Sample records for anaerobic odontogenic infections

  1. Detection of anaerobic odontogenic infections by fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, R S; Chu, L S; Yen, S H; Chang, C P; Chou, K L; Wu, L C; Chang, C W; Lui, M T; Chen, K Y; Yeh, S H

    1996-10-01

    Odontogenic infections are a potential risk for patients who receive cervicofacial radiotherapy and should be treated before irradiation. Anaerobic microbial infections are the most common causes. This study assessed the value of the hypoxic imaging agent fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) in detecting anaerobic odontogenic infections. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed at 2 h after injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of FMISO in 26 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and six controls with healthy teeth. Tomograms were interpreted visually to identify hypoxic foci in the jaw. All patients received thorough dental examinations as a pre-radiotherapy work-up. Fifty-one sites of periodontitis, 15 periodontal abscesses, 14 sites of dental caries with root canal infection, 23 sites of dental caries without root canal infection, and seven necrotic pulps were found by dental examination. Anaerobic pathogens were isolated from 12 patients. Increased uptake of FMISO was found at 45 out of 51 sites of periodontitis, all 15 sites of periodontal abscess, all 14 sites of dental caries with root canal infection, all seven sites of necrotic pulp and 15 sites of dental caries without obvious evidence of active root canal infection. No abnormal uptake was seen in the healthy teeth of patients or in the six controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of FMISO PET scan in detecting odontogenic infections were 93%, 97%, 84%, 99% and 96%, respectively. 18F-fluoride ion bone scan done in three patients showed that 18F-fluoride ion plays no role in the demonstration of anaerobic odontogenic infection. FMISO PET scan is a sensitive method for the detection of anaerobic odontogenic infections, and may play a complementary role in the evaluation of the dental condition of patients with head and neck tumours prior to radiation therapy. PMID:8781145

  2. Bacteriologic features and antimicrobial susceptibility in isolates from orofacial odontogenic infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoari Kuriyama; Tadahiro Karasawa; Kiyomasa Nakagawa; Yasumasa Saiki; Etsuhide Yamamoto; Shinichi Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain information for an effective antimicrobial therapy against orofacial odontogenic infections; such information was obtained from recent bacteriologic features and antimicrobial susceptibility data. Study Design: The bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility of major pathogens in 163 patients with orofacial odontogenic infections to 7 antibiotics was examined. Results: Mixed infection of strict anaerobes with

  3. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis as a complication of odontogenic infection

    PubMed Central

    Diamantis, S.; Giannakopoulos, H.; Chou, J.; Foote, J.

    2011-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a serious, life threatening complication that can occur from a common odontogenic infection. Even with advancements in antibiotics, diagnostic imaging, and surgical management, the mortality rate remains between 20 and 40%. It is imperative that the practitioner taking care of patients with odontogenic infections be sensitized to this potentially fatal complication. We report the successful management of a case of mediastinitis complicating an odontogenic infection in a 39-year-old male.

  4. Orbital abscess from an odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Kim, Ju-Rok; Jang, Keum-Soo; Moon, Yeon-Sung; Park, Sun-Won

    2007-01-01

    An orbital abscess is a rare but serious complication of an odontogenic infection, which can lead to loss of vision or worse. This paper presents a case of orbital abscess secondary to an infection from the upper molar teeth, which extended to the retobulbar and posterosuperior region of the orbit, close to the superior orbital fissure. The infection spreaded to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa and then to the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure. This paper reviews the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, route of spread, value of serial CT scanning, treatment and possible complications. PMID:17178478

  5. The management of odontogenic infections. A rationale for appropriate chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baker, K A; Fotos, P G

    1994-10-01

    Odontogenic infections are one of the most frequently occurring infectious processes known to health practice. Significant changes have occurred in the use of antibiotics and antimicrobials since the use of chemotherapeutic agents became widespread. This article provides some important considerations for selecting appropriate chemotherapeutic agents during the management of odontogenic infections. PMID:7805942

  6. Actinomyces Colonization in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an anaerobic infection that involves the craniofacial region and its colonization has rarely been reported in the developmental odontogenic cysts. In the present report, a case of odontogenic keratocyst (which is now called keratocystic odontogenic tumor) with the colonization of actinomyces is introduced and its significance is discussed. 

  7. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  8. The clinical relevance of microbiology specimens in head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J

    2014-09-01

    It is common surgical practice to take a specimen for microbial culture and sensitivity when incising and draining infections of odontogenic origin in the head and neck. We aimed to find out if routine testing has any therapeutic value. We retrospectively studied 90 patients (57 male and 33 female) admitted to Northampton General Hospital for treatment of odontogenic infections, and reviewed admission details, antimicrobial treatment, microbiological findings and their sensitivity or resistance, and complications. Specimens were sent from 72 (80%) patients of which 61 (85%) were infected. The most commonly isolated organism was Streptococcus viridans. Interim reports were published after a mean of 3 days (range 1-4), and 94% of patients were discharged within a mean of 2 days (range 0-9) postoperatively. Almost 95% of patients were discharged before results were available, and there were no reported complications. We therefore suggest that microbial culture has little therapeutic value in the management of these patients. With culture and sensitivity tests costing £25 - £30, omission of this practice in the case of uncomplicated (single tissue space) odontogenic infections could save resources in the National Health Service without affecting the care of patients. PMID:24906248

  9. Ascending necrotizing fasciitis of the face following odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Eugene; Hirsch, Elliot M; Steinberg, Jordan P; Olsson, Alexis B

    2012-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face is a rare but extremely dangerous complication of dental infection associated with a nearly 30% mortality rate. This infection spreads rapidly along the superficial fascial planes of the head and neck and can lead to severe disfigurement. Reports in the literature of cases of NF of the face caused by dental infection are few. We report such a case in a 36-year-old woman and review the current standards of diagnosis and management. The patient initially presented with pain and severe swelling in the left side of her face subsequent to a dental infection. The symptoms had progressed quickly and had not improved with administration of oral antibiotics in the outpatient setting. The patient had no palpable crepitus despite its classic association with NF. The infection also took a rare, ascending route of spread with involvement of the temporalis muscle. Cultures taken during debridement grew Streptococcus anginosus and Bacteroides. Biopsies of involved muscle showed histologic evidence of necrosis. Through early surgical intervention including aggressive debridement, and the adjunctive use of appropriate antibiotics, the patient recovered with minimal loss of facial mass and no skin loss. Although NF of the face is rare, the surgeon must maintain a high index of suspicion with any patient presenting after a dental infection with rapid progression of swelling and a disproportionate amount of pain that is unresponsive to antibiotics. PMID:22627436

  10. Host factors predisposing to anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Finegold, S M

    1993-03-01

    Factors that predispose to infection in general, of course, may predispose to infection with anaerobes. Included in this category are diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, malignancy, splenectomy, collagen vascular disease, cytotoxic drug therapy, corticosteroid therapy and other immunosuppression. However, even with these situations there may be certain, more specific, associations: anaerobic cholecystitis and anaerobic osteomyelitis in diabetics, neutropenic colitis, and the increased incidence of local anaerobic infections associated with carcinoma of the lung, colon and uterus. Conditions that lead to decreased redox potential more specifically predispose to infection with anaerobes. Included in this category are obstruction and stasis, tissue anoxia, tissue destruction, vascular insufficiency, prior aerobic infection, burns, foreign body implantation, and calcium salts in a wound (in association with fractures). Other specific clinical situations that predispose to anaerobic infections include leukaemia; oral, gastrointestinal, and female pelvic surgery; trauma at other sites; childbirth; aspiration pneumonia; human and animal bites; and therapy with agents with poor activity against anaerobes (e.g. aminoglycosides, quinolones). AIDS patients appear to be predisposed to severe periodontal disease and its complications. PMID:8518753

  11. Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date. PMID:20083328

  12. Past administration of ?-lactam antibiotics and increase in the emergence of ?-lactamase–producing bacteria in patients with orofacial odontogenic infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoari Kuriyama; Kiyomasa Nakagawa; Tadahiro Karasawa; Yasumasa Saiki; Etsuhide Yamamoto; Shinichi Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the current status of ?-lactamase–producing bacteria in orofacial odontogenic infections. Study design. Microbiologic data regarding purulent exudate from 111 cases with orofacial odontogenic infections were analyzed in relation to the past administration of ?-lactams. Results. ?-lactamase–producing bacteria were isolated more frequently from the ?-lactam-administered group (38.5%) than from the ?-lactam-nonadministered group

  13. Treatment of Anaerobic Infections with Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Tally, Francis P.; Sutter, Vera L.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of treatment of 10 patients with anaerobic infections with metronidazole are presented. Six patients were cured, three showed initial good response but circumstances required a change to another drug, and one patient did not respond. The unique spectrum of the drug, its pharmacology, and limitations are discussed. The results indicate that further clinical trials to determine the efficacy of metronidazole in the treatment of anerobic infections are indicated. PMID:1096810

  14. [Incidence of anaerobic bacteria in respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Kedzia, Anna; Kwapisz, Ewa; Wierzbowska, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are predominant components of normal oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, genital and skin flora. They are involved in infections such as pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema. Laboratory diagnosis of anaerobic infections is based on recovering the etiological agents from clinical materials. Appropriatte specimens include: pus, purulent fluid, biopsy specimen of lung, transtracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Lower respiratory infections are usually either polymicrobial or mixed anaerobic-aerobic infections. Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Bacteroides are the most common anaerobes. Anaerobic bacteria are susceptible to metronidazole, tinidazole (exception of Gram-positive rods), amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem and clindamycin. Treatment includes an antibiotics regimen with an agent active against anaerobic and aerobic bacteria (therapy with 2 or 3 antimicrobial drugs). PMID:12959026

  15. Treatment of Anaerobic Bacterial Infections with Clindamycin-2-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Matthew E.; Bran, Jose L.; Ries, Kristen

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with a variety of serious infections caused by anaerobic bacteria responded to clindamycin. Cure was achieved in 27 of the 32 patients with pleuropulmonary and intra-abdominal infections. Mean serum concentrations of clindamycin for the 8 h after intramuscular administration of clindamycin in these patients were at least 2.5 times the minimal inhibitory concentration of clindamycin for more than 90% of anaerobes. This experience suggests that clindamycin is an excellent and relatively safe antibiotic for treatment of infection caused by anaerobes when combined with surgery (when indicated) or other antibiotics active against aerobic gram-negative bacilli, if present. PMID:4600161

  16. The role of anaerobes in diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Charles, Patrick G P; Uçkay, Ilker; Kressmann, Benjamin; Emonet, Stéphane; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are a common cause of morbidity and, on occasion, even mortality. Infection can be either mono- or polymicrobial, with a wide variety of potential pathogens. Anaerobes may be involved, particularly in wounds that are deeper or more chronic, and are more frequently identified when using modern molecular techniques, such as 16s PCR and pyrosequencing. It remains unclear whether the presence of anaerobes in DFI leads to more severe manifestations, or if these organisms are largely colonizers associated with the presence of greater degrees of tissue ischemia and necrosis. Commonly used empiric antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections is generally broad-spectrum and usually has activity against the most frequently identified anaerobes, such as Peptostreptococcus and Bacteroides species. Adequate surgical debridement and, when needed, foot revascularization may be at least as important as the choice of antibiotic to achieve a successful treatment outcome. PMID:25841893

  17. Genotypic Diversity of Anaerobic Isolates from Bloodstream Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Simmon, Keith E.; Mirrett, Stanley; Reller, L. Barth; Petti, Cathy A.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of anaerobes that cause bloodstream infections is extremely limited, because identification historically has relied on conventional methods. Over a 5-year period, we profiled anaerobic bacteremia at a large tertiary care hospital with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to gain a better understanding of the taxonomical diversity of the bacteria. Of 316 isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified 316 (100%) to the genus or taxonomical group level and 289 (91%) to the species level. Conventional methods identified 279 (88%) to the genus level and 208 (66%) to the species level; 75 (24%) were misidentified at the species level, and 33 (10%) results were inconclusive. High intragenus variability was observed for Bacteroides and Clostridium species, and high intraspecies variability was observed for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Sequence-based identification has potential benefits in comparison to conventional methods, because it more accurately characterizes anaerobes within taxonomically related clusters and thereby may enable better correlation with specific clinical syndromes and antibiotic resistance patterns. PMID:18322067

  18. Microbiology of Odontogenic Bacteremia: beyond Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Parahitiyawa, N. B.; Jin, L. J.; Leung, W. K.; Yam, W. C.; Samaranayake, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The human gingival niche is a unique microbial habitat. In this habitat, biofilm organisms exist in harmony, attached to either enamel or cemental surfaces of the tooth as well as to the crevicular epithelium, subjacent to a rich vascular plexus underneath. Due to this extraordinary anatomical juxtaposition, plaque biofilm bacteria have a ready portal of ingress into the systemic circulation in both health and disease. Yet the frequency, magnitude, and etiology of bacteremias due to oral origin and the consequent end organ infections are not clear and have not recently been evaluated. In this comprehensive review, we address the available literature on triggering events, incidence, and diversity of odontogenic bacteremias. The nature of the infective agents and end organ infections (other than endocarditis) is also described, with an emphasis on the challenge of establishing the link between odontogenic infections and related systemic, focal infections. PMID:19136433

  19. Masticator space abscess derived from odontogenic infection: imaging manifestation and pathways of extension depicted by CT and MR in 30 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Schuknecht; G. Stergiou; K. Graetz

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of odontogenic masticator space abscesses is insufficiently understood. The purpose was to analyse pathways of\\u000a spread in 30 patients with odontogenic masticator space abscess. The imaging findings in 30 patients (CT in 30, MR in 16 patients)\\u000a were retrospectively analysed. CT and MR imaging depicted a masticator space abscess within: medial pterygoid muscle in 13\\u000a patients (43.3%), lateral masseter

  20. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Grasmuck, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2010-03-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  1. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

    2013-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

  2. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Venkata suneel; Venkata Sarath, P.; Anumula, Lavanya; Mundlapudi, Sridhar; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms found almost exclusively in the jaws and arise only occasionally in other bones. We present a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the mandible of a 19-year-old male patient with a brief review of clinical and radiological features, and diagnostic and operative dilemmas in managing the same. PMID:22830060

  3. Treatment of mandibular odontogenic keratocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwar B Bataineh; Mansour A Al Qudah

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with surgical treatment of 31 mandibular odontogenic keratocysts, with special reference to their recurrence, and to review the literature on this subject.Study design. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all odontogenic cysts treated in the Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine at Jordan University of Science and Technology

  4. Infections Caused by Aerobic and Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth V. I. Rolston; David E. Greenberg; Amar Safdar

    \\u000a Many cancer treatment centers have documented a decline in the proportion of bacterial infections caused by aerobic Gram-negative\\u000a bacilli in the past 2 decades. Nevertheless, these organisms still cause a wide spectrum of infection (from benign colonization\\u000a to disseminated disease) and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, particularly\\u000a during episodes of neutropenia. The most significant

  5. Anaerobic Wound Infections in Cancer Patients: Comparative Trial of Clindamycin, Tinidazole, and Doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Klastersky, J.; Husson, M.; Weerts-Ruhl, D.; Daneau, D.

    1977-01-01

    Clindamycin, tinidazole (a parent compound to metronidazole), and doxycycline were compared in vitro against 376 anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens. Bacteriostatic tests indicated that clindamycin was the most active drug, on a weight basis, against these strains except for Clostridium species. The three drugs were compared as therapies for anaerobic wound infections in cancer patients. In a randomized double-blind study, no statistically significant differences between clindamycin and tinidazole could be documented. Doxycycline was less active presumably because of the lack of clinical response in three out of four patients infected with doxycycline-resistant strains. No major untoward effects were observed. The bactericidal dilution of the serum was predictive of the clinical outcome. PMID:921254

  6. OD17-14/2 Page 1 ODONTOGENIC BENIGN TUMORS

    E-print Network

    OD17-14/2 Page 1 CHAPTER 14 ODONTOGENIC BENIGN TUMORS OF THE JAWS I. Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors (With no inductive change in connective tissue) 1. Ameloblastoma 2. Odontogenic adenomatoid tumor (Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor) 3. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) II. Mixed

  7. [Cerebellar abscess due to infection with the anaerobic bacteria fusobacterium nucleatum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Shimogawa, Takafumi; Sayama, Tetsuro; Haga, Sei; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Morioka, Takato

    2015-02-01

    We report a rare case of cerebellar abscess produced by anaerobic bacteria. A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of fever, vomiting, and dizziness lasting 14 days. Computed tomography(CT)scan and magnetic resonance images showed the presence of a multiloculated cerebellar abscess with a right subdural abscess. The patient underwent aspiration of the abscess through a suboccipital craniotomy. Fusobacterium nucleatum, which is an anaerobic bacteria naturally present in the human oral cavity, was detected in cultures of the aspirated abscess. The patient was administered antibiotic treatment combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy(HBO). The symptoms were briefly relieved but the cerebellar abscess recurred, which required a second aspiration. The combined treatment with antibiotics and HBO was maintained after the second operation. After 6 weeks of treatment, the cerebellar abscess was completely controlled. We conclude that antibiotic treatment combined with HBO is useful for treatment of cerebellar abscesses caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. PMID:25672555

  8. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Amrutha, N

    2013-12-01

    Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of proteins that may be formed due to infections or genetic disorders. Asteroid body is one such inclusion that is eosinophilic and spider like that are usually found in infections like sarcoidosis and sporotrichosis. Inclusions are usually pathognomonic of certain diseases and conditions, navigating the pathologist to arrive at a diagnosis. But, here we report an unusual finding of an asteroid body encountered in an inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Amrutha N. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):131-3 . PMID:24453458

  9. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions.

  10. Thyroid Abscess Due to a Mixed Anaerobic Infection with Fusobacterium mortiferum

    PubMed Central

    Stavreas, Nikolaos P.; Amanatidou, Constantina D.; Hatzimanolis, Emmanuel G.; Legakis, Ioannis; Naoum, George; Lakka-Papadodima, Elli; Georgoulias, George; Morfou, Panagiota; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2005-01-01

    A rare case of a thyroid abscess due to mixed anaerobic flora containing Fusobacterium mortiferum in an immunocompetent patient is described. The patient was successfully treated with immediate surgical intervention and appropriate antimicrobial agents. PMID:16333131

  11. In Vitro Activity of Levofloxacin against a Selected Group of Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Molitoris, Eric; Molitoris, Denise; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was compared to the activities of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin-sulbactam (2:1), cefoxitin, and metronidazole for a selected group of anaerobes (n = 175) isolated from skin and soft tissue infections by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-approved Wadsworth method. Ampicillin-sulbactam and cefoxitin inhibited 99% of the strains of this select group, levofloxacin and ofloxacin inhibited 73 and 50%, respectively, at 2 ?g/ml, and ciprofloxacin inhibited 51% at 1 ?g/ml. The geometric mean MIC of levofloxacin was lower than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin for every group except Veillonella. PMID:9559829

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monali; Kale, Hemant; Ranginwala, Amena; Patel, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst of jaws with a relative frequency between 0.012 and 1.3%. GOC is very rare and only 111 cases have been documented in the English literature so far. Generally, this cyst is encountered in the anterior areas of the mandible and is more common with a wide age range, the mean age being 49.5 years and has a tendency to recur. GOC is often misdiagnosed because of its overlapping histopathological features with that of other odontogenic cysts such as lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) or botryoid cyst and central low-grade Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of GOC is challenging for pathologist. Here, we present a case of GOC in a 40 year old male patient in left mandibular region that crossed the midline. PMID:24959044

  13. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  14. Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?

    PubMed

    Nayak, Meghanand T; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

    2013-07-01

    The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC. PMID:24082717

  15. Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC. PMID:24082717

  16. [Participation of gram-negative anaerobes in infections in hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska, Marta; Majewska, Anna; Kqdzielska, Joanna; Rozpara, Agnieszka; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples taken from hospitalized patients from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2008. The specimens were cultured using media, incubated at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions. Biochemical identification and antibiotic susceptibility were done in an automated system ATB Expression (bioMerieux S.A, France). For selected strains of Bacteroides sp. sensitivity was determined using E-test (AB BIODISK, Sweden). Overall 1274 strains of obligate anaerobes were isolated. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured in number of 333 strains. Most frequently isolated was Bacteroides sp. (46,9%) and Prevotella sp. (29,7%). Isolated bacteria are still susceptible to imipenem (100%), metronidazole (100%) and beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors: amoxicillin/clavulanate (97,8%) piperacillin/tazobactam (99,1%), ticarcillin/clavulanate (99,1%). PMID:22184918

  17. Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes of Head and Neck in Computed Tomography Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Aleksandra; Hendrich, Barbara K.; Nienartowicz, Jan; Guzi?ski, Maciej; S?siadek, Marek J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Infections of odontogenic origin are the most common cause of inflammatory disease of head and neck region. Computed tomography allows for defining localization and extent of inflammatory lesions, visualizes soft tissue involvement, presence of an abscess or an osteolytic lesion around causative tooth. The aim of this study was to assess pathways, by which odontogenic infections spread into respective deep head and neck structures in computed tomography examination, taking into account the following criteria: frequency of involvement of respective deep cervical spaces, possibility to determine a probable causative tooth and concordance with the results of clinical examination. Material/Methods Thirty-eight patients cervicofacial inflammatory disease had undergone CT examination of head and neck region with a 64-slice CT scanner after intravenous contrast administration. Results Abscess was reported in 30 (79%) cases, while inflammatory infiltration was diagnosed in remaining 8 (21%) patients. There was full concordance between radiological report and intraoperative report In 33 cases (87%). The most commonly involved cervical space was masticator space – 31 patients (82%), followed by submandibular space – 27 patients (71%). Dental examination was impossible in 29 patient because of trismus. During analysis of CT studies we evaluated maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes for presence of osteolytic bone lesions around causative teeth roots and we found them in 30 cases (79%). In 32 cases (84%) cervicofacial infection were of mandibular odontogenic origin. Conclusions In most cases CT study in patients suspected of odontogenic craniofacial infection revealed presence of an abscess, needing urgent surgery. Inflammatory infiltration of dental origin most frequently involves masticator space, followed by submandibular space. In most cases CT scanning allows for identification of causative teeth, especially when trismus makes detailed clinical examination impossible. PMID:25436021

  18. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions. PMID:25587387

  19. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  20. Surgical and prosthetic management of maxillary odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Haroon; Bashir, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are uncommon tumors of comprising of 3% of all the tumors of odontogenic origin. They usually occur during the second and third decades of life and are more commonly seen in females. The current case report sheds light upon the surgical treatment of a myxoma of odontogenic origin in posterior maxilla of a young female patient. Prosthodontic rehabilitation stages are also briefly described following complete healing of the lesion after surgery. PMID:26038664

  1. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: As an unusual mandibular manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; Passi, Sidhi; Kumar, Vinay V.

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare odontogenic tumor which is often misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst and accounts for about 1% until 9% of all odontogenic tumors. It is predominantly found in young and female patients, located more often in the maxilla in most cases associated with an unerupted permanent tooth. It is a benign (hamartomatous), noninvasive lesion with slow but progressive growth. There are three variants of AOT: follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. We report a rare case of follicular-type AOT in the mandible of a 14-year-old male patient who presented with right -sided jaw swelling. PMID:22629062

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

    2002-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

  3. Evaluation of stromal myofibroblasts expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumor and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Swati; Garg, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has an aggressive clinical course and a high tendency of recurrence, while orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) has different characteristics and does not show aggressive behaviour. Even the treatment of these two lesions varies considerably. A large number of epithelial molecules have been studied in order to differentiate odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) from OOC, but stromal factors have not been adequately studied. Recently, tumor stroma has evolved as a particular field of interest. In the present study, we aim to evaluate and compare the expression of stromal myofibroblasts (MFs) in these entities and correlate it to its aggressive behavior. The term ‘keratocystic odontogenic tumor’ has been introduced by WHO in 2005 for odontogenic keratocyst keeping in mind its aggressive behavior, however still many pathologists and clinicians use the term OKC synonymously. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases of KCOT and 10 cases of OOC were stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) for demonstration of stromal MFs. MF frequency was assessed as the number of ?SMA-positive stromal cells in 10 high power fields, presented as the mean number of positive cells per field. Results: Counts showed that the mean number of positive cells in KCOT (20.6 ± 2.05) was significantly higher than that seen in OOC (10.4 ± 1.06) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The different behaviors of these lesions are compatible with the finding of the present study. The increased number of stromal MFs in KCOT in comparison to OOC correlates with its aggressive behavior and increased tendency towards recurrence. PMID:24250080

  4. Spondylodiscitis due to anaerobic bacteria about a case of Parvimonas micra infection.

    PubMed

    Pilmis, B; Israel, J; Le Monnier, A; Mizrahi, A

    2015-08-01

    Parvimonas micra is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We report a case of spondylodiscitis caused by P. micra, a rarely reported Gram positive cocci. The case was an elderly patient with joint surgery and ischaemic heart disease history. Infection resolved after adequate antibiotic therapy. PMID:26067839

  5. An approach to oral infections and their management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Hull; Anthony W. Chow

    2005-01-01

    Oral infections can be odontogenic or nonodontogenic in origin. Odontogenic infections are most prevalent and include dental\\u000a caries, periodontal disease, and suppurative deep space infections. Nonodontogenic infections include sialadenitis and parotitis,\\u000a vesiculobullous gingivostomatitis, aphthous ulcers, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and severe oral mucositis in the immunocompromised\\u000a host. Clinical presentations can be variable. An understanding of the underlying anatomic structures, the oral microflora,

  6. Anaerobic arginine metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by arginine deiminase (arcA), but is not essential for chronic persistence in an aerogenic mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Sürken, Michael; Keller, Christine; Röhker, Claudia; Ehlers, Stefan; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2008-10-01

    In many pathogens, degradation of arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway supports anaerobic metabolism. Here we show by deletion of Rv1001 (arcA) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that this gene functions as an arginine deiminase. Arginine metabolism in the presence of oxygen was not affected by the mutation, indicating a separate pathway for arginine degradation under aerobic conditions. Following aerosol infection in mice, the DeltaarcA mutant and wild-type strain of M. tuberculosis multiplied and persisted in infected organs in a similar fashion. PMID:18032107

  7. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  8. Odontogenic carcinosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Sang-Pill; Cho, Hyun-Young; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, In-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor with only a few reported cases. It is characterized by a true mixed tumor showing malignant cytology of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It has been assumed to arise from pre-existing lesions such as ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma, and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. To date, the reported cases have exhibited considerably aggressive clinical behavior. The case of an odontogenic carcinosarcoma in the mandible of a 61-year-old male is described herein. The tumor destroyed the cortex of the mandible and invaded the adjacent tissues. Treatment was performed by surgical resection and reconstruction. The purposes of this article are to introduce odontogenic carcinosarcoma through this case study, to distinguish it from related diseases and to discuss features of the tumor in the existing literature. PMID:26131431

  9. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  10. Conservative management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Pavan; Laverick, Sean; Bounds, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Since the term odontogenic keratocyst first appeared in the literature, controversy has surrounded its terminology and surgical management. Recent articles would suggest that surgical opinion is still divided between aggressive radical resection and a more conservative approach. We present an interesting case of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour shown to have eroded through bony cortices and present within soft tissues that was satisfactorily managed conservatively by decompression and secondary enucleation. PMID:25210136

  11. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla- A Rare case Report

    PubMed Central

    Subramaiam, Ramkumar; Narasimhan, Malathi; Giri, Veda; Kumar, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive, non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme that usually occurs in the tooth bearing areas of the jaws. These lesions arouse special interest as they pose high diagnostic challenge. Here, we present a rare case of OM of the maxilla in an 18-year-old male. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed in this paper.

