, while from 1969 to 1971 the strains with the least resistance appeared. In the 1970 to 1971 period strepto- and pneumococci showed insensitivity to penicillin and streptomycin more frequently than before. From 1969 to 1971 entero-bacteriaceae and pseudomonas also showed evidence of increasing loss of sensitivity to chloramphenicol and oxytetracyclin, whereas the frequency of strains resistant to polymyxin B and nifurantine diminished. The findings are being discussed. PMID:188271

Oehring, H; Schumann, D; Karl, P; Knappe, U; Gruhn, I

1976-01-01

13

Odontogenic infection causing orbital cellulitis in a pediatric patient.  

PubMed

Odontogenic abscess can become an orbital cellulitis, causing potentially serious intracranial and orbital complications. The full clinical complications from odontogenic orbital cellulitis in a pediatric patient are rarely seen daily in hospital emergency departments. Thus, odontogenic orbital cellulitis still remains a rarity, resulting in a medical challenge. With this in mind, this study aimed to describe a case of periorbital and orbital cellulitis resulting from odontogenic origin in a 6-year-old patient who was successfully treated by performing intravenous antibiotic administration combined with surgical drainage. PMID:24036835

de Assis-Costa, Marcelo Dias Moreira; Santos, George Soares; Maciel, Jucileia; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; de Melo, Willian Morais

2013-09-01

14

Lemierre's Syndrome: A serious complication of an odontogenic infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrobacillosis, postanginal septicaemia or Lemierre's Syndrome is characterised by suppurative thrombophle- bitis of the internal jugular vein with embolization to several sites, including the lungs. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who was initially hospitalized because of odontogenic cellulitis. Given the deterioration of his clinical state (septic shock and multiple organ failure), neck computed tomography was performed, revealing

Pablo Rosado; Lorena Gallego; Luis Junquera; Juan C. de Vicente

15

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

16

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

17

TREATMENT OF ANAEROBIC SOFT - TISSUE INFECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of anaerobic infection needs to be prompt and appropriate in order to ensure recovery. Management includes the use of hyperbaric oxygen, surgical methods and antimicrobial therapy. In the past five years, newer agents effective against anaerobic organisms were introduced. However antibiotic resistance is increasingly common against anaerobic bacteria. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is often combined with antibiotic therapy for

T. DEM?RDAL; C. A?ALAR

18

Host factors predisposing to anaerobic infections.  

PubMed

Factors that predispose to infection in general, of course, may predispose to infection with anaerobes. Included in this category are diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, malignancy, splenectomy, collagen vascular disease, cytotoxic drug therapy, corticosteroid therapy and other immunosuppression. However, even with these situations there may be certain, more specific, associations: anaerobic cholecystitis and anaerobic osteomyelitis in diabetics, neutropenic colitis, and the increased incidence of local anaerobic infections associated with carcinoma of the lung, colon and uterus. Conditions that lead to decreased redox potential more specifically predispose to infection with anaerobes. Included in this category are obstruction and stasis, tissue anoxia, tissue destruction, vascular insufficiency, prior aerobic infection, burns, foreign body implantation, and calcium salts in a wound (in association with fractures). Other specific clinical situations that predispose to anaerobic infections include leukaemia; oral, gastrointestinal, and female pelvic surgery; trauma at other sites; childbirth; aspiration pneumonia; human and animal bites; and therapy with agents with poor activity against anaerobes (e.g. aminoglycosides, quinolones). AIDS patients appear to be predisposed to severe periodontal disease and its complications. PMID:8518753

Finegold, S M

1993-03-01

19

Anaerobes in nosocomial and community acquired pleural infections.  

PubMed

Anaerobes are important causes of pleural space infections. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of the anaerobic bacteria in pleural infections. The study involved 278 consecutive clinical samples sent to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Tertiary Chest Hospital. Anaerobes were isolated in 39 community acquired and five nosocomial cases out of 278 anaerobic cultivations (15.8%). Total of 56 anaerobe strains were identified and 21 aerobes were accompanied to anaerobic isolates. Aerobe isolates were associated with anaerobic microorganisms in 19 cases (43.2%). Bacteroides species (21.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%) were the most common anaerobic and aerobic isolates. PMID:24064649

Senol, G; Coskun, M; Gunduz, A; Bicmen, C; Tibet, G

20

The implications and management of acute odontogenic infection in association with Down and Eisenmenger syndromes and schizophrenia in a rural setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This report describes the case management of a 32 year old special needs patient with life-threatening odontogenic infection. The combination of schizophrenia, Down and Eisenmenger syndromes presented significant challenges to managing his oral health, particularly within the rural context. In this case, dental treatment was limited to a full dental clearance during a high risk general anaesthesia session. Method:

CR Chilvers; RJ Cane

2007-01-01

21

Treatment of Anaerobic Bacterial Infections with Clindamycin-2-Phosphate  

PubMed Central

Thirty-five patients with a variety of serious infections caused by anaerobic bacteria responded to clindamycin. Cure was achieved in 27 of the 32 patients with pleuropulmonary and intra-abdominal infections. Mean serum concentrations of clindamycin for the 8 h after intramuscular administration of clindamycin in these patients were at least 2.5 times the minimal inhibitory concentration of clindamycin for more than 90% of anaerobes. This experience suggests that clindamycin is an excellent and relatively safe antibiotic for treatment of infection caused by anaerobes when combined with surgery (when indicated) or other antibiotics active against aerobic gram-negative bacilli, if present.

Levison, Matthew E.; Bran, Jose L.; Ries, Kristen

1974-01-01

22

[Malignant odontogenic tumors].  

PubMed

Malignant odontogenic tumors are extremely rare. As with benign odontogenic tumors, malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors or odontogenic carcinomas are distinguished from the even rarer mesenchymal ones, the odontogenic sarcomas. The existence of odontogenic carcinosarcomas is not yet acknowledged by the World Health Organization. Odontogenic carcinomas comprise ameloblastic carcinoma (AmCa), primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC), clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC), and the special case of metastasizing ameloblastoma. Odontogenic sarcomas consist of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma and ameloblastic fibrodentinosarcoma and fibroodontosarcoma. Whereas metastasizing ameloblastoma can be diagnosed only after having metastasized, all other malignant odontogenic tumors present with atypia, increased cellularity and mitoses, and invasion. Odontogenic sarcomas are regarded as low-grade tumors that rarely metastasize. Odontogenic carcinomas, however, especially AmCa, OGCC, and PIOC, are more aggressive, with a 5-year survival rate of about 70% for AmCa and OGCC and a 3-year survival rate of about 37% for PIOC. Radical surgery, eventually in combination with radiotherapy, is the treatment of choice. PMID:18392827

Jundt, G; Reichart, P A

2008-04-09

23

Microbiological analysis of a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing moxifloxacin and clindamycin in the treatment of odontogenic infiltrates and abscesses.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify the oral pathogens found in odontogenic infections, to determine their susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), clindamycin (CLI), doxycycline (DOX), levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MXF), and penicillin (PEN), and to search for associations between specific pathogens and types of infection. Swabs from patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind phase II trial comparing MXF with CLI for the treatment of odontogenic abscesses or inflammatory infiltrates were cultured on media for aerobes and anaerobes. All bacterial isolates were identified at the species level. Overall, 205 isolates were cultured from 71 patients: 77 viridans group streptococci, 56 Prevotella spp., 19 Neisseria spp., 17 Streptococcus anginosus group isolates and hemolytic streptococci, 15 other anaerobes, and 21 other bacteria. Ninety-eight percent of pathogens were susceptible to MXF, 96% to AMC, 85% to LVX, 67% to PEN, 60% to CLI, and 50% to DOX. S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.04) in patients with abscesses (12/95) than in patients with infiltrates (5/110). In four patients with infiltrates who failed to respond to CLI therapy, three isolates of the Streptococcus mitis group and four Neisseria spp. resistant to CLI were found. In this study, S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were clearly associated with odontogenic abscesses. Our analysis suggests that viridans group streptococci and Neisseria spp. play a decisive role in the etiology of odontogenic infiltrates. The high in vitro activity of MXF against odontogenic bacteria corresponds well to its clinical results in the treatment of odontogenic abscesses and infiltrates. PMID:22354306

Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Balzer, Ludwig; Böger, Rainer H; Hallier, Olaf; Giersdorf, Ina; Streichert, Thomas; Haddad, Munif; Platzer, Ursula; Cachovan, Georg

2012-02-21

24

Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbiology of Wound Infection following Spinal Fusion in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of wound infections following spinal fusion in children. Methods: Retrospective review of clinical and microbiological records. Results: Aspirates of pus from 18 infection sites showed bacterial growth. Anaerobic bacteria only were recovered in 3 (17%) specimens, aerobic bacteria only in 3 (17%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 12 (67%). Forty-two

Itzhak Brook; Edith H. Frazier

2000-01-01

25

Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbiology of Surgical-Site Infection Following Spinal Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of surgical-site infections (SSI) following spinal fusion was retro- spectively studied. This was done by reviewing the clinical and microbiological records at the Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Md., from 1980 to 1992. Aspirates of pus from 25 infection sites showed bacterial growth. Aerobic bacteria only were recovered from 9 (36%) specimens, anaerobic bacteria only were

ITZHAK BROOK; EDITH H. FRAZIER

1999-01-01

26

When is bacterial vaginosis not bacterial vaginosis?--a case of cervical carcinoma presenting as recurrent vaginal anaerobic infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal anaerobic infection is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women. We present a case of recurrent vaginal anaerobic infection and cervical carcinoma and discuss the association of the two conditions. More frequent cytology\\/colposcopy may be indicated in women who give a history of recurrent or persistent vaginal anaerobic infection.

M M Hudson; J A Tidy; T A McCulloch; K E Rogstad

1997-01-01

27

Microbiology of Odontogenic Bacteremia: beyond Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The human gingival niche is a unique microbial habitat. In this habitat, biofilm organisms exist in harmony, attached to either enamel or cemental surfaces of the tooth as well as to the crevicular epithelium, subjacent to a rich vascular plexus underneath. Due to this extraordinary anatomical juxtaposition, plaque biofilm bacteria have a ready portal of ingress into the systemic circulation in both health and disease. Yet the frequency, magnitude, and etiology of bacteremias due to oral origin and the consequent end organ infections are not clear and have not recently been evaluated. In this comprehensive review, we address the available literature on triggering events, incidence, and diversity of odontogenic bacteremias. The nature of the infective agents and end organ infections (other than endocarditis) is also described, with an emphasis on the challenge of establishing the link between odontogenic infections and related systemic, focal infections.

Parahitiyawa, N. B.; Jin, L. J.; Leung, W. K.; Yam, W. C.; Samaranayake, L. P.

2009-01-01

28

Masticator space abscess derived from odontogenic infection: imaging manifestation and pathways of extension depicted by CT and MR in 30 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of odontogenic masticator space abscesses is insufficiently understood. The purpose was to analyse pathways of\\u000a spread in 30 patients with odontogenic masticator space abscess. The imaging findings in 30 patients (CT in 30, MR in 16 patients)\\u000a were retrospectively analysed. CT and MR imaging depicted a masticator space abscess within: medial pterygoid muscle in 13\\u000a patients (43.3%), lateral masseter

B. Schuknecht; G. Stergiou; K. Graetz

2008-01-01

29

B-Cell Deficiency Predisposes Mice to Disseminating Anaerobic Infections: Protection by Passive Antibody Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that a high proportion of RAG-2 SCID knockout mice, which lack T and B cells, develop orofacial abscesses and disseminated infections following pulpal infection, whereas immuno- competent control mice do not. In the present study, we sought to identify the components of the adaptive immune response which contribute to protection against disseminating anaerobic infections and sepsis.

LINDA HOU; HAJIME SASAKJ; PHILIP STASHENKO

2000-01-01

30

Identification of some anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific anaerobic infections in animals.  

PubMed Central

Over 200 anaerobic bacterial isolates were recovered in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory from nonspecific infectious disease from 72 specimens originating from ten animal species. The majority of isolates were nonsporeforming bacteria and about half were identified to species. Bacteroides species formed the major group and included B. oralis, B. fragilis, B. corrodens, B. ruminicola subspecies ruminicola, B. ruminicola subspecies brevis and various subspecies of B. melaninogenicus. Gram-positive anaerobic cocci constituted the next major group of isolates and the main species identified in cattle was Peptococcus indolicus. Clostridial species were uncommon. Nine specimens yielded a pure culture of an anaerobe and, in samples containing mixtures of bacterial species, each specimen yielded an average of 3.1 anaerobic and 1.4 aerobic bacterial species. The failure to identify many of the isolates is discussed.

Prescott, J F

1979-01-01

31

Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.  

PubMed

Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management. PMID:22197951

Brook, Itzhak

2011-12-20

32

Odontogenic Cysts, Odontogenic Tumors, Fibroosseous, and Giant Cell Lesions of the Jaws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic cysts that can be problematic because of recurrence and\\/or aggressive growth include odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), calcifying odontogenic cyst, and the recently described glandular odontogenic cyst. The OKC has significant growth capacity and recurrence potential and is occasionally indicative of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. There is also an orthokeratinized variant, the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, which is less aggressive

Joseph A. Regezi

2002-01-01

33

Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview  

PubMed Central

The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75

Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

2013-01-01

34

Anaerobic balanoposthitis.  

PubMed

To assess the causative role of non-sporing anaerobes in cass of erosive balanoposthitis, anaerobic culture was performed on purulent discharges from 104 patients with penile ulceration, a foul-smelling discharge, and a mixed and motile bacterial flora. Most of 29 culturally confirmed infections were due to mixed anaerobes and eight to single anaerobes. A rapid response to treatment with metronidazole also confirmed the anaerobic cause of the infection. Thus, acute anaerobic balanoposthitis can be readily diagnosed clinically and is easily treated. PMID:6121604

Cree, G E; Willis, A T; Phillips, K D; Brazier, J S

1982-03-20

35

B-Cell Deficiency Predisposes Mice to Disseminating Anaerobic Infections: Protection by Passive Antibody Transfer  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that a high proportion of RAG-2 SCID knockout mice, which lack T and B cells, develop orofacial abscesses and disseminated infections following pulpal infection, whereas immunocompetent control mice do not. In the present study, we sought to identify the components of the adaptive immune response which contribute to protection against disseminating anaerobic infections and sepsis. For this purpose, various genetically engineered immunodeficient mice were employed, including RAG-2 SCID, Igh-6 (B-cell deficient), Tcrb Tcrd (T-cell deficient) and Hc0 (C5 deficient). For abscess induction, the mandibular first molars were subjected to pulp exposure on day 0. Teeth were infected with a mixture of four anaerobic pathogens, including Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus intermedius, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus micros, and teeth were sealed to prevent communication with the oral cavity. The findings demonstrate that both RAG-2 SCID and B-cell-deficient mice, but not T-cell- or C5-deficient mice, have increased susceptibility to the development of disseminating anaerobic infections. Abscess-susceptible RAG-2 SCID and B-cell-deficient mice also showed a significant loss of body weight, splenomegaly, and absent antibacterial antibody production. Furthermore, dissemination was significantly reduced, from 74 to 25%, in susceptible RAG-2 mice by passively transferred antibody, predominantly immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) and IgM, against the infecting bacterial innoculum. Fractionated IgG-enriched preparations were more efficient in transferring protection than IgM preparations. We conclude that an antibody-mediated mechanism(s), most likely bacterial opsonization, is of importance in localizing anaerobic root canal infections and in preventing their systemic spread.

Hou, Linda; Sasakj, Hajime; Stashenko, Philip

2000-01-01

36

In Vitro Activity of Ceftobiprole against Aerobic and Anaerobic Strains Isolated from Diabetic Foot Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against 443 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from diabetic foot infections, ceftobiprole MICs (g\\/ml) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were as follows: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 1; methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 0.5; Anaerococcus prevotii, 0.125; Finegoldia magna, 0.5; Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus ,1 ;Peptostreptococcus anaerobius ,4 ;Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species, 0.125; Klebsiella species, 2; and Pseudomonas

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2006-01-01

37

In Vitro Activity of Ceftobiprole against Aerobic and Anaerobic Strains Isolated from Diabetic Foot Infections?  

PubMed Central

Against 443 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from diabetic foot infections, ceftobiprole MICs (?g/ml) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were as follows: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 1; methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 0.5; Anaerococcus prevotii, 0.125; Finegoldia magna, 0.5; Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, 1; Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, 4; Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species, 0.125; Klebsiella species, 2; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 8.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2006-01-01

38

[Pathogen and resistance spectrum in intraoral infections of the jaw-facial area with special reference to anaerobic bacteria].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain more knowledge about the aerobic and anaerobic species causing maxillofacial infections and their resistance patterns today. Samples of pus or infectious tissue obtained from 110 patients of maxillofacial surgery were investigated microbiologically by means of aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After incubation, the cultivated species were isolated and identified. The resistance patterns of all bacteria to penicillin, doxycyclin, and clindamycin were determined. Additionally, the resistance of aerobic species to cefuroxim was documented, and the MICs of cefoxitin and metronidazole to the anaerobic species were assessed. The most frequent disease was periodontitis apicalis (70 patients). Aerobic species alone were found in 23% of the samples, 14% of the infections harbored only anaerobes, but 63% were mixed infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In case of detection of aerobic species, streptococci were always identified. Five patients were infected by Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic rods were found in eight patients. Most of the anaerobic species were black pigmented prevotella species (62), nonpigmented prevotellae (56), and fusobacteria (37). Metronidazole and clindamycin were highly efficient to gram-negative anaerobic rods. Most of the oral species were resistant to penicillin and doxycyclin. The indication for applying antibiotics should always be noticed and these drugs should only be used after determination of the pathogenic microorganisms and their susceptibility to the antimicrobials. PMID:10994323

Eick, S; Pfister, W; Korn-Stemme, S; Mägdefessel-Schmutzer, U; Straube, E

2000-07-01

39

Anaerobic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... for Families (PedFACTs) Infant CPR Anytime® Dark Skin (English/Spanish) Allergies and Asthma Home Strength Training for Young Athletes ... Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

40

A rare presentation of hybrid odontogenic tumor involving calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and plexiform ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. We presented a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a plexiform ameloblastoma. This tumor was observed in the anterior area of the mandible of a 17-year-old Indian male. Masses of ghost epithelial cells with the characteristics of CCOT were seen in the lining of the cyst. The odontogenic epithelia with the features of plexiform ameloblastoma were also observed.

Chaubey, Snehal S.; Mishra, Sunil S.; Degwekar, Shirish S.; Chaubey, Saujanya

2013-01-01

41

Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus) through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives.

Brown, Ronald S; Jones, Robert; Feimster, Tawana; Sam, Frances E

2010-01-01

42

Odontogenic myxoma with orbital involvement.  

PubMed

A 15-month-old female child presented with progressive right-sided facial swelling, nasal obstruction, and deviation of the nose to the left. Computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in the maxillary sinus with disruption of the medial orbital floor. Incisional biopsy of this mass was nondiagnostic and the mass continued to grow rapidly. The mass was removed by excisional biopsy and curettage with conservative margins via combined lateral rhinotomy and sublabial approaches. Intraoperatively, a large defect of the floor that extended to the orbital apex was noted. Histopathology revealed an odontogenic myxoma. Odontogenic myxomas are uncommon tumors that are usually seen in adults. Our case is unique because to the best of our knowledge, it is the first reported case with orbital involvement in the pediatric population. PMID:23034692

Chen, Henry H; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Durairaj, Vikram D

43

Condyloma acuminatum associated with odontogenic myxoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Condylomata acuminatum is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by human papiloma virus on the skin. The transmission is mainly by close contact with infected person and autoinoculation. In oral cavity the condition manifests as soft pink nodules which proliferate and coalesce rapidly to form diffuse papillomatous clusters of varying size. Odontogenic myxoma is a rare tumor of jaws which occurs in the tooth-bearing areas of the mandible and maxilla. It is an uncommon, benign, but locally aggressive neoplasm. This case report highlights a 17-year-old girl with two lesions in oral cavity with soft tissue growth on the palate which has been diagnosed as Condyloma Acuminatum, treated by surgical excision and a large swelling on the right side of the mandible in the same patient diagnosed as odontogenic myxoma where marginal resection was performed. PMID:23139551

Rajasekhar, G; Mushtaq, Mohammed; Vura, Nanda Gopal; Shekar, Ravi; Kumar, Sravan

2010-04-24

44

Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor radiographically mimicking a sinus mucocele.  

PubMed

The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor or Gorlin cyst is an uncommon lesion with a variable clinical behavior and considerable histopathologic diversity. The authors report a case of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor that was being treated as a maxillary sinus mucocele. The possibility of mimicking numerous odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions makes the calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor difficult for a clinical diagnosis. The present case demonstrates that a specific knowledge in oral pathology is required to differentiate odontogenic lesions. PMID:23524811

de Santana Santos, Thiago; Frota, Riedel; de Souza Andrade, Emanuel Sávio; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias

2013-03-01

45

Anaerobic mediastinitis.  

PubMed

Three patients with anaerobic mediastinitis associated with retropharyngeal abscess have been encountered recently. Dental infections accounted for two instances, and the third instance resulted from rupture of the thoracic esophagus from blunt trauma. Each was marked by extreme difficulty in achieving complete abscess drainage due to the initially unrecognized virulence of the causative anaerobic bacteria. Complications were frequent and included empyema, pericarditis and aspiration pneumonia. The combination of vigorous diagnostic efforts, prompt operation and reoperation when necessary plus specific antibiotic effective against anaerobes led to a successful outcome for each patient. PMID:959954

Howell, H S; Prinz, R A; Pickleman, J R

1976-09-01

46

Genetic changes in sporadic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (odontogenic keratocysts).  

PubMed

Little is known about the genetic background of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT, odontogenic keratocysts). Our aim was to characterize genomic aberrations in sporadic KCOT using cDNA-expression arrays and array-comparative genomic hybridization. For cDNA-expression arrays, 10 KCOT specimens and 20 fetal tooth germs were studied. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription/polymerase chain-reaction and immunohistochemical studies were also undertaken. Several genes were over-expressed in 12q13, including cytokeratin 6B (KRT6B) ( approximately 10-fold), epidermal growth factor receptor ERBB3 (approximately 4.7-fold), and glioma-associated oncogene homologue 1 (GLI1) (approximately 5- to 12-fold). One amplicon (approximately 0.7 Mega base pairs [Mbp]), covering several genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, was found in 12q13.2. Deletions were found in 3q13.1, 5p14.3, and 7q31.3, including the cell-adhesion-related gene cadherin 18 (CDH18) and leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM, MEMD). Over-expressed and amplified genes in 12q13, also reported in several other tumors and cell lines, may contribute to the persistent growth characteristics of KCOT. PMID:17525355

Heikinheimo, K; Jee, K J; Morgan, P R; Nagy, B; Knuutila, S; Leivo, I

2007-06-01

47

Antibiotic resistance of oral anaerobic bacteria and their effect on the management of upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections.  

PubMed

Anaerobes of oral origin are common in chronic upper respiratory tract and other head and neck infections. Anaerobes are the predominant components of the normal human oropharyngeal flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract that are of endogenous origin. These bacteria can be isolated in chronic otitis media, sinusitis, and tonsillitis, and their complications. Anaerobes also predominate in deep oral and neck infections and abscesses. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. In addition to their active pathogenic role in these infections, many anaerobes express an indirect effect through their ability to produce the enzyme beta-lactamase. This enables these organisms to shield non-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) from penicillins. Inadequate therapy against BLPB may lead to clinical failures. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth, their polymicrobial nature, and the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy needed, whereas in other instances it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobic organisms, therapy should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogens. PMID:12226799

Brook, Itzhak

2002-09-01

48

Transnasal Marsupialization Using Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Treatment of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor in Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Objective. We report the first utilisation of transnasal marsupialization to treat a keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary sinus of a 37-year-old man. Case Report. A 37-year-old man presented with a nasal discharge and right odontalgia. Computed tomography revealed an expanding cystic lesion with a calcificated wall containing an impacted tooth in the right maxillary sinus. The diagnosis was keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Transnasal marsupialization was performed using endoscopic sinus surgery to enlarge the maxillary ostium and remove a portion of the cystic wall. Pathological findings included lining squamous epithelium and inflammation. The remaining tumor shrank, becoming free of infection after surgery, without proliferation. Conclusion. Transnasal marsupialization using endoscopic sinus surgery is effective in treating keratocystic odontogenic tumors. It offers minimal surgical invasion and reductive change, making it advantageous for complete removal with fewer complications in the bones and surrounding tissue in the case of secondary surgery.

Ohki, Masafumi

2012-01-01

49

The role of endotoxin and cytokines in the pathogenesis of odontogenic cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic cysts arise from tooth-forming epithelial residues. The stimulus for the formation of radicular cysts is thought to be endotoxin released from the infected necrotic tooth pulp. However, in keratocysts and follicular cysts, such a stimulus is not present. In order to investigate what drives the cyst epithelium to proliferate, explant media and fluids from 16 radicular cysts, eight keratocysts

S. Meghji; W. Qureshi; B. Henderson; M. Harris

1996-01-01

50

Odontogenic tumours in Istanbul: 527 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrieved and analysed the records of 527 odontogenic tumours from a total of 62,565 cases in the department of tumour pathology in the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul, from 1971 to 2003. Of these 527 tumours, 521 were benign and 6 were malignant. The most common lesions were ameloblastomas (n=133) followed by odontomas (n=109), odontogenic myxomas (n=83) and

V. Olgac; B. G. Koseoglu; N. Aksakall?

2006-01-01

51

Interleukin1 Receptor Signaling Rather than That of Tumor Necrosis Factor Is Critical in Protecting the Host from the Severe Consequences of a Polymicrobe Anaerobic Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of the dental pulp leads to an osteolytic lesion that results from a polymicrobial infection consisting largely of pathogenic anaerobes. Infection causes significant morbidity and mortality mediated by bacterial factors and in some cases by the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in particular, play a complex and central role in

DANA T. GRAVES; CHIH-PING CHEN; CHRISTOPHER DOUVILLE; YANLING JIANG

2000-01-01

52

Frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A systematic review of the literature from 1993 to 2011 was undertaken examining frequency data of the most common odontogenic cysts and tumors. Seven inclusion criteria were met for the paper to be incorporated. In the preliminary search 5231 papers were identified, of these 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. There were 18 297 odontogenic cysts reported. Of these there were 9982 (54.6%) radicular cysts, 3772 (20.6%) dentigerous cysts and 2145 (11.7%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors. With the reclassification of keratocystic odontogenic tumor in 2005 as an odontogenic tumor, there were 8129 odontogenic tumors reported with 3001 (36.9%) ameloblastomas, 1163 (14.3%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors, 533 (6.5%) odontogenic myxomas, 337 (4.1%) adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and 127 (1.6%) ameloblastic fibromas. This systematic review found that odontogenic cysts are 2.25 times more frequent than odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cyst and tumor were the radicular cyst and ameloblastoma respectively. PMID:23766099

Johnson, Nigel R; Gannon, Orla M; Savage, Neil W; Batstone, Martin D

2013-06-14

53

Effect of Streptococcus Faecalis on the Growth of Bacteroides Species and Anaerobic Cocci in Mixed Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between Streptococcus faecalis and anaerobic bacteria was studied in a subcutaneous abscess model in mice. Included in the study were one strain of S. faecalis, three strains each of the Bacteroides fragilis group and B. melaninogenicus g...

I. Brook

1988-01-01

54

Development of Vaccines to Prevent Wound Infections due to Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteroides fragilis is the major cause of anaerobic bacterial sepsis and abscess formation. We have found that immunization of rats with a purified capsular polysaccharide (CP) of a B. fragilis strain protects against experimental bacteremia and intraabd...

D. L. Kasper

1982-01-01

55

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2011-01-01

56

Orofacial and Odontogenic Infections in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing retention of teeth into advanced age places the present cohort of older people at greater risk for serious\\u000a dental disease than previous cohorts. With advancing age, older individuals go to the doctor more but to the dentist less.\\u000a Therefore, physicians caring for older patients need to be aware of common oral diseases in order to suitably advise patients

Kenneth Shay

57

Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?  

PubMed Central

The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC.

Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

2013-01-01

58

The role of endotoxin and cytokines in the pathogenesis of odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

Odontogenic cysts arise from tooth-forming epithelial residues. The stimulus for the formation of radicular cysts is thought to be endotoxin released from the infected necrotic tooth pulp. However, in keratocysts and follicular cysts, such a stimulus is not present. In order to investigate what drives the cyst epithelium to proliferate, explant media and fluids from 16 radicular cysts, eight keratocysts and seven follicular cysts and explant media from four specimens of non-inflamed gingival tissue were examined for the presence of endotoxin and cytokines. Cyst fluids were also cultured for 72 h in anaerobic and aerobic conditions to detect micro-organisms. Endotoxin from three different bacteria, cytokines [interleukin-(IL) 1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6] as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were tested in an epithelial cell-proliferation assay. As the cyst epithelium is supported by a connective tissue capsule, the effect of fibroblast culture media on epithelial cell proliferation was also investigated. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of endotoxin in radicular cyst fluid than in the keratocyst or the follicular cyst. None of the cyst fluids contained micro-organisms. Immunoassays demonstrated the presence of IL-1 alpha and -6 in all fluids and explants tested; IL-1 beta was only found in the inflammatory radicular cysts. However, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNAs for IL-1 alpha, -1 beta and -6 were present in all cyst types. Proliferation studies indicated that endotoxin and the cytokines had a mitogenic effect on epithelia at low concentrations; PGE2 had very little effect at low concentrations, and had an inhibitory effect at high concentrations. Cyst fibroblast culture media had a mitogenic effect on the epithelia that was enhanced by the presence of endotoxin. PMID:8937642

Meghji, S; Qureshi, W; Henderson, B; Harris, M

1996-06-01

59

Femoral vein thrombophlebitis and septic pulmonary embolism due to a mixed anaerobic infection including Solobacterium moorei: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Primary foci of necrobacillosis infection outside the head and neck are uncommon but have been reported in the urogenital or gastrointestinal tracts. Reports of infection with Solobacterium moorei are rare. Case presentation A 37-year-old male intravenous drug user was admitted with pain in his right groin, fever, rigors and vomiting following a recent injection into the right femoral vein. Admission blood cultures grew Fusobacterium nucleatum, Solobacterium moorei and Bacteroides ureolyticus. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous penicillin and metronidazole. Conclusion This case report describes an unusual case of femoral thrombophlebitis with septic pulmonary embolism associated with anaerobic organisms in a groin abscess. Solobacterium moorei, though rarely described, may also have clinically significant pathogenic potential.

Martin, Claire A; Wijesurendra, Rohan S; Borland, Colin DR; Karas, Johannis A

2007-01-01

60

C-Reactive Protein in Odontogenous Osteomyelitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During acute odontogenous osteomyelitis of the jaws, C-reactive protein appears in the blood, and the quantity of it depends on the acuteness of inflammation and the body temperature. The content of C-reactive protein is found in a reversely proportional ...

A. F. Medvedeva

1966-01-01

61

Peripheral calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour of the maxillary gingiva  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic tumors are lesions that are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor or calcifying odontogenic cyst is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by an ameloblastoma-like epithelium and ghost cells. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor may be centrally or peripherally located, and its ghost cells may exhibit calcification, as first described by Gorlin in 1962. Most peripheral calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. Case presentation Authors report a rare case of a peripheral calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary gingiva. A 39-year-old male patient presented with a fibrous mass on the attached buccal gingiva of the upper left cuspid teeth. It was 0.7-cm-diameter, painless and it was clinically diagnosed as a peripheral ossifying fibroma. After an excisional biopsy, the diagnosis was peripheric calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. The patient was monitored for five years following the excision, and no recurrence was detected. Conclusions All biopsy material must be sent for histological examination. If the histological examination of gingival lesions with innocuous appearance is not performed, the frequency of peripheral calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and other peripheral odontogenic tumors may be underestimated.

2012-01-01

62

Fulminant sepsis due to anaerobic bacterial infection in immuno-compromised state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experienced two autopsy cases of fulminant sepsis due to anaerobes. Case 1: A 67-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) was admitted to a hospital because of sudden onset of mid-abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with infectious colitis and given a laxative and an enema. However, 9h later, her blood pressure suddenly dropped with metabolic acidosis, and she died

Hideto Suzuki; Kazumoto Murata; Atsushi Sakamoto

2009-01-01

63

A 10-year retrospective study on odontogenic tumors in Iran.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was to review cases of odontogenic tumors diagnosed in two pathology centers in Tehran, Iran, during a 10-year period. Study Design: Patients' records were seen at two teaching pathology Centre's of Shahid Beheshti University between the months of March 2000 to 2010 with histologic diagnosis of any type of odontogenic tumors. The records were analyzed for frequency, age, sex, site, as well as clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings. Results: Of 30706 biopsies, 4767 (15.5%) cases were diagnosed as oral and maxillofacial lesions. Among these, 720 cases were tumoral with 188 (26.1%) cases of odontogenic tumors. Tumors with odontogenic epithelium origin formed 70.2% of total numbers of odontogenic tumors. Mixed odontogenic tumors and tumors of odontogenic ectomesenchyme comprised 12.2% and 17.5% of the cases respectively. Ameloblastoma, with a frequency of 62.2% was the most common tumor in this review which was followed by odontoma and odontogenic myxoma. Conclusion: Although there are few studies on odontogenic tumors in literature, the comparison of our results with existing data shows significant differences in the distribution of tumors and age of patients, which may be due to ethnic features and geographic distribution of patients. Future studies on other ethnic groups are essential for further clarification of the findings in this research. PMID:23965450

Taghavi, Nasim; Rajabi, Moones; Mehrdad, Leili; Sajjadi, Samad

64

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient.

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-01-01

65

Fulminant sepsis due to anaerobic bacterial infection in immuno-compromised state.  

PubMed

We experienced two autopsy cases of fulminant sepsis due to anaerobes. Case 1: A 67-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) was admitted to a hospital because of sudden onset of mid-abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with infectious colitis and given a laxative and an enema. However, 9h later, her blood pressure suddenly dropped with metabolic acidosis, and she died 20 h after admission. Autopsy revealed massive pneumohemia and a dark-brown colored mucosal surface from the terminal ileum to the sigmoid colon. Histopathological findings were compatible with marginal ischemic colitis. Anaerobes were positive in blood culture. Case 2: A 53-year-old male with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (LC) was found dead in his room. He had been alive 24 h before the discovery, but postmortem changes appeared to accelerate more rapidly than usual cases. Autopsy revealed severe LC with muddy ascites and many Gram-negative rods in several organs. These cases suggest the possibility of sepsis as causes of death, especially in immuno-compromised hosts when unexplained putrefactive changes are seen on forensic autopsy. PMID:19647468

Suzuki, Hideto; Murata, Kazumoto; Sakamoto, Atsushi

2009-07-31

66

Maxillary Odontogenic Keratocyst Presenting as Palatal Sinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocyst are known for there recurrence and local bone destruction. They have bimodal age presentation. OKC\\u000a is common in lower jaw than upper jaw. They are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed during radiological investigation. We are\\u000a reporting this case because of its age presentation (70 years), site of presentation (maxillary canine region) and mode of\\u000a presentation (chronic palatal pus discharging sinus).

Nitish Baisakhiya; Vinod Pawar

67

In Vitro Activities of Dalbavancin and 12 Other Agents against 329 Aerobic and Anaerobic Gram-Positive Isolates Recovered from Diabetic Foot Infections  

PubMed Central

Tests of dalbavancin's in vitro activity against 209 aerobic and 120 anaerobic isolates from pretreatment diabetic foot infections showed an MIC90 of ?0.125 ?g/ml against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 120 anaerobes (Clostridium perfringens, other clostridia, Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, Finegoldia magna, and Anaerococcus prevotii), compared to respective MIC90s for MSSA and MRSA of 0.5 and 1 ?g/ml for vancomycin, 4 and 4 ?g/ml for linezolid, 0.5 and 0.5 ?g/ml for daptomycin, and 0.25 and >8 ?g/ml for clindamycin.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Fernandez, Helen T.

2006-01-01

68

Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a benign, locally infiltrative intraosseous tumor composed of well-differentiated squamous epithelium in a fibrous stroma. It seems to derive from the epithelial rests of Malassez in the periodontal ligament space. It presents an odontogenic origin, involving both the upper and lower maxillary bone, mainly areas without teeth or connective tissue of the odontogenic cysts. Clinically, SOT could be asymptomatic (3 cases), notwithstanding it is mainly characterized by pain, swelling, and tooth/teeth mobility. The most typical presentation of SOT is a slowly growing endobony lesion arising within a single periodontal location. Frequent misdiagnosis concerns either ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma and fibroma. Since its first description in 1975, less than 50 cases have been identified. In light of the few reported cases, there are no consistently recorded clinical and radiographic features of SOT, and there is no predictable sex or site predilection. Diagnosis is predicated on recognition of the histopathologic features of SOT to obviate possible misdiagnosis of malignancy or ameloblastoma.We report the first case of SOT that arose in the vicinity of an implant. Through a meticulous review of literature, we discuss current etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. PMID:21586976

Agostini, Tommaso; Sacco, Roberto; Bertolai, Roberto; Acocella, Alessandro; Colafranceschi, Maurizio; Lazzeri, Davide

2011-05-01

69

Recurrent calcifying odontogenic cyst involving the maxillary sinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcifying odontogenic cyst is an uncommon lesion that occurs in both jaws, however involvement of the maxillary sinus is rare. The accepted mode of treatment is enucleation with curettage since it is generally believed that recurrence following such treatment is extremely rare. Of the reported cases of recurrent calcifying odontogenic cysts, none have involved the maxillary sinus.This report is

John Spencer Mbia Daniels

2004-01-01

70

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

2002-01-01

71

Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic tumors mainly occur as intraosseous growths but sometimes may present in a peripheral location on the gingiva where they are referred to as peripheral odontogenic tumors (POTs) which are a rare entity, the most common of them being the peripheral odontogenic fibroma that is an otherwise uncommon, slowly growing, benign odontogenic neoplasm of the periodontal soft tissues. In fact, peripheral odontogenic fibroma is the only POT that is more frequent than its central counterpart. Although considered to be with a potential to recur after excision, the actual recurrence rate is not known due to paucity of literature. This paper presents a case report along with review of the available literature and reinforces the importance of patient follow-up in addition to radiographic and histological examination of seemingly innocuous gingival exophytic lesions.

Baiju, C. S.; Rohatgi, Sumidha

2011-01-01

72

Sitafloxacin: in bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Sitafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial with in vitro activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including anaerobic bacteria, as well as against atypical pathogens. It is approved in Japan for use in a number of bacterial infections caused by sitafloxacin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, other Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In terms of clinical efficacy, oral sitafloxacin was noninferior to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia or an infectious exacerbation of chronic respiratory tract disease, noninferior to oral tosufloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, and noninferior to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, according to the results of randomized, double-blind, multicentre, noninferiority trials. Noncomparative studies demonstrated the efficacy of oral sitafloxacin in otorhinolaryngological infections, urethritis in men, C. trachomatis-associated cervicitis in women and odontogenic infections. Gastrointestinal disorders and laboratory abnormalities were the most commonly occurring adverse reactions in patients receiving oral sitafloxacin. Adverse reactions reported in sitafloxacin recipients in the active comparator trials were of mild to moderate severity. PMID:21504249

Keating, Gillian M

2011-04-16

73

In Vitro Activities of Doripenem and Six Comparator Drugs against 423 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates from Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds?  

PubMed Central

Against 182 anaerobe and 241 aerobe strains obtained from diabetic foot infections, doripenem was the most active carbapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 ?g/ml), more active than imipenem against Proteus mirabilis, and ertapenem was more active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The MIC50 and MIC90 values were ?0.125 ?g/ml for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and all streptococci and 0.25/1 for Bacteroides fragilis.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2008-01-01

74

Antibiotics and anaerobes of gut origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of bacterial species make up human gut flora. Of these, 99% are anaerobic bacteria. Although anaerobes are part of the normal commensal flora, they can become opportunistic pathogens, causing serious, sometimes fatal infections if they escape from the colonic milieu. Most often, this escape occurs as a result of perforation, surgery, diverticulitis or cancer. Infections involving anaerobic bacteria are

Gayatri Vedantam; David W Hecht

2003-01-01

75

[Odontogenic keratocyst in dentigerous position. A clinical case].  

PubMed

Cysts that may develop in the maxillo-mandibular region and adjacent tissues may be of odontogenic origin, non-odontogenic origin, pseudocysts, cysts associated with the maxillary sinus and those developed from the soft tissues. These may vary as to their histogenesis, frequency, behavior and treatment. This article presents the clinical case of an 18-year-old female patient with an initial radiographic diagnosis of dentigerous cyst, which after exploratory punction and surgical removal under general anesthesia yielded a final diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst. The patient's evolution was satisfactory with a 2-year radiographic control, without evidence of recurrence. PMID:15910706

Tamashiro-Higa, Tetsuji; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

76

Comparative in vitro activities of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) against 221 aerobic and 217 anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections.  

PubMed Central

Four hundred thirty-eight bacteria cultured from specimens of patients with serious intra-abdominal infections were tested by agar dilution against trovafloxacin and other quinolones and antimicrobial agents. Trovafloxacin inhibited 435 strains (99.3%) at < or =2 microg/ml. All the quinolones had similar activities against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas sp., but trovafloxacin showed superior activities against streptococci, enterococci, and anaerobic organisms. Because of its excellent in vitro activities against diverse bacteria, trovafloxacin has potential use as a single agent for polymicrobial infections.

Citron, D M; Appleman, M D

1997-01-01

77

Antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic bacteria isolated from primary dental root canal infections.  

PubMed

Fourty-one bacterial strains isolated from infected dental root canals and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence were screened for the presence of 14 genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracycline and macrolides. Thirteen isolates (32%) were positive for at least one of the target antibiotic resistance genes. These strains carrying at least one antibiotic resistance gene belonged to 11 of the 26 (42%) infected root canals sampled. Two of these positive cases had two strains carrying resistance genes. Six out of 7 Fusobacterium strains harbored at least one of the target resistance genes. One Dialister invisus strain was positive for 3 resistance genes, and 4 other strains carried two of the target genes. Of the 6 antibiotic resistance genes detected in root canal strains, the most prevalent were blaTEM (17% of the strains), tetW (10%), and ermC (10%). Some as-yet-uncharacterized Fusobacterium and Prevotella isolates were positive for blaTEM, cfxA and tetM. Findings demonstrated that an unexpectedly large proportion of dental root canal isolates, including as-yet-uncharacterized strains previously regarded as uncultivated phylotypes, can carry antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:23108290

Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

2012-10-26

78

Current concepts and occurrence of epithelial odontogenic tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Yeon Sook

2013-06-25

79

Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis. PMID:24124309

Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

2013-07-01

80

Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis.

Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

2013-01-01

81

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: an immunohistochemical case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor. A case of CEOT in a 25-year-old female\\u000a is presented here. Histologically, the case showed sheets of polyhedral epithelial cells with deep eosinophilic cytoplasm\\u000a and prominent nuclei. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromatism were evident. Globules of amyloid-like material among the tumor\\u000a cells were prominent. Also found was a small area

Sopee Poomsawat; Jirapa Punyasingh

2007-01-01

82

Comparative in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftaroline-avibactam, and other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultured from infected diabetic foot wounds.  

PubMed

Foot infections are the most common infectious complication of diabetes. Moderate to severe diabetic foot infections (DFI) are typically polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The role of MRSA in these wounds has become an increasing concern. To determine if the addition of avibactam, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, to ceftaroline would be more active than ceftaroline alone, we tested 316 aerobic pathogens and 154 anaerobic recovered from patients with moderate to severe DFI, and compared ceftaroline with and without avibactam to other agents. Testing on aerobes was done by broth microdilution and by agar dilution for anaerobes, according to CLSI M11-A8, and M7-A8 standards. Ceftaroline-avibactam MIC90 for all Staphylococcus spp. including MRSA was 0.5 ?g/mL, and for enterococci was 1 ?g/mL. The MIC90s for enteric Gram-negative rods was 0.125 ?g/mL. The addition of avibactam to ceftaroline reduced the ceftaroline MICs for 2 strains of resistant Enterobacter spp. and for 1 strain of Morganella. Against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci ceftaroline-avibactam had an MIC90 0.125 ?g/mL and for clostridia 1 ?g/mL. Avibactam improved ceftaroline's MIC90s for Bacteroides fragilis from >32 to 2 ?g/mL and for Prevotella spp. from >32 to 1 ?g/mL. Ceftaroline alone demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against most of the aerobes found in moderate to severe DFI. The addition of avibactam provides an increased spectrum of activity including the beta-lactamase producing Prevotella, Bacteroides fragilis and ceftaroline resistant gram-negative enteric organisms. PMID:23623385

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2013-04-24

83

Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour: CT imaging  

PubMed Central

Objectives Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a rare disorder of the jaw. A comparison between conventional radiographs and CT images in CCOTs has not been reported. The purposes of this study were to analyse conventional radiographs and CT images of CCOTs, establish CT images of CCOTs and assess the utility of CT in the diagnosis of CCOTs. Methods Nine patients with a histopathologically confirmed CCOT who had both conventional radiographs and CT images were enrolled. Results CT was superior to conventional radiographs in detecting buccolingual expansion, odontomas and radio-opaque bodies. Conclusion The characteristic CT appearances of CCOT were that radio-opaque bodies were typically located in the periphery of the lesion and the shape of radio-opaque bodies was linear and/or spotted. CT was useful in diagnosing a CCOT.

Uchiyama, Y; Akiyama, H; Murakami, S; Koseki, T; Kishino, M; Fukuda, Y; Shimizutani, K; Furukawa, S

2012-01-01

84

An approach to oral infections and their management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral infections can be odontogenic or nonodontogenic in origin. Odontogenic infections are most prevalent and include dental\\u000a caries, periodontal disease, and suppurative deep space infections. Nonodontogenic infections include sialadenitis and parotitis,\\u000a vesiculobullous gingivostomatitis, aphthous ulcers, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and severe oral mucositis in the immunocompromised\\u000a host. Clinical presentations can be variable. An understanding of the underlying anatomic structures, the oral microflora,

Mark W. Hull; Anthony W. Chow

2005-01-01

85

Are All Odontogenic Keratocysts Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors? Correlation between Imaging Features and Epithelial Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

This study was to correlate and analyze the imaging features and epithelial cell proliferation pattern in different cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and study the role of inflammation using proliferative markers and different radiographic patterns of KCOT to determine its biological behavior. One hundred and eighty-six cases of KCOT were taken together and grouped based on radiographic patterns. Forty cases were randomly selected and stained using a proliferating cellular nuclear antigen marker. The correlation between imaging and epithelial proliferation with and without inflammation was determined. Unilocular variety is the most common type of KCOT, showing least epithelial proliferation of all the patterns. More than 50% of the multilocular KCOTs were associated with inflammation, showing an enhanced rate of epithelial proliferation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Different rates of epithelial proliferation of the different patterns suggested that all odontogenic keratocysts do not behave like tumors and that aggressive treatment should be reserved for selective cases only depending on radiographic and other histopathological parameters such as inflammation.

Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Nayar, Amit; Raj, Asha; Kumar, Prince

2013-01-01

86

KAI-1 protein expression in odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

The KAI-1 tumor suppressor gene is widely distributed in normal tissues and its down-regulation may be correlated with the invasive phenotype and metastases in several different epithelial tumors. The aim of the present study was an evaluation of KAI-1 expression in radicular cysts (RC), follicular cysts (FC), orthokeratinized keratocysts (OOKC), and parakeratinized keratocysts (POKC). Eighty-five odontogenic cysts, 28 RC, 22 FC, and 35 OKC (16 OOKC, 19 POKC) were selected. All the POKC were negative and only four of 16 of the OOKC were positive for KAI-1. On the contrary, all RC and FC cases were positive and immunoreactivity for KAI-1 was detected throughout all the layers of the cyst epithelium. The lack of KAI-1 expression in POKC could help to explain the differences in the clinical and pathologic behavior of OKC and, according to what has been reported for epithelial tumors, could be related to the increased aggressive behavior and invasiveness of OKC. PMID:17320703

Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Artese, Luciano; Goteri, Gaia; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Rubini, Corrado

2007-03-01

87

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

88

Anaerobic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major review of the status of research and technology of anaerobic processes to convert wastes and biomass to energy. Among the topics covered are: the microbiology of cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production, acidogenesis and methanogenesis; process characterization; process optimization; and process application. A summary of selected operation and performance data from anaerobic digestion studies is presented. (Refs. 79).

K. F. Fannin; J. R. Conrad; D. E. Jerger; V. Srivastava; S. Ghosh; D. P. Chynoweth

1981-01-01

89

The utility of anaerobic blood culture in detecting facultative anaerobic bacteremia in children.  

PubMed

Routine anaerobic blood culture is not recommended in children because obligate anaerobic bacteremia is rare in the pediatric population. However, a number of facultative anaerobic bacteria can cause community and hospital acquired infections in children and the utility of anaerobic blood culture for detection of these organisms is still unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood culture samples (n = 24,356) at a children's hospital in Japan from October 2009 to June 2012. Among the samples that had paired aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, 717 samples were considered clinically significant with 418 (58%) organisms detected from both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 167 (23%) detected only from aerobic culture and 132 (18%) detected only from anaerobic culture. While most facultative anaerobes were detectable by aerobic culture, over 25% of Enterobacteriaceae and 15% of Staphylococcus sp. were detected from anaerobic cultures bottles only, suggesting its potential role in selected settings. PMID:23747032

Shoji, Kensuke; Komuro, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Miyairi, Isao

2013-06-07

90

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumours are known for their peculiar behaviour, varied origin, debated development, unique tendency to recur and disputed treatment modalities. Thus, it has been the subject of much research over the last 40 years. It was formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). OKC received its new title as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by the WHO (2005) in order to suggest its aggressive and recurrent nature. KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of an 11-year-old child with extensive KCOT and an impacted canine in the right maxillary sinus. The cyst was initially misdiagnosed to be a dentigerous cyst based on the clinical and radiographic features though a differential diagnosis of KCOT and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The histological examination of the specimen finally confirmed it to be a KCOT. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour along with its surgical management have been discussed. PMID:23429028

Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish; Barua, Pranamee; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-02-20

91

A brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin in a child with cyanotic heart disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present report was to present a rare case of a brain abscess in a child with heterotaxy syndrome, severe cardiac anomalies, and extensive dental caries. The pathogen was Streptococcus intermedius isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The source of the pathogen was probably an infection of a primary molar with a dentoalveolar abscess involving the bud of the permanent successor. After a long course of antibiotic regimens followed by a craniotomy with abscess drainage, a shunt, and comprehensive dental treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any neurological sequel. At home, she completed an additional 3 months of oral antibiotics. This is the only known documented case of a toddler with a brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin without previous dental intervention. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration between cardiologists and pediatric dentists, especially in referring children with congenital heart defects for early dental checkups. PMID:23211917

Moskovitz, Moti; Birenboim, Ravit; Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Perles, Zeev; Averbuch, Diana

92

Microbiology and Management of Deep Facial Infections and Lemierre Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of deep facial infections and Lemierre syndrome. The origins of most of these infections are odontogenic infections that spread to fascial spaces of the lower head and upper neck. Other sources include pharyngotonsillar, nasal, otologic, salivary gland and dermatologic infections, hematogenic spread, cervical adenitis and trauma. These space infections can be divided

Itzhak Brook

2003-01-01

93

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor is an intraosseous benign tumor of epithelial origin that can appear as a unicystic or multicystic lesion. It is characterized most significantly by its high recurrence rate. This is why surgical removal is the chosen therapeutic approach in most cases. However, while surgery may be the safest technique to prevent recidivism, it may also result in numerous complications with large tumors. A number of authors have suggested a more conservative treatment for large keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The case examined in this article is that of a 48-year-old male patient who presented with a five-month swelling on the left side of his face, located in the mandibular area. PMID:23691729

Sanchez-Siles, Mariano; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Salazar-Sanchez, Noemi

2013-03-01

94

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of the maxilla (Pindborg tumor).  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), or the Pindborg tumor, is very rare neoplasm, which accounts up to 1% of all odontogenic tumors. These tumors involve mandible almost twice as common as the maxillary bone, mostly in the premolar and molar region and present at first with local swelling. There is no gender predilection and the tumor usually appears between 2nd and 6th decade of life. We report the case of a 36-year-old male patient with a Pindborg tumor in the maxillary region on the right side, also involving the adjacent maxillary sinus, with destroying of the local anatomical structures. Complete surgical excision of the tumor has been performed and four years after surgical treatment, there is no sign of recurrence. PMID:23397788

Müller, Danko; Manojlovi?, Spomenka; Luksi?, Ivica; Grgurevi?, Jaksa

2012-11-01

95

Targeting the sonic hedgehog pathway in keratocystic odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) may occur sporadically or associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is a benign aggressive tumor of odontogenic epithelial origin with a high rate of recurrence. A primary human keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell population, KCOT-1, has been established from a tumor explant culture. The KCOT-1 cells were characterized by growth rate, gene expression profiles of major tooth enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), ameloblastin (AMBN), amelotin (AMTN), tumor-related proteins enamelysin (MMP-20), kallikrein-4 (KLK-4), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, expression of the members of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH, patched (PTCH-1), smoothened (SMO), GLI-1, and GLI-2 and of the NOTCH signaling pathway, NOTCH-1, NOTCH-2, NOTCH-3, JAG-2 (Jagged-2), and Delta-like-1 (DLL-1) were evaluated. KCOT-1 cells were treated with SMO antagonist cyclopamine. We found that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and that the effects of cyclopamine were abolished by adding SHH protein. The protein expression of the SHH pathway was down-regulated by cyclopamine, further confirming that cyclopamine inhibits the SHH signaling pathway; SHH down-regulation correlated with the down-regulation of the NOTCH signaling pathway as well. In conclusion, using an established KCOT-1 cell population, we characterized the gene expression profiles related to the EMPs, SHH, and NOTCH signaling pathway and confirmed that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells and may be a viable agent as a novel therapeutic. PMID:22679015

Ren, Changchun; Amm, Hope M; DeVilliers, Patricia; Wu, Yixin; Deatherage, Joseph R; Liu, Zhongyu; MacDougall, Mary

2012-06-07

96

Targeting the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor*  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) may occur sporadically or associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is a benign aggressive tumor of odontogenic epithelial origin with a high rate of recurrence. A primary human keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell population, KCOT-1, has been established from a tumor explant culture. The KCOT-1 cells were characterized by growth rate, gene expression profiles of major tooth enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), ameloblastin (AMBN), amelotin (AMTN), tumor-related proteins enamelysin (MMP-20), kallikrein-4 (KLK-4), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, expression of the members of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH, patched (PTCH-1), smoothened (SMO), GLI-1, and GLI-2 and of the NOTCH signaling pathway, NOTCH-1, NOTCH-2, NOTCH-3, JAG-2 (Jagged-2), and Delta-like-1 (DLL-1) were evaluated. KCOT-1 cells were treated with SMO antagonist cyclopamine. We found that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and that the effects of cyclopamine were abolished by adding SHH protein. The protein expression of the SHH pathway was down-regulated by cyclopamine, further confirming that cyclopamine inhibits the SHH signaling pathway; SHH down-regulation correlated with the down-regulation of the NOTCH signaling pathway as well. In conclusion, using an established KCOT-1 cell population, we characterized the gene expression profiles related to the EMPs, SHH, and NOTCH signaling pathway and confirmed that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells and may be a viable agent as a novel therapeutic.

Ren, Changchun; Amm, Hope M.; DeVilliers, Patricia; Wu, Yixin; Deatherage, Joseph R.; Liu, Zhongyu; MacDougall, Mary

2012-01-01

97

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor (CGCOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm reported with various terms and is not included in the 2005 WHO classification of odontogenic tumors. It shows a predilection for middle-aged women, usually presenting as an asymptomatic swelling of the mandibular premolar-molar region. Radiographic manifestations include unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion, but mixed density lesions can also occur. Histopathology shows sheets and lobules of round to polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and eccentrically placed nuclei. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features suggest the histiocytic origin of granular cells. The neoplasm does not exhibit an aggressive biological behavior and hence enucleation or curettage ensuring complete removal remains the treatment of choice. We present a systematic review on clinical, radiological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspect of CGCOT. Published articles were identified through a literature search using online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus) and cross-references for papers published from the year 1950 to March 2013. From a total of 37 papers, 26 (38 cases) were extracted from the database for systematic review. PMID:23668324

Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Vaidya, Kedar

2013-05-13

98

Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor.

More, Chandramani B.; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

2013-01-01

99

Intracranial epidural abscess of odontogenic origin.  

PubMed

Dental infection as a cause of epidural abscess is rare compared with other forms of intracranial suppurations. A 10-year-old boy was seen because of headaches and fever. There was no history of otitis media or sinusitis, but he had sought care for dental complaints. The patient was from an upper-middle-class family, was not immunocompromised, and had no other risk factor for a major infection. A CT brain scan confirmed a frontal epidural abscess. The patient underwent emergency surgery for evacuation of the epidural abscess, followed by antimicrobial therapy. His condition improved remarkably following surgery, with complete resolution of symptoms. He subsequently underwent extraction of 2 teeth following dental review. Dental infection as a cause of intracranial epidural abscess is rare, but should be considered when evaluating patients for intracranial infections. A review of the literature sheds light on the causal relationship and possible pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:21361773

Kanu, Okezie Obasi; Ukponmwan, Efosa; Bankole, Olufemi; Olatosi, John Olutola; Arigbabu, Sarajudeen Oladele

2011-03-01

100

Glandular odontogenic cyst (sialo-odontogenic cyst): report of two cases and literature review of 45 previously reported cases.  

PubMed

The clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical (cytokeratin) features of two cases of glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) are presented and discussed in a review of 45 cases of GOC hitherto reported. Of cases with available information, 34 occurred in the mandible and 6 in the maxilla; the male:female ratio was 19:28, and the mean age was 46.7 years in males and 50.0 years in females. Six cysts recurred once after 2-8 years (mean 2 years 8 months) and 2 (5.3%) recurred twice after 2 and 5 years and after 3 and 5 years, respectively, giving a rate of recurrence of 21%. The identification of osteodentin in one of the present cases and the co-expression of cytokeratins (CK) 13, 19 and 8 strongly support the concept of odontogenic differentiation in the GOC. Careful surgical removal of the lesion succeeded by a 5-year follow-up period is recommended. PMID:9790100

Koppang, H S; Johannessen, S; Haugen, L K; Haanaes, H R; Solheim, T; Donath, K

1998-10-01

101

The role of stroma in the expansion of odontogenic cysts and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A polarized microscopy study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the polarization colors of collagen fibers of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) with reference to their biological behavior. Study Design: Twenty cases each of OKC, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, and AOT were stained with picrosirius red stain and studied under polarized light. Results: A predominance of green to greenish yellow thick fibers was noted in OKC and AOT as compared to dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst. There was no significant difference between the polarization colors of the thin fibers in all the three groups. Conclusion: The stroma of OKC and AOT consists of poorly packed or pathologic collagen and plays a role in its neoplastic behavior.

Mahajan, Aarti M.; Mahajan, Mahendra C.; Ganvir, S. M.; Hazarey, V. K.

2013-01-01

102

[Ki-67 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the follicular cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, and ameloblastoma].  

PubMed

An immunohistochemical study using antibodies against Ki-67 protein was conducted, which characterized the proliferative activity of cells and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in follicular cyst, variants of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (with a preponderance of hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis), and ameloblastoma. The marked proliferative activity of a parabasal cell layer (28.0+/-8.4%) was found in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of parakeratosis; the proliferative activity of the peripheral layer of ameloblastoma cells was equal to 7.0+/-5.6%. The maximal matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a predominance of hyperkeratosis was 1.1 +/-0.9 conventional units (CU) and that in the ameloblastoma was 1.9+/-1.3 CU versus 0.4+/-0.5 CU in the follicular cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of hyperkeratosis. The values of Ki-67 and MMP-9 expression allow one to distinguish benign odontogenic cysts and tumors (follicular cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a predominance of hyperkeratosis) and odontogenic tumors characterized by an aggressive clinical course (keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of parakeratosis and ameloblastoma). PMID:23805466

Bibichenko, I I; Semkin, V A; Katushkina, A A

103

Malignant odontogenic tumors: a multicentric Latin American study of 25 cases.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show the epidemiological features of 25 malignant odontogenic tumors (MOT) in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved 25 cases of MOT out of 2142 odontogenic tumors, from four oral diagnostic centers in Latin America, and described the main clinical and pathological characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 19 cases were carcinomas, including eight ameloblastic carcinomas, five primary intra-osseous squamous cell carcinomas, three clear cell odontogenic carcinomas and three ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas. All six sarcomas corresponded to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. Thirteen cases occurred in men and 12 in women, age ranged from 7 to 77 years old, with a mean of 41.4 years. The average age of patients with carcinomas and sarcomas were 48.53 and 19 years old, respectively. CONCLUSION: As malignant odontogenic tumors are very rare, this series helps to better clarify their relative frequency, predominant subtypes, and clinical characteristics in Latin America. PMID:23730931

Martínez Martínez, M; Mosqueda-Taylor, A; Carlos, R; Delgado-Azańero, W; de Almeida, Op

2013-05-14

104

Suspected familial odontogenic keratocysts related to Gorlin Goltz syndrome.  

PubMed

This report represents the suspected familial case series of odontogenic keratocysts OKCs related to Gorlin Goltz syndrome GGS, a rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by multiple basal cell carcinomas, OKCs and other less frequent skeletal and neurological manifestations. Familial cases included grandmother's father, grandmother, father and son. Although they had all OKCs, father additionally possessed some of the other characteristics of GGS. We described all the patients' diagnoses, treatments and long-term follow-ups under the light of current literature. PMID:16501688

Yucetas, Sule; Cetiner, Sedat; Oygur, Tulin

2006-02-01

105

Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: a rare histological variant.  

PubMed

The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurs mainly as an intraosseous lesion in mandible or maxilla, but the peripheral variation of COC has also been reported. The confusion regarding its nature as cyst or tumour has not been resolved and a vast diversity has been noted in clinicopathological aspects of COC. We report a case of COCs with minimal mural ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with a painless swelling in the left jaw causing mild facial asymmetry. PMID:23696143

Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Venkatesh, S; Nair, Preeti P

2013-05-20

106

Anaerobic Bacteria as a Cause of Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aorta: Microbiology and Antimicrobial Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the microbiology, and antimicrobial management of mycotic aneurysm of the aorta (MAA) due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of MAA. Most cases of anaerobic MAA are caused anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (mostly B. fragilis group), Clostridium spp. (mostly Clostridium septicum, and Propionobacterium spp. (mostly P. acnes). Clostridial infection is frequently associated with

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

107

Comparative study of TGF-alpha and P53 markers' expression in odontogenic keratocyst and orthokeratinaized odontogenic cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an aggressive cyst and its recurrence is higher than other odontogenic cysts, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a cyst with moderate biological behavior in comparison with OKC, but with the probability of carcinomatous changes. The present study aims to evaluate the quantity and intensity of the expression of P53 protein and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in OKC and OOC in order to compare the biologic behavior of these two cysts. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The samples include 30 cysts (15 OKC and 15 OOC), all stained immunohistochemically for P53 protein and TGF-alpha by the Novolinke polymer method. Then, all the cases were examined with an optical microscope with ?400 magnification and the stained cells were counted in the basal and parabasal layers. Finally the results were analyzed by the Mann–and Wilcoxon tests (P value < 0.05). Results: The difference between the expression of P53 protein in the basal layer in OKC and OOC was not statistically significant (P value = 0.076). The difference between the expression of P53 protein in the parabasal layer in OKC and OOC was statistically significant (P value = 0.003); moreover, the difference between the expression of TGF-alpha in the basal layer in OKC and OOC was not statistically significant (P value = 0.284). The difference between the expression of TGF-alpha in the parabasal layer in OKC and OOC was statistically significant (P value = 0.015). Conclusion: Since there was a higher expression of P53 protein and TGF-alpha in OKC compared to those in OOC, the probability of carcinomatous changes was at least theoretically higher in OKC than in OOC.

Deyhimi, Parviz; Hashemzade, Zahra

2012-01-01

108

Antibiotics and anaerobes of gut origin.  

PubMed

Hundreds of bacterial species make up human gut flora. Of these, 99% are anaerobic bacteria. Although anaerobes are part of the normal commensal flora, they can become opportunistic pathogens, causing serious, sometimes fatal infections if they escape from the colonic milieu. Most often, this escape occurs as a result of perforation, surgery, diverticulitis or cancer. Infections involving anaerobic bacteria are often difficult to treat because antibiotic resistance is increasing among the genera, mediated primarily through horizontal transfer of a plethora of mobile DNA transfer factors. Some of these transfer factors can also be transmitted to aerobic bacteria. It is becoming increasingly clear that antibiotic resistance trends have to be carefully monitored, and the transfer factors and mechanisms of transfer understood at a molecular level to avoid negative clinical outcomes when infections involve anaerobic bacteria. PMID:14572537

Vedantam, Gayatri; Hecht, David W

2003-10-01

109

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with dentigerous cyst: Report of a rare case with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion derived from the complex system of dental lamina or its remnant. It is categorized into three variants (follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral). We present a rare case of AOT arising from a dentigerous cyst around the unerupted canine in a 28-year-old female. We believe that this case z an odontogenic cyst with neoplastic development, containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components. As more cases accumulate, we will be able to study these rare lesions further whether the AOTs derived from an odontogenic cyst could represent a distinct “hybrid” variant separate to the three variants described thus far.

Singh, Vikramjeet; Goyal, Sunder; Sheikh, Soheyl; Shambulingappa, P.; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ravinder

2012-01-01

110

The histochemical nature of homogeneous amorphous materials in odontogenic epithelial tumors.  

PubMed

The homogeneous acellular materials in the adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and calcifying odontogenic cyst were examined histochemically for specific staining of amino acids and protein groups. These materials gave a positive reaction for periodic acid-Sciff (PAS), alloxan-Schiff, and dinitrofluorobenzene-H-acid and low reaction for alcian blue, dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (method for tryptophan) and the Morel-Sisley diazotization method. They appear to have approximately the same composition as enamel matrix and are not amyloid in nature. The materials may be synthesized products from neoplastic epithelium that may originate from enamel organs. PMID:6153217

Mori, M; Makino, M; Imai, K

1980-02-01

111

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour presenting at a surgical site: case report.  

PubMed

We describe the management of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with an atypical clinical presentation at the site of a previously surgically exposed impacted maxillary canine in a 51-year-old woman. PMID:23291091

Rahman, Naomi; Cole, Emma; Webb, Roger

2013-01-01

112

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst: A review on terminologies and classifications.  

PubMed

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a relatively uncommon odontogenic lesion characterized by varied clinical, radiographical features and biological behavior. CGCOC can exhibit either as a cystic or a solid lesion. Since its first description by Gorlin et al, in 1962, it has been known by different names and classified and sub-classified into various types. In this article we present a case of CGCOC and discuss the related literature regarding the terminology, classification and biological behavior of CGCOC. PMID:23248487

Thinakaran, Meera; Sivakumar, Palanivelu; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Jeddy, Nadeem; Balaguhan, S

2012-09-01

113

Immediate reconstruction of the mandible after resection for aggressive odontogenic tumours: a cohort study.  

PubMed

The results are reported of a clinical follow-up study on 32 selected but consecutive patients with mandibular ameloblastoma. They were all treated by a segmental resection and reconstructed, using two 2.3 mm reconstruction plates and an autogenous particulate bone graft, taken from the anterior iliac crest, and platelet rich plasma. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 39 months, with an average of 27.9 months. Undisturbed healing occurred in 29 patients, while three had postoperative infections, but in only one case did that result in failure of the graft. The patients' appreciation was measured using an adapted quality of life questionnaire. The results were compared with a similar group who did not undergo reconstruction. The eating of solid food, appearance and speech were considerably better in the reconstructed group. The conclusion is that this means of reconstruction is appropriate for patients with benign but aggressive odontogenic tumours of the mandible, particularly in developing countries, since the expenses seem to be affordable. PMID:22898314

Simon, E N M; Merkx, M A W; Kalyanyama, B M; Shubi, F M; Stoelinga, P J W

2012-08-14

114

Squamous odontogenic tumor: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

The squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare, benign, locally infiltrative neoplasm of the jaws that appears to originate from the rests of Malassez, gingival surface epithelium or from remnants of the dental lamina. SOT was first described by Pullon et al. (1975). Since then there has been paucity in the number of reported cases, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The tumor is often asymptomatic, although it can present with symptoms of pain and tooth mobility. The characteristic radiographic appearance is that of a triangular-shaped unilocular radiolucency associated with the roots of erupted, vital teeth and has a predilection for the anterior maxilla and the posterior mandible. Histologically, the tumor is characterized by the formation of variably sized nests and cords of uniform, benign-appearing, squamous epithelium with occasional vacuolization and keratinization. We report a case of SOT occurring in a 58-year-old male in the anterior mandible with unusual localization and appearance.

Badni, Manjunath; Nagaraja, A; Kamath, VV

2012-01-01

115

Odontogenic Keratocyst Looks Can Be Deceptive, Causing Endodontic Misdiagnosis  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is the cyst arising from the cell rests of dental lamina. It can occur anywhere in the jaw, but commonly seen in the posterior part of the mandible. Radiographically, most OKCs are unilocular when presented at the periapex and can be mistaken for radicular or lateral periodontal cyst. When the cyst is multilocular and located at the molar ramus area, it may be confused to ameloblastoma. Lots of cases have been reported in the literature where OKC is associated with the nonvital tooth. So trauma could be one of the reasons in inducing this cyst. In our case, it was in the anterior region at the periapex of nonvital tooth having traumatic occlusion. Hence, the diagnosis of radicular cyst was made and endodontic treatment was done.

Veena, K. M.; Rao, Rekha; Jagadishchandra, H.; Rao, Prasanna Kumar

2011-01-01

116

Conservative treatment of an aggressive odontogenic tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

An ameloblastoma is a polymorphic, benign, locally invasive tumor made up of odontogenic epithelium, clinically characterized by slow, progressive, painless growth. There are reports in the literature on the treatment of ameloblastomas with aggressive mural invasion through resections, in order to minimize recurrence. However, different approaches may be used at the bone level, such as curettage combined with a chemical fixative (Carnoy's solution), cryotherapy, or thermal cauterization. The findings of this case report demonstrate that the use of Carnoy's solution following the enucleation of a unicysticameloblastoma with mural invasion may be a treatment alternative with a low rate of recurrence, as well as a reduced rate of postoperative complications, a reduction in costs, and preservation of both esthetics and function. PMID:24064176

Catunda, Ivson Souza; Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti Egito; Macedo Neres, Bruno Carvalho; Alves, Raquell; Ponzi, Elizabeth Arruda Carneiro

117

Dry anaerobic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of using high total-solids concentrations for anaerobic fermentations of manures and crop residues are discussed. Studies conducted on dry anaerobic fermentation of organic residues to methane are described. Moisture content, NHâ-N concentration, and chloride concentration were tested. Anaerobic fermentations occurred in solids concentrations in excess of 20%. At initial concentrations of 40% or less, the reaction will be

W. J. Wujcik; W. J. Jewell

1980-01-01

118

Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor in Anterior Maxilla Associated with a Supernumerary Tooth: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic tumors are derived from epithelial, ectomesenchymal and/or mesenchymal elements that are or have been a part of the tooth-forming apparatus. Of all the odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor accounts for 1% of the cases. Approximately 200 cases have been reported to date. There is no sex predilection, with a 2:1 predilection for the mandible, mostly in the premolar/molar region. It is often locally invasive. Most often, it is associated with an impacted tooth, is asymptomatic and requires biopsy for diagnosis. Presented here is a rare case of an intraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor surrounding a supernumerary tooth. Furthermore, the occurrence of this tumor in the anterior maxilla (an uncommon site) in a pediatric patient makes it rarer. Although the present case was asymptomatic, root resorption and displacement of adjacent teeth necessitated its surgical removal. The lesion was surgically enucleated and histopathological examination confirmed calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, showing abundant calcifications in the form of Liesegang rings.

Sharma, Urvashi; Gulati, Anubha; Batra, Hemant; Singh, Devinderpreet

2013-01-01

119

Timing of odontogenic neural crest cell migration and tooth-forming capability in mice.  

PubMed

The mammalian tooth develops through sequential and reciprocal interactions between cranial neural crest (CNC)- derived ectomesenchymal cells and the stomadial epithelium. Classic tissue recombination studies demonstrated that premigratory CNC cells and CNC-derived ectomesenchymal cells possess odontogenic capacity and can respond to oral epithelial signals to form a tooth, suggesting that the CNC cells contributing to odontogenic tissue are not prespecified. Here we show that, in mice, CNC cells have populated the forming first branchial arch before the 9-somite stage and continue to migrate into the arch by the 13-somite stage. Grafts of the first arch from the 10-somite embryo or earlier yielded membranous bone and cysts but no teeth after subrenal culture. However, grafts of the first arch with its dorsally adjacent tissue containing migrating neural crest cells from the same age embryos gave rise to teeth. In contrast, teeth formed in first arch grafts that do not contain migrating neural crest cells from embryos with 12 or more somites. Interestingly, the acquisition of tooth forming capability in the first arch coincides with the onset of Fgf8 expression in the oral epithelium. These results suggest that there exists a population of odontogenic neural crest cells that migrates into the first arch between the 10- and 12-somite stages. These cells either possess odontogenic potential and are able to initiate tooth development, or can respond to odontogenic signals derived from the oral epithelium to support tooth formation. PMID:12666208

Zhang, Yanding; Wang, Shusheng; Song, Yiqiang; Han, Jun; Chai, Yang; Chen, YiPing

2003-04-01

120

A pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with compound odontoma: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Pigmented intraosseous odontogenic lesions are rare with only 47 reported cases in the English literature. Among them, pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is the most common lesion with 20 reported cases. Methods A case of pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma occurring at the mandibular canine-premolar region of a young Japanese boy is presented with radiographic, and histological findings. Special staining, electron microscopic study and immunohistochemical staining were also done to characterize the pigmentation. Results The pigments in the lesion were confirmed to be melanin by Masson-Fontana staining and by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of dendritic melanocytes within the lesion was also demonstrated by S-100 immunostaining. Conclusion The present case report of pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma features a comprehensive study on melanin and melanocytes, including histochemical, immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic findings.

Han, Phuu P; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong H; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tamamura, Ryo; Borkosky, Silvia S; Katase, Naoki; Nagai, Noriyuki

2007-01-01

121

Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria to cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin were compared with those of other antimicrobial agents (metronidazole, clindamycin, cefoxitin, and moxalactam) against anaerobic bacteria. The data obtained indicate that N-formimidoyl thienamycin exhibits excellent activity against anaerobic bacteria; cefotetan and cefmenoxime, though less active, should be of value in treating selected anaerobic infections.

Owens, W E; Finegold, S M

1983-01-01

122

An unusual case presentation of follicular odontogenic keratocyst with an impacted mesiodens.  

PubMed

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cysts known for its high recurrence rate and its tendency to invade adjacent tissues. Radiographically, OKCs can be of different varieties-follicular, envelopmental, replacemental, extraneous, and collateral. Its characteristic clinical and biological behavior, therapeutic approaches, prognosis, and recurrence vary in different studies. Generally, OKCs are found to be associated with impacted lower third molar. Here we present an unusual case of follicular OKC associated with an impacted mesiodens (supernumerary tooth) in a 21-year-old male patient. PMID:23714999

Yadav, Sunil; Verma, Ajay; Sheorain, Anil; Sharma, Arun

2013-05-01

123

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma: a case report and critical review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) associated with odontoma occurring in the posterior mandible of a 32-year-old man. Although calcifications are commonly found in the AOT, the presence of rudimentary dental structures is a very rare phenomenon. Cases with similar aspects have been described as ameloblastic dentinoma, ameloblastic odontoma, adenoameloblastic odontoma and AOT associated with odontoma. After a careful analysis of the literature we describe the clinical aspects of this tumor. Further case reports and surveys of odontogenic tumors are necessary to define whether AOT associated with odontoma is a variant of AOT or a distinct clinicopathologic condition.

2013-01-01

124

Prevalence of odontogenic sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic therapy. Charts of 330 patients (393 permanent teeth) endodontically treated during a 10-month period were reviewed and data was collected. Among the 393 permanent teeth there were a total of 160 teeth with preoperative status of periradicular inflammation. Of 160 teeth with preoperative status of periradicular inflammation, 29 teeth (18.1%) had an odontogenic sinus tract, which correlates to almost one in five teeth with periradicular inflammation having a sinus tract. PMID:14686808

Gupta, Rahul; Hasselgren, Gunnar

2003-12-01

125

Aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of mandible showing root resorption: A histological case report.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor with slow but progressive growth. The three variants: Follicular, extra follicular (both central type), and peripheral present with identical histologic findings. This case report describes a patient with a large AOT in the mandible of the extra follicular type which is the less common of the two central types. It also strikes as an unusual case as it shows significant root resorption of the involved displaced teeth which is not generally reported in AOT's. PMID:23946750

Saluja, Ramandeep; Kaur, Gurkiran; Singh, Preetinder

2013-03-01

126

Immunochemical Investigations of Cell Surface Antigens of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the anaerobic bacteria responsible for human infection, Baceteroides fragilis is the most important. This organism is particularly important in intra-abdominal septis or bacteremia. Several studies were conducted to determine whether any unique bact...

D. L. Kasper

1984-01-01

127

Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors of Jaws  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate different surgical treatment methods for keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and the outcome of those treatments over a 9-year period. Patients and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on 43 KCOTs in 39 patients. In radiographic evaluations for diagnosis, follow ups and before and after treatment, panoramic, 3D CT and MR images were used. The three groups of different surgical treatment were (1) enucleation for small unilocular lesions without certainty of histology; (2) enucleation with Carnoy's solution, for small unilocular lesions after previous histological confirmation of KOCT; (3) marsupialization followed by enucleation with Carnoy's solution implemented for large often multilocular KCOTs with intact or destruction of cortical bone without infiltration of neighbouring tissue. Results. 43 KCOT cases were mostly localized in mandible (76.7%), radiologically unilocular (72%), and parakeratocysts (88.4%). Inflammation and satellite cysts (daughter cysts) were detected histopathologically in 14 (32.5%) and 7 (16.3%), respectively. Among the 43 cysts, 20 (46.5%) were associated with the impacted third molar and of 21 (48.8%) was in tooth bearing area, and 5 (11, 6%) located on edentulous areas. It was located mostly in the anterior region of maxilla (90%) and in mandibular molar and ramus (62.8%). The treatments of KCOTs were 18 (41.9%) for group 1, and 10 (23.3%) group 2, and 15 (34.8%) group 3. A statistically significant relationship was found between the radiographic appearance and treatment methods (P = 0.00). No recurrence was found on 40.54 ± 23.02 months follow up. Conclusion. We concluded that successful treatment methods were enucleation and Carnoy's solution in small lesions and marsupialization in lesions that have reached a very large size, but because KCOT was observed in second decade mostly, long-term follows up are suggested.

Guler, Nurhan; Sencift, Kemal; Demirkol, Ozge

2012-01-01

128

Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum ?-lactam resistance.

Murdoch, D. A.

1998-01-01

129

Anaerobic benzene degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have indicated that benzene persists under anaerobic conditions in petroleum-contaminated environments, it has recently been documented that benzene can be anaerobically oxidized with most commonlyconsidered electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. These include: Fe(III),sulfate, nitrate, and possibly humic substances. Benzene can also be convertedto methane and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions. There is evidencethat benzene can be degraded

Derek R. Lovley

2000-01-01

130

Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor: A Survey of 23 Cases and Discussion of Histomorphologic Variations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are 23 acceptable cases of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor on file at the Armed Forces Institutes of Pathology. With the addition of these cases, a total of reported cases in the English literature reaches 69 and the previous age range of 16...

S. O. Krolls J. J. Pindborg

1974-01-01

131

c-Myc oncogene expression in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the role of c-Myc oncogene in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst were selected and primary monoclonal mouse anti-human c-Myc antibody was used in a dilution of 1: 50. Statistical Analysis was performed using Mann Whitney U test. Results: 80% positivity was observed in ameloblastoma, AOT and OKC; 50% positivity in radicular cyst and 20% positivity in dentigerous cyst. Comparison of c-Myc expression between ameloblastoma and AOT did not reveal significant results. Similarly, no statistical significance was observed when results of OKC were compared with ameloblastoma and AOT. In contrast, significant differences were seen on comparison of dentigerous cyst with ameloblastoma and AOT and radicular cyst with AOT. Conclusion: From the above data we conclude that (1) Ameloblastoma and AOT have similar proliferative potential and their biologic behavior cannot possibly be attributed to it. (2) OKC has an intrinsic growth potential which is absent in other cysts and reinforces its classification as keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

Moosvi, Zama; Rekha, K

2013-01-01

132

In Vitro Activity of Moxifloxacin against Bacteria Isolated from Odontogenic Abscesses  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 87 pathogens isolated from 37 patients with odontogenic abscesses. The most prevalent bacteria were viridans group streptococci and Prevotella species. Considering all bacterial isolates, 100% were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 98% were susceptible to moxifloxacin and to levofloxacin, 76% were susceptible to doxycycline, 75% were susceptible to clindamycin, and 69% were susceptible to penicillin.

Sobottka, Ingo; Cachovan, Georg; Sturenburg, Enno; Ahlers, M. Oliver; Laufs, Rainer; Platzer, Ursula; Mack, Dietrich

2002-01-01

133

Collagen and Elastic Fibers in Odontogenic Entities: Analysis Using Light and Confocal Laser Microscopic Methods  

PubMed Central

Dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) are odontogenic lesions arising from epithelial elements, such as those observed in dental follicles (DF), that have been part of the tooth forming apparatus. These lesions show different clinical and histological characteristics, as well as distinct biological behavior. This study aimed to qualify and quantify collagen and elastic fibers by means of histochemical techniques with light and confocal laser microscopic methods in three odontogenic entities. Eleven DF, 13 DC (n=10 with inflammation, n=3 without inflammation) and 13 KOT were processed to the following techniques: Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome, Picrosirius, Direct Blue, and Orcein. DF and DC without inflammation exhibited collagen with similar characteristics: no parallel pattern of fiber orientation, thick fibers with dense arrangement, and absence of distinct layers. A comparison between DC with inflammation and KOT revealed similar collagen organization, showing distinct layers: thin collagen fibers with loose arrangement near the epithelium and thick fibers with dense arrangement in distant areas. The only difference found was that KOT exhibited a parallel collagen orientation in relation to the odontogenic epithelia. It may be suggested that the connective tissue of DC is a reactive tissue, inducing an expansive growth associated with fluid accumulation and inflammatory process, which in turn may be present as part of the lesion itself. In KOT, loosely arranged collagen may be associated with the behavior of the neoplastic epithelium.

Moure, Sabrina P; Carrard, Vinicius C; Lauxen, Isabel S; Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Oliveira, Marcia G; Martins, Manoela D; Sant?Ana Filho, Manoel

2011-01-01

134

Mandibular odontogenic myxoma. Reconstructive considerations by means of the vascularized fibular free flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The odontogenic myxoma is a rare entity located in mandible and upper maxilla. Due to its local aggressiveness, wide surgical excision is mandatory. Several surgical techniques have been described for the reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects. In comparison with other free flaps, the vascularized free fibular flap (VFFF) supports the lon- gest amount of bone and, due to the nature

Raúl González García; Francisco J. Rodríguez Campo; Mario F. Muńoz Guerra; Jesús Sastre Pérez; J. Díaz González

135

Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible.  

PubMed

We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed. PMID:23703711

Chen, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chung-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

2013-05-24

136

A clinical and electron microscopic study of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour  

PubMed Central

The clinical features and the histological and ultrastructural appearances of a case of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour are described. The ultrastructural features of the cells of this tumour are comparable to cells of the stratum intermedium of the enamel organ. It is suggested that the amyloid-staining material found in this tumour is a cellular secretion rather than a cytoplasmic degeneration. Images

Mainwaring, A. R.; Ahmed, Ali; Hopkinson, J. M.; Anderson, P.

1971-01-01

137

Odontogenic keratocyst: Review of 256 cases for recurrence and clinicopathologic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is of particular interest because of its high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. Two hundred fifty-six cases of OKC were reviewed for the age of the patient at diagnosis, sex of the patient, OKC location, and radiographic findings, and 132 patients with OKC were observed to estimate recurrence, which was analyzed for age, sex, location, and several

Hoon Myoung; Sam-Pyo Hong; Seong-Doo Hong; Jae-Il Lee; Chang-Yun Lim; Pill-Hoon Choung; Jong-Ho Lee; Jin-Young Choi; Byoung-Moo Seo; Myung-Jin Kim

2001-01-01

138

Quantitative analysis of the epithelial lining architecture in radicular cysts and odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper describes a quantitative analysis of the cyst lining architecture in radicular cysts (of inflammatory aetiology) and odontogenic keratocysts (thought to be developmental or neoplastic) including its 2 counterparts: solitary and associated with the Basal Cell Naevus Syndrome (BCNS). METHODS: Epithelial linings from 150 images (from 9 radicular cysts, 13 solitary keratocysts and 8 BCNS keratocysts) were segmented

Gabriel Landini

2006-01-01

139

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in mandible in a 14-year-old boy.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old boy reported with a painless swelling over the right anterior mandible with missing right canine tooth. The lesion was diagnosed as 'central follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour' and excised surgically under general anaesthesia. The patient was on a year-long clinical and radiographical follow-up. PMID:23839612

Bhatt, Rohan; Dave, Jay; Nalawade, Triveni M; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-07-08

140

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin: A case report and review of 12 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article reviews the demographics, presentation, cause, clinical findings, and treatment of 12 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin.Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review of 12 cases treated between 1987 and 1997 was done.Results: Most cases resulted from an abscessed mandibular molar. The most common significant medical conditions in the patient's history were diabetes, hypertension, obesity,

Lee Whitesides; Cynthia Cotto-Cumba; Roy A. M. Myers

2000-01-01

141

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin: A report of 11 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Although most cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) are odontogenic in origin, reports of this disease in the dental literature are sparse. The purpose of this study was to review the cases treated on our service, and to analyze the features of this disease and the responses to management, to supplement the understanding of this relatively rare and life-threatening

Wong Tung-Yiu; Huang Jehn-Shyun; Chung Ching-Hung; Chen Hung-An

2000-01-01

142

Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible  

PubMed Central

We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed.

Chen, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chung-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

2013-01-01

143

Diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of odontogenic cysts and tumours  

PubMed Central

Objective The differentiation between keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) and other cystic/predominantly cystic odontogenic tumours is difficult on conventional CT and MR sequences as there is overlap in the imaging characteristics of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to assess the performance of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the differential diagnosis of odontogenic cysts and tumours. Methods 20 patients with odontogenic cysts and tumours of the maxillomandibular region were examined with DWI. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained with a single-shot echoplanar technique with b-values of 0, 500 and 1000 s mm?2. An ADC map was obtained at each slice position. Results The cystic areas of ameloblastoma (n=10) showed free diffusion with a mean ADC value of 2.192±0.33×10?3 mm2 s?1, whereas the solid areas showed restricted diffusion with a mean ADC value of 1.041±0.41×10?3 mm2 s?1. KCOT (n=5) showed restricted diffusion with a mean ADC value of 1.019±0.07×10?3 mm2 s?1. There was a significant difference between the ADC values of KCOT and cystic ameloblastoma (p<0.01, Mann–Whitney U-test). The cut-off with which KCOT and predominantly cystic ameloblastomas were optimally differentiated was 2.013×10?3 mm2 s?1, which yielded 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusion DWI can be used to differentiate KCOT from cystic (or predominantly cystic) odontogenic tumours.

Srinivasan, K; Seith Bhalla, A; Sharma, R; Kumar, A; Roychoudhury, A; Bhutia, O

2012-01-01

144

The anaerobic microflora of the human body.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of the kinds of anaerobic bacteria that inhibit the surfaces of the human body. The anaerobic floras of the skin, oral cavity, alimentary tract, and genitourinary tract are described. The activities of these organisms that impact on the human host and their interactions are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the protective roles of the floras of the various bodily surfaces in preventing infections. Identified mechanisms of protection on the skin and in the colon and the vagina are explained. PMID:8324114

Hentges, D J

1993-06-01

145

Celanese improves anaerobic digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic digestion process, developed by Celanese for the disposal of petrochemical wastes, involves feeding some of the treated effluent back into the system to dilute toxic constituents and to lower the pH. Anaerobic digestion as a disposal technique has been a problem since toxic materials and high pH kill the bacteria needed for effective operation. Operation of the process

E. R. Witt; T. E. Roberts

1979-01-01

146

Deep-neck space infections - a diagnostic dilemma!  

PubMed

Deep Neck Space Infections (DNI) are a potentially life threatening condition. This paper highlights the importance of their early diagnosis and early intervention. The deep-neck space infections may be odontogenic in origin. The severe airway compromise caused by them may make diagnosis difficult. Suspicion of simultaneous occurrence of tetanus and retropharyngeal space infection in a child can further increase the dilemma. PMID:23120579

Jain, Shraddha; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Nishant; Puttewar, M P; Nagpure, P S

2008-11-07

147

Concomitant occurrence of cemento-ossifying fibroma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with bilateral impacted permanent canines in the mandible.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon, benign and slow growing odontogenic tumor, which is usually located in an anterior region of the maxilla without pain. Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a relatively rare benign tumor of the jaw. Here we present 2 lesions presenting in unusual forms, follicular variant of AOT in the mandible and COF associated with impacted canine in the mandible, occurring concomitantly in the same patient. Both lesions presented classic histopathologic features. PMID:23059596

Prakash, A Ravi; Reddy, P Sreenivas; Bavle, Radhika M

148

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with dentigerous cyst in posterior maxilla: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT)-a benign (hamartomatous) lesion of odontogenic origin-is an uncommon tumor which affects young individuals with a female predominance, mainly in the second decade. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and is usually associated with an impacted canine tooth. This is a case report of a 39-year-old female patient presented with a large AOT of the posterior maxilla associated with an impacted second molar - a very rare situation. PMID:21731264

John, J Baby; John, Reena Rachel

2010-07-01

149

Fulminant spread of a femur anaerobic osteomyelitis to abdomen in a 17-year-old boy.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, distant spread of infection in anaerobic osteomyelitis has not been described before. In this article, we report a case of anaerobic osteomyelitis of femur with fulminant spread of infection to the abdomen in a 17-year-old boy with no predisposing medical factors and minimal bone involvement. PMID:22482093

Yazdi, Hamid Reza; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Hoseini, Mohammad Ghorban; Masdari, Zahra

2012-02-01

150

Anaerobic performance at altitude.  

PubMed

Anaerobic metabolism is usually evaluated by the determination of the anaerobic capacity and the maximal anaerobic mechanical external power (Wmax). Conflicting results are reported on anaerobic capacity evaluated by maximal oxygen deficit and debt, and maximal blood lactate concentration during acute or chronic hypoxia (acclimatized subjects). Data on muscle biopsies (lactate concentration, changes in ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen stores, glycolytic enzyme activities) and the few studies on lactate flux give in most cases evidence of a non-alteration of the anaerobic capacity for altitudes up to 5,500 m. No differences are observed in Wmax measured at high altitudes up to 5,200 m during intense short-term exercises: (1) jumps on a force platform which is a good indicator of alactic Wmax, and (2) 7-10 s sprints (i.e. force-velocity test) which solicit alactic metabolism but also lactic pathway. For exercises of duration equal or more than 30 s (i.e. Wingate test), there are conflicting results because a lower participation of aerobic metabolism during this test at high altitude can interfere with anaerobic performance. In conclusion, we can admit that anaerobic performances are not altered by high altitudes up to 5,200 m if the length of exposure does not exceed 5 weeks. After this period, muscle mass begins to decrease. PMID:1483803

Coudert, J

1992-10-01

151

Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

Omstead, D. R.

152

Experimental aerobic-anaerobic thoracic empyema in the guinea pig.  

PubMed

The clinical and pathological features of experimental aerobic-anaerobic thoracic empyema in the Duncan-Harley guinea pig are described. Thoracic empyema development and early death (less than 14 days after bacterial inoculation) were noted after various concentrations and species were inoculated into the pleural space with a piece of umbilical tape, which was used as a cofactor. The effect of concomitant hemothorax was also tested. Gram-negative infection was found to have a more virulent course than Gram-positive infection in the thoracic cavity. Moreover, these findings support the thesis that intrathoracic inoculation of anaerobic bacteria, even in combination with other anaerobic species, fails to produce clinical empyemas. However, anaerobic bacteria appear to enhance synergistically the virulence of sublethal and subempyema-forming concentrations of aerobic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. PMID:3548615

Mavroudis, C; Ganzel, B L; Cox, S K; Polk, H C

1987-03-01

153

Peripheral Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour -- Is It Really Peripheral?: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A Peripheral Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (PAOT) is quite a rare entity which has been infrequently reported in the literature. These uncommon clinical variants of an Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (AOT), typically manifest as a soft tissue mass of the gingiva, which mimick a common epulis, but yet have an identical histopathologic presentation as their intraosseous counterpart. These lesions, though they are indolent in nature, have a tendency to cause well defined deep bony pockets. Only fourteen cases have been adequately documented so far. We are reporting a case of a PAOT of the anterior maxillary gingiva, with a periodontal bone defect in a 12 year old girl. The relevant literature has been briefly reviewed, with an insight into the probable origin of PAOTs with bony defects.

Lavanya, N.; Rajeshwari, M.R.C.; Bharathi, R.; Shaheen, A.

2013-01-01

154

Clear cell variant of extraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor occurring most frequently in the posterior part of the lower jaw. Extraosseous CEOT is one of the rarest forms of this tumor, and few such cases involving the maxillary gingiva have been reported in the literature. Here we present a case that showed progressive enlargement in the left maxillary gingival area over a period of 11 years. Clinical examination showed an ulcerated mass measuring 52 x 38 mm located adjacent to the lateral incisor and canine. Histologically, the tumor showed proliferation of sheets and cords of epithelial cells with granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei. In other areas, the epithelial cells exhibited a clear, vacuolated cytoplasm and foci of eosinophilic, homogeneous material representing amyloid deposition. The present case of extraosseous CEOT with clear cells was considered to be a very rare form of this tumor. PMID:19776521

Habibi, Ataollah; Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Zare, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2009-09-01

155

Infiltrative odontogenic myxoma of the posterior maxilla: Report of a case  

PubMed Central

Myxomas of the head and neck are rare tumors of uncertain histogenesis. Odontogenic myxomas in maxilla are less common but behave more aggressively, as it spreads through maxillary antrum. It therefore reaches considerable size before being detected. The current case arouses particular interest due to the rapid growth and infiltrating nature of the lesion in a 25-year-old female patient, who denied any leading symptoms, even with the lesion involving extensively. Radiographic and microscopic similarities to a number of entities make diagnostic interpretation of odontogenic myxoma challenging. Therefore sound knowledge of clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features is important to establish an appropriate treatment aimed at a good clinical course and patient cure.

Arul, A. Sri Kennath J.; Verma, Sonika; Arul, A. Sri Sennath J.; Verma, Rashmika

2013-01-01

156

Peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumour - is it really peripheral?: a case report.  

PubMed

A Peripheral Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (PAOT) is quite a rare entity which has been infrequently reported in the literature. These uncommon clinical variants of an Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (AOT), typically manifest as a soft tissue mass of the gingiva, which mimick a common epulis, but yet have an identical histopathologic presentation as their intraosseous counterpart. These lesions, though they are indolent in nature, have a tendency to cause well defined deep bony pockets. Only fourteen cases have been adequately documented so far. We are reporting a case of a PAOT of the anterior maxillary gingiva, with a periodontal bone defect in a 12 year old girl. The relevant literature has been briefly reviewed, with an insight into the probable origin of PAOTs with bony defects. PMID:23998113

Lavanya, N; Rajeshwari, M R C; Bharathi, R; Shaheen, A

2013-07-01

157

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of maxilla: A case report and mini review  

PubMed Central

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor occurring predominantly in posterior mandible during 5th-7th decades with a female predilection. It is a potentially aggressive tumor, capable of frequent recurrences and loco-regional and distant metastases. Till date, only 73 cases have been reported in the literature. Current case is of a 55-year-old woman with tumor mass extending from canine to molar region on the left maxillary arch. Being locally aggressive tumor with the capacity to metastasize, it demands to be distinguished from other primary and metastatic clear cell tumors of the oral and maxillofacial region. A brief compilation of the reported cases is being attempted in the current article to better understand the behavior of the tumor.

Swain, Niharika; Dhariwal, Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal

2013-01-01

158

Sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma in the maxilla: a rare primary intraosseous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Sclerosing Odontogenic Carcinoma (SOC) was first described by Koutlas et al. in 2008. SOC is a low-grade odontogenic carcinoma, which presents as an expansile radiolucency that causes tooth displacement and root resorption. It is locally aggressive but reports suggest a very low probability of regional or distant metastasis. SOC contains small nests and thin cords of small cuboidal or polygonal epithelial cells with cytoplasmic clearing. Pleomorphism and mitoses are not prominent. Skeletal muscle and perineural infiltration with stromal sclerosis is characteristic. Immunohistochemically, SOC stains for cytokeratins (CK) 5/6 and 19, and e-cadherin. Nuclear staining with p63 is also positive. CK20, carcinoembryonic antigen and CAM 5.2 are negative. We report a rare entity of primary intraosseous carcinoma of the maxilla which has the clinical and histological markers of SOC. Occurrence in the maxilla has been reported only once before in the literature. PMID:23567261

Hussain, Omar; Rendon, Alica Torres; Orr, Robert L; Speight, Paul M

2013-04-06

159

Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence.

Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

2013-01-01

160

Uniaxial cyclic tensile stretch inhibits osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

As the most important organs of occlusion, teeth are subjected to a variety of mechanical stresses. These stresses are transmitted into the dental pulp tissue and affect the dental pulp stem cells. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells were isolated from human impacted third molars and their multilineage differentiation abilities were tested. Human dental pulp stem cells were then exposed to cyclic tensile stretch. The results showed that the cyclic tensile stretch inhibited the expression of osteogenic marker genes and proteins such as BMP-2, OCN and ALP. Simultaneously, odontogenic marker genes and proteins such as DSPP, DSP and BSP were also inhibited by the mechanical stress. It was concluded that cyclic tensile stretch inhibits the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. PMID:20827678

Cai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Xingmei; Grottkau, Brian E; Lin, Yunfeng

2010-09-08

161

Standard anaerobic exercise tests.  

PubMed

Anaerobic tests are divided into tests measuring anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic power tests include force-velocity tests, vertical jump tests, staircase tests, and cycle ergometer tests. The values of maximal anaerobic power obtained with these different protocols are different but generally well correlated. Differences between tests include factors such as whether average power or instantaneous power is measured, active muscle mass is the same in all the protocols, the legs act simultaneously or successively, maximal power is measured at the very beginning of exercise or after several seconds, inertia of the devices and body segments are taken into account. Force-velocity tests have the advantage of enabling the estimation of the force and velocity components of power, which is not possible with tests such as a staircase test, a vertical jump, the Wingate test and other long-duration cycle ergometer protocols. Maximal anaerobic capacity tests are subdivided into maximal oxygen debt test, ergometric tests (all-out tests and constant load tests), measurement of oxygen deficit during a constant load test and measurement of peak blood lactate. The measurement of the maximal oxygen debt is not valid and reliable enough to be used as an anaerobic capacity test. The aerobic metabolism involvement during anaerobic capacity tests, and the ignorance of the mechanical efficiency, limit the validity of the ergometric tests which are only based on the measurement of work. The amount of work performed during the Wingate test depends probably on glycolytic and aerobic power as well as anaerobic capacity. The fatigue index (power decrease) of the all-out tests is not reliable and depends probably on aerobic power as well as the fast-twich fibre percentage. Reliability of the constant load tests has seldom been studied and has been found to be rather low. In theory, the measure of the oxygen deficit during a constant load test is more valid than the other tests but its reliability is unknown. The validity and reliability of postexercise blood lactate as a test of maximal anaerobic capacity are probably not better than that of the current erogmetric tests. The choice of an anaerobic test depends on the aims and subjects of a study and its practicability within a testing session. PMID:3306867

Vandewalle, H; Pérčs, G; Monod, H

162

Coexpression of hepatocyte growth factor and c-met in epithelial odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, motility and morphology in a variety of cell types. A significant role of the HGF\\/c-met pathway has been demonstrated in various tumors, however, little is known about the role of HGF\\/c-met pathway in odontogenic tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression

Sopee Poomsawat; Jirapa Punyasingh; Paisarn Vejchapipat; Noppadol Larbcharoensub

163

Central granular cell odontogenic tumour: report of the first malignant case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Granular cell odontogenic tumours (GCOT) are rare neoplasms that usually manifest a benign clinical behaviour. We document the first case of GCOT exhibiting clinico-pathological features of malignancy that occurred in the maxilla of a 40-year-old male. The lesion appeared as an intra-oral polypoid mass and, at CT scan, as a poorly demarcated radiolucency eroding the cortical plate. Histologically, the tumour consisted of clusters of granular cells, exhibiting nuclear pleomorphism, prominent nucleoli and mitotic figures, and spindle cells in a collagenous stroma containing cementicles and strands of odontogenic epithelium. Morphologic transition from fibroblast-like to granular cells was frequently detected. The tumour cells extensively invaded the oral and respiratory mucosae and the adjacent soft tissues and exhibited vimentin and CD 68 immunoreactivity and high (21%) Ki 67 immunolabeling but not cytokeratins, E.M.A. actin, desmin, myosin or S-100 protein positivity. The patient experienced tumour recurrence 16 months after radical surgery. While the histogenesis of GCOT remains to be clarified, we document the existence of a malignant counterpart of this tumour and propose the name of malignant GCOT or granular cell odontogenic sarcoma for such entity. PMID:12457725

Piattelli, Adriano; Rubini, Corrado; Goteri, Gaia; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Maiorano, Eugenio

2003-01-01

164

Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in different types of odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in different types of odontogenic cysts. A total of 25 parakeratotic odontogenic keratocysts (POKCs), 16 orthokeratotic odontogenic keratocysts (OOKCs), and 28 follicular cysts (FCs) were evaluated semiquantitatively for immunohistochemical analysis of VEGF in epithelial cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, inflammatory cells and focally stromal cells. A significant different expression of VEGF in all cell components was found in keratocysts compared to FCs. The POKCs (80%) and OOKCs (68%) showed more than 50% VEGF positive epithelial cells, whereas the majority of FCs (71%) were either negative in the epithelium or showed less than 10% positive cells. Similarly, the POKCs (88%) and OOKCs (68%) showed more than 50% positive endothelial cells, whereas the FCs (75%) were either negative or showed less than 10% VEGF positive endothelial cells. The highest percentage of cases with score 2 positivity in the stromal cells was observed in POKCs (68%); OOKCs showed a score 2 positivity in 44%, score 1 in 31% and score 0 in 25%, whereas 68% of FCs showed a score 0, 25% a score 1 and only 7% of cases showed a score 2. No statistically significant differences were observed between POKCs and OOKCs in VEGF expression in the epithelial and endothelial cells, whereas the positivity score in stromal cells was significantly higher in POKCs compared to OOKCs. The present results can support the hypothesis that angiogenesis is an active mechanism in the invasive growth of the OKC. PMID:20563616

Rubini, Corrado; Artese, Luciano; Zizzi, Antonio; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Ascani, Giuliano; Goteri, Gaia; Stramazzotti, Daniela; Piccirilli, Marcello; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano

2010-06-19

165

Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique  

PubMed Central

A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures.

2011-01-01

166

Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique.  

PubMed

A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures. PMID:22070833

Stoetzer, Marcus; Rana, Majeed; von See, Constantin; Eckardt, André M; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

2011-11-09

167

Boron enhances odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) in vitro.  

PubMed

Stem cell technology has been a great hope for the treatment of many common problems such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, cancer, and tissue regeneration. Therefore, the main challenge in hard tissue engineering is to make a successful combination of stem cells and efficient inductors in the concept of stem cell differentiation into odontogenic and osteogenic cell types. Although some boron derivatives have been reported to promote bone and teeth growth in vivo, the molecular mechanism of bone formation has not been elucidated yet. Different concentrations of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (NaB) were prepared for the analysis of cell toxicity and differentiation evaluations. The odontogenic, osteogenic differentiation and biomineralization of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) were evaluated by analyzing the mRNA expression levels, odontogenic and osteogenic protein expressions, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and calcium deposits. The NaB-treated group displayed the highest ALP activity and expression of osteo- and odontogenic-related genes and proteins compared to the other groups and baseline. In the current study, increased in vitro odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity of hTGSCs by NaB application has been shown for the first time. The study offers considerable promise for the development of new scaffold systems combined with NaB in both functional bone and tooth tissue engineering. PMID:23575901

Ta?l?, Pakize Neslihan; Do?an, Ay?egül; Demirci, Selami; ?ahin, Fikrettin

2013-04-12

168

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play Infection! the game where you're the germ. And while you play, learn about the way your body fights infections.The game works best in Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 or later. You will need to download Shockwave, but don't worry, you can do that right from the site.

York, Amercian M.

169

Bibliography on anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The priority assigned to biogas systems by participants in A.I.D's Energy for Rural Development Program spurred the compilation of this 373-item bibliography on anaerobic digestion. The materials focus on energy technologies that are especially suited to the social, economic, and institutional concerns of rural Asia and the Pacific. Entries are presented in two sections. The first presents largely non-technical reports on anaerobic digesters in South and Southeast Asia, for the years 1956-80, with emphasis on the period 1970-80. The second section, which includes both technical and non-technical references, is a condensation of a computerized search of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Research Abstracts published during the period 1977-80. The search revealed a lack of reliable data, pointing to the need for further research on the technology and potential of anaerobic digestion.

Ramakrishna, J.; Pruett, D.M.; Santerre, M.T.; Toyoshiba, T.S.

1980-09-01

170

Developments of anaerobic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Two modifications of anaerobic fermentation of biomass were studied: separation of acid and CH4 phases of the anaerobic process used in CH4 production from the biomass and the use of attached growth methanogenesis. A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used for the acid phase. Effluent from the acid reactor was fed simultaneously to a conventional CSTR and an anaerobic rotating biological contactor (ARBC) operating in parallel for the CH4 phase. The temperature of all the reactors was 35 plus or minus 1 degree, the pH of the acid phase was 4.3, and the CH4 phase was studied at pH 7.5. The retention time for the acid phase CSTR was 4.5 h, and that for the ARBC and CSTR in the CH4 phase was 36 h.

Roy, D.; Jones, L.M.

1984-01-01

171

Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor involving the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws, accounting for less than 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It rarely extends into the maxillary sinus. Till date, six cases involving maxillary sinus have been reported. In this paper, we report the seventh case of a 52-year-old male with CEOT in maxilla extending from distal surface of the right maxillary canine to retromolar area and involving maxillary sinus with no association with impacted teeth. The diagnosis was confirmed by aspiration cytology and histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of epithelial cells, with areas of clear cell changes. The presence of clear cells in the histological sections, accounts for the aggressive nature of the tumor simulating the clinical appearance. Prevention of recurrence can be achieved by radical resection. PMID:23248488

Sahni, Priya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Jayanti

2012-09-01

172

Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor involving the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws, accounting for less than 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It rarely extends into the maxillary sinus. Till date, six cases involving maxillary sinus have been reported. In this paper, we report the seventh case of a 52-year-old male with CEOT in maxilla extending from distal surface of the right maxillary canine to retromolar area and involving maxillary sinus with no association with impacted teeth. The diagnosis was confirmed by aspiration cytology and histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of epithelial cells, with areas of clear cell changes. The presence of clear cells in the histological sections, accounts for the aggressive nature of the tumor simulating the clinical appearance. Prevention of recurrence can be achieved by radical resection.

Sahni, Priya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Jayanti

2012-01-01

173

Novel PTCH1 Mutations in Patients with Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Screened for Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic tumors that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, KCOTs of the jaws and a variety of other tumors. PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs. The aim of the current study was to assess whether a combined clinical and bio-molecular approach could be suitable for the detection of NBCCS among patients with a diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). The authors collected keratocystic odontogenic tumors recorded in the database of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia during the period 1991–2011. Through interviews and examinations, family pedigrees were drawn for all patients affected by these odontogenic lesions. We found out that 18 of the 70 patients with KCOTs and/or multiple basal cell carcinomas actually met the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of NBCCS. A wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was evident in the families. Ameloblastomas (AMLs) were reported in two probands that are also carriers of the PCTH1 germline mutations. Nine germline mutations in the PTCH1 gene, 5 of them novel, were evident in 14 tested probands. The clinical evaluation of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors can be used as screening for the detection of families at risk of NBCCS. Keratocystic odontogenic lesions are uncommon, and their discovery deserves the search for associated cutaneous basal cell carcinomas and other benign and malignant tumors related to NBCCS.

Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Guarneri, Carmelo; Ghiorzo, Paola; Longo, Caterina; Bruno, William; Giusti, Francesca; Bassoli, Sara; Bianchi-Scarra, Giovanna; Ruini, Cristel; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Ponti, Giovanni

2012-01-01

174

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature Flu Center Head Lice Is It a Cold or the Flu? Middle ... Worms, Lice, etc.) Amebiasis Ascariasis Bedbugs Chiggers Giardiasis Head Lice Infections That Pets Carry Malaria Pinworm Pubic Lice ...

175

A rare case of recurring calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst in the maxillary sinus: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst (CEOC) is an odontogenic cyst with epithelial lining. CEOC is a rare entity that occurs in a wide age range, does not show any gender predilection, and accounts for only 1% of all jaw cysts. The lesion generally occurs in the region anterior to maxillary and mandibular molars and either intraosseously or extraosseusly. This entity might present as a cystic or solid lesion. Enucleation is the recommended treatment for a simple, unicystic CEOC. A case of recurring CEOC in the right maxilla antrum is presented here. The patient presented to the authors after postsurgical recurrence. The case was evaluated thoroughly, and the cyst was resolved. PMID:24064174

Karun, Vinayak; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Saikhedkar, Rashmi

176

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

SciTech Connect

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus atcc31550 and the microorganism clostridium thermocellum atcc31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Wiegel, J.K.

1981-09-29

177

Anaerobic Digestion and Biocatalysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report is given on the scope of the technical programmes in the UK and the US on anaerobic digestion and biocatalysis. The study arises from the Collaboration Agreement signed by the respective Secretaries of State for Energy in the UK and US in 1984. T...

1985-01-01

178

Anaerobic digestion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, the organic waste slurry of sewage sludge and\\/or kitchen garbage is stored in a stable condition after effecting partially thereto a liquefaction treatment in advance by adding liquefying bacteria, and next this slurry is effectively digested anaerobically by way of a liquefaction\\/gasification-mixed step or a liquefaction\\/gasification separated step.

M. Ishida; R. Haga; Y. Odawara

1984-01-01

179

Immunohistochemical comparison of cyclin D1 and P16 in odontogenic keratocyst and unicystic ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background: The different growth mechanism and biologic behavior of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) compared to other odontogenic cysts might be related to the proliferating capacity of its epithelium. In this study, the aim was to evaluate and compare the distribution and staining intensity of P16 and cyclin D1 in OKC and unicystic ameloblastoma (UA). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides of OKCs and UAs available from the archives of the oral pathology laboratory of the Esfahan School of Dentistry were examined. Twenty-five noninflamed solitary odontogenic keratocysts and 25 unicystic ameloblastomas (of either type) were selected and stained immunohistochemically. Distribution and staining intensity score (SID score) for P16- and cyclin D1-positive cells was calculated in both groups. Results were analyzed statistically with Wilcoxon, Friedman, and Mann-Whitney tests; P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The highest expression of Cyclin D1-positive cells was seen in the suprabasal layer of keratocysts (P < 0.05) and in the peripheral layer of UAs (P < 0.05). Likewise, the highest expression of P16-positive cells was observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of keratocysts (P > 0.05) and central portions of UAs (P > 0.05). Expression of Cyclin D1 was higher in UAs compared to keratocyts (P < 0.05), although P16 did not show a significant difference between the two study groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Cyclin D1 did show a higher staining intensity in UAs compared to the keratocysts, although the expression of P16 was similar in the studied groups. The invasive growth of OKC might be related to the state of expression of cyclin D1 and P16 in the epithelium of this cyst.

Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Poursadeghi, Hamid; Aminzadeh, Atousa

2013-01-01

180

Surgical treatment of odontogenic myxoma and facial deformity in the same procedure.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor with aggressive and invasive behavior. Predominant symptoms are usually slow and painless swelling, sometimes resulting in perforation of the cortical borders of the affected bone. In this paper, a case report of a patient with an OM on the right maxillary sinus and a vertical excess of maxilla will be presented. The treatment chosen was tumor resection in association with orthognathic surgery with biomodels assessment for surgical planning. A 3-year follow-up showed disease free and stability of the new position of maxilla. The international literature is evaluated to discuss this case report. PMID:24124313

Mayrink, Gabriela; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa; Olate, Sergio; Asprino, Luciana; De Moraes, Marcio

2013-07-01

181

Desmoplastic ameloblastoma: a rare odontogenic neoplasm with unusual radiographic and histomorphological presentation.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a newly recognised, rare odontogenic neoplasm that is a histological variant of ameloblastoma. In this type, the islands of ameloblastoma are surrounded and often compressed by a dense and sometimes hyalinised fibrous connective tissue. Although ameloblastomas are usually located in the mandible, this variant often occurs in the anterior maxilla. In view of the paucity of DA case series and only limited understanding of its biological behaviour and prognosis, proper treatment strategies for DA are not entirely defined so far. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and to demonstrate a rare case for an improved understanding of the behaviour and prognosis of DA. PMID:23645643

Belgaumi, U I; Sundaresh, K J; Varma, Siddhartha; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-05-02

182

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of the mandible with unusual radiographic features: A case report  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) usually presents as a unilocular, pericoronal radiolucency in the maxillary anterior region in adolescent females. Very few conditions occur in such a narrow age range and at such a restrictive site. Rarely, these tumors present with varied clinical features. A case of AOT of the mandible is reported with unusual features such as large size, multilocular appearance, and aggressive behavior. The role of radiology in diagnosis of atypical AOT is extremely important. The unique radiological manifestations of the lesion helped in the diagnosis, and it was managed conservatively with no evidence of recurrence.

Naidu, Giridhar; Ragavendra, Raju; Mhaske-Jedhe, Shubangi; Haldar, Maya

2013-01-01

183

Surgical treatment of odontogenic myxoma and facial deformity in the same procedure  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor with aggressive and invasive behavior. Predominant symptoms are usually slow and painless swelling, sometimes resulting in perforation of the cortical borders of the affected bone. In this paper, a case report of a patient with an OM on the right maxillary sinus and a vertical excess of maxilla will be presented. The treatment chosen was tumor resection in association with orthognathic surgery with biomodels assessment for surgical planning. A 3-year follow-up showed disease free and stability of the new position of maxilla. The international literature is evaluated to discuss this case report.

Mayrink, Gabriela; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa; Olate, Sergio; Asprino, Luciana; De Moraes, Marcio

2013-01-01

184

CK13 in craniopharyngioma versus related odontogenic neoplasms and human enamel organ.  

PubMed

The monoclonal antibody NCL-CK13 was studied in specimens of craniopharyngioma, ameloblastoma and calcifying odontogenic cyst neoplasms and the mandible and maxillae of normal human fetuses. There was a decrease in NCL-CK13 as the dental lamina developed, with a complete loss in the enamel organ. The neoplastic epithelia of the neoplasms revealed a clear phenotypic and immunohistochemical reactive relationship to the stratified embroyonic mucosa, away from the enamel organ. This suggests that these neoplasms might have their histogenesis from early stage epithelium, the oral part of the dental lamina or its remnants. PMID:10793828

el-Sissy, N A; Rashad, N A

1999-05-01

185

Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: a clinicopathologic review. Part II: Odontogenic carcinomas.  

PubMed

This is the second of a 3-part review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). This part deals with odontogenic carcinomas, rare entities that are difficult to evaluate because of changes in classification/nomenclature, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, and variable consistency of the existing literature. Endorsing a critical approach, problems are addressed and areas of uncertainty are highlighted. As in part I, we emphasize histopathologic features from a diagnostic point of view and also question the existence of some "distinct" entities. PMID:22290834

Woolgar, Julia A; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Ferlito, Alfio; Devaney, Kenneth O; Lewis, James S; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Slootweg, Pieter J; Barnes, Leon

2012-01-31

186

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.

187

An infected dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted permanent maxillary canine, inverted mesiodens and impacted supernumerary teeth.  

PubMed

A dentigerous cyst is an odontogenic cyst associated with the crown of the impacted or unerupted teeth. Such cyst remain initially completely asymptomatic unless when infected and can be discovered only on routine radiographic examination. Here, such a case of dentigerous cyst, which was discovered on routine radiographic examination, is discussed here. PMID:23956591

Mohan, Karthik Rajaram; Natarajan, Balan; Mani, Sudhaamani; Sahuthullah, Yasmeen Ahmed; Kannan, Arivukkadal Vijaya; Doraiswamy, Haritha

2013-07-01

188

Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells induced by preameloblast-derived factors.  

PubMed

The differentiation of odontoblasts is initiated by the organization of differentiating ameloblasts during tooth formation. However, the exact roles of ameloblast-derived factors in odontoblast differentiation have not yet been characterized. We investigated the effects of preameloblast-conditioned medium (PA-CM) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed the PA-CM by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify novel factors that facilitate odontoblast differentiation. In the co-culture of MDPC-23 cells or hDPSCs with mouse apical bud cells (ABCs), ABCs promoted differentiation of odontoblastic MDPC-23 cells and facilitated odontoblast differentiation of hDPSCs. PA-CM, CM from ABCs after 3 days culture, was most effective in increasing the dentin sialophosphoprotein promoter activity of odontoblastic MDPC-23 cells. When PA-CM-treated hDPSCs were transplanted into immunocompromised mice, they generated pulp-like structures lined with human odontoblast-like cells showing typical odontoblast processes. However, during recombinant human bone morphogenenetic protein 2-treated hDPSCs transplantation, some of the cells were entrapped in mineralized matrix possessing osteocyte characteristics. After proteomic analyses, we identified 113 types of proteins in PA-CM, of which we characterized 23. The results show that preameloblast-derived factors induce the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs and promote dentin formation. PMID:21925730

Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seol; Choung, Han-Wool; Shon, Won-Jun; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Cho, Je-Yoel; Park, Joo-Cheol

2011-09-16

189

Central odontogenic fibroma-like tumors, hypodontia, and enamel dysplasia: Review of the literature and report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with multiple odontogenic fibroma-like tumors in the mandible and enamel dysplasia is presented, bringing the total number of cases reported in the literature to 3. In addition to these manifestations, this case had hypodontia. The absence of associated teeth, the size of the lesions, the lingual expansion, and the green-yellow polarization of collagen with Picrosirius stains supported the

Erich J. Raubenheimer; Claudia E. Noffke

2002-01-01

190

Cystic Lesions of the Maxillomandibular Region: MR Imaging Distinction of Odontogenic Keratocysts and Ameloblastomas from Other Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

biopsy are limited for differential diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to review the MR findings in patients with odontogenic keratocysts, ameloblastomas, and other maxillomandibular cysts to determine the value of MR imaging in the differential diag- nosis of these lesions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. MR images were obtained in 38 patients with 43 cystic lesions of the maxillomandibular region.

Manabu Minami; TakaShi Kaneda; Kaoru Ozawa; HimotSugu Yamamoto; Mitsuhisa Ozawa; Kohki Yoshikawa; Yasuhito Sasaki

191

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course

R. S. Oremland

2008-01-01

192

Early anaerobic metabolisms  

PubMed Central

Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle.

Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

2006-01-01

193

Ki-67 and MCM-2 in Dental Follicle and Odontogenic Cysts: The Effects of Inflammation on Proliferative Markers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between inflammation and the expression of markers of cell cycle entry (Ki-67 and MCM-2) in dental follicle (DF) of asymptomatic impacted teeth and odontogenic cysts. The study consisted of 70 DFs and 20 odontogenic cysts (radicular cyst (RC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocytic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) located at posterior mandibular region. Histological findings of inflammation for all specimen and mucous cell prosoplasia, squamous metaplasia, glandular epithelium for all DFs were stained with hematoxyline and eosin, periodic acid schiff, alcian blue, and mucin. Epithelial cell proliferation was determined by using immunohistochemical labeling for Ki-67 and MCM-2. The histologic examinations showed 16% mucous cell prosoplasia, 54% squamous metaplasia, 20% glandular epithelium, 37% inflammation. Inflammation was detected in all RCs and %62 in DF, %43 in DC and KCOT. Positive correlation was found between the inflammation of DF and odontogenic cysts (P < 0.01). The mean Ki-67 and MCM-2 expressions were found 9, 64 ± 5, 99 and 6, 34 ± 3, 81 in DF, 11, 85 ± 9, 01 and 13, 6 ± 9, 94 in odontogenic cysts, respectively. While the mean Ki-67 expressions were statistically significant in DF and KCOT (P < 0.01), MCM-2 were significant in RC and KCOT (P < 0.01). MCM-2 expresion in RCs were statistically significant than KCOT (P < 0.01). The results of this study indicated that the higher MCM-2 expressions in RC than the KCOT might be related to the inflammation and this protein might be more sensitive to inflammation.

Guler, Nurhan; Comunoglu, Nil; Cabbar, Fatih

2012-01-01

194

Ki-67 and MCM-2 in dental follicle and odontogenic cysts: the effects of inflammation on proliferative markers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between inflammation and the expression of markers of cell cycle entry (Ki-67 and MCM-2) in dental follicle (DF) of asymptomatic impacted teeth and odontogenic cysts. The study consisted of 70 DFs and 20 odontogenic cysts (radicular cyst (RC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocytic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) located at posterior mandibular region. Histological findings of inflammation for all specimen and mucous cell prosoplasia, squamous metaplasia, glandular epithelium for all DFs were stained with hematoxyline and eosin, periodic acid schiff, alcian blue, and mucin. Epithelial cell proliferation was determined by using immunohistochemical labeling for Ki-67 and MCM-2. The histologic examinations showed 16% mucous cell prosoplasia, 54% squamous metaplasia, 20% glandular epithelium, 37% inflammation. Inflammation was detected in all RCs and %62 in DF, %43 in DC and KCOT. Positive correlation was found between the inflammation of DF and odontogenic cysts (P < 0.01). The mean Ki-67 and MCM-2 expressions were found 9, 64 ± 5, 99 and 6, 34 ± 3, 81 in DF, 11, 85 ± 9, 01 and 13, 6 ± 9, 94 in odontogenic cysts, respectively. While the mean Ki-67 expressions were statistically significant in DF and KCOT (P < 0.01), MCM-2 were significant in RC and KCOT (P < 0.01). MCM-2 expresion in RCs were statistically significant than KCOT (P < 0.01). The results of this study indicated that the higher MCM-2 expressions in RC than the KCOT might be related to the inflammation and this protein might be more sensitive to inflammation. PMID:22778705

Güler, Nurhan; Comuno?lu, Nil; Cabbar, Fatih

2012-06-18

195

Isolation of a Strictly Anaerobic Strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a well-characterized, nonfastidious, aerobic gram-positive coccus commonly isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, are often considered a contaminant in the clinical laboratory, an increasing number of reports describe their pathogenesis, in particular in infections of prosthetic devices. This article describes the isolation of a strictly anaerobic strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis in pure culture from the site of an infected prosthetic hip. This isolate was unique in that it grew only under strictly anaerobic conditions. Initially, the isolate was thought to be a known anaerobic gram-positive coccus. However, certain key biochemical and antimicrobial tests performed as part of the standard laboratory identification procedure were not consistent with results expected for any known anaerobic gram-positive coccus; the isolate was catalase positive and metronidazole and penicillin resistant. This isolate was characterized by further biochemical analysis, antimicrobial testing, and nucleic acid sequencing. This paper presents the first documented isolation of a strictly anaerobic Staphylococcus epidermidis strain, confirmed by rpoB gene sequencing.

Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; LeBourgeois, Phyllis; Ward, Kevin; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M.; Bruckner, David A.

2006-01-01

196

Anaerobic Growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

PubMed Central

The obligately autotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was grown on elemental sulfur in anaerobic batch cultures, using ferric iron as an electron acceptor. During anaerobic growth, ferric iron present in the growth media was quantitatively reduced to ferrous iron. The doubling time in anaerobic cultures was approximately 24 h. Anaerobic growth did not occur in the absence of elemental sulfur or ferric iron. During growth, a linear relationship existed between the concentration of ferrous iron accumulated in the cultures and the cell density. The results suggest that ferric iron may be an important electron acceptor for the oxidation of sulfur compounds in acidic environments.

Pronk, J. T.; de Bruyn, J. C.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J. G.

1992-01-01

197

Anaerobic CO2 Cabinet for the Cultivation of Strict Anaerobes  

PubMed Central

The design and construction of an anaerobic CO2 cabinet are described. Air is displaced by a stream of oxygen-free CO2, and anerobic conditions are produced in 3 hr. The equipment is simple and cheap to operate and has been found to be satisfactory for the isolation of strict anaerobes from the mouse intestine. Images

Leach, P. Ann; Bullen, J. J.; Grant, I. D.

1971-01-01

198

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

2013-09-01

199

Ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: the role of ?2 ?1, ?3 ?1, and ?5 ?1 integrins in local invasiveness and architectural characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and a tendency toward recurrence, whereas adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an indolent neoplasm. The objective of the present study was to immunohistochemically analyze the role of ?2?1, ?3?1, and ?5?1 integrins in the cellular events and cell-matrix interactions that occur in these tumors and their consequent repercussions on the architectural

Emanuel Sávio Souza Andrade; Márcia Cristina da Costa Miguel; Leăo Pereira Pinto; Lélia Batista de Souza

2007-01-01

200

Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some

Aharon Oren; Roland S. Oremland

2000-01-01

201

The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. `Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH+4 min?1 (mg protein)?1 using

Mike S. M Jetten; Marc Strous; Katinka T van de Pas-Schoonen; Jos Schalk; Udo G. J. M van Dongen; Astrid A van de Graaf; Susanne Logemann; Gerard Muyzer; Mark C. M van Loosdrecht; J. Gijs Kuenen

1998-01-01

202

Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérčse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

2003-01-01

203

Bacteroides endodontalis and other black-pigmented Bacteroides species in odontogenic abscesses.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight odontogenic abscesses were examined for the presence of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. Of the 28 samples, 26 were found to contain one or more species of black-pigmented Bacteroides. Abscesses were divided into three categories according to the tissue of origin: endodontal, periodontal, and pericoronal. Four abscesses which developed after extraction were also examined. It was found that Bacteroides endodontalis, a newly described species of asaccharolytic black-pigmented Bacteroides, was isolated almost exclusively from periapical abscesses of endodontal origin. B. intermedius proved to be the most frequently isolated species in all of the samples. B. gingivalis was present in all of the periodontal abscesses studied, as well as in two endodontal abscesses. B. melaninogenicus was recovered once from a pericoronal abscess. Precautions for the isolation of B. endodontalis are discussed.

van Winkelhoff, A J; Carlee, A W; de Graaff, J

1985-01-01

204

Immunohistochemical detection of p53 and PCNA in ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Although ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) belong to the same group according to the World Health Organization, they show different biologic behaviors. PCNA, an amplifier of cell proliferation, and p53, a tumor suppressor protein, are overexpressed in some odontogenic lesions. The purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression of p53 and PCNA to clarify the possible role of these proteins in different behaviors of ameloblastoma and AOT. The immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and p53 was determined in 30 solid ameloblastomas and 12 AOTs. Statistical tests including one-way ANOVA, t-test, chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Kendall were used to analyze the data. All tissue sections (except one specimen of plexiform ameloblastoma) exhibited immunoexpression for p53. PCNA was expressed in all specimens. There was no significant difference in PCNA expression between ameloblastomas and AOTs (P > 0.05). For p53, there was no statistical difference between subtypes of ameloblastomas (P > 0.05), whereas statistical differences were observed between ameloblastomas and AOTs (P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference in PCNA intensity of staining between ameloblastomas and AOTs (P > 0.05), whereas the p53 intensity in ameloblastomas was stronger than AOTs (P < 0.05). Positive correlation between PCNA and p53 was observed. We concluded that PCNA overexpression is not responsible for the difference in clinical behavior of these two lesions, whereas the expression of p53 in ameloblastoma may explain the more aggressive nature of this tumor compared with AOT. PMID:21712626

Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Zare-Mahmoodabadi, Reza; Saghafi, Shadi; Jafarian, Amir-Hossien; Ghazi, Narges; Rajaei, Ali-Reza; Marouzi, Parviz

2011-06-01

205

Anaerobic Respiration of Escherichia coli in the Mouse Intestine ?  

PubMed Central

The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in the intestine.

Jones, Shari A.; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C.; Chowdhury, Fatema Z.; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S.; Conway, Tyrrell

2011-01-01

206

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et al. 2007. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 514 - 512. Hoeft, S.E, et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2741 - 2747. Oremland, R.S., et al. 2005. Science 308: 1305 - 1308. Kulp, T.R. et al. 2008. Science 321: 967 - 970.

Oremland, R. S.

2008-12-01

207

How do we manage oral infections in allogeneic stem cell transplantation and other severely immunocompromised patients?  

PubMed

The oral cavity is among the sites in the body most susceptible to infections. In the immunocompetent population these are most frequently localized odontogenic infections caused by bacteria. In severely immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation, fungal and viral infections become especially prominent. Infections in this population can present in an unusual fashion, can spread rapidly to other organs in the body, and are more frequently resistant to therapies. This article discusses the current knowledge of the most frequent presentations of infections in this patient population and reviews contemporary approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21982611

Palmason, Stefan; Marty, Francisco M; Treister, Nathaniel S

2011-11-01

208

The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immobilization on mobile support materials: in the latter case, combined with settling of the anaerobic sludge aggregates.This dissertation focuses

L. W. Hulshoff Pol

1989-01-01

209

Anaerobic granulation technology for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using granular sludge reactors is a developing technology, in which granular sludge is the core component. So far, around 900 anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide. Although intensive research attention has been given to anaerobic granules in the past 20 years, the mechanisms responsible for anaerobic granulation and the strategy of how to expedite substantially

Yu Liu; Hai-Lou Xu; Kuan-Yeow Show; Joo-Hwa Tay

2002-01-01

210

Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of oral infections, especially periodontitis, as a causal factor for systemic diseases. Three mechanisms or pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: (i) metastatic spread of infection from the oral cavity as a result of transient bacteremia, (ii) metastatic injury from the effects of circulating oral microbial toxins, and (iii) metastatic inflammation caused by immunological injury induced by oral microorganisms. Periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host's susceptibility to systemic disease in three ways: by shared risk factors; subgingival biofilms acting as reservoirs of gram-negative bacteria; and the periodontium acting as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators. Proposed evidence and mechanisms of the above odontogenic systemic diseases are given.

Li, Xiaojing; Kolltveit, Kristin M.; Tronstad, Leif; Olsen, Ingar

2000-01-01

211

Endogenous Metabolism of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Further investigations of the endogenous metabolism and survival of non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria Zymomonas anaerobia and Peptococcus prevotii under conditions of starvation are reported. To permit studies with cells whose growth has been halted by...

E. A. Dawes P. J. Large

1968-01-01

212

The Biochemistry of Anaerobic Digestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation sought to determine by means of radioactive tracer techniques, the biochemical mechanisms in the anaerobic degradation of typical organics found in wastes. Two liter laboratory scale digesters were used in all the radioactive tracer work...

J. S. Jeris Y. Chen T. W. Chi Y. Su C. Weng

1970-01-01

213

Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.  

PubMed

We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated. PMID:10809852

Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K

2000-05-01

214

Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance.

Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

2001-01-01

215

Correlation between imaging features and epithelial cell proliferation in keratocystic odontogenic tumour  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between radiographic appearance and epithelial cell proliferations in keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Methods A retrospective radiographic analysis was performed on 284 cases of KCOT to gain insight into the radiographic characteristics. Expression of Ki-67 in 30 of the 284 cases was detected by the labelled streptavidin–biotin (LSAB) method and evaluated by an image analysis system. Results The radiographic presentation of KCOT was divided into four types: unilocular, multilocular, multiple and naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). The expression of Ki-67 in NBCCS was significantly different from the solitary and multiple KCOTs (P = 0.018, 0.002). In multilocular KCOTs it was also significantly different from the unilocular and syndrome-associated lesions (P = 0.000). In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the solitary and multiple lesions (P = 0.220). Conclusions A high correlation exists in KCOT between its biological behaviour and imaging features. The solitary KCOT seems less biologically aggressive and it should be classified as a cyst rather than a tumour. This means that more than half of KCOTs manifest themselves as ordinary cysts.

K; Li, X; Wang, H; Liu, Y; Zheng, G; Yang, Z; Li, M; Shimizutani, K; Koseki, T

2010-01-01

216

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a Hong Kong community: the clinical and radiological features  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and conventional radiological features of a consecutive series of cases of “keratocystic odontogenic tumour” (KCOT) affecting a Hong Kong Chinese community and to determine their outcome by follow-up. Methods All cases were accompanied by appropriate radiography and were histopathologically confirmed. Results 33 consecutive KCOTs were reviewed. 18 patients were male. The mean age at first presentation was 30.6 years. Swelling was the most frequent presenting symptom. Those patients first presenting with pain were significantly older, whereas those first presenting with a maxillary lesion were significantly younger. The maxilla and mandible were affected in 13 and 20 cases, respectively. KCOTs were most frequently confined to the posterior sextants of both jaws. KCOTs affecting the maxilla were mainly unilocular, whereas those affecting the mandible were multilocular. Patients with multilocular KCOTs were significantly older. Patients with KCOTs associated with root resorption were significantly older, whereas patients associated with unerupted teeth were significantly younger. 69% displaced teeth, 41% resorbed them and 56% were associated with unerupted teeth. All but two were followed up for at least 2 years. Three lesions recurred. Conclusions KCOTs in this community displayed some differences from those reported in the literature.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S; Li, T K

2010-01-01

217

The relationship between radiological features and clinical manifestation and dental expenses of keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to identify correlations between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) data from CT sections, and data on the KCOT clinical manifestation and resulting dental expenses. Materials and Methods Following local Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a seven-years of retrospective study was performed regarding patients with KCOTs treated at the Seoul National University Dental Hospital. A total of 180 KCOT were included in this study. The following information was collected: age, gender, location and size of the lesion, radiological features, surgical treatment provided and dental expenses. Results There was no significant association between the size of the KCOT and age, gender, and presenting preoperative symptoms. In both jaws, it was unusual to find KCOTs under 10 mm. The correlation between the number of teeth removed and the size of the KCOT in the tooth bearing area was statistically significant in the mandible, whereas in the maxilla, no significant relationship was found. Dental expenses compared with the size of the KCOT were found to be significant in both jaws. Conclusion The size of KCOT was associated with a significant increase in dental expenses for both jaws and the number of teeth removed from the mandible. These findings emphasize the importance of routine examinations and early detection of lesions, which in turn helps preserving anatomical structures and reducing dental expenses.

Min, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yi, Won-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Choi, Jin-Woo

2013-01-01

218

FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing ?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Odontoblasts and osteoblasts develop from multipotent craniofacial neural crest cells during tooth and jawbone development, but the mechanisms that specify and sustain their respective fates remain largely unknown. In this study we used early mouse molar and incisor tooth germs that possess distinct tooth-forming capability after dissociation and reaggregation in vitro to investigate the mechanism that sustains odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme during tooth development. We found that after dissociation and reaggregation, incisor, but not molar, mesenchyme exhibits a strong osteogenic potency associated with robustly elevated ?-catenin signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to failed tooth formation in the reaggregates. Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits ?-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation. The lack of FGF retention on the cell surface of incisor mesenchyme appears to account for the differential osteogenic potency between incisor and molar, which can be further attributed to the differential expression of syndecan 1 and NDST genes. We further demonstrate that FGF signaling inhibits intracellular ?-catenin signaling by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate the subcellular localization of active GSK3? in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results reveal a novel function for FGF signaling in ensuring the proper fate of dental mesenchyme by regulating ?-catenin signaling activity during tooth development. PMID:24067353

Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Zhongchen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, Yiping

2013-09-25

219

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2013-04-01

220

Sensing and Adapting to Anaerobic Conditions by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

A highly adaptive commensal organism, Staphylococcus aureus, possesses an array of genes that allow the bacterium to survive and grow in a wide variety of niches. Several of these niches are known to be or become anaerobic during the course of an infection; additionally, biofilms that develop, commonly on implanted medical devices, become anaerobic. The metabolic capability of S. aureus provides the organism with the essential nutrients needed to continue to grow, divide, and thwart the host immune system in the presence or absence of oxygen. In order to utilize the ATP-producing pathways and maintain cellular health S. aureus has evolved a series of regulatory systems that regulate these ATP-producing pathways. In this review, we discuss the protein signaling systems that sense, indirectly and directly, anaerobic conditions, their sensory mechanisms and signals, and outline the genes that are altered due to the absence of oxygen and the subsequent response by the bacterial cell. The switch from aerobic to anaerobic growth in S. aureus is complex and highly regulated, with some metabolic pathways regulated by multiple regulatory systems to ensure maximal utilization of each pathway and substrate. PMID:23763757

Hall, Jeffrey W; Ji, Yinduo

2013-01-01

221

Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is widely used for wastewater treatment, especially in the food industries. Generally after the anaerobic treatment there is an aerobic post-treatment in order to return the treated water to nature. Several technologies are applied for winery wastewater treatment. They are using free cells or flocs (anaerobic contact digesters, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors and anaerobic lagoons), anaerobic granules (Upflow

R. Moletta

222

Anaerobic Digestion in Suspended Growth Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter concerns the principles of suspended growth anaerobic digestion. The fundamentals of anaerobic metabolism of\\u000a organic matter are first presented. This is followed by presentation of anaerobic process stoichiometry and energetics as\\u000a well as kinetics as these are prerequisites for the design of anaerobic processes. The importance of the feed characteristics\\u000a that make a particular substrate medium or feedstock

Gerasimos Lyberatos; Pratap C. Pullammanappallil

223

Anaerobic treatment of food wastes  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as fertilizer. An economic analysis indicated that the estimated cost of anaerobic treatment of the salad bar wastes was $4520/yr and benefits were $4793/yr. Since the digester was already in use, this cost was not factored into the analysis. Further studies are being planned.

Criner, G. (Univ. of Maine, Orono (United States))

1991-04-01

224

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is the most suitable option for the treatment of high strength organic effluents. The presence of biodegradable components in the effluents coupled with the advantages of anaerobic process over other treatment methods makes it an attractive option. This paper reviews the suitability and the status of development of anaerobic reactors for the digestion of selected organic effluents from

Medhat M. A. Saleh; Usama F. Mahmood

2004-01-01

225

Hydrogen production from inhibited anaerobic composters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated hydrogen production from a model lignocellulosic waste in inhibited solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Acetylene at 1% vv in the headspace was as effective as bromoethanesulfonate in inhibiting methanogenic activity in batch anaerobic composters containing 25% (wv) total organic solids inoculated with an undefined cellulotytic consortium derived from anaerobic digesters. Acetylene also had no effect on the rate

R. Sparling; D. Risbey; H. M. Poggi-Varaldo

1997-01-01

226

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteome during Anaerobic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotope-coded affinity tag analysis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spec- trometry were used to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins expressed during anaerobic growth. Out of the 617 proteins identified, 158 were changed in abundance during anaerobic growth compared to during aerobic growth, including proteins whose increased expression was expected based on their role in anaerobic metab- olism. These

Manhong Wu; Tina Guina; Mitchell Brittnacher; Hai Nguyen; Jimmy Eng; Samuel I. Miller

2005-01-01

227

Assessment of the anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability have been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Main focus is paid to the final mineralization of organic compounds and the methane potential of compounds. Hydrolysis of complex substrates is also discussed. Furthermore, factors important for anaerobic biodegradation are shortly discussed.

Irini Angelidaki; Wendy Sanders

2004-01-01

228

Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic soft tissue infections are still life-threatening infections. Even if uncommon nowadays, they remain severe conditions\\u000a because often associated with major systemic effects leading to patient death if not promptly recognized and aggressively\\u000a treated. Their origins are often traumatic or surgical but they can also develop from an ulcer or a small wound in patients\\u000a at risk (i.e. diabetics, patients

Daniel Mathieu; Raphaël Favory; Jean-François Cesari; Francis Wattel

229

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst in a Hong Kong community: the clinical and radiological features  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim was to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiological features of a consecutive series of cases of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) affecting a Hong Kong Chinese community and to determine the outcome by follow-up. Methods All cases were accompanied by appropriate radiography and were confirmed by histopathology. Results The clinical and conventional radiological presentations, differential diagnoses and outcomes of follow-up of five consecutive OOCs were reviewed. There were two males and three females. All affected the posterior sextant. The mean age at first presentation was 33.5 years. The mean of their period of prior awareness was 0.11 years. Swelling was the most frequent presenting symptom. All presented as well-defined corticated radiolucencies; three were unilocular and two were multilocular and all displayed expansion. This resulted in displacement and erosion of the lower border of the mandible in one case and the downward displacement past the lower border of a lateral cortex in two others. The inferior dental canal in each mandibular case exhibited both displacement and absence. The antrum was affected in a sole maxillary case. Four patients were followed up for a mean of 8.5 years. The fifth patient discharged himself shortly after surgery. No lesions recurred. Conclusions OOCs in this community displayed an expansile character, but did not recur after moderately long follow-up. The time between the prior awareness of their disease and their presentation for diagnosis and treatment was, so far, the shortest for any lesion affecting the jaw in this Hong Kong Chinese community.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S; Li, T K

2010-01-01

230

Critical evaluation of the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOTs). Methods A total of 272 cases (267 from the English-language literature and 5 new cases) were analysed with special emphasis on their radiological features. Results The patients' ages at time of diagnosis ranged from 3 years to 82 years (mean 18.4 years). The maxilla-to-mandible ratio was 1.7:1. Mandibular lesions were significantly more frequent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.032). Expansion of the cortex was significantly more prominent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.045). There was a positive correlation between the size of the lesion and the age of the patient at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.016). The size was also associated with increased root resorption (p < 0.001), ill-defined borders (p < 0.001), expansion (p < 0.001) and perforation of the cortex (p < 0.001). Small opacities were present in 77% of lesions and were associated with expansion of the cortex (p = 0.043). The significant radiological features in patients aged 30 years and above were root resorption (p = 0.013) and lesions crossing the midline (p = 0.019). Conclusions The size of an AOT is influenced by the patient's age. It is also associated with root resorption, ill-defined borders, expansion and perforation of the cortex, but it cannot be ruled out that those changes reflect a longer duration of the lesion.

Becker, T; Buchner, A; Kaffe, I

2012-01-01

231

A clinicoradiological study of odontogenic carcinomas and their impact on clinical diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of odontogenic carcinomas (OCs) and evaluate their impact on early clinical diagnosis. Methods The clinical and radiological features of all patients with OCs in our pathology record from January 1988 to December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The impact on a tentative diagnosis before final histological examination of clinical, panoramic and CT features was investigated. Results Of 474 cases with malignant jaw tumours, 417 (88%) were gingival squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 27 (6%) were OCs. The average age of the patients with OCs was significantly lower than that of those with gingival SCCs. 20 OCs were in the mandible and 7 were in the maxilla. 22 OC patients (81%) had pain and/or swelling as an initial symptom of the disease. Although the majority of OCs showed irregularly contoured radiolucency, one-third of the cases showed cyst-like radiolucency totally or partially surrounded by a sclerotic rim on panoramic radiography. Permeative or gross cortical bone destruction and mass extension outside the jaw bone were found on CT and a diagnosis of malignant tumour was more common. Mass extension outside the cortex had a significant influence on malignant diagnosis. However, 22% of the patients were still clinically diagnosed as having osteomyelitis after CT. Conclusions Although CT was useful to obtain a diagnosis of malignant tumour in OC patients, 22% of patients were clinically diagnosed as having osteomyelitis even after CT. When an osteomyelitis case is resistant to conventional therapy and gross bone destruction and/or mass extension is found on CT, a histopathological examination should be done.

Ida, M; Tetsumura, A; Kuribayashi, A; Okada, N; Kurabayashi, T

2012-01-01

232

Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-10-01

233

Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars;

S. Ghosh; M. P. Henry; R. W. Christopher

1982-01-01

234

Ion Effects in 'Anaerobic Digestion'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents results of research on the effects of organic and inorganic ions on the anaerobic waste treatment process. Studied were the effects of various cations, the toxicity of various heavy metals, and the effect of high concentrations of indi...

P. L. McCarty I. J. Kugelman A. W. Lawrence

1964-01-01

235

Endosymbiotic interactions in anaerobic protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of the endosymbiosis of methanogenic archaea with anaerobic protozoa are reviewed. Special attention is payed to the role of hydrogenosomes and plastid-like organelles that seem to provide the substrates for the methanogenic endosymbionts. Evidence is presented that hydrogenosomes evolved several times in the various protoctistan taxa. Hydrogenosomes are seemingly different, and their common denominator is the production of

Johannes H. P. Hackstein; Godfried D. Vogels

1997-01-01

236

Anaerobic treatment of food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as

Criner

1991-01-01

237

Sulfide production in anaerobic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of free sulfide in tidal flat sediments and the mechanisms leading to its generation were investigated by growing mixed cultures of anaerobic sediment bacteria in media containing organic material extracted from sediments and benthic algae. Sulfide pro- duction was observed in all cultures; stoichiometric considerations indicated sulfate reduc- tion was the most important mechanism. Sulfide production rates were

Alan E. Ramml; DAVID A. BELLA

1974-01-01

238

Perspectives of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil disinfestation is an environmentally friendly method to disinfest soil. From now on we refer to it as anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD). With ASD a green manure crop (40 t\\/ha) is homogeneously incorporated into the topsoil (0-30 cm) after which the field is lightly compacted and irrigated. Subsequently the field is mechanically covered with air tight virtually impermeable film

J. G. Lamers; W. T. Runia; L. P. G. Molendijk; P. O. Bleeker

2010-01-01

239

Anaerobic Treatment of CTMP Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments with anaerobic treatment of a CTMP effluent in a contact reactor and in a submerged filter (one-stage processes) were carried out on a pilot-plant scale at the pulp and paper mill of Rockhammar. The treatment process was also tried with the tw...

B. Boman M. Almemark R. Bergstroem

1986-01-01

240

Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Background Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to anaerobiosis. Here we performed deep sequencing to compare the gonococcal transcriptomes of aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. Using the information derived from this sequencing, we discuss the implications of the robust transcriptional response to anaerobic growth. Results We determined that 198 chromosomal genes were differentially expressed (~10% of the genome) in response to anaerobic conditions. We also observed a large induction of genes encoded within the cryptic plasmid, pJD1. Validation of RNA-seq data using translational-lacZ fusions or RT-PCR demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be very reproducible. Surprisingly, many genes of prophage origin were induced anaerobically, as well as several transcriptional regulators previously unknown to be involved in anaerobic growth. We also confirmed expression and regulation of a small RNA, likely a functional equivalent of fnrS in the Enterobacteriaceae family. We also determined that many genes found to be responsive to anaerobiosis have also been shown to be responsive to iron and/or oxidative stress. Conclusions Gonococci will be subject to many forms of environmental stress, including oxygen-limitation, during the course of infection. Here we determined that the anaerobic stimulon in gonococci was larger than previous studies would suggest. Many new targets for future research have been uncovered, and the results derived from this study may have helped to elucidate factors or mechanisms of virulence that may have otherwise been overlooked.

2011-01-01

241

Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Dental caries and periodontal disease are widespread diseases for which microorganism infections have been identified as the main etiology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were considered as potential control oral bacteria infection agent due to its excellent antimicrobial activity and non acute toxic effects on human cells. In this work, stable Ag Nps with different sizes (~5, 15 and 55 nm mean values) were synthesized by using a simple reduction method or hydrothermal method. The Nps were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by colony counting assay and growth inhibition curve method, and corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria E. coli were determined. The results showed that Ag Nps had apparent antibacterial effects against the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria. The MIC values of 5-nm Ag against anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nuceatum, S. mitis, S. mutans and S. sanguis were 25, 25, 25, 50 and 50 ?g/mL, respectively. The aerobic bacteria were more susceptible to Ag NPs than the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria. In the mean time, Ag NPs displayed an obvious size-dependent antibacterial activity against the anaerobic bacteria. The 5-nm Ag presents the highest antibacterial activity. The results of this work indicated a potential application of Ag Nps in the inhibition of oral microorganism infections. PMID:23440430

Lu, Zhong; Rong, Kaifeng; Li, Ju; Yang, Hao; Chen, Rong

2013-02-26

242

The role of lysyl oxidase-like 2 in the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts. PMID:23677379

Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Eui-Kyun; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Je-Yoel

2013-05-14

243

Three-dimens?onal cone-beam computed tomography for diagnos?s of keratocystic odontogenic tumours; Evaluation of four cases  

PubMed Central

The keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT), formerly known as the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign intraosseous lesion that derives from remnants of the dental lamina. Due to its characteristics, clinical and histopathological features and various treatment approaches, this pathology is different comparing with other odontogenic cysts. Radiographically the KCOT appears as well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with thin radiopaque borders. In most cases, conventional radiographic imaging, such as panoramic views and intraoral periapical films, are adequate to determine the location and estimate the size of an KCOT. However, the clinical use for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in oral and maxillofacial surgery increases and provides additional information about the contents and borders of the large lesions. In the present cases, the diagnostic performances of CBCT versus panoramic radiograph for four KCOTs were evaluated. It was concluded that appearance of lesions in the maxillofacial region could be better documented in the correct dimensions by CBCT versus panoramic radiograph. Key words:Odontogenic keratocyst, cone-beam computed tomography, three dimensional, panoramic radiograph.

Cakarer, S?rmahan; Brkic, Amila; Gurkan-Koseoglu, Banu; Altug-Aydil, Bar?s; Keskin, Cengizhan

2012-01-01

244

Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of "focal ameloblastoma"  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features (“focal ameloblastoma”), should be considered as an “early” ameloblastoma. Study Design: Histopathological reports from 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology of the VU Free University medical center in Amsterdam, The Ne-therlands, were reviewed. Histopathological slides from 39 cases reporting the presence of odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue were re-evaluated in order to assess the possible presence of focal ameloblastomas. Results: Focal ameloblastomas were detected in one dental follicle and in two dentigerous cysts. During a follow-up period of 6, 8 and 22 years, respectively, no clinical signs of (recurrent) ameloblastoma have occurred in these patients. Conclusions: Focal ameloblastoma possibly represents the early stage of ameloblastoma development. Key words:Ameloblastoma, odontogenic epithelium, dentigerous cyst, dental follicle.

Meleti, Marco

2013-01-01

245

Decontamination by anaerobic stabilisation of the environment contaminated with enteronematode eggs Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out under operating conditions of Field Composting Factory in Brezno (Slovak Republic) to determine the effect of anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes from public areas on the survival of model helminth Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs. Due to anaerobic conditions, low temperature, low C:N ratio and changes in physical and chemical properties of organic waste, less than 64% of A. suum eggs remained viable after 150 days of stabilisation. The anaerobic stabilisation had a greater effect on the viability of T. canis eggs than on A. suum eggs. The infectivity of T. canis eggs was confirmed by a follow-up experiment in laboratory mice. A small number of T. canis larvae were found in their brain and muscles on day 28 after infection. The results refer to the risks of dissemination, survival and potential spread of endoparasitic developmental stages in the environment through organic wastes subjected to low temperature stabilisation. PMID:17976979

Papajová, I; Juris, P; Szabová, E; Venglovský, J; Sasáková, N; Sefcíková, H; Martinez, J; Gábon, T

2007-10-31

246

Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

Kremer, F.V.

1989-01-01

247

Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic co-digestion of five different by-products from instant coffee substitutes production was studied in mesophilic conditions. The co-substrate was the excess of sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant located in the same coffee factory. Four of the tested wastes produced methane in the range of 0.24-0.28 m3CH4(STP)\\/kgVSinitial . Reduction of 50-73% in total solids and 75-80% in volatile

L. Neves; R. Ribeiro; R. Oliveira

248

The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.  

PubMed

From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. 'Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH4+ min-1 (mg protein)-1 using nitrogen dioxide as electron acceptor. This reaction, which may involve NO as an intermediate, is thought to generate energy sufficient for survival under anoxic conditions, but not for growth. A novel obligately anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process was recently discovered in a denitrifying pilot plant reactor. From this system, a highly enriched microbial community with one dominating peculiar autotrophic organism was obtained. With nitrite as electron acceptor a maximum specific oxidation rate of 55 nmol NH4+ min-1 (mg protein)-1 was determined. Although this reaction is 25-fold faster than in Nitrosomonas, it allowed growth at a rate of only 0.003 h-1 (doubling time 11 days). 15N labeling studies showed that hydroxylamine and hydrazine were important intermediates in this new process. A novel type of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase containing an unusual P468 cytochrome has been purified from the Anammox culture. Microsensor studies have shown that at the oxic/anoxic interface of many ecosystems nitrite and ammonia occur in the absence of oxygen. In addition, the number of reports on unaccounted high nitrogen losses in wastewater treatment is gradually increasing, indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation may be more widespread than previously assumed. The recently developed nitrification systems in which oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is prevented form an ideal partner for the Anammox process. The combination of these partial nitrification and Anammox processes remains a challenge for future application in the removal of ammonium from wastewater with high ammonium concentrations. PMID:9990725

Jetten, M S; Strous, M; van de Pas-Schoonen, K T; Schalk, J; van Dongen, U G; van de Graaf, A A; Logemann, S; Muyzer, G; van Loosdrecht, M C; Kuenen, J G

1998-12-01

249

Pilot-scale anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in upflow anaerobic sludge bed and anaerobic baffled reactors at ambient temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiencies of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) were compared for the treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures. Two pilot-scale anaerobic biological reactors were operated for about two years at ambient conditions at psychrophilic and\\/or sub-mesophilic temperatures. The average total chemical oxygen demand removal was 56 and 58% in the UASB

Selma Ç. Ayaz; Lütfi Akça; Özgür Akta?; Nur F?nd?k; ?zzet Öztürk

2012-01-01

250

Prevalence of Anaerobic and Aerobic Bacteria in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine prospectively the prevalence of anaerobic and aerobic infection in early onset (during 72 hours of age) neonatal sepsis, in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital. Methods: Among all the live birth, neonates suspecting of having septicemia were investigated for isolation of micro- organisms. Culture bottle containing enriched tryptic soy broth was used for standard blood culture system to detect aerobes

F Nili; E Amini; F Nayeri; M Aligholi; M Emaneini

251

Anaerobic brain abscess following chronic suppurative otitis media in a child from Uganda  

PubMed Central

Brain abscess, while rare, confers high mortality, especially in the developing world. The case of a Ugandan child with a polymicrobial brain abscess including infection with Tissierella praeacuta/Clostridium hastiforme requiring repeated drainage and eventual surgical excision is reported. The case demonstrates the importance of considering anaerobic organisms in the treatment of children with brain abscess from the developing world.

Cox, KA; Al-Rawahi, G; Kollmann, TR

2009-01-01

252

Anaerobic Power and Muscle Strength in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Preadolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anaerobic power and muscle strength of preadolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Design Cross-sectional design. Setting Human performance laboratory at the University District Hospital at the Puerto Rico Medical Center. Participants Fifteen preadolescents (8 girls and 7 boys) with a classification of HIV A and B attending an investigational treatment program at the University Pediatric Hospital. Fifteen seronegative control subjects matched by age and gender also were included. Main Outcome Measures The power of the lower extremities was measured with use of the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test on a MONARK cycle ergometer (mean power in watts). Local muscle strength of the dominant knee extensors (peak torque/body weight × 100) was tested with an isokinetic dynamometer set at 60 deg/s. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and statistical significance was accepted at an ? level of <.05. Results No significant differences between the control group and study group were detected on muscle strength testing. The study group presented a lower anaerobic power (mean power) compared with control subjects (P = .04). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that HIV-infected preadolescents present lower anaerobic power compared with uninfected control subjects. Our findings of impaired anaerobic capacity can have clinical implications in this population because most of the activities of daily living, such as play, leisure, and sport activities, are short term and high intensity (anaerobic) in nature.

Ramos, Edwardo; Guttierrez-Teissoonniere, Suzanne; Conde, Jose G.; Baez-Cordova, Jose A.; Guzman-Villar, Brenda; Lopafegui-Corsino, Edgar; Frontera, Walter R.

2013-01-01

253

Anaerobic exercise in pediatric cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic fitness is important for daily functioning of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of anaerobic perform- ance in CF. Anaerobic performance was measured in thirty-nine children with CF (mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 (SD) yr, FEV1 81.6 ± 22.1% predicted) using a Wingate anaero- bic Test. Significant associations were found

Peter H. Klijn; Suzanne W. Terheggen-Lagro; Cornelis K. van der Ent; Janjaap van der Net; Jan L. Kimpen; Paul J. Helders

2003-01-01

254

Mechanisms Determining Aerobic or Anaerobic Growth in the Facultative Anaerobe Salmonella typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated mutant strains of the faculative anaerobe Salmonella typhimurium that grow either aerobically or anaerobically. Strict anaerobic mutants contained a defective DNA topoisomerase I gene (topI), while strict aerobic mutants contained a defective DNA gyrase subunit A gene (gyrA, also nalA). Topoisomerase I activity was detected in cell-free extracts of strict aerobic mutants but not of strict anaerobic mutant

Nobuto Yamamoto; Mary L. Droffner

1985-01-01

255

Reactive nitrogen intermediates and monokines induce caspase-3 mediated macrophage apoptosis by anaerobically stressed Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

A successful pathogen manipulates its host for its own benefit. After ingestion, on reaching the intestine Salmonella encounters the resident tissue macrophages. Rather than being destroyed by these professional phagocytes after internalization, Salmonella survives intracellularly. Invasive Salmonella has been reported to induce apoptosis of macrophages as a part of its infection process, which may allow it to avoid detection by the innate immune system. However, the induction of apoptosis under different host environments, including the anaerobic stress encountered by the pathogen in the gut, remains to be examined. The present study is aimed at investigating the apoptotic potential of S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) grown under anaerobic conditions simulating the in vivo situation encountered by the pathogen. Apoptotic cell death was determined by assessment of nucleosomal DNA and flow cytometric analysis. Evaluation of the data revealed that anaerobically grown S. typhi could induce apoptosis in significantly more number of macrophages compared to the bacterial cells grown under aerobic conditions. A significantly enhanced generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates and caspase-3 activity during macrophage apoptosis induced by anaerobic S. typhi correlated with the increased generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-6. The results indicate that reactive nitrogen intermediates and monokines induce caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of macrophages by S. typhi under anaerobic conditions. These findings may be relevant for clearer understanding of the Salmonella-macrophage interactions and may be of clinical importance in the development of preventive intervention against the infection. PMID:17888027

Chanana, V; Ray, P; Rishi, D B; Rishi, P

2007-09-20

256

Reactive nitrogen intermediates and monokines induce caspase-3 mediated macrophage apoptosis by anaerobically stressed Salmonella typhi  

PubMed Central

A successful pathogen manipulates its host for its own benefit. After ingestion, on reaching the intestine Salmonella encounters the resident tissue macrophages. Rather than being destroyed by these professional phagocytes after internalization, Salmonella survives intracellularly. Invasive Salmonella has been reported to induce apoptosis of macrophages as a part of its infection process, which may allow it to avoid detection by the innate immune system. However, the induction of apoptosis under different host environments, including the anaerobic stress encountered by the pathogen in the gut, remains to be examined. The present study is aimed at investigating the apoptotic potential of S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) grown under anaerobic conditions simulating the in vivo situation encountered by the pathogen. Apoptotic cell death was determined by assessment of nucleosomal DNA and flow cytometric analysis. Evaluation of the data revealed that anaerobically grown S. typhi could induce apoptosis in significantly more number of macrophages compared to the bacterial cells grown under aerobic conditions. A significantly enhanced generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates and caspase-3 activity during macrophage apoptosis induced by anaerobic S. typhi correlated with the increased generation of tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6. The results indicate that reactive nitrogen intermediates and monokines induce caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of macrophages by S. typhi under anaerobic conditions. These findings may be relevant for clearer understanding of the Salmonella–macrophage interactions and may be of clinical importance in the development of preventive intervention against the infection.

Chanana, V; Ray, P; Rishi, D B; Rishi, P

2007-01-01

257

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1991-06-01

258

Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme associated with anaerobic respiration in schistosomiasis intermediate host snails.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LD5) which is associated with anaerobic respiration was inhibited to a certain degree in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Urea and thiourea were used as inhibitors. The effect of LD5 inhibition on the mortality rate of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and on the susceptibility of the snails to the trematode infection was also studied. PMID:1905584

Nabih, I; el Dardiri, Z; el-Ansary, A

1991-01-01

259

Anaerobic Diegestion: Applying Anaerobic Technology to Satisfy Livestock Waste Treatment Regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion has been proven to be a beneficial application for treating livestock wastes. Benefits of anaerobic digestion include; reduction of odors, renewable energy in the form of biogas, stabilization and pollutant removal, and retention of nutrients for land application. Conventional digesters have been an established method of anaerobic treatment for a long period of time. However, they have many

Teresa Shiflett

260

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis associated with an infected dentigerous cyst.  

PubMed

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare condition in which an infection from the head and neck propagates into the mediastinum. The most common cause of DNM is odontogenic infection. DNM is spread by the fascial planes from the neck into the mediastinum and requires an aggressive surgical drainage through cervical and thoracic approaches. We report on a 67-year-old male patient, who had acute mediastinitis related to an infected dentigerous cyst in the left parasymphyseal region. A multidisciplinary team approach was used to treat the patient. The team consisted of thoracic surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, and a radiologist. After the drainage of the mediastinum and pleural cavity, the cyst was enucleated. The patient was discharged at the 42nd day of hospitalization. The aim of this article is to present diagnosis, management, and follow-up of an infected dentigerous cyst that caused DNM. PMID:22862987

Bas, Burcu; Ozden, Bora; Bekcioglu, Burak; Sanal, Koray; Yilmaz, Seda; Celik, Burcin; Basoglu, Ahmet; Celenk, Cetin

2012-02-25

261

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed Central

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described.

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-01-01

262

Anaerobic Digestion Facility : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Beneficial and adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed Anaerobic Digestion Facility located near the South Fork Chehalis River, in Boistfort Prairie, Lewis County, Washington, were evaluated. The proposed process would eliminate some animal waste pollution within the area, and also use methane created during the process to power an engine/generator. In addition, the process will permit dairy operators to recycle currently underutilized resources, namely fiber for bedding solids and nutrients for fertilizers. The impacts examined include air quality, water resources, soils, vegetation and wildfire, land use, noise, cultural resources, visual impacts, recreation, and wastes and polychlorinated biphenyls. (ACR)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering and Construction.

1984-08-09

263

40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes Anaerobic process type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Anaerobic sludge digester; anaerobic...

2013-07-01

264

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

265

Kinetics of anaerobic purification of industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the development of an integral mathematical model describing the up-flow anaerobic sludges blanket (UASB) reactor, the kinetics of the conversion of organic wastes has to be known. The Mondod model is compared with the model proposed by Andrews, et al. Together with the assumption that the substrate for the anaerobic bacteria is formed by nonionized, volatile fatty

W. L. Bolle; J. van Breugel; G. C. van Eybergen; N. W. F. Kossen; W. van Gils

1986-01-01

266

High Solid Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of high solids chicken manure was conducted in a batch screening assay. Different mixtures of the fresh manure and anaerobically digested sludge or pit manure, resulting in different total solids levels, were incubated at 35°C. The efficiency of organic matter conversion to methane was found to decrease with increasing organic loads to the digesters. The highest solids at

G. Bujoczek; J. Oleszkiewicz; R. Sparling; S. Cenkowski

2000-01-01

267

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Solid Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues can be converted to methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of agricultural residues to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes that help digest dying plants in anaerobic conditions. Agricultural solid residues (ASR) represent a potential energy resource

Ayhan Demirbas; Temel Ozturk

2005-01-01

268

Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely applied. A wide variety of inhibitory substances are the primary cause of anaerobic digester upset or failure since they are present in substantial concentrations in wastes. Considerable research efforts have been made to identify the mechanism and the controlling factors of inhibition. This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes. The inhibitors commonly present in anaerobic digesters include ammonia, sulfide, light metal ions, heavy metals, and organics. Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. Co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before anaerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency. PMID:17399981

Chen, Ye; Cheng, Jay J; Creamer, Kurt S

2007-03-30

269

Propionibacterium species diversity in anaerobic digesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic characteristics of 60 strains ofPropionibacterium isolated from anaerobic hybrid digesters treating landfill leachate and a baker's yeast factory effluent were analysed using numerical taxonomy. With the use of the SSM similarity coefficient, 92% of the anaerobic digester strains were grouped in eight major clusters. The isolates were identified by relating them to specific type strains and comparison of phenotypic

K. H. J. Riedel; T. J. Britz

1993-01-01

270

Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600°C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar

Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Wenchuan Ding; Andrew R. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

271

Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities. PMID:21165797

Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

2010-12-16

272

The anaerobic biosynthesis of vitamin B12.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cobalt-containing modified tetrapyrrole that is an essential nutrient for higher animals. Its biosynthesis is restricted to certain bacteria and requires approximately 30 enzymatic steps for its complete de novo construction. Remarkably, two distinct biosynthetic pathways exist, which are termed the aerobic and anaerobic routes. The anaerobic pathway has yet to be fully characterized due to the inherent instability of its oxygen-sensitive intermediates. Bacillus megaterium, a bacterium previously used for the commercial production of cobalamin, has a complete anaerobic pathway and this organism is now being used to investigate the anaerobic B12 pathway through the application of recent advances in recombinant protein production. The present paper provides a summary of recent findings in the anaerobic pathway and future perspectives. PMID:22616870

Moore, Simon J; Warren, Martin J

2012-06-01

273

Anaerobic iron uptake by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Assimilation and uptake of iron in anaerobic cultures of Escherichia coli were supported by iron supplied as ferrienterobactin, ferrichrome, and ferrous ascorbate; however, as in the aerobic cultures, ferrichrome A was a poor iron source. Albomycin inhibited both aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. The siderophore outer membrane receptor proteins FepA and FhuA were produced under anaerobic iron-deficient conditions. Anaerobic transport of ferrienterobactin and ferrichrome was inhibited by KCN and dinitrophenol. The Km for ferrienterobactin uptake in anaerobically grown cells was 0.8 microM, and the Vmax was 38 pmol/min per mg, compared with 0.1 microM and 80 pmol/min per mg, respectively, in aerobically grown cells.

Lodge, J S; Emery, T

1984-01-01

274

Multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars in a non-syndromic patient with associated orthokeratised odontogenic cyst- A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Multiple supernumerary teeth are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. They are commonly associated with syndromes like Gardner's syndrome and cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth have a predilection to occur in the mandibular premolar region. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising about 10% of the cases that had been previously implied as odontogenic keratocysts. More than half of the cases of OOC are associated with impacted tooth; but not a single case of OOC associated with supernumerary teeth is reported. Hence, the purpose of this article is to report the first case of multiple supernumerary mandibular premolars associated with OOC in a 35-year-old male and to review the literature associated with multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars.

Kasat, Vikrant O.; Saluja, Harish; Kalburge, Jitendra V.; Kini, Yogesh; Nikam, Atul; Laddha, Ruchi

2012-01-01

275

Anaerobic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether.  

PubMed

The environmental safety of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a widely used flame retardant, has been the topic of controversial discussions during the past several years. Degradation of BDE-209 into lower brominated diphenyl ether congeners, exhibiting a higher bioaccumulation potential, has been a critical issue. Here, we report on the degradation of BDE-209 and the formation of octa- and nonabromodiphenyl ether congeners under anaerobic conditions. Sewage sludge collected from a mesophilic digester was used as the inoculum and incubated up to 238 days with and without a set of five primers. Following Soxhlet extraction and a liquid chromatography cleanup procedure, parent compounds and debromination products were analyzed by GC/HRMS. In experiments with primers, concentrations of BDE-209 decreased by 30% within 238 days. This corresponds to a pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant of 1 x 10(-3) d(-1). Without primers, the degradation rate constant was 50% lower. Formation of two nonabromodiphenyl ether and six octabromodiphenyl ether congeners proved that BDE-209 underwent reductive debromination in these experiments. Debromination occurred at the para and the meta positions, whereas debromination at the ortho position was not statistically significant. All three nonabromodiphenyl ether congeners (BDE-206, BDE-207, and BDE-208) were found to undergo reductive debromination as well. No significant change of the BDE-209 concentration and no formation of lower brominated congeners was observed in sterile control experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating microbially mediated reductive debromination of BDE-209 under anaerobic conditions. PMID:15773480

Gerecke, Andreas C; Hartmann, Paul C; Heeb, Norbert V; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Giger, Walter; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Kohler, Martin

2005-02-15

276

Anaerobic Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Pyruvate Fermentation Requires an Usp-Type Stress Protein  

PubMed Central

Recently, we identified a pyruvate fermentation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sustaining anaerobic survival in the absence of alternative anaerobic respiratory and fermentative energy generation systems (M. Eschbach, K. Schreiber, K. Trunk, J. Buer, D. Jahn, and M. Schobert, J. Bacteriol. 186:4596-4604, 2004). Anaerobic long-term survival of P. aeruginosa might be essential for survival in deeper layers of a biofilm and the persistent infection of anaerobic mucus plaques in the cystic fibrosis lung. Proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa cells during a 7-day period of pyruvate fermentation revealed the induced synthesis of three enzymes involved in arginine fermentation, ArcA, ArcB, and ArcC, and the outer membrane protein OprL. Moreover, formation of two proteins of unknown function, PA3309 and PA4352, increased by factors of 72- and 22-fold, respectively. Both belong to the group of universal stress proteins (Usp). Long-term survival of a PA3309 knockout mutant by pyruvate fermentation was found drastically reduced. The oxygen-sensing regulator Anr controls expression of the PPA3309-lacZ reporter gene fusion after a shift to anaerobic conditions and further pyruvate fermentation. PA3309 expression was also found induced during the anaerobic and aerobic stationary phases. This aerobic stationary-phase induction is independent of the regulatory proteins Anr, RpoS, RelA, GacA, RhlR, and LasR, indicating a currently unknown mechanism of stationary-phase-dependent gene activation. PA3309 promoter activity was detected in the deeper layers of a P. aeruginosa biofilm using a PPA3309-gfp (green fluorescent protein gene) fusion and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. This is the first description of an Anr-dependent, anaerobically induced, and functional Usp-like protein in bacteria.

Schreiber, Kerstin; Boes, Nelli; Eschbach, Martin; Jaensch, Lothar; Wehland, Juergen; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Hentzer, Morten; Schobert, Max

2006-01-01

277

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

278

The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of

J. A. Field

1989-01-01

279

Intraabdominal infections: an overview.  

PubMed

Intraabdominal infections are serious clinical problems that generally occur secondary to endogenous contamination following the interruption of the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract by trauma, intrinsic diseases, or surgery. Appropriate treatment necessitates early diagnosis, the accomplishment of which most frequently requires a specialized radiologic procedure such as computed tomography, followed by surgical drainage and appropriate parenteral antibiotic therapy. Several agents alone or others in combination appear to be equally efficacious in treating these infections, which usually are due to the aerobic and anaerobic constituents of the gastrointestinal microflora. Adjunctive surgical techniques include peritoneal irrigation, debridement, and repair of the damaged viscera. PMID:3909328

Nichols, R L

280

Vitamin B12-Mediated Restoration of Defective Anaerobic Growth Leads to Reduced Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes cell elongation and forms robust biofilms during anaerobic respiratory growth using nitrate (NO3?) as an alternative electron acceptor. Understanding the mechanism of cell shape change induced upon anaerobiosis is crucial to the development of effective treatments against P. aeruginosa biofilm infection. Here, we uncovered the molecular basis of anaerobiosis-triggered cell elongation and identified vitamin B12 to be a molecule that can reinstate defective anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. The ratio of total cellular DNA content to protein content was significantly decreased in the PAO1 strain grown under anaerobic conditions, indicating that DNA replication is impaired during anaerobic growth. Anaerobic growth of PAO1 reached a higher cell density in the presence of vitamin B12, an essential coenzyme of class II ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, cell morphology returned to a normal rod shape and transcription of stress-response genes was downregulated under the same anaerobic growth conditions. These results suggest that vitamin B12, the production of which was suppressed during anaerobic growth, can restore cellular machineries for DNA replication and therefore facilitate better anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa with normal cell division. Importantly, biofilm formation was substantially decreased when grown with vitamin B12, further demonstrating that anaerobiosis-induced cell elongation is responsible for robust biofilm formation. Taken together, our data reveal mechanistic details of a morphological change that naturally occurs during anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and illustrates the ability of vitamin B12 to modulate the biofilm-forming capacity of P. aeruginosa under such condition.

Lee, Kang-Mu; Go, Junhyeok; Yoon, Mi Young; Park, Yongjin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yong, Dong Eun

2012-01-01

281

Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-dioxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths. The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds. For complete degradation the side chains must be removed first and then the benzene ring is activated by carboxylation or hydroxylation or co-A thioester formation. In the next step the activated ring is converted to a form that can be collected in the central pool of metabolism. The third step is the channeling reaction in which the products of the catalysis are directed into central metabolite pool. The enzymes involved in these mechanisms are mostly benzyl co-A ligase, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Other enzymes involved in this path are yet to be purified though many of the reactions products that have been theoretically postulated have been identified. This is mainly due to the instability of intermediate compounds as well as the association of the enzyme substrate is femoral and experimental conditions need to be sophisticated further for isolation of these enzymes. The first structural genes of benzoate and hydroxy benzoate ligases were isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. This gene cluster of 30 kb size found in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coded for the Bad A protein. Similarly, some of the bph A,B,C and D cluster of genes coding for the degradation of pentachlorobenzenes were located in Pseudomonas pseudoalgaligenesKF 707. PMID:15242297

Jothimani, P; Kalaichelvan, G; Bhaskaran, A; Selvaseelan, D Augustine; Ramasamy, K

2003-09-01

282

Anaerobic digestion of alcohol stillage  

SciTech Connect

In the production of ethanol from grain, the distillation step produces a residue of distillers grains or stillage that contains greater than 90% water and is currently dried and used as a cattle feed supplement. Experimental work was carried out on the anaerobic digestion of the stillage to determine the feasibility of using the CH/sub 4/ produced to supply the energy required in the ethanol distillation step. The fermentation characteristics of the stillage were studied, and the amount of CH/sub 4/ produced was determined. Based on an economic analysis, the value of the pressed solids fraction of the stillage as feed is much greater than the potential return from producing CH/sub 4/.

Binder, L.K.

1981-01-01

283

Anaerobic microbial transformations in subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

The first draft of a literature review article entitled, ''Metabolism of Homocyclic (Benzenoid) and Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Microorganisms Under Anaerobic Conditions'' is completed. The article covers biodegradation of both heterocyclic and homocyclic aromatic compounds under a variety of conditions including nitrate reducing, fermentation, sulfate reducing, and methanogensis. Laboratory experiments have been designed to study the anaerobic biotransformation processes involving organic substance derived from energy residual wastes. The test compounds selected for the initial anaerobic biodegradation experiments include aniline, indole, and pyridine. A Hungate apparatus is presently in operation.

Bollag, J.M.; Berry, D.F.; Chanmugathas, P.

1985-04-01

284

Anaerobic treatment of food industry wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Food industry effluents are characterized by high pollutional loads, high temperatures and contain rapidly degrading substances such as saccharides and starches. Basic features of anaerobic treatment processes are discussed. By comparison with conventional aerobic processes it is demonstrated that for the majority of food industry applications, anaerobic treatment processes may be the more cost-effective solution. In well-designed anaerobic systems, the energy value of the methane gas produced is more than the energy required to operate the facility. Aerobic treatment on the other hand requires the input of a large amount of air energy.

Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Olthof, M.

1982-06-01

285

A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-?g metronidazole disk when testing an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions. PMID:23535206

Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

2013-03-25

286

Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

Hallenbeck, P.C. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1989-06-01

287

Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. (Atomindex citation 23:028522)

Song Kehui Li Shensheng

1991-01-01

288

FY 1987 Anaerobic Digestion: Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic digestion research is being undertaken by the Department of Energy (DOE) under the field management of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and is sponsored as part of the Energy from Municipal Waste Research Program to produce methane fro...

1988-01-01

289

The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)|

Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

1990-01-01

290

Anaerobic digestibility of algal bioethanol residue.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of algal bioethanol residue from saccharification and fermentation processes. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests using saccharification and fermentation residue showed that the maximum methane yields of saccharification residue and fermentation residue were 239 L/kg VS (Volatile Solids) and 283 L/kg VS (Volatile Solids), respectively. Energy recovered by anaerobic digestion of the residue was 2.24 times higher than that from the ethanol produced in the main process. 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), a saccharification byproduct, could retard methanogenesis at over 3g/L however, the inhibition was prevented by increasing cell biomass concentration. Anaerobic digestion of residue has the potential to enhance bioenergy recovery and environmental sustainability of algal bioethanol production. PMID:22364770

Park, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Park, Hee-Deung; Lim, Dong Jung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

2011-12-31

291

Agricultural Anaerobic Digesters: Design and Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following are discussed: microbial and chemical processes, design and function of the digester system, operational procedure, storage and use of biogas and effluent, and costs of anaerobic digestion and biogas production from dairy barn manure.

S. P. E. Persson H. D. Bartlett A. E. Branding R. W. Regan

1979-01-01

292

DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER MIXING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The design information report discusses the current problems and potential solutions associated with the selection, design, and operation of anaerobic digester mixing systems. The report describes the four major types of mixing systems and presents their advantages and disadvanta...

293

Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Aromatic Degradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds is important for environmental bioremediation because substantial amounts of toxic aromatic compounds are produced industrially and make their way into anoxic groundwaters and sediments. Although the biodegr...

C. S. Harwood

2004-01-01

294

Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulosic Wastes: Laboratory Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process developm...

D. D. Lee T. L. Donaldson

1984-01-01

295

The Effects of Sulfides on Anaerobic Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic waste treatment is a biological process. As such it depends for successful operation on the maintenance of a proper environment for the organisms involved. By delineating this proper environment, a more complete understanding of the process will...

A. W. Lawrence P. L. McCarty F. J. A. Guerin

1964-01-01

296

Factors Affecting Acetate Degradation in Anaerobic Digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are /ital Methanosarcina barkeri/ and /ital Methanosarcina m...

R. A. Mah D. R. Boone

1988-01-01

297

Durability of Plastics in Anaerobic Marine Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specimens of a wide variety of plastic sheets, ropes, and electrical cable insulations were partially buried in anaerobic harbor sediments to determine the effect of hydrogen sulfide on polymeric materials. For comparison, specimens of the same materials ...

H. P. Vind J. S. Muraoka

1975-01-01

298

REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF DICHLOROPHENOLS IN ANAEROBIC PONDSEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The time required for the microbially mediated dechlorination ofchloroaromatics in anaerobic freshwater sediments may be dependentupon sediment microbial communities and physical characteristics,as well as chlorine position on the aromatic ring. o betterunderstand such possible r...

299

Anaerobic Digestion of Aquatic Plant Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the results of an experimental study on the methanic anaerobic fermentation of two algae (Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and one superior aquatic plant (Lemna sp.): analysis of the chemical characteristics of the biomass, ...

F. Brouard

1983-01-01

300

Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater was rather unpopular because of the production of H2S under anaerobic conditions. Gaseous and dissolved sulphides cause physical-chemical (corrosion, odour, increased effluent chemical oxygen demand) or biological (toxicity) constraints, which may lead to process failure. Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater can nevertheless be applied successfully provided a proper treatment strategy is selected. The

Look W. Hulshoff Pol; Piet N. L. Lens; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gatze Lettinga

1998-01-01

301

Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals  

SciTech Connect

significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1991-01-01

302

Phospholipid biosynthesis in some anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

We have identified and characterized enzymes of phospholipid synthesis in two plasmalogen-rich anaerobes. Megasphaera elsdenii and Veillonella parvula, and one anaerobe lacking plasmalogens. Desulfovibrio vulgaris. All three species contained phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase and phosphatidylserine synthase. Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthesis was detected only D. vulgaris extracts. Phosphatidylserine (diacyl form) was the major product of the phosphatidylserine synthase assay with particles from M. elsdenii or V. parvula. The amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine formed were very low. Only D. vulgaris particles had an active phosphatidylserine decarboxylase.

Silber, P; Borie, R P; Mikowski, E J; Goldfine, H

1981-01-01

303

Anaerobic control of colicin E1 production.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the cea gene, which is carried by the ColE1 plasmid and which encodes colicin E1, was found to be greatly increased when the cells were grown anaerobically. By using cea-lacZ fusions to quantitate expression, aerobic levels were found to be only a few percent of the anaerobic levels. The anaerobic increase in expression was observed both in protein and in operon fusions, indicating that its regulation occurred at the level of transcription. It was also found to require a functional fnr gene and to occur when the cea-lacZ fusion was present as a single copy in the bacterial chromosome instead of in the multicopy ColE1 plasmid. Anaerobic expression was regulated by the SOS response and catabolite repression as is aerobic expression. The start site of the mRNA produced under anaerobic conditions was mapped by primer extension and found to be the same as the start for mRNA produced under aerobic conditions. These observations show that the cea gene is anaerobically regulated and that the Fnr protein is a positive regulator of transcription of this gene. Images

Eraso, J M; Weinstock, G M

1992-01-01

304

Measurement of anaerobic work capacities in humans.  

PubMed

The development of simple, noninvasive tests of work capacities, underpinned primarily by anaerobic metabolism, proliferated in the early 1970s. A 30-second maximal cycle test developed at the Wingate Institute initiated efforts to develop work tests of anaerobic capacities. Such tests can be developed using any ergometer which simulates competitive conditions and enables an accurate determination of mechanical work output. A 10-second all-out test is commonly used to measure maximal work output generated primarily via the hydrolysis of high-energy phosphagens (i.e. the alactic work capacity). In contrast, a variety of constant-load and all-out tests of anaerobic (alactic plus lactic) work capacity have been proposed. It has been suggested that all-out tests provide more information about physiological capabilities and are easier to apply than constant-load tests. The optimal duration for an all-out test of anaerobic work capacity is proposed at 30 seconds, a duration which may also provide the basis for the development of accurate field tests of anaerobic capacity. There is evidence that the y-intercept of the maximal work-derivation regression is a valid work estimate of anaerobic capacity in athletes, although its utility is undermined by the number of tests required for its derivation. PMID:7740245

Green, S

1995-01-01

305

Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester.

Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

1985-01-01

306

Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

Lewis, B. G.

2000-07-01

307

A Detoxifying Oxygen Reductase in the Anaerobic Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica has four genes that encode flavodiiron proteins, which are bacterial-type oxygen or nitric oxide reductases and were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The EhFdp1 gene has higher expression in virulent than in nonvirulent Entamoeba strains and species, hinting that the response to oxidative stress may be one correlate of virulence potential. We demonstrate that EhFdp1 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica and that the protein levels are markedly increased (up to ?5-fold) upon oxygen exposure. Additionally, we produced fully functional recombinant EhFdp1 and demonstrated that this enzyme is a specific and robust oxygen reductase but has poor nitric oxide reductase activity. This observation represents a new mechanism of oxygen resistance in the anaerobic protozoan pathogen E. histolytica.

Vicente, Joao B.; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel

2012-01-01

308

Purification kinetics of winery wastes by ozonation, anaerobic digestion and ozonation plus anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of the pollutant organic matter present in winery wastes was investigated by a single ozonation process, by a single anaerobic digestion, and by the combined process constituted by an ozonation stage followed by an anaerobic stage. In these processes, the evolution of the pollutant organic load was followed measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The organic matter eliminated

F. Javier Benitez; Francisco J. Real; Juan L. Acero

1999-01-01

309

Anaerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biodegradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) was studied in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors (UASB). One reactor was fed with easily degradable substrates and commercial LAS solution during a period of 3 months (Reactor 1), meanwhile a second reactor was fed with a commercial LAS solution without co-substrate (Reactor 2) during 4 months. Both reactors were operated with

José L. Sanz; Elayne Culubret; Juan de Ferrer; Alfonso Moreno; José L. Berna

2003-01-01

310

Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of grey water in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility of grey water treatment in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 16, 10 and 6h and controlled temperature of 30°C was investigated. Moreover, the maximum anaerobic biodegradability without inoculum addition and maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions in grey water were determined in batch experiments. High values of

Tarek A. Elmitwalli; Ralf Otterpohl

2007-01-01

311

Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22902601

Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

2012-08-10

312

Hydrogenase-3 Contributes to Anaerobic Acid Resistance of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H2 production involves consumption of 2H+, hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2–2.5) that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5–6). Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. Methods and Principal Findings We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H2 to 2H+. Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3) decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2) did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H2 production and consumption was tested using a H2-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H2 production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H2 consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H2 production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H2 production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. Conclusions Anaerobic growing cultures of E. coli generate H2 via Hyd-3 at low external pH, and consume H2 via Hyd-2 at high external pH. Hyd-3 proton conversion to H2 is required for acid resistance in anaerobic cultures of E. coli.

Noguchi, Ken; Riggins, Daniel P.; Eldahan, Khalid C.; Kitko, Ryan D.; Slonczewski, Joan L.

2010-01-01

313

Disseminated Infection Caused by Eggerthella lenta in a Previously Healthy Young Man: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant normal flora of the mucous membranes which may cause life-threatening disseminated infections and are often difficult to culture from infected sites. Eggerthella (previously known as Eubacteria species) is an anaerobic, nonsporulating, nonmotile, Gram-positive rod that is found in the human colon and feces and has been isolated from various other clinical specimens. We report a case of complicated disseminated anaerobic bacterial infection with Eggerthella lenta in a healthy immunocompetent man causing multiple brain abscesses, liver abscesses, necrotizing pneumonia, and osteomyelitis of the left radial bone. He was successfully treated with empiric penicillin G and metronidazole.

Klotz, Stephen A.; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

2012-01-01

314

Enzymes Involved in Anaerobic Respiration Appear To Play a Role in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Virulence  

PubMed Central

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is able to survive on respiratory epithelia, in tonsils, and in the anaerobic environment of encapsulated sequesters. It was previously demonstrated that a deletion of the anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase gene (dmsA) results in attenuation in acute disease (N. Baltes, S. Kyaw, I. Hennig-Pauka, and G. F. Gerlach, Infect. Immun. 71:6784-6792, 2003). In the present study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we identified an aspartate ammonia-lyase (AspA) which is upregulated upon induction with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This enzyme is involved in the production of fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The coding gene (aspA) was cloned and shown to be present in all A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains. The transcriptional start point was identified downstream of a putative FNR binding motif, and BALF-dependent activation of aspA was confirmed by construction of an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae mutant carrying a chromosomal aspA::luxAB transcriptional fusion. Two aspA deletion mutants, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA, were constructed, both showing reduced growth under anaerobic conditions in vitro. Pigs challenged with either of the two mutants in an aerosol infection model showed a lower lung lesion score than that of the A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type (wt) controls. Pigs challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA had a significantly lower clinical score, and this mutant was rarely reisolated from unaltered lung tissue; in contrast, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and the A. pleuropneumoniae wt were consistently reisolated in high numbers. These results suggest that enzymes involved in anaerobic respiration are necessary for the pathogen's ability to persist on respiratory tract epithelium and play an important role in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis.

Jacobsen, Ilse; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Baltes, Nina; Trost, Matthias; Gerlach, Gerald-F.

2005-01-01

315

Improvement of anaerobic soil disinfestation.  

PubMed

With increasing worldwide restrictions for soil fumigants, growers loose an important tool to control soilborne pests and pathogens. Environmentally friendly alternatives are urgently needed and anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may be one of them. Traditional ASD with fresh grass is already applied in open field vegetables but the mode of action is unknown. Therefore, trials were performed under controlled conditions using soil-filled buckets, in which several processed defined organic materials were incorporated and compared with fresh grass. The effect of inundation was also studied. Target organisms were Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, Globodera pallida and Verticillium dahliae. Results showed that grass (traditional ASD) was less effective than the organic materials. All materials proved to be effective at 16 degrees C against all target organisms. However, exposure time, dosages, soil type and the temperature at which the experiments were performed influenced the effectiveness. P. penetrans was eliminated most easily whereas V. dahliae was most difficult to control. Efficacy was higher in sandy soil than in light marine clay. Inundation at 16 degrees C proved to be effective against P. penetrans and G. pallida in both soil types at sufficient exposure times. A soil temperature of 8 degrees C was sometimes too low for efficacy. Gas production of CO2, NH3, H2S, CH4 and N2O and gas consumption of O2 and production of fatty acids during ASD proved to depend on type of organic materials, soil type, temperature, dosage and exposure time. This first step in unravelling the mode of action has already shown several critical parameters for efficacy. Additional knowledge about the complete mechanisms of action may lead to a more reliable, effective and quicker soil disinfestation. PMID:23885444

Runia, W T; Molendirk, L P G; Ludeking, D J W; Schomaker, C H

2012-01-01

316

Submerged filter biotreatment of hazardous leachate in aerobic, anaerobic, and anaerobic/aerobic systems  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of an industrial hazardous waste landfill leachate was evaluated in bench scale biofilm reactor systems operated under steady-and non-steady-state conditions. The leachate contained volatile and semi-volatile organics that exceeded the best-demonstrated-available-technology (BDAT) standard established for multi-source leachate wastewater under the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The influent leachate stream was continuously applied to three parallel systems: (1) an upflow anaerobic filter followed by a submerged aerobic filter, both plastic packing, (2) an anaerobic granular activated carbon column, and (3) an upflow, plastic packed aerobic filter. All systems achieved steady-state COD removals of 66-82 percent. The sequential anaerobic/aerobic filter system was most resistant to hydraulic and organic shock loading, whereas the aerobic filter performance deteriorated significantly. Though transformations of specific chemical compounds were achieved in both anaerobic and aerobic treatment, the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system was cost effective for meeting BDAT standards for hazardous organics. 25 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

Smith, D.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1995-12-31

317

Anaerobic In-situ Treatment of Chlorinated Ethenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For chlorinated ethenes anaerobic bacterial remediation designs may prove to be the most cost effective measure available to actually reduce the mass of contamination in-situ. In tight and low yield aquifers, the indigenous anaerobic population may be ame...

G. W. Sewell S. A. Gibson H. H. Russell

1990-01-01

318

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1992-06-01

319

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

320

Expression pattern of odontogenic ameloblast-associated and amelotin during formation and regeneration of the junctional epithelium.  

PubMed

The junctional epithelium (JE) adheres to the tooth surface, and seals off periodontal tissues from the oral environment. This incompletely differentiated epithelium is formed initially by the fusion of the reduced enamel organ with the oral epithelium (OE). Two proteins, odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) and amelotin (AMTN), have been identified in the JE. The objective of this study was to evaluate their expression pattern during formation and regeneration of the JE. Cytokeratin 14 was used as a differentiation marker for oral epithelial cells, and Ki67 for cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on erupting rat molars, and in regenerating JE following gingivectomy. In the reducing enamel organ and in established JE, ODAM and AMTN were present at the cell-tooth interface while only ODAM and CK14 were found throughout the JE. Both were also conspicuously present in cell clusters situated between the erupting tooth and OE. During JE regeneration, ODAM was detected first at the leading wound edge and then in the regenerating JE. Some cell clusters in the subjacent connective tissue were also positive for ODAM. AMTN appeared later and both AMTN and ODAM accumulated at the interface with the tooth. Cytokeratin 14 gradually appeared in the regenerating JE but the cell clusters showed variable labeling. Cells associated with JE formation and regeneration exhibited higher division activity than adjacent epithelial cells. These findings suggest that ODAM and AMTN have a role at the cell-tooth interface, and that ODAM is likely also implicated in cellular events during formation and regeneration of the JE. PMID:21154245

Nishio, Clarice; Wazen, Rima; Kuroda, Shingo; Moffatt, Pierre; Nanci, Antonio

2010-12-10

321

Comparison of three methods for anaerobe identification.  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the ability of three commercial methods, API 20A (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.), Minitek (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.), and Anaerobe-Tek (Flow Laboratories, Inc., McLean, Va.), to accurately identify 165 recent clinical and 38 stock isolates of anaerobic bacteria without supplemental tests or gas-liquid chromatography. Strains included 89 Bacteroides spp., 12 fusobacteria, 10 gram-positive, nonsporing rods, 43 Clostridium spp., 15 Streptococcus intermedius, 18 peptococci, 6 peptostreptococci, 3 Staphylococcus saccharolyticus, and 7 Veillonella spp. The methods used were those of manufacturers, without supplemental tests. API 20A correctly identified 70.0% of strains to species and 6.4% to genus only, with 17.2% as part of a spectrum of identifications and 6.4% incorrect. Minitek, according to the current code book, yielded 69.5% correct identifications to species, 16.8% spectrum identifications, and 13.8% incorrect. Anaerobe-Tek correctly identified 64.0% of strains to species, 21.2% spectrum identifications, and 14.8% incorrect. Thirteen strains were misidentified by API 20A, 28 were misidentified by Minitek, and 30 were misidentified by Anaerobe-Tek. For laboratories without gas-liquid chromatography support and where identification of clinically significant Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens is desired, any of the three systems would provide accurate information. For more extensive anaerobe identification, including the less frequently isolated, more unusual organisms, API 20A and Minitek are preferred at this time. All systems have identification schemes associated with a percentage of misidentifications, the most recently introduced Anaerobe-Tek system being associated with the highest error rate.

Appelbaum, P C; Kaufmann, C S; Keifer, J C; Venbrux, H J

1983-01-01

322

Anaerobic digestion Of a Petrochemical Wastewater using the UASB process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of effluent from a petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid has been tested using two Upflow Anaerobic\\u000a Sludge Blanket (USAB) reactors. The reactors were seeded with two different inocula: one from an anaerobic stabilization pond\\u000a receiving wasted sludge from the aerobic treatment plant of the petrochemical industry (reactor A); the other was an anaerobically\\u000a adapted activated sludge from a

J. P. Guyot; H. Macarie; A. Noyola

1990-01-01

323

Anaerobic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of extremophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some anaerobic and aerobic mesophiles have long been known to grow at alkaline pH (above 9.5), little was known\\u000a until recently about thermophilic alkaliphiles, termed now alkalithermophiles. This minireview describes presently known and\\u000a recently validly described anaerobic alkalithermophilic bacteria (pHopt\\u000a 55C > 8.5; Topt > 55°C) and alkalitolerant thermophiles (pHopt\\u000a 55C max\\u000a 55C above 9.0). Some of these are

Juergen Wiegel

1998-01-01

324

Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food waste collected in the City of San Francisco, California, was characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The daily and weekly variations of food waste composition over a two-month period were measured. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas and methane yields of the food waste were evaluated using batch anaerobic digestion tests performed at

Ruihong Zhang; Hamed M. El-Mashad; Karl Hartman; Fengyu Wang; Guangqing Liu; Chris Choate; Paul Gamble

2007-01-01

325

Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-containing waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphate-containing wastewaters from the paper and board industry, molasses-based fermentation industries and edible oil refineries present difficulties during anaerobic treatment, leading to problems of toxicity, reduction in methane yield, odour and corrosion. The microbiology and biochemistry of dissimilatory sulphate reduction are reviewed in order to illustrate the potential competition between sulphate reducers and other anaerobes involved in the sequential anaerobic

Emer Colleran; Siobhain Finnegan; Piet Lens

1995-01-01

326

Antibiotic Resistance Among Anaerobes: What Does it Mean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic resistance among anaerobes is increasing, with significant resistance to clindamycin, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and penicillins noted at community hospitals and major medical centers. A total of 615 anaerobes isolated from various Chicago area hospitals in 1996 were tested against 13 antibiotics, and the resistance patterns compared with similar data from 1991. For the Bacteroides fragilis group anaerobes, the most effective

David W. Hecht; Gayatri Vedantam; James R. Osmolski

1999-01-01

327

Anaerobic metabolic processes in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic microorganisms were enumerated and metabolic activities measured in deep Coastal Plain sediments sampled from three water?bearing formations at depths down to 300 m. Aseptically obtained sediment cores harbored the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of various substrates in almost all samples. Although the sediments were not predominantly anaerobic, viable methanogens and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB) were present almost throughout the depth

Ralph E. Jones; Ralph E. Beeman; Joseph M. Suflita

1989-01-01

328

Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

Carnegie, John W., Ed.

329

The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

2012-01-01

330

Management of fascial space infections in a Nigerian teaching hospital: A 4-year review  

PubMed Central

Background: Fascial space infections of the head and neck region, usually odontogenic in origin, are routinely treated as an out-patient procedure. Untreated or rapidly spreading odontogenic infections can be potentially life threatening. The present study is a review of patients with orofacial infections who required emergent incision and drainage in the maxillofacial unit of our institution. The need for early presentation is highlighted. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with orofacial space infections between January 2007 and December 2010. Patients’ case files were retrieved and demographic as well as clinical characteristics were obtained and analyzed. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 53 patients with fascial space infection were seen over the period of study. Of the 41 patients reviewed, males accounted for 26 (63.4%) and females 15 (36.6%). Their ages ranged from 4 months to 80 years (mean 32.8± 18.3 years). There was no statistical difference between the mean age of male and female patients (t=-962, P=0.342). Submandibular space was the most frequently involved single space and accounted for 43.9% of the cases. This was followed by multiple space involvement (Ludwig angina) which accounted for 36.6%. Buccal space and submasseteric space infection represented 7.3% each. Sources of infections were of odontogenic origin in 92.7% of cases and were unknown in the remaining 7.3%. The outcome was satisfactory with complete resolution in 48.8% of cases. Resolution with some morbidities in the form of persistent limitation of mouth opening, orocutaneus fistula, and necrotising fascitis were seen in an almost equal proportion of 46.3% of cases. The outcome was observed to be significantly associated with the presence of underlying systemic conditions (?2 =21.66; r=0.73; P=0.0001), time of presentation (?2 =12.28; r=0.55; P=0.002), and age (?2 =54.48; r=0.69; P=0.0001). Conclusion: Fascial space infections of the head and neck region, though potentially life threatening, can be prevented by regular dental visits. Early recognition and treatment of established cases are necessary to prevent considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in older patients with an underlying systemic condition.

Osunde, Otasowie D.; Akhiwu, Benjamin I.; Efunkoya, Akinwale A.; Adebola, Adetokunbo R.; Iyogun, Cornelius A.; Arotiba, Juwon T.

2012-01-01

331

Anaerobic digestion model no. 1-based distributed parameter model of an anaerobic reactor: I. Model development.  

PubMed

This work presents a distributed parameter model of the anaerobic digestion process. The model is based on the Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) and was developed to simulate anaerobic digestion process in high-rate reactors with significant axial dispersion, such as in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The model, which was named ADM1d, combines ADM1's kinetics of biomass growth and substrate transformation with axial dispersion material balances. ADM1d uses a hyperbolic tangent function to describe biomass distribution within a one compartment model. A comparison of this approach with a two-compartment, sludge bed - liquid above the bed, model showed similar simulation results while the one-compartment model had less equations. A comparison of orthogonal collocation and finite difference algorithms for numerical solution of ADM1d showed better stability of the finite difference algorithm. PMID:17881223

Mu, S J; Zeng, Y; Wu, P; Lou, S J; Tartakovsky, B

2007-09-18

332

Microbiology and management of soft tissue and muscle infections.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the microbiological aspects and management of soft tissue and muscle infections. The infections presented are: impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis and carbuncles, cellulitis, erysipelas, infectious gangrene (includes necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal gangrene, gas gangrene or clostridium myonecrosis, anaerobic cellulites, progressive bacterial synergistic gangrene, synergistic necrotizing cellulitis or perineal phlegmon, gangrenous balanitis, and gangrenous cellulitis in the immunocompromised patient), secondary bacterial infections complication skin lesions, diabetic and other chronic superficial skin ulcers and subcutaneous abscesses and myositis. These infections often occur in body sites or in those that have been compromised or injured by foreign body, trauma, ischemia, malignancy or surgery. In addition to Group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, the indigenous aerobic and anaerobic cutaneous and mucous membranes local microflora usually is responsible for polymicrobial infections. These infections may occasionally lead to serious potentially life-threatening local and systemic complications. The infections can progress rapidly and early recognition and proper medical and surgical management is the cornerstone of therapy. PMID:17720643

Brook, Itzhak

2007-07-15

333

Growth characteristic of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doubling time of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated (ABF) reactor was\\u000a determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to detect and count anammox bacteria cells in anammox sludge.\\u000a As a result, the populations of anammox bacteria at 14th and 21st days were 1.1×106 and 1.7×107 cells\\/ml reactor, respectively. From these results, the doubling time of

Kazuichi Isaka; Yasuhiro Date; Tatsuo Sumino; Sachiko Yoshie; Satoshi Tsuneda

2006-01-01

334

Anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater using an anaerobic fixed-bed loop reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of anaerobic processes into wastewater treatment trains minimizes amount and enhances stability of excess sludge, but lowers energy consumption. Objectives of this study were to develop a pilot-scale anaerobic fixed-bed loop (AFBL) reactor, to select critical parameters and to investigate feasibility and performance when treating municipal wastewater under real field conditions. Hydraulic residence times (HRTs) of 0.23, 0.28 and

Paraschos Melidis; Eleni Vaiopoulou; Evagelia Athanasoulia; Alexander Aivasidis

2009-01-01

335

Biogas Plasticization Coupled Anaerobic Digestion: Continuous Flow Anaerobic Pump Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the Anaerobic Pump (®TAP) and a conventional continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) were tested\\u000a side by side to compare performance. TAP integrates anaerobic digestion (AD) with biogas plasticization–disruption cycle to\\u000a improve mass conversion to methane. Both prototypes were fed a “real world” 50:50 mixture of waste-activated sludge (WAS)\\u000a and primary sludge and operated at room temperature

Keith A. Schimel; David R. Boone

2010-01-01

336

[Short - term combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment in vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of short-term, combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment in vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species. The presence of infection was proven by microscopic examination of vaginal fluid (Nugent, modified by Ison-Hay-Keane scale), microbiological culture, and by clinical symptoms (Amsel). 179 patients were included in our study. Clinical and microbiological examinations were performed prior to the treatment and at the end of the study (day 8 after the first dose of short- term combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment). The treatment included applications of 1 g BID tinidazole for two days and vaginal suppositories of 1000mg metronidazol at day 1 and 3. Based on the microbiological tests prior to the treatment Gardnerella vaginalis alone was present in 132 patients (73.7%). The rest of the patients, 47 or 26.3% of the treatment group, the infection was present by mixture of several anaerobic species. At the end of the treatment 83.2% of the treated population showed no clinical symptoms of dysbacteriosis, and 73.7% of the treated patients showed no dysbacteriosis in microbiological test results. Based on the results mentioned above it was determined that the short-term combined 5-nitroimidazole therapy was effective in treatment of vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species. PMID:21916313

Kovachev, S; Vatcheva-Dobrevsky, R; Kovacheva-Aleksandrova, M

2011-01-01

337

Psychrophilic Biofilm Reactors for Anaerobic Digestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three identical fixed-bed anaerobic reactors (10 l void volume) were used to digest whey permeate at 12 deg. C, 20 deg. C and 35 deg. C. The organic load was kept constant at 7 g COD/l reactor/day in 90 days ''Steady-state'' operation. The overall COD-red...

F. H. Spendler

1987-01-01

338

Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper,

S. R. Stern; L. Szpyrkowicz; I. Rodighiero

339

(Anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers)  

SciTech Connect

This report covers progress made during the last 8--20 month interval. Topics covered include: the in vitro assay for anaerobic O-demethylation; fractionation of cell-free extracts; optimization of cellular AOD levels and structure-activity relationships; and analysis of corrinoid involvement in AOD. (JL)

Frazer, A.C.

1990-01-01

340

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

341

Anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several researchers have used crude glycerol as a source of substrate for methane production and power generation, which is a way of adding value to this residue that has a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and is rich in impurities. This review article summarizes recent data and discussions on the use of crude glycerol as substrate and co-substrate for anaerobic

M. B. Viana; A. V. Freitas; R. C. Leităo; G. A. S. Pinto; S. T. Santaella

2012-01-01

342

Anaerobic biotransformations of pollutant chemicals in aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anaerobic microbial communities sampled from either a methanogenic or sulfate-reducing aquifer site have been tested for their ability to degrade a variety of groundwater pollutants, including halogenated aromatic compounds, simple alkyl phenols and tetrachloroethylene. The haloaromatic chemicals were biodegraded in methanogenic incubations but not under sulfate-reducing conditions. The primary degradative event was typically the reductive removal of the aryl

Joseph M. Suflita; Susan A. Gibson; Ralph E. Beeman

1988-01-01

343

Comparison of monitoring systems for anaerobic digesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deployment of modern smart grid technologies for distributed generation control offers numerous advantages over earlier control systems. Care needs to be taken to choose the correct protocol for the task at hand. This paper compares two systems used for the remote monitoring of anaerobic digesters including their relative costs, bandwidth requirements, implementation, and maintenance issues. The systems discussed are

Greg M. Linder; Stefan Grimberg

2010-01-01

344

A simple device for measuring anaerobic power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having no funds to purchase sophisticated equipment to measure human anaerobic power, a simple cheaply made device was constructed based on the principle of the method introduced by Margaria et al (1966). This improvised apparatus consists of two contact pads each having a make and break provision of an electrical circuit with the help of leaf springs and can be

D. K. Kansal; S. K. Verma; L. S. Sidhu

1981-01-01

345

Monitoring the Atmosphere in an Anaerobic Chamber  

PubMed Central

The Couloximeter, a fuel cell designed to measure trace amounts of oxygen, was used to monitor the atmosphere in an anaerobic chamber. The device, easy to operate and to maintain, allowed both major and minor fluctuations in oxygen concentration to be measured. Using a hose attached to the outlet within the box, defective (ruptured) gloves were consistently distinguishable from intact gloves.

Sudo, Sara Z.; Hersch, Paul A.

1974-01-01

346

Sodium polyanethol sulfonate sensitivity of anaerobic cocci.  

PubMed

Growth of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was shown to be totally inhibited by sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS). Other anaerobic cocci grew in the presence of SPS although some strains of Peptococcus prevotii and Peptococcus magnus showed delayed growth. A SPS disk assay for the presumptive identification of P. anaerobius is described. PMID:4598436

Graves, M H; Morello, J A; Kocka, F E

1974-06-01

347

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Batch and continuous anaerobic fermentation experiments were performed to study the hydrogen production from cheese whey permeate under mesophilic conditions (35-38 oC). The batch experiments resulted in H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed at food to microorganisms ratios (F/M) of 1.0 and 1.5, respe...

348

Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

Wiegel, J.

1994-05-01

349

Kinetics of anaerobic biodecolourisation of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of anaerobic biodecolourisation (methanogenic environment) of four azo dyes (Acid Orange 6, Acid Orange 7, Methyl Orange and Methyl Red) was investigated with regard to their electrochemical properties as well as under variation of dye and sludge concentrations, pH and temperature. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a correlation between the potential of irreversible reduction peak of the dye and its first-order

S. Kalyuzhnyi; N. Yemashova; V. Fedorovich

2006-01-01

350

Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...

351

Production of Methane Using an Anaerobic Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The treatment of waste products using an anaerobic process results in methane gas as a by-product and this gas can be used as a source of energy. The systems used a long time ago did not support a mass of microorganisms and as such required a lot of time....

K. B. Pedersen

1979-01-01

352

A definition and systems view of anaerobic capacity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is both to define terms used in exercise physiology, i.e. anaerobic capacity, anaerobic work capacity and anaerobic potential, and develop a systems perspective of anaerobic capacity. Philosophical argument is used to support the proposed definitions and systems view, which is an approach to assist in the universal acceptance of such terms amongst scientific investigators, coaches and athletes, and provide a focus on physiological mechanisms associated with anaerobic capacity which may be the subject of future investigation. PMID:7805673

Green, S

1994-01-01

353

High density lipoprotein cholesterol following anaerobic swimming in trained swimmers.  

PubMed

HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol and glycerol were determined in venous blood of 10 male trained swimmers at rest and following 100-m anaerobic swimming. When compared to rest levels, the peak HDL-C and glycerol concentrations were significantly enhanced following anaerobic swim test (p < 0.01). However, peak LDL-C and total cholesterol after anaerobic swim were not significantly increased compared with the rest level. The present data demonstrated that the anaerobic swimming induces an increase in HDL-C metabolism, suggesting that the anaerobic exercise per se was one reason for the elevated HDL-C levels. PMID:8412058

Ohkuwa, T; Itoh, H

1993-06-01

354

Fosfomycin and Tobramycin in Combination Downregulate Nitrate Reductase Genes narG and narH, Resulting in Increased Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Anaerobic Conditions.  

PubMed

The activity of aminoglycosides, which are used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is reduced under the anaerobic conditions that reflect the CF lung in vivo. In contrast, a 4:1 (wt/wt) combination of fosfomycin and tobramycin (F:T), which is under investigation for use in the treatment of CF lung infection, has increased activity against P. aeruginosa under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased activity of F:T under anaerobic conditions. Microarray analysis was used to identify the transcriptional basis of increased F:T activity under anaerobic conditions, and key findings were confirmed by microbiological tests, including nitrate utilization assays, growth curves, and susceptibility testing. Notably, growth in subinhibitory concentrations of F:T, but not tobramycin or fosfomycin alone, significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) nitrate reductase genes narG and narH, which are essential for normal anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. Under anaerobic conditions, F:T significantly decreased (P < 0.001) nitrate utilization in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14, and PA14 lasR::Gm, a mutant known to exhibit increased nitrate utilization. A similar effect was observed with two clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Growth curves indicate that nitrate reductase transposon mutants had reduced growth under anaerobic conditions, with these mutants also having increased susceptibility to F:T compared to the wild type under similar conditions. The results of this study suggest that downregulation of nitrate reductase genes resulting in reduced nitrate utilization is the mechanism underlying the increased activity of F:T under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23959314

McCaughey, Gerard; Gilpin, Deirdre F; Schneiders, Thamarai; Hoffman, Lucas R; McKevitt, Matt; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M

2013-08-19

355

Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated.

Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

356

Anaerobic benzene oxidation by Geobacter species.  

PubMed

The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 10(9) and 8.4 × 10(9) cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 10(9) cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

Zhang, Tian; Bain, Timothy S; Nevin, Kelly P; Barlett, Melissa A; Lovley, Derek R

2012-09-21

357

Predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in early positive anaerobic blood culture bottles in BacT/Alert system.  

PubMed

We collected and analyzed the time to detection (TTD) of blood cultures in the BacT/Alert automated system from 2002 to 2007. Among the 10,893 monomicrobial isolates from a total of 133,735 blood culture sets, the recoveries of aerobic bottles were compared with those of anaerobic bottles in this study. Significantly more Gram-positive cocci (except Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci), glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast were recovered from aerobic bottles than from anaerobic bottles. The average TTD was 19.0 hr and 20.1 hr for the aerobic and anaerobic bottles, respectively, and 96.8% of the microorganisms were detected within the first 72 hr. Of the 5,489 microorganisms recovered from both of the blood culture bottle pair, microbial growth was significantly more often detected first in the anaerobic bottles than the aerobic bottles for Enterobacteriaceae except Serratia marcescens, while S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more often detected first in the aerobic bottles. According to these data, we conclude that the earlier positivity of anaerobic bottles is a useful marker for rapid presumptive identification of Enterobacteriaceae infection. PMID:23349061

Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Lee, Shih-Yi; Tang, Sheng-Hui; Lu, Jang-Jih; Sun, Jun-Ren

2013-01-24

358

Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systems.  

PubMed

This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems. It was done by specifically controlling and monitoring growth of protozoa versus degradation in continuous stirred anaerobic reactors and batch anaerobic reactors. Occurrence of a diverse protozoa population such as the ciliates, Prorodon, Vorticella, Cyclidium, Spathidium, Loxodes, Metopus were observed in stable anaerobic systems and the flagellates, Rhynchomonas, Naeglaria, Amoeboflagellates, Tetramitus, Trepomonas and Bodo during increased VFA concentration and affected periods of biomethanation. The abundance of ciliates in the anaerobic system had significant correlation with the reduction of MLSS, increased rate of COD removal and higher methane production. The results of this study thus tend to relate increased anaerobic degradation with the abundance of protozoa, mainly ciliates, which indicate their possible involvement in the process. Present study also reveals that performance of anaerobic process can be assessed by monitoring the protozoa population in the system. PMID:17492357

Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

2007-05-10

359

Survival of Alternaria alternata during anaerobic digestion of biomass in stirred tank reactors.  

PubMed

The survival of Alternaria alternate during anaerobic digestion was investigated in context of a joint research project. The aim of this project was to estimate the phytosanitary risk of dissemination of pathogens by returning treated biomass as organic fertilizer to arable land. The studies were carried out in lab-scale stirred tank reactors under mesophilic conditions. After insertion of infected plant material into the reactors the influence on the viability of the fungal pathogen was studied concerning exposure time, pretreatment and storage of the digestates for four weeks or six months. The results clearly showed that anaerobic digestion leads to a complete inactivation of A. alternate already after an exposure time of six hours. PMID:23878963

Schleusner, Y; Bandte, M; Gossmann, M; Heiermann, M; Plöchl, M; Büttner, C

2012-01-01

360

Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions (E. L. Barrett and G. W. Chang, J. Gen. Microbiol., 115:513-516, 1979). Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (less than 0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate, which argues against a strictly biosynthetic role for anaerobic sulfite reduction. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10(-7)M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10(-7)M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADPH and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. Two high-molecular-weight proteins separated by gel filtration (Mr 360,000 and 490,000, respectively) were required for maximal activity with NADH. Indirect evidence, including in vitro complementation experiments with a cysG mutant extract, suggested that the 360,000-Mr component contains siroheme and is the terminal reductase. This component was further purified to near homogeneity and was found to consist of a single subunit of molecular weight 67,500. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function. Images

Hallenbeck, P C; Clark, M A; Barrett, E L

1989-01-01

361

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-06-04

362

Recent developments in anaerobic membrane reactors.  

PubMed

Anaerobic membrane reactors (AnMBRs) have recently evolved from aerobic MBRs, with the membrane either external or submerged within the reactor, and can achieve high COD removals (~98%) at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) as low as 3 h. Since membranes stop biomass being washed out, they can enhance performance with inhibitory substrates, at psychrophilic/thermophilic temperatures, and enable nitrogen removal via Anammox. Fouling is important, but addition of activated carbon or resins/precipitants can remove soluble microbial products (SMPs)/colloids and enhance flux. Due to their low energy use and solids production, and solids free effluent, they can enhance nutrient and water recycling. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: compare fouling between aerobic and anaerobic systems; determine how reactor operation influences fouling; evaluate the effect of different additives on membrane fouling; determine whether nitrogen removal can be incorporated into AnMBRs; recover methane solubility from low temperatures effluents; and, establish sound mass and energy balances. PMID:22749372

Stuckey, David C

2012-06-06

363

The role of anaerobic sludge recycle in improving anaerobic digester performance.  

PubMed

Solids retention time (SRT) is a critical parameter for the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD) in wastewater treatment plants. AD SRT should increase when active biomass is input to the AD by recycling anaerobic sludge via the wastewater-treatment tanks, creating a hybrid aerobic/anaerobic system. When 85% of the flow through the AD was recycled in pilot-scale hybrid systems, the AD SRT increased by as much as 9-fold, compared to a parallel system without anaerobic-sludge recycle. Longer AD SRTs resulted in increased hydrolysis and methanogenesis in the AD: net solids yield decreased by 39-96% for overall and 23-94% in the AD alone, and AD methane yield increased 1.5- to 5.5-fold. Microbial community assays demonstrated higher, more consistent Archaea concentrations in all tanks in the wastewater-treatment system with anaerobic-sludge recycle. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that AD-sludge recycle increased AD SRT, solids hydrolysis, and methane generation. PMID:23265819

Young, Michelle N; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Liu, Wenjun; Doyle, Michael L; Rittmann, Bruce E

2012-11-28

364

Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.  

PubMed

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-04-10

365

Ultrasound Pretreatment of Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ultrasound pretreatment of sludge has been examined in an effort to improve the hydrolysis rate in anaerobic digestion. The\\u000a reactions that resulted from the generation and collapse of cavitation bubbles produced under the acoustic condition can significantly\\u000a modify the substances present in the sludge. The principles of ultrasound that encompass acoustic cavitation and bubble dynamics,\\u000a the mechanisms of biological damage

Kuan Yeow Show; Joo Hwa Tay; Yung-Tse Hung

366

Parasite ova in anaerobically digested sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago produces anaerobically digested wastewater sludge from a 14-day continuous-flow process maintained at 35 degrees Celcius. Some of the sludge is ultimately applied to strip-mined lands in Central Illinois (Fulton County) as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. Parasitic nematode ova were isolated from freshly processed samples, as well as from samples collected from storage

R. G. Arther; P. R. Fitzgerald; J. C. Fox

1981-01-01

367

d-Hydantoinase from anaerobic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 373 anaerobic microbial isolates screened for the enzymatic conversion of dihydrouracil to N-carbamyl-ß-alanine, several strains of Clostridium spp., C. glycolicum, C. subterminale and Peptococcus anaerobius were positive. These Clostridium and Peptococcus strains produced also N-carbamyl-d-amino acids from the respective 5'-monosubstituted hydantoins. The d-hydantoinase activity from whole cell suspensions of P. anaerobius strain CRDA 303 was characterized with regard to

André Morin; Jean-Pierre Touzel; Alain Lafond; Danielle Leblanc

1991-01-01

368

Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf is strongly controlled by dynamic physical sedimentation processes. Rapidly accumulating, physically reworked deltaic sediments characteristic of much of the shelf typically support what appear to be low rates of steady state anaerobic methane oxidation at depths of 5-8 m below the sediment-water interface. Methane oxidation in these cases is responsible for < {approximately}10% of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} inventory in the oxidation zone and is limited largely by the steady-state diffusive flux of methane into the overlying sulfate reduction zone. In contrast, a large area of the shelf has been extensively eroded, reexposing once deeply buried (>10 m) methane-charged sediment directly to seawater. In this nonsteady-state situation, methane is a major source of recently produced {Sigma}CO{sub 2} and an important reductant for sulfate. These observations suggest that authigenic sedimentary carbonates derived from anaerobic methane oxidation may sometimes reflect physically enhanced nonsteady-state exposure of methane to sulfate in otherwise biogeochemically unreactive deposits. The concentration profiles of CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} in the eroded deposit were reproduced by a coupled reaction-transport model. This area of the shelf was reexposed to seawater approximately 5-10 years ago based on the model results and the assumption that the erosion of the deposit occurred as a single event that has now ceased. The necessary second order rate constant for anaerobic methane oxidation was {le}0.1 mM{sup -1} d{sup -1}.

Blair, N.E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Aller, R.C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

369

ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographers noticed already many years ago that far less ammonium accumulated in anoxic fjords and basins, than would be\\u000a expected from the stoichiometry of heterotrophic denitrification. It was suggested that this ‘missing’ ammonium was oxidized\\u000a with nitrate to freeN2. Since then several otherworkers have argued based on chemical profiles that ammonium is oxidized anaerobically in oxygen\\u000a deficient marine sediments and

Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Bo Thamdrup

370

Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration anaerobic digestion plant has been installed at Pompano Beach, Florida, capable of treating 100 tons per day of municipal solid waste. The suitability of this process and its environmental effects at a full scale operation level is being examined. The study presented and discussed in this paper had as its main objective the characterization of various waste streams and an assessment of their environmental effects if discharged into the environment.

Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L. Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

1981-03-01

371

Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCOâ, (NHâ)âHPOâ, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic

S. Ghosh; M. P. Henry; P. A. Fedde

1982-01-01

372

Anaerobic degradation of phenol in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic phenol degrading consortia were selected in sewage sludge and culture conditions were improved to allow maximum degradation rates of 0.9 g\\/l·d. Phenol had to be added in two portions of 0.45 g\\/l at intervals of 12 h to keep the fermentation at stable conditions. From U-14C-phenol little benzoate and acetate were formed as intermediates under a N2:CO2 gas phase.

G. Knoll; J. Winter

1987-01-01

373

Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55°C and for some experiments also at 37°C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619dm3kg?1 respectively,

Anette Hejnfelt; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

374

Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14months. COD concentrations were 724±150mgL?1, of which 34% was present as suspended COD, 25% as colloidal COD and 38% as soluble COD. The maximum anaerobic

L. Hernández Leal; H. Temmink; G. Zeeman; C. J. N. Buisman

2011-01-01

375

Sulfonates: novel electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enrichment and isolation in pure culture of a bacterium, identified as a strain of Desulfovibrio, able to release and reduce the sulfur of isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) and other sulfonates to support anaerobic\\u000a respiratory growth, is described. The sulfonate moiety was the source of sulfur that served as the terminal electron acceptor,\\u000a while the carbon skeleton of isethionate functioned as an

Thomas J. Lie; Thomas Pitta; E. R. Leadbetter; Jared R. Leadbetter

1996-01-01

376

Anaerobic malonate decarboxylation by Citrobacter diversus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrobacter diversus ATCC 27156 was able to grow by decarboxylation of malonate to acetate under strictly anaerobic conditions, in the presence\\u000a of yeast extract. The growth yield, corrected for growth on yeast extract, was 2.03 g cell dry mass per mol malonate. The\\u000a addition of malonate to ATP-depleted cell suspensions (less than 0.2 nmol ATP\\/mg cell protein) resulted in a

Peter H. Janssen; C. G. Harfoot

1992-01-01

377

Azo dye decolourisation by anaerobic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolourisation of 20 selected azo dyes by granular sludge from an upward-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was assayed. Complete reduction was found for all azo dyes tested, generally yielding colourless products. The reactions followed first-order kinetics and reaction rates varied greatly between dyes: half-life times ranged from 1 to about 100 h. The slowest reaction rates were found

Frank P. van der Zee; Gatze Lettinga; Jim A. Field

2001-01-01

378

Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43°C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox process was completely inhibited by nitrite concentrations

MARC STROUS; J. GIJS KUENEN; MIKE S. M. JETTEN

1999-01-01

379

SHEWANELLA: NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-reducing members of the genus Shewanella are important components of the microbial community residing in redox-strati.ed freshwater and marine environments. Metal-reducing\\u000a gram-negative bacteria such as Shewanella, however, are presented with a unique physiological challenge: they are required to respire anaerobically on terminal electron\\u000a acceptors which are either highly insoluble (Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides) and reduced to soluble end-products or highly soluble

Thomas J. DiChristina; David J. Bates; Justin L. Burns; Jason R. Dale; Amanda N. Payne

380

On the kinetics of anaerobic power  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a treadmill at different exercise intensities. The aerobic power, based on the measured oxygen uptake, was used as input to the models, whereas the simulated blood lactate concentration was compared with experimental results. Thereafter, the metabolic rate from phosphocreatine break down was calculated theoretically. Finally, the models were used to compare phosphocreatine break down during continuous and interval exercises. Results Good similarity was found between experimental and simulated blood lactate concentration during steady state exercise intensities. The measured blood lactate concentrations were lower than simulated for intensities above the lactate threshold, but higher than simulated during recovery after high intensity exercise when the simulated lactate concentration was averaged over the whole lactate space. This fit was improved when the simulated lactate concentration was separated into two compartments; muscles + internal organs and blood. Model 2 gave a better behavior of alactic energy than Model 1 when compared against invasive measurements presented in the literature. During continuous exercise, Model 2 showed that the alactic energy storage decreased with time, whereas Model 1 showed a minimum value when steady state aerobic conditions were achieved. During interval exercise the two models showed similar patterns of alactic energy. Conclusions The current study provides useful insight on the kinetics of anaerobic power. Overall, our data indicate that blood lactate levels can be accurately modeled during steady state, and suggests a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power.

2012-01-01

381

Anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic O-demethylation (AOD) of phenylmethylethers is a process of both basic and applied significance. The aryl-O-methyl ethers are abundant in natural products, particularly as components of lignin. They are present as methoxylated lignin monomers in anaerobic environments and can be completely degraded there by mixed microbial populations. AOD is an essential early step in this process, and it is also a key reaction in the utilization of the O-methyl substituent as a C-one substrate by acetogens. An understanding of the AOD reaction mechanism might suggest new ways in which chemicals could be derived from lignocellulosic materials. The biochemical mechanism for the anaerobic cleavage of the aryl-O-methyl ether bond is an intriguing, but relatively unexplored process. In contrast to aerobic O-demethylating enzymes, AOD appears to involve methyl group transfer. Thus, novel biochemical information on an important biotransformation reaction will be gained from the research proposed. Recently, we have shown that AOD activity is inducible and have developed an assay for detecting AOD activity in cell-free extracts of Acetobacterium woodii. AOD activity is stimulated in vitro by the addition of ATP (1mM) and pyruvate (30 mM), the K{sub M} for vanillate being 0.4 mM. In collaboration with protein purification experts, we proposed to purify the AOD enzyme and characterize the protein(s) and the enzymatic reaction involved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.

1990-01-01

382

Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

2010-05-01

383

Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

2013-09-01

384

Monobactams and carbapenems for treatment of intraabdominal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  During the last decade improved clinical and microbiological methods have resulted in the realization that most intraabdominal\\u000a infections involve both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Papers on the use of different antimicrobial agents directed against\\u000a the polymicrobial flora of the infected site have been published. In this paper the use of monobactams and carbapenems for\\u000a treatment of intraabdominal infections is reviewed.

B. Brismar; C. E. Nord

1999-01-01

385

Patched homolog 1 gene mutation (p.G1093R) induces nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors: A case report.  

PubMed

Mutations in the Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) gene lead to an autosomal dominant disorder known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin syndrome (GS). Several PTCH1 mutations have been observed in NBCCS associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), including non-syndromic KCOTs. The missense mutation c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) in exon 19 of the PTCH1 gene has only been reported in non-syndromic KCOTs. The present study reports for the first time a familial case (father and daughter) of NBCCS and KCOTs, carrying the same c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) germline mutation. This observation suggests that this missense mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of NBCCS as well as in a subset of non-syndromic KCOTs. The identification of a missense mutation may lead to an earlier diagnosis of NBCCS. PMID:22844361

Ponti, Giovanni; Pollio, Annamaria; Pastorino, Lorenza; Pellacani, Giovanni; Magnoni, Cristina; Nasti, Sabina; Fortuna, Giulio; Tomasi, Aldo; Scarrŕ, Giovanna Bianchi; Seidenari, Stefania

2012-05-08

386

Patched homolog 1 gene mutation (p.G1093R) induces nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors: A case report  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) gene lead to an autosomal dominant disorder known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin syndrome (GS). Several PTCH1 mutations have been observed in NBCCS associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), including non-syndromic KCOTs. The missense mutation c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) in exon 19 of the PTCH1 gene has only been reported in non-syndromic KCOTs. The present study reports for the first time a familial case (father and daughter) of NBCCS and KCOTs, carrying the same c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) germline mutation. This observation suggests that this missense mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of NBCCS as well as in a subset of non-syndromic KCOTs. The identification of a missense mutation may lead to an earlier diagnosis of NBCCS.

PONTI, GIOVANNI; POLLIO, ANNAMARIA; PASTORINO, LORENZA; PELLACANI, GIOVANNI; MAGNONI, CRISTINA; NASTI, SABINA; FORTUNA, GIULIO; TOMASI, ALDO; SCARRA, GIOVANNA BIANCHI; SEIDENARI, STEFANIA

2012-01-01

387

Odontogenic keratocyst and multiple supernumerary teeth in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome--a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue related to collagen metabolism. Deficiency or alteration of the collagen present in the tissues results in some classic signs such as skin hyperelasticity, articular hypermobility, and vascular fragility, among others. In addition, EDS oral manifestations are rarely cited in the literature. The aim of this article is to report a rare case of a young female patient with EDS who presented supernumerary teeth and an odontogenic keratocyst. There is no report in the literature of the simultaneous occurrence of these alterations. The article further highlights the importance of EDS diagnosis in patients who need dental treatment and the due care for their assistance. PMID:18618041

Ferreira, Osny; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Alvares; Yaedú, Renato Yassutaka Faria; da Costa, Antőnio Richieri

2008-03-01

388

MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide ? a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization ? derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target.

Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnes; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

2013-01-01

389

MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and impairs mineralization in tooth models of X-linked hypophosphatemia.  

PubMed

Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide - a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization - derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23451077

Salmon, Benjamin; Bardet, Claire; Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnčs; McKee, Marc D; Chaussain, Catherine

2013-02-22

390

Techniques for Controlling Variability in Gram Staining of Obligate Anaerobes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram- positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative;Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus,Eubacterium plautii,Clos- tridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collec- tion strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and

MARA J. JOHNSON; EILEEN THATCHER; ANDMIKE E. COX

391

Metabolic Interactions Between Methanogenic Consortia and Anaerobic Respiring Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective\\u000a electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic\\u000a respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron\\u000a acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect

A. J. M. Stams; S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink; P. Westermann

2003-01-01

392

Treatment of dairy wastewater using anaerobic and solar photocatalytic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed to treat the dairy wastewater by using anaerobic and solar photocatalytic oxidation methods. The anaerobic treatment was carried out in a laboratory scale hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (HUASB) with a working volume of 5.9L. It was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) varying from 8 to 20kg COD\\/m3day for a period of 110

J. Rajesh Banu; S. Anandan; S. Kaliappan; Ick-Tae Yeom

2008-01-01

393

Global Perspective of Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While anaerobic process had been widely used for stabilizing concentrated solids, the process long suffered a poor reputation\\u000a because of lack of understanding regarding its fundamentals. Nearly a century later, anaerobic treatment is now arguably the\\u000a most promising and favorable wastewater treatment system for meeting the desired criteria for future technology in environmentally\\u000a sustainable development. The development of anaerobic processes,

Kuan Yeow Show; Joo Hwa Tay; Yung-Tse Hung

394

Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

Boopathy, Raj

395

Effect of radiation dose on the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from mice  

SciTech Connect

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9, or 10 Gy /sup 60/Co radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The number of mice that were culture positive and the number of isolates in one site increased with increasing dose. Bacteria were recovered in mice killed at various times after radiation, in 3 of 100 mice exposed to 7 Gy, in 13 of 100 irradiated with 8 Gy, in 23 of 90 exposed to 9 Gy, and in 34 of 87 irradiated with 10 Gy. The predominant organisms recovered were Escherichia coli, anerobic Gram-positive cocci, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides spp. Escherichia coli and anaerobes were more often isolated in animals exposed to 10 Gy, while S. aureus was more often recovered in those irradiated with 9 Gy. These data demonstrate a relationship between the dose of radiation and the rate of infection due to entire aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Reprints.

Brook, I.; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

1986-01-01

396

Investigation of granulation of a mixture of suspended anaerobic and aerobic cultures under alternating anaerobic\\/microaerobic\\/aerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first granulation study except Ferguson [Ferguson LN. Anaerobic codigestion of aircraft deicing fluid and microaerobic studies. M.S. Thesis. Milwaukee, WI, USA: Marquette University; 1999] to develop coupled granules by using a mixture of suspended anaerobic and aerobic cultures exposed to alternating cyclic anaerobic\\/microaerobic\\/aerobic conditions. Coupled granules with median sizes of 1.28–1.86mm and settling velocities of 31–39m\\/h were

Tuba H. Ergüder; Göksel N. Demirer

2005-01-01

397

ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification – denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with

S. Suneethi; Kurian Joseph

2011-01-01

398

Microbiota Associated with Infections of the Jaws  

PubMed Central

The microbial infections involving the craniofacial skeleton, particularly maxilla and mandible, have direct relationship with the dental biofilm, with predominance of obligate anaerobes. In some patients, these infections may spread to bone marrow or facial soft tissues, producing severe and life-threatening septic conditions. In such cases, local treatment associated with systemic antimicrobials should be used in order to eradicate the sources of contamination. This paper discuss the possibility of spread of these infections and their clinical implications for dentistry, as well as their etiology and aspects related to microbial virulence and pathogenesis.

Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luis Fernando; de Oliveira, Kathlenn Liezbeth; Costa, Iracy; Ranieri, Robson Varlei; Okamoto, Ana Claudia; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

2012-01-01

399

Intracranial and internal jugular vein thrombosis secondary to ENT infections: A report of 3 cases.  

PubMed

We report 3 cases of rare, life-threatening intracranial and internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis that were caused by common ENT infections. These infections included otitis media in a 6-year-old girl, tonsillitis in a 21-year-old woman, and odontogenic sepsis in a 56-year-old woman. All 3 patients were treated with culture-directed systemic antibiotics; 2 of them also required surgical drainage (the child and the older adult). The 2 adults also received therapeutic anticoagulation, which was continued until venous recanalization was documented; the duration of combined antibiotic and anticoagulation treatment was 6 weeks. All 3 patients made uneventful recoveries. Significant morbidities associated with intracranial and IJV thrombosis were avoided as a result of prompt diagnosis and judicious treatment. PMID:24170472

Riffat, Faruque; Forer, Martin; Wignall, Andrew; Veivers, David; Patel, Nirmal

400

Evaluation of the Anaerobe-Tek system for identification of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Anaerobe-Tek system of Flow Laboratories, Inc. (McLean, Va.), is a new bacterial identification system which uses Gram morphology, sporulation, and reactions from 15 agar-based biochemical tests to generate a six-digit code number for identification of anaerobic bacteria. Supplemental tests are recommended when necessary to complete species identification. Individual test and identification performance of this system was evaluated by testing 216 anaerobic bacteria representing 31 species and one Centers for Disease Control unnamed group in parallel with a routine clinical laboratory identification system. Most of the tests in the Anaerobe-Tek system performed well; 85% of the organisms were correctly identified. The 32 (15%) failures in identification were due to omission from the identification code data base (38%), false-negative indole reactions (22%), and other incorrect biochemical reactions (40%). The replacement of the recommended indole test with an extraction method using the inoculum broth and an expansion of the data base of the system could raise the correct identification for this organism population to over 90% with no change in the test materials.

Buesching, W J; Svirbely, J R; Ayers, L W

1983-01-01

401

The anaerobic treatment of sewage and granule formation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.  

PubMed

The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing glucose in a 1 liter laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of glucose was investigated during the granulation process. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Massive initial granules were developed after three months of start-up. The effect of operational parameters such as influent glucose concentrations, pH, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) were also considered during granulation. The presence of a large concentration of sulphate in the sludge of a mesophilic (37 degrees C+/-1 degrees C) UASB reactor treating sewage resulted in severe process disturbance, with a complete inhibition of the propionate-degrading ability of the sludge. Severe inhibition of acetate removal was also observed, with concentrations of propionic acid and acetic acid in the reactor effluent of 1.72% and 18.88%, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is formed from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter containing sulfate by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This gas is toxic at rate exceeding 2% tolerable by a reactor. The result shows the rate of hydrogen sulfide production was 3.8 %. PMID:17067129

Makni, H; Bettaieb, F; Dhaouadi, H; M'Henni, F; Bakhrouf, A

2006-09-01

402

Anaerobic digestion of tannery waste: Semi-continuous and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of the vast amounts of tannery waste that are currently generated is a significant problem. Anaerobic treatment of different types of tannery waste (fleshings, skin trimmings and wastewater sludge) was investigated. The biochemical methane potential is the same at 37°C or 55°C and an assay of this was shown to be an appropriate screening tool with which to estimate

Gregor D. Zupan?i?; A. Jemec

2010-01-01

403

Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.  

PubMed Central

Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction.

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

1978-01-01

404

Peak anaerobic power in elderly men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of maximal anaerobic power (P\\u000a max) of the quadriceps muscle and corresponding optimal shortening velocity (v\\u000a opt) with age, habitual physical activity (PA) and maximal oxygen consumption (V?O2\\u000a \\u000a max\\u000a ) were assessed in 37 healthy older [71.1?(SD 3.8) years] men and compared to those of 16 young [22.7 (SD 3.4) years] men.\\u000a The PA was evaluated using a?questionnaire.

Marc Bonnefoy; Tomasz Kostka; Laurent M. Arsac; Sophie E. Berthouze; Jean-René Lacour

1997-01-01

405

Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

Filtrate from an anaerobic municipal waste digestion plant at Pompano Beach, Florida, has BOD, COD, and total organic C contents of 1075, 6855, and 1655 mg/L, respectively. The treatment does not inactivate total coliforms; that of the digester slurry and filtrate are 2.3 X 10 to the power of 6 and 1.7 X 10 to the power of 6/100 mL, respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the filtrate are 0.48, 1.29, 7.29, 32, 0.35, and 11 mg/L, respectively. The filtrate requires treatment prior to discharge.

Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L.Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

1981-01-01

406

Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) enrichment of anaerobic microbial consortia in a coal fed chemostat, (2) characterization of biocoal products and examination of liquefaction potential, (3) isolation of decarboxylating organisms and evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation. The project began on September 12, 1990. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1991-01-01

407

Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.  

PubMed

Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction. PMID:25047

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

1978-03-01

408

In Vitro Activities of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates showed that erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal strains were susceptible to ABT-773 (?0.125 ?g/ml); the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus spp. was 4 ?g/ml; and all Moraxella spp. and beta-lactamase-producing Prevotella species strains were inhibited by ?0.125 ?g/ml. Among the anaerobes tested, only fusobacteria (45%) required ?4 ?g of ABT-773/ml for inhibition. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin

2001-01-01

409

Human serum activity of telithromycin, azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate against common aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

Telithromycin is a new ketolide antimicrobial with a good in vitro activity against both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity over time of telithromycin (800mg), azithromycin (500mg), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (875/125mg) in serum following single oral doses of these agents to 10 healthy subjects. Inhibitory and bactericidal titers were determined at 2, 6, 12, and 24h after each dose and the median titer was used to determine antibacterial activity. Against two azithromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, both telithromycin (MIC=0.25 and 0.5 microg/mL) and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited inhibitory and cidal activity for at least 6h. All three antibiotics provided prolonged (>or=12h) inhibitory activity against strains of Hemophilus influenzae (telithromycin MIC=4.0 microg/ml). Both telithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited rapid and prolonged inhibitory activity (>or=12h) against each of the anaerobes studied (Finegoldia [Peptostreptococcus] magna Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella bivia, and Prevotella melaninogenica). Moreover, both agents provided bactericidal activity against both Prevotella species. In this ex vivo pharmacodynamic study, we found that telithromycin provided rapid and prolonged antibacterial activity in serum against macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of H. influenzae, and common respiratory anaerobic pathogens. These findings suggest that telithromycin could have clinical utility in the treatment of community-acquired mixed aerobic-anaerobic respiratory tract infections, including chronic sinusitis and aspiration pneumonia. PMID:17189093

Stein, Gary E; Schooley, Sharon; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

2007-01-01

410

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and

J. P. Megonigal; M. E. Hines; P. T. Visscher

2003-01-01

411

Anaerobes in the upper respiratory tract in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the indigenous microbiota begins on the surfaces of the human body after birth when infants are exposed to continuous person-to-person and environmental contacts with microbes. Anaerobes constitute a significant part of indigenous bacterial communities at different body sites. Pioneering anaerobic commensals are able to colonize and survive in the oral cavity during the first months of life. After

Eija Könönen

2005-01-01

412

Kinetics of thermophilic anaerobes in fixed-bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to estimate growth kinetic constants and the concentration of “active” attached biomass in two anaerobic thermophilic reactors which contain different initial sizes of immobilized anaerobic mixed cultures and decompose distillery wastewater. This paper studies the substrate decomposition in two lab-scale fixed-bed reactors operating at batch conditions with corrugated tubes as support media. It

M. Perez; L. I. Romero; D. Sales

2001-01-01

413

Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionicsurfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primarysludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usuallystabilized anaerobically and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of thesexenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of LinearAlkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and

Hariklia N. Gavala; Birgitte K. Ahring

2002-01-01

414

Recent developments in hydrogen management during anaerobic biological wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the microbial kinetics, energetics, and substrate specificities of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems is presented with descriptions of three different state-of-the-art reactor configurations. Each of these reactor systems is intended to enrich different populations of anaerobic acidogens and methanogens as a result of design and operational strategies for control of hydrogen and volatile acids. Imposition of these

Stephen R. Harper; Frederick G. Pohland

1986-01-01

415

Anaerobic treatment of vegetable tannery wastewaters: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic process is a very attractive solution for the treatment of highly loaded wastewaters, due to low sludge production and energy consumption; nevertheless, its application to tannery wastewater shows several drawbacks due to the complexity of the chemical composition. The objective of this paper is to summarize recent research efforts in the field of anaerobic treatment of tannery wastewaters.Primary

Alberto Mannucci; Giulio Munz; Gualtiero Mori; Claudio Lubello

2010-01-01

416

Manganese oxide reduction as a form of anaerobic respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some instances of bacterial manganese oxide reduction observed in nature and under laboratory conditions are a form of respiration. Anaerobiosis is not a necessary condition for its occurrence, although anaerobic reduction of manganese oxide which is inhibited by air has been reported. It is the kind of manganese reducing microorganism involved which determines whether anaerobic conditions are required. In at

Henry L. Ehrlich

1987-01-01

417

Novel forms of anaerobic respiration of environmental relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel forms of anaerobic respiration continue to be discovered. Many of these are environmentally significant as they have important impacts on the fate of organic carbon and the cycling of many inorganic compounds. Furthermore, anaerobic respiration is becoming increasing recognized as a strategy for the remediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

Derek R Lovley; John D Coates

2000-01-01

418

Anaerobic respiration in the polychaete Euzonus (Thoracophelia) mucronata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intertidal polychaete Euzonus mucronata (Treadwell) is found in great numbers within beach sands that undergo periodic anoxia. Short-term exposures (2 to 4 h) to anaerobicity are withstood through the use of a supply of oxyhemoglobin to support continued aerobic metabolism. Longer periods of environmental anoxia activate an anaerobic metabolism capable of sustaining life for up to 20 days, and

E. G. Ruby; D. L. Fox

1976-01-01

419

Occurrence of hopanoid lipids in anaerobic Geobacter species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens have been classified as strictly anaerobic bacteria which grow and thrive in subsurface and sediment environments. Hopanoids are pentacyclic triterpenoid lipids and are important for bacterial membrane stability and functioning. Hopanoids predominantly occur in aerobically growing bacteria of oxic environments. They rarely have been found in facultatively anaerobic bacteria and, to date, not at all

Thomas Härtner; Kristina L. Straub; Elmar Kannenberg

2005-01-01

420

Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...

421

Anaerobic rumen SBR for degradation of cellulosic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis of organic particulates under anaerobic conditions is generally regarded as the rate limiting step in solid digestion processes. Rumen-based ecosystems appear to achieve very high hydrolysis rates for cellulosic organic material. This study aimed at the development and demonstration of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process operating with a rumen-based microbial inoculum. Fibrous alpha cellulose was used as

S. P. Barnes; J. Keller

2004-01-01

422

Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

2012-08-01

423

Membrane fouling mechanisms in the membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the membrane fouling mechanisms during the longtime operation of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) system designed for the treatment of alcohol-distillery wastewater. This system provided interesting information on anaerobic digestion and membrane performance associated with the fouling mechanisms in the membrane bioreactor. Enhanced COD removal was achieved with the complete retention of biomass either inside the

Kwang-Ho Choo; Chung-Hak Lee

1996-01-01

424

Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View  

PubMed Central

Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, Maria Teresa; Blazquez, Blas; Durante-Rodriguez, Gonzalo; Juarez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andres; Barragan, Maria J. L.; Garcia, Jose Luis; Diaz, Eduardo

2009-01-01

425

The role of an anaerobic accelerator in dental adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dental adhesive system was developed to yield a high bond strength to different substrates, enhanced durability, biocompatibility, and absence of interfacial microleakage. Such a system can be cured chemically (self-curing) or by visible light. Based on the assumption of an anaerobic character of the system's polymerization, the effect of the addition of an anaerobic accelerator (saccharin) on the curing

I. Eppelbaum; H. Dodiuk; S. Kenig; B. Zalsman; A. Valdman; R. Pilo

1996-01-01

426

The electron transport chain in anaerobically functioning eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lower eukaryotes can survive anaerobic conditions via a fermentation pathway that involves the use of the reduction of endogenously produced fumarate as electron sink. This fumarate reduction is linked to electron transport in an especially adapted, anaerobically functioning electron-transport chain.An aerobic energy metabolism with Krebs cycle activity is accompanied by electron transfer from succinate to ubiquinone via complex II

Aloysius G. M. Tielens; Jaap J. Van Hellemond

1998-01-01

427

Clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremias in a general hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was designed to investigate anaerobic bacteremias and evaluate their incidence and significance in a general hospital. One or more blood cultures positive for anaerobic microorganisms were analyzed from each of a total of 61 patients hospitalized between January 1988 and April 1992, in accordance with an established protocol. The clinical repercussions of bacteremia were also analyzed. Two

J. Gómez; V. Bańos; J. Ruiz; F. Herrero; M. Pérez; L. Pretel; M. Canteras; M. Valdés

1993-01-01

428

Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked

Idania Valdez-Vazquez; Richard Sparling; Derek Risbey; Noemi Rinderknecht-Seijas; Héctor M. Poggi-Varaldo

2005-01-01

429

Rapid entry port for an anaerobic glove box.  

PubMed Central

A rapid entry mechanism for an anaerobic glove box is described. The entry port is practical for entry or removal of one or two items and requires only seconds to operate. No deleterious effect on isolation or growth of anaerobes has been encountered since installation of the rapid entry port 3.5 years ago. Details for its construction are given.

Gill, V J; Tipton, H W; Gersch, S M

1978-01-01

430

Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.  

PubMed

Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction. PMID:22932878

Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

2012-10-21

431

Temperature regulation of anaerobic degradation of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation of organic matter follows similar pathways in digesters and anaerobic freshwater sediments. The responsible microorganisms are linked in a complex food web, where short chain fatty acids and H2 are important intermediates. Degradation of short-chain fatty acids is endothermic under standard conditions and is only possible at low H2 partial pressures maintained by exothermic methanogenesis. The coupling between

P. Westermann

1996-01-01

432

Alternative methods for determining anaerobic biodegradability: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of solid wastes is a necessary step before they can be used in anaerobic digestion. The quantities of different compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and fibers) and anaerobic biodegradability (capacity to produce methane) are important information required to characterize waste. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is one of the most relevant tests for assessing the biodegradability of waste

M. Lesteur; V. Bellon-Maurel; C. Gonzalez; E. Latrille; J. M. Roger; G. Junqua; J. P. Steyer

2010-01-01

433

Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic uterine bacteria during peripartum period in normal and dystocia-affected buffaloes.  

PubMed

Parturition complications predispose establishment of uterine infections, which in turn affect subsequent fertility. The aim of present study was to characterize and compare the type of bacterial flora prevalent within the uterine lumen of dystocia-affected buffaloes and compare them with the normally calving buffaloes. The study was conducted on 40 buffaloes; of which 10 calved normally (Group I) and 30 were treated for dystocia (Group II). Bacteriological examination was performed using uterine swabs, which were collected before delivery, immediately after delivery and day's 24-60 postpartum. A total of 30 uterine swabs from Group I and 79 swabs from Group II were collected, of which 19 (63.3%) and 71 (89.9%) yielded significant bacterial growth, respectively. A total of 205 isolates belonging to 10 different genera of bacteria were identified, 8 facultative anaerobes and 2 obligate anaerobes. In Group II, 91.6% of the bacteria positive swabs (n = 71) yielded mixed cultures, whereas the remainder being pure cultures. In contrast, 89.5% of the bacteria positive swabs of Group I (n = 19) yielded pure cultures. Mixed infections comprised mostly Arcanobacter (Actinomyces) pyogenes together with obligate anaerobes, Fusobacterium spp. and Bacteroides spp. In Group II, the frequency of incidental and coliform group bacteria was highest at the time of parturition, i.e., before and immediately after delivery, and decreased to nil during the 24-60-day postpartum period. However, in Group I, the incidental and coliform group of bacteria present at the time of parturition apparently persisted beyond the period when uterine involution is complete. The frequency of obligate anaerobes and A. pyogenes at the time of parturition was nil in the Group I while they predominated in dystocia-affected buffaloes (Group II). During the postpartum period of 24-60 days, the frequency of both obligate anaerobes and A. pyogenes increased significantly in Group II, whereas in Group I, only occasional isolates were obtained. To conclude, at the time of calving the prevalence of obligate anaerobes and A. pyogenes occurring in combination was highest in dystocia-affected buffaloes, and further increased in the postpartum period suggesting that these infections act synergistically. PMID:16143213

Jadon, R S; Dhaliwal, G S; Jand, S K

2005-09-01

434

A modeling approach to describe ZVI-based anaerobic system.  

PubMed

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is increasingly being added into anaerobic reactors to enhance the biological conversion of various less biodegradable pollutants (LBPs). Our study aimed to establish a new structure model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate such a ZVI-based anaerobic reactor. Three new processes, i.e., electron release from ZVI corrosion, H2 formation from ZVI corrosion, and transformation of LBPs, were integrated into ADM1. The established model was calibrated and tested using the experimental data from one published study, and validated using the data from another work. A good relationship between the predicted and measured results indicates that the proposed model was appropriate to describe the performance of the ZVI-based anaerobic system. Our model could provide more precise strategies for the design, development, and application of anaerobic systems especially for treating various LBPs-containing wastewaters. PMID:23932771

Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-07-27

435

Kinetics of anaerobic purification of industrial wastewater  

SciTech Connect

As part of the development of an integral mathematical model describing the up-flow anaerobic sludges blanket (UASB) reactor, the kinetics of the conversion of organic wastes has to be known. The Mondod model is compared with the model proposed by Andrews, et al. Together with the assumption that the substrate for the anaerobic bacteria is formed by nonionized, volatile fatty acids, the Andrews model is able to describe substrate inhibition and reactor failure due to pH changes. From four batch experiments, with different concentrations of microorganisms, it could be concluded with a reliability of over 95% that the Monod model was inadequate and Andrews' model was adequate to describe the measurements. Standard statistical techniques like the X2 and the F-test were used for this purpose. From a parameter sensitivity analysis for the Andrews model it followed that the maximum specific growth rate Mu(A) max of the bacteria and the inhibition constant K, are the parameters which influance the systems most. Thus, these parameters were determined experimentally and most accurately. The other parameters were taken from literature. From a calculation of the Thiele modulus for the particles it follows that transport limitation of the substrate in the flocs is not significant. The efficiency Eta is 0.85 in the worst case. 11 references.

Bolle, W.L.; van Breugel, J.; van Eybergen, G.C.; Kossen, N.W.F.; van Gils, W.

1986-04-01

436

Kinetics of anaerobic purification of industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

As a part of the development of an integral mathematical model describing the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, the kinetics of the conversion of organic wastes has to be known. We compared the Monod model with the model proposed by Andrews et al. Together with the assumption that the substrate for the anaerobic bacteria is formed by nonionized, volatile fatty acids, the Andrews model is able to describe substrate inhibition and reactor failure due to pH changes.From four batch experiments, with different concentrations of microorganisms, it could be concluded with a reliability of over 95% that the monod model was inadequate and Andrews' model was adequate to describe the measurements. Standard statistical techniques like the X2- and the F-test were used for this purpose. From a parameter sensitivity analysis for the Andrews model it followed that the maximum specific growth rate microAmax of the bacteria and the inhibition constant K1 are the parameters which influence the system most. Thus, these parameter were determined experimentally and most accurately. The results are: microAmax =16*10-4h-1+/-2% and K1 = 0.0158 g HAc/L+/-2.5%The other parameters were taken from literature. From calculation of the Thiele modulus for the particles it follows that transport limitation of the substrate in the flocs is not significant. The efficiency is 0.85 in the worst case.. PMID:18555358

Bolle, W L; van Breugel, J; van Eybergen, G C; Kossen, N W; van Gils, W

1986-04-01

437

Anaerobic performances of sedentary and trained subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of this report was to compare the performance of sedentary individuals, physical education students, and athletes of various disciplines in 10 s and 90 s maximal cycle ergometer tests. The 10 s power was the highest power output in one second from the 10 s test, while capacities were defined as the total work output during the best 10 s trial and the 90 s test. ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test indicated that the mean values of the 10 S power and capacity and the 90 S capacity tests were significantly higher in sprinter than in sedentary groups. Sprinters performed significantly better than marathon runners only in the 10 s capacity and power. Bodybuilders and sedentary subjects had similar results in the 90 s capacity test. Mean performance values per kilogram of body weight in sedentary females reached about 60% of sedentary males while marathon runners, physical education students and sprinter females reached about 80% of the male performances for the three indicators. When expressed per kilogram of fat-free mass, females reached a higher proportion of the male values for all performances. These results indicate that: a) there are differences for the power and capacity measured in predominantly anaerobic tests between athletes from different disciplines and sedentary individuals, and b) gender differences exist for these anaerobic performance indicators, but they appear attenuated in trained subjects. PMID:2924222

Serresse, O; Ama, P F; Simoneau, J A; Lortie, G; Bouchard, C; Boulay, M R

1989-03-01

438

Electrolysis-enhanced anaerobic digestion of wastewater.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates enhanced methane production from wastewater in laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors equipped with electrodes for water electrolysis. The electrodes were installed in the reactor sludge bed and a voltage of 2.8-3.5 V was applied resulting in a continuous supply of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen created micro-aerobic conditions, which facilitated hydrolysis of synthetic wastewater and reduced the release of hydrogen sulfide to the biogas. A portion of the hydrogen produced electrolytically escaped to the biogas improving its combustion properties, while another part was converted to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, increasing the net methane production. The presence of oxygen in the biogas was minimized by limiting the applied voltage. At a volumetric energy consumption of 0.2-0.3 Wh/L(R), successful treatment of both low and high strength synthetic wastewaters was demonstrated. Methane production was increased by 10-25% and reactor stability was improved in comparison to a conventional anaerobic reactor. PMID:21435864

Tartakovsky, B; Mehta, P; Bourque, J-S; Guiot, S R

2011-03-23

439

Factors affecting acetate degradation in anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are )ital Methanosarcina barkeri) and )ital Methanosarcina mazei). One strain of each of these bacteria was selected for this study, in which the effect of molecular hydrogen on acetate dissimilation was examined. We examined the effects that hydrogen concentration had on the active growth of aceticlastic (acetate-splitting) cultures. We found that, during steady-state growth, each of these methanogens ()ital M. barkeri) or )ital M. mazei)) could tolerate a wide range of hydrogen concentrations with little change in their rates of acetate degradation. At hydrogen partial pressures as low as 2 Pa and as high as 800 Pa no change was detected in the growth rate or acetate degradation rate of either of these methanogens. However, we also showed that small amounts of hydrogen were produced or consumed by )ital Methanosarcina) in order to bring the hydrogen concentration in their environment to a pressure of 16 to 92 Pa, similar to that found in anaerobic digestors.

Mah, R.A.; Boone, D.R.

1988-01-01

440

Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane

Thi Tham Pham

2002-01-01

441

The effect of biological sulfate reduction on anaerobic color removal in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

Combination of anaerobic-aerobic sequencing processes result in both anaerobic color removal and aerobic aromatic amine removal during the treatment of dye-containing wastewaters. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the competitive biochemical reactions between sulfate and azo dye in the presence of glucose as electron donor source. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV 5R) azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (sulfate). Performance of the anaerobic phase was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase), and formation of aromatic amines. The presence of sulfate was not found to significantly affect dye decolorization. Sulfate and azo dye reductions took place simultaneously in all operational conditions and increase in the sulfate concentration generally stimulated the reduction of RBV 5R. However, sulfate accumulation under anaerobic conditions was observed proportional to increasing sulfate concentration. PMID:23277271

Cirik, Kevser; Kitis, Mehmet; Cinar, Ozer

2013-01-01

442

Bacteremic Infection with Pantoea ananatis  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old man was hospitalized for dyspnea and bilateral ankle edema. During his hospital stay he presented anal hemorrhage and developed a high fever after colonoscopy. A set of aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles yielded a pure culture of gram-negative rods, susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The API20E code was 1005133, resulting in a very good identification as Pantoea sp. Subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a final identification as Pantoea ananatis. The patient was given intravenous and oral therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam and ofloxacin and recovered completely from his infection.

De Baere, Thierry; Verhelst, Rita; Labit, Caroline; Verschraegen, Gerda; Wauters, Georges; Claeys, Geert; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2004-01-01

443

Biofilms in pediatric respiratory and related infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria can grow as free-floating, planktonic bacteria or complex communities called biofilms. Biofilms promote bacterial\\u000a growth and diversity and offer bacteria unique environments, including aerobic and anaerobic layers, that facilitate resistance\\u000a to antimicrobial therapies. Respiratory and related structures provide ideal environments for the development of bacterial\\u000a biofilms, which predispose patients to recurrent and chronic infections. Biofilms are important for the

Yi-Chun Carol Liu; J. Christopher Post

2009-01-01

444

In vitro susceptibility to pexiganan of bacteria isolated from infected diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During two clinical trials involving the treatment of 835 outpatients with infected diabetic foot ulcers, 2515 bacterial isolates, including 2337 aerobes and 178 anaerobes, were grown from cultures of the ulcers. The in vitro susceptibility of these isolates was determined to pexiganan, a peptide anti-infective evaluated in these clinical trials, and to other classes of antibiotics. Pexiganan demonstrated broad spectrum

Yigong Ge; Dorothy MacDonald; Marietta M Henry; Howard I Hait; Kimberly A Nelson; Benjamin A Lipsky; Michael A Zasloff; Kenneth J Holroyd

1999-01-01

445

Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic bacteria, is among the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of childbearing age. It is well known that BV has an influence in acquisition of certain genital infections. However, association between BV and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been

Evy Gillet; Joris FA Meys; Hans Verstraelen; Carolyne Bosire; Philippe De Sutter; Marleen Temmerman; Davy Vanden Broeck

2011-01-01

446

In vitro efficacy of ?-lactam\\/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations against bacteria involved in mixed infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed infections are usually caused by a relatively limited range of bacteria, with the anaerobes and opportunistic pathogens contributing to their severity. In order to make the best therapeutic choice for a patient with a life-threatening infection, which is probably of mixed etiology, clinicians must be aware of the organisms that are likely to be involved, and the fact that

S. M. Finegold

1999-01-01

447

Total Viable Count of Microorganisms in the Infected Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the total viable count of microorganisms in the infected dental pulp is described. The count obtainable using blood agar, tomato juice agar, or Sabouraud's agar solid media is about 106 per tooth. Anaerobes are more numerous than aerobes counted on the blood agar plates. It may be possible to apply this technique for evaluating the efficacy

E. S. Akpata

1974-01-01

448

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection induces hypoxic lung lesions in the rat.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is believed to influence the metabolic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cause phenotypic drug resistance. Using pimonidazole adduct staining, we show that lung lesions of infected rats contain regions of low oxygen tension. Our results support the use of the rat model for evaluating anaerobic drug activity in vivo. PMID:21636324

Heng, YiXiong; Seah, Peck Gee; Siew, Jie Yee; Tay, Hui Chien; Singhal, Amit; Mathys, Vanessa; Kiass, Mehdi; Bifani, Pablo; Dartois, Véronique; Hervé, Maxime

2011-06-01

449

Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata)  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected for organisms cultured on pectin medium. Most of the cultures on yam tissue, however, showed activities for the three enzymes. The viscometric assay for hydrolase and lyase enzymes indicated a significant level of hydrolase activity (a 40.90% decrease in viscosity for Vibrio sp. and Corynebacterium spp.), but no lyase activity for most of the isolates. Two isolates of Corynebacterium and B. lentus caused changes in fresh yams suggestive of soft rot.

Obi, Samuel K. C.

1981-01-01

450

Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata).  

PubMed

Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected for organisms cultured on pectin medium. Most of the cultures on yam tissue, however, showed activities for the three enzymes. The viscometric assay for hydrolase and lyase enzymes indicated a significant level of hydrolase activity (a 40.90% decrease in viscosity for Vibrio sp. and Corynebacterium spp.), but no lyase activity for most of the isolates. Two isolates of Corynebacterium and B. lentus caused changes in fresh yams suggestive of soft rot. PMID:16345726

Obi, S K

1981-03-01

451

Comparison of an Anaerobic Filter and an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laborator-scale anaerobic filter (AF) and a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were compared for their ability to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactors were operated at mesophilic temperature (35°C). Reactor performance was assessed by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), gas composition and gas production. Sand of 0·3–0·5 mm diameter was used as a biomass support

C. J. Banks

1995-01-01

452

Anaerobic digestion of secondary residuals from an anaerobic bioreactor at a brewery to enhance bioenergy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many beer breweries use high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) systems to treat their soluble high-strength wastewater. Biogas\\u000a from these AD systems is used to offset nonrenewable energy utilization in the brewery. With increasing nonrenewable energy\\u000a costs, interest has mounted to also digest secondary residuals from the high-rate digester effluent, which consists of yeast\\u000a cells, bacteria, methanogens, and small (hemi)cellulosic particles. Mesophilic

Benjamin T. Bocher; Matthew T. Agler; Marcelo L. Garcia; Allen R. Beers; Largus T. Angenent

2008-01-01

453

Degradation of natural and synthetic polyesters under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Often, degradability under anaerobic conditions is desirable for plastics claimed to be biodegradable, e.g. in anaerobic biowaste treatment plants, landfills and in natural anaerobic sediments. The biodegradation of the natural polyesters poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-11.6%-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the synthetic polyester poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied in two anaerobic sludges and individual polyester degrading anaerobic strains were isolated, characterized and used for degradation experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Incubation of PHB and PHBV films in two anaerobic sludges exhibited significant degradation in a time scale of 6-10 weeks monitored by weight loss and biogas formation. In contrast to aerobic conditions, PHB was degraded anaerobically more rapidly than the copolyester PHBV, when tested with either mixed cultures or a single strained isolate. PCL tends to degrade slower than the natural polyesters PHB and PHBV. Four PHB and PCL degrading isolates were taxonomically identified and are obviously new species belonging to the genus Clostridium group I. The depolymerizing enzyme systems of PHB and PCL degrading isolates are supposed to be different. Using one isolated strain in an optimized laboratory degradation test with PHB powder, the degradation time was drastically reduced compared to the degradation in sludges (2 days vs. 6-10 weeks). PMID:11245900

Abou-Zeid, D M; Müller, R J; Deckwer, W D

2001-03-30

454

Methods of assessing microbial activity and inhibition under anaerobic conditions: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the existing methodologies for assessing microbial activity and inhibition under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion process consists of several metabolic steps–the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has attempted to describe these steps in the form of a mathematical model with the intention of providing a reference base for all further efforts in the modelling of anaerobic

Alberto Rozzi; Enrico Remigi

2004-01-01

455

Study on the inhibitory effect of mimosa extract on anaerobic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerning the treatment of tannery wastewater with high COD (chemical oxygen demand), the effective process is physical-chemical and anaerobic treatment. The core technology of anaerobic treatment is to test the performance of anaerobic degradation of organic matter, clarify the inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of pollutant. In this paper, anaerobic degradation and inhibitory effect of mimosa extract were studied. In

Xingyuan Ma; Jun Ma; Qi Liu; Junjun Wang

2011-01-01

456

Transcriptional regulation and energetics of alternative respiratory pathways in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli is able to grow by aerobic and by anaerobic respiration. Despite the large difference in the amount of free energy that could maximally be conserved from aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, the proton potential and ?g?Phos are similar under both conditions. O2 represses anaerobic respiration, and nitrate represses fumarate respiration. By this the terminal reductases of

Gottfried Unden

1998-01-01

457

Degradation of azo dye Mordant Yellow 10 in a sequential anaerobic and bioaugmented aerobic bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete biodegradation of azo dyes requires an anaerobic and aerobic step, in the anaerobic step sulfonated azo dyes (SADs) are reduced, yielding (sulfonated) aromatic amines ((S)AAs) which can be degraded aerobically. The complete biodegradation of the SAD Mordant Yellow 10 (MY10) was studied in a sequential anaerobic and aerobic bioreactor. Anaerobically, MY10 was reductively cleaved and the resulting aromatic amines,

N. C. G. Tan; A. Borger; P. Slenders; A. V. Svitelskaya; G. Lettinga; J. A. Field

2000-01-01

458

The anaerobic life of Bacillus subtilis: Cloning of the genes encoding the respiratory nitrate reductase system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, generally regarded as an aerobe, grows under strict anaerobic conditions using nitrate as an electron acceptor and should be designated as a facultative anaerobe. Growth experiments demonstrated a lag phase of 24 to 36 hours after the shift from aerobic, to the onset of anaerobic respiratory growth. Anaerobically adapted cells grew without further lag

Tamara Hoffmann; Barbara Troup; Alexandra Szabo; Christoph Hungerer; Dieter Jahn

1995-01-01

459

Anaerobic digestion of tannery waste: semi-continuous and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor processes.  

PubMed

Disposal of the vast amounts of tannery waste that are currently generated is a sign