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Sample records for anaerobic odontogenic infections

  1. Treatment options in odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Maestre-Vera, Juan Ramón

    2004-01-01

    Most infections of the oral cavity are primary, odontogenic infections, with dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis the most common. Treating these infections will encompass odontologic, antimicrobial, surgical or combined treatment. Antimicrobial treatment includes the use of betalactams, macrolydes, tetracyclins, metronidazole, clindamycin, or combined treatment. The most commonly used ones are administered orally. PK/ PD parameters predict THE clinical and microbiological efficacy of the antibiotic. The three indices that are generally used to measure clinical efficacy are: T >MIC (time during which the concentration is above the minimum inhibitory concentration), Cmax/ MIC (ratio between peak concentration and the minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC/ MIC (ratio between the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration). Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid is one of the antibiotics recommended for the treatment of odontogenic infections due to its wide spectrum, low incidence of resistance, pharmacokinetic profile, tolerance and dosage. PMID:15580134

  2. A review of complications of odontogenic infections.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these "space infections" has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms "odontogenic infections," "complications," and "risk factors." PMID:27390486

  3. A review of complications of odontogenic infections

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these “space infections” has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms “odontogenic infections,” “complications,” and “risk factors.” PMID:27390486

  4. The management of odontogenic infections. A rationale for appropriate chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baker, K A; Fotos, P G

    1994-10-01

    Odontogenic infections are one of the most frequently occurring infectious processes known to health practice. Significant changes have occurred in the use of antibiotics and antimicrobials since the use of chemotherapeutic agents became widespread. This article provides some important considerations for selecting appropriate chemotherapeutic agents during the management of odontogenic infections. PMID:7805942

  5. Clinical appearance of orofacial infections of odontogenic origin in relation to microbiological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Heimdahl, A; von Konow, L; Satoh, T; Nord, C E

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with acute orofacial infections of odontogenic origin were classified into two groups with respect to the severity of infection. A total of 174 anaerobic and 22 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated. Anaerobic gram-negative rods were isolated more frequently from the patients with severe infections than from the patients with infections judged as mild (P less than 0.05). The occurrence of Fusobacterium nucleatum especially appeared to be associated with the severity of the infections (P less than 0.05). Penicillin resistance among the anaerobes was rarely found, while resistance to erythromycin was a common finding. All aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were susceptible to clindamycin, and all obligate anaerobic bacteria were susceptible to nitroimidazoles. PMID:4031041

  6. Suspect Odontogenic Infection Etiology for Canine Lymphoplasmacytic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Stepaniuk, Kevin S; Gingerich, Wade

    2015-01-01

    The role of odontogenic infection as an etiology for lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs was evaluated. An association between odontogenic infection and inflammatory rhinitis was identified in 55% of cases evaluated. Odontogenic infection was unlikely or undetermined in 10% and 35% of the cases, respectively. Cases of lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis had roentgen signs associated with endodontic disease, periodontal disease, or retained tooth roots in 60%, 45%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. A collaborative team based approach assessing inflammatory nasal disease is recommended. Based on the history and signalment of the individual patient, diagnostic modalities should be chosen wisely. In some cases, oral examination and intraoral radiographs may be a more direct and cost effective approach for diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory rhinitis. PMID:26197687

  7. Antimicrobial Therapy in Management of Odontogenic Infections in General Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Curtis J; Pellecchia, Robert

    2016-04-01

    This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of odontogenic infections. Current antibiotic regimens are reviewed and discussed including use of alternative antibiotics with patients known to have a penicillin allergy. Emphasis is made on proper examination of the patient with use of diagnostic aids to provide the correct treatment of choice. PMID:27040298

  8. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  9. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  10. Anaerobic lung infections.

    PubMed

    Vincent, M T; Goldman, B S

    1994-06-01

    Aspiration is the leading cause of anaerobic lung infections. Risk factors for these infections include a depressed level of consciousness, a history of seizure, general anesthesia, central nervous system or neuromuscular disease, cerebrovascular accident, impaired swallowing and use of a tracheal or nasogastric tube. Clinical presentation includes fever, weight loss, malaise and cough productive of foul-smelling sputum. Diagnosis is based on radiographic findings, clinical features and a characteristic morphology of mixed flora on Gram stain of uncontaminated pulmonary specimens. The diagnosis is confirmed by isolation of organisms, usually polymicrobial, on culture. Treatment includes proper drainage, debridement of necrotic tissue and an antibiotic regimen (often initially empiric) with an agent active against anaerobic and aerobic organisms. PMID:8203319

  11. Maxillary sinus disease of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Pushkar; Murad, Haitham

    2004-04-01

    Odontogenic sinusitis is a well-recognized condition and accounts for approximately 10% to 12% of cases of maxillary sinusitis. An odontogenic source should be considered in patients with symptoms of maxillary sinusitis who give a history positive for odontogenic infection or dentoalveolar surgery or who are resistant to standard sinusitis therapy. Diagnosis usually requires a thorough dental and clinical evaluation with appropriate radiographs. Common causes of odontogenic sinusitis include dental abscesses and periodontal disease perforating the Schneidarian membrane, sinus perforations during tooth extraction, or irritation and secondary infection caused by intra-antral foreign bodies. The typical odontogenic infection is now considered to be a mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection, with the latter outnumbering the aerobic species involved. Most common organisms include anaerobic streptococci, Bacteroides, Proteus, and Coliform bacilli. Typical treatment of atraumatic odontogenic sinusitis is a 3- to 4- week trial of antibiotic therapy with adequate oral and sinus flora coverage. When indicated, surgical removal of the offending odontogenic foreign body (primary or delayed) or treatment of the odontogenic pathologic conditions combined with medical therapy is usually sufficient to cause resolution of symptoms. If an oroantral communication is suspected, prompt surgical management is recommended to reduce the likelihood of causing chronic sinus disease. PMID:15064067

  12. Antimicrobials therapy of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobes predominant in the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora are often a cause of endogenous infections. Anaerobic bacteria are difficult to isolate from infectious sites, and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections caused by anaerobes can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system (CNS), oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin and soft tissues. The treatment of these infections is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, their polymicrobial nature and the growing resistance of anaerobes to antimicrobials agents. Antimicrobials are frequently the only form of therapy needed, but in others, they are an important adjunct to surgical drainage and correction of pathology. Because anaerobes are often recovered with aerobic and facultative bacteria, the chosen antimicrobials should cover all pathogens. The antimicrobials effective against anaerobic organisms are metronidazole, carbapenems, combinations of a beta-lactam and a beta-lactamase inhibitor, chloramphenicol, tigecycline and clindamycin. PMID:26365224

  13. Use of metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after incision and drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    The combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole is a widely-accepted empirical regimen for infections of the odontogenic spaces. Once adequate drainage has been established micro-organisms are less likely to grow and multiply, particularly anaerobes. This may obviate the need for anaerobic coverage after drainage in healthy hosts. We studied 60 patients in this randomised prospective study, the objective of which was to evaluate metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces. Samples of pus were sent for culture and testing for sensitivity. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole were given to all patients. After incision and drainage the patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In the first group both antibiotics were continued, and in the second metronidazole was withdrawn. The groups were compared both clinically and microbiologically. There were no significant differences between the groups in the resolution of infection. Thirteen patients (n=6 in the 2-antimicrobial group, and n=7 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group) showed no improvement during the 48 h postoperatively. Overall there was need to substitute another antibiotic for amoxicillin/clavulanate in only 6 cases. Six patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group required the addition of metronidazole after drainage. We conclude that in healthy subjects metronidazole is not necessary in the period after drainage, but its prescription should be based on assessment of clinical and laboratory markers of infection. PMID:25277645

  14. Microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Walia, Inderdeep Singh; Borle, Rajiv M; Mehendiratta, D; Yadav, Abhilasha O

    2014-03-01

    This paper aim to assess the anatomical spaces of head and neck region and causative microorganisms responsible for infections, evaluate the resistance of antibiotics used in treatment and compare the findings with previously reported microbial flora in the orofacial infection. Forty-two patients were recorded. All underwent surgical incision and drainage, received antibiotics cover, and had culture and sensitivity test performed for gram positive and gram negative aerobes. There were 33 male (78.57 %) and 9 female (21.42 %). Out of the 42 patients 28 (66.66 %) presented with single space involvement. The submandibular space was the most frequent location for single space abscess (28.12 %). Fourteen patients presented with multiple space involvement, with a total of 64 spaces being involved. Forty microorganisms were isolated. There were 28 aerobes and 10 anaerobes. Two fungi were also identified. The most common bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, Peptostreptococcus. The key issue here, which needs to be remembered, is that antibiotics alone cannot resolve odontogenic infection satisfactorily. Quick recovery of patients results with proper basic management comprising of early drainage/decompression which is equally important. PMID:24644391

  15. Cefamandole Therapy in Anaerobic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Richard N.; Scalcini, Marcella C.; Sanders, Charles V.; Lewis, A. Carter

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-one adult patients with infections due to anaerobic bacteria were treated with cefamandole. Bacteroides fragilis group (17) and Bacteroides melaninogenicus (13) were the most frequent anaerobes isolated. Duration of therapy varied from 2 to 49 days. Results were judged satisfactory in 26 cases, and unsatisfactory in 1 case. Four cases could not be evaluated. Adverse reactions occurred in 16 patients and included positive direct Coombs' test without hemolysis, transient liver function abnormalities, phlebitis, reversible neutropenia, fever, eosinophilia, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The more significant reactions were associated with prolonged therapy. None was lethal. These data suggest that cefamandole is effective in treatment of most anaerobic infections. PMID:380458

  16. Posterior auricular approach for decompression and drainage of superficial temporal space infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Gagan; Bhargava, Darpan; Thomas, Shaji; Arora, Punitpal Singh

    2015-03-01

    Involvement of superficial temporal space secondary to odontogenic infections of the maxillary and mandibular teeth is not uncommon. Usually, infections of the temporal space are drained via temporal approach. Authors propose a new approach for decompression and drainage of superficial temporal space which offers an advantage of dependent drainage and hidden scar. PMID:25729236

  17. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  18. Lemierre's syndrome from odontogenic infection: Review of the literature and case description.

    PubMed

    Noy, Dani; Rachmiel, Adi; Levy-Faber, Dan; Emodi, Omri

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare potentially fatal sequel of head and neck infection, classically described as thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with cervical space infection extending into the thorax. Our objective was to answer the clinical question: "Does Lemierre syndrome (LS) from odontogenic infection differ from nonodontogenic LS in regard to clinical sequence, treatment, and survival." We reviewed the literature on the management of LS over the last two decades, with a focus on LS from odontogenic infection. Such a case is presented in order to portray the clinical sequence. Only 10 cases met the inclusion criteria (including the case presented). The recorded data were analyzed in comparison to large case series reviewing LS. Our data reflect the moderate differences in regard to IJV thrombosis and bacteriogram. There is an overall rise in published LS cases in the last 20 years. Odontogenic infection leading to LS is scarce, yet with survival rates similar to nonodontogenic LS. Repeated surgical interventions and aggressive wide spectrum antibiotic therapy remain the treatment of choice. PMID:26981474

  19. Lemierre's syndrome from odontogenic infection: Review of the literature and case description

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Dani; Rachmiel, Adi; Levy-Faber, Dan; Emodi, Omri

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare potentially fatal sequel of head and neck infection, classically described as thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with cervical space infection extending into the thorax. Our objective was to answer the clinical question: “Does Lemierre syndrome (LS) from odontogenic infection differ from nonodontogenic LS in regard to clinical sequence, treatment, and survival.” We reviewed the literature on the management of LS over the last two decades, with a focus on LS from odontogenic infection. Such a case is presented in order to portray the clinical sequence. Only 10 cases met the inclusion criteria (including the case presented). The recorded data were analyzed in comparison to large case series reviewing LS. Our data reflect the moderate differences in regard to IJV thrombosis and bacteriogram. There is an overall rise in published LS cases in the last 20 years. Odontogenic infection leading to LS is scarce, yet with survival rates similar to nonodontogenic LS. Repeated surgical interventions and aggressive wide spectrum antibiotic therapy remain the treatment of choice. PMID:26981474

  20. The clinical relevance of microbiology specimens in head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J

    2014-09-01

    It is common surgical practice to take a specimen for microbial culture and sensitivity when incising and draining infections of odontogenic origin in the head and neck. We aimed to find out if routine testing has any therapeutic value. We retrospectively studied 90 patients (57 male and 33 female) admitted to Northampton General Hospital for treatment of odontogenic infections, and reviewed admission details, antimicrobial treatment, microbiological findings and their sensitivity or resistance, and complications. Specimens were sent from 72 (80%) patients of which 61 (85%) were infected. The most commonly isolated organism was Streptococcus viridans. Interim reports were published after a mean of 3 days (range 1-4), and 94% of patients were discharged within a mean of 2 days (range 0-9) postoperatively. Almost 95% of patients were discharged before results were available, and there were no reported complications. We therefore suggest that microbial culture has little therapeutic value in the management of these patients. With culture and sensitivity tests costing £25 - £30, omission of this practice in the case of uncomplicated (single tissue space) odontogenic infections could save resources in the National Health Service without affecting the care of patients. PMID:24906248

  1. Anaerobic infections in children: a prospective survey.

    PubMed Central

    Thirumoorthi, M C; Keen, B M; Dajani, A S

    1976-01-01

    Over an 18-month period, cultures from 95 infants and children yielded 146 anaerobic organisms in 110 clinical specimens. Bacteroides was the most frequently isolated anaerobe, followed by Propionibacterium and Clostridium species. Intra-abdominal sources, soft tissues, and blood were the three major sources (82%) of isolation of anaerobes. Whereas most patients (58%) were over 5 years of age and only 11% were newborns, anaerobic infections constituted a rather uniform proportion of all infections, regardless of sources, in all age groups. Anaerobes accounted for only 2.9% of all positive cultures encountered from the various sources. Rates of recovery of anaerobes from intra-abdominal sources were significantly the highest, and from soft-tissue infections they were significantly the lowest. The anaerobic bacteremias observed were of no clinical significance when Propionibacterium species were isolated; however, recovery of other anaerobes from the blood, and primarily Bacteroides species, was usually associated with clinical disease. Except in blood cultures, anaerobes almost invariably coexisted with facultative bacteria. PMID:1270594

  2. Spectrum and treatment of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobes, the antimicrobial chosen should provide for adequate coverage of both. The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobes are: metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline, cefoxitin and clindamycin. PMID:26620376

  3. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin.

    PubMed

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A S Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  4. Use of FDG-PET to detect a chronic odontogenic infection as a possible source of the brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun; Kuroshima, Takeshi; Wada, Mayumi; Satoh, Akira; Watanabe, Shiro; Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    This study describes the use of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to detect a chronic odontogenic infection as the possible origin of a brain abscess (BA). A 74-year-old man with esophageal carcinoma was referred to our department to determine the origin of a BA in his oral cavity. He had no acute odontogenic infections. The BA was drained, and bacteria of the Staphylococcus milleri group were detected. Whole body FDG-PET revealed that the only sites of definite uptake of FDG were the esophageal carcinoma and the left upper maxillary region (SUVmax: 4.5). These findings suggested that the BA may have originated from a chronic periodontal infection. Six teeth with progressive chronic periodontal disease were extracted to remove the possible source of BA. These findings excluded the possibility of direct spread of bacteria from the odontogenic infectious lesion to the intracranial cavity. After extraction, there was no relapse of BA. PMID:26497357

  5. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    PubMed Central

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A. S. Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  6. Temporomandibular Joint Septic Arthritis and Mandibular Osteomyelitis Arising From an Odontogenic Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gams, Kevin; Freeman, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been infrequently reported in the literature. Some investigators believe that this condition is under-reported because it is underdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis or late diagnosis of this condition can lead to serious morbidity, including fistula formation, intracranial abscess, fibrous or bony ankylosis, temporal bone or condylar osteomyelitis, growth alteration, and several others. This report describes a case of septic TMJ arthritis arising from direct spread of an odontogenic infection with subsequent development of mandibular osteomyelitis. The purpose of this case report is to 1) increase awareness of an underdiagnosed condition, 2) establish the seriousness of this infection, 3) for the first time report on a case of TMJ septic arthritis caused by Bacteroides infection, and 4) provide a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26657399

  7. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period. METHODS: Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients. RESULTS: From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and

  9. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  10. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  11. Cerebral abscess potentially of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Ben Hadj Hassine, Marouene; Oualha, Lamia; Derbel, Amine; Douki, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic origins are rarely implicated in the formation of brain abscesses. The relative paucity of this kind of infection and the difficulty in matching the causative microorganisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source can explain the late management of patients. We herein describe a case of a 46-year-old man with a cerebellar abscess that was probably due to an odontogenic infection. The diagnosis supported by imaging and microscopic identification, mini craniectomy for abscess drainage followed by eradication of all potential dental infectious foci, and an antibiotic regimen based on cephalosporins, metronidazole, and vancomycine contributed to a successful outcome. PMID:25705523

  12. Enhanced Expression of Contractile-Associated Proteins and Ion Channels in Preterm Delivery Model Mice With Chronic Odontogenic Porphyromonas Gingivalis Infection.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Konishi, Haruhisa; Teraoka, Yuko; Urabe, Satoshi; Furusho, Hisako; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi; Kudo, Yoshiki

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation and infection have been reported to induce preterm delivery. We have studied the relationship between inflammation and various ion channels, including the L-type Ca(2+) channel and P2X7 receptor, during acute inflammation of the pregnant rat uterus induced by lipopolysaccharides. Recently, we found that mice with odontogenic Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g, an important odontogenic pathogen) infection delivered at day 18.3 of gestation (vs. day 20.5 in normal mice). The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of myometrial contractile-associated proteins inducing contractions and confirm that these mice are useful as a model for preterm delivery induced by chronic inflammation. We examined the expression of the oxytocin receptor, connexin 43, prostaglandin F receptors, L-type Ca(2+) channel, and P2X7 receptor in the myometrium at day 18 of gestation by real-time PCR and western blot analyses. We also measured TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the blood serum, placenta, fetal membrane and myometrium on the same day. mRNA expression of the oxytocin receptor, connexin 43, prostaglandin F receptors, L-type Ca(2+) channel, and P2X7 receptor was elevated by 5.4, 3.2, 2.4, 2.5, and 1.7 fold, respectively, in the P.g-infected mice. Protein levels of the oxytocin receptor and connexin 43 also increased. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were elevated, showing that systemic inflammation continued during pregnancy. IL-1β levels in the placenta and fetal membrane also increased, suggesting inflammatory reactions were induced. Thus, mice with odontogenic infection may be useful as a model of chronic inflammation-induced preterm delivery. PMID:26692542

  13. A case of odontogenic brain abscess arising from covert dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Clifton, T C; Kalamchi, S

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic infections can spread to any organ of the body and in some cases cause life threatening infections. We report a case of multiple odontogenic brain abscesses resulting from undetected tooth decay. Whereas most odontogenic brain abscesses occur following dental treatment, this report documents brain abscesses prior to dental treatment, signifying the dangers of covert dental infections. This case report updates the literature on the topic of odontogenic brain abscesses. PMID:22524927

  14. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M.; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. PMID:26770859

  15. Primary Paranasal Tuberculosis in a Diabetic Mimicking Odontogenic Infection: A Rare Case; A Unique Presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Mehendirratta, Monica; Sareen, Chanchal; Aggarwal, Anju

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) is high especially in developing countries but primary para-nasal TB is still a rarity. The latter often remains quiescent until it reaches an advanced stage and offers a diagnostic challenge. In the present case report maxillary sinus TB mimicked a destructive periodontitis induced space infection, thus causing a delay in treatment. The present case report describes clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of a 50-year-old diabetic/HIV seronegative patient with histopathologically confirmed case of maxillary sinus TB. PMID:27135017

  16. Primary Paranasal Tuberculosis in a Diabetic Mimicking Odontogenic Infection: A Rare Case; A Unique Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mehendirratta, Monica; Sareen, Chanchal; Aggarwal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) is high especially in developing countries but primary para-nasal TB is still a rarity. The latter often remains quiescent until it reaches an advanced stage and offers a diagnostic challenge. In the present case report maxillary sinus TB mimicked a destructive periodontitis induced space infection, thus causing a delay in treatment. The present case report describes clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of a 50-year-old diabetic/HIV seronegative patient with histopathologically confirmed case of maxillary sinus TB. PMID:27135017

  17. Microbiological analysis of a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing moxifloxacin and clindamycin in the treatment of odontogenic infiltrates and abscesses.

    PubMed

    Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Balzer, Ludwig; Böger, Rainer H; Hallier, Olaf; Giersdorf, Ina; Streichert, Thomas; Haddad, Munif; Platzer, Ursula; Cachovan, Georg

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the oral pathogens found in odontogenic infections, to determine their susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), clindamycin (CLI), doxycycline (DOX), levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MXF), and penicillin (PEN), and to search for associations between specific pathogens and types of infection. Swabs from patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind phase II trial comparing MXF with CLI for the treatment of odontogenic abscesses or inflammatory infiltrates were cultured on media for aerobes and anaerobes. All bacterial isolates were identified at the species level. Overall, 205 isolates were cultured from 71 patients: 77 viridans group streptococci, 56 Prevotella spp., 19 Neisseria spp., 17 Streptococcus anginosus group isolates and hemolytic streptococci, 15 other anaerobes, and 21 other bacteria. Ninety-eight percent of pathogens were susceptible to MXF, 96% to AMC, 85% to LVX, 67% to PEN, 60% to CLI, and 50% to DOX. S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.04) in patients with abscesses (12/95) than in patients with infiltrates (5/110). In four patients with infiltrates who failed to respond to CLI therapy, three isolates of the Streptococcus mitis group and four Neisseria spp. resistant to CLI were found. In this study, S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were clearly associated with odontogenic abscesses. Our analysis suggests that viridans group streptococci and Neisseria spp. play a decisive role in the etiology of odontogenic infiltrates. The high in vitro activity of MXF against odontogenic bacteria corresponds well to its clinical results in the treatment of odontogenic abscesses and infiltrates. PMID:22354306

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  19. Enhancement of Experimental Anaerobic Infections by Blood, Hemoglobin, and Hemostatic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Gale B.

    1978-01-01

    Certain foreign materials have been demonstrated to enhance the infectivity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Whole blood and other protein compounds encountered in surgical settings or trauma were tested for their effect on infectivity of nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. Infectious synergistic mixtures of Bacteroides fragilis plus Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides melaninogenicus plus Fusobacterium necrophorum were each diluted to a barely noninfectious or minimally infectious concentration (subinfective inoculum) that was injected intraperitoneally into mice alone and in combination with test proteins. Infectivity was measured by deaths from sepsis or abscess(es) within the abdominal cavity at autopsy at 1 week. Two hemostatic agents, Gelfoam powder and Avitene (final concentrations, 10 mg/ml), and crystalline hemoglobin (4 g/100 ml) each produced a marked increase (P < 0.001) in the rate of infection when mixed with a normally subinfective inoculum of either bacterial mixture. Fresh homologous mouse blood (0.25 ml) injected intraperitoneally without anticoagulant also significantly enhanced infectivity (P < 0.01) of a subinfective inoculum of B. fragilis plus P. anaerobius. These studies demonstrated the capacity of whole blood, hemoglobin, and hemostatic agents to enhance the infectivity of certain nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. The high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria in the gastrointestinal, female genital, and respiratory tracts produce an increased risk of human infection after surgery or trauma in these sites; the protein agents studied here may further enhance infection. PMID:631883

  20. Unusual Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marina Reis; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Silva, Breno Nogueira; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm. It can, however, have locally aggressive behavior. This is a case of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of unusual location and behavior in a 15-year-old female patient. A panoramic radiograph revealed a large radiolucent lesion involving the retained tooth 33. Teeth involved in this lesion were displaced and with apparent root resorption. A prototype of the mandible showed a marked expansion of cortical bone, fenestration points in the lingual cortex, and fragility of the base of the mandible. Therefore, because of the risk of postoperative pathologic fracture the placement of a 2.4-mm reconstruction plate was indicated. Total enucleation of the lesion, as well as placement of a reconstruction plate were performed. Despite the large bone destruction, with the correct surgical procedure and the use of the reconstruction plate the patient recovered without incidents and a 24-month postoperative radiography showed satisfactory bone formation. PMID:26963303

  1. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  2. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STRICT AND FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES ISOLATED FROM ENDODONTIC INFECTIONS TO METRONIDAZOLE AND β-LACTAMS

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Lins, Samira Âmbar; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; de Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Endodontic infections are mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections and several microbial groups associated to these pathologies are also involved in orofacial infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from endodontic infections to β-lactams and metronidazole and verify the production of β-lactamases. Clinical specimens were collected from 58 endodontic infections of 52 patients. The microorganisms were isolated in selective and non-selective culture media, under anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, and identified using biochemical methods. In the susceptibility tests, it was used an agar dilution method, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar enriched with blood, hemin and menadione for the anaerobes, while Mueller- Hinton agar was employed for the facultative anaerobes. The production of β-lactamases was evaluated through the biological and chromogenic cephalosporin methods. All tested isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 99.3% to amoxicillin/clavulanate association, while 16.1% showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin G, and 4.89% to cefoxitin. Resistance to metronidazole was just found in facultative anaerobes. Production of β-lactamases was detected in 18.2% of the isolates and presented a correlation with resistance to β-lactams. PMID:19089195

  3. Central odontogenic fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Sanjay; Radhakrishna, Satish; Raj, Akshatha; Sawhney, Anshul

    2014-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF), which has been categorized under the subheading of odontogenic tumors of ectomesenchyme, is such an uncommon neoplasm that much of its nature is left uncharted. COF is a rare tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. Clinically, the lesion grows slowly and leads to cortical expansion. Radiologically, the lesion may be unilocular or multilocular. In some cases, it may be associated with root resorption or displacement. Histopathologically, the lesion is characterized by mature collagen fibers and numerous fibroblasts. A case of COF of the mandible in a male patient aged 49 years is described in this report. The patient showed no symptoms, no history of swelling discomfort or pain, and was unaware of the presence of the lesion. Orthopantomogram (OPG) showed generalized bone loss along with a unilocular radiolucent area, with a clear sclerotic lining and angular bone loss. Surgical enucleation of the lesion along with placement of osseo-graft, which is a bioresorbable demineralized bone matrix (DMBM), and platelet-rich fibrin was carried out in the defect site. Following surgery, patient was recalled for revaluation of the lesion; the surgical site showed good healing and an increase in bone height was seen. PMID:24872637

  4. Fate of pulpectomized deciduous teeth: Bilateral odontogenic cyst?

    PubMed

    Sandhyarani, B; Noorani, Hina; Shivaprakash, P K; Dayanand, A Huddar

    2016-01-01

    Pulpectomy is preferably more conservative treatment option than the extraction of deciduous teeth despite few undesirable consequences of obturating materials of which odontogenic cysts are one. This article aims to report a case of an 11-year-old female child having bilateral odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular and infected dentigerous cyst followed by pulpectomy of deciduous molars using zinc oxide eugenol which was surgically enucleated and followed up to 6 months until satisfactory healing of bone was observed. The article also emphasizes on the importance of regular follow-up of the pulpectomized tooth which can be harmful otherwise. PMID:27307677

  5. Fate of pulpectomized deciduous teeth: Bilateral odontogenic cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Sandhyarani, B.; Noorani, Hina; Shivaprakash, P. K.; Dayanand, A. Huddar

    2016-01-01

    Pulpectomy is preferably more conservative treatment option than the extraction of deciduous teeth despite few undesirable consequences of obturating materials of which odontogenic cysts are one. This article aims to report a case of an 11-year-old female child having bilateral odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular and infected dentigerous cyst followed by pulpectomy of deciduous molars using zinc oxide eugenol which was surgically enucleated and followed up to 6 months until satisfactory healing of bone was observed. The article also emphasizes on the importance of regular follow-up of the pulpectomized tooth which can be harmful otherwise.

  6. Report of Two Cases of Combined Odontogenic Tumors: Ameloblastoma with Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastic Fibroma with Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Ashley Nicole; Montague, Lindsay; Cohen, Donald; Islam, Nadim; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2015-09-01

    Combined odontogenic neoplasms have rarely been documented. Such tumors have also been described by other researchers as "hybrid" lesions. The histologic features are often identical to other individually well-established odontogenic neoplasms such as ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma (AF), and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Their clinical presentation is variable, ranging from cysts to neoplasms showing varying degrees of aggressive behavior. Most combined tumors contain features of one of the odontogenic tumors in combination with either a calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) or a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor. We present two new cases of combined odontogenic tumors: an ameloblastoma with an odontogenic keratocyst and an AF with COC. Predicting clinical outcome is challenging when a combination tumor is encountered due to the paucity of such lesions. One must understand salient features of these entities and differentiate them from the more common conventional neoplasms to expand classification and provide prognostic criteria. PMID:25552434

  7. Antibiotic management of lung infections in cystic fibrosis. II. Nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, James F; Aksamit, Timothy R; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Dasenbrook, Elliott C; Elborn, J Stuart; LiPuma, John J; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Waters, Valerie J; Ratjen, Felix A

    2014-10-01

    Airway infections are a key component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Whereas the approach to common pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa is guided by a significant body of evidence, other infections often pose a considerable challenge to treating physicians. In Part I of this series on the antibiotic management of difficult lung infections, we discussed bacterial organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterial infections, and treatment of multiple bacterial pathogens. Here, we summarize the approach to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. Nontuberculous mycobacteria can significantly impact the course of lung disease in patients with CF, but differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult clinically as coinfection with other micro-organisms is common. Treatment consists of different classes of antibiotics, varies in intensity, and is best guided by a team of specialized clinicians and microbiologists. The ability of anaerobic bacteria to contribute to CF lung disease is less clear, even though clinical relevance has been reported in individual patients. Anaerobes detected in CF sputum are often resistant to multiple drugs, and treatment has not yet been shown to positively affect patient outcome. Fungi have gained significant interest as potential CF pathogens. Although the role of Candida is largely unclear, there is mounting evidence that Scedosporium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, beyond the classical presentation of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, can be relevant in patients with CF and treatment should be considered. At present, however there remains limited information on how best to select patients who could benefit from antifungal therapy. PMID:25167882

  8. [Intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria aggravates pulmonary immune pathological injury of mice infected with influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Sha; Yan, Yuqi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Jiang, Zhenyou

    2016-04-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria and influenza virus infection, and the effect on pulmonary inflammatory cytokines in mice. Methods Totally 36 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, virus-infected group and metronidazole treatment group (12 mice in each group). Mice in the metronidazole group were administrated orally with metronidazole sulfate for 8 days causing anaerobic bacteria flora imbalance; then all groups except the normal control group were treated transnasally with influenza virus (50 μL/d FM1) for 4 days to establish the influenza virus-infected models. Their mental state and lung index were observed, and the pathological morphological changes of lung tissues, caecum and intestinal mucosa were examined by HE staining. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17 in the lung homogenates were determined by ELISA. Results Compared with the virus control group, the metronidazole group showed obviously increased lung index and more serious pathological changes of the lung tissue and appendix inflammation performance. After infected by the FM1 influenza virus, IFN-γ and IL-17 of the metronidazole group decreased significantly and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were raised, but there was no statistically difference between the metronidazole and virus control groups. Conclusion Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection. PMID:27053604

  9. Odontogenic myxoma: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sridhar P; Naag, Ananth; Kashyap, Bina

    2010-07-01

    Odontogenic tumors represents a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from benign to malignant to dental hamartomas all arising from odontogenic residues, that is, the odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme with variable amounts of dental hard tissues formed in the same sequence as in normal tooth development. We report two cases of myxoma, which were misdiagnosed initially and latter, reported as odontogenic myxoma; and were treated by conservative surgical excision in one case and radical resection with hemimandibulectomy in the other case. PMID:22442596

  10. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is a well-known condition in both the dental and otolaryngology communities. It occurs when the Schneiderian membrane is violated by conditions arising from dentoalveolar unit. This type of sinusitis differs in its pathophysiology, microbiology, diagnostics and management from sinusitis of other causes, therefore, failure to accurately identify a dental cause in these patients usually lead to persistent symptomatology and failure of medical and surgical therapies directed toward sinusitis. Unilateral recalcitrant disease associated with foul smelling drainage is a most common feature of odontogenic sinusitis. Also, high-resolution CT scans and cone-beam volumetric computed tomography can assist in identifying dental disease. Sometimes dental treatment alone is adequate to resolve the odontogenic sinusitis and sometimes concomitant or subsequent functional endoscopic sinus surgery or Caldwell-Luc operation is required. The aim of this article is to give a review of the most common causes, symptoms, diagnostic and treatment methods of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Search on Cochrane Library, PubMed and Science Direct data bases by key words resulted in 35 articles which met our criteria. It can be concluded that the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis is likely underreported in the available literature. PMID:25209225

  11. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  12. Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shraddha; Nagpure, Prakash S; Singh, Roohie; Garg, Deepika

    2008-07-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp. The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting. PMID:19561990

  13. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  14. A rare presentation of hybrid odontogenic tumor involving calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and plexiform ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Snehal S.; Mishra, Sunil S.; Degwekar, Shirish S.; Chaubey, Saujanya

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. We presented a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a plexiform ameloblastoma. This tumor was observed in the anterior area of the mandible of a 17-year-old Indian male. Masses of ghost epithelial cells with the characteristics of CCOT were seen in the lining of the cyst. The odontogenic epithelia with the features of plexiform ameloblastoma were also observed. PMID:24124318

  15. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

  16. Are we missing anaerobic infective endocarditis in some acute coronary syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaid, Ahmed; Smer, Aiman; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Bittner, Marvin

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of intermittent fevers and dyspnoea on exertion after a dental bridge placement 2 months ago. The patient's medical history was significant for mild to moderate mitral valve prolapse. Initial evaluation was notable for a 3/6 systolic apical murmur. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and cardiac biomarkers. Patient was treated initially for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. A 2-dimensional echocardiography was concerning for a new mitral regurgitation and a questionable vegetation adjacent to the mitral valve annulus. Transoesophageal echocardiography study confirmed the diagnosis. Subsequent microbial identification was notable for Peptostreptococci and he was started on intravenous penicillin therapy. The unexplained illness with underlying valve disease prompted consideration of infective endocarditis. This case describes a rare occurrence of anaerobic endocarditis imitating an acute coronary event. PMID:24943143

  17. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor radiographically mimicking a sinus mucocele.

    PubMed

    de Santana Santos, Thiago; Frota, Riedel; de Souza Andrade, Emanuel Sávio; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias

    2013-03-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor or Gorlin cyst is an uncommon lesion with a variable clinical behavior and considerable histopathologic diversity. The authors report a case of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor that was being treated as a maxillary sinus mucocele. The possibility of mimicking numerous odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions makes the calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor difficult for a clinical diagnosis. The present case demonstrates that a specific knowledge in oral pathology is required to differentiate odontogenic lesions. PMID:23524811

  18. [Modern clinical and radiological approach to diagnostics of odontogenic sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Khomutova, E Yu; Ignat'ev, Yu T; Demyanchuk, A N; Demyanchuk, A B

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the maxillary sinuses affect up to 70% of the adult population. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis represents 13-86% of the inflammatory processes of maxillofacial area, with the incidence range being explained rather by varying diagnosis criteria than the true incidence difference of odontogenic lesions. The aim of the study was to summarize the clinical and radiological characteristics of odontogenic sinusitis according to patients records in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of Omsk Clinical Hospital No11 and the oral surgery department of BUZ GKSP No1 in 2009-2014. A total of 948 records of patient (aged 17 to 68 years) with maxillary sinusitis were identified. X-ray examinations were performed by CT PISASSO TRIO ("KoYo", South Korea) and MSCT Brillians 6 and Brillians 64 ((Philips HealthCare), Netherlands). Images were obtained in axial projection with slice thickness of 0.2-0.6 mm with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) in a variety of direct and oblique projections. Altogether 664 patients were diagnosed with foreign bodies in the maxillary sinuses (filling material in 569 cases, roots or root fragments? implants, rubber drains, fragments of endodontic instruments in 95 cases). In 284 persons odontogenic cysts were found. Almost every fifth case was complicated by mycotic infection. Analysis of the results showed that only a multidisciplinary approach including dentists, maxillofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists and radiologists, as well as dental volumetric tomography or multislice CT can ensure the correct clinical and radiological approaches to determine the tactics of treatment in patients with sinusitis, reduce the incidence of relapses and chronic inflammatory processes in the maxillary sinuses. PMID:26953424

  19. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions. PMID:26155575

  20. Odontogenic sinus tract to the chin: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Kelly R; Minehart, Stephen J; Brown, David L; Ward, Brent B

    2010-07-01

    Sinus tracts of odontogenic origin most commonly open into the oral cavity but occasionally may drain extraorally. The diagnosis is more difficult when necrosis of the tooth occurs in the absence of dental caries. We report a 23-year-old man with a long-standing chronic wound on the inferior aspect of the chin that was refractory to treatment. This case demonstrates the use of a simple technique to identify a necrotic mandibular incisor tooth as the source of infection. PMID:21049765

  1. Odontogenic tumors that mimic a dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, E M; Sewall, S R; Dohse, A; Novak, T S

    1995-05-01

    Hyperplastic follicular tissue and a dentigerous cyst are the two most common entities associated with the crown of an impacted tooth. However, other diagnostic possibilities, including odontogenic tumors should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pericoronal radiolucency. This article presents three cases of radiolucent lesions that were histologically diagnosed as an odontogenic tumor, and stresses the importance of histological evaluation of all pericoronal radiolucencies. PMID:8624989

  2. Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

  3. Disseminated necrotic mediastinitis spread from odontogenic abscess: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Filiaci, Fabio; Riccardi, Emiliano; Mitro, Valeria; Piombino, Pasquale; Rinna, Claudio; Agrillo, Alessandro; Ungari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims Deep neck infections are rare but potentially fatal complication of pulpal abscess of the teeth. If an infection can progress rapidly from a toothache to a life threatening infection, then it is critical that dentists be able to recognize the danger signs and identify the patients who are at risk. Mediastinitis is a severe inflammatory process involving the connective tissues that fills the intracellular spaces and surrounds the organs in the middle of the chest. This pathology has both an acute and a chronic form and, in most cases, it has an infectious etiology. This study want to expose the experience acquired in the Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences Department, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, regarding two clinical cases of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis starting from an odontogenic abscess. Methods We report two clinical cases of disseminated necrotic mediastinitis with two different medical and surgical approaches. The radiographic and photographic documentation of the patients was collected in the pre-and post-operatively. All patients underwent a CT scan and MRI. Results Mediastinitis can result from a serious odontogenic abscess, and the extent of its inflammation process must be never underestimated. Dental surgeons play a key role as a correct diagnosis can prevent further increasing of the inflammation process. Conclusions A late diagnosis and an inadequate draining represent the major causes of the elevated mortality rate of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:26330907

  4. Atypical presentation of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Infante-Cossio, Pedro; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Gonzalez-Perez, Luis-Miguel; Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Sanchez-Gallego, Felicia

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of odontogenic origin. The usual clinical presentation of CCOC is a mass of progressive growth in the mandible sometimes accompanied with loss of teeth, pain, or bleeding. We describe a rare case of CCOC that showed an atypical presentation not previously described in the literature like a fast-growing painless mass in the retromolar area that reached a considerable size in a few days that caused obstruction of the airway. The presence of airway obstruction required immediate treatment, which consisted of a surgical excision of the tumor via a hemimandibulectomy. This clinical report highlights the possibility of odontogenic tumors presenting like a rapid-growing mass and the importance of clinical differential diagnosis of such presentation. PMID:22976710

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha A.; Sangle, Amit; Bussari, Smita; Koshy, Ajit V.

    2016-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare and uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardener et al. as a distinct entity. It is a cyst having an unpredictable, potentially aggressive behavior, and has the propensity to grow in large size with relatively high recurrence rate. It poses a diagnostic challenge as it can be clinically and histopathologically confused with lateral periodontal cyst, botryoid odontogenic cyst, radicular and residual cysts with mucous metaplasia, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The present case report describes GOC in both male and female patients with intra-oral swelling following extraction of 36 and 46, respectively. Careful histopathological examination is needed to diagnose GOC, and a careful long-term follow-up is advocated. PMID:27134453

  6. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amisha A; Sangle, Amit; Bussari, Smita; Koshy, Ajit V

    2016-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare and uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardener et al. as a distinct entity. It is a cyst having an unpredictable, potentially aggressive behavior, and has the propensity to grow in large size with relatively high recurrence rate. It poses a diagnostic challenge as it can be clinically and histopathologically confused with lateral periodontal cyst, botryoid odontogenic cyst, radicular and residual cysts with mucous metaplasia, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The present case report describes GOC in both male and female patients with intra-oral swelling following extraction of 36 and 46, respectively. Careful histopathological examination is needed to diagnose GOC, and a careful long-term follow-up is advocated. PMID:27134453

  7. Central odontogenic fibroma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Veeravarmal, V; Madhavan, R Nirmal; Nassar, M Mohamed; Amsaveni, R

    2013-01-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic mesenchymal tumor of jaw bones. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes two variants of COF namely: 1) Epithelial-rich type (WHO) and 2) epithelial-poor type (simple type). Rare variants like ossifying COF, COF associated with giant cell lesions, and amyloid have been documented. This article presents a case of an epithelial-rich variant of COF in a 24-year-old female. It presented as a bony swelling of the maxilla and appeared as a mixed lesion in radiographs. Histopathology showed a highly cellular fibrous connective tissue stroma with plump fibroblasts and long strands of odontogenic epithelium exhibiting mild eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. Numerous cementum-like hematoxyphilic calcifications of various sizes akin to dentin or acellular cementum were observed. We believe that clinical and radiographic features of this case may add valuable knowledge to the already existing literature. PMID:24250106

  8. Central odontogenic fibroma of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Veeravarmal, V; Madhavan, R Nirmal; Nassar, M Mohamed; Amsaveni, R

    2013-05-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic mesenchymal tumor of jaw bones. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes two variants of COF namely: 1) Epithelial-rich type (WHO) and 2) epithelial-poor type (simple type). Rare variants like ossifying COF, COF associated with giant cell lesions, and amyloid have been documented. This article presents a case of an epithelial-rich variant of COF in a 24-year-old female. It presented as a bony swelling of the maxilla and appeared as a mixed lesion in radiographs. Histopathology showed a highly cellular fibrous connective tissue stroma with plump fibroblasts and long strands of odontogenic epithelium exhibiting mild eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. Numerous cementum-like hematoxyphilic calcifications of various sizes akin to dentin or acellular cementum were observed. We believe that clinical and radiographic features of this case may add valuable knowledge to the already existing literature. PMID:24250106

  9. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence. PMID:24701462

  10. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  11. Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Jones, Robert; Feimster, Tawana; Sam, Frances E

    2010-01-01

    Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus) through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives. PMID:23662083

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Odontogenic Cutaneous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Kang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Won; Choi, Ki Hwa; Yoon, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic cutaneous fistula appears as dimpling or a nodule with purulent discharge, usually in the chin or jaw. Affected patients usually seek help from dermatologists or surgeons rather than from dentists. However, clinical symptoms of facial skin fistula without dental problems can lead to misdiagnosis. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with odontogenic cutaneous fistulas. Methods This retrospective observational study was performed at Chungbuk National University Hospital by analyzing patients who visited from April 1994 to September 2014. Following clinical and radiographic examinations, the paths and origins of sinus fistulas were determined. Investigated factors were gender, age, morphology, location, originating tooth, time to evolution, recurrence, and treatment method. Results Thirty-three patients (22 males, 11 females; average age 49.2 years) were examined during the investigation period. Thirty-four fistulas were diagnosed as odontogenic cutaneous fistulas. The most common morphology was dimpling (n=14, 41.2%). The various locations observed were related to the originating tooth. The most common site was the mandibular body related to mandibular molars. The referral clinical diagnosis was of odontogenic origin in 6 cases (18.2%). The majority of patients had experienced recurrence after treatment in previous clinics that had failed to diagnose odontogenic cutaneous fistula. Surgical fistulectomy and/or tooth treatment were performed in all cases. All patients were followed-up for 1 year. None showed signs of recurrence. Conclusion Extraoral and dental examinations are required to make a diagnosis of odontogenic cutaneous fistula. Thus, cooperation between dermatologists and dentists is essential. PMID:27489421

  13. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    PubMed

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P < 0.001). The intensity of MFs was significantly higher in odontogenic tumors compared to odontogenic cysts (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between odontogenic tumors, except between UAM and OM (P = 0.041). The difference between OKC and odontogenic tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors. PMID:27092213

  14. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P < 0.001). The intensity of MFs was significantly higher in odontogenic tumors compared to odontogenic cysts (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between odontogenic tumors, except between UAM and OM (P = 0.041). The difference between OKC and odontogenic tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors. PMID:27092213

  15. Myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies to facilitate communication between medical and dental staff: lessons from two cases experienced odontogenic septicemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Odontogenic diseases can be a risk factor for life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy that induces myelosuppression of variable severity. Previous studies noted the necessity of the elimination of all odontogenic foci before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To enable planning for the adequate dental intervention, the oral medicine team must understand the general status of patient and the intensity of the chemotherapy, which is sometimes difficult to be fully appreciated by dental staff. Therefore, a simplified grading would facilitate the sharing of information between hematologists, dentists and oral hygienists. This study aimed to introduce our myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies and analyze the timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection. Methods 37 patients having received various chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimens were classified into four grades based on the persistency of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy. Mild myelosuppressive chemotherapies were classified as grade A, moderate ones as grade B, severe ones as grade C, and chemotherapies that caused severe myelosuppression and persistent immunodeficiency (known as conditioning regimens for transplant) as grade D. The timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection was retrospectively investigated. Results Two patients (5.4%) had severe odontogenic infections after grade B or C chemotherapy. One occurred after extraction of non-salvageable teeth; the other resulted from advanced periodontitis in a tooth that could not be extracted because of thrombocytopenia. Both were de novo hematologic malignancy patients. During grade D chemotherapy, no patients had severe odontogenic infections. Conclusions The simplified grading introduced in this study is considered a useful tool for understanding the myelosuppressive state caused by chemotherapy

  16. Odontogenic epithelial hamartomas in periodontal structures.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Baden, E

    1989-02-01

    4 hamartomas apparently derived from remnants of the dental lamina and enamel organ are reported in a collection of human jaw specimens. These epithelial lesions represent a transitional stage between a developmental anomaly and a distinct odontogenic neoplasm. Earlier reports indicated that such lesions with clinical symptoms are rare; however, this study suggests a more common occurrence on a microscopic level. PMID:2921378

  17. Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes of Head and Neck in Computed Tomography Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Aleksandra; Hendrich, Barbara K.; Nienartowicz, Jan; Guziński, Maciej; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Infections of odontogenic origin are the most common cause of inflammatory disease of head and neck region. Computed tomography allows for defining localization and extent of inflammatory lesions, visualizes soft tissue involvement, presence of an abscess or an osteolytic lesion around causative tooth. The aim of this study was to assess pathways, by which odontogenic infections spread into respective deep head and neck structures in computed tomography examination, taking into account the following criteria: frequency of involvement of respective deep cervical spaces, possibility to determine a probable causative tooth and concordance with the results of clinical examination. Material/Methods Thirty-eight patients cervicofacial inflammatory disease had undergone CT examination of head and neck region with a 64-slice CT scanner after intravenous contrast administration. Results Abscess was reported in 30 (79%) cases, while inflammatory infiltration was diagnosed in remaining 8 (21%) patients. There was full concordance between radiological report and intraoperative report In 33 cases (87%). The most commonly involved cervical space was masticator space – 31 patients (82%), followed by submandibular space – 27 patients (71%). Dental examination was impossible in 29 patient because of trismus. During analysis of CT studies we evaluated maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes for presence of osteolytic bone lesions around causative teeth roots and we found them in 30 cases (79%). In 32 cases (84%) cervicofacial infection were of mandibular odontogenic origin. Conclusions In most cases CT study in patients suspected of odontogenic craniofacial infection revealed presence of an abscess, needing urgent surgery. Inflammatory infiltration of dental origin most frequently involves masticator space, followed by submandibular space. In most cases CT scanning allows for identification of causative teeth, especially when trismus makes detailed

  18. Anaerobic metabolism and quorum sensing by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in chronically infected cystic fibrosis airways: rethinking antibiotic treatment strategies and drug targets.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Daniel J; Cuppoletti, John; Trapnell, Bruce; Lymar, Sergei V; Rowe, John J; Yoon, Sang Sun; Hilliard, George M; Parvatiyar, Kislay; Kamani, Moneesha C; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hwang, Sung Hei; McDermott, Timothy R; Ochsner, Urs A

    2002-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that Pseudomonas aeruginosa residing as biofilms in airway mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is undergoing anaerobic metabolism, a form of growth requiring gene products that are not utilized during aerobic growth. The outer membrane protein, OprF, and the rhl quorum sensing circuit are two previously unrecognized cellular factors that are required for optimal anaerobic biofilm viability. Without OprF, bacteria grow extremely poorly because they lack nitrite reductase activity while lacking rhlR or rhlI forces bacteria to undergo metabolic suicide by overproduction of nitric oxide. Furthermore, anaerobic growth favors maintenance of the mucoid, alginate-overproducing phenotype. Thus, with increasing age of CF patients, mucoid populations predominate, indicating that anaerobic bacteria reside in the inspissated airway mucus. Because many frontline antibiotics used in the treatment of CF airway disease are either ineffective or show reduced efficacy during anaerobic conditions, we propose development of new drugs to combat anaerobic metabolism by P. aeruginosa for more effective treatment of chronic CF lung infections. PMID:12458153

  19. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the anterior mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Song, Young-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Bong Chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, which was formerly named calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a benign odontogenic tumor containing clusters of ghost cells within ameloblastic epithelium. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors have been associated with other odontogenic tumors, a finding that is a rare event in other types of odontogenic cysts or tumors. This report describes a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastic fibroma-odontoma of the anterior mandible that occurred in a 4-year-old Korean girl. PMID:24785751

  20. [Pediatric Patient with anaerobic Bacterial Meningitis Who was Infected through a Spinal Congenital Dermal Sinus Route].

    PubMed

    Okui, Hideyuki; Fukasawa, Chie; Tokutake, Shoko; Takei, Haruka; Sato, Junichi; Hoshino, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    We report the case of a pediatric patient in whom a spinal congenital dermal sinus was detected after the onset of anaerobic bacterial meningitis. The patient was a 4-month-old boy. He had a recurrent fever for 2 weeks before admission. On admission, he presented with a convulsive status and a bulging anterior fontanel. The previously consulted physician had made a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Spinal fluid cultures tested positive for Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spinal subdural abscess and cranial subdural hydrops; therefore, the patient was transported to our hospital for surgical treatment. A sacral dimple was noted on his lower back, and an MRI showed a spinal congenital dermal sinus. Antimicrobial therapy, cranial subdural aspiration, dermal sinus excision, and drainage were performed. He was discharged on the 60th hospital day. When pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. or anaerobic bacteria invade through a dermal sinus, it can result in meningitis. Involvement of a dermal sinus should be suspected when meningitis is caused by these pathogens or when recurrent meningitis occurs. PMID:27529968

  1. Surgical and prosthetic management of maxillary odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Haroon; Bashir, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are uncommon tumors of comprising of 3% of all the tumors of odontogenic origin. They usually occur during the second and third decades of life and are more commonly seen in females. The current case report sheds light upon the surgical treatment of a myxoma of odontogenic origin in posterior maxilla of a young female patient. Prosthodontic rehabilitation stages are also briefly described following complete healing of the lesion after surgery. PMID:26038664

  2. Amelogenin in odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Anigol, Praveen; Kamath, Venkatesh V.; Satelur, Krishnanand; Anand, Nagaraja; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amelogenins are the major enamel proteins that play a major role in the biomineralization and structural organization of enamel. Aberrations of enamel-related proteins are thought to be involved in oncogenesis of odontogenic epithelium. The expression of amelogenin is possibly an indicator of differentiation of epithelial cells in the odontogenic lesions. Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to observe the expression of amelogenin immunohistochemically in various odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Paraffin sections of 40 odontogenic lesions were stained immunohistochemically with amelogenin antibodies. The positivity, pattern and intensity of expression of the amelogenin antibody were assessed, graded and statistically compared between groups of odontogenic cysts and tumors. Results: Almost all the odontogenic lesions expressed amelogenin in the epithelial component with the exception of an ameloblastic carcinoma. Differing grades of intensity and pattern were seen between the cysts and tumors. Intensity of expression was uniformly prominent in all odontogenic lesions with hard tissue formation. Statistical analysis however did not indicate significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The expression of amelogenin antibody is ubiquitous in odontogenic tissues and can be used as a definitive marker for identification of odontogenic epithelium. PMID:25937729

  3. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

    2013-01-01

    The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position. PMID:24396609

  4. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  5. An adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in disguise.

    PubMed

    Dhirawani, Rajesh B; Pathak, Sanyog; Mallikaarjuna, K; Sharma, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a slowly growing benign tumor of the oral cavity. It accounts of 3-7% of all odontogenic tumors. It is seen to occur commonly in the anterior maxilla. The tumor is usually associated with an impacted tooth with maxillary canine being the most common tooth. AOT is seen in a younger group, especially below 20 years with a female preponderance. AOT occurs in two main variants: Central or intraosseous which is more common and second is peripheral which is rare. Radiologically, it represents as a radiolucent lesion with radiopaque foci usually an impacted or a supernumerary tooth. With a close clinical and radiographic resemblance to dentigerous cyst correct diagnosis and treatment is necessary. AOT being benign in nature requires a conservative management with enucleation. This is a case report of a 13-year-old girl with an AOT occurring in the anterior maxillary region. PMID:27461816

  6. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, K.; Kumar, Senthil; Vijayasamundeeswari; Vigneswari, Srivel

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed. PMID:22919236

  7. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  8. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of the Anterior Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Srinivasa Pathapati; Reddy, Sridhar Padala; Ananthnag, Jakkula

    2015-01-01

    Context: Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare cyst occurring in the middle-age people with mandibular anterior as the common site of occurrence. Case Report: We report a case of massive GOC in a 65-year-old female with an emphasis on its clinical course, histological features, and treatment modalities. Conclusion: The aggressiveness and recurrences of GOC warrants clinicians for the careful examination, treatment, and long-term follow-up. PMID:25789251

  9. Recurrent Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor After Effective Decompression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Wei; Han, Fangkai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xudong

    2016-07-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has potential aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Decompression has been widely preferred for large KCOTs due to safety and lower recurrence rates. However, KCOT is still likely to recur even after effective decompression. Here, we present a rare and interesting case of recurrent KCOT after effective decompression with adjunctive enucleation. Redecompression was then performed again, and the effect was still satisfactory on long-term follow-up. PMID:27391520

  10. Epithelial odontogenic tumours in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K M; Denholm, L J; Cooper, B J

    1987-09-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumours are uncommon, poorly understood and often difficult to diagnose, oral neoplasms. Dental organ pre-ameloblasts and basal lamina induce development of mesenchymal cells into odontoblasts, which produce dentin and induce pre-ameloblasts to mature into secretory ameloblasts. These reciprocal sequential inductive interactions between dental epithelium and mesenchyme form the basis for classifying epithelial odontogenic tumours. There are three tumours classified as non-inductive: ameloblastoma characterized by cords and islands of stellate reticulum with peripheral palisades of polarized columnar cells, adenomatoid ameloblastoma which has acini, rosettes and ducts of polarized columnar cells and stellate reticulum and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour which contains foci of Congo-red-positive material surrounded by pleomorphic polygonal epithelial cells. There are five tumours in which induction of mesenchymal tissue is evident: ameloblastic fibroma with characteristics of ameloblastoma plus proliferation of closely associated pulp-like mesenchyme; dentinoma consisting of masses of dentin, often with minimal cellular component; ameloblastic odontoma which contains palisaded epithelium and stellate reticulum as in ameloblastoma, as well as foci of dentin and/or enamel; complex odontoma which is a disorderly array of dentin, enamel, ameloblastic epithelium and odontoblasts; and compound odontoma containing denticles with well-organized tooth morphology. This paper reviews the embryogenesis of teeth and describes six types of epithelial odontogenic tumours in 13 animals. The literature concerning these tumours in nearly 250 animals is reviewed. The most commonly reported tumour is ameloblastoma and the species in which all types are most commonly reported is the dog. PMID:3316314

  11. Classification of odontogenic cysts and tumors - Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Imran, Aesha; Jayanthi, P; Tanveer, Shahela; Gobu, Sreeja C

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca produced a monograph on tumor classification which also included the classification of odontogenic tumors (OTs). The terminology used to describe malignant epithelial OTs has varied since the World Health Organization published the initial consensus on the taxonomy of OTs. Minor changes were introduced in the second edition. It is only in the very recent years that additional knowledge has accumulated and refined the classification. This review emphasizes on reasons for modification by each author and the recent acceptance. PMID:27601821

  12. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  13. Classification of odontogenic tumours. A historical review.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Hans Peter; Reichart, Peter A

    2006-10-01

    Using the term odontome for any tumour arising from the dental formative tissues, Broca suggested a classification of odontogenic tumours (OTs) in 1869. From 1888 to 1914, Bland-Sutton and Gabell, James and Payne modified tumour terminology, while maintaining Broca's odontome concept. Thoma and Goldman's classification (1946) divided the OTs into tumours of ectodermal, mesodermal and mixed origin and abolished the general term odontome. The Pindborg and Clausen classification (1958) based on the idea that the reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions were also operating in the pathogenesis of OTs. In 1966, WHO established a Collaborating Centre for the Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumours and Allied Lesions (including jaw cysts) headed by Dr Jens Pindborg. In 1971, the first authoritative WHO guide to the classification of OTs and cysts appeared followed in 1992 by a second edition. In 2002, Philipsen and Reichart produced a revision of the 1992-edition and in 2003, the editors of the WHO Blue Book series: 'WHO Classification of Tumours' decided to produce a volume on the Head and Neck Tumours including a chapter on Odontogenic Tumours and Bone Related Lesions. In July of 2005 this volume was published by IARC, Lyon. PMID:16968232

  14. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Tommaso; Sacco, Roberto; Bertolai, Roberto; Acocella, Alessandro; Colafranceschi, Maurizio; Lazzeri, Davide

    2011-05-01

    Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a benign, locally infiltrative intraosseous tumor composed of well-differentiated squamous epithelium in a fibrous stroma. It seems to derive from the epithelial rests of Malassez in the periodontal ligament space. It presents an odontogenic origin, involving both the upper and lower maxillary bone, mainly areas without teeth or connective tissue of the odontogenic cysts. Clinically, SOT could be asymptomatic (3 cases), notwithstanding it is mainly characterized by pain, swelling, and tooth/teeth mobility. The most typical presentation of SOT is a slowly growing endobony lesion arising within a single periodontal location. Frequent misdiagnosis concerns either ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma and fibroma. Since its first description in 1975, less than 50 cases have been identified. In light of the few reported cases, there are no consistently recorded clinical and radiographic features of SOT, and there is no predictable sex or site predilection. Diagnosis is predicated on recognition of the histopathologic features of SOT to obviate possible misdiagnosis of malignancy or ameloblastoma.We report the first case of SOT that arose in the vicinity of an implant. Through a meticulous review of literature, we discuss current etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. PMID:21586976

  15. Odontogenic Keratocyst in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamil, Ahmed H.; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Is to highlight the characteristics and management of odontogenic keratocyst in children only Material and Method: Computerized search in pubmed between (2005-2015) using specific words such as odontogenic keratocyst in children, odontogenic keratocyst association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with abstract written in English only. Result: During computerized literature search 77 articles in the years (2005-2015) were found. All these publications were miscellaneous studies including case series and case reports. Only 35 papers were selected which conform to our criteria. Most of the papers indicate that the histological type of keratocyst prevalent in children was parakeratinized variant, and most of the cases occurred in maxilla rather than mandible. Conclusion: We recommend that the surgeons who treat keratocysts in children take into consideration the late presentation in addition to the destructive nature and high recurrence rate. General practitioners face difficulty in early detection and referral of children with keratocysts or Gorlin syndrome. Treatment by multidiscplinary team is important if associated with Gorlin's syndrome Postoperative follow up is advised every 6 months. PMID:27335612

  16. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Mandible: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Ankur; Kaur, Gursheen; Sood, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst. It is a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling, usually affecting middle aged men and has tendency to reoccur. Here, we report a case of GOC in the anterior portion of mandible diagnosed by histopathology. PMID:26813085

  17. JAB1 accelerates odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Zhang, Ye; Shen, Qijie; Xing, Jing; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Cao, Peipei; Shen, Shuling; Zheng, Ke; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yi; Feng, Guijuan; Feng, Xingmei

    2016-06-01

    Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) is a multifunctional protein that participates in the control of cell proliferation and the stability of multiple proteins. JAB1 regulates several key proteins, and thereby produces varied effects on cell cycle progression, genome stability and cell survival. Some studies have shown that the loss of JAB1 in osteochondral progenitor cells severely impairs embryonic limb development in mice. However, the biological significance of JAB1 activity in the odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of JAB1, a key player in tooth development, in reparative dentin formation, especially odontogenic differentiation. We found that increased expression of JAB1 promoted odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The role of JAB1 in the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs was further confirmed by knocking down JAB1. Our findings provide novel insights on odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. PMID:26989054

  18. Molecular and genetic aspects of odontogenic tumors: a review.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kavita; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Fareed, Wamiq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    Odontogenic tumors contain a heterogeneous collection of lesions that are categorized from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of inconstant aggressiveness. Odontogenic tumors are usually extraordinary with assessed frequency of short of 0.5 cases/100,000 population for every year. The lesions such as odontogenic tumors are inferred from the components of the tooth-structuring contraption. They are discovered solely inside the maxillary and mandibular bones. This audit speaks to experiences and cooperation of the molecular and genetic variations connected to the development and movement of odontogenic tumors which incorporate oncogenes, tumor-silencer genes, APC gene, retinoblastoma genes, DNA repair genes, onco-viruses, development components, telomerase, cell cycle controllers, apoptosis-related elements, and regulators/conttrollers of tooth development. The reasonable and better understanding of the molecular components may prompt new ideas for their detection and administrating a better prognosis of odontogenic tumors. PMID:26221475

  19. Molecular and genetic aspects of odontogenic tumors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kavita; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Fareed, Wamiq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors contain a heterogeneous collection of lesions that are categorized from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of inconstant aggressiveness. Odontogenic tumors are usually extraordinary with assessed frequency of short of 0.5 cases/100,000 population for every year. The lesions such as odontogenic tumors are inferred from the components of the tooth-structuring contraption. They are discovered solely inside the maxillary and mandibular bones. This audit speaks to experiences and cooperation of the molecular and genetic variations connected to the development and movement of odontogenic tumors which incorporate oncogenes, tumor-silencer genes, APC gene, retinoblastoma genes, DNA repair genes, onco-viruses, development components, telomerase, cell cycle controllers, apoptosis-related elements, and regulators/conttrollers of tooth development. The reasonable and better understanding of the molecular components may prompt new ideas for their detection and administrating a better prognosis of odontogenic tumors. PMID:26221475

  20. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  1. In Vitro Activities of Doripenem and Six Comparator Drugs against 423 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates from Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds▿

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2008-01-01

    Against 182 anaerobe and 241 aerobe strains obtained from diabetic foot infections, doripenem was the most active carbapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 μg/ml), more active than imipenem against Proteus mirabilis, and ertapenem was more active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The MIC50 and MIC90 values were ≤0.125 μg/ml for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and all streptococci and 0.25/1 for Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:18070958

  2. Microbiologic and antibiotic aspects of infections in the oral and maxillofacial region.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R N; James, R B; Marier, R L; Wood, W H; Sanders, C V; Kent, J N

    1979-12-01

    An overview of infection as it applies to the oral and maxillofacial region has been provided. The following conclusions are drawn: odontogenic infections are caused by microbes found in the host's oral flora; cultures of purulent material generally will yield three to six anaerobes and one aerobe, (the aerobe is usually a Streptococcus species); Gram stains of purulent material can aid in therapeutic strategies; anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures are necessary to isolate all pathogens; pathogens found in infections of bite wounds reflect the oral flora of the aggressor; early postoperative wound infections are caused by the host's own flora, whereas later infections may be caused by hospital-acquired bacteria; and hepatitis B and herpes simplex virus are occupational hazards. Recommendations have been made for antimicrobial prophylaxis and for treatment. We recognize that some of these selections may be controversial. For instance, the value of prophylactic antibiotics in orthognathic surgery is not well defined; recommendations were made only in certain instances. However, in severe penetrating maxillofacial injuries with devitalized tissue, recommendations for antibiotics were for broad and prolonged coverage. In this instance, use of antibiotics is considered therapeutic and not prophylactic. In each instance, we tried to validate the selection. Our rationale has been to choose the antibiotics most active against the likely pathogens; additionally, consideration was given to drug toxicity and adverse reactions. We regard penicillin as the preferred agent for prophylaxis and treatment of most odontogenic infections. Alternative drugs include cephalosporins, doxycycline, and clindamycin. Erythoromycin and tetracycline are considered less effective than the former agents. Finally, we believe that successful treatment of infection depends as much on changing the microenvironment of the infected tissue by debridement and drainage as on appropriate antimicrobial

  3. Antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic bacteria isolated from primary dental root canal infections.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2012-12-01

    Fourty-one bacterial strains isolated from infected dental root canals and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence were screened for the presence of 14 genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracycline and macrolides. Thirteen isolates (32%) were positive for at least one of the target antibiotic resistance genes. These strains carrying at least one antibiotic resistance gene belonged to 11 of the 26 (42%) infected root canals sampled. Two of these positive cases had two strains carrying resistance genes. Six out of 7 Fusobacterium strains harbored at least one of the target resistance genes. One Dialister invisus strain was positive for 3 resistance genes, and 4 other strains carried two of the target genes. Of the 6 antibiotic resistance genes detected in root canal strains, the most prevalent were blaTEM (17% of the strains), tetW (10%), and ermC (10%). Some as-yet-uncharacterized Fusobacterium and Prevotella isolates were positive for blaTEM, cfxA and tetM. Findings demonstrated that an unexpectedly large proportion of dental root canal isolates, including as-yet-uncharacterized strains previously regarded as uncultivated phylotypes, can carry antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:23108290

  4. [Inflammatory odontogenic lesions of the jaws].

    PubMed

    Gallini, G; Merlini, C; Martelossi, L; Benetti, C

    1991-04-15

    The apical granuloma, the periapical abcess and the radicular cyst are the most frequent between the inflammatory odontogenic lesions of the jaws. These three lesions are caused by the necrosis of the pulp but are very different between each other from an histological point of view and they can correspond to different stages of the same pathological process considering the fact that from a granuloma can arise a periapical abcess or a radicular cyst and from a radicular cyst and abcess can originate. About these three pathological processes we discuss in this article the clinical, radiographical, ethiological, microscopical features, we suggest the treatment and the differential diagnosis. PMID:2070926

  5. Problems in diagnosing odontogenic myxoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Butt, F M A; Chindia, M L; Wakoli, K A

    2007-03-01

    Tumours and tumour-like growths arising from odontogenic tissues constitute a heterogenous group of lesions whose diagnosis can be particularly challenging on the part of both surgeons and pathologists. In children, these lesions are even more difficult to clinically and histopathologically diagnose definitively because of the concurrent diverse embryologic differentiation of dental tissues. A case is presented of a 12 year-old boy who was subjected to inappropriate primary management of a left mandibular mass, due apparently to inadequate consultation to establish an accurate diagnosis. PMID:17600984

  6. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis obscured by midfacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Ryškienė, Silvija; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis whose sinonasal symptomatology was thought to be the consequence of a previous midfacial trauma. The patient was admitted to the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery after more than 10 years of exacerbations of sinonasal symptoms, which began to plague soon after a facial contusion. We decided to perform CT of paranasal sinuses, and despite the absence dental symptomatology, the dental origin of sinusitis was discovered. The majority of sinonasal symptoms resolved after appropriate dental treatment, and there was no need for nasal or sinus surgery. PMID:26183855

  7. Oral Cavity Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Villaflor, Victoria; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    A case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the oral cavity is described in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. CT demonstrated a solid and cystic mass arising from the mandible. Histology demonstrated variably-sized nests of clear to pale eosinophilic cells with occasional central necrosis embedded in a hyalinized to fibrocellular stroma. The specimen was also positive for the characteristic rearrangement of the EWSR1 (22q12) locus in 93.5 % of interphase cells. PMID:25994920

  8. A Huge Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor of Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shreedhar, Balasundari; Ali, Iqbal; Agarwal, Anshita; Alam, Sarwar

    2012-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign, nonneoplastic (hamartomatous) lesion with a slow progressing growth. It occurs in both intraosseous and peripheral forms. This paper reports the case of a female aged 16 years who presented with a swelling in anterior maxilla; canine was missing, and a supernumerary tooth was present in the mid line. Radiology revealed a well-defined radiolucent area associated with impacted canine and root resorption of adjacent teeth, which was diagnosed histopathologically as AOT. The patient was treated surgically and later rehabilitated with fixed prosthesis. PMID:22481948

  9. Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C), and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications. PMID:21396085

  10. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  11. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dalbo Contrera Toro, Mariana; Siqueira Barreto, Icléia; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27064694

  12. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dalbo Contrera Toro, Mariana; Siqueira Barreto, Icléia; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27064694

  13. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  14. Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Renu; Somanathan, Thara; Kattoor, Jayasree

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC) is an exceptionally rare malignant odontogenic epithelial tumor. It is characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinization in the form of ghost cells with varying amounts of dysplastic dentin. Malignant histological characteristics include infiltration, cellular pleomorphism, numerous mitosis and necrosis. Its biological behavior varies from slow-growing locally invasive lesions to rapidly growing highly aggressive tumors. OGCC metastasizing to distant sites is extremely rare. Only three cases of metastasis have been reported in literature. We are reporting the case of a 54-year-old male patient who presented with tender swelling in the malar region. Histopathological examination revealed OGCC and he received postoperative radiotherapy. Two years later, he presented with a lung mass. Biopsy from the lung lesion showed the same morphology as that of maxillary tumor with scattered ghost cells. This case points to the aggressive behavior of OGCC and its metastatic potential. It also highlights the need for long-term follow-up of these patients. PMID:26980967

  15. Comparative in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftaroline-avibactam, and other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultured from infected diabetic foot wounds.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2013-07-01

    Foot infections are the most common infectious complication of diabetes. Moderate to severe diabetic foot infections (DFI) are typically polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The role of MRSA in these wounds has become an increasing concern. To determine if the addition of avibactam, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, to ceftaroline would be more active than ceftaroline alone, we tested 316 aerobic pathogens and 154 anaerobic recovered from patients with moderate to severe DFI, and compared ceftaroline with and without avibactam to other agents. Testing on aerobes was done by broth microdilution and by agar dilution for anaerobes, according to CLSI M11-A8, and M7-A8 standards. Ceftaroline-avibactam MIC90 for all Staphylococcus spp. including MRSA was 0.5 μg/mL, and for enterococci was 1 μg/mL. The MIC90s for enteric Gram-negative rods was 0.125 μg/mL. The addition of avibactam to ceftaroline reduced the ceftaroline MICs for 2 strains of resistant Enterobacter spp. and for 1 strain of Morganella. Against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci ceftaroline-avibactam had an MIC90 0.125 μg/mL and for clostridia 1 μg/mL. Avibactam improved ceftaroline's MIC90s for Bacteroides fragilis from >32 to 2 μg/mL and for Prevotella spp. from >32 to 1 μg/mL. Ceftaroline alone demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against most of the aerobes found in moderate to severe DFI. The addition of avibactam provides an increased spectrum of activity including the beta-lactamase producing Prevotella, Bacteroides fragilis and ceftaroline resistant gram-negative enteric organisms. PMID:23623385

  16. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

  17. Keratin metaplasia in the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Ramesh, Venkatapathy; Oza, Nirima; Panda, Abikshyeet; Balamurali, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the prevalence of keratin metaplasia and its relation with clinico-pathological profile of the odontogenic cyst. Materials and Methods: Odontogenic cysts were studied histologically with special stains to identify the presence of keratin and compared with various parameters such as underlying connective tissue inflammation, average epithelial thickness, and site of the cyst, type of the cyst, age and the sex of the patient. Results: Of 71 cases of various odontogenic cysts, 26 (36.6%) cases exhibited keratinization in the epithelial lining. In cysts with severe inflammation there is absence of keratinization. Conclusions: This study reveals higher prevalence of keratin metaplasia in the odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, inflammation is found to be one of factor influencing keratin metaplasia. PMID:25210349

  18. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  19. Odontogenic carcinosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Sang-Pill; Cho, Hyun-Young; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, In-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor with only a few reported cases. It is characterized by a true mixed tumor showing malignant cytology of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It has been assumed to arise from pre-existing lesions such as ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma, and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. To date, the reported cases have exhibited considerably aggressive clinical behavior. The case of an odontogenic carcinosarcoma in the mandible of a 61-year-old male is described herein. The tumor destroyed the cortex of the mandible and invaded the adjacent tissues. Treatment was performed by surgical resection and reconstruction. The purposes of this article are to introduce odontogenic carcinosarcoma through this case study, to distinguish it from related diseases and to discuss features of the tumor in the existing literature. PMID:26131431

  20. Follicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in Mandible: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Belgaumi, UI; Parkar, MI; Malik, NA; Suresh, KV; Havewala, AM; Bhalinge, PM

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively rare, benign, hamartomatous, and cystic odontogenic neoplasm that was first described more than a century ago. The lesion still continues to intrigue experts with its varied histomorphology and controversies regarding its development. The present article describes a case of cystic AOT with an unusual histomorphology associated with an impacted 44 in a 21-year-old male. PMID:27057389

  1. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, K S; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation "keratocyst" was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  2. Primordial Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lee J; Eftimie, Liviu F; Herford, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) was first described in 2014. It typically presents in the posterior mandible of a child or adolescent as a "dentigerous cyst-like" well-circumscribed radiolucency associated with an unerupted molar. POT consists of an ellipsoidal mass of dental papilla-like myxoid connective tissue entirely enveloped in a delicate membrane of ameloblastic epithelium. It shows features of a developing tooth with a huge dental papilla, and because it is devoid of dental hard tissue, it could be regarded a soft tissue odontoma. The lesion histologically mimics early (primordial) stages of tooth development. This report describes a case of POT and POT-like proliferations in an unrelated complex odontoma. PMID:26408843

  3. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst: A report of a rarest entity

    PubMed Central

    Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Wadhwan, Vijay; Mohan, Raviprakash Sasankoti

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinomas (VCs) arising from odontogenic cysts are a rare entity. An unusual case of a VC arising from the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is described for the first time. The microscopic features of the lesion are presented.

  5. Controlled Clinical Laboratory Comparison of Two Supplemented Aerobic and Anaerobic Media Used in Automated Blood Culture Systems To Detect Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, R.; Johnscher, I.; Martus, P.; Lenhardt, D.; Just, H.-M.

    1998-01-01

    A 20-ml blood sample was collected from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections and distributed equally into the four volume-controlled bottles of a blood culture set consisting of aerobic and anaerobic BACTEC Plus/F bottles and aerobic and anaerobic BacT/Alert FAN bottles. All bottles were incubated in their respective instruments for a standard 5-day protocol or until the instruments signalled positivity. Samples in all bottles with negative results by these instruments were terminally subcultured. A total of 8,390 blood culture sets were obtained during the study period, of which 4,402 (52.5%) met the study criteria. Of these, 946 (21.5%) were positive either by instrument signal or by additional terminal subculture of all negative bottles and yielded growth of microorganisms. Five hundred eighty-nine (13.4%) blood culture sets were considered to have recovered 663 clinically significant organisms. When both the BACTEC and the BacT/Alert systems were used, 465 positive sets were detected; BACTEC alone detected 52 positive sets and BacT/Alert alone detected 72 (P = 0.09). No differences were found between the two systems in microbial recovery rate from blood cultures obtained from patients on antibiotic therapy. Significantly more members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.01) were detected from patients without antimicrobial therapy by BacT/Alert than by BACTEC. The false-negative rates were 0.20% for BACTEC and 0.32% for BacT/Alert. A significantly higher false-positive rate was found for BACTEC (P < 0.0001). Both systems were comparable for the time to detection of microorganisms. However, gram-positive bacteria were detected faster by BACTEC and Enterobacteriaceae were detected faster on average by BacT/Alert. We concluded that both systems are comparable in their abilities to recover aerobic and anaerobic organisms from blood cultures and a terminal subculture might not be necessary for either of the two systems. The increased positivity

  6. Diagnosis and management of odontogenic myxoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Bruce; Boy, Sonja C; Steenkamp, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    A three-year-old Jack Russell terrier dog was presented with a large gingival mass of the right mandible extending from the fourth premolar to the first molar teeth. Radiographic examination of the expansile mass revealed moth-eaten, honeycomb-like lyses of the mandible and extended into the mandibular alveolar canal based on computed tomography. The histopathological diagnosis of the biopsy was odontogenic fibromyxoma. Mandibulectomy with resection of the associated soft tissues was performed. Surgical management was curative with no clinical signs of disease 2-years after treatment. These neoplasms are slow growing, locally destructive tumors of odontogenic origin that have been described in the jaw of only one dog. In this paper, the clinico-radiological and pathologic features, diagnostic modalities as well as the factors that might influence treatment outcome of odontogenic myxomas are discussed. These odontogenic tumors are currently excluded from the WHO classification of odontogenic tumors in domestic animals and inclusion in future classifications systems is proposed. PMID:17985692

  7. Etiologies and Treatments of Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Fahimeh; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Safai, Pooria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maxillary sinusitis is an important issue in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. This study aims to present a systematic review of etiologies and treatments of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic database search was performed based on related MeSH keywords. Articles published between January 2001 and December 2014 was selected according to the inclusion criteria. The information extracted from various studies was categorized in various tables. Results: The study selected 19 studies. In most studies, oroantral fistula (OAF) was the most common etiology of odontogenic sinusitis. Alpha-hemolytic streptococcus was the most common flora in sinusitis with dental origin. The literature shows that the Caldwell-Luc approach may be the best method for treating sinusitis in cases of displaced teeth. Conclusions: OAF is a common cause of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and may easily be treated by endoscopy and fistula closure. Maxillofacial surgeons and dentists should consider this problem to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent complications. PMID:26756016

  8. Decompression for management of keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Morais de Melo, Willian; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo

    2012-11-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of odontogenic origin with high recurrence rate. To date, various conservative or aggressive management strategies have been suggested as a method of treatment. Decompression is a conservative method that has been used in the treatment of large odontogenic cysts. The present paper reports a case of KCOT located in the mandible and discusses the importance of its management using conservative methods. The authors present a case of a 38-year-old patient with a KCOT located in the right mandibular angle and ascending ramus, which was treated by decompression followed by enucleation and curettage. The lesion did not recur during a follow-up period of 3 years after surgery. Preserving important structures of the bone and soft tissue decompression is a method with low morbidity. In addition, according to the literature, decompression has a success rate at least as high as the one of most aggressive treatments. PMID:23172507

  9. Odontogenic calcificant cystic tumor: a report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Daniel; Villanueva, Julio; Espinosa, Sebastián; Cornejo, Marco

    2007-03-01

    Odontogenic Calcificant Cystic Tumor (OCCT) is an infrequent injury. It arises from odontogenic epithelial rests present in the maxilla, jaw or gum. Gorlin and col. described the OCCT for first time as an own pathological entity in 1962. Clinically, the OCCT represents 1% of the odontogenic injuries. It is possible to be found from the first decade to the eighth decade. It affects in same proportion the maxilla and the jaw, being the most common in the dented zones, with greater incidence in the first molar area. Two case reports of OCCT in two different ages, both in female individuals, one at 5 years old and the other at 35 years old are presented. Enucleation of the tumor was the treatment chosen. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature related to these two cases of OCCT and its treatment, putting an emphasis on its aetiology, biological behaviour and treatment. PMID:17322800

  10. The diagnostic usefulness of immunohistochemistry for odontogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Keith D; Speight, Paul M

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of odontogenic tumors can be challenging, largely due to their rarity and consequent difficulties in gaining experience in their assessment. In most cases, careful attention to morphology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological features will allow a diagnosis to be made. However, in some cases, immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor may be useful. In this review we will outline the immunohistochemical expression profile of normal developing odontogenic tissues and a range of odontogenic tumors. In many cases the immunohistochemical markers are neither specific nor sensitive enough to be of help in diagnosis, but in some cases such analysis may prove very useful. Thus we have outlined a limited number of circumstances where immunohistochemistry may be of use to the practicing diagnostic pathologist. PMID:25409846

  11. Intraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Vijayvargiya, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a locally aggressive, rare benign odontogenic neoplasm that accounts for <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It was first described by a Dutch pathologist Jens Jorgen Pindborg in 1955. It is most often located in the posterior mandible. The tumor usually appears between the second and sixth decade of life and has no gender predilection. It is slow-growing neoplasm with a recurrence rate of 10–15% and with rare malignant transformation. Early diagnosis is essential to avoid oro-maxillofacial deformation and destruction. CEOT is rarely reported in India. We, herewith present a rare case of CEOT with unusual features associated with an impacted right third molar in the posterior mandible of 35 years male, with an emphasis on clinical, radiographic, histopathology and immunohistochemical features. PMID:26604515

  12. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

  13. Large, expansile odontogenic cyst with bilateral maxillary sinus involvement.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Maxine; Singer, Steven R; Rinaggio, Joseph; Kim, Irene H; Mupparapu, Muralidhar

    2013-03-01

    Residual cysts are common odontogenic lesions of the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws. A case of an unusually large residual cyst that crosses the maxillary midline and occupies portions of the maxillary sinuses is being reported. Investigations included a panoramic radiograph, CT scan and a biopsy. The differential diagnoses were common odontogenic lesions, including cysts and benign tumors. The value of advanced imaging modalities is stressed when determining the presence and extent of lesions in complex structures such as the maxilla. The need to visualize the entire lesion beyond what may be seen on intraoral views, as well as panoramic radiographs, is discussed. PMID:23691727

  14. Infratemporal Space Infection Following Maxillary Third Molar Extraction in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Gok, Gulşen; Zarghami, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    Infratemporal space infection is a rare but serious sequel of odontogenic infection. The diagnosis is difficult due to non spe-cific signs and symptoms. Diabetes mellitus as a definitive risk factor for odontogenic infections needs more consideration during clinical procedures. We report a case of an undiagnosed diabetic patient with isolated infratemporal space infection after tooth extraction with presentation of similar signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint and muscle problem. PMID:22991649

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Odontogenic Cutaneous Sinus Tracts in an 11-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient. In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved. Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471

  16. Comparative In Vitro Activities of ABT-773 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Animal and Human Bite Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin

    2000-01-01

    We studied the comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773, a new ketolide, against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic recent isolates from clinical bites using an agar dilution method and inocula of 104 CFU/spot for aerobes and 105 CFU for anaerobes. The following are the MIC ranges and MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of ABT-773 for various isolates, respectively: Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella septica, 0.125 to 2 and 1 μg/ml; other Pasteurella species, 0.125 to 1 and 0.5 μg/ml; Corynebacterium spp., 0.015 to 0.06 and 0.015 μg/ml; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.06 μg/ml; coagulase-negative staphylococci, 0.015 to >32 and 32 μg/ml; streptococci, 0.015 to 0.03 and 0.03 μg/ml; Eikenella corrodens, 0.25 to 1 and 1 μg/ml; and Bergeyella zoohelcum, 0.03 to 0.25 and 0.06 μg/ml. For anaerobes the MIC ranges and MIC90s of ABT-773 were as follows, respectively: Prevotella heparinolytica, 0.06 to 0.125 and 0.125 μg/ml; Prevotella spp., 0.015 to 0.125 and 0.06 μg/ml; Porphyromonas spp., 0.015 to 0.03 and 0.015 μg/ml; Fusobacterium nucleatum, 0.5 to 8 and 8 μg/ml; other Fusobacterium spp., 0.015 to 8 and 0.5 μg/ml; Bacteroides tectum, 0.015 to 0.5 and 0.06 μg/ml; and Peptostreptococcus spp., 0.015 to 0.25 and 0.03 μg/ml. ABT-773 was more active than all macrolides tested against S. aureus, E. corrodens, and anaerobes, but all compounds were poorly active against F. nucleatum. The activity of ABT-773 was within 1 dilution of that of azithromycin against Pasteurella spp., and ABT-773 was four- to eightfold more active than clarithromycin against Pasteurella spp. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for bite wound infections. PMID:10952607

  17. CT imaging findings of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswarlu, M; Geetha, P; Lakshmi Kavitha, N

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT), also known as a Pindborg tumour, with local aggressive behaviour. CT imaging showed a large expansile bone-forming lesion in the mandible, which showed the exact extent and nature of the lesion. We briefly discuss the imaging features of CEOT and the relevant literature. PMID:22190756

  18. [The glandular odontogenic cyst--a rare entity].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

    2014-05-01

    In this short communication, the very rare glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is presented as an independent entity. The GOC is a jawbone cyst of the maxilla and mandible. The typical radiological and histopathological characteristics of the GOC are described. Furthermore, differential diagnoses, current treatment options and the recurrence rates of this of entity are discussed. PMID:24633391

  19. Central odontogenic fibroma of the mandible: A case report with diagnostic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Angela; Pannone, Giuseppe; Ramaglia, Luca; Bufo, Pantaleo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Saviano, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Odontogenic fibroma (OF), a rare odontogenic tumor of mesodermal origin, has been thought to originate from either dental follicle, periodontal ligament, or dental papilla [1]. Different studies reported high variability in the incidence rate as being between 3 and 23% of all odontogenic tumors [2,3]. OF manifests a dual character at the histopathological examination showing odontogenic epithelial structures mimicking those observed in biopsy of ameloblastoma and, in addition, peculiar fragments of cellular stroma. The clinical and radiological features of OF are similar to other odontogenic and/or non-odontogenic tumours and the differential diagnosis may first occur at fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Presentation of case In the case reported, a young patient showed a localized gingival enlargement involving radiologically the superior margin of the right angle of the mandible and associated with an un-erupted tooth. The morphological characteristics together with clinical and radiologic findings confirmed the tumor to be a central odontogenic fibroma (COF) with secondary gingival involvement. Discussion and conclusion Benign odontogenic tumors may be distinguished from other odontogenic/non-odontogenic neoplasias and from malignant tumours through a cytologic differential diagnosis as treatment differs accordingly. PMID:26793312

  20. Computed tomographic characteristics of odontogenic neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Amory, Joseph T; Reetz, Jennifer A; Sánchez, Melissa D; Bradley, Charles W; Lewis, John R; Reiter, Alexander M; Mai, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic neoplasms are locally invasive oral tumors in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe CT characteristics for varying histopathologic types of canine odontogenic neoplasms. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of histologic findings reviewed and scored imaging studies. A total of 29 dogs were included in the study. Twenty-three of these dogs had concurrent dental radiographs. The most common CT characteristics for all tumor types were a direct association with or in the region of multiple teeth in 96.4% (27/28), contrast enhancement in 96.3% (26/27), alveolar bone lysis in 93.1% (27/29), and mass-associated tooth displacement in 85.2% (23/27). Mass-associated cyst-like structures were identified in 53.6% (15/28) and were only present in tumors containing odontogenic epithelium. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas (n = 15) appeared as extra-osseous (10/15) or intra-osseous (5/15) masses. Intra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas were more likely to have mass-associated cyst-like structures and were subjectively more aggressive when compared with extra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumors (n = 3) had subjectively uniform CT imaging characteristics and consisted of round soft tissue and mineral attenuating masses with multiple associated cyst-like structures. Fibromatous epulides of periodontal ligament origin (n = 4) were contrast enhancing extra-osseous masses that were rarely referred for CT examinations and 25% (1/4) were not visible with CT. Other odontogenic tumors were less represented or had more variable CT imaging characteristics. Mass-associated tooth destruction was appreciated more often with dental radiographs and extra-oral tumor extension was identified more often with CT. PMID:24102949

  1. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  2. A brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin in a child with cyanotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, Moti; Birenboim, Ravit; Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Perles, Zeev; Averbuch, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to present a rare case of a brain abscess in a child with heterotaxy syndrome, severe cardiac anomalies, and extensive dental caries. The pathogen was Streptococcus intermedius isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The source of the pathogen was probably an infection of a primary molar with a dentoalveolar abscess involving the bud of the permanent successor. After a long course of antibiotic regimens followed by a craniotomy with abscess drainage, a shunt, and comprehensive dental treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any neurological sequel. At home, she completed an additional 3 months of oral antibiotics. This is the only known documented case of a toddler with a brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin without previous dental intervention. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration between cardiologists and pediatric dentists, especially in referring children with congenital heart defects for early dental checkups. PMID:23211917

  3. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  4. Role of inflammation in developmental odontogenic pathosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep S; Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Nainani, P

    2016-01-01

    Periapical infection in the primary tooth may lead to periapical abscess, granuloma, radicular cyst and even osteomyelitis. The infection in primary teeth can also affect the developing successor teeth leading to hypomineralization, hypoplasia, arrest of tooth development, regional odontodysplasia, delayed eruption etc. The purpose of this article is to report a case of malformed permanent tooth in relation to overlying infected deciduous teeth. The probable role of inflammation in pathogenesis of the present condition is also being discussed. PMID:27194886

  5. Role of inflammation in developmental odontogenic pathosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep S; Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Nainani, P

    2016-01-01

    Periapical infection in the primary tooth may lead to periapical abscess, granuloma, radicular cyst and even osteomyelitis. The infection in primary teeth can also affect the developing successor teeth leading to hypomineralization, hypoplasia, arrest of tooth development, regional odontodysplasia, delayed eruption etc. The purpose of this article is to report a case of malformed permanent tooth in relation to overlying infected deciduous teeth. The probable role of inflammation in pathogenesis of the present condition is also being discussed. PMID:27194886

  6. [A case of the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg's tumor). Reported and literature review].

    PubMed

    Peña-Torres, Leandro Miguel; Monterrubio-Guerrero, Alejandro; Díaz de León-Sandoval, Laura Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor known as Pindborg's tumor, is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws. One of their characteristics is the cortical expansion and the relationship with a non erupted tooth. Since the original description in 1955, only 200 cases approximately have been described in the world literature. This article reviews the literature and describes a case of patient who presented calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor in the jaw undergoing surgical excision treatment with an evolution without complications. PMID:20929626

  7. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  8. Fibromatous epulis in dogs and peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings: two equivalent lesions.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G; Baker, D C

    1991-03-01

    This article compares the clinical and histopathologic features of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings and the fibromatous epulis in dogs. They are apparently equivalent lesions. Both are odontogenic tumors of limited growth potential that do not recur if adequately excised; both occur in middle and late adulthood of the species concerned. The one difference is that the peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare condition, whereas the canine fibromatous epulis is common. PMID:2011354

  9. Surgical management of peripheral variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A rare case report with review

    PubMed Central

    Jindwani, Karuna; Paharia, Y. K.; Kushwah, Atul Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion constituting around 3% of all odontogenic tumours and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It manifests as a beningn growth which affects young individuals, with a female predeliction usually in the second decade of life, exhibiting more often in the anterior region of maxilla. The current article enumerates the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of a rare case of extraosseous AOT with its therapeutic consideration PMID:25684929

  10. A study of 1177 odontogenic lesions in a South Kerala population

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, PV; Beena, VT; Padmakumar, SK; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: A study on odontogenic cysts and tumors. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors and their distribution according to age, gender, site and histopathologic types of those reported over a period of 1998–2012 in a Tertiary Health Care Center at South Kerala. Settings and Design: The archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Archival records were reviewed and all the cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from 1998 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM SPSS Software version 16. Results: Of 7117 oral biopsies, 4.29% were odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor comprising 50.2% of cases, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (24.3%). These tumors showed a male predilection (1.19: 1). Odontogenic tumors occurred in a mean age of 33.7 ± 16.8 years. Mandible was the most common jaw affected (76.07%). Odontogenic cysts constituted 12.25% of all oral biopsies. Radicular cyst comprised 75.11% of odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous cyst (17.2%). Conclusions: This study showed similar as well as contradictory results compared to other studies, probably due to geographical and ethnic variations which is yet to be corroborated. PMID:27601809

  11. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  12. Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Maxilla- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Amir Hosein; Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare lesion with odontogenic origin. It shows a propensity for recurrence revealed in 30% of all case. This investigation reports a case of recurrent GOC in a 35-year-old female in the anterior region of the maxilla, which is uncommon and discusses about IHC finding, surgical methods, and differential diagnosis. Under general anesthesia, peripheral bone ostectomy via large round bur for removal of remaining epithelium of the cyst wall was done. Finally liquid nitrogen was used to remaining bone. This article recommends that soft tissue adjacent to the cortical bone perforation should be excised, as well as peripheral bone ostectomy by large round bur for removal of remaining epithelium of the cyst and liquid nitrogen application to the bony cavity. Because of high recurrence rate of the lesion close follow up of the patients is needed. PMID:26351478

  13. Carnoy's solution in the mangement of odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivanmalai, Sivaraj; Kandhasamy, Kohila; Prabu, Neetika; Prince, Christo Naveen; Prabu, Chandrakala Shekarappa Annapurna Pannaikadu Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Carnoy's solution is a substance used as a complementary treatment after the conservative excision of odontogenic keratocyst. The application of Carnoy's solution promotes a superficial chemical necrosis and is intended to reduce recurrence rates. However, the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus can occasionally be exposed after the removal of a lesion. The safety of the application of Carnoy's solution over this plexus has been reported, but to date, no clinical report has been made. The authors present a case that was given Carnoy's solution over the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus as a complementary treatment for the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Effective control of recurrence with low and transient neural morbidity was suggested with this technique. PMID:23066248

  14. Carnoy's solution in the mangement of odontogenic keratocyst.

    PubMed

    Sivanmalai, Sivaraj; Kandhasamy, Kohila; Prabu, Neetika; Prince, Christo Naveen; Prabu, Chandrakala Shekarappa Annapurna Pannaikadu Somasundaram

    2012-08-01

    Carnoy's solution is a substance used as a complementary treatment after the conservative excision of odontogenic keratocyst. The application of Carnoy's solution promotes a superficial chemical necrosis and is intended to reduce recurrence rates. However, the inferior alveolar vascular-nervous plexus can occasionally be exposed after the removal of a lesion. The safety of the application of Carnoy's solution over this plexus has been reported, but to date, no clinical report has been made. The authors present a case that was given Carnoy's solution over the inferior alveolar vascular-nervous plexus as a complementary treatment for the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Effective control of recurrence with low and transient neural morbidity was suggested with this technique. PMID:23066248

  15. Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC) of Condylar Head: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Managutti, Anil; Managutti, Sunita; Patel, Harsh; Menat, Shailesh

    2016-07-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental jaw cyst, considered as distinct entity from odontogenic keratocysts as it exhibits a less aggressive behaviour and a very low rate of recurrence. Most commonly occurs in mandibular molar and ramus region, rarely seen in maxilla and mandibular premolar area. But till now never reported in condyle, this article describes a case of OOC involving the mandibular condylar head in a 41-year-old male. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as TMD based on the clinical features, but radiographic evaluation revealed osteolytic lesion in right side condylar head. Condylotomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. We report a rare entity in this article with its management. PMID:27408460

  16. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. PMID:26608158

  17. Mixed odontogenic tumour with dentinoid and ghost cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Patil, Shruthi; Zingade, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastomas do not generally show evidence of induction, however, rare cases associated with odontome have been reported and are referred to as odontoameloblastomas. We report an unusual case of an ameloblastoma with features of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, showing evidence of induction of dentinoid by tumour cells--but without concomitant formation of enamel--and with features of ghost cells. The lesion occurred on the left side of the maxilla in a 31-year-old woman. PMID:26698201

  18. Targeting the sonic hedgehog pathway in keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Changchun; Amm, Hope M; DeVilliers, Patricia; Wu, Yixin; Deatherage, Joseph R; Liu, Zhongyu; MacDougall, Mary

    2012-08-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) may occur sporadically or associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is a benign aggressive tumor of odontogenic epithelial origin with a high rate of recurrence. A primary human keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell population, KCOT-1, has been established from a tumor explant culture. The KCOT-1 cells were characterized by growth rate, gene expression profiles of major tooth enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), ameloblastin (AMBN), amelotin (AMTN), tumor-related proteins enamelysin (MMP-20), kallikrein-4 (KLK-4), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, expression of the members of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH, patched (PTCH-1), smoothened (SMO), GLI-1, and GLI-2 and of the NOTCH signaling pathway, NOTCH-1, NOTCH-2, NOTCH-3, JAG-2 (Jagged-2), and Delta-like-1 (DLL-1) were evaluated. KCOT-1 cells were treated with SMO antagonist cyclopamine. We found that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and that the effects of cyclopamine were abolished by adding SHH protein. The protein expression of the SHH pathway was down-regulated by cyclopamine, further confirming that cyclopamine inhibits the SHH signaling pathway; SHH down-regulation correlated with the down-regulation of the NOTCH signaling pathway as well. In conclusion, using an established KCOT-1 cell population, we characterized the gene expression profiles related to the EMPs, SHH, and NOTCH signaling pathway and confirmed that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells and may be a viable agent as a novel therapeutic. PMID:22679015

  19. Classification of odontogenic cysts and tumors – Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Aesha; Jayanthi, P; Tanveer, Shahela; Gobu, Sreeja C

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca produced a monograph on tumor classification which also included the classification of odontogenic tumors (OTs). The terminology used to describe malignant epithelial OTs has varied since the World Health Organization published the initial consensus on the taxonomy of OTs. Minor changes were introduced in the second edition. It is only in the very recent years that additional knowledge has accumulated and refined the classification. This review emphasizes on reasons for modification by each author and the recent acceptance. PMID:27601821

  20. Transcriptome Variability in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Suggests Distinct Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shijia; Divaris, Kimon; Parker, Joel; Padilla, Ricardo; Murrah, Valerie; Wright, John Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive developmental cystic neoplasm thought to arise from the odontogenic epithelium. A high recurrence rate of up to 30% has been found following conservative treatment. Aggressive tumor resection can lead to the need for extensive reconstructive surgery, resulting in significant morbidity and impacting quality of life. Most research has focused on candidate-genes with a handful of studies employing whole transcriptome approaches. There is also the question of which reference tissue is most biologically-relevant. This study characterizes the transcriptome of KCOT using whole genome microarray and compare it with gene expression of different odontogenic tissues (“dentome”). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the neoplastic epithelial tissue in 20 cases. KCOT gene expression was compared with the “dentome” and relevant pathways were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes of KCOT. Several inflammatory pathways were activated in both subtypes. The AKT pathway was activated in one subtype while MAP kinase pathway was activated in the other. Additionally, PTCH1 expression was downregulated in both clusters suggesting involvement in KCOT tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the transcriptome of KCOT and highlights pathways that could be of diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:27066764

  1. Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Saravani, Shirin; Kamyab, Nazanin; Jahantigh, Mehdi; Torabi Parizi, Molouk

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs. Conclusions: The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor. PMID:26734469

  2. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B.; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  3. The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour: an update of selected issues.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Hans Peter; Khongkhunthiang, Pathawee; Reichart, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this update was to present the recent notable progress within remaining questions relating to the adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT). Selected issues that were studied included the following: (i) AOT history and terminology, (ii) the so-called peripheral AOT, (iii) AOT and the gubernaculum dentis and (iv) the so-called adenomatoid odontogenic cyst (AOC). The earliest irrefutable European case of AOT was described in 1915 by Harbitz as 'cystic adamantoma'. Recently, Ide et al. have traced two Japanese cases with irrefutable proof described by Nakayama in 1903. The so-called peripheral (gingival) variant of AOT seems to cover a dual pathogenesis, both an 'erupted intraosseous' and an 'extraosseous' (gingival) one. In 1992, we theorized that the generally unnoticed gubernaculum dentis (cord and canal) seems to be involved in the development of AOT. Ide et al. have concluded that the dental lamina in the gubernacular cord seems to be an embryonic source of the vast majority of AOTs. The suggestion by Marx and Stern to change the nomenclature of AOT to adenomatoid odontogenic cyst (AOC) is critically discussed. The present authors agree on the background of the work of several groups of researchers and WHO/IARC classifications that the biology of the follicular variant of AOT is already fully explained and does not make room for any change in diagnostic terms. Further, there is no reason to change terminology in this case where improvements or conditions to better clinical management are not an issue. PMID:26865435

  4. The role of stroma in the expansion of odontogenic cysts and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A polarized microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Aarti M.; Mahajan, Mahendra C.; Ganvir, S. M.; Hazarey, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the polarization colors of collagen fibers of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) with reference to their biological behavior. Study Design: Twenty cases each of OKC, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, and AOT were stained with picrosirius red stain and studied under polarized light. Results: A predominance of green to greenish yellow thick fibers was noted in OKC and AOT as compared to dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst. There was no significant difference between the polarization colors of the thin fibers in all the three groups. Conclusion: The stroma of OKC and AOT consists of poorly packed or pathologic collagen and plays a role in its neoplastic behavior. PMID:24082724

  5. Anaerobic Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zun; Qian, Yang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Ju, Meiting

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2014 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. •Pretreatment •Organic waste •multiple-stage co-digestion •Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:26420080

  6. Assessment of CD-105 as an Angiogenic Modulator in Odontogenic Myxomas and Dental Follicles.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen González-Galván, María; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Farfán-Morales, J Eduardo; Gainza-Cirauqui, Maria Luisa; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2016-06-01

    Aim Odontogenic myxoma is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaws, with a locally aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. CD-105 is a homodimeric cell membrane glycoprotein and is a component of the TGF-β1 growth factor receptor complex that modulates angiogenesis by regulating the proliferation, differentiation and cellular migration. The aim of this study is to quantify the microvascular density of the odontogenic myxoma based on the expression of CD-105. Materials and Methods The analysis included 18 odontogenic myxoma and 18 dental follicles as controls. A standard immunohistochemical procedure was performed with the CD-105 antibody. Five representative fields (40×) of the odontogenic myxoma and the dental follicles were selected to determine the microvascular density, which was then followed by a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis. Results Dental follicles presented a significantly higher microvascular density compared with odontogenic myxoma (P = .001). The odontogenic myxoma smaller than 3 cm showed a greater microvascular density than those larger than 3 cm in size (P > .05), and the microvascular density was lower in large odontogenic myxomas as compared with the dental follicles (P = .003). Conclusion A weaker expression of CD-105 in odontogenic myxoma might indicate a lower angiogenic activity, suggesting that vascular proliferation has a limited role in the growth mechanisms and in the aggressive behavior of this neoplasm. PMID:26888956

  7. Peripheral Tumor with Osteodentin and Cementum-like Material in an Infant: Odontogenic Hamartoma or Odontoma?

    PubMed

    Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Emmanouil, Dimitris E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a peripheral tumor on the mandibular alveolar ridge of a seven-month-old Caucasian boy, consisting of ectomesencymal odontogenic tissues, in particular osteodentin and cementum-like material, in a cellular or loose vascular connective tissue stroma. This case may be considered either a peripheral odontogenic hamartoma or a peripheral odontoma. PMID:27098720

  8. Er:YAG Laser Assisted Treatment of Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Magalhães, João; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma is a very rare benign odontogenic tumour characterized by a fibrous mature stroma with variable strands or islands of inactive-looking odontogenic epithelium. Our aim is to report a case of a central odontogenic fibroma and describe the clinical usefulness of Er:YAG laser for the surgical treatment of this tumour. A 74-year-old woman presented with an expansive lesion located in a mandible with multilocular and mixed radiographic appearance. A conservative excision using Er:YAG laser was performed. Complete removal was obtained. There were no postoperative complications. The histopatologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of central odontogenic fibroma of rich-epithelium type. No recurrence was observed during follow-up. PMID:26457211

  9. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with an odontome – a diverse lesion encountered

    PubMed Central

    Radheshyam, Chourasia; Alokenath, Bandyopadhyay; Kumar, Harish; Abikshyeet, Panda

    2015-01-01

    The human jaw is an exclusive habitat for odontogenic lesions. Ghost cells associated odontogenic lesions are a diverse group with a variety of presentations in the jaws. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin which demonstrates ghost cells in the epithelial component. This tumor sometimes mimics the features of a cyst clinically and radiographically, but histopathologically as well as behavior-wise shows the features of a tumor. Many classification systems have been proposed and revised from time to time. Presently a dualistic concept is highlighted to classify this group of lesions. The present case highlights a case of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with a complex composite odontome, which appeared like a cyst clinically and radiographically. PMID:26345145

  10. Defects of the Carney complex gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sílvia F; Gomez, Ricardo S; Diniz, Marina G; Bernardes, Vanessa F; Soares, Flávia F C; Brito, João Artur R; Liu, Sophie; Pontes, Hélder Antônio R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-06-01

    The surgical treatment of some odontogenic tumors often leads to tooth and maxillary bone loss as well as to facial deformity. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors may result in alternative molecular therapies. The PRKAR1A gene displays a loss of protein expression as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ectomesenchymal neoplasm. We used a combination of quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, and direct sequencing of all PRKAR1A exons to assess if this gene is altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. Thirteen tumors were included in the study: six ameloblastic fibromas, four ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, one ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, and two ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The epithelial components of the tumors were separated from the mesenchymal by laser microdissection in most of the cases. We also searched for odontogenic pathology in Prkar1a(+) (/) (-) mice. PRKAR1A mRNA/protein expression was decreased in the benign mixed odontogenic tumors in association with LOH at markers around the PRKAR1A gene. We also detected a missense and two synonymous mutations along with two 5'-UTR and four intronic mutations in mixed odontogenic tumors. Prkar1a(+) (/) (-) mice did not show evidence of odontogenic tumor formation, which indicates that additional genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of such tumors, at least in rodents. We conclude that the PRKAR1A gene and its locus are altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. PRKAR1A expression is decreased in a subset of tumors but not in all, and Prkar1a(+) (/) (-) mice do not show abnormalities, which indicates that additional genes play a role in this tumor's pathogenesis. PMID:25870248

  11. Anaerobic sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayre, J.

    1986-05-01

    Anaerobic sealants offer an alternative to conventional methods of joint repair on mains operating at low and medium pressures. The method does not require highly skilled personnel who are diligent in ensuring that the necessary standards of preparation and seal application are achieved. British Gas' experience has shown that lead joints that do not contain yarn or where the yarn has deteriorated are difficult to seal. The evidence so far indicates that yarn is important in ensuring that the low viscosity sealant rapidly wicks around the joint during the injection operation. It is obvious that more research and development is needed in this field, but anaerobic sealing of leaking joints in an effective, innovative method of joint repair.

  12. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Odontogenic Cutaneous Sinus Tracts in an 11-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui

    2016-05-01

    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient.In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved.Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471

  14. Odontogenic myxoma in a 52-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Hari; Mehta, Gagan; Kumar, Manoj; Lone, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumour of the jaws. It is usually seen in the second to third decade of life. Women are more frequently affected than men and it has more predilections for the mandible rather than the maxilla. OM presents as an asymptomatic swelling in most of the cases. Owing to the non-capsulated and aggressive nature of OM, a high rate of recurrence has been reported. Here we present a case of OM in a 52-year-old woman managed by segmental mandibulectomy. Sign of recurrence was seen after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:24859552

  15. Remission for Loss of Odontogenic Potential in a New Micromilieu In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Cai, Jinglei; Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Jia, Lingfei; Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Dandan; Chen, Shubin; Ge, Lihong; Pei, Duanqing; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic organogenesis, the odontogenic potential resides in dental mesenchyme from the bud stage until birth. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs) isolated from the inductive dental mesenchyme of developing molars are frequently used in the context of tooth development and regeneration. We wondered if and how the odontogenic potential could be retained when mDMCs were cultured in vitro. In the present study, we undertook to test the odontogenic potential of cultured mDMCs and attempted to maintain the potential during culturing. We found that cultured mDMCs could retain the odontogenic potential for 24 h with a ratio of 60% for tooth formation, but mDMCs were incapable of supporting tooth formation after more than 24 h in culture. This loss of odontogenic potential was accompanied by widespread transcriptomic alteration and, specifically, the downregulation of some dental mesenchyme-specific genes, such as Pax9, Msx1, and Pdgfrα. To prolong the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in vitro, we then cultured mDMCs in a serum-free medium with Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) and growth factors (fibroblastic growth factor 2 and epidermal growth factor). In this new micromilieu, mDMCs could maintain the odontogenic potential for 48 h with tooth formation ratio of 50%. Moreover, mDMCs cultured in KSR-supplemented medium gave rise to tooth-like structures when recombined with non-dental second-arch epithelium. Among the supplements, KSR is essential for the survival and adhesion of mDMCs, and both Egf and Fgf2 induced the expression of certain dental mesenchyme-related genes. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the transcriptomic changes responded to the alteration of odontogenic potential in cultured mDMCs and a new micromilieu partly retained this potential in vitro, providing insight into the long-term maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs. PMID:27050091

  16. Defects of the Carney complex's gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Sílvia F; Gomez, Ricardo S; Diniz, Marina G; Bernardes, Vanessa F; Soares, Flávia FC; Brito, João Artur R; Liu, Sophie; Pontes, Hélder Antônio R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of some odontogenic tumors often leads to tooth and maxillary bone loss as well as facial deformity. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in their pathogenesis may result in alternative molecular therapies. The PRKAR1A gene shows loss of protein expression, as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ectomesenchymal neoplasm. We used a combination of qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, LOH analysis and direct sequencing of all PRKAR1A exons to assess if this gene is altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. Thirteen tumors were included, being six ameloblastic fibromas, four ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, one ameloblastic fibrodentinoma and two ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The epithelial component of the tumors was separated from the mesenchymal by laser microdissection in most of the cases. We also searched for odontogenic pathology in Prkar1a+/− mice. PRKAR1A mRNA/protein expression was decreased in the benign mixed odontogenic tumors in association with LOH at markers around PRKAR1A gene. We also detected a missense and two synonymous mutations, besides two 5’-UTR and four intronic mutations in the mixed odontogenic tumors. Prkar1a+/− mice did not show evidence of odontogenic tumor formation, suggesting that additional genes may be involved in their pathogenesis, at least in rodents. We conclude that the PRKAR1A gene and its locus are altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. PRKAR1A's expression is decreased in a subset of tumors but not in all, and Prkar1a+/− mice do not show abnormalities, suggesting that additional genes play a role in this tumor's pathogenesis. PMID:25870248

  17. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with oro-nasal fistula: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Longoni, Salvatore; Amosso, Ernesto; Carini, Stefania; Garavello, Werner; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study The odontogenic sinusitis has an incidence between 38 and 40.6%. Increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with the presence of periapical abscesses, periodontal disease, dental trauma, tooth extraction and implant placement when the sinusal membrane is perforated. Materials and methods A patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with oro-nasal fistula was treated. Results The follow-up at six months showed the complete resolution of maxillary sinusitis, palatal fistula got closed and pain symptoms disappeared. Conclusion This case report describes a rare complication of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: the oro-nasal fistula. PMID:25678949

  18. Atypical odontalgia misdiagnosed as odontogenic pain: a case report and discussion of treatment.

    PubMed

    Lilly, J P; Law, A S

    1997-05-01

    Atypical odontalgia is characterized by prolonged periods of throbbing or burning pain in the teeth or alveolar process, which occurs in the absence of any identifiable odontogenic etiology. The pain may be bilateral and change in location. This article presents two cases of atypical odontalgia that were misdiagnosed and initially treated as pain of odontogenic origin. A therapeutic regimen of tricyclic antidepressants alleviated the pain in one patient and was unsuccessful in the second. These two cases demonstrate the importance of having a thorough knowledge of both odontogenic and nonodontogenic causes of orofacial pain as well as the need for careful diagnosis before undertaking any treatment. PMID:9545940

  19. Conservative management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the maxilla.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Willian Morais; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Brêda-Júnior, Marcus Antônio; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real

    2012-05-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor is characterized by high recurrence rates. Conservative or aggressive management has been suggested as a method of treatment. Decompression is a conservative treatment that has been used in the treatment of large odontogenic cysts. The authors report a case of a 14-year-old patient with a keratocystic odontogenic tumor located in the right maxilla, which was treated by decompression followed by enucleation with curettage. The lesion did not recur on follow-up for 3 years after the enucleation surgery. PMID:22627427

  20. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with dentigerous cyst: Report of a rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikramjeet; Goyal, Sunder; Sheikh, Soheyl; Shambulingappa, P.; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion derived from the complex system of dental lamina or its remnant. It is categorized into three variants (follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral). We present a rare case of AOT arising from a dentigerous cyst around the unerupted canine in a 28-year-old female. We believe that this case z an odontogenic cyst with neoplastic development, containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components. As more cases accumulate, we will be able to study these rare lesions further whether the AOTs derived from an odontogenic cyst could represent a distinct “hybrid” variant separate to the three variants described thus far. PMID:23230373

  1. Odontogenic Tumors: A Review of 675 Cases in Eastern Libya

    PubMed Central

    Goteti, Saravana HL

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in an Eastern Libyan population based on the 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, and also to compare the actual data with previous studies. Materials and Methods: We retrieved and analyzed 85 OTs from a total of 675 tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and perioral structures, for gender, age, tumor site, and frequency. The diagnosis was based on the most recent WHO (2005) classification of OTs. Results: OTs constituted 12.6% of all oral/jaw tumors and tumor-like lesions. Ameloblastoma (28.2%) was the most common type, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (25.2%) and odontoma (19.9%). The male: female ratio was 1.2:1, and maxilla: mandible ratio 1:2. The mean age of occurrence of tumors was 29 years with a peak incidence between 10 and 40 years. Conclusions: OTs are relatively common lesion in this Libyan Population, but the incidence of tumors is neither similar to Caucasians nor Sub-Saharan population. PMID:27013857

  2. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  3. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has

  4. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  5. The central odontogenic fibroma: How difficult can be making a preliminary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pippi, Roberto; Santoro, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor derived from the dental ectomesenchymal tissues. A 16-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred by her dentist for a radiolucent asymptomatic area associated with the crown of the impacted lower right third molar. A preliminary diagnosis of a follicular cyst was supposed. The lesion was surgically removed under general anesthesia together with the impacted tooth. The microscopic diagnosis of the excised tissue revealed an odontogenic fibroma. No clinical or radiographic signs of recurrence were found five years after surgical excision. Despite the various differential diagnoses of homogeneous unilocular and well delimited radiolucencies of the jaws, enucleation with peripheral curettage, without any other pre-operative imaging exams or biopsies, can be considered as the treatment of choice. Key words:Differential diagnosis, impacted third molar, radiographic imaging, microscopic diagnosis, odontogenic fibroma. PMID:27034766

  6. Differential expression of Cyclin D1 in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression levels of Cyclin D1 (CCD1), a nuclear protein that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts. Study Design: A total of 58 keratin-producing odontogenic cysts, diagnosed over ten years and classified according to the WHO 2005 criteria, were immunohistochemically analyzed in terms of CCD1 expression, which was quantified in the basal, suprabasal and intermediate/superficial epithelial compartments. The extent of immunostaining was measured as a proportion of total epithelial thickness. Quantified immunohistochemical data were correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical recurrence. Results: Keratin-producing odontogenic cysts were classified as 6 syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (S-KCOT), 40 sporadic or non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOT) and 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). Immunohistochemically, CCD1 staining was evident predominantly in the parabasal region of all cystic lesions, but among-lesion differences were apparent, showing a clear expansion of parabasal compartment especially in the S-KCOT, followed to a lesser extent in the NS-KCOT, and being much more reduced in the OOC, which had the greatest average epithelial thickness. Conclusions: The differential expression of CCD1 noted in the present study suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to the S phase contributes to the different aggressiveness of these lesions. However, CCD1 expression levels did not predict NS-KCOT recurrence, which is likely influenced by factors unrelated to lesion biology. Key words:Keratin-producing odontogenic cyst, keratocyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, cyclin D1, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25475773

  7. A survey of epithelial odontogenic tumors and cysts in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Poulet, F M; Valentine, B A; Summers, B A

    1992-09-01

    A retrospective histologic study of 12 canine and eight feline epithelial odontogenic tumors and cysts was conducted from oral masses (n = 3,917) obtained between 1980 and 1990. No sex or breed predilection was identified. Ameloblastoma was observed in two dogs (case Nos. 1, 2) 6 and 8 months of age. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors were seen in a dog (case No. 3) and in two cats (case Nos. 4, 5) between 8 and 16 years of age. Ameloblastic fibroma (or fibroameloblastoma) was observed in cats (case Nos. 6-10) only. Inductive fibroameloblastoma was observed in four cats (case Nos. 6-9) up to 1 year of age, whereas ameloblastic fibroma was seen in a 14-year-old cat (case No. 10). A single ameloblastic odontoma was identified in a 20-month-old dog (case No. 11). Two complex odontomas occurred in a 6-month-old (case No. 12) and a 4-year-old (case No. 13) dog. Odontogenic cysts were identified in five dogs (case Nos. 14-18) aged 4.5 months to 16 years and in a 1-year-old cat (case No. 19) and have not been previously reported in these species. These cysts were lined by a stratified epithelium reminiscent of the appearance of ameloblastic epithelium. An odontogenic keratocyst with prominent central parakeratotic keratinization was identified in one 9-year-old female dog (case No. 20). Almost all epithelial odontogenic tumors were circumscribed, benign tumors that warranted a good prognosis for survival, although local recurrence may have followed (or may follow) incomplete excision. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors may be locally invasive. Of six odontogenic cysts (case Nos. 14-19), two (case Nos. 15, 18) gave rise to basi-squamous carcinomas. The classification and behavior of epithelial odontogenic tumors and cysts in human beings, dogs, and cats are discussed. PMID:1413403

  8. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  9. Comparison of the benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) test, DNA probes, and immunological reagents for ability to detect anaerobic periodontal infections due to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Bacteroides forsythus.

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W J; Lopatin, D E; Giordano, J; Alcoforado, G; Hujoel, P

    1992-01-01

    Most forms of periodontal disease are associated with the presence or overgrowth of anaerobic species that could include Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus among others. These three organisms are among the few cultivable plaque species that can hydrolyze the synthetic trypsin substrate benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA). In turn, BANA hydrolysis by the plaque can be associated with periodontal morbidity and with the presence of these three BANA-positive organisms in the plaque. In this investigation, the results of the BANA test, which simultaneously detects one or more of these organisms, were compared with the detection of these organisms by (i) highly specific antibodies to P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and B. forsythus; (ii) whole genomic DNA probes to P. gingivalis and T. denticola; and (iii) culturing or microscopic procedures. The BANA test, the DNA probes, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or an indirect immunofluorescence assay procedure exhibited high sensitivities, i.e., 90 ot 96%, and high accuracies, i.e., 83 to 92%, in their ability to detect combinations of these organisms in over 200 subgingival plaque samples taken from the most periodontally diseased sites in 67 patients. This indicated that if P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and B. forsythus are appropriate marker organisms for an anaerobic periodontal infection, then the three detection methods are equally accurate in their ability to diagnose this infection. The same statement could not be made for the culturing approach, where accuracies of 50 to 62% were observed. PMID:1311335

  10. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Sapdhare, Swati; Pujar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is of particular interest because its recurrence rate is high and its behavior is aggressive. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), which is also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and with a predisposition to neoplasms. These multiple KCOTs have warranted an aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications. Recurrence of these lesions is a characteristic feature that has to be considered while explaining the prognosis to the patient. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old boy with clinical features of basal cell nevus syndrome and multiple KCOTs. In addition to the other common features, congenitally missing third molars in all the four quadrants is a feature which has not been previously reported in association with NBCCS in Indian patients. PMID:26981489

  11. Nasal Sinus Tract of Odontogenic Origin: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Sagar; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Divya; Sajjanhar, Isha; Goel, Kopal; Gupta, Vaibhav Sheel

    2015-01-01

    Extraoral sinus tract often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician owing to its rare occurrence and absence of symptoms. The accurate diagnosis and comprehensive management are inevitable as the aetiology of such lesions is often masked and requires holistic approach. The present case report encompasses the management of an extraoral discharging sinus tract at the base of the right nostril in a chronic smoker. The lesion which was earlier diagnosed to be of nonodontogenic origin persisted even after erratic treatment modalities. Our investigations showed the aetiology of sinus tract to be odontogenic. Initially, a five-step program as recommended by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was used for smoking cessation followed by root canal therapy (RCT) and surgical management of the sinus tract. The patient has been under stringent follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. PMID:26649208

  12. Syndromic odontogenic keratocyst: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Fazil

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) may occur in two different forms, either as solitary (nonsyndromic OKCs) or as multiple OKCs (syndromic OKCs). Multiple OKCs usually occur as one of the findings in Gorlin–Goltz syndrome with other features such as skin carcinomas and rib, eye, and neurologic abnormalities. We report a rare case of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in a 20-year-old male patient who presented with a slow growing swelling on lower right and left back teeth region since 2 months. Apart from these, other findings were frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, ocular hypertelorism, prominent supra orbital ridge, and mild mandibular prognathism. Excision was done and microscopic study revealed OKC and the follow-up could not be carried out for the complete management. We also presented a review of its pathogenesis, criterion, and differences between syndromic and nonsyndromic OKCs and suggest to thoroughly examine any patient who presents with multiple OKCs to rule out syndromic variety. PMID:27011939

  13. Ossifying cystic odontogenic and Schneiderian choristoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Mudhar, Hardeep Singh; Nurrudin, Murtuza

    2014-02-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with a left infraorbital lesion, causing upward globe displacement. Imaging confirmed a mass between the globe and the orbital floor. The lesion was removed via a sub-ciliary approach and histology revealed a a mature tooth along with a periodontal ligament, oral-type mucinous glands and bone. Six years later a mass recurred at exactly the same site and on this occasion, revealed cysts containing mucin and lined by Schneiderian type epithelium. A rather complex combination of a tooth, lamellar bone, mucinous oral type glands and Schneiderian cystic epithelium is highly unusual and we have called the lesion "ossifying cystic odontogenic and Schneiderian choristoma of the orbit." PMID:24171664

  14. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Gingiva: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soolari, Ahmad; Khan, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case of an uncommon and slow-growing tumor known as a central odontogenic fibroma (COF). The patient in question is a 53-year-old African-American man who was referred for periodontal evaluation of asymptomatic space formation between the mandibular central incisors. Clinical and radiological evaluations disclosed tumor-like tissue expanding the alveolar ridge in the buccolingual dimension, along with thinning of the cortical plates. Surgical excision was performed, and the specimen was sent for histopathology, which later confirmed that the lesion was a COF. Periodontal regenerative therapy was performed to rebuild the hard and soft tissue that had been compromised as a result of tumor expansion. The site was grafted, with excellent results. PMID:25646136

  15. Assessment of BRAFV600E and SMOF412E mutations in epithelial odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Guimarães, Bruna Viana Antonini; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Cardoso, Sergio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia Amaral; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2015-07-01

    The classification of ameloblastoma in multicystic or unicystic variants is associated with its clinical behaviour. Recently, BRAF and SMO mutations have been reported in ameloblastomas. However, it is not clear if such mutations are shared by the multi- and unicystic variants of ameloblastoma or by odontogenic carcinomas. We assessed BRAFV600E and SMOF412E in multicystic, unicystic and desmoplastic ameloblastomas. In addition, we investigated whether the BRAFV600E mutation occurs in odontogenic carcinomas. A total of 28 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, comprising 17 ameloblastomas and 11 odontogenic carcinomas, were included. The BRAFV600E mutation was assessed by real-time PCR with a specific TaqMan probe and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The SMOF412E mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing. Fourteen out of 17 (82 %) ameloblastomas showed the BRAFV600E mutation, specifically, 5/6 (83 %) unicystic, 7/9 (78 %) multicystic and 2/2 desmoplastic ameloblastomas. BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 4/11 (36 %) malignant tumours, specifically, 3/8 (38 %) ameloblastic carcinomas and 1/1 clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, while the two ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas did not harbour this mutation. The SMOF412E mutation was not detected in ameloblastoma. The BRAFV600E-activating mutation is a common event in ameloblastomas, occurring regardless of site or histological type. This mutation is also detected in odontogenic carcinomas. SMO somatic mutation is a secondary genetic event in the ameloblastoma pathogenesis. Our findings support the possibility for personalised, molecular-targeted therapy for ameloblastomas and odontogenic carcinomas harbouring the BRAFV600E mutation. PMID:25854168

  16. Expression of Odontogenic Genes in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Sichani Fallahi, Hamed; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Mahdavi, Nazanin; Bagheri, Seyedeh Sara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tooth loss is a common problem and since current tooth replacement methods cannot counter balance with biological tooth structures, regenerating natural tooth structures has become an ideal goal. A challenging problem in tooth regeneration is to find a proper clinically feasible cell to seed.This study was designed to investigate the odontogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) for seeding in tooth regeneration. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used at the eleventh embryonic day and rat fetuses were removed surgically using semilunar flap under general anesthesia. The primary mandible was cut using a stereomicroscope. The epithelial and mesenchymal components were separated and the dissected oral epithelium was cultured for 3 days. We used flow cytometry analysis to confirm presence of mesenchymal stem cells and not hematopoietic cells and to demonstrate the presence of oral epithelium. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and cultured oral epithelium were then co-cultured for 14 days. BMSCs cultured alone were used as controls. Expression of two odontogenic genes Pax9 and DMP1 was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Expression of two odontogenic genes, Pax9 and DMP1, were detected in BMSCs co-cultured with oral epithelium but not in the control group. Conclusion: Expression of Pax9 and DMP1 by human BMSCs in the proximity of odontogenic epithelium indicates odontogenic potential of these cells. PMID:23862115

  17. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alberola-Ferranti, Margarita; Hueto-Madrid, Juan Antonio; Bescós-Atín, Coro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare condition characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinitation in the form of Ghost cell with varying amounts of dysplastic dentina. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 70 year-old woman with a rapid onset of painful swelling right maxillary tumor. Magnetic resonance showed a huge tumor dependent on the right half of the right hard palate with invasion of the pterygoid process and focally to the second branch of the trigeminal. Radiological stage was T4N0. The patient underwent a right subtotal maxillectomy with clear margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given. The patient was free of residual or recurrent disease 12 months after surgery. Results: The tumor was 3,9cm in diameter. It was spongy and whitish gray. Microscopically the tumor was arranged in nets and trabeculae, occasionally forming palisade. Tumoral cells had clear cytoplasm with vesicular nuclei. There was atipia and mitosi with vascular and perineural invasion. The excised tumor was diagnosed as a GCOC. Conclusions: Ghost cell carcinoma is a rare odontogenic carcinoma. Its course is unpredictable, ranging from locally invasive tumors of slow growth to highly aggressive and infiltrative ones. Wide surgical excision with clean margins is the treatment of choice although its combination with postoperative radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, remains controversial. Key words:Ameloblastic carcinoma, calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell carcinoma, keratinizing epithelial odontogenic cyst, maxillary tumor, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:25674335

  18. Giant Pindborg Tumor (Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor): An Unusual Case Report with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Satya Ranjan; Lenka, Sthitaprajna; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Mishra, Sobhan

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors develop in the jaws from odontogenic tissues such as enamel organ, Hertwig epithelial root sheath, dental lamina, and so on. A variety of tumors unique to the maxilla and mandible are therefore seen. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare, aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin accounting for only about 1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is eponymously called “Pindborg tumor”, as it was first described by Pindborg in 1955. The origin of this locally invasive tumor remains unknown. It is thought to arise from stratum intermedium. It commonly affects the posterior mandible manifesting as a slow-growing asymptomatic swelling often associated with an impacted tooth. We report a case of CEOT, for which, owing to its huge size we have proposed the term “giant” Pindborg tumor (CEOT). This is probably the largest case of this tumor reported so far in the English literature. The present case also has the classic yet rare “driven snow” appearance of the tumor on radiographs. PMID:24516774

  19. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor in Anterior Maxilla Associated with a Supernumerary Tooth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Urvashi; Gulati, Anubha; Batra, Hemant; Singh, Devinderpreet

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors are derived from epithelial, ectomesenchymal and/or mesenchymal elements that are or have been a part of the tooth-forming apparatus. Of all the odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor accounts for 1% of the cases. Approximately 200 cases have been reported to date. There is no sex predilection, with a 2:1 predilection for the mandible, mostly in the premolar/molar region. It is often locally invasive. Most often, it is associated with an impacted tooth, is asymptomatic and requires biopsy for diagnosis. Presented here is a rare case of an intraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor surrounding a supernumerary tooth. Furthermore, the occurrence of this tumor in the anterior maxilla (an uncommon site) in a pediatric patient makes it rarer. Although the present case was asymptomatic, root resorption and displacement of adjacent teeth necessitated its surgical removal. The lesion was surgically enucleated and histopathological examination confirmed calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, showing abundant calcifications in the form of Liesegang rings. PMID:23487408

  20. The effect of scaffold architecture on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Haiyun; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Liu, Xiaohua; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the superiority of nanofibrous (NF) poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds in supporting the osteogenic differentiation of a few cell types and bone regeneration. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether NF-PLLA scaffolds are advantageous for the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) over solid-walled (SW) PLLA scaffolds. The vitro studies demonstrated that, compared with SW scaffolds, NF scaffolds enhanced attachment and proliferation as well as odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of odontogenic genes of human DPSCs was increased on NF scaffolds compared with that on SW scaffolds. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on the NF scaffolds as demonstrated by von Kossa staining, calcium content measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Consistent with the in vitro studies, NF scaffolds promoted odontogenic differentiation and hard tissue formation compared with SW scaffolds after 8 weeks of ectopic transplantation in nude mice as confirmed by von Kossa staining, Masson’s trichrome staining and immunohistochemical staining for dentin sialoprotein. In conclusion, NF-PLLA scaffolds enhanced the odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs and mineralization both in vitro and in vivo, and are promising scaffolds for dentin regeneration. PMID:21663962

  1. Endoscope-Assisted Enucleation of Mandibular Odontogenic Keratocyst Tumors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Antonio; Orabona, Giovanni D A; Abbate, Vincenzo; Maglitto, Fabio; Solari, Domenico; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT) represents a rare and benign but locally aggressive developmental cystic lesion usually affecting the posterior aspect of the mandible bone, the treatment of which has always been raising debate, since Philipsen first described it as a distinct pathological entity in 1956.Recent studies have proposed the use of endoscope-assisted surgical technique, due to the possibility given by the endoscope of improving the effectiveness of the treatment of these lesions thanks to a better visualization of operative field and though a better understanding of the pathology. In this article, we would like to present our experience with the endoscope-assisted treatment of KCOT of the posterior region of the mandible.From April 2000 to April 2012, 32 patients treated for KCOT were enrolled in our retrospective study: patients were divided in 2 groups according to the type of treatment, that is, 18 were treated with traditional enucleation surgery (TES), and 14 patients underwent endoscopic assisted enucleation surgery (EES).Fischer exact test and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the outcomes between the 2 focusing on the recurrence and complication rates. In the TES group, patients we found a higher recurrence rate (39%) and higher postoperative complication rate at 5-year follow-up.Our data suggested, though, that EES seems to be a feasible alternative for the treatment of posterior mandibular KCOT. Further studies and larger series are needed to confirm these results. PMID:27607111

  2. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Modolo, Filipe; Biz, Michelle Tillmann; Martins, Marília Trierveiller; Machado de Sousa, Suzana Orsini; de Araújo, Ney Soares

    2010-03-01

    Altered expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components has been reported in several pathologies; however, few ECM proteins have been evaluated in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). The aim of this study was to analyze the expression and distribution of the ECM proteoglycans: biglycan and decorin; and glycoproteins: osteonectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin in the AOT. Three-micrometer sections from paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated employing a streptavidin-biotin immunohistochemical method with the antibodies against the proteins previously cited. Only the osteonectin was expressed in the epithelial cells. The eosinophilic amorphous material and the connective tissue showed expression of all components studied. The calcification foci expressed only osteopontin. In conclusion, the low expression of the components studied in neoplastic epithelial cells suggests that the epithelial cells act probably as stimulators of the expression by the stroma, which in turn can act as agonist or antagonist of the tumor growth. These results suggest that the components studied probably have a key role in the biological behavior of the AOT. PMID:20070486

  3. An unusual case of a brain abscess arising from an odontgenic infection.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Anthony; Witherspoon, Robert; Leinkram, David; Malandreni, Maria

    2014-12-01

    A brain abscess that originates from an odontogenic infection, although rare, can, at times, be difficult to diagnose, especially in the context of pain and trismus.(7) This case reports a rare incidence of an odontogenic infection as a result of an infected maxillary third molar, causing an infratemporal and temporalis collection, resulting in a brain abscess with concurrent cerebritis. This is a clinical case review documenting an uncommon but potentially fatal complication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25484130

  4. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Aditya, Amita; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  5. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  6. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour – a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  7. Rare appearance of an odontogenic myxoma in cone-beam computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dabbaghi, Arash; Nikkerdar, Nafiseh; Bayati, Soheyla; Golshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an infiltrative benign bone tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the facial skeleton. The radiographic characteristics of odontogenic myxoma may produce several patterns, making diagnosis difficult. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may prove extremely useful in clarifying the intraosseous extent of the tumor and its effects on surrounding structures. Here, we report a case of odontogenic myxoma of the mandible in a 27-year-old female. The patient exhibited a slight swelling in the left mandible. Surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted. In the CBCT sections, we observed perforation of the cortical plate and radiopaque line that extended from the periosteum, resembling "sunray" appearance—a rare feature of OM—which could not be assessed by panoramic radiography. PMID:27092217

  8. Rare appearance of an odontogenic myxoma in cone-beam computed tomography: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dabbaghi, Arash; Nikkerdar, Nafiseh; Bayati, Soheyla; Golshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an infiltrative benign bone tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the facial skeleton. The radiographic characteristics of odontogenic myxoma may produce several patterns, making diagnosis difficult. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may prove extremely useful in clarifying the intraosseous extent of the tumor and its effects on surrounding structures. Here, we report a case of odontogenic myxoma of the mandible in a 27-year-old female. The patient exhibited a slight swelling in the left mandible. Surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted. In the CBCT sections, we observed perforation of the cortical plate and radiopaque line that extended from the periosteum, resembling "sunray" appearance-a rare feature of OM-which could not be assessed by panoramic radiography. PMID:27092217

  9. Case Presentation of Concomitant and Contiguous Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor and Focal Cemento-Ossifying Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Gita; Donoghue, Mandana; Reichart, Peter A; Pazuhi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year-old male was presented for the diagnosis of an asymptomatic bony expansion in relation to the right maxillary canine and first premolar. The unilocular radiolucent lesion with central foci of calcification had caused divergence of canine and first premolar roots without any resorption. This case report details a diagnosis of two distinct disease processes of different cellular origin namely, focal cemento-ossifying dysplasia and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a previously unreported concomitant and contiguous relationship. The diagnosis was determined by a combination of clinical, radiographic, histopathological and surgical evidence. This case highlights two points, first the need to examine all mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions with advanced imaging techniques to assess the number and extent of the lesions prior to treatment planning. Second a likely role of periodontal ligament as the tissue source for odontogenic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells required for the development of odontogenic tumors and cemento-osseous dysplasias. PMID:26464605

  10. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Statistical Analysis Used: Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Results: Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75–100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Conclusions: Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation. PMID:27601817

  11. Botryoid odontogenic cyst developing from lateral periodontal cyst: A rare case and review on pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Piyush; Bishen, Kundendu A.; Gupta, Nishant; Jamdade, Anshuman; Kumar, Gopa R.

    2012-01-01

    Botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC) is considered to be a polycystic variant of the lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) as the specimen resembled a cluster of grapes. It is a non-inflammatory odontogenic cyst. The BOCs can be unicystic or multicystic. These cysts have potential to extend in the bone and become multilocular and they have a high recurrence rate. Till now, only 73 cases of BOC have been reported. The pathogenesis of BOC is still debatable. We review different pathogenesis proposed for BOC and discuss a rare case of BOC developing from lining of an abnormally large LPC which showed aggressive behaviour in terms of growth and size. PMID:23293492

  12. Treatment of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor/Pindborg tumor by a conservative surgical method

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswaran, T.; Naveena, R.

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) also known as Pindborg tumor is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far nearly 200 cases have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. Approximately, 50% of the cases are associated with an unerupted tooth or odontome, but was not so with our case. Considering the intrabony mandibular location of the lesion and its limited size, we opted for a more conservative surgery. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features and the surgical treatment done are discussed with relevant references. PMID:26015736

  13. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  14. Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a slow-growing odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Miranda Rius, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Lahor, Eduard; Mtui, Beatus; Brunet, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a subjacent tumoural pathology is reported. The patient was a 55-year-old black male, whose chief complaint was a progressive gingival overgrowth for more than ten years, in the buccal area of the anterior left mandible. According to the clinical features and the radiological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, a conservative surgery with enucleation and curettage was performed. Tissue submitted for histopathological analysis rendered the diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma. After 12-month of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. Clinicians should be cautious when facing any gingival enlargement to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and to indicate the appropriate treatment. PMID:23722914

  15. Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

  16. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  17. Odontogenic tumors: A collaborative study of 218 cases diagnosed over 12 years and comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nazlım, Sinan; Etoz, Meryem; Denız, Kemal; Yasa, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, and to compare the findings with those reported in the literature. Study Design: The records of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology Departments at Erciyes University, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization classification, 2005), over a 12-year period, were analyzed. The relative frequency of different types of tumors was also analyzed and compared with the literature. Results: OTs in the present study constituted 2.74% of all the 7,942 registered biopsies. A total of 218 cases of OTs were collected and reviewed. Of these, (94.04%) were benign and (5.96%) were malignant. The mandible was the most commonly affected anatomic location, with 170 cases (77.9%). Ameloblastoma with a predilection for the posterior mandible was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (30.28%), followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (19.5%), odontoma (13.4%), and odontogenic myxoma (8.5%). Conclusions: OTs are rare neoplasms and appear to show geographic variations in the world. In Cappadocia, Turkey, they are more common in the mandible, with ameloblastoma followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumors with the incidences observed in the present study being similar to those of previous studies from Asia and Africa, and in contrast to those reported from American countries. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, WHO classification, prevalence, jaws. PMID:25481228

  18. Eruption of an impacted canine in an adenomatid odontogenic tumor treated with combined orthodontic and surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Erdur, Emire Aybuke; Ileri, Zehra; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Cakir, Mustafa; Dolanmaz, Dogan

    2016-06-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon asymptomatic lesion that is often misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. It originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Enucleation and curettage is the usual treatment of choice. Marsupialization may be attempted instead of extraction of the impacted tooth, since it provides an opportunity for tooth eruption. This case report is the first to report on the eruption of an impacted canine in an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor treated with combined orthodontics and marsupialization. The impacted canine erupted uneventfully, with no evidence of recurrence 3 years after the treatment. PMID:27242003

  19. An unusually large aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of maxilla involving the third molar: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Khandelwal, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor comprising only 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, encapsulated, noninvasive, nonaggressive, slowly growing odontogenic lesion associated with an impacted tooth. These lesions may go unnoticed for years. The usual treatment is enucleation and curettage, and the lesion does not recur. Here, we present a rare case of an unusually large aggressive AOT of maxilla associated with impacted third molar. The authors also discuss clinical, radiographic, histopathologic, and therapeutic features of the case. Subtotal maxillectomy with simultaneous reconstruction of the surgical defect with temporalis myofascial flap was planned and carried out. PMID:27095910

  20. Odontogenic myxoma: Report of three cases and retrospective review of literature in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Zainab; Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Shalini; Mohanty, Sujata; Naithani, Manish; Jain, Anshul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the clinical pattern and treatment modalities meted out to patients of odontogenic myxoma (OM) in Indian population in last 30 years and also to report 3 cases of OM. Method: A retrospective review of radiograph and histopathology of three cases of odontogenic myxoma treated between 2005 and 2011 was done. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the pattern of vimentin and NSE. Also a computerized literature search using Medline and Google scholar was conducted for published articles on OM in Indian population in last 30 years. Result: A total of 32 OM cases reviewed from 25 articles retrieved. Out of them 24 myxomas were present in maxilla, only 8 were in mandible and a single case was present in supraglottic region (larynx). Surgical procedure carried out was excision and curettage in 16 patients and resection with safe margin followed by reconstruction 13 patients. All the three reported cases were successfully treated by tumor enucleation and peripheral ostectomy with no recurrence after 3 to 7 years. Conclusion: Odontogenic myxoma is a rare odontogenic tumor with inconclusive clinical and radiographic features, hence histopathological examination is mandatory to confirm its diagnosis. Although the immunohistochemical analysis may help in diagnosis but plays no role in guiding treatment planning or predicting the rate of recurrence. Currently we lack data on number of reported OM cases in Indian population as author feels more patients must have been treated then reported. PMID:26681859

  1. Immunohistochemical detection of laminin-1 and Ki-67 in radicular cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Odontogenic cysts are those which arise from the epithelium associated with the development of teeth. Some odontogenic cysts were found to have special biological features that make them distinct from other lesions. This study was conducted to detect the immunoepxression of laminin-1 and Ki-67 in both radicular cysts (RCs) and keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and to examine the possible predictive value of these markers. Methods Thirteen cases of RCs and twelve cases of KCOTs were included in this study. Antibodies against laminin-1 and Ki-67 were used as primary antibodies. Results ten cases out of thirteen cases of RCs were immunopositive to laminin-1. The immunonegative cases of RCs showed high degree of inflammation inside the connective tissue wall. One case out of twelve cases of KCOTs was immunopositive to laminin-1 and the rest were immunonegative. Seven cases out of thirteen cases of RCs showed immunopositivity for Ki-67 with increased numbers of immunopositive cells when the inflammation was severe in the connective tissue wall. All KCOTS were immunopositive to Ki-67. Conclusions The benign nature of radicular cysts and the aggressive behavior of keratocystic odontogenic tumors could be explained by the expression of laminin and Ki-67. Laminin-1 and Ki-67 could be valuable markers for the prediction of the biologic behavior of cystic lesions. PMID:21366912

  2. Collagen and Elastic Fibers in Odontogenic Entities: Analysis Using Light and Confocal Laser Microscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Moure, Sabrina P; Carrard, Vinicius C; Lauxen, Isabel S; Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Oliveira, Marcia G; Martins, Manoela D; Sant´Ana Filho, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) are odontogenic lesions arising from epithelial elements, such as those observed in dental follicles (DF), that have been part of the tooth forming apparatus. These lesions show different clinical and histological characteristics, as well as distinct biological behavior. This study aimed to qualify and quantify collagen and elastic fibers by means of histochemical techniques with light and confocal laser microscopic methods in three odontogenic entities. Eleven DF, 13 DC (n=10 with inflammation, n=3 without inflammation) and 13 KOT were processed to the following techniques: Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome, Picrosirius, Direct Blue, and Orcein. DF and DC without inflammation exhibited collagen with similar characteristics: no parallel pattern of fiber orientation, thick fibers with dense arrangement, and absence of distinct layers. A comparison between DC with inflammation and KOT revealed similar collagen organization, showing distinct layers: thin collagen fibers with loose arrangement near the epithelium and thick fibers with dense arrangement in distant areas. The only difference found was that KOT exhibited a parallel collagen orientation in relation to the odontogenic epithelia. It may be suggested that the connective tissue of DC is a reactive tissue, inducing an expansive growth associated with fluid accumulation and inflammatory process, which in turn may be present as part of the lesion itself. In KOT, loosely arranged collagen may be associated with the behavior of the neoplastic epithelium. PMID:21760864

  3. CD166 expression in dentigerous cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gorgizadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background CD166 is a glycoprotein of an immunoglobulin super family of adhesion molecules that has been associated with aggressive characteristics and high recurrence rate of tumors. Different odontogenic lesions exhibit considerable histological variation and different clinical behavior. In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms underlying this different behavior, the present study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of CD166 in these lesions. Material and Methods In this study 69 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion consist of 15 unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), 17 solid ameloblastoma (SA), 18 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DC) were reviewed by immunohistochemistry for CD166 staining. Results In this study, CD166 immune staining was evident in all specimen groups except dentigerous cyst. In positive cases, protein localization was cytoplasmic and/or membranous. CD166 expression was seen in76.5% (13) of SA, 73.5% (11) of UA, and 66.7% (12) of KCOTs. Statistical analysis showed that CD166 expression levels were significantly higher in ameloblastoma (SA and UA) and KCOTs than dentigerous cyst (P <0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between CD166 expression in the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusions This data demonstrates that overexpression of CD166 may have a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma and KCOT. Key words:CD166, ameloblastoma, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst. PMID:27398171

  4. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: A Selective Review of 7 Jawbone Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Considerable variation in the clinicopathologic presentation of epithelial odontogenic tumors can sometimes be confusing and increase the chance of misdiagnosis. Seven diagnostically challenging jawbone lesions are described. There were 2 cases of mistaken identity in our ameloblastoma file. One unicystic type, initially diagnosed and treated as a lateral periodontal cyst, showed destructive recurrence 6 years postoperatively. The other globulomaxillary lesion was managed under the erroneous diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and recurred 4 times over an 11-year period. This tumor was found in retrospect to be consistent with an adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid. The diagnosis of cystic squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) occurring as a radicular lesion of an impacted lower third molar was one of exclusion. Of two unsuspected keratocystic odontogenic tumors, one depicted deceptive features of pericoronitis, while the other case has long been in our files with the diagnosis of globulomaxillary SOT. Two cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma appeared benign clinically and exhibited unexpected findings; an impacted third molar began to erupt in association with the growth of carcinoma and another periradicular carcinoma showed dentinoid formation. Cases selectively reviewed in this article present challenging problems which require clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:20596984

  5. The orosomucoid 1 protein (α1 acid glycoprotein) is overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, but locally invasive, neoplasm occurring in the jaws. However, the molecules implicated in its development are unknown. OM as well as Dental Follicle (DF), an odontogenic tissue surrounding the enamel organ, is derived from ectomesenchymal/mesencyhmal elements. To identify some protein that could participate in the development of this neoplasm, total proteins from OM were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the profiles were compared with those obtained from DF, used as a control. Results We identified eight proteins with differential expression; two of them were downregulated and six upregulated in OM. A spot consistently overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma, with a molecular weight of 44-kDa and a pI of 3.5 was identified as the orosomucoid 1 protein. Western blot experiments confirmed the overexpression of this protein in odontogenic myxoma and immunohistochemical assays showed that this protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of stellate and spindle-shaped cells of this neoplasm. Conclusion Orosomucoid 1, which belongs to a group of acute-phase proteins, may play a role in the modulation of the immune system and possibly it influences the development of OM. PMID:22888844

  6. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Jia, Lingfei; Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Dandan; Hu, Waner; Chen, Shubin; Zhao, Yuming; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing; Ge, Lihong; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs) from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-β/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGFα, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs. PMID:26925321

  7. Medium modification with bone morphogenetic protein 2 addition for odontogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Atalayin, Cigdem; Tezel, Huseyin; Dagci, Taner; Yavasoglu, Nefise Ulku Karabay; Oktem, Gulperi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether medium modification improves the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in vitro and in vivo. DPSC isolated from human impacted third molar teeth were analysed for clusters of differentiation with flow cytometry. Odontogenic differentiation was stimulated by medium modification with the addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). The expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, enamelysin/matrix metalloproteinase 20 and the phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome of the cells were analysed with RT-PCR at 7, 14 and 21 days. Then, DPSC were transplanted on the back of immunocompromised mice via a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate scaffold, and the structure of the formed tissue was investigated. The cells were identified as mesenchymal stem cells with a 98.3% CD73 and CD90 double-positive cell rate. The increase in mineralization capacity and expression of human enamel-dentin specific transcripts proportional to the culture period were determined after differentiation. Six weeks after transplantation, an osteo-dentin matrix was formed in the group in which odontogenic differentiation was stimulated, and the odontogenic characteristics of the matrix were confirmed by histological examination and RT-PCR analysis. Odontogenic differentiation of the isolated and characterized human DPSC was improved with medium modification by the addition of BMP2 in vitro and in vivo. The defined medium and applied technique have a potential use for forming reparative dentin in the future, but the effects of the method should be investigated in long-term studies. PMID:26981753

  8. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A biopsy service’s experience with 104 solitary, multiple and recurrent lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a clinically significant cystic lesion of odontogenic origin. This study aimed to retrospectively review and describe the clinicopathologic features of KCOT and to objectively compare the clinical and histological features of solitary, multiple and recurrent KCOT in a Saudi Arabian population. Material and Methods Biopsy request forms, pathology records and archival materials (all histological slides) of 104 cases of KCOT from 75 patients were retrieved. Demographic and clinical details as well as histological evaluation were analyzed and compared between the 3 groups using chi-squared or Mann-Whitney tests of association as appropriate. Results Significant differences were noted in the age of presentation, location and association with impaction between multiple and solitary cases. Histologically, there was a difference in the mitotic count, presence of satellite cysts and proliferating odontogenic epithelium between solitary and multiple lesions. There was no difference between the KCOT that later recurred and solitary lesion which did not recur even when matched clinically for age, sex and location. There were differences when solitary KCOT that later recurred or recurrent KCOT were compared with multiple lesions. Multiple lesions still had more significant proliferative activity parameters than solitary recurrence-related KCOT. Conclusions KCOTs in Saudi Arabians are not different from those reported from other parts of the world. Clinical and histological analyses showed multiple KCOT is different from its solitary recurrent or non-recurrent counterparts and has a higher proliferative activity than both. Clinicohistologic features alone cannot wholly explain the behavior of KCOT. Key words:Descriptive study, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontogenic keratocyst, solitary, multiple, recurrent. PMID:27475695

  9. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Dandan; Hu, Waner; Chen, Shubin; Zhao, Yuming; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs) from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-β/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGFα, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs. PMID:26925321

  10. The Role of ORAI1 in the Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S; Park, Y; Srikanth, S; Arai, A; Song, M; Yu, B; Shin, K-H; Kang, M K; Wang, C; Gwack, Y; Park, N-H; Kim, R H

    2015-11-01

    Pulp capping, or placing dental materials directly onto the vital pulp tissues of affected teeth, is a dental procedure that aims to regenerate reparative dentin. Several pulp capping materials are clinically being used, and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) released from these materials is known to mediate reparative dentin formation. ORAI1 is an essential pore subunit of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), which is a major Ca(2+) influx pathway in most nonexcitable cells. Here, we evaluated the role of ORAI1 in mediating the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). During the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs, the expression of ORAI1 increased in a time-dependent manner. DPSCs knocked down with ORAI1 shRNA (DPSC/ORAI1sh) or overexpressed with dominant negative mutant ORAI1(E106Q) (DPSC/E106Q) exhibited the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and suppression of odontogenic differentiation and mineralization as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/staining as well as alizarin red S staining when compared with DPSCs of their respective control groups (DPSC/CTLsh and DPSC/CTL). The gene expression for odontogenic differentiation markers such as osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) was also suppressed. When DPSC/CTL or DPSC/E106Q cells were subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice, DPSC/CTL cells induced mineralized tissue formation with significant increases in ALP and DMP1 staining in vivo, whereas DPSC/E106Q cells did not. Collectively, our data showed that ORAI1 plays critical roles in the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of DPSCs by regulating Ca(2+) influx and that ORAI1 may be a therapeutic target to enhance reparative dentin formation. PMID:26403672

  11. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  12. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  13. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  14. Anaerobic specimen transport device.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, T D; Jimenez-Ulate, F

    1975-01-01

    A device is described and evaluated for the anaerobic transport of clinical specimens. The device limits the amount of oxygen entering with the sample to a maximum of 2%, which is rapidly removed by reacting with hydrogen in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The viability on swabs of 12 species of anaerobes, four strains of facultative anaerobes and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was maintained during the length of the tests (24 or 48 h). The results demonstrated that this device protected even the more oxygen-sensitive clinical anaerobes from death due to oxygen exposure. This device can be used for swabs as well as for anaerobic collection and liquid and solid specimens. Images PMID:1104656

  15. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Enucleation, Excision of the Overlying Mucosa and Electrocauterization – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, A; Rani, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Odontogenic keratocyst remains an enigma for clinicians and researchers, although gains in knowledge in recent years have improved the understanding of this interesting lesion. The diagnostic problems are mainly related to the relative lack of specific clinical and radiographic features that unequivocally point to a proper diagnosis. Of particular interest to clinicians is the biologic behaviour of keratocysts which includes high rates of recurrence and potential existence as a benign odontogenic neoplasm, keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Various surgical modalities have evolved in an attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, including curettage, peripheral ostectomy, removal of overlying mucosa in cases of cortical perforation and osseous resection in the form of marginal or segmental osteotomies. The present case report describes the conservative surgical management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a young patient with no evidence of recurrence at two years follow-up. PMID:25867564

  16. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions. PMID:27489852

  17. Results of the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumours using enucleation and treatment of the residual bony defect with Carnoy's solution.

    PubMed

    Leung, Y Y; Lau, S L; Tsoi, K Y Y; Ma, H L; Ng, C L

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the recurrence rate of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs) treated by enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution, and to assess the surgical morbidities associated with this treatment. KCOTs treated using a standard protocol of enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution between 1990 and 2013 were evaluated. One hundred and five KCOTS in 105 patients (54 male, 51 female) were analysed. The mean follow-up period was 86.6 months (range 24-313 months). The recurrence rate was 11.4%. A postoperative inferior alveolar nerve neurosensory deficit occurred in 30.1% of the mandibular cases, with 16% of these being permanent. The postoperative infection and fracture rates were 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Younger age, multilocular KCOTs, larger tumour size, and longer antero-posterior lesion length on the radiograph were found to be risk factors for recurrence. It is concluded that enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution to treat KCOTs results in a relatively low recurrence rate and a low rate of surgical morbidities. PMID:26922497

  18. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Mast Cells and Small Blood Vessels in Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Periapical Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Jamali, Golshan; Farnia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the density of mast cells (MCs) and microvessels in odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, the correlation between MCs and microvessels was evaluated to assess the contribution of MCs to angiogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. This approach may be a basis for the development of future pharmaceuticals addressed to MCs performance to manage odontogenic cysts. To our knowledge, no study investigating the correlation between MCs and microvessels has been performed to date. Methods: 60 cases of odontogenic cysts consisting of 20 radicular cysts (RCs), 20 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and 20 dentigerous cysts (DCs) were included in this study. Five high power fields in superficial connective tissue and five high power fields in deep connective tissue were counted for each sample. Moreover, a total mean of ten fields was calculated. Results: RC showed the highest mean numbers of MCs and microvessels (p<0.05). The subepithelial zones of all cysts contained more MCs and microvessels compared to the deeper zones. A statistically significant correlation between the numbers of MCs and microvessels was not observed (r=0.00, p=0.49). Conclusion: Although the number of MCs was not significantly associated with microvessels, these cells may be related to the growth of odontogenic lesions, particularly RCs. Further studies on the in vivo functions of MCs will make the concept more clear. PMID:26793609

  19. Analysis of 153 cases of odontogenic cysts in a South Indian sample population: a retrospective study over a decade.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, Manickam; Donoghue, Mandana; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts and to identify their clinico-pathological features among patients by studying biopsy specimens obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, during the past 10 years. Data for the study were retrieved from the case records of patients fitting the histological classification of the World Health Organization (1992). Analyzed clinical variables included age, gender, anatomical location, and histological diagnosis. Of the 2275 biopsy reports analyzed, 194 cases (8.5%) were jaw cysts, including odontogenic (6.7%) and nonodontogenic cysts (0.25%). Odontogenic cysts included 69.3% radicular, 20.3% dentigerous, 5.2% keratinizing odontogenic, 3.3% residual, and 1.9% other cysts, such as lateral periodontal, botryoid odontogenic, and gingival cysts. The most frequent clinical manifestation was swelling, followed by a combination of pain and swelling. Age, gender, and location were related to the etiopathologic characteristics of the cyst type. A definitive diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical, radiological, and histological findings, which makes a good interdepartmental relationship between the clinicians and pathologists essential. Knowledge of the biological and histological behavior of the odontogenic cysts is required for their early detection and treatment. PMID:22714930

  20. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  1. Recovery of anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in three anaerobic transport systems.

    PubMed Central

    Helstad, A G; Kimball, J L; Maki, D G

    1977-01-01

    With aspirated specimens from clinical infections, we evaluated the recovery of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria in three widely used transport systems: (i) aspirated fluid in a gassed-out tube (FGT), (ii) swab in modified Cary and Blair transport medium (SCB), and (iii) swab in a gassed-out tube (SGT). Transport tubes were held at 25 degrees C and semiquantitatively sampled at 0, 2, 24, and 48 h. Twenty-five clinical specimens yielded 75 anaerobic strains and 43 isolates of facultative and 3 of aerobic bacteria. Only one anaerobic isolate was not recovered in the first 24 h, and then, only in the SGT. At 48 h, 73 anaerobic strains (97%) were recovered in the FGT, 69 (92%) in the SCB, and 64 (85%) in the SGT. Two problems hindered the recovery of anaerobes in the SCB and SGT systems: first die-off of organisms, as evidenced by a decrease in colony-forming units of 20 strains (27%) in the SCB and 25 strains (33%) in the SGT, as compared with 7 strains (9%) in the FGT, over 48 h; and second, overgrowth of facultative bacteria, more frequent with SCB and SGT. The FGT method was clearly superior at 48 h to the SCB and SGT systems in this study and is recommended as the preferred method for transporting specimens for anaerobic culture. PMID:328525

  2. Are incidence and epidemiology of anaerobic bacteremia really changing?

    PubMed

    Vena, A; Muñoz, P; Alcalá, L; Fernandez-Cruz, A; Sanchez, C; Valerio, M; Bouza, E

    2015-08-01

    Incidence, prognosis and need of performing blood cultures for anaerobic bacteria are under debate, mainly due to the belief that the presence of anaerobes in blood can be easily suspected on clinical basis. We aimed to assess these three points in a retrospective analysis of a 10-year experience in our tertiary hospital. All episodes of significant anaerobic bacteremia diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were included. Risk factors for mortality and clinical predictability of anaerobic bacteremia were evaluated in 113 randomly selected episodes. Overall incidence of anaerobic bacteremia was 1.2 episodes/1000 admissions, with no significant changes during the 10-year study period. B. fragilis group (38.1 %) and Clostridium spp. (13.7 %) were the most frequent isolated microorganisms. As for the clinical study, 43.4 % of the patients had a comorbidity classified as ultimately fatal or rapidly fatal according to the McCabe and Jackson scale. Clinical manifestations suggestive of anaerobic involvement were present in only 55 % of the patients. Twenty-eight patients (24.8 %) died during the hospitalization. Independent predictive factors of mortality were a high Charlson's comorbidity index and presentation with septic shock, whereas, an adequate source control of the infection was associated with a better outcome. In our centre, incidence of anaerobic bacteremia remained stable during the last decade. The routine use of anaerobic BCs seems to be adequate, since in about half of the cases anaerobes could not be suspected on clinical bases. Moreover, prompt source control of infection is essential in order to reduce mortality of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. PMID:26017663

  3. Anaerobic brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Chavali, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Brain abscess remains a potentially fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease, especially in developing countries. Anaerobic abscess is difficult to diagnose because of cumbersome procedures associated with the isolation of anaerobes. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective microbiological analysis of 430 brain abscess materials (purulent aspirates and/or tissue), for anaerobic organisms, that were received between 1987–2014, by the Microbiology Laboratory in our Institute. Results: Culture showed growth of bacteria 116/430 (27%) of the cases of which anaerobes were isolated in 48/116 (41.1%) of the cases. Peptostreptococcus (51.4 %), was the predominant organism isolated in four cases followed by Bacteroides and Peptococcus species. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and detection of these organisms would help in the appropriate management of these patients. PMID:27307977

  4. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  5. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  6. Rare presentation of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a pediatric patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, João Paulo; da Costa, Fernanda Herrera; Matheus, Ricardo Alves; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Pereira-Stabile, Cecilia Luiz

    2016-06-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a painless benign tumor with slow growth, usually asymptomatic. It has three variants: follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. In the follicular type, the tumor is associated with an impacted tooth, and maxillary canines are the most frequently affected. Association with primary teeth is very rare. Treatment consists essentially in a total lesion enucleation. The objective of this paper is to present the clinical case of a 7-year-old female patient with an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with the crown of the left lower deciduous canine (73), dislodging it to the mandibular base and consequently shifting and also impacting the permanent lower canine (33). The lesion was treated with careful enucleation, preserving the permanent canine, which then had its eruption path released favoring its migration to an ideal position. PMID:26584947

  7. A case of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst suspected to be a radicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Mizuho; Saito, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Sohei; Ohnuki, Tomohiro; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Seta, Shuichi; Muramatsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Masahiro

    2009-02-01

    This report describes a case of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst arising in the mandibular molar region of a 39-year-old man. Under the initial clinical diagnosis of radicular cyst, root canal treatment was performed on the mandibular right second molar. The treatment that continued for six months did not achieve healing. Subsequently surgical intervention was selected since the tooth fracture was found, and the prognosis was judged to be poor. After atraumatic tooth extraction, the apical cystic lesion was enucleated, and the tooth was replanted. A definite diagnosis of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. The radiograph taken seven months after the operation showed an improvement in the radiolucent lesion. No clinical signs of tooth mobility, pain, and swelling were present. The tooth was then successfully retained with the final restoration. Careful follow-up is needed in order to detect any signs of recurrence. PMID:19622877

  8. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

  9. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth

    PubMed Central

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

  10. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Extraosseal Spread: Evaluation of the Effect Carnoy's Solution.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Machoň, Vladimír; Grill, Pavel; Hirjak, Dušan; Foltán, René

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour is relatively rare benign tumour. It is characterized by its fast aggressive growth and high risk of recurrence. Treatment is always surgical: conservative (enucleation, marsupialization) or aggressive (enucleation followed by application of Carnoy's solution, cryotherapy; peripheral ostectomy or en block resection of the jaw). Authors analysed retrospectively 22 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria, i.e. had odontogenic keratocystic tumour of mandible, wherein antero-posterior dimension was at least 30 mm, and the tumour penetrated into the surrounding soft tissues. All patients underwent tumour enucleation, in 11 patients Carnoy's solution was given into the bone cavity after enucleation. The recurrence rate in the evaluation at least 36 months after surgery was both patient groups the same: 45.4%. PMID:26654803