  12. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, K. S.; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation “keratocyst” was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  13. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumor of the Jaw – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Muddana, Keerthi; Pasupula, Ajay prakash; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Thokala, Madhusudan Rao; Muppallai, Jaya Nagendra Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Central jaw tumors (intra osseous) in children occur infrequently and few oral pathologists have had the opportunity or experience in diagnosing these lesions and predicting their biological behavior. Some children are not diagnosed correctly at the initial stages as having a neoplasm and are wrongly treated for infections by antibiotic administration. Subsequent to an unresponsive antibiotic therapy radiographs are taken to reveal a radiolucent or radio dense lesion in the jaws. Finally a tissue diagnosis becomes necessary in order to diagnose and initiate proper therapy. One among the central jaw tumors that occur infrequently in children is Ameloblastoma. It is often aggressive and destructive, with the capacity to attain great size, erode bone and invade adjacent structures. Ameloblastoma not only accounts for 1% of all tumors of maxilla and mandible but also 11% of all odontogenic tumors. It has a high percentage of local recurrence rate and possible malignant development when treated inadequately. Here we present a central jaw tumor in an 8-year-old child which was a case of unusually large plexiform ameloblastoma involving entire ramus up to the condyle, and part of body of the mandible. PMID:24701548

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    to aerobic metabolsm. This said, it is not uncommon to hear microbiologists talk about anaerobic respiration it for respiration. However, in many animals anaerobic metabolism may occur even when there are large amounts of O2Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM 1 Introduction About the Next Three Sets of Class Notes

  15. Botryoid odontogenic cyst: a diagnostic chaos.

    PubMed

    A, Anuradha; U, Urmila; Srinivas G, Vijay; Deviramisetty, Sabitha; Hk, Puneeth

    2014-12-01

    Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics. PMID:25654045

  16. Smoothened gene alterations in keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been widely demonstrated that the hedgehog pathway is strongly associated with basal cell carcinoma of the skin (NBCCS). To assess potential DNA alterations related to keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), we sequenced smoothened (SMO) genes in 12 sporadic KCOTs. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), capillary electrophoresis and dideoxy chain-termination sequencing were used to examine potential DNA alterations in sporadic KCOTs. Results Five alterations in SMO genes were detected. Four of these mutations consisted of two synonymous and three missense mutations; two of which have not been reported to date (c.T776A, c.T1281G). Conclusions SMO genes may play an important role in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway and could also be responsible for generating KCOTs and NBCCS. However, their influence on SHH signaling remains to be elucidated. PMID:25189937

  17. Infratemporal Space Infection Following Maxillary Third Molar Extraction in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Gok, Gul?en; Zarghami, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    Infratemporal space infection is a rare but serious sequel of odontogenic infection. The diagnosis is difficult due to non spe-cific signs and symptoms. Diabetes mellitus as a definitive risk factor for odontogenic infections needs more consideration during clinical procedures. We report a case of an undiagnosed diabetic patient with isolated infratemporal space infection after tooth extraction with presentation of similar signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint and muscle problem. PMID:22991649

  18. Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-02-01

    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

  19. Odontogenic Myxoma of Maxilla in an Atypical Location: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayani, P; Jahanshahi, GR; Mohagheghiyan, HR

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in jaws. It presents local invasiveness and tendency to recurrence. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the odontogenic myxoma is classified as an odontogenic tumor of ectomesenchymal origin. The odontogenic myxoma is a rare entity found in both jaws while the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. We present a kind of odontogenic myxoma in a 24-year old male that was found in an unusual location. PMID:24724116

  20. Microbiology and Management of Deep Facial Infections and Lemierre Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Brook

    2003-01-01

    This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of deep facial infections and Lemierre syndrome. The origins of most of these infections are odontogenic infections that spread to fascial spaces of the lower head and upper neck. Other sources include pharyngotonsillar, nasal, otologic, salivary gland and dermatologic infections, hematogenic spread, cervical adenitis and trauma. These space infections can be divided

  1. Analysis of silver stained nucleolar organizing regions in odontogenic cysts and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, MD; Charan, CR; Reddy Ealla, Kranti Kiran; Surekha, V; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Gokavarapu, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the probable differences in cell proliferation index of odontogenic cysts and tumors by means of a comparative silver stained nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) quantification. Study Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on archival paraffin blocks (n = 62), consisting of 10 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, 10 radicular cysts, 10 conventional ameloblastomas, 10 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, 10 calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors and 2 ameloblasic carcinomas. Results: The mean AgNOR count of odontogenic cysts was 1.709 and the benign odontogenic tumors was 1.862. Highest AgNOR count was recorded in odontogenic keratocyst and lowest was seen in radicular cyst. Statistically significant difference in AgNOR counts of ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, amelobalastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, benign odontogenic tumors and ameloblastic carcinoma were seen. AgNORs in ameloblastic carcinoma were more in number and more widely spread. Conclusion: AgNOR technique may be considered a good indicator of cell proliferation in odontogenic cysts and tumors. PMID:25364178

  2. Aerobic to anaerobic transition in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) infected with different miracidial doses of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie and Basch, 1967) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Lustrino, Danilo; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; de Lurdes de Azevedo Rodrigues, Maria; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2013-04-01

    The glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to different parasite doses (5 and 50 miracidia) of Echinostoma paraensei as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analyses were also performed to determine the concentrations of four organic acids (oxalic, succinic, pyruvic and lactic) present in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails, to better understand the effect of infection on the host's energetic/oxidative metabolism. The snails were dissected 1-4 weeks after infection to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. There was alteration in the glycemia of the snails at both parasite doses, with a significant increase of glycemia from of the third week after infection in comparison to the control group. Changes were also observed in the lactate dehydrogenase activity, with increased activity as the infection progressed. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content in the storage tissues, with a markedly greater reduction in the digestive gland-gonad complex (larval development site) in comparison with the cephalopedal mass. Additionally, the infection by both miracidial doses resulted in an increase of oxalic and lactic acid levels, as well as in a decline of piruvic and succinic acid levels in B. glabrata, thus explaining the reduction of the oxidative decarboxylation rate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and acceleration of the anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the snails, through lactic fermentation, which is essential to ensure energy supply and success of the infection. PMID:23376444

  3. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation. PMID:21062939

  4. DNA methyltransferase expression in odontogenic cysts and tumours

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, CAROLINA CAVALIÉRI; BRITO, JOÃO ARTUR RICIERI; ANDRADE, CARLOS INÁCIO; GOMEZ, RICARDO SANTIAGO

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of gene expression by promoter CpG island hypermethylation is promoted by the enzymes, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). DNMT3a is mainly involved in de novo methylation, whereas DNMT1 acts mainly as a maintenance methyltransferase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of DNMT1 and DNMT3a in a set of odontogenic cysts and tumours. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of eight radicular cysts, 10 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), eight adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOT), 16 ameloblastomas and eight samples of normal mucosae were included in the study. The DNMT1 and DNMT3a proteins were identified by using a highly sensitive polymer-based system. We found that the normal oral mucosa, OKC, AOT, radicular cyst and ameloblastomas samples showed a widespread nuclear and cytoplasmic immunopositivity for DNMT1. Some radicular cysts, ameloblastomas, AOT and OKC samples presented a positive cytoplasmic reaction for DNMT3a, while negative staining was observed in the normal oral mucosa. Nuclear positivity was found only in the suprabasal cell layers of three OKC samples. Our study shows an increased expression of DNMT3a in odontogenic cysts and tumours, confirming that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the development of these tumours. PMID:22966272

  5. [The glandular odontogenic cyst--a rare entity].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

    2014-05-01

    In this short communication, the very rare glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is presented as an independent entity. The GOC is a jawbone cyst of the maxilla and mandible. The typical radiological and histopathological characteristics of the GOC are described. Furthermore, differential diagnoses, current treatment options and the recurrence rates of this of entity are discussed. PMID:24633391

  6. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish; Barua, Pranamee; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumours are known for their peculiar behaviour, varied origin, debated development, unique tendency to recur and disputed treatment modalities. Thus, it has been the subject of much research over the last 40?years. It was formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). OKC received its new title as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by the WHO (2005) in order to suggest its aggressive and recurrent nature. KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of an 11-year-old child with extensive KCOT and an impacted canine in the right maxillary sinus. The cyst was initially misdiagnosed to be a dentigerous cyst based on the clinical and radiographic features though a differential diagnosis of KCOT and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The histological examination of the specimen finally confirmed it to be a KCOT. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour along with its surgical management have been discussed. PMID:23429028

  7. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish; Barua, Pranamee; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumours are known for their peculiar behaviour, varied origin, debated development, unique tendency to recur and disputed treatment modalities. Thus, it has been the subject of much research over the last 40 years. It was formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). OKC received its new title as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by the WHO (2005) in order to suggest its aggressive and recurrent nature. KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of an 11-year-old child with extensive KCOT and an impacted canine in the right maxillary sinus. The cyst was initially misdiagnosed to be a dentigerous cyst based on the clinical and radiographic features though a differential diagnosis of KCOT and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The histological examination of the specimen finally confirmed it to be a KCOT. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour along with its surgical management have been discussed. PMID:23429028

  8. Automated classification of four types of developmental odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Frydenlund, A; Eramian, M; Daley, T

    2014-04-01

    Odontogenic cysts originate from remnants of the tooth forming epithelium in the jaws and gingiva. There are various kinds of such cysts with different biological behaviours that carry different patient risks and require different treatment plans. Types of odontogenic cysts can be distinguished by the properties of their epithelial layers in H&E stained samples. Herein we detail a set of image features for automatically distinguishing between four types of odontogenic cyst in digital micrographs and evaluate their effectiveness using two statistical classifiers - a support vector machine (SVM) and bagging with logistic regression as the base learner (BLR). Cyst type was correctly predicted from among four classes of odontogenic cysts between 83.8% and 92.3% of the time with an SVM and between 90 ± 0.92% and 95.4 ± 1.94% with a BLR. One particular cyst type was associated with the majority of misclassifications. Omission of this cyst type from the data set improved the classification rate for the remaining three cyst types to 96.2% for both SVM and BLR. PMID:24411103

  9. Anaerobic treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Witt; W. J. Humphrey; J. P. Cave

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides for the anaerobic treatment of acidic petrochemical wastes in an anaerobic filter at high loadings and high recycle rates. The effluent from the top of the filter passes into a gas-disengaging\\/solids-settling zone containing a quiescent body of the effluent liquid. The settled solids are withdrawn and recycled to the base of the filter together with fresh acidic

  10. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis.

  11. Carnoy's solution in the mangement of odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivanmalai, Sivaraj; Kandhasamy, Kohila; Prabu, Neetika; Prince, Christo Naveen; Prabu, Chandrakala Shekarappa Annapurna Pannaikadu Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Carnoy's solution is a substance used as a complementary treatment after the conservative excision of odontogenic keratocyst. The application of Carnoy's solution promotes a superficial chemical necrosis and is intended to reduce recurrence rates. However, the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus can occasionally be exposed after the removal of a lesion. The safety of the application of Carnoy's solution over this plexus has been reported, but to date, no clinical report has been made. The authors present a case that was given Carnoy's solution over the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus as a complementary treatment for the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Effective control of recurrence with low and transient neural morbidity was suggested with this technique. PMID:23066248

  12. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Siles, Mariano; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Salazar-Sanchez, Noemi

    2013-03-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor is an intraosseous benign tumor of epithelial origin that can appear as a unicystic or multicystic lesion. It is characterized most significantly by its high recurrence rate. This is why surgical removal is the chosen therapeutic approach in most cases. However, while surgery may be the safest technique to prevent recidivism, it may also result in numerous complications with large tumors. A number of authors have suggested a more conservative treatment for large keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The case examined in this article is that of a 48-year-old male patient who presented with a five-month swelling on the left side of his face, located in the mandibular area. PMID:23691729

  13. Msx and Dlx Homeogene Expression in Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; Ghoul-Mazgar, Sonia; Hotton, Dominique; Capron, Frédérique; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumors are rare jaw pathologies that raise clinical diagnosis and prognosis dilemmas notably between ameloblastomas and clear cell odontogenic carcinomas (CCOCs). In line with previous studies, the molecular determinants of tooth development—amelogenin, Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, Dlx3, Bmp2, and Bmp4—were analyzed by RT-PCR, ISH, and immunolabeling in 12 recurrent ameloblastomas and in one case of CCOC. Although Msx1 expression imitates normal cell differentiation in these tumors, other genes showed a distinct pattern depending on the type of tumor and the tissue involved. In benign ameloblastomas, ISH localized Dlx3 transcripts and inconstantly detected Msx2 transcripts in epithelial cells. In the CCOC, ISH established a lack of both Dlx3 and Msx2 transcripts but allowed identification of the antisense transcript of Msx1, which imitates the same scheme of distribution between mesenchyme and epithelium as in the cup stage of tooth development. Furthermore, while exploring the expression pattern of signal molecules by RT-PCR, Bmp2 was shown to be completely inactivated in the CCOC and irregularly noticeable in ameloblastomas. Bmp4 was always expressed in all the tumors. Based on the established roles of Msx and Dlx transcription factors in dental cell fates, these data suggest that their altered expression is a proposed trail to explain the genesis and/or the progression of odontogenic tumors. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:69–78, 2009) PMID:18854600

  14. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  15. Calcifying Ghost Cell Odontogenic Cyst: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonone, Archana; Sabane, V. S.; Desai, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) was first described by Gorlin et al. in 1962. Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst is comparatively rare in occurrence, constituting about 0.37% to 2.1% of all odontogenic tumors. The most notable features of this pathologic entity are histopathological features which include a cystic lining demonstrating characteristic “Ghost” epithelial cells with a propensity to calcify. In addition, the CGCOC may be associated with other recognized odontogenic tumors, most commonly odontomas. There are variants of CGCOC according to clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics. Therefore a proper categorization of the cases is needed for better understanding of the pathogenesis of each variant. Here, we report a classical case of calcifying odontogenic cyst along with a brief review of literature. PMID:22567434

  16. [Clinical analysis of anaerobic septicemia in 26 patients with extensive burn].

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Ma, E; Gong, L

    1995-12-01

    To understand the incidence and importance of anaerobic infection, the aerobic and anaerobic blood culture were carried out simultaneously in 127 patients with extensive burns (TBSA > 50%). Among 39 patients with positive culture, 26 had anaerob growth in blood culture. The total incidence rate of anaerobic septicemia was 20.4%. 61 strains (9 species) of anaerobes were isolated from blood specimens. The predominant anaerobes were Peptococcus (37.7%) and B. fragilis (36.1%). 20 (76.9%) were mixed infection of aerobes and anaerobes. The others thers suffered from combined infection of B. Fragilis and peptococcus combined infection. Finally, 19 patients survived and 7 died (26.9%). The sensitive tests showed that the effective drugs were metronidazot, chloramycin, and lincomycin. These data suggested that the septicemia of extensive burn patients is often caused by anaerobes. Therefore, anaerobe plays an important role in burn infection. PMID:8762556

  17. Defects of the Carney complex gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sílvia F; Gomez, Ricardo S; Diniz, Marina G; Bernardes, Vanessa F; Soares, Flávia F C; Brito, João Artur R; Liu, Sophie; Pontes, Hélder Antônio R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-06-01

    The surgical treatment of some odontogenic tumors often leads to tooth and maxillary bone loss as well as to facial deformity. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors may result in alternative molecular therapies. The PRKAR1A gene displays a loss of protein expression as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ectomesenchymal neoplasm. We used a combination of quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, and direct sequencing of all PRKAR1A exons to assess if this gene is altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. Thirteen tumors were included in the study: six ameloblastic fibromas, four ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, one ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, and two ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The epithelial components of the tumors were separated from the mesenchymal by laser microdissection in most of the cases. We also searched for odontogenic pathology in Prkar1a(+) (/) (-) mice. PRKAR1A mRNA/protein expression was decreased in the benign mixed odontogenic tumors in association with LOH at markers around the PRKAR1A gene. We also detected a missense and two synonymous mutations along with two 5'-UTR and four intronic mutations in mixed odontogenic tumors. Prkar1a(+) (/) (-) mice did not show evidence of odontogenic tumor formation, which indicates that additional genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of such tumors, at least in rodents. We conclude that the PRKAR1A gene and its locus are altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. PRKAR1A expression is decreased in a subset of tumors but not in all, and Prkar1a(+) (/) (-) mice do not show abnormalities, which indicates that additional genes play a role in this tumor's pathogenesis. PMID:25870248

  18. Anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, E.R.; Humphrey, W.J.; Cave, J.P.

    1982-12-28

    This invention provides for the anaerobic treatment of acidic petrochemical wastes in an anaerobic filter at high loadings and high recycle rates. The effluent from the top of the filter passes into a gas-disengaging/solids-settling zone containing a quiescent body of the effluent liquid. The settled solids are withdrawn and recycled to the base of the filter together with fresh acidic waste and an inorganic alkaline material (preferably magnesium oxide or carbonate) to maintain a neutral pH. The liquid portion of the effluent is sent to an aerobic digester to remove the rest of the organic material, which is used to support the growth of bacteria and fed back to the anaerobic system.

  19. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  20. Defects of the Carney complex's gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Sílvia F; Gomez, Ricardo S; Diniz, Marina G; Bernardes, Vanessa F; Soares, Flávia FC; Brito, João Artur R; Liu, Sophie; Pontes, Hélder Antônio R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of some odontogenic tumors often leads to tooth and maxillary bone loss as well as facial deformity. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in their pathogenesis may result in alternative molecular therapies. The PRKAR1A gene shows loss of protein expression, as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ectomesenchymal neoplasm. We used a combination of qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, LOH analysis and direct sequencing of all PRKAR1A exons to assess if this gene is altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. Thirteen tumors were included, being six ameloblastic fibromas, four ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, one ameloblastic fibrodentinoma and two ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The epithelial component of the tumors was separated from the mesenchymal by laser microdissection in most of the cases. We also searched for odontogenic pathology in Prkar1a+/? mice. PRKAR1A mRNA/protein expression was decreased in the benign mixed odontogenic tumors in association with LOH at markers around PRKAR1A gene. We also detected a missense and two synonymous mutations, besides two 5’-UTR and four intronic mutations in the mixed odontogenic tumors. Prkar1a+/? mice did not show evidence of odontogenic tumor formation, suggesting that additional genes may be involved in their pathogenesis, at least in rodents. We conclude that the PRKAR1A gene and its locus are altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. PRKAR1A's expression is decreased in a subset of tumors but not in all, and Prkar1a+/? mice do not show abnormalities, suggesting that additional genes play a role in this tumor's pathogenesis. PMID:25870248

  1. Anaerobic bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Vidal, A M; Sarria, J C; Kimbrough, R C; Keung, Y K

    2000-03-01

    An increasing number of anaerobic bloodstream infections in neutropenic cancer patients have been reported in the last decade. The type of anaerobes isolated from most of these patients suggests an oral source of infection. We describe a case of anaerobic bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with oral mucositis that highlights the importance of considering these organisms when selecting empiric prophylactic or therapeutic antimicrobial regimens, especially in the setting of periodontal disease or oral mucositis. PMID:10746831

  2. Differential expression of Cyclin D1 in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression levels of Cyclin D1 (CCD1), a nuclear protein that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts. Study Design: A total of 58 keratin-producing odontogenic cysts, diagnosed over ten years and classified according to the WHO 2005 criteria, were immunohistochemically analyzed in terms of CCD1 expression, which was quantified in the basal, suprabasal and intermediate/superficial epithelial compartments. The extent of immunostaining was measured as a proportion of total epithelial thickness. Quantified immunohistochemical data were correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical recurrence. Results: Keratin-producing odontogenic cysts were classified as 6 syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (S-KCOT), 40 sporadic or non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOT) and 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). Immunohistochemically, CCD1 staining was evident predominantly in the parabasal region of all cystic lesions, but among-lesion differences were apparent, showing a clear expansion of parabasal compartment especially in the S-KCOT, followed to a lesser extent in the NS-KCOT, and being much more reduced in the OOC, which had the greatest average epithelial thickness. Conclusions: The differential expression of CCD1 noted in the present study suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to the S phase contributes to the different aggressiveness of these lesions. However, CCD1 expression levels did not predict NS-KCOT recurrence, which is likely influenced by factors unrelated to lesion biology. Key words:Keratin-producing odontogenic cyst, keratocyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, cyclin D1, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25475773

  3. Immediate reconstruction of the mandible after resection for aggressive odontogenic tumours: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Simon, E N M; Merkx, M A W; Kalyanyama, B M; Shubi, F M; Stoelinga, P J W

    2013-01-01

    The results are reported of a clinical follow-up study on 32 selected but consecutive patients with mandibular ameloblastoma. They were all treated by a segmental resection and reconstructed, using two 2.3 mm reconstruction plates and an autogenous particulate bone graft, taken from the anterior iliac crest, and platelet rich plasma. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 39 months, with an average of 27.9 months. Undisturbed healing occurred in 29 patients, while three had postoperative infections, but in only one case did that result in failure of the graft. The patients' appreciation was measured using an adapted quality of life questionnaire. The results were compared with a similar group who did not undergo reconstruction. The eating of solid food, appearance and speech were considerably better in the reconstructed group. The conclusion is that this means of reconstruction is appropriate for patients with benign but aggressive odontogenic tumours of the mandible, particularly in developing countries, since the expenses seem to be affordable. PMID:22898314

  4. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization.

    PubMed

    Telles, Déborah Campos; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively), morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate. PMID:24346047

  5. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

  6. Maxillary keratocystic odontogenic tumor with calcifications: A review and case report

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, Farzan; Tippu, Shoaib R; Girish, KL; Kalra, Manpreet; Desai, Vela

    2011-01-01

    Calcifications or hard tissue deposits in the wall of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) are rare and uncommon. Three types of calcifications have been reported in the literature: dystrophic, cartilagenous, dentinoid. A case of maxillary KCOT with calcification is reported with a review on prevalence and pathogenesis of these calcifications. The calcifications associated with the connective tissue of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were studied using special stains. These calcifications were positive for collagen stains, Van Gieson, Masson trichrome, and negative for congo red and mallory suggesting that these irregularly shaped, diffuse calcifications which form on a collagenous matrix are dysplastic dentin. PMID:22144832

  7. Limits of anaerobic biodegradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Field

    2002-01-01

    The main factors responsible for anaerobic recalcitrance are reviewed. Anaerobic recalcitrance is associated with hydrocarbons lacking functional groups, branched molecules (gasoline oxygenates), aromatic amines and aromatic sulfonates. The most recalcitrant compounds are high molecular weight non- hydrolyzable polymers such as plastic, lignin and humus, which cannot be taken up by cells. Recently new capabilities of anaerobic microorganisms have been discovered

  8. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in mandible in a 14-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Rohan; Dave, Jay; Nalawade, Triveni M; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy reported with a painless swelling over the right anterior mandible with missing right canine tooth. The lesion was diagnosed as 'central follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour' and excised surgically under general anaesthesia. The patient was on a year-long clinical and radiographical follow-up. PMID:23839612

  9. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in mandible in a 14-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Rohan; Dave, Jay; Nalawade, Triveni M; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy reported with a painless swelling over the right anterior mandible with missing right canine tooth. The lesion was diagnosed as ‘central follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour’ and excised surgically under general anaesthesia. The patient was on a year-long clinical and radiographical follow-up. PMID:23839612

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  11. Odontogenic keratocyst: Review of 256 cases for recurrence and clinicopathologic parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoon Myoung; Sam-Pyo Hong; Seong-Doo Hong; Jae-Il Lee; Chang-Yun Lim; Pill-Hoon Choung; Jong-Ho Lee; Jin-Young Choi; Byoung-Moo Seo; Myung-Jin Kim

    2001-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is of particular interest because of its high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. Two hundred fifty-six cases of OKC were reviewed for the age of the patient at diagnosis, sex of the patient, OKC location, and radiographic findings, and 132 patients with OKC were observed to estimate recurrence, which was analyzed for age, sex, location, and several

  12. Orofacial infections in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Maki, Mohammed Hashim

    2010-11-01

    In Iraq, oral and maxillofacial (OMF) infections are common; these infections may be of odontogenic or nonodontogenic origin. The former, the commoner, gains importance from the catastrophic consequences that may take place in neglected or mismanaged patients and, as a paradox, from a fact that most of these infections are avoidable and preventable if a timely and accurate management took place for the primary dental problem. Nonodontogenic infections are not uncommon and are of life-threatening potential. Most of these infections are associated with an underlying medical condition that, whenever controlled, can help achieve acceptable results. Although missile injuries-associated infections are almost exclusively of bacterial origin, a separated section is assigned in this article for these infections, in addition to other varieties of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. The article gives an account of common presentations, diagnostic procedures, treatment protocols, and outcomes of management of OMF infections in Baghdad's central OMF surgery department. These infections are considered as one of the elementary problems in OMF clinics; thus, highlighting significant points extirpated from an overall view of a more than 10-year experience can suggest where shortcomings in management are and can pave the way for future improvement. PMID:21119454

  13. Solar heated anaerobic digestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    A solar heated anaerobic digestor is provided, adapted to utilize organic material capable of decomposing to produce methane gas and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digestor is wrapped with a layer of heat absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat absorptive material to

  14. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth

    PubMed Central

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

  15. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

  16. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

  17. A comparative analysis of LEF-1 in odontogenic and salivary tumors.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A; Acquafondata, Marie; Barnes, E Leon; Seethala, Raja R

    2015-02-01

    LEF-1 is a nuclear transcription factor of the Wnt pathway that regulates multipotent skin stem cell differentiation. ?-Catenin is considered a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with LEF-1.This study evaluates LEF-1 in a variety of odontogenic and salivary tumors and determines the prevalence of ?-catenin coexpression. Ninety-eight salivary gland tumors and 51 odontogenic tumors were evaluated for LEF-1 and ?-catenin immunohistochemical staining. Positivity was defined as at least 2+ intensity in more than 50% of tumor cells, which required a composite score of 6 or more. LEF-1 was positive in 64% (7/11) of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT). Nuclear ?-catenin was present in 82% (9/11) of CCOT. Coexpression of LEF-1 and nuclear ?-catenin was noted in all LEF-1-positive CCOT. Strong and diffuse LEF-1 expression was seen in 69% (11/16) of basal cell adenocarcinomas (BCAC) and 63% (5/8) of basal cell adenomas (BA). Nuclear ?-catenin was present in 50% (4/8) of BA and 43% (6/14) of BCAC. For BA, 4 of 5 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression of ?-catenin, and for BCAC, 5 of 9 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression. In conclusion, this study documents for the first time the presence of LEF-1 expression and nuclear ?-catenin coexpression in select basaloid salivary gland tumors and various odontogenic tumors. We demonstrate LEF-1 expression in both BA and BCAC preferentially over other salivary gland tumors suggesting some utility as a diagnostic marker. PMID:25497834

  18. Dentinogenic Ghost Cell Tumor — A Neoplastic Variety of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: Case Presentation and Review

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shalu; Prabhat, Mukul; Goel, Sumit; Bhalla, Kanika; Panjwani, Sapna; Misra, Deepankar; Agarwal, Ankur; Bhatnagar, Gunjan

    2015-01-01

    Context: The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC), also referred to as calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a heterogeneous lesion existing either as cystic or solid variant. Due to the fact that all CGCOC lesions are not cystic, and the biological behavior is often not consistent with a cyst, there has always been a controversy as to whether COC is a cyst or a tumor. The dentinogenic ghost-cell tumor (DGCT), a solid variant of the COC, is an uncommon odontogenic neoplasm occurring predominantly in later life. Case report is followed by a concise review and disambiguation of controversial terminologies regarding nomenclature of COC. Case Report: We report a case of 33-year-old female patient who presented with an insidious, steadily increasing swelling on the left side of her face since 8 months. Patient reported slight difficulty in eating because of reduced intraoral space and an obvious concern with facial disfigurement. There was no contributory dental or medical history. Intraorally, a hard, well defined, bicortical swelling was noted in left maxillary region with slight mobility of the associated teeth and normal appearing overlying mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was made, and orthopantomogram, paranasal sinus radiograph and computed tomograpy scan of the face were acquired. A radiographic diagnosis of COC was made, which was subsequently confirmed on histopathology postenucleation of the tumor mass. COC has been seen to be of extensive diversity in its clinical and histopathological features as well as in its biological behavior. Conclusion: The present case of 33-year-old female was diagnosed as DGCT, a tumorous form of COC, due to its characteristic histological features; numerous ghost cells and dentinoid material. PMID:25709974

  19. Fresh-frozen human bone graft for repair of defect after adenomatoid odontogenic tumour removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís Guilherme Scavone de Macedo; Nelson Luiz de Macedo; Adriana do Socorro Ferreira Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was report the clinical, radiographic, and histological case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT)\\u000a in adolescent woman as well as present the reconstructive treatment of AOT using fresh-frozen human bone graft with guided\\u000a bone regeneration. AOT is a benign, noninvasive lesion with slow but progressive growth. Biopsy and microscopic examination\\u000a confirmed the presence of an AOT.

  20. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  1. Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor involving the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Priya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Jayanti

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws, accounting for less than 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It rarely extends into the maxillary sinus. Till date, six cases involving maxillary sinus have been reported. In this paper, we report the seventh case of a 52-year-old male with CEOT in maxilla extending from distal surface of the right maxillary canine to retromolar area and involving maxillary sinus with no association with impacted teeth. The diagnosis was confirmed by aspiration cytology and histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of epithelial cells, with areas of clear cell changes. The presence of clear cells in the histological sections, accounts for the aggressive nature of the tumor simulating the clinical appearance. Prevention of recurrence can be achieved by radical resection. PMID:23248488

  2. Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor involving the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Priya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Jayanti

    2012-09-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws, accounting for less than 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It rarely extends into the maxillary sinus. Till date, six cases involving maxillary sinus have been reported. In this paper, we report the seventh case of a 52-year-old male with CEOT in maxilla extending from distal surface of the right maxillary canine to retromolar area and involving maxillary sinus with no association with impacted teeth. The diagnosis was confirmed by aspiration cytology and histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of epithelial cells, with areas of clear cell changes. The presence of clear cells in the histological sections, accounts for the aggressive nature of the tumor simulating the clinical appearance. Prevention of recurrence can be achieved by radical resection. PMID:23248488

  3. The Histone Acetyltransferase p300 Regulates the Expression of Pluripotency Factors and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Yanyang; Xu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    p300 is a well-known histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and coactivator that plays vital roles in many physiological processes. Despite extensive research on the involvement of p300 in the regulation of transcription in numerous cell lines, the roles of this protein in regulating pluripotency genes and odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the expression of OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 and the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation capacity of HDPCs following p300 overexpression. We found that p300 overexpression did not overtly affect the ability of HDPCs to proliferate. The overexpression of p300 upregulated the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression of NANOG and SOX2. The HAT activity of p300 appeared to partially mediate the regulation of these factors; indeed, when a mutant form of p300 lacking the HAT domain was overexpressed, the promoter activity and expression of NANOG and SOX2 decreased relative to p300 overexpression but was greater than in the control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA levels of the odontogenic marker genes dentine matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly decreased in HDPCs overexpressing p300 cultured under normal culture conditions and increased in HDPCs inducted to undergo odontogenic differentiation. This finding was further confirmed by measuring levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and assessing the formation of mineralized nodules. The HAT activity of p300 had no significant effect on odontogenic differentiation. p300 was recruited to the promoter regions of OCN and DSPP and might be acting as a coactivator to increase the acetylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 of OCN and DSPP. Collectively, our results show that p300 plays an important role in regulating the expression of key pluripotency genes in HDPCs and modifying odontogenic differentiation. PMID:25007265

  4. Novel PTCH1 Mutations in Patients with Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Screened for Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Guarneri, Carmelo; Ghiorzo, Paola; Longo, Caterina; Bruno, William; Giusti, Francesca; Bassoli, Sara; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Ruini, Cristel; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic tumors that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, KCOTs of the jaws and a variety of other tumors. PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs. The aim of the current study was to assess whether a combined clinical and bio-molecular approach could be suitable for the detection of NBCCS among patients with a diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). The authors collected keratocystic odontogenic tumors recorded in the database of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia during the period 1991–2011. Through interviews and examinations, family pedigrees were drawn for all patients affected by these odontogenic lesions. We found out that 18 of the 70 patients with KCOTs and/or multiple basal cell carcinomas actually met the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of NBCCS. A wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was evident in the families. Ameloblastomas (AMLs) were reported in two probands that are also carriers of the PCTH1 germline mutations. Nine germline mutations in the PTCH1 gene, 5 of them novel, were evident in 14 tested probands. The clinical evaluation of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors can be used as screening for the detection of families at risk of NBCCS. Keratocystic odontogenic lesions are uncommon, and their discovery deserves the search for associated cutaneous basal cell carcinomas and other benign and malignant tumors related to NBCCS. PMID:22952776

  5. Standardized Single-Disc MethodforAntibiotic Susceptibility Testing ofAnaerobic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. WILKINS; I. J. ABRAMSON; W. E. C. MOORE

    1972-01-01

    A method was developed fordetermination oftheantibiotic susceptibility ofanaero- bicbacteria byuse ofa single-disc diffusion technique andincorporation ofthe inoculum inpourplates. Themethod was standardized bycorrelation ofzone diam- eters withminimal inhibitory concentrations determined inbroth. Zonediameters could beusedtoapproximate theminimal inhibitory concentrations oftheseven antibiotics tested: ampicillin, bacitracin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, penicillin, andtetracycline. Anaerobic bacteria arebeing isolated from tissue infections withincreasing frequency as clinical anaerobic methods haveimproved.

  6. Anaerobic Biotransformation of Trichlorofluoroethene in

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    Anaerobic Biotransformation of Trichlorofluoroethene in Groundwater Microcosms S A N J A Y V A N C, and other macrocycles. Anaerobic biotransformation is now recognized as an important if not dominant factor

  7. Desmoplastic ameloblastoma: a rare odontogenic neoplasm with unusual radiographic and histomorphological presentation.

    PubMed

    Belgaumi, U I; Sundaresh, K J; Varma, Siddhartha; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a newly recognised, rare odontogenic neoplasm that is a histological variant of ameloblastoma. In this type, the islands of ameloblastoma are surrounded and often compressed by a dense and sometimes hyalinised fibrous connective tissue. Although ameloblastomas are usually located in the mandible, this variant often occurs in the anterior maxilla. In view of the paucity of DA case series and only limited understanding of its biological behaviour and prognosis, proper treatment strategies for DA are not entirely defined so far. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and to demonstrate a rare case for an improved understanding of the behaviour and prognosis of DA. PMID:23645643

  8. Desmoplastic ameloblastoma: a rare odontogenic neoplasm with unusual radiographic and histomorphological presentation

    PubMed Central

    Belgaumi, U I; Sundaresh, K J; Varma, Siddhartha; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a newly recognised, rare odontogenic neoplasm that is a histological variant of ameloblastoma. In this type, the islands of ameloblastoma are surrounded and often compressed by a dense and sometimes hyalinised fibrous connective tissue. Although ameloblastomas are usually located in the mandible, this variant often occurs in the anterior maxilla. In view of the paucity of DA case series and only limited understanding of its biological behaviour and prognosis, proper treatment strategies for DA are not entirely defined so far. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and to demonstrate a rare case for an improved understanding of the behaviour and prognosis of DA. PMID:23645643

  9. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: a clinicopathologic review. Part II: Odontogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Julia A; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Ferlito, Alfio; Devaney, Kenneth O; Lewis, James S; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Slootweg, Pieter J; Barnes, Leon

    2013-06-01

    This is the second of a 3-part review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). This part deals with odontogenic carcinomas, rare entities that are difficult to evaluate because of changes in classification/nomenclature, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, and variable consistency of the existing literature. Endorsing a critical approach, problems are addressed and areas of uncertainty are highlighted. As in part I, we emphasize histopathologic features from a diagnostic point of view and also question the existence of some "distinct" entities. PMID:22290834

  10. The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California. Anaerobic Digestion Technology 2.1. Feedstock Characterization 2.2. Collection & Sorting 2.2.1. Waste of Anaerobic Digestion 3.1. Municipal Waste Management 3.2. Climate Change Mitigation 3.2.1. Untreated

  11. Anaerobic digestion of ozonized biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Weemaes; H Grootaerd; F Simoens; W Verstraete

    2000-01-01

    The effect of an oxidative pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was investigated. Sewage sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was partially oxidized by ozone. The pretreatment could alter up to 67% of the organic matter: 29±3% was solubilized, 38±9% was removed. Anaerobic degradability tests indicated that the pretreatment step enhanced the subsequent anaerobic sludge digestion. The

  12. Solar heated anaerobic digestor

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    A solar heated anaerobic digestor is provided, adapted to utilize organic material capable of decomposing to produce methane gas and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digestor is wrapped with a layer of heat absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulatng panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digestor provide auxiliary heat as required.

  13. Anaerobic biotransformation of nitrocellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, M.; Speece, R.E. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Dept.); Kim, B.J. (Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    In this investigation, first the toxic effect of nitrocellulose (NC) on anaerobic microorganisms with and without the presence of a supplementary carbon source was evaluated. Then it was observed that with the addition of a supplementary carbon source, such as cellulose or acetate, biotransformation of NC was enhanced. The biodegradation rate of NC in a staged-feed and in a two-phase reactor under anaerobic conditions was evaluated. The results showed that providing cellulose as the supplementary carbon source, NC was degraded at a higher rate in a staged-feed reactor than in a two-phase reactor or in a batch reactor.

  14. Correlation Between Collagen Fibers and Radiographic Patterns of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sujan; Patil, Prashant; Sethi, Neerja; Singh, Abhayjeet; Raghunandan, BN

    2014-01-01

    Background: WHO has recently renamed odontogenic keratocyst as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) depending on its tumour like behaviour. Aim: To quantitate and qualitate different types of collagen fibers in KCOT using picrosirius red stain under polarising microscopy and to correlate with different radiographic patterns of KCOT to elucidate its biological behaviour in order to determine whether all KCOTs behave like a tumour. Materials and Methods: Sixty histopathologically confirmed cases of KCOT were selected and stained histochemically using picrosirius red and examined under polarising microscope to evaluate colour of collagen fibers in the wall. Radiographic analysis of all the cases were also carried out and correlated with type of collagen of fibers. Results: Greenish yellow collagen fibers were present statistically significantly more in multilocular KCOT and KCOT with multiple radiolucencies (both syndromic and non-syndromic) as compare to unilocular whereas orange red were significantly more in unilocular variety. Syndromic variety showed significantly higher number of greenish yellow collagen fibers than non-syndromic variety. Conclusion: Quality, organization and packing of collagen fibers of unilocular type is different than other radiographic patterns which accounts for difference in biological behaviour of these lesion, so we conclude that aggressive treatment should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:25302259

  15. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sherlin, Herald J.; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Natesan, Anuja; Premkumar, Priya; Ramani, Pratibha; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam

    2009-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardner et al. It is a cyst having an unpredictable and potentially aggressive behaviour. It also has the propensity to grow to a large size and tendency to recur with only 111 cases having been reported thus far. The first case occurred in a 42-year-old female and presented as a localized swelling extending from 19 to 29 regions. There was a history of traumatic injury at the site. There was evidence of bicortical expansion and radiographs revealed a multilocular radiolucency. The second case occurred in a 21-year-old male, as a large swelling in the mandible and radiograph revealed radiolucency in the region. On histopathological examination, these lesions were diagnosed as GOC. It was concluded that, two cases submitted by us correlate with the existing literature that GOC’s affect more commonly in the middle age group, having predilection for mandible and that trauma could be a precipitating factor for its occurrence. The increased recurrence rates can be due to its intrinsic biological behavior, multilocularity of the cyst, and incomplete removal of the lining following conservative treatment. PMID:19644539

  16. Anaerobic Amino Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reggiani; A. Bertani

    2003-01-01

    Anoxic stress induces a strong change in sugar, protein, and amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Sugars are rapidly consumed through the anaerobic glycolysis to sustain energy production. Protein degradation under anoxia is a mechanism to release free amino acids contributing in this way to maintaining the osmotic potential of the tissue under stress. Among free amino acids, a particular

  17. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  18. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CHâ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be

  19. Capnophilic and anaerobic bacteremia in neutropenic patients: an oral source.

    PubMed

    Baquero, F; Fernández, J; Dronda, F; Erice, A; Pérez de Oteiza, J; Reguera, J A; Reig, M

    1990-01-01

    The currently accepted empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections in neutropenic patients may not cover the possibility of capnophilic and anaerobic bacteremia. Many of these infections develop in patients with severe mucositis or periodontitis, and the type of organisms recovered also suggests an oral source of infection. We present two cases of bacteremia in neutropenic patients who had been empirically treated with ceftazidime and piperacillin plus amikacin. In the first case a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea was isolated; in the second case bacteremia was due to a mixture of Leptotrichia buccalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. These observations emphasize the necessity for a reevaluation of the possible use of antimicrobial agents active against beta-lactamase-producing capnophilic organisms and anaerobic bacteria during empiric therapy in neutropenic patients with an oral source of infection. PMID:2305182

  20. Clinical comparison of antibiotic combinations in the treatment of peritonitis and related mixed aerobic-anaerobic surgical sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Harlan Stone; Timothy C. Fabian

    1980-01-01

    Patients with presumed mixed aerobic-anaerobic peritoneal (126) or soft tissue (59) sepsis were treated with 1 of 3 randomly\\u000a assigned antibiotic regimens: gentamicin plus clindamycin (68), gentamicin plus metronidazole (60), and cefamandole plus erythromycin\\u000a (60). Primary and complicating foci of infection were cultured for both aerobic and anaerobic pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities\\u000a were determined. In vitro aerobic and anaerobic sensitivities

  1. [Postoperative anaerobic sepsis].

    PubMed

    Fichev, G; Poromanski, I; Marina, M

    1997-01-01

    As shown by clinical practice, postoperative anaerobic sepsis is a complication more common than usually thought of or microbiologically verified. The exceptionally difficult microbiological verification, regardless of the fact that original registered transport media are employed, is the underlying cause of obligate non-spore forming microorganisms from hemoculture being demonstrated in four patients only. In all of them Bacteroides fragilis is isolated and identified. Also, in all patients a fully developed clinical picture of sepsis is present along with the characteristic laboratory septic syndrome constellation as well. After pointing out the difficulties in diagnosing "post-operative anaerobic sepsis", and more particularly its verification, emphasis is laid on the clinical and laboratory symptoms presented by the patients, and on the important role played by the SIRS system, contributing greatly to an adequately oriented clinical thinking. PMID:9739848

  2. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ryan Penton

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered nitrogen removal pathway in natural systems. First found to\\u000a be a significant nitrogen sink in the Black Sea anoxic water column in 2003, anammox has shown to be responsible for as much\\u000a as 79% of N2 production in marine sediments. Little is known concerning the significance of anammox in freshwater systems and

  3. A clinicopathologic study on calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: with special reference to Langerhans cell variant

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic tumour, and its Langerhans cell variant is even rarer. Due to the limited number of recorded cases, the biological behaviour and histogenesis of the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT are not yet fully understood. Thus, the correlation between conventional CEOT and the Langerhans cell variant remains to be clarified. Material (cases) Eight cases of CEOT including 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant were clinicopathologically studied and the English language literature was reviewed. Langerhans cells were detected in 2 cases of conventional CEOT and in 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant by immunohistochemistry. Results and findings In the 6 cases of conventional CEOT, 5 tumours involved the premolar and molar region and the anterior portion of the mandible was affected in 1 case. Four patients were followed for 2–7 years and did not show any sign of recurrence. A review of the English language literature revealed 5 cases; combined with the present 2 new cases, a total of 7 cases of Langerhans cell variant of CEOT were collected. The patients were all Asian. Six tumours occurred in the maxilla and 1 in mandible; all mainly involved the anterior region of the jaws. Five patients were followed for 2-10 years and did not show any evidence of recurrence. Langerhans cells can be seen in both the conventional and the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT; however, increased numbers of Langerhans cells are seen in the latter. Conclusions Although the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT is a rare entity and behaves similarly to the conventional type, it could show unique clinical and histologic features that may pose problems for differential diagnosis. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1979090740113894 PMID:24555881

  4. Odontogenic stimulation of human dental pulp cells with bioactive nanocomposite fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Yong-Duk; Lee, So-Youn; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a composite nanofibrous matrix made of biopolymer blend polycaprolactone-gelatin (BP) and mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). BGN-BP nanomatrices, with BGN content of up to 20 wt%, were produced via electrospinning. The differentiation of the HDPCs was evaluated by using an ALP activity assay, calcified nodule formation, and mRNA expression for markers. Integrin and its underlying signal pathways were assessed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Although cell growth and attachment on the BGN-BP nanomatrix was similar to that on BP, ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and mRNA, expressions involving ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1 were greater on BGN-BP. BGN-BP upregulated the key adhesion receptors (integrin components ?1, ?2, ?5, and ?1) and activated integrin downstream pathways, such as phosphorylated-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and p-paxillin. In addition, BGN-BP activated BMP receptors, BMP-2 mRNA, and p-Smad 1/5/8, and such activation was blocked by the BMP antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, BGN-BP induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase 38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases and activated expression of the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix in HDPCs. Collectively, the results indicated for the first time that a BGN-BP composite nanomatrix promoted odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs through the integrin, BMP, and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Moreover, the nanomatrix is considered to be promising scaffolds for the culture of HDPCs and dental tissue engineering. PMID:25098335

  5. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  10. [Activity of fusidic acid on strictly anaerobic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Canzi, A M; Weber, P; Boussougant, Y

    1987-05-01

    Fusidic acid is a well known antimicrobial agent due to its narrow spectrum of activity against Gram positive bacteria and especially staphylococci. Therefore, it is after used preventively against bacterial infection in traumatology, but the susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria is not well known. We have studied, the in vitro activity of sodium fusidate against 147 strains of anaerobic bacteria. This antibiotic has a moderate activity against Bacteroides, more significant against Clostridium, Peptococcus et Peptostreptococcus; it has no bactericidal activity. Clostridium difficile is different from other anaerobic bacteria because of its slow MIC and its MBC near to its MIC. Fusidic acid could be proposed for the treatment of pseudomembranous and antibiotic-associated colitis induced by Clostridium difficile. PMID:3302863

  11. Differential expression of signaling pathways in odontogenic differentiation of ectomesenchymal cells isolated from the first branchial arch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongchun YuMingheng; Mingheng Li; Jie Sun; Miaomiao Yang; Jie Long; Weidong Tian; Wei Tang; Tangxin Li; Lei Liu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen for differential expression of signaling pathways in odontogenic differentiation of ectomesenchymal\\u000a cells isolated from the first branchial arch of embryonic day 10 (E10) mice by real time RT-PCR microarray. Observations of\\u000a cellular morphology, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR were used to identify the cell source. A real time RT-PCR microarray\\u000a was then used to

  12. The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike S. M Jetten; Marc Strous; Katinka T van de Pas-Schoonen; Jos Schalk; Udo G. J. M van Dongen; Astrid A van de Graaf; Susanne Logemann; Gerard Muyzer; Mark C. M van Loosdrecht; J. Gijs Kuenen

    1998-01-01

    From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. `Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH+4 min?1 (mg protein)?1 using

  13. Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  16. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CH/sub 4/ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulating panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digester provide auxiliary heat as required.

  17. Intracranial bacterial infections of oral origin.

    PubMed

    Moazzam, Alan A; Rajagopal, Sowmya M; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Zada, Gabriel; Habibian, Mina

    2015-05-01

    Brain abscesses are rare but potentially deadly complications of odontogenic infections. This phenomenon has been described mainly in the form of case reports, as large-scale studies are difficult to perform. We compiled a total of 60 previously published cases of such a complication to investigate the predisposing factors, microbiology, and clinical outcomes of intracranial abscesses of odontogenic origin. A systematic review of the literature using the PubMed database was performed. Men accounted for 82.1% of cases, and the mean age was 42.1 years. Caries with periapical involvement and periodontitis were the two most common intra-oral sources, and wisdom tooth extraction was the most common preceding dental procedure. In 56.4% of cases, there were obvious signs of dental disease prior to development of intracranial infection. Commonly implicated microorganisms included Streptococcus viridans (especially the anginosus group), Actinomyces, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens. There was an 8.3% mortality rate. Intracranial abscesses can form anywhere within the brain, and appear unrelated to the side of dental involvement. This suggests that hematogenous spread is the most likely route of dissemination. PMID:25800939

  18. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Hulshoff Pol

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immobilization on mobile support materials: in the latter case, combined with settling of the anaerobic sludge aggregates.This dissertation focuses

  19. Anaerobic granulation technology for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Liu; Hai-Lou Xu; Kuan-Yeow Show; Joo-Hwa Tay

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment using granular sludge reactors is a developing technology, in which granular sludge is the core component. So far, around 900 anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide. Although intensive research attention has been given to anaerobic granules in the past 20 years, the mechanisms responsible for anaerobic granulation and the strategy of how to expedite substantially

  20. Anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate.

    PubMed

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann; Fuchs, Georg

    2012-06-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD(+) or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B(12)-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

  2. Bioenergy from anaerobically treated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Breweries and other processing plants including dairy cooperatives, sugar plants, grain mills, gasohol plants, etc., produce wastewater containing complex organic matter, either in solution or as volatile suspended solids, which can be treated anaerobically to effectively reduce the pollutants by 85-95% and generate a CH4 containing gas. An example anaerobic plant to serve a 10 to the power of 6-bbl brewery is discussed.

  3. BIOREMEDIATION: Anaerobes to the Rescue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Derek R. Lovley (University of Massachusetts; Department of Microbiology)

    2001-08-24

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Polluted groundwater systems are very difficult to clean up. In his Perspective, Lovley charts recent advances towards in situ bioremediation of such systems using anaerobic organisms. Such organisms, which naturally exist in soils, may assist in cleaning up hydrocarbons, chlorinated pollutants, and metals. The author concludes that anaerobic strategies are promising but that substantial research remains to be done before any of them can be adopted for routine application.

  4. Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 gene-transfected stem cells from human tooth apical papilla: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEN; ZHANG, XIAOLEI; LING, JUNQI; LIU, WEI; ZHANG, XINCHUN; MA, JINGLEI; ZHENG, JIANMAO

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) have odontogenic potential, which plays a pivotal role in the root dentin development of permanent teeth. Human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a well-known gene that participates in regulating the odontogenic differentiation of dental tissue-derived stem cells. However, little is known regarding the effects of the BMP2 gene on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. This study aimed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation potential of lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene-transfected human SCAP (SCAP/BMP2) in vitro. SCAP were isolated by enzymatic dissociation of human teeth apical papillae. The multipotential of SCAP was verified by their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation characteristics. The phenotype of SCAP was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The proliferation status of the blank vector-transfected SCAP (SCAP/Vector) and SCAP/BMP2 was analyzed by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Odontogenic genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) of the two groups of cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). ALP staining and alizarin red (AR) staining of the cells was performed on the 16th day after transfection. In vitro results of CCK-8, qPCR, ALP and AR staining demonstrated that: i) SCAP/BMP2 had a comparable proliferation rate to SCAP/Vector; ii) SCAP/BMP2 presented significantly better potential to differentiate into odontoblasts compared to SCAP/Vector by upregulating ALP, OCN, DSPP and DMP1 genes; iii) more ALP granules and mineralized deposits were formed by SCAP/BMP2 as compared to SCAP/Vector. The results suggested that lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene transfection enhances the odontogenic differentiation capacity of human SCAP in vitro. PMID:25070743

  5. Parietal subdural empyema as complication of acute odontogenic sinusitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To date intracranial complication caused by tooth extractions are extremely rare. In particular parietal subdural empyema of odontogenic origin has not been described. A literature review is presented here to emphasize the extreme rarity of this clinical entity. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man with a history of dental extraction developed dysarthria, lethargy, purulent rhinorrhea, and fever. A computed tomography scan demonstrated extensive sinusitis involving maxillary sinus, anterior ethmoid and frontal sinus on the left side and a subdural fluid collection in the temporal-parietal site on the same side. He underwent vancomycin, metronidazole and meropenem therapy, and subsequently left maxillary antrostomy, and frontal and maxillary sinuses toilette by an open approach. The last clinical control done after 3 months showed a regression of all symptoms. Conclusions The occurrence of subdural empyema is an uncommon but possible sequela of a complicated tooth extraction. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologist, neurosurgeons, clinical microbiologist, and neuroradiologist is essential. Antibiotic therapy with surgical approach is the gold standard treatment. PMID:25146384

  6. Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

  7. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Possible Role in Locally Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wen-Qun; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Jian-Gang; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the pathogenesis and development of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The expression levels of EMT-related proteins and genes in normal oral mucosa (OM), radicular cyst (RC), and KCOT were determined and compared by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that the expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Pan-cytokeratin was significantly downregulated in KCOT with upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin compared to OM and RC. Importantly, TGF-?, a potent EMT inducer, and Slug, a master transcription factor, were also found highly expressed in KCOT. In addition, the results from Spearman rank correlation test and clustering analysis revealed the close relationship between Slug and MMP-9, which was further evidenced by double-labeling immunofluorescence that revealed a synchronous distribution for Slug with MMP-9 in KCOT samples. All the data suggested EMT might be involved in the locally aggressive behavior of KCOT. PMID:25879017

  8. Early dental epithelial transcription factors distinguish ameloblastoma from keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, K; Kurppa, K J; Laiho, A; Peltonen, S; Berdal, A; Bouattour, A; Ruhin, B; Catón, J; Thesleff, I; Leivo, I; Morgan, P R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the molecular relationship between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) by means of a genome-wide expression analysis. Total RNA from 27 fresh tumor samples of 15 solid/multicystic intraosseous ameloblastomas and 12 sporadic KCOTs was hybridized on Affymetrix whole genome arrays. Hierarchical clustering separated ameloblastomas and KCOTs into 2 distinct groups. The gene set enrichment analysis based on 303 dental genes showed a similar separation of ameloblastomas and KCOTs. Early dental epithelial markers PITX2, MSX2, DLX2, RUNX1, and ISL1 were differentially overexpressed in ameloblastoma, indicating its dental identity. Also, PTHLH, a hormone involved in tooth eruption and invasive growth, was one of the most differentially upregulated genes in ameloblastoma. The most differentially overexpressed genes in KCOT were squamous epithelial differentiation markers SPRR1A, KRTDAP, and KRT4, as well as DSG1, a component of desmosomal cell-cell junctions. Additonally, the epithelial stem cell marker SOX2 was significantly upregulated in KCOT when compared with ameloblastoma. Taken together, the gene expression profile of ameloblastoma reflects differentiation from dental lamina toward the cap/bell stage of tooth development, as indicated by dental epithelium-specific transcription factors. In contrast, gene expression of KCOT indicates differentiation toward keratinocytes. PMID:25398365

  9. Bacterial drug tolerance under clinical conditions is governed by anaerobic adaptation but not anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Claudia M; Luo, Jamie X; Andreae, Clio A; Butler, Clive S; Soyer, Orkun S; Titball, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, ?-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

  10. Bacterial Drug Tolerance under Clinical Conditions Is Governed by Anaerobic Adaptation but not Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Claudia M.; Luo, Jamie X.; Andreae, Clio A.; Butler, Clive S.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, ?-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

  11. PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

  12. How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Beneke; C. Pollmann; I. Bleif; R. Leithäuser; M. Hütler

    2002-01-01

    .   The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is generally used to evaluate anaerobic cycling performance, but knowledge of the metabolic\\u000a profile of WAnT is limited. Therefore the energetics of WAnT was analysed with respect to working efficiency and performance.\\u000a A group of 11 male subjects [mean (SD), age 21.6 (3.8) years, height 178.6 (6.6) cm, body mass 82.2 (12.1) kg] performed a\\u000a maximal incremental exercise test and a

  13. Columbia Anaerobe 5% Sheep Blood Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Columbia Agars; EP ISO; Columbia Agar Base; Fildes Enrichment

    1 , using Columbia Agar Base, formulated reducible anaerobic media designed to improve recovery of anaerobes with minimal difficulty. The reducing agents used were cysteine, palladium chloride and dithiothreitol. The presence of \\

  14. ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic conditions predominate in contaminated aquifers and are not uncommon in noncontaminated areas. Comparatively little is known about degradative processes and nutrient cycling under anaerobic conditions. However, it is apparent these processes are fundamentally differen...

  15. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lainoff, Alexis J; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2015-05-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  16. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo’s Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare disease, which is characterized by the triad of the following conditions: suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. The full triad may often not be present, but can develop if the condition is not treated correctly. Case presentation We report a case of a 3-year-old girl, who presented with fever and left-sided acute otitis media. She developed acute mastoiditis, which was initially treated by intravenous antibiotics, ventilation tube insertion and cortical mastoidectomy. After 6 days the clinical picture was complicated by development of left-sided abducens palsy. MRI-scanning showed osteomyelitis within the petro-mastoid complex, and a hyper intense signal of the adjacent meninges. Microbiological investigations showed Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. She was treated successfully with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage. After 8 weeks of follow-up there was no sign of recurrent infection or abducens palsy. Conclusion Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening complication to middle ear infection. It is most commonly caused by aerobic microorganisms, but anaerobic microorganisms may also be found why anaerobic coverage should be considered when determining the antibiotic treatment. PMID:22978305

  17. Effect of anaerobic digestion on oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M R; Shih, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effect of anaerobic digestion of poultry waste on oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella, a common enteric pathogen that causes coccidiosis in poultry, was investigated in this study. Thermophilic (50 degrees C) and mesophilic (35 degrees C) anaerobic digestors, with poultry manure as the substrate, were inoculated with the oocysts. The oocysts were damaged during anaerobic digestion, as determined by morphological change and loss of their ability to sporulate. The recovered oocysts were tested for their infectivity in young chicks, as measured by body weight gain, mortality, and cecal lesions. Oocysts lost all their infectivity during thermophilic digestion, while oocysts subjected to mesophilic digestion remained moderately infective in comparison with untreated oocysts, which produced severe coccidiosis, high mortality, and low body weight gain in chicks. Oocysts were inactivated at 50 degrees C when they were suspended in digestor fluid or saline. Inactivation at 35 degrees C was significantly stronger in the digestor fluid than in the saline, which implied that factors other than temperature were involved in the lethal effect of anaerobic digestion on protozoan oocysts. In this study we demonstrated that the treatment of animal waste by anaerobic digestion, especially at a thermophilic temperature, has the benefits of pathogen control and protection of human and animal health in a farm environment. Images PMID:3202626

  18. Effect of anaerobic digestion on oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Shih, J C

    1988-10-01

    The effect of anaerobic digestion of poultry waste on oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella, a common enteric pathogen that causes coccidiosis in poultry, was investigated in this study. Thermophilic (50 degrees C) and mesophilic (35 degrees C) anaerobic digestors, with poultry manure as the substrate, were inoculated with the oocysts. The oocysts were damaged during anaerobic digestion, as determined by morphological change and loss of their ability to sporulate. The recovered oocysts were tested for their infectivity in young chicks, as measured by body weight gain, mortality, and cecal lesions. Oocysts lost all their infectivity during thermophilic digestion, while oocysts subjected to mesophilic digestion remained moderately infective in comparison with untreated oocysts, which produced severe coccidiosis, high mortality, and low body weight gain in chicks. Oocysts were inactivated at 50 degrees C when they were suspended in digestor fluid or saline. Inactivation at 35 degrees C was significantly stronger in the digestor fluid than in the saline, which implied that factors other than temperature were involved in the lethal effect of anaerobic digestion on protozoan oocysts. In this study we demonstrated that the treatment of animal waste by anaerobic digestion, especially at a thermophilic temperature, has the benefits of pathogen control and protection of human and animal health in a farm environment. PMID:3202626

  19. Three-dimens?onal cone-beam computed tomography for diagnos?s of keratocystic odontogenic tumours; Evaluation of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Çakarer, S?rmahan; Brki?, Amila; Gürkan-Koseoglu, Banu; Altu?-Aydil, Bar??; Keskin, Cengizhan

    2012-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT), formerly known as the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign intraosseous lesion that derives from remnants of the dental lamina. Due to its characteristics, clinical and histopathological features and various treatment approaches, this pathology is different comparing with other odontogenic cysts. Radiographically the KCOT appears as well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with thin radiopaque borders. In most cases, conventional radiographic imaging, such as panoramic views and intraoral periapical films, are adequate to determine the location and estimate the size of an KCOT. However, the clinical use for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in oral and maxillofacial surgery increases and provides additional information about the contents and borders of the large lesions. In the present cases, the diagnostic performances of CBCT versus panoramic radiograph for four KCOTs were evaluated. It was concluded that appearance of lesions in the maxillofacial region could be better documented in the correct dimensions by CBCT versus panoramic radiograph. Key words:Odontogenic keratocyst, cone-beam computed tomography, three dimensional, panoramic radiograph. PMID:22549670

  20. Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes: Identi®ability and Parameter the population dynamics of two main bacterial groups in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process. In addition INTRODUCTION Anaerobic wastewater puri®cation processes have been increasingly used in the last few decades

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries Practical Information and Case Studies Sandec: Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries #12;Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste-3-906484-58-7 Bibliographic reference: Vögeli Y., Lohri C. R., Gallardo A., Diener S., Zurbrügg C. (2014). Anaerobic Digestion

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  3. Hydrogen production from inhibited anaerobic composters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sparling; D. Risbey; H. M. Poggi-Varaldo

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigated hydrogen production from a model lignocellulosic waste in inhibited solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Acetylene at 1% vv in the headspace was as effective as bromoethanesulfonate in inhibiting methanogenic activity in batch anaerobic composters containing 25% (wv) total organic solids inoculated with an undefined cellulotytic consortium derived from anaerobic digesters. Acetylene also had no effect on the rate

  4. Anaerobic benzene biodegradation—a new era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Coates; Romy Chakraborty; Michael J. McInerney

    2002-01-01

    Benzene is biodegraded in the absence of oxygen under a variety of terminal electron-accepting conditions. However, the mechanism by which anaerobic benzene degradation occurs is unclear. Phenol and benzoate have been consistently detected as intermediates of anaerobic benzene degradation, suggesting that the hydroxylation of benzene to phenol is one of the initial steps in anaerobic benzene degradation. The conversion of

  5. Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Chen; Jay J. Cheng; Kurt S. Creamer

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely

  6. The Role of Lysyl Oxidase-like 2 in the Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Park, Hye-jeong; Park, Eui-Kyun; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts. PMID:23677379

  7. The role of lysyl oxidase-like 2 in the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Eui-Kyun; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2013-06-01

    Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts. PMID:23677379

  8. [Anaerobic microbes in perimandibular inflammation].

    PubMed

    Danielewiczowa, K; Dzierzanowska, D; Kryst, L; Jaworska, L; Juszczyk-Popowska, B

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in 16 patients with perimandibular inflammation included bacteriological examinations and tests of the resistance of the bacterial flora to 6 antibiotics:davercin, erythromycine, penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. A total of 73 strains (47 anaerobic and 26 aerobic) were isolated, including 47 Gram - and 26 Gram's strain +. Anaerobic Gram - ve bacteria appear to be the principal cause of perimandibular inflammatory lesions, streptococcus viridans being identified more frequently in these cases than in the normal buccal cavity. Bacterial flora of dental origin was more sensitive to davercin than to the other 5 antibiotics tested. PMID:6596693

  9. Decontamination by anaerobic stabilisation of the environment contaminated with enteronematode eggs Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Papajová, I; Juris, P; Szabová, E; Venglovský, J; Sasáková, N; Sefcíková, H; Martinez, J; Gábon, T

    2008-07-01

    Investigations were carried out under operating conditions of Field Composting Factory in Brezno (Slovak Republic) to determine the effect of anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes from public areas on the survival of model helminth Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs. Due to anaerobic conditions, low temperature, low C:N ratio and changes in physical and chemical properties of organic waste, less than 64% of A. suum eggs remained viable after 150 days of stabilisation. The anaerobic stabilisation had a greater effect on the viability of T. canis eggs than on A. suum eggs. The infectivity of T. canis eggs was confirmed by a follow-up experiment in laboratory mice. A small number of T. canis larvae were found in their brain and muscles on day 28 after infection. The results refer to the risks of dissemination, survival and potential spread of endoparasitic developmental stages in the environment through organic wastes subjected to low temperature stabilisation. PMID:17976979

  10. [Infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, D; Piper, C

    2015-04-01

    Colonization of native cardiac valves or polymer implants, e.g. valves, conduits, rings, electrode leads and polymer-associated endocarditis (PIE), by microorganisms, primarily gram-positive bacteria (infective endocarditis), constitutes a severe, prognostically unfavorable disease. Fever and in the majority of cases development of a valve regurgitant murmur are clinical landmark findings. The white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are regularly elevated. With a normal CRP level, infective endocarditis is extremely unlikely. Irrespective of body temperature, at least three blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) should be taken and if initiation of antimicrobial therapy is urgent, 1 h apart before therapy is initiated. Identification of the pathogen to the species level and testing antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics by a quantitative hemodilution test, not with agar diffusion tests, are obligatory. A minimum inhibitory concentration should be administered for antibiotics and usual combinations of antibiotics with an expected synergistic potential. Streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci are the most frequent causative organisms. Immediate initiation of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is mandatory followed by transesophageal echocardiography if imaging quality is poor, involvement of intracardiac implants is possible or TTE is insufficient to establish the diagnosis. An insufficiently long antimicrobial therapy promotes recurrent infections, thus a 4-week treatment is standard, while in special cases (e.g. PIE) treatment for 6 weeks should be the rule. If typical complications of infective endocarditis, such as uncontrolled local infection, systemic thromboembolism, central nervous involvement, development of a severe valve incompetence or mitral kissing vegetation in primary aortic valve endocarditis occur, urgent surgical intervention should be considered. If cardiac implants are involved, early surgical removal followed by a 6-week antimicrobial treatment is the rule. Adequate and timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to improve the overall prognosis. PMID:25822422

  11. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF TRIFLURALIN [ABSTRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dinitroaniline herbicides, such as trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine) persist in oxic terrestrial environments, yet are rapidly degraded under certain anaerobic conditions. We examined the roles of Fe(II) minerals and trifluralin bioavailability in fate of the her...

  12. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  13. The API ZYM system in the identification of Gram-negative anaerobes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Tharagonnet; P R Sisson; C M Roxby; H R Ingham; J B Selkon

    1977-01-01

    The API ZYM reactions of type species of Gram-negative anaerobes representative of those encountered in human infections and of 56 clinical isolates of such organisms, identified by conventional techniques, were investigated. The API ZYM test clearly distinguished between the different genera and species examined and appears to provide a simple, reliable method for the identification of this group of organisms.

  14. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brazier; D. Chmelar; L. Dubreuil; G. Feierl; M. Hedberg; S. Kalenic; E. Könönen; B. Lundgren; H. Malamou-Ladas; E. Nagy; Å. Sullivan; C. E. Nord

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC to species level, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole, vancomycin and linezolid were determined by the agar dilution method

  15. Granulomatous infection due to Propionibacterium acnes mimicking malignant disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Esteban; M. Cuenca-Estrella; J. M. Ramos; F. Soriano

    1994-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that is a common inhabitant of the human skin. It has been implicated in pyogenie infections mainly relating to prosthetic devices (1), however a role of the organism in granulomatous infections is less common. We report a case of granulomatous infection due to Pro. pionibacteriurn acnes in a previously healthy young man. The

  16. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

  17. Early infection of hip joint prosthesis by Clostridium difficile in an HIV-1 infected patient.

    PubMed

    Brassinne, L; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Jonckheere, S; Dubuc, J E; Yombi, J C

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobes are less frequently described as causative pathogen of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We report the first case of early PJI after hip arthroplasty due to Clostridium difficile in a diabetic and HIV-1 infected patient with bacteremia. Our patient was successfully treated through surgical debridement and prosthesis retention combined with targeted antibiotic therapy. PMID:24705255

  18. Disruption of Smad4 in odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells influences the phenotype of multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weipeng; Yang, Guan; Chen, Feng; Yang, Xiao; Li, Tiejun

    2015-07-31

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic epithelial neoplasms with a high recurrence rate. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of KCOTs are still largely unknown. Previous research showed that specific ablation of Smad4 in odontoblasts and dental epithelia resulted in spontaneous KCOTs in mice, and that constitutively activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling was detected in the cyst epithelia of both Smad4(Co/Co) OC-Cre and Smad4(Co/Co) K5-Cre mice. Here, we ablated Smad4 in mouse odontoblasts and dental epithelia and compared the sizes and numbers of KCOTs. Both the number and size of KCOTs in Smad4(Co/Co) OC-Cre mice were larger than those in Smad4(Co/Co) K5-Cre mice, suggesting that paracrine signals from root odontoblasts play a more important role than those from Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells. PMID:26002469

  19. Superoxide dismutase in anaerobic bacteria of clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tally, F P; Goldin, B R; Jacobus, N V; Gorbach, S L

    1977-04-01

    Twenty-two anaerobic bacteria isolated from infected sites and normal fecal flora were assayed for superoxide dismutase (SOD). The organisms were also classified according to their oxygen tolerance into aerotolerant, intermediate, and extremely oxygen-sensitive groups. There was a correlation between the enzyme level and the oxygen tolerance, in that the aerotolerant and intermediate organisms had SOD, whereas the extremely oxygen-sensitive isolates had low or undetectable enzyme. Among the oxygen-tolerant organisms, gram-negative bacteria had higher levels of SOD than gram-positive organisms. Oxygen was shown to induce SOD production in a strain of Bacteriodes fragilis grown in minimal medium under continuous-culture conditions. Enzyme levels in this isolate grown under static conditions were lower in minimal medium than in complex medium, indicating that other components in the complex medium were stimulating the production of SOD. Our data suggest that the variation in oxygen tolerance of anaerobes is usually related to their level of SOD. It is postulated that SOD may be a virulence factor that allows pathogenic anaerobes to survive in oxygenated tissues until the proper reduced conditions are established for their growth. PMID:326669

  20. Anaerobic Pretreatment of Strong Sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Halalsheh

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot<\\/sub> with averages higher than 1200 mg\\/l and with a

  1. Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Fraser, J.; Klepp, B.E.; Mueller, P.A.

    1987-11-01

    This project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of wastewater dilution, GAC (granular activated carbon) replacement rate, GAC particle size, operating temperature, and reactor configuration on the treatment of coal gasification wastewater with the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic bioreactor. Coal gasification wastewater used was generated in a low BTU, elevated pressure, stirred fixed-bed, gasifier operated by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The treatability of another wastewater generated in a full-scale, slagging fixed-bed modification of a conventional dry-ash, pressurized gasifier located at the Great Plains gasification Association (GPGA) facility in North Dakota was also evaluated. Full-strength METC wastewater was found to be effectively treated at chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates as high as 19.4 g/kg GAC-day. At this rate, an excess of 50% of the applied COD was converted to methane, and a carbon utilization rate of 10 g GAC per liter of wastewater treated was employed. At these operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies across the treatment system exceeded 95%. Good COD removal and efficient COD conversion to methane were attainable at loading rates exceeding 70 g COD/kg GAC-day. Wastewater generated at the GPGA facility was found to be treatable at full-strength in the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor at COD loading rates as high as 48 g COD/kg GAC-day. COD removal efficiencies at this loading rate exceeded 90%. Coal gasification wastewater was found to resist treatment under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. The thermophilic expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor affected very poor conversion efficiencies of phenol, even when fed a synthetically prepared phenol bearing wastewater. 29 refs., 77 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. ANAEROBIC BIOFILM REACTOR MODELING FOCUSED ON HYDRODYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fuentes; N. J. Scenna; P. A. Aguirre; M. C. Mussati

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with an experimental and theoretical investigation of anaerobic biofilm reactors for treating wastewaters. Bioreactors are modeled as dynamic (gas-solid–liquid) three-phase systems. The anaerobic digestion model proposed by Angelidaki et al. (1999) was selected to describe the substrate degradation scheme and was applied to a biofilm system. The experimental setup consists of two mesophilic (36°±1°C) lab-scale anaerobic fluidized

  3. Anaerobic Diegestion: Applying Anaerobic Technology to Satisfy Livestock Waste Treatment Regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Shiflett

    Anaerobic digestion has been proven to be a beneficial application for treating livestock wastes. Benefits of anaerobic digestion include; reduction of odors, renewable energy in the form of biogas, stabilization and pollutant removal, and retention of nutrients for land application. Conventional digesters have been an established method of anaerobic treatment for a long period of time. However, they have many

  4. Central odontogenic fibroma (simple type) in a four-year-old boy: atypical cone-beam computed tomographic appearance with periosteal reaction

    PubMed Central

    Anbiaee, Najme; Sanaei, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. A case of COF (simple type) of the mandible in a four-year-old boy is described in this report. The patient showed asymptomatic swelling in the right inferior border of the lower jaw for one week. A panoramic radiograph showed a poorly-defined destructive unilocular radiolucent area. Cone-beam computed tomography showed expansion and perforation of the adjacent cortical bone plates. A periosteal reaction with the Codman triangle pattern was clearly visible in the buccal cortex. Since the tumor had destroyed a considerable amount of bone, surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted. PMID:26125006

  5. Multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars in a non-syndromic patient with associated orthokeratised odontogenic cyst- A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kasat, Vikrant O.; Saluja, Harish; Kalburge, Jitendra V.; Kini, Yogesh; Nikam, Atul; Laddha, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple supernumerary teeth are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. They are commonly associated with syndromes like Gardner's syndrome and cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth have a predilection to occur in the mandibular premolar region. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising about 10% of the cases that had been previously implied as odontogenic keratocysts. More than half of the cases of OOC are associated with impacted tooth; but not a single case of OOC associated with supernumerary teeth is reported. Hence, the purpose of this article is to report the first case of multiple supernumerary mandibular premolars associated with OOC in a 35-year-old male and to review the literature associated with multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars. PMID:23230374

  6. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  7. Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mastroianni, Jennifer R.; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E.; Ouellette, André J.

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2–4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

  8. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

  9. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Stenstrom; Adam S. Ng; Prasanta K. Bhunia; Seth D. Abramson

    1983-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of classified municipal solid waste is a proposed disposal method for the mushrooming quantities of solid waste. To determine the suitability of anaerobic digestion to Los Angeles area wastes, a two-year pilot-scale study was conducted. A survey of a Southern California community was made to determine typical municipal waste composition. Municipal solid waste with characteristics conforming to survey

  10. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Visser

    1995-01-01

    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will determine the endproduct of the anaerobic mineralisation proces: methane or sulfide.The occurrence of the sulfate reduction proces is often considered unwanted due

  11. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Wenchuan Ding; Andrew R. Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600°C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar

  12. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Assessment of anaerobic benzene degradation

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    that is often recalcitrant under the anaerobic conditions that prevail at hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers and broadly appli- cable to assess benzene degradation potential under strongly anaerobic (sulfate reducing://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/cercla/05list.html). Groundwa- ter contamination by benzene is also prevalent at about 450 000 sites

  13. Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdi; K. Stamatelatou; M. Kornaros; G. Lyberatos

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic digestions for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are reviewed. A major limitation of anaerobic digestion of OMW is inhibition of methanogenic bacteria by simple phenolic compounds, certain organic acids and polyphenols. Pretreatment methods that modify or remove these natural inhibitors improve digestion of OMW.

  14. SERI Anaerobic Digestion Program. 1984 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowenstein

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the DOE Anaerobic Digestion Program. The objective is to develop the technology base for anaerobic digestion of dedicated feedstocks to produce significant quantities of methane at a cost competitive with other gaseous fuels by 1995. During 1984 research was carried out under three tasks: pretreatment, biological processes, and engineering parameters. Pretreatment

  15. Using anhydrous ammonia during anaerobic digester startup

    SciTech Connect

    Trout, P.A. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, NE (United States)); Schultz, T.; Schlegel, G.K.

    1991-09-01

    During a new wastewater treatment plant (WTP) startup, several systems cannot be placed in full operation or fine tuned until the anaerobic digestion system is fully on-line, stable, and producing sufficient quantities of burnable gas. To start up and demonstrate these systems while reducing plant utility costs, the anaerobic digester startup must proceed smoothly and the time between beginning digester sludge feed and achieving stable operation must be as short as possible. Controlling anaerobic digester pH and neutralizing volatile fatty acids are commonly required during anaerobic digester startup. This is especially true when good quality seed sludge is not available from operating digesters. If seed sludge is not available, planning for and implementing alkaline chemical feed to the digesters is necessary. Anhydrous ammonia can also be used to control anaerobic digester pH and increase digester buffering capacity.

  16. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal decarboxylation. The microbial consortia will be developed using a fermentor system first under batch and then in a continuous system. The main objectives for this quarter were to develop microbial consortia that would decarboxylate coal and isolate potential anaerobic microorganisms with decarboxylating, ability from these enriched microbial consortia, to continue to compare the known cultures with reward to their ability to decarboxylate coal, and to characterize the anaerobically biotreated coal using FTIR to confirm decarboxylation of coal. Significant achievements during the period include: coal decarboxylation was possible only under anaerobic conditions. microbial consortia that can anaerobically decarboxylate coal have been developed using anaerobic vials and batch fermentor system, and loss of carboxyl groups in biotreated coal has been confirmed by FT-IR.

  17. Characterization of SaccharolyticBacteroidesandPrevotella Isolates from Infected Dog and Cat Bite Wounds in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLYN J. ALEXANDER; DIANE M. CITRON; SHARON HUNT GERARDO; MARINA C. CLAROS; DAVID TALAN; ANDELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN

    Saccharolytic, nonpigmented, anaerobic gram-negative rods isolated from infected dog and cat bite wounds in humans have been poorly characterized, and most are not included in the databases of kits used for anaerobic identification; thus, they are problematic for clinical laboratories to identify. Fifty strains isolated from such wounds were characterized with commercial kits for preformed-enzyme detection, carbohydrate fermentation, and other

  18. Evaluation of the BBL Crystal Anaerobe Identification System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH J. CAVALLARO; LOIS S. WIGGS; J. MICHAEL MILLER

    1997-01-01

    The BBL Crystal Anaerobe (ANR) identification system was evaluated, and the results were compared with those from conventional anaerobic methods. We tested 322 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria according to the manufacturer's instructions. The system identified correctly 286 of 322 (88.8%) of the anaerobic bacteria tested. Of these, 263 of 322 (81.7%) were identified correctly on initial testing and 49 were

  19. Management of fascial space infections in a Nigerian teaching hospital: A 4-year review

    PubMed Central

    Osunde, Otasowie D.; Akhiwu, Benjamin I.; Efunkoya, Akinwale A.; Adebola, Adetokunbo R.; Iyogun, Cornelius A.; Arotiba, Juwon T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fascial space infections of the head and neck region, usually odontogenic in origin, are routinely treated as an out-patient procedure. Untreated or rapidly spreading odontogenic infections can be potentially life threatening. The present study is a review of patients with orofacial infections who required emergent incision and drainage in the maxillofacial unit of our institution. The need for early presentation is highlighted. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with orofacial space infections between January 2007 and December 2010. Patients’ case files were retrieved and demographic as well as clinical characteristics were obtained and analyzed. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 53 patients with fascial space infection were seen over the period of study. Of the 41 patients reviewed, males accounted for 26 (63.4%) and females 15 (36.6%). Their ages ranged from 4 months to 80 years (mean 32.8± 18.3 years). There was no statistical difference between the mean age of male and female patients (t=-962, P=0.342). Submandibular space was the most frequently involved single space and accounted for 43.9% of the cases. This was followed by multiple space involvement (Ludwig angina) which accounted for 36.6%. Buccal space and submasseteric space infection represented 7.3% each. Sources of infections were of odontogenic origin in 92.7% of cases and were unknown in the remaining 7.3%. The outcome was satisfactory with complete resolution in 48.8% of cases. Resolution with some morbidities in the form of persistent limitation of mouth opening, orocutaneus fistula, and necrotising fascitis were seen in an almost equal proportion of 46.3% of cases. The outcome was observed to be significantly associated with the presence of underlying systemic conditions (?2 =21.66; r=0.73; P=0.0001), time of presentation (?2 =12.28; r=0.55; P=0.002), and age (?2 =54.48; r=0.69; P=0.0001). Conclusion: Fascial space infections of the head and neck region, though potentially life threatening, can be prevented by regular dental visits. Early recognition and treatment of established cases are necessary to prevent considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in older patients with an underlying systemic condition. PMID:23271838

  20. Preparation of prereduced anaerobically sterilized media and their use in cultivation of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, E C; deVries, J; Harvey, R F

    1978-01-01

    Several modifications of the roll-tube method have made it simpler for routine use in the isolation and growth of anaerobic bacteria. These include use of a check valve for the production of prereduced anaerobically sterilized media; a Salvarsan tube under oxygen-free gas pressure for the dispensing of molten prereduced anaerobically sterilized agar medium; a Kelly infusion bottle with a graduated pipette side arm (also under gas pressure) for quantitative delivery of fluid prereduced anaerobically sterilized media; and screw-capped prescription bottles for the cultivation of anaerobes. Colonies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus were easily identified and counted by this method. Other anaerobic bacteria have also been cultivated successfully. Images PMID:29909

  1. Anaerobic filter for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavadej, S.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study evaluated the performance of an anaerobic filter in producing biogas from pig waste with 30,000 mg/l of COD. The filter packing was bamboo rings of 1 and 1/2 in. diameter, 1 in. long; the bamboo-bed filter operated satisfactorily in a wide COD loading range of 3.74-15.65 kg/cu m/d which corresponds to the hydraulic retention of 8.47 to 1.68 days. At the optimum loading of 7.299 kg COD/cu m/d, the largest gas rate of 0.212 cu m/kg of COD was produced. The required volume of the digester for 1.2 cu m/d of gas production would be only 1.5 cu m; in practical applications, consideration should be given to the gas collecting system and clogging problems.

  2. Biochemically enhanced hybrid anaerobic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, E.L.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for treatment of highly contaminated industrial waste waters, comprising: introducing influent wastewater into a lower suspended growth zone of a digestion vessel wherein anaerobic digestion commences; receiving up-flow of digestion product through a middle fixed film zone of the digestion vessel to effect solids/liquids/gas separation; drawing off waste solids from the floor of the digester vessel at a predetermined rate of removal; receiving liquids/gas up-flow through an upper quiescent zone of the digestion vessel; drawing off treated effluent from said quiescent zone; selecting a portion of treated effluent for conduction via recycle line back to said point of introduction for mixture with said influent wastewater; and injecting selected ones of plural process enhancement chemicals in predetermined amounts into said recycle line, which plurality includes preselected amounts of Mg(OH)[sub 2] and iron chloride to effect cleaning of the biogas.

  3. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket anaerobic filter system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maha M. Halalsheh; Zainab M. Abu Rumman; Jim A. Field

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket – anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23°C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB

  4. Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Vineet K; Singh, Kavita; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-08-01

    A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne's hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 overexpressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis. PMID:25141539

  5. 77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...variety of bacterial pathogens are responsible for cIAIs, including Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria, and there are also mixed infections. This draft guidance includes recommendations for...

  6. Malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes inhibit glucose utilization in uninfected red cells

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes inhibit glucose utilization in uninfected red cells Monika Abstract The erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite de- pend on anaerobic glycolysis for energy. Using. Keywords: Malaria; Erythrocytic stages; Glycolysis; 2,3- Diphosphoglycerate; Phosphofructokinase

  7. REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF DICHLOROPHENOLS IN ANAEROBIC PONDSEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The time required for the microbially mediated dechlorination ofchloroaromatics in anaerobic freshwater sediments may be dependentupon sediment microbial communities and physical characteristics,as well as chlorine position on the aromatic ring. o betterunderstand such possible r...

  8. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  9. ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an international conference, microbiologists from five countries presented results of research into the anaerobic dehalogenation of compounds of environmental interest being performed at selected universities, government agencies, and private companies. he conference, held fro...

  10. Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism Aerobic = oxidative metabolism

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    and lizards · Anaerobic metabolism may supply 50-90% of energy during activity · As with many other processes flight is positively related to drag and velocity #12;Laysan Albatross Horned Puffin AspectRatio Red

  11. Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

  12. Challenge of psychrophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gatze Lettinga; Salih Rebac; Grietje Zeeman

    2001-01-01

    Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment is an attractive option for wastewaters that are discharged at moderate to low temperature. The expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor has been shown to be a feasible system for anaerobic treatment of mainly soluble and pre-acidified wastewater at temperatures of 5–10°C. An organic loading rate (OLR) of 10–12 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter

  13. Anammoxosomes of Anaerobic Ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Fuerst; Richard Webb; Laura van Niftrik; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2006-01-01

    Anammoxosomes are unique metabolically significant compartments of planctomycetes performing the anammox process. These bacteria carry out Anaerobic\\u000a Ammonium Oxidation, a chemolithotrophic\\u000a and autotrophic metabolism. They comprise Candidatus genera “Brocadia”,\\u000a “Kuenenia” and “Scalindua”, mostly from wastewater treatment bioreactors or marine\\u000a anaerobic habitats and none of which are yet in pure culture. Like cells of other planctomycetes, anammox\\u000a species possess a shared planctomycete cell

  14. Organic matter balances in anaerobic digestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Tsonis

    1992-01-01

    Organic carbon and COD balances in a system of 12 anaerobic units operating at organic loading levels 0.4–0.8 kg COD\\/m.d and hydraulic detention times 8–20 d resulted in a mean CH4 production of 341 ml\\/g COD converted and a mean CH4 + CO2 production 1815 ml\\/g OC converted. The gas retained in the liquid anaerobic effluent was mainly carbon dioxide

  15. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  16. Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lettinga

    1995-01-01

    Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

  17. A Detoxifying Oxygen Reductase in the Anaerobic Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, João B.; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica has four genes that encode flavodiiron proteins, which are bacterial-type oxygen or nitric oxide reductases and were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The EhFdp1 gene has higher expression in virulent than in nonvirulent Entamoeba strains and species, hinting that the response to oxidative stress may be one correlate of virulence potential. We demonstrate that EhFdp1 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica and that the protein levels are markedly increased (up to ?5-fold) upon oxygen exposure. Additionally, we produced fully functional recombinant EhFdp1 and demonstrated that this enzyme is a specific and robust oxygen reductase but has poor nitric oxide reductase activity. This observation represents a new mechanism of oxygen resistance in the anaerobic protozoan pathogen E. histolytica. PMID:22798391

  18. Physical properties and biological/odontogenic effects of an experimentally developed fast-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate-based pulp capping material

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, fast-setting ?-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) cement was developed for use in the pulp capping process. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of ?-TCP cement in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods We measured the setting time, pH values, compressive strength, and solubility of the two materials. We evaluated biocompatibility on the basis of cell morphology and a viability test using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The expression of odontogenic-related genes was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The calcified nodule formation was measured by Alizarin red staining. We performed the pulp capping procedure on rat teeth for histological investigation. The data were analyzed by an independent t-test for physical properties, one-way ANOVA for biological effects, and the Mann-Whitney U test for tertiary dentin formation. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results The setting time, pH values, and compressive strength of ?-TCP was lower than that of MTA (P??0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that cells attached to both materials were flat and had cytoplasmic extensions. The expression of odontogenic-related markers and mineralized nodule formation were higher in the two experimental groups compared to the control group (P?odontogenicity comparable to MTA, whereas it had a quicker setting time. PMID:25015173

  19. Enzymes Involved in Anaerobic Respiration Appear To Play a Role in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Ilse; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Baltes, Nina; Trost, Matthias; Gerlach, Gerald-F.

    2005-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is able to survive on respiratory epithelia, in tonsils, and in the anaerobic environment of encapsulated sequesters. It was previously demonstrated that a deletion of the anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase gene (dmsA) results in attenuation in acute disease (N. Baltes, S. Kyaw, I. Hennig-Pauka, and G. F. Gerlach, Infect. Immun. 71:6784-6792, 2003). In the present study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we identified an aspartate ammonia-lyase (AspA) which is upregulated upon induction with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This enzyme is involved in the production of fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The coding gene (aspA) was cloned and shown to be present in all A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains. The transcriptional start point was identified downstream of a putative FNR binding motif, and BALF-dependent activation of aspA was confirmed by construction of an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae mutant carrying a chromosomal aspA::luxAB transcriptional fusion. Two aspA deletion mutants, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA, were constructed, both showing reduced growth under anaerobic conditions in vitro. Pigs challenged with either of the two mutants in an aerosol infection model showed a lower lung lesion score than that of the A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type (wt) controls. Pigs challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA had a significantly lower clinical score, and this mutant was rarely reisolated from unaltered lung tissue; in contrast, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and the A. pleuropneumoniae wt were consistently reisolated in high numbers. These results suggest that enzymes involved in anaerobic respiration are necessary for the pathogen's ability to persist on respiratory tract epithelium and play an important role in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis. PMID:15618158

  20. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Osteomyelitis in dogs and cats caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Lomas, G R; Wood, A K

    1984-02-01

    Localised osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 2 dogs and 2 cats. The disease was caused by fight wounds in 3 cases. Radiographic examination demonstrated a circumscribed zone of cortical bone lysis, sequestra and periosteal new bone. Each case was treated surgically by sequestrectomy and debridement. Infection was due mainly to anaerobic bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from the lesions of dogs were Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides spp, and from the lesions in cats were Clostridium villosum , Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Wolinella recta and Bacteroides gingivalis. As all the bacteria were sensitive to penicillin, each case was treated with penicillin and by irrigation of the wound. This resulted in resolution of the disease, within 4 weeks, in all cases. PMID:6732670

  2. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  3. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

  4. Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Georg

    2008-03-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic compounds that can serve as substrates for bacterial growth. So far, four types of aromatic metabolism are known. (1) The aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterized by the extensive use of molecular oxygen as cosubstrate for oxygenases that introduce hydroxyl groups and cleave the aromatic ring. (2) In the presence of oxygen, facultative aerobes use another so-called hybrid type of aerobic metabolism of benzoate, phenylacetate, and anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate). These pathways use coenzyme A thioesters of the substrates and do not require oxygen for ring cleavage; rather they use an oxygenase/reductase to dearomatize the ring. (3) In the absence of oxygen, facultative aerobes and phototrophs use a reductive aromatic metabolism. Reduction of the aromatic ring of benzoyl-coenzyme A is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase. This Birch-like reduction is driven by the hydrolysis of 2 ATP molecules. (4) A completely different, still little characterized benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase operates in strict anaerobes, which cannot afford the costly ATP-dependent ring reduction. PMID:18378589

  5. Dependence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG on Anaerobic Nitrate Reductase for Persistence Is Tissue Specific

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Christian; Maass, Silvia; Kreft, Andreas; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only presently available vaccine against tuberculosis, was obtained from virulent M. bovis after serial passages in vitro. The vaccine strain retained at least some of its original virulence, as it persists in immune-competent hosts and occasionally may cause fatal disease in immune-deficient hosts. Mycobacterial persistence in vivo is thought to depend on anaerobic metabolism, an apparent paradox since all mycobacteria are obligate aerobes. Here we report that M. bovis BCG lacking anaerobic nitrate reductase (NarGHJI), an enzyme essential for nitrate respiration, failed to persist in the lungs, liver, and kidneys of immune-competent (BALB/c) mice. In immune-deficient (SCID) mice, however, bacilli caused chronic infection despite disruption of narG, even if growth of the mutant was severely impaired in lungs, liver, and kidneys. Persistence and growth of BCG in the spleens of either mouse strain appeared largely unaffected by lack of anaerobic nitrate reductase, indicating that the role of the enzyme in pathogenesis is tissue specific. These data suggest first that anaerobic nitrate reduction is essential for metabolism of M. bovis BCG in immune-competent but not immune-deficient mice and second that its role in mycobacterial disease is tissue specific, both of which are observations with important implications for pathogenesis of mycobacteria and vaccine development. PMID:11748194

  6. Dependence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG on anaerobic nitrate reductase for persistence is tissue specific.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Christian; Maass, Silvia; Kreft, Andreas; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only presently available vaccine against tuberculosis, was obtained from virulent M. bovis after serial passages in vitro. The vaccine strain retained at least some of its original virulence, as it persists in immune-competent hosts and occasionally may cause fatal disease in immune-deficient hosts. Mycobacterial persistence in vivo is thought to depend on anaerobic metabolism, an apparent paradox since all mycobacteria are obligate aerobes. Here we report that M. bovis BCG lacking anaerobic nitrate reductase (NarGHJI), an enzyme essential for nitrate respiration, failed to persist in the lungs, liver, and kidneys of immune-competent (BALB/c) mice. In immune-deficient (SCID) mice, however, bacilli caused chronic infection despite disruption of narG, even if growth of the mutant was severely impaired in lungs, liver, and kidneys. Persistence and growth of BCG in the spleens of either mouse strain appeared largely unaffected by lack of anaerobic nitrate reductase, indicating that the role of the enzyme in pathogenesis is tissue specific. These data suggest first that anaerobic nitrate reduction is essential for metabolism of M. bovis BCG in immune-competent but not immune-deficient mice and second that its role in mycobacterial disease is tissue specific, both of which are observations with important implications for pathogenesis of mycobacteria and vaccine development. PMID:11748194

  7. Bacteremic skin and soft tissue infection caused by Prevotella loescheii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaerobes are a major component of gut flora. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections resulting from breaches in mucus membranes. Because of the difficulties in cultivating and identifying it, their role continues to be undermined. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Prevotella loescheii bacteremic skin and soft tissue infection and review the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man was admitted for an elective bariatric surgery. A lengthy intensive care unit stay and buttocks decubitus ulcers complicated his post-operative course. After being transferred to a long-term care facility, the decubitus ulcer became secondarily infected with multiple bacteria including P. loescheii; an anaerobe that grew in blood and wound cultures. The patient was treated successfully with aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics and subsequent wound care. Conclusion P. loescheii colonizes the gut and plays an important role in periodontal infections. In rare occasions and under suitable circumstances, it can infect skin and soft tissues as well as joints. Given the difficulties in isolating anaerobes in the microbiology lab, considering this bacterium alongside other anaerobes in infections of devitalized tissue is indicated even if cultures were reported negative. PMID:24661318

  8. Five years follow-up of a keratocyst odontogenic tumor treated by marsupialization and enucleation: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Verzola, Mario H.; Pires, Luana C.; Mascarenhas, Vinicius I.; da Silva, Rodrigo B.; Cirelli, Joni A.; Barbeiro, Roberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are considered as nonneoplasic benign lesions. Among the cysts, keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is an intra-osseous tumor characterized by parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and a potential for aggressive, infiltrative behavior, and for the possibility to develop carcinomas in the lesion wall. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe a clinical case of KCOT in a young patient and discuss the treatment alternatives to solve this case. A 15-year-old male was referred for treatment of a giant lesion in his left side of the mandible. After the biopsy, a diagnostic of KCOT was made, and the following procedures were planned for KCOT treatment. Marsupialization was performed for lesion decompression and consequent lesion size reduction. Afterward, enucleation for complete KCOT removal was performed followed by third mandibular molar extraction. After 5 years, no signs of recurrence were observed. The treatment proposed was efficient in removing the KCOT with minimal surgical morbidity and optimal healing process, and the first and second mandibular molars were preserved with pulp vitality. In conclusion, this treatment protocol was an effective and conservative approach for the management of the KCOT, enabling the reduction of the initial lesion, the preservation of anatomical structures and teeth, allowing quicker return to function. No signs of recurrence after 5 years were observed. PMID:25821360

  9. Comparison of startup and anaerobic wastewater treatment in UASB, hybrid and baffled reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hut?an; M. Drtil; L. Mrafková; J. Derco; J. Buday

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare the performance of selected anaerobic high rate reactors operated simultaneously at 37v°C. The three reactors, namely upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB), hybrid of UASB reactor and anaerobic filter (anaerobic hybrid reactor - AHR) and anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), were inoculated with the anaerobic digested sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant and

  10. ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the review is to evaluate and summarize available information about the role of microorganisms in the anaerobic transformation of xenobiotic compounds in natural environments. The review focuses on the anaerobic transformation of xenobiotic compounds and natural st...

  11. Improvement of anaerobic soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Runia, W T; Molendirk, L P G; Ludeking, D J W; Schomaker, C H

    2012-01-01

    With increasing worldwide restrictions for soil fumigants, growers loose an important tool to control soilborne pests and pathogens. Environmentally friendly alternatives are urgently needed and anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may be one of them. Traditional ASD with fresh grass is already applied in open field vegetables but the mode of action is unknown. Therefore, trials were performed under controlled conditions using soil-filled buckets, in which several processed defined organic materials were incorporated and compared with fresh grass. The effect of inundation was also studied. Target organisms were Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, Globodera pallida and Verticillium dahliae. Results showed that grass (traditional ASD) was less effective than the organic materials. All materials proved to be effective at 16 degrees C against all target organisms. However, exposure time, dosages, soil type and the temperature at which the experiments were performed influenced the effectiveness. P. penetrans was eliminated most easily whereas V. dahliae was most difficult to control. Efficacy was higher in sandy soil than in light marine clay. Inundation at 16 degrees C proved to be effective against P. penetrans and G. pallida in both soil types at sufficient exposure times. A soil temperature of 8 degrees C was sometimes too low for efficacy. Gas production of CO2, NH3, H2S, CH4 and N2O and gas consumption of O2 and production of fatty acids during ASD proved to depend on type of organic materials, soil type, temperature, dosage and exposure time. This first step in unravelling the mode of action has already shown several critical parameters for efficacy. Additional knowledge about the complete mechanisms of action may lead to a more reliable, effective and quicker soil disinfestation. PMID:23885444

  12. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, P.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorinated alkenes are widely found in contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater. The highly chlorinated alkene (i.e., PCE) is not subject to aerobic biotransformation. The aim of this research was to explore the potential of using anaerobic processes (i.e., denitrification, sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis) for chlorinated alkenes biotransformation. Contaminated soil samples were used throughout this study. Soil microcosms simulating field anoxic conditions with various nutrients amendment, liquid microcosms as well as enrichment liquid cultures were developed to delineate the dechlorination process. The effect of biomass, chlorinated alkenes concentration and site specific conditions (e.g., temperature and pH) on the dechlorination and the primary metabolic process was investigated. The role of sorption and nutritional needs (i.e., electron donor) were also studied. A preliminary study revealed that denitrification was the least affected by low temperatures as compared to sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis. Although dechlorination took place under sequential denitrifying and methanogenic conditions and under sulfate-reducing conditions, further studies concluded that fermentative and methanogenic bacteria were responsible for the observed dechlorination. In most cases, dechlorination of PCE or TCE resulted in the accumulation of cDCE. However, a VC-producing culture was developed from the PCE-contaminated soil. In general, the dechlorination process could be enhanced by increasing electron donor and biomass concentration. At relatively low concentrations, the dechlorination rate was also increased with increasing chlorinated alkene concentration. Dechlorination even proceeded at high chlorinated alkene concentrations when methane production was inhibited. However, as the concentration of the chlorinated alkenes increased, severe toxicity eventually halted the dechlorination process.

  13. Microbiota Associated with Infections of the Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luis Fernando; de Oliveira, Kathlenn Liezbeth; Costa, Iracy; Ranieri, Robson Varlei; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

    2012-01-01

    The microbial infections involving the craniofacial skeleton, particularly maxilla and mandible, have direct relationship with the dental biofilm, with predominance of obligate anaerobes. In some patients, these infections may spread to bone marrow or facial soft tissues, producing severe and life-threatening septic conditions. In such cases, local treatment associated with systemic antimicrobials should be used in order to eradicate the sources of contamination. This paper discuss the possibility of spread of these infections and their clinical implications for dentistry, as well as their etiology and aspects related to microbial virulence and pathogenesis. PMID:22829824

  14. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Ping Zheng; YuHui He; RenCun Jin

    2009-01-01

    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied. The results showed that both SO4\\u000a 2? and NH4\\u000a + were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions. They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst\\u000a (sludge). The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing\\u000a ammonium with sulfate

  15. Anaerobic digestion Of a Petrochemical Wastewater using the UASB process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Guyot; H. Macarie; A. Noyola

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of effluent from a petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid has been tested using two Upflow Anaerobic\\u000a Sludge Blanket (USAB) reactors. The reactors were seeded with two different inocula: one from an anaerobic stabilization pond\\u000a receiving wasted sludge from the aerobic treatment plant of the petrochemical industry (reactor A); the other was an anaerobically\\u000a adapted activated sludge from a

  16. Anaerobic Reactor Design Concepts for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianus van Haandel; Mario T. Kato; Paula F. F. Cavalcanti; Lourdinha Florencio

    2006-01-01

    Since the earlier anaerobic treatment systems, the design concepts were improved from classic reactors like septic tanks and\\u000a anaerobic ponds, to modern high rate reactor configurations like anaerobic filters, UASB, EGSB, fixed film fluidized bed and\\u000a expanded bed reactors, and others. In this paper, anaerobic reactors are evaluated considering the historical evolution and\\u000a types of wastewaters. The emphasis is on

  17. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  18. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  19. Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruihong Zhang; Hamed M. El-Mashad; Karl Hartman; Fengyu Wang; Guangqing Liu; Chris Choate; Paul Gamble

    2007-01-01

    Food waste collected in the City of San Francisco, California, was characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The daily and weekly variations of food waste composition over a two-month period were measured. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas and methane yields of the food waste were evaluated using batch anaerobic digestion tests performed at

  20. Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    E-print Network

    Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion Sudeep C Thermophilic anaerobic digestion Pathogen inactivation Ascaris suum Helminth eggs Poliovirus Enteric viruses a b s t r a c t Thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion is a promising process to divert waste

  1. Factors Controlling Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation with Nitrite in

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Dalsgaard; Bo Thamdrup

    Factors controlling the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrate and nitrite were explored in a marine sediment from the Skagerrak in the Baltic-North Sea transition. In anoxic incubations with the addition of nitrite, approximately 65% of the nitrogen gas formation was due to anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, with the remainder being produced by denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite

  2. Factors Controlling Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation with Nitrite in Marine Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Dalsgaard; Bo Thamdrup

    2002-01-01

    Factors controlling the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrate and nitrite were explored in a marine sediment from the Skagerrak in the Baltic-North Sea transition. In anoxic incubations with the addition of nitrite, approximately 65% of the nitrogen gas formation was due to anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, with the remainder being produced by denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite

  3. IN SITU\\/EX SITU ACCELERATED ANAEROBIC REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Smith; Kevin A. Morris; Christopher Underwood

    The anaerobic reduction of perchlorate via indigenous subsurface bacteria is fast becoming a widely accepted tool for the remediation of perchlorate-impacted soil and groundwater. Pilot tests were initiated in 2001 to determine the applicability and effectiveness of stimulating the anaerobic biological treatment of soils and groundwater. Anaerobic composting was demonstrated as an effective ex situ method for treating heavily perchlorate-impacted

  4. Screening of immobilization materials for anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-S. Hwu; S.-K. Tseng

    1996-01-01

    Two attachment and four entrapment materials were screened, based on physical, microbiological and reactor operational aspects, for anaerobic wastewater treatment. Anaerobic digested sludge was immobilized by agar, calcium alginate (CA), polyacrylamide (PA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) entrapment and by powdered activated carbon (PAC) and DEAE resin attachment methods, respectively. Granular sludge taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor

  5. Degradation of volatile fatty acids in highly efficient anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qunhui Wang; Masaaki Kuninobu; Hiroaki I Ogawa; Yasuhiko Kato

    1999-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, we examined the effects of C2–C6 volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on methane fermentation, as well as the behavior of VFAs in anaerobic digestion. The VFA concentrations and methane production in anaerobic digestion were increased by pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS), such as ultrasonic disintegration, thermal and freezing treatments. The major intermediate products

  6. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Batstone; J. Keller; I. Angelidaki; S. V. Kalyuzhnyi; S. G. Pavalostathis; A. Rozzi; W. T. M. Sanders; H. Siegrist; V. A. Vavilin

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as physicochemical processes. The biochemical steps include disintegration from homogeneous particulates to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids; extracellular hydrolysis of

  7. Anaerobic treatment of gasifier effluents. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, W.H.; Chian, E.S.K.; Pohland, F.G.; Giabbai, M.; Harper, S.R.; Kharkar, S.; Cheng, S.S.; Shuey, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed during the quarter ending December 30, 1981. The major efforts have been directed toward the continued acclimation of two anaerobic treatment systems, start up of a third anaerobic treatment system, GC/MS characterization of the coal gasification wastewater, data acquisition for determination of distribution coefficients for the extraction of phenol from the wastewater using MIBK, and preliminary design of a solvent extraction system for wastewater pretreatment. The progress of these efforts are depicted in the Gannt Chart, along with project expenditures for the above contract, and are presented in detail in the following sections.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge.

  9. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  10. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion with the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  11. Growth characteristic of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuichi Isaka; Yasuhiro Date; Tatsuo Sumino; Sachiko Yoshie; Satoshi Tsuneda

    2006-01-01

    The doubling time of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in an anaerobic biological filtrated (ABF) reactor was\\u000a determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to detect and count anammox bacteria cells in anammox sludge.\\u000a As a result, the populations of anammox bacteria at 14th and 21st days were 1.1×106 and 1.7×107 cells\\/ml reactor, respectively. From these results, the doubling time of

  12. Thermochemical liquidization of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge and anaerobic retreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tomoko Ogi

    1996-01-01

    The pretreatment effect of thermochemical liquidization for the anaerobic retreatment of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge was studied. The digested sludge (dry matter; 15.7%) was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and 4 MPa with a holding time of 1 h. The liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to produce a supernatant of 44.7% (w\\/w) and precipitate of 52.3%. The liquidized sludge

  13. Anaerobic utilization of essential oils bydenitrifying bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Harder; Udo Heyen

    2000-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbonsource in nature. We studied the degradability ofthese substances by anaerobic microorganisms inenrichment cultures with representative essential oilsas organic substrates and nitrate as electronacceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supportedmicrobial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereasparsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oilsupported growth only when the essential oils weredissolved in

  14. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Risgaard-Petersen; R. L. Meyer; M. C. Schmid; M. S. M. Jetten; A. Enrich-Prast; S. Rysgaard; N. P. Revsbech

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process relative to denitrification was studied in photosynthetically active sediment from 2 shallow-water estuaries: Randers Fjord and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark. Anammox accounted for 5 to 24 % of N-2 production in Randers Fjord sediment, whereas no indication was seen of the process in sediment from Norsminde Fjord, It is suggested

  15. Process configuration role in anaerobic biotransformations

    SciTech Connect

    Speece, R.E.

    1998-07-01

    Defining the environmental conditions which would enable anaerobic processes to consistently produce effluents containing only non-detectable concentrations of degradable organics would remove one of the main drawbacks to wider application of this important treatment technology. Recently specific metabolic intermediates formed in the anaerobic biotransformation of complex organics have been found to enhance or curtail process performance. Using acrylate and acrolein as representative hazardous chemicals, modifications in staging and reactor operation procedures have been observed in the author's laboratory to profoundly impact the rate and completeness of the biotransformation process. Specific metabolic intermediates formed in the biotransformation of complex substrates to a large extent will control a given process performance and process configuration greatly impacts the metabolic pathway, thus impacting the intermediates formed as well. There is a growing body of literature to indicate that process performance in anaerobic biotransformation is greatly impacted by reactor configuration. There is also some evidence that metabolic precursors impact the subsequent efficiency of conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) ultimately to CH{sub 4}. But although profound differences in the performance of anaerobic biotransformation are reported for various process configurations, there are no published criteria to guide the rational design of stages/phased processes. Clarification of the relative merits of single stage, two stage, two phase, granules and biofilms as well as CSTR and plug flow modes in the biotransformation of hazardous pollutants would be foundational for future research and development.

  16. Fluorimetric monitoring of methanogenesis in anaerobic digestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Delafontaine; H. P. Naveau; E. J. Nyns

    1979-01-01

    A new parameter, QCH4(F420), is proposed to determine the potential methanogenic activity in the mixed microbial communities of anaerobic digestors. It is based on the particular fluorimetric properties of F420, a coenzyme common to and specific for methanogenic bacteria.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

  18. Anaerobic biotransformations of pollutant chemicals in aquifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Suflita; Susan A. Gibson; Ralph E. Beeman

    1988-01-01

    Summary Anaerobic microbial communities sampled from either a methanogenic or sulfate-reducing aquifer site have been tested for their ability to degrade a variety of groundwater pollutants, including halogenated aromatic compounds, simple alkyl phenols and tetrachloroethylene. The haloaromatic chemicals were biodegraded in methanogenic incubations but not under sulfate-reducing conditions. The primary degradative event was typically the reductive removal of the aryl

  19. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batch and continuous anaerobic fermentation experiments were performed to study the hydrogen production from cheese whey permeate under mesophilic conditions (35-38 oC). The batch experiments resulted in H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed at food to microorganisms ratios (F/M) of 1.0 and 1.5, respe...

  20. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A. [Hartung (H.A.), Collingswood, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Fallon; D. A. Cooper; M. Henson; R. Speece

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of <100 mg liter⁻¹ with a hydraulic retention time of >48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, <70% of the inflow free cyanide was

  3. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Boxma, Brigitte; de Graaf, Rob M; van der Staay, Georg W M; van Alen, Theo A; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J H; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2005-03-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolically quite different, just like mitochondria where large differences also exist. These differences have led to a continuing debate about the evolutionary origin of hydrogenosomes. Here we show that the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis, which thrives in the hindgut of cockroaches, have retained a rudimentary genome encoding components of a mitochondrial electron transport chain. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that those proteins cluster with their homologues from aerobic ciliates. In addition, several nucleus-encoded components of the mitochondrial proteome, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase and complex II, were identified. The N. ovalis hydrogenosome is sensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I and produces succinate as a major metabolic end product--biochemical traits typical of anaerobic mitochondria. The production of hydrogen, together with the presence of a genome encoding respiratory chain components, and biochemical features characteristic of anaerobic mitochondria, identify the N. ovalis organelle as a missing link between mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. PMID:15744302

  4. Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE M. CITRON; YUMI A. WARREN; MARIE K. HUDSPETH; ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN

    2000-01-01

    Protection of anaerobic bacteria from exposure to oxygen during the transport of clinical specimens to the laboratory is crucial for the survival of these organisms. Because the use of swabs may encourage collection of superficial specimens that represent colonizing bacteria instead of the etiologic agents found deeper in the infected tissues, aspirates have always been preferable to swab systems for

  5. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

  6. MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide ? a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization ? derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23451077

  7. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and impairs mineralization in tooth models of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Benjamin; Bardet, Claire; Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide - a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization - derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23451077

  8. Bacteremic Infection with Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Thierry; Verhelst, Rita; Labit, Caroline; Verschraegen, Gerda; Wauters, Georges; Claeys, Geert; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2004-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was hospitalized for dyspnea and bilateral ankle edema. During his hospital stay he presented anal hemorrhage and developed a high fever after colonoscopy. A set of aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles yielded a pure culture of gram-negative rods, susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The API20E code was 1005133, resulting in a very good identification as Pantoea sp. Subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a final identification as Pantoea ananatis. The patient was given intravenous and oral therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam and ofloxacin and recovered completely from his infection. PMID:15365053

  9. Biofilms in pediatric respiratory and related infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Chun Carol Liu; J. Christopher Post

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can grow as free-floating, planktonic bacteria or complex communities called biofilms. Biofilms promote bacterial\\u000a growth and diversity and offer bacteria unique environments, including aerobic and anaerobic layers, that facilitate resistance\\u000a to antimicrobial therapies. Respiratory and related structures provide ideal environments for the development of bacterial\\u000a biofilms, which predispose patients to recurrent and chronic infections. Biofilms are important for the

  10. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be difficult to kill. For skin and nail infections, you can apply medicine directly to the infected area. Oral antifungal medicines are also available for serious infections. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  11. Bone Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ... risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  12. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

  13. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with granular sludge selected from an anaerobic digestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Thuan Tran; Young-Joo Park; Mi-Kyeoung Cho; Dong-Jin Kim; Dae-Hee Ahn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the development of the anammox process by the use of granular sludge selected from\\u000a a digestion reactor as a potential seed source in a lab-scale UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor system. The reactor\\u000a was operated for approximately 11 months and was fed by synthetic wastewater. After 200 days of feeding with

  14. A case of bone marrow infection by Staphylococcus saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    Liu, C-J; Sun, B; Guo, J; He, J-L; Feng, B; Wang, H-G; Cao, K-K; Liu, T; Shen, D-X

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of fatal bone marrow infection caused by Staphylococcus saccharolyticus in a 26 year old female. The causative organism was isolated by anaerobic culture on blood agar, and was identified by PCR amplification of the gap gene and genotyping of the resultant sequence. PMID:25912574

  15. [Non-sporulating anaerobic bacteria and anastomosis failure in patients with gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Levanov, A V; Benevski?, A I; Dmitrieva, N V; Klimenkov, A A; Nered, S N; Gubina, G I

    2000-01-01

    Cases of anastomosis suture failure within the period from 1977 to 1987 and from 1988 to 1998 in 139 patients after various surgical operations for gastric carcinoma were analyzed. Infection in the cases of the anastomosis sUture failure at the early terms was mainly due to representatives of Enterobacteriaceae and at the later terms the failure was mainly due to non-sporulating anaerobes belonging to Bacteroidaceae. The data are indicative of the fact that the use of antimicrobials requires a differential approach. PMID:11210305

  16. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  17. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?

    PubMed Central

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  18. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  19. Recent developments in anaerobic membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, David C

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic membrane reactors (AnMBRs) have recently evolved from aerobic MBRs, with the membrane either external or submerged within the reactor, and can achieve high COD removals (~98%) at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) as low as 3 h. Since membranes stop biomass being washed out, they can enhance performance with inhibitory substrates, at psychrophilic/thermophilic temperatures, and enable nitrogen removal via Anammox. Fouling is important, but addition of activated carbon or resins/precipitants can remove soluble microbial products (SMPs)/colloids and enhance flux. Due to their low energy use and solids production, and solids free effluent, they can enhance nutrient and water recycling. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: compare fouling between aerobic and anaerobic systems; determine how reactor operation influences fouling; evaluate the effect of different additives on membrane fouling; determine whether nitrogen removal can be incorporated into AnMBRs; recover methane solubility from low temperatures effluents; and, establish sound mass and energy balances. PMID:22749372

  20. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection; CLABSI; Peripherally inserted central catheter - infection; PICC - infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection

  1. Sulfonates: novel electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Lie; Thomas Pitta; E. R. Leadbetter; Jared R. Leadbetter

    1996-01-01

    The enrichment and isolation in pure culture of a bacterium, identified as a strain of Desulfovibrio, able to release and reduce the sulfur of isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) and other sulfonates to support anaerobic\\u000a respiratory growth, is described. The sulfonate moiety was the source of sulfur that served as the terminal electron acceptor,\\u000a while the carbon skeleton of isethionate functioned as an

  2. Anaerobic Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus? †

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Stephan; Pané-Farré, Jan; Kohler, Christian; Hecker, Michael; Engelmann, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus after a switch from aerobic to anaerobic growth was initiated by using the proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. In the absence of external electron acceptors like oxygen or nitrate, an induction of glycolytic enzymes was observed. At the same time the amount of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes was very low. NAD is regenerated by mixed acid and butanediol fermentation, as indicated by an elevated synthesis level of fermentation enzymes like lactate dehydrogenases (Ldh1 and Ldh2), alcohol dehydrogenases (AdhE and Adh), ?-acetolactate decarboxylase (BudA1), acetolactate synthase (BudB), and acetoin reductase (SACOL0111) as well as an accumulation of fermentation products as lactate and acetate. Moreover, the transcription of genes possibly involved in secretion of lactate (SACOL2363) and formate (SACOL0301) was found to be induced. The formation of acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-phosphate might be catalyzed by pyruvate formate lyase, whose synthesis was found to be strongly induced as well. Although nitrate was not present, the expression of genes related to nitrate respiration (NarH, NarI, and NarJ) and nitrate reduction (NirD) was found to be upregulated. Of particular interest, oxygen concentration might affect the virulence properties of S. aureus by regulating the expression of some virulence-associated genes such as pls, hly, splC and splD, epiG, and isaB. To date, the mechanism of anaerobic gene expression in S. aureus has not been fully characterized. In addition to srrA the mRNA levels of several other regulatory genes with yet unknown functions (e.g., SACOL0201, SACOL2360, and SACOL2658) were found to be upregulated during anaerobic growth, indicating a role in the regulation of anaerobic gene expression. PMID:17384184

  3. Ultrasound Pretreatment of Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan Yeow Show; Joo Hwa Tay; Yung-Tse Hung

    \\u000a Ultrasound pretreatment of sludge has been examined in an effort to improve the hydrolysis rate in anaerobic digestion. The\\u000a reactions that resulted from the generation and collapse of cavitation bubbles produced under the acoustic condition can significantly\\u000a modify the substances present in the sludge. The principles of ultrasound that encompass acoustic cavitation and bubble dynamics,\\u000a the mechanisms of biological damage

  4. Anaerobic digestion of banana stem waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C Kalia; V Sonakya; N Raizada

    2000-01-01

    Waste banana stem has a high organic content (83%); with 15–20% (w\\/w) lignin and cellulose which gives it a sheath-like texture. Banana stem slurries (BSS) at 2–16% total solids (TS) concentration were anaerobically digested under mesophilic (37–40°C) as well as thermophilic conditions (50–55°C) in batch culture. The final biogas yields, 267–271 l\\/kg TS fed, were observed with 2–4% TS slurries,

  5. Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARC STROUS; J. GIJS KUENEN; MIKE S. M. JETTEN

    1999-01-01

    The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43°C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox process was completely inhibited by nitrite concentrations

  6. ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Bo Thamdrup

    Oceanographers noticed already many years ago that far less ammonium accumulated in anoxic fjords and basins, than would be\\u000a expected from the stoichiometry of heterotrophic denitrification. It was suggested that this ‘missing’ ammonium was oxidized\\u000a with nitrate to freeN2. Since then several otherworkers have argued based on chemical profiles that ammonium is oxidized anaerobically in oxygen\\u000a deficient marine sediments and

  7. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  8. Anaerobic toxic wastes treatment: dilution effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Nakhla; M. T. Suidan

    1995-01-01

    The impact of waste strength on the treatability of toxic wastes such as coal gasification wastewater by the anaerobic GAC reactor operating with periodic GAC replacement was assessed by operating three units treating 30%, 60% and full strength wastewater. At a COD loading of 4.7 kg\\/m3 d performance was unimpacted by dilution at all the GAC replacement rates investigated in

  9. Anaerobic degradation of paper mill sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Ratnieks; C. C Gaylarde

    1997-01-01

    The effect of pH adjustment and surfactant addition on the anaerobic degradation of sludge from a pulp and paper mill waste treatment plant was monitored by COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and EOX (Extractable Organic Halogen) analysis. COD decreased by 29–64% and EOX by 22–50%, in all treatments (including control, non-adjusted, sludges). Adjusting the initial pH to 7.0 with sodium bicarbonate,

  10. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  11. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8?d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179?mg/L to 12341?mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587?mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30?mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65?m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  12. Metabolic Interactions Between Methanogenic Consortia and Anaerobic Respiring Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. Stams; S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink; P. Westermann

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective\\u000a electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic\\u000a respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron\\u000a acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect

  13. Parasitic Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K. Gupta; Kee-Hyun Chang

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by different parasites is in endemic proportion in different parts of the world. The distribution of the type of infection depends on the food habits, prevalence of the type of infection in the region, and local hygienic conditions in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and Mexico. These infections

  14. DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES Simeonov, I variables of anaerobic digestion processes. For this purpose, different mathematical models of anaerobic digestion and different theoretical approaches (differential algebraic approach, Kalman filter modifications

  15. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) A new sink in the marine nitrogen cycle

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Term paper Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) ­ A new sink in the marine nitrogen cycle@ethz.ch Tutor: Prof. Bernhard Wehrli #12;Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently of anaerobic ammonium oxidation........................................................1 2. The "new" marine

  16. Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite to N2 (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial reaction

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite to N2 (anammox) is a recently discovered. Keywords Anaerobic ammonium oxidation · Anammox · Identification · Planctomycete · Fluorescence in situ (The Netherlands) (Mulder et al. 1995). The process, called anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anam- mox

  17. On a Three Step Model of Anaerobic Digestion Including the Hydrolysis of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On a Three Step Model of Anaerobic Digestion Including the Hydrolysis of Particulate Matter R degradation, chemostat, models, growth rate, equilibrium, bistability. 1. INTRODUCTION Anaerobic digestion, the anaerobic digestion is generally considered as a three step process: hydrolysis and liquefaction

  18. Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ]. However, anaerobic digestion is not effective for nutrient removal and should be followed by a processLocation and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic different operating conditions. Three dairy wastewater effluents, from three different upflow anaerobic

  19. Microbiology of animal bite wound infections.

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2011-04-01

    The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  20. Infected dentigerous cyst of maxillary sinus arising from an ectopic third molar.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh; Kura, Umashankar

    2013-01-01

    A dentigerous cyst or follicular cyst is a form of odontogenic cyst. It is believed that it forms during the development of the tooth and is associated with pressure exerted by the crown of an unerupted (or partially erupted) tooth on the fluid within the follicular space. Typically, dentigerous cysts are painless and discovered during routine radiographic examination. However, they may be large and result in a palpable mass. Additionally, as they grow they displace adjacent teeth. They almost exclusively occur in permanent dentition. The cyst is lined by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium. About 70% of dentigerous cysts occur in the mandible and 30% in the maxilla. Dentigerous cysts associated with ectopic teeth within the maxillary sinus are very rare. We report radiologic and pathologic features in a rare case of infected dentigerous cyst of maxillary sinus arising from an ectopic third molar in a 21-year-old female patient. PMID:24516770

  1. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Stieglmeier; Reinhard Wirth; Gerhard Kminek; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associ- ated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a signif- icant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough

  2. Improved chamber for the isolation of anaerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, M E; Mangels, J I

    1976-01-01

    A small portable chamber for the recovery of anaerobic bacteria is described. This rigid chamber is constructed of clear acrylic with dimensions of 30 inches (ca. 76.2 cm) wide, 18 inches (ca. 44.7 cm) deep, and 18 inches (ca. 44.7 cm) high. Conventional bacteriological techniques can be used inside the chamber to efficiently isolate strict anaerobic organisms. An adapter allows the attachment of a standard anaerobic jar to the outside of the chamber. The jar can be used to store reduced media. Once the jar is attached to the chamber and the media is removed to the interior of the chamber, the jar is available to receive inoculated media. The anaerobic jar can then be removed from the chamber, without contaminating the jar or chamber with oxygen, and be placed in a conventional 37degreesC incubator. This chamber also allows the microbiologist to process cultures without wearing gloves as was necessary with previous anaerobic chambers. Air-tight latex rubber sleeves seal around the microbiologists arms and to the armport flange of the chamber to prevent the introduction of oxygen into the chamber. Anaerobic conditions are maintained by circulating a 80% N2, 10% H2, 10% CO2 gas mixture through alumina pellets coated with palladium. This study indicates that anaerobic conditions obtained in this chamber are sufficient for recovery of obligate anaerobes. PMID:783188

  3. Manganese oxide reduction as a form of anaerobic respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry L. Ehrlich

    1987-01-01

    Some instances of bacterial manganese oxide reduction observed in nature and under laboratory conditions are a form of respiration. Anaerobiosis is not a necessary condition for its occurrence, although anaerobic reduction of manganese oxide which is inhibited by air has been reported. It is the kind of manganese reducing microorganism involved which determines whether anaerobic conditions are required. In at

  4. Novel forms of anaerobic respiration of environmental relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek R Lovley; John D Coates

    2000-01-01

    Novel forms of anaerobic respiration continue to be discovered. Many of these are environmentally significant as they have important impacts on the fate of organic carbon and the cycling of many inorganic compounds. Furthermore, anaerobic respiration is becoming increasing recognized as a strategy for the remediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  5. Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priya Narasingarao; Max M. Haggblom

    2007-01-01

    The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize

  6. Anaerobic respiration in the polychaete Euzonus (Thoracophelia) mucronata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Ruby; D. L. Fox

    1976-01-01

    The intertidal polychaete Euzonus mucronata (Treadwell) is found in great numbers within beach sands that undergo periodic anoxia. Short-term exposures (2 to 4 h) to anaerobicity are withstood through the use of a supply of oxyhemoglobin to support continued aerobic metabolism. Longer periods of environmental anoxia activate an anaerobic metabolism capable of sustaining life for up to 20 days, and

  7. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...

  8. Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    1 Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State The solid waste handling permit exemption W This factsheet briefly reviews the role of co-digestion within anaerobic digestion (AD), explains the potential digestion facilities that digest dairy manure have begun to co-digest pre-consumer organic wastes (such

  9. Xylan degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides xylanolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Y. M. J. Schyns

    1997-01-01

    Plant cell walls are the major reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The mineralization of the fiber material, the so called lignocellulosic complex, proceeds almost exclusively by microbial processes in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. In anaerobic microbial processes the energy of the plant polymers can be conserved in fermentation products. The valorization of agricultural waste plant materials can consist

  10. Kinetic model for anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlostathis, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    Although numerous reports exist in the literature concerning the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS), there are no kinetic models available to describe anaerobic process performance with a WAS feed source. Anaerobic digestion models which consider methanogenesis rate-limiting are inapplicable in the case of WAS. Preliminary conversion mechanisms such as death, lysis and hydrolysis play an important role in the anaerobic digestion of biological sludges. The principal objectives of the present study were: (a) to elucidate the role of the above-described conversion mechanisms in rendering viable WAS organisms into available substrate for the anaerobic microorganisms; (b) to develop and evaluate a comprehensive kinetic model capable of predicting digester performance when fed WAS. In order to meet the above-stated objectives, laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters were operated on an automatic, hourly feed cycle. The hydraulic retention times employed ranged from approximately 1 day to 25 days. The results of this study indicate that viable WAS cell death and lysis, and hydrolysis of the dead particulate biomass constitute a kinetic barrier in the conversion of biological solids to available substrate for the anaerobic digester microflora. Hydrolysis was found to be the slowest step, and therefore kinetically controls the overall process of anaerobic digestion of biological solids. A kinetic model was developed which could accurately describe digester performance and predict effluent quality.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of volatile fatty acids at different sulphate concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Visser; I. Beeksma; F. van der Zee; A. J. M. Stams; G. Lettinga

    1993-01-01

    The effect of sulfate on the anaerobic breakdown of mixtures of acetate, propionate and butyrate at three different sulfate to fatty acid ratios was studied in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Sludge characteristics were followed with time by means of sludge activity tests and by enumeration of the different physiological bacterial groups. At each sulfate concentration acetate was completely converted

  12. Response of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria to hydroxylamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten J. Van De Graaf; Boran Kartal; Cristian Picioreanu; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in Chesapeake

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in Chesapeake Bay Sediments Jeremy J. Rich / Published online: 7 July 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Anaerobic ammonium as anaero- bic ammonium oxidation (anammox), may be an important loss term in some systems [6, 23]. Anammox

  14. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

  15. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastes in batch reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H Ergüder; E Güven; G. N Demirer

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of olive oil mill wastes, namely black water and prina, was investigated in batch reactors. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the anaerobic biodegradability of black water and\\/or prina. With these BMP tests the biodegradability of olive mill wastes (OMWs) at different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations and corresponding methane gas productions were investigated.

  16. LOVES CREEK ANAEROBIC, UPFLOW (ANFLOW) PILOT PLANT: PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic filter technology for municipal wastewater treatment has been studied in Knoxville, Tennessee with a 190-m exp 3 /d facility from August 1981 to October 1983. The ORNL project (described by the acronym ANFLOW for the anaerobic, upflow characteristics of the technology) ...

  17. A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Boetius; Katrin Ravenschlag; Carsten J. Schubert; Dirk Rickert; Friedrich Widdel; Armin Gieseke; Rudolf Amann; Bo Barker Jørgensen; Ursula Witte; Olaf Pfannkuche

    2000-01-01

    A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments. Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles, radiotracer experiments and stable carbon isotope data. But the elusive microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is

  18. ANAEROBIC IN-SITU TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ETHENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For chlorinated ethenes anaerobic bacterial remediation designs may prove to be the most cost effective measure available to actually reduce the mass of contamination in-situ. n tight and low yield aquifers, the indigenous anaerobic population may be amenable to stimulation by in...

  19. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary ?-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary ?-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary ?-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary ?-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

  20. Bioreactor performance in anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bouallagui; Y. Touhami; R. Ben Cheikh; M. Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    This work reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion for material recovery and energy production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW). These wastes contain 8–18% total solids (TS), with a total volatile solids (VS) content of 86–92%. The organic fraction includes about 75% easy biodegradable matter (sugars and hemicellulose), 9% cellulose and 5% lignin. Anaerobic digestion of FVW was studied under

  1. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid poultry slaughterhouse waste – a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Salminen; J. Rintala

    2002-01-01

    This work reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion for material recovery and energy production from poultry slaughtering by-products and wastes. First, we describe and quantify organic solid by-products and wastes produced in poultry farming and poultry slaughterhouses and discuss their recovery and disposal options. Then we review certain fundamental aspects of anaerobic digestion considered important for the digestion of solid

  2. Design of Mulch Biowalls for Enhanced In Situ Anaerobic Bioremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce M. Henry; Douglas C. Downey; Daniel R. Griffiths; Matt Krumholz; James R. Gonzales; Erica S. K. Becvar

    The Air Force is demonstrating the use of permeable mulch biowalls for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Biowall trench systems using mulch and compost are intended to provide a long-term carbon source to stimulate anaerobic degradation of contaminants in groundwater over a period of 10 years or more. Biowalls are typically installed in trenches oriented perpendicular to

  3. Recovery after anaerobic metabolism in the leech ( Hirudo medicinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schmidt; I. Zerbst-Boroffka

    1993-01-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis L.) responded to self-induced hypoxia (72 h) with typical anaerobic metabolism characterized by a decrease in adenylate energy charge, utilization of the substrates glycogen and malate, and accumulation of the main anaerobic endproducts succinate and propionate. Propionate was also excreted into the medium. Ammonia excretion was suppressed. Aerobic recovery resulted in a profound O2 debt. Resynthesis

  4. Recent developments in hydrogen management during anaerobic biological wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R. Harper; Frederick G. Pohland

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the microbial kinetics, energetics, and substrate specificities of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems is presented with descriptions of three different state-of-the-art reactor configurations. Each of these reactor systems is intended to enrich different populations of anaerobic acidogens and methanogens as a result of design and operational strategies for control of hydrogen and volatile acids. Imposition of these

  5. Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Barragán, María J. L.; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach. PMID:19258534

  6. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  7. High rate of non-susceptibility to metronidazole and clindamycin in anaerobic isolates: Data from a clinical laboratory from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Sadia Omer; Jabeen, Kauser; Qaiser, Saba; Ahsan, Syed Tanwir; Khan, Erum; Zafar, Afia

    2015-06-01

    Due to increasing resistance amongst anaerobic pathogens periodic surveillance of resistance has been recommended in regional/local settings. Anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not routinely performed in many laboratories in Pakistan, hence absence of local data may lead to inappropriate empirical therapy in serious cases. 121 clinically significant anaerobic strains (26/121; 21% bacteremic isolates) were isolated and saved from 2010 to 2011. Susceptibility testing against metronidazole, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, linezolid and gatifloxacin was performed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A high proportion of non-susceptible strains to metronidazole (10% of 121 isolates) and clindamycin (12% of 121 isolates) was seen, most noticeable in Bacteroides fragilis. Three Bacteroides species strains were non-susceptible to both metronidazole and clindamycin. One strain of Clostridium species was fully resistant to metronidazole and had intermediate resistance to clindamycin. No resistance to any of the other tested antibiotics was seen. Resistance to metronidazole was higher in bacteremic vs. non bacteremic isolates (p = value 0.07). In our setting where there is a high usage of empirical metronidazole and clindamycin for the treatment of serious anaerobic infections clinicians should be aware of increased resistance to these agents. Periodic surveillance of resistance to anti-anaerobic drugs especially metronidazole and clindamycin should be performed to generate antibiogram and guide appropriate empiric therapy. PMID:25800668

  8. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  9. Nocardia infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Nocardia infection is a disorder affecting the lungs, brain, or skin. It occurs mainly in people with weakened immune systems. ... infection should be suspected in people with lung, brain, or skin ... system. Nocardiosis is diagnosed using tests that identify ...

  10. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC or MAI) is a bacterial infection that can cause recurring fevers, general sick feelings, ... See Fact Sheet 517. Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs, and can cause meningitis. ...

  11. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thi Tham Pham

    2002-01-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane

  12. Ultrasonic sludge treatment for enhanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hogan, F; Mormede, S; Clark, P; Crane, M

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound is the term used to describe sound energy at frequencies above 20 kHz. High-powered ultrasound can be applied to a waste stream via purpose-designed tools in order to induce cavitation. This effect results in the rupture of cellular material and reduction of particle size in the waste stream, making the cells more amenable to downstream processing. sonix is a new technology utilising high-powered, concentrated ultrasound for conditioning sludges prior to further treatment. This paper presents recent results from a number of demonstration and full-scale plants treating thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) prior to anaerobic digestion, therefore enhancing the process. The present studies have proved that the use of ultrasound to enhance anaerobic digestion can be achieved at full scale and effectively result in the TWAS (typically difficult to digest) behaving, after sonication, as if it were a "primary" sludge. The technology presents benefits in terms of increased biogas production, better solids reduction, improved dewatering characteristics of the digested sludge mixture and relatively short payback periods of two years or less subject to the site conditions and practices applicable at that time. PMID:15580991

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of nitroglycerin by digester sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulatos, C.; Pal, N.; Bhaumik, S. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States). Center for Environmental Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is an energetic compound primarily present in gun and rocket propellants as a primary explosive. It was also abundantly found in spent wastes from several chemical or pharmaceutical industries and in the wastewater of munitions manufacturing facilities causing significant environmental pollution. Incineration, other thermal processes, and chemical treatment such as acid or alkaline hydrolysis can effectively destroy these high energy compounds but they are associated with high treatment costs. Moreover, chemical processes may generate waste streams which require further treatment prior to their discharge in the environment. There is therefore, a pressing need for the development of new technologies that can economically and effectively deal with the disposal of energetic compounds. Biological treatment of energetic compounds amenable to microbial degradation provides an alternative to costly thermal and chemical methods. NG can be aerobically biodegraded by several fungal and bacterial consortia in the presence of co-substrates. The decomposition proceeds through a number of intermediate products whose formation is catalyzed by extra-cellular enzymes. The anaerobic biodegradation of NG by a mixed bacterial culture from digester sludge was investigated in this study. the study focused on the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade NG and utilize it as sole carbon source, the identification of possible intermediates,and the effect of co-substrates on the rates of transformation.

  14. Isotopic fractionation indicates anaerobic monochlorobenzene biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kaschl, Arno; Vogt, Carsten; Uhlig, Sylvia; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Weiss, Holger; Kästner, Matthias; Richnow, Hans H

    2005-06-01

    The concentration and isotopic composition of monochlorobenzene (MCB) was monitored in the plume of an anaerobic, contaminated aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An enrichment in the carbon isotopic composition of more than 4 delta units was found at the fringes of the plume relative to the center (-26.5 %), suggesting the occurrence of in situ biodegradation of MCB. A similar enrichment was measured in a detailed cross-section of the plume and in depth-specific samples obtained in a multilevel sampling well. The latter samples gave a good correlation of MCB concentrations and respective isotopic composition according to the Rayleigh equation. On the other hand, batch experiments using the aerobic MCB-degrading strains Ralstonia sp. DSM 8910, Acidovorax facilis UFZ B517, Rhodococcus erythropolis UFZ B528, and Pseudomonas veronii UFZ B547 showed that the known aerobic pathway initiated by dioxygenases does not result in a significant isotopic fractionation. Thus, a novel anaerobic pathway resulting in an isotopic fractionation appears to be the predominant process of MCB degradation in this aquifer. The study also clearly demonstrates the usefulness of isotopic fractionation analysis to prove biodegradation directly in the field, even when microcosm studies are not available and a metabolic pathway has not yet been elucidated. PMID:16117106

  15. Detection of Bacterial and Yeast Species with the Bactec 9120 Automated System with Routine Use of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Fungal Media?

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

  16. TORCH infections.

    PubMed

    Neu, Natalie; Duchon, Jennifer; Zachariah, Philip

    2015-03-01

    TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25677998

  17. Transcriptional regulation and energetics of alternative respiratory pathways in facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Unden

    1998-01-01

    The facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli is able to grow by aerobic and by anaerobic respiration. Despite the large difference in the amount of free energy that could maximally be conserved from aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, the proton potential and ?g?Phos are similar under both conditions. O2 represses anaerobic respiration, and nitrate represses fumarate respiration. By this the terminal reductases of

  18. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production Accepted 24 May 2013 Available online Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Ammonia Bioenergy Bioammonia Hydrogen Anaerobic digestion-bioammonia to hydrogen (ADBH) a b s t r a c t During anaerobic digestion, organic matter

  19. Anaerobic biotransformation and methane generation potential of cheese whey in batch and UASB reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H Ergüder; U Tezel; E Güven; G. N Demirer

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of cheese whey were determined in batch reactors. Furthermore, the effect of nutrient and trace metal supplementation on the batch anaerobic treatment, and the high-rate anaerobic treatability of cheese whey in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were investigated. To this purpose biochemical methane potential experiments were conducted and single- and two-stage UASB reactors

  20. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  1. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. PMID:25528544

  2. Anaerobic digestion of tannery waste: semi-continuous and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor processes.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Jemec, A

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of the vast amounts of tannery waste that are currently generated is a significant problem. Anaerobic treatment of different types of tannery waste (fleshings, skin trimmings and wastewater sludge) was investigated. The biochemical methane potential is the same at 37 degrees C or 55 degrees C and an assay of this was shown to be an appropriate screening tool with which to estimate the susceptibility of a substrate to anaerobic digestion. The start-up procedure of a tannery waste thermophilic anaerobic digestion in 100 days using seed from mesophilic digester processing municipal sludge is presented. The specific methane production potential at 55 degrees C is estimated to be 0.617 m(3)kg(-1) of volatile suspended solids for tannery waste sludge, 0.377 m(3)kg(-1) for tannery waste trimmings and 0.649 m(3)kg(-1) for tannery waste fleshings. Additional concerns such as chromium content, salinity and temperature fluctuations were also addressed. Chromium content and salinity showed no adverse effects; however a reactor temperature reduction of 4.4 degrees C led to a drop in biogas production of 25%, indicating a requirement to keep the temperature constant at 55 degrees C. PMID:19699632

  3. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilic acid) by denitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Gibson, D T

    1984-07-01

    In the presence of oxygen many aminoaromatic compounds polymerize to form recalcitrant macromolecules. To circumvent undesirable oxidation reactions, the anaerobic biodegradation of a simple member of this class of compounds was investigated. Two strains of bacteria were isolated which degrade 2-aminobenzoate anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Both organisms, which were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas, oxidized 2-aminobenzoate completely to CO2 and NH4+. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite. When nitrate was deplete from the growth medium the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen. The results establish a model system for the anaerobic, rapid, and complete oxidation of an aminoaromatic compound. PMID:6476825

  4. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  5. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage.

    PubMed

    Aida, Azrina A; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-06-19

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  6. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1989-08-25

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

  7. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a process for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  8. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  9. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  10. Isoflurane increases the anaerobic metabolites of halothane.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Fujii, K; Sato, N; Yuge, O

    1994-01-01

    The effect of isoflurane on the anaerobic metabolism of halothane to chlorodifluoroethene (CDE) and chlorotrifluoroethane (CTE) was studied with microsomes of guinea pig liver by gas chromatography. The reaction mixture used to measure the end products of anaerobic metabolism consisted of a microsomal suspension, 3 mM NADPH, halothane and isoflurane (except in control groups) in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). The Km values for CDE formation were 601.61 +/- 266.91, 254.22 +/- 86.58, 257.92 +/- 129.11, 268.55 +/- 125.66 and 319.22 +/- 86.76 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 5) at 0 mM (0%), 0.12 mM (0.26%), 0.29 mM (0.64%), 0.58 mM (1.30%) and 1.16 mM (2.59%) isoflurane, respectively. The Km values for CTE formation were 1204.74 +/- 551.64, 553.75 +/- 177.89, 521.14 +/- 249.77, 560.67 +/- 229.61 and 711.05 +/- 317.13 microM (n = 5) at 0 mM (0%), 0.12 mM (0.26%), 0.29 mM (0.64%), 0.58 mM (1.30%) and 1.16 mM (2.59%) isoflurane, respectively. In contrast, the Vmax values for CDE and CTE formation at these isoflurane concentrations were not significantly different than in the control groups. In this study the production of CDE and CTE was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by isoflurane, at concentrations up to 0.58 mM (1.30%). PMID:8157869

  11. [Breast infections].

    PubMed

    Merz, L; De Courten, C; Orasch, C

    2014-04-23

    Breast infections such as mastitis and breast abscesses are frequent. They are usually caused by the same microorganisms as those that cause other soft tissue infections. For a simple mastitis, a treatment with antibiotics alone is usually sufficient, whereas drainage is necessary when an abscess is present. While ultrasound-assisted puncture and aspiration is the best approach for breast abscesses of less than 3 cm, surgery is recommended for more extended infection. Infections of breast implants have to be treated applying a mixed surgical-medical approach with removal of the implant (usually in one stage exchange) and antibiotics adapted to the microorganism identified. PMID:24843990

  12. Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1991-07-01

    Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

  13. Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of 1-Chloro-1-fluoroethene To Track

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    observed in CAH-contaminated groundwater, and this limits the usefulness of anaerobic biotransformation of using a surrogate compound in situ is that a unique identification of biotransformation is possible even

  14. Biotransformation of phytosterols under anoxic and anaerobic conditions

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    Biotransformation of phytosterols under anoxic and anaerobic conditions Methods Phytosterol intermediate of phytosterol biotransformation. Dehydrogenases and isomerases have previously been reported and Technology IPST Executive Conference, April 18, 2013 Objective The potential for biotransformation of three

  15. INCREASE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS FOLLOWING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled ?Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges?. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bac...

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF POLLUTANT CHEMICALS IN AQUIFERS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic microbial communities sampled from either a methanogenic or sulfate-reducing aquifer site have been tested for their ability to degrade a variety of groundwater pollutants, including halogenated aromatic compounds, simple alkyl phenols and tetrachloroethylene. The haloa...

  17. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  18. Hydrogenosomes: convergent adaptations of mitochondria to anaerobic environments.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, J H; Akhmanova, A; Voncken, F; van Hoek, A; van Alen, T; Boxma, B; Moon-van der Staay, S Y; van der Staay, G; Leunissen, J; Huynen, M; Rosenberg, J; Veenhuis, M

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are membrane-bound organelles that compartmentalise the final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did the hydrogenosomes originate, and what was their ancestor? Notably, there is strong evidence that hydrogenosomes evolved several times as adaptations to anaerobic environments. Most likely, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria share a common ancestor, but an unequivocal proof for this hypothesis is difficult because hydrogenosomes lack an organelle genome - with one remarkable exception (Nyctotherus ovalis). In particular, the diversity of extant hydrogenosomes hampers a straightforward analysis of their origins. Nevertheless, it is conceivable to postulate that the common ancestor of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes was a facultative anaerobic organelle that participated in the early radiation of unicellular eukaryotes. Consequently, it is reasonable to assume that both, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria are evolutionary adaptations to anaerobic or aerobic environments, respectively. PMID:16351844

  19. Siderophore Production by Pseudomonas stutzeri under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Essén, Sofia A.; Johnsson, Anna; Bylund, Dan; Pedersen, Karsten; Lundström, Ulla S.

    2007-01-01

    The siderophore production of the facultative anaerobe Pseudomonas stutzeri, strain CCUG 36651, grown under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The bacterial strain has been isolated at a 626-m depth at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, where experiments concerning the geological disposal of nuclear waste are performed. In bacterial culture extracts, the iron in the siderophore complexes was replaced by gallium to facilitate siderophore identification by mass spectrometry. P. stutzeri was shown to produce ferrioxamine E (nocardamine) as the main siderophore together with ferrioxamine G and two cyclic ferrioxamines having molecular masses 14 and 28 atomic mass units lower than that of ferrioxamine E, suggested to be ferrioxamine D2 and ferrioxamine X1, respectively. In contrast, no siderophores were observed from anaerobically grown P. stutzeri. None of the siderophores produced by aerobically grown P. stutzeri were found in anaerobic natural water samples from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. PMID:17675442

  20. [Evaluation for anaerobic culture system: Anoxomat Mart II].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuji; Sasaki, Hiromi; Furuhata, Yukie; Tazawa, Yoko; Horiuchi, Hajime; Okada, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Anoxomat Mart II (Mart Microbiology BV, Lichtenvooorde, Netherlands, Central Scientific Commerce Inc., Tokyo, Japan) is an anaerobic jar apparatus which uses a vacuum pump in combination with catalyst as gas replacement procedure to remove all traces of oxygen. As we had a chance to use Anoxomat Mart II, we compared it with other two anaerobic culture methods; namely AnaeroPack anaero (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Tokyo, Japan) which employs anaerobic jar method, and Concept400 (RUSKINN TECHNOLOGY LTD, England; Central Scientific Commerce INc., Tokyo, Japan) which uses anaerobic chamber method. We used 10 different species of anaerobic bacteria obtained from ATCC. One strain each of 10 species was cultured and examined for measurement of the sensitibity of an anaerobic indicator, th number of bacteria after 48 hour culture, the diameter of colonies, and MIC value. As a result, the time to reach the anaerobic condition was around 30 minutes by the Mart II against around 60 minutes by the AnaeroPack anaero. There was no difference concerning the number of bacteria after 48 hour culture among three methods. But anaerobic bacteria cultured by Mart II tended to make bigger colonies compared to other two methods in the 5 strains out of 9, except for one strain in which the diameter of colonies could not be measured. On the other hand, the comparison of MIC value showed good correlation in 11 antibiotics out of 12 among three methods. The MIC value of 11 antibiotics fitted within 1-fold difference, and 2-fold difference was observed in only one antibiotic. Mart II is so small that it does cheep consumables. From these reasons, we concluded that Mart II can be one of the useful anerobic culture methods. PMID:17803362

  1. ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION IN MICROCOSMS OF TWO SANDY SOILS.

    PubMed

    Stremi?ska, M A; Runia, W T; Termorshuizen, A J; Feil, H; Van Der Wurff, A W G

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been proposed as an alternative control method of soil-borne plant pathogens. It involves adding a labile carbon source, irrigating the soil to stimulate decomposition of organic material and then covering the soil with air-tight plastic to limit gas exchange. During the ASD process, soil microorganisms switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. As a result, by-products of anaerobic metabolism are released into the soil environment such as various organic acids and gases. These by-products are reported to have a negative effect on survival of soil-borne plant pathogens. However, the efficacy of ASD to reduce soil-borne pathogens in practice may vary significantly. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of the ASD process in two different soils. In addition, it was investigated whether a pre-treatment with an anaerobic bacterial inoculum prior to ASD affected the efficacy of the process. Two sandy soils (dune sand and glacial sand) were inoculated in 2 L soil microcosms. We tested the efficacy of ASD treatment against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. For each soil, three treatments were used: control treatment (no Herbie addition, aerobic incubation), ASD 1 (organic substrate addition, anaerobic incubation) and ASD 2 (organic substrate and anaerobic bacterial inoculum addition, anaerobic incubation). Soil microcosms were incubated in the dark at 20°C for two weeks. We observed that anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were highly effective against Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN), with pathogen being eradicated totally in all but one ASD treatment (glacial sand ASD2) within two weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (spore-forming bacteria, often fermentative) in total bacteria increased significantly in ASD treated soils. Numbers of these bacteria correlated positively with increased concentrations of acetic and butyric acids in soil water phase in ASD treatments. PMID:26084078

  2. Apparatus for the anaerobic digestion of natural organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, D.L.; Horton, R.; Stafford, D.A.

    1980-11-11

    The title system consists of a feed tank, from which sewage is provided to a digester tank at an adjustable continuous weight, in which the sewage is anaerobically digested. The gas produced in the anaerobic digester is collected at the top and pumped to a diffuser at the bottom of the digester. The supernatent from the treated sewage is transferred to an outlet tank, and sludge is removed from the bottom of the digester tank.

  3. Kinetic Characteristics of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation, Methanogensis and Denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zu; Xiangchao Liu; Daijun Zhang; Qingwei Yang

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, methanogenesis and denitrification inoculated with the granular sludge from EGSB reactor, in which they were integrated, were investigated by batch experiment,respectively. For anaerobic ammonium oxidation ,the kinetic parameters :the maximum NH + 4-N (mg\\/MLSS.h) reaction rate was 6.65×10 -3 mg\\/mg.h, the NH + 4-N half saturate coefficient were 87.1 mg \\/L and the

  4. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors for wastewater treatment: a developing technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaiat; J. A. D. Rodrigues; S. M. Ratusznei; E. F. M. de Camargo; W. Borzani

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the main problems related to anaerobic batch and fed-batch processes for wastewater treatment.\\u000a A critical analysis of the literature evaluated the industrial application viability and proposed alternatives to improve\\u000a operation and control of this system. Two approaches were presented in order to make this anaerobic discontinuous process\\u000a feasible for industrial application: (1) optimization of the

  5. Effect of yoga on aerobic and anaerobic power of muscles.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, B; Pansare, M S

    1991-10-01

    Aerobic Power (VO2 max) and anaerobic power were estimated in medical students before and after six weeks of yogic training. A significant increase in aerobic power and a significant decrease in anaerobic power was observed. This may be due to conversion of some of the Fast Twitch (F.T.) muscle fibres into Slow Twitch fibres (S.T.) during yogic training. PMID:1812108

  6. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities. PMID:20228115

  7. Anaerobic Carbon Metabolism by the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 1

    PubMed Central

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C.; Horsey, Anne K.; Weger, Harold G.; Turpin, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited cells of Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins are able to assimilate NH4+ in the dark under anaerobic conditions. Addition of NH4+ to anaerobic cells results in a threefold increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCAC) CO2 efflux and an eightfold increase in the rate of anaplerotic carbon fixation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Both of these observations are consistent with increased TCAC carbon flow to supply intermediates for amino acid biosynthesis. Addition of H14CO3? to anaerobic cells assimilating NH4+ results in the incorporation of radiolabel into the ?-carboxyl carbon of glutamic acid. Incorporation of radiolabel into glutamic acid is not simply a short-term phenomenon following NH4+ addition as the specific activity of glutamic acid increases over time. This indicates that this alga is able to maintain partial oxidative TCAC carbon flow while under anoxia to supply ?-ketoglutarate for glutamate production. During dark aerobic NH4+ assimilation, no radiolabel appears in fumarate or succinate and only a small amount occurs in malate. During anaerobic NH4+ assimilation, these metabolites contain a large proportion of the total radiolabel and radiolabel accumulates in succinate over time. Also, the ratio of dark carbon fixation to NH4+ assimilation is much higher under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. These observations suggest the operation of a partial reductive TCAC from oxaloacetic acid to malate, fumarate, and succinate. Such a pathway might contribute to redox balance in an anaerobic cell maintaining partial oxidative TCAC activity. PMID:16667215

  8. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation. PMID:25397976

  9. Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. A total of 2315 proteins were identified. Further analysis based on spectral counting clearly localized 606 of these proteins to the chloroplast, including many proteins of the fermentative metabolism. Comparative quantitative analyses were performed with the chloroplast-localized proteins using stable isotopic labeling of amino acids ([13C6]arginine/[12C6]arginine in an arginine auxotrophic strain). The quantitative data confirmed proteins previously characterized as induced at the transcript level as well as identified several new proteins of unknown function induced under anaerobic conditions. These proteins of unknown function provide new candidates for further investigation, which could bring insights for the engineering of hydrogen-producing alga strains. PMID:20190198

  10. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes. PMID:23668159

  11. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation via Phenol in Geobacter metallireducens

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Smith, Jessica A.; Bain, Timothy S.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic activation of benzene is expected to represent a novel biochemistry of environmental significance. Therefore, benzene metabolism was investigated in Geobacter metallireducens, the only genetically tractable organism known to anaerobically degrade benzene. Trace amounts (<0.5 ?M) of phenol accumulated in cultures of Geobacter metallireducens anaerobically oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide with the reduction of Fe(III). Phenol was not detected in cell-free controls or in Fe(II)- and benzene-containing cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a Geobacter species that cannot metabolize benzene. The phenol produced in G. metallireducens cultures was labeled with 18O during growth in H218O, as expected for anaerobic conversion of benzene to phenol. Analysis of whole-genome gene expression patterns indicated that genes for phenol metabolism were upregulated during growth on benzene but that genes for benzoate or toluene metabolism were not, further suggesting that phenol was an intermediate in benzene metabolism. Deletion of the genes for PpsA or PpcB, subunits of two enzymes specifically required for the metabolism of phenol, removed the capacity for benzene metabolism. These results demonstrate that benzene hydroxylation to phenol is an alternative to carboxylation for anaerobic benzene activation and suggest that this may be an important metabolic route for benzene removal in petroleum-contaminated groundwaters, in which Geobacter species are considered to play an important role in anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:24096430

  12. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, M. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)], E-mail: matilde.lopez@cnic.edu.cu; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  13. Anaerobic propane oxidation in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quistad, Steven D.; Valentine, David L.

    2011-04-01

    Propane (C 3H 8) is an abundant hydrocarbon in subsurface reservoirs with significance to atmospheric chemistry and to marine biogeochemistry. The anaerobic oxidation of propane coupled to sulfate reduction may prevent sub-seafloor accumulations of propane from entering the ocean and atmosphere. Anaerobic oxidation of propane has recently been demonstrated in cultures of novel sulfate-reducing bacteria, but has not been directly demonstrated or quantified in nature. In this work we describe a method involving incubation with 13C-propane to quantify rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane in anoxic sediment, and we conclusively demonstrate the oxidation of propane under sulfidic conditions in fresh sediments of a marine hydrocarbon seep. Observed rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane adhere to first-order kinetic behavior, enabling the modification of this method for whole core rate determinations. Whole core rates in nine cores from two hydrocarbon seeps measured 0.04-2100 nmoles C 3H 8 cm -3 day -1 by this method. The seep persistently supplied with more propane displayed substantially higher rates of anaerobic oxidation of propane, by 1-2 orders of magnitude when averaged over the top 10-cm, suggesting the development of the microbial community is strongly modulated by the availability of propane. This work is the first to estimate rates for anaerobic oxidation of propane in any environment, and demonstrates the potential importance of the process as a filter for preventing propane from entering the ocean and atmosphere.

  14. FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in the light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Septer, Alecia N.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Dunn, Anne K.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri induces both anaerobic respiration and bioluminescence during symbiotic infection. In many bacteria, the oxygen-sensitive regulator FNR activates anaerobic respiration, and a preliminary study using the light-generating lux genes from V. fischeri MJ1 cloned in Escherichia coli suggested that FNR stimulates bioluminescence. To test for FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in V. fischeri, we generated fnr mutants of V. fischeri strains MJ1 and ES114. In both strains, FNR was required for normal fumarate- and nitrate-dependent respiration. However, contrary to the report in transgenic E. coli, FNR mediated repression of lux. ArcA represses bioluminescence, and ParcA-lacZ reporters showed reduced expression in fnr mutants, suggesting a possible indirect effect of FNR on bioluminescence via arcA. Finally, the fnr mutant of ES114 was not impaired in colonization of its host squid, Euprymna scolopes. This study extends characterization of FNR to the Vibrionaceae and underscores the importance of studying lux regulation in its native background. PMID:20298504

  15. Odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) inhibits growth and migration of human melanoma cells and elicits PTEN elevation and inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Odontogenic Ameloblast-associated Protein (ODAM) is expressed in a wide range of normal epithelial, and neoplastic tissues, and we have posited that ODAM serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for breast cancer and melanoma. Transfection of ODAM into breast cancer cells yields suppression of cellular growth, motility, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Herein we have extended these studies to the effects of ODAM on cultured melanoma cell lines. Methods The A375 and C8161 melanoma cell lines were stably transfected with ODAM and assayed for properties associated with tumorigenicity including cell growth, motility, and extracellular matrix adhesion. In addition, ODAM–transfected cells were assayed for signal transduction via AKT which promotes cell proliferation and survival in many neoplasms. Results ODAM expression in A375 and C8161 cells strongly inhibited cell growth and motility in vitro, increased cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, and yielded significant cytoskeletal/morphologic rearrangement. Furthermore, AKT activity was downregulated by ODAM expression while an increase was noted in expression of the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor gene, an antagonist of AKT activation. Increased PTEN in ODAM-expressing cells was associated with increases in PTEN mRNA levels and de novo protein synthesis. Silencing of PTEN expression yielded recovery of AKT activity in ODAM-expressing melanoma cells. Similar PTEN elevation and inhibition of AKT by ODAM was observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells while ODAM expression had no effect in PTEN-deficient BT-549 breast cancer cells. Conclusions The apparent anti-neoplastic effects of ODAM in cultured melanoma and breast cancer cells are associated with increased PTEN expression, and suppression of AKT activity. This association should serve to clarify the clinical import of ODAM expression and any role it may serve as an indicator of tumor behavior. PMID:23648148

  16. Odontogenic Ameloblast-associated Protein (ODAM) Mediates Junctional Epithelium Attachment to Teeth via Integrin-ODAM-Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 5 (ARHGEF5)-RhoA Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Kyung; Ji, Suk; Park, Su-Jin; Choung, Han-Wool; Choi, Youngnim; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Park, Shin-Young; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2015-06-01

    Adhesion of the junctional epithelium (JE) to the tooth surface is crucial for maintaining periodontal health. Although odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) is expressed in the JE, its molecular functions remain unknown. We investigated ODAM function during JE development and regeneration and its functional significance in the initiation and progression of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. ODAM was expressed in the normal JE of healthy teeth but absent in the pathologic pocket epithelium of diseased periodontium. In periodontitis and peri-implantitis, ODAM was extruded from the JE following onset with JE attachment loss and detected in gingival crevicular fluid. ODAM induced RhoA activity and the expression of downstream factors, including ROCK (Rho-associated kinase), by interacting with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 (ARHGEF5). ODAM-mediated RhoA signaling resulted in actin filament rearrangement. Reduced ODAM and RhoA expression in integrin ?3- and ?6-knockout mice revealed that cytoskeleton reorganization in the JE occurred via integrin-ODAM-ARHGEF5-RhoA signaling. Fibronectin and laminin activated RhoA signaling via the integrin-ODAM pathway. Finally, ODAM was re-expressed with RhoA in regenerating JE after gingivectomy in vivo. These results suggest that ODAM expression in the JE reflects a healthy periodontium and that JE adhesion to the tooth surface is regulated via fibronectin/laminin-integrin-ODAM-ARHGEF5-RhoA signaling. We also propose that ODAM could be used as a biomarker of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25911094

  17. Norovirus Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include fever, headache or body aches. Treatment includes bed rest and lots of liquids to prevent dehydration. There is no specific medicine to treat norovirus infections. Proper hand washing and safe food preparation may help prevent infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  18. [Intrauterine infections].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2006-09-10

    A broad variety of microorganisms are capable of causing fetal infections. Among viral agents prominent are the human cytomegaly virus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immundeficiency virus (HIV), varicella, herpes zooster, rubella, parvovirus B19, measles and the hepatitis B and C viruses. Protozoa such as toxoplasma and spirocheta pallida, causing congenital syphilis are equally important. Bacterial infections are responsible for in uterus aquired listeriosis, tuberculosis, and group B streptococcus infections. Fungi including candida albicans complete the circle of infections pathogens. Infectious microrganisms may reach the fetus through the placenta are may ascend through the birth canal. The quoted pathological agents threaten the health and life of the fetus directly by the biological derangements they cause and also by inducing abortion or premature birth. The clinical manifestations include retarded growth, central nervous system damage and skin lesions. The invariable therapeutic measures vary but in general, are limited value in cases of in utero acquired infections. PMID:17087016

  19. Glycogen accumulating population and its anaerobic substrate uptake in anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge without biological phosphorus removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Tso Liu; Takashi Mino; Kazunori Nakamura; Tomonori Matsuo

    1996-01-01

    The presence of a glycogen accumulating population and its abilities of substrate uptake and storage in anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge fed with mainly acetate were investigated. Because a low phosphorus\\/carbon feeding ratio (2\\/100, wt\\/wt) was used to suppress the growth of polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria, the sludge exhibited no biological phosphorus removal activity. Still, under anaerobic conditions, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, pyruvate, lactate,

  20. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, H; Bouallagui, H; Okbi, A; Sayadi, S; Hamdi, M

    2009-10-15

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/Ld in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/Ld led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates. PMID:19501962

  1. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Sheldon; M. Bushnell; J. Montgomery; A. N. Rycroft

    2004-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin\\/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and\\/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin

  2. Hydrogen production from rice winery wastewater in an upflow anaerobic reactor by using mixed anaerobic cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanqing Yu; Zhenhu Zhu; Wenrong Hu; Haisheng Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Continuous production of hydrogen from the anaerobic acidogenesis of a high-strength rice winery wastewater by a mixed bacterial flora was demonstrated. The experiment was conducted in a 3.0-l upflow reactor to investigate individual effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2–24h), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in wastewater (14–36g COD\\/l), pH (4.5–6.0) and temperature (20–55°C) on bio-hydrogen production from the wastewater.

  3. Infection of total hip prostheses by Peptococcus magnus: an immunofluorescence and ELISA study of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A G; Fincham, W J; Golding, M A; Cook, J

    1979-01-01

    In two cases of infected total hip replacements, Peptococcus magnus was isolated in pure culture from the implant when it was removed. Fluorescent antibody and ELISA studies have shown that both patients developed an antibody response to this anaerobic coccus soon after the replacement operation. These results suggest that the organism is a true infective agent, which was probably responsible for the failure of the arthroplasty operation. PMID:372250

  4. Antibody-catalyzed anaerobic destruction of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Hixon, Mark S; Yamamoto, Noboru; McAllister, Laura A; Wentworth, Anita D; Wentworth, Paul; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    Methamphetamine [(+)-2] abuse has emerged as a fast-rising global epidemic, with immunopharmacotherapeutic approaches being sought for its treatment. Herein, we report the generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody, YX1-40H10, that catalyzes the photooxidation of (+)-2 into the nonpsychoactive compound benzaldehyde (14) under anaerobic conditions in the presence of riboflavin (6). Studies have revealed that the antibody facilitates the conversion of (+)-2 into 14 by binding the triplet photoexcited state of 6 in proximity to (+)-2. The antibody binds riboflavin (K(d) = 180 muM), although this was not programmed into hapten design, and the YX1-40H10-catalyzed reaction is inhibited by molecular oxygen via the presumed quenching of the photoexcited triplet state of 6. Given that this reaction is another highlight in the processing of reactive intermediates by antibodies, we speculate that this process may have future significance in vivo with programmed immunoglobulins that use flavins as cofactors to destroy selectable molecular targets under hypoxic or even anoxic conditions. PMID:17360412

  5. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  6. Anaerobic Degradation of Flavonoids by Clostridium orbiscindens

    PubMed Central

    Schoefer, Lilian; Mohan, Ruchika; Schwiertz, Andreas; Braune, Annett; Blaut, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An anaerobic, quercetin-degrading bacterium was isolated from human feces and identified as Clostridium orbiscindens by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The organism was tested for its ability to transform several flavonoids. The isolated C. orbiscindens strain converted quercetin and taxifolin to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; luteolin and eriodictyol to 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid; and apigenin, naringenin, and phloretin to 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, respectively. Genistein and daidzein were not utilized. The glycosidic bonds of luteolin-3-glucoside, luteolin-5-glucoside, naringenin-7-neohesperidoside (naringin), quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin), and phloretin-2?-glucoside were not cleaved. Based on the intermediates and products detected, pathways for the degradation of the flavonol quercetin and the flavones apigenin and luteolin are proposed. To investigate the numerical importance of C. orbiscindens in the human intestinal tract, a species-specific oligonucleotide probe was designed and tested for its specificity. Application of the probe to fecal samples from 10 human subjects proved the presence of C. orbiscindens in 8 out of the 10 samples tested. The numbers ranged from 1.87 × 108 to 2.50 × 109 cells g of fecal dry mass?1, corresponding to a mean count of 4.40 × 108 cells g of dry feces?1. PMID:14532034

  7. Corrosion of mild steel under anaerobic biofilm

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Characklis, W.G. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Corrosion of mild steel under completely anaerobic conditions in the presence of a mixed population biofilm, including sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), has been studied in a continuous flow system. The closed channel flow reactor was continuously fed with low concentration substrate at different dilution rates that influenced biofilm accumulation. No direct correlation was observed between corrosion and SRB activity in the absence of ferrous iron. Furthermore, corrosion of mild steel in the SRB environment was determined by the nature of the metal and environmental conditions such as dissolved iron concentration. When formation of an iron sulfide film on mild steel was prevented before the biofilm accumulated, the metal surface retained its scratch lines after a 21-day experiment (SRB at 2.6 [times] 10[sup 9]/cm[sup 2]). However, when the iron sulfide film was formed before the accumulation of biofilm, visible localized corrosion appeared after 14 days and increased up to 21 days. Intergranular and pitting attack was found in the localized corrosion area. Inclusions (Al, Mn, and Fe) and grain boundary triple points were also found in the localized corrosion area. At high iron concentration (approximately 60 mg/l in the bulk water), all biogenic sulfide was precipitated and corrosion had significantly enhanced. Intergranular attack was found over the entire metal surface.

  8. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, Lars; Ahring, Birgitte Kioer

    2003-01-01

    At the start of the new millennium waste management has become a political priority in many countries. One of the main problems today is to cope with an increasing amount of primary waste in an environmentally acceptable way. Biowastes, i.e., municipal, agricultural or industrial organic waste, as well as contaminated soils etc., have traditionally been deposited in landfills or even dumped into the sea or lakes without much environmental concern. In recent times, environmental standards of waste incineration and controlled land filling have gradually improved, and new methods of waste sorting and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling and incineration of organic waste has become less desirable, and legislation, both in Europe and elsewhere, tends to favor biological treatment as a way of recycling minerals and nutrients of organic wastes from society back to the food production and supply chain. Removing the relatively wet organic waste from the general waste streams also results in a better calorific value of the remainder for incineration, and a more stable fraction for land filling. PMID:12747564

  9. Anaerobic nitrate reductase (narGHJI) activity of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in vitro and its contribution to virulence in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Weber, I; Fritz, C; Ruttkowski, S; Kreft, A; Bange, F C

    2000-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis cause tuberculosis, which is responsible for the deaths of more people each year than any other bacterial infectious disease. Disseminated disease with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis, occurs in immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals. Although mycobacteria are obligate aerobes, they are thought to face an anaerobic environment during infection, notably inside abscesses and granulomas. The purpose of this study was to define a metabolic pathway that could allow mycobacteria to exist under these conditions. Recently, the complete genome of M. tuberculosis has been sequenced, and genes homologous to an anaerobic nitrate reductase (narGHJI), an enzyme allowing nitrate respiration when oxygen is absent, were found. Here, we show that the narGHJI cluster of M. tuberculosis is functional as it conferred anaerobic nitrate reductase activity to Mycobacterium smegmatis. A narG mutant of M. bovis BCG was generated by targeted gene deletion. The mutant lacked the ability to reduce nitrate under anaerobic conditions. Both mutant and M. bovis BCG wild type grew equally well under aerobic conditions in vitro. Histology of immunodeficient mice (SCID) infected with M. bovis BCG wild type revealed large granulomas teeming with acid-fast bacilli; all mice showed signs of clinical disease after 50 days and succumbed after 80 days. In contrast, mice infected with the mutant had smaller granulomas containing fewer bacteria; these mice showed no signs of clinical disease after more than 200 days. Thus, it seems that nitrate respiration contributes significantly to virulence of M. bovis BCG in immunodeficient SCID mice. PMID:10712684

  10. The treatment of diabetic foot infections: focus on ertapenem

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, 3 distinct stages of diabetic foot infection may be recognized: localized infection, spreading infection and severe infection. Each of these presentations may be complicated by osteomyelitis. Infection can be caused by Gram-positive aerobic, and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, singly or in combination. The underlying principles are to diagnose infection, culture the bacteria responsible and treat aggressively with antibiotic therapy. Localized infections with limited cellulitis can generally be treated with oral antibiotics on an outpatient basis. Spreading infection should be treated with systemic antibiotics. Severe deep infections need urgent admission to hospital for wide-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Clinical and microbiological response rates have been similar in trials of various antibiotics and no single agent or combination has emerged as most effective. Recently, clinical and microbiological outcomes for patients treated with ertapenem were equivalent to those for patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam. It is also important to judge the need for debridement and surgery, to assess the arterial supply to the foot and consider revascularization either by angioplasty or bypass if the foot is ischemic. It is also important to achieve metabolic control. Thus infection in the diabetic foot needs full multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:19997576

  11. Anaerobic mesophilic treatment of cattle manure in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with prior pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Marañón, Elena; Castrillón, Leonor; Fernández, Juan José; Fernández, Yolanda; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Different autonomous communities located in northern Spain have large populations of dairy cattle. In the case of Asturias, the greatest concentration of dairy farms is found in the areas near the coast, where the elimination of cattle manure by means of its use as a fertilizer may lead to environmental problems. The aim of the present research work was to study the anaerobic treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure at mesophilic temperature using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor combined with a settler after a pasteurization process at 70 degrees C for 2 hr. The manure used in this study came from two different farms, with 40 and 200 cows, respectively. The manure from the smaller farm was pretreated in the laboratory by filtration through a 1-mm mesh, and the manure from the other farm was pretreated on the farm by filtration through a separator screw press (0.5-mm mesh). The pasteurization process removed the pathogenic microorganisms lacking spores, such as Enterococcus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and coliforms, but bacterial spores are only reduced by this treatment, not removed. The combination of a UASB reactor and a settler proved to be effective for the treatment of cattle manure. In spite of the variation in the organic loading rate and total solids in the influent during the experiment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent from the settler remained relatively constant, obtaining reductions in the COD of approximately 85%. PMID:16568796

  12. Evaluation of PCB dechlorination pathways in anaerobic sediment microcosms using an anaerobic dechlorination model.

    PubMed

    Demirtepe, Hale; Kjellerup, Birthe; Sowers, Kevin R; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2015-10-15

    A detailed quantitative analysis of anaerobic dechlorination (AD) pathways of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment microcosms was performed by applying an anaerobic dechlorination model (ADM). The purpose of ADM is to systematically analyze changes in a contaminant profile that result from microbial reductive dechlorination according to empirically determined dechlorination pathways. In contrast to prior studies that utilized modeling tools to predict dechlorination pathways, ADM also provides quantification of individual pathways. As only microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs occurred in the modeled laboratory microcosms, extensive analysis of AD pathways was possible without the complicating effect of concurrent physico-chemical or other weathering mechanisms. The results from this study showed: (1) ninety three AD pathways are active; (2) tetra- to hepta-chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners were common intermediates in several AD pathways, penta-CBs being the most frequently observed; (3) the highest rates of dechlorination were for penta-CB homologs during the initial 185 days; (4) the dominant terminal products of AD were PCB 32(26-4), 49(24-25), 51(24-26), 52(25-25), 72(25-35), 73(26-35) and 100(246-24), (5) potential toxicity of the sediment was reduced. ADM serves as a powerful tool not only for a thorough analysis of AD pathways, but also for providing necessary input for numerical fate models (as a degradation term) that investigate dechlorination products or outcome of natural attenuation, or bioremediation/bioaugmentation of PCB-impacted sediments. PMID:25913678

  13. Retention and transport of an anaerobic trichloroethene dechlorinating microbial culture in anaerobic porous media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The influence of solution chemistry on microbial transport was examined using the strictly anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) bioaugmentation culture KB-1(®). A column was employed to determine transport behaviors and deposition kinetics of three distinct functional species in KB-1(®), Dehalococcoides, Geobacter, and Methanomethylovorans, over a range of ionic strengths under a well-controlled anaerobic condition. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to enumerate cell concentration and complementary techniques were implemented to evaluate cell surface electrokinetic potentials. Solution chemistry was found to positively affect the deposition rates, which was consistent with calculated Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies. Retained microbial profiles showed spatially constant colloid deposition rate coefficients, in agreement with classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). It was interesting to note that the three KB-1(®) species displayed similar transport and retention behaviors under the defined experimental conditions despite their different cell electrokinetic properties. A deeper analysis of cell characteristics showed that factors, such as cell size and shape, concentration, and motility were involved in determining adhesion behavior. PMID:25935560

  14. Staph Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Staph Skin Infection? Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are everywhere. Many healthy people carry staph bacteria without getting ... Make sure to wash the towel in hot water afterwards or use disposable towels. What Can I ...

  15. Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stolman, Lewis P.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses recognition and management of eight common primary infections of the mouth: thrush, perlèche, warts, necrotizing gingivitis, aphthous ulcers, herpes simplex, herpangina and syphilis. PMID:21308082

  16. Giardia Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be on surfaces that have been contaminated with waste. You can become infected if you swallow the ... water that may be contaminated. You should also peel or wash fresh fruit and vegetables before eating. ...

  17. Shigella Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your hands before touching other people and before handling food. (Anyone with a diarrhea should not prepare food ... should be kept away from other kids. Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. Cold foods ...

  18. Hand Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spread to others. Necrotizing Fasciitis, or “Flesh-Eating Bacteria” Necrotizing fasciitis is a very rare but severe infection. Streptococcus pyogenes or other “flesh-eating bacteria” enter the body through a cut. Bacteria toxins ...

  19. Cytomegalovirus Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need treatment. If you have a weakened immune system, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine. Good hygiene, including proper hand washing, may help prevent infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  20. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  1. Campylobacter infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Giardia infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  3. Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886

  4. Osteomyelitis of the mandible

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, K.H.; Shapiro, R.D.; Stiernberg, C.M.; Calhoun, J.H.; Mader, J.T.

    1988-10-01

    The presenting characteristics and clinical courses of 60 patients with mandibular bone infections are described. Fifteen of the patients had posttraumatic osteomyelitis, 13 had odontogenic osteomyelitis, and 28 had osteoradionecrosis. Most infections (93%) were polymicrobial, and anaerobes played an important role. Types of surgical procedures and use of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen are described. There were minimal differences in presentation or response to treatment between these four different groups. A clinical staging system for mandibular bone infections is proposed and results of treatment are retrospectively analyzed by stage. The results support the concept that initial treatment planning can be safely and successfully based on the stage of the disease.

  5. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands); Haandel, A.C. Vaan [Federal Univ. of Paraiba, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  6. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H. Jr.; Earley, J.P.; Shen, Yutao.

    1989-09-01

    The work proposed is a laboratory investigation of the AnSBR (Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors) for treatment of a synthetic coal conversion wastewater. Two different strategies will be pursued. First, an AnSBR will be operated to simulate the Anaerobic Up-flow Sludge Blanket Reactor in an attempt to develop a readily settleable granular sludge. Second, operating strategies will be sought to optimize treatment, without attempting to develop settleable granular sludge. These systems will require development of more elaborate decanting mechanisms, probably including use of tube settler technology. We will use: (1) screening tests to identify compounds which are amenable to anaerobic degradation; (2) to determine those which are toxic or have an inhibitory effect; and (3) to identify the dilution required to achieve anaerobic degradation of the synthetic waste water; acclimation tests of organisms collected from different sources to the synthetic coal conversion wastewater; and Automatic Laboratory AnSBR studies. A 4-liter reactor will be operated to maintain a settleable granular anaerobic sludge when treating the synthetic coal conversion wastewater. 72 refs., 238 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Use of Presumpto Plates to identify anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, D N; Wiggs, L S; Miller, P H; Srivastava, P U; Miller, J M

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic bacteria requires special media and growth conditions that contribute to a higher cost per identification than that for aerobic isolates. Newer rapid methods streamline the identification process, but confirmation to the species level is often difficult. The Presumpto Plate method for the identification of commonly encountered anaerobes consists of three quadrant plates, each containing four conventional media, that result in the generation of 21 test parameters: growth on Lombard-Dowell medium; production of indole, indole derivative, catalase, lecithinase, and lipase; proteolysis of milk, H2S, and esculin; growth on 20% bile; precipitate on bile; DNase, glucose, casein, starch, and gelatin hydrolysis; and fermentation of lactose, mannitol, and rhamnose. Identification charts were developed by using the results from 2,300 anaerobic isolates. Because conventional media were used, there was a high degree of agreement between the Presumpto Plate method and the reference method when testing commonly encountered anaerobes. The Presumpto Plate method is as accurate as commercially available enzyme systems for the identification of many anaerobic species but is less expensive to perform. PMID:7615728

  8. Mechanisms of resistance in anaerobes and new developments in testing.

    PubMed

    Finegold, S M

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria currently demonstrate increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, primarily by the production of beta-lactamase. A number of species of Bacteroides, most notably those in the Bacteroides fragilis group, produce these enzymes. A few species of Fusobacterium and Clostridium produce beta-lactamase as well. Fortunately, this mechanism of resistance is readily overcome by administering beta-lactamase inhibitors coupled with a beta-lactam antibiotic that would otherwise be inactivated. Other types of resistance encountered in anaerobic bacteria include inactivating enzymes such as chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, plasmid-mediated transferable multiple-drug resistance, changes in porin molecules in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell, decreased uptake of drug by other mechanisms, changes in the target organs such as penicillin-binding proteins, and decreased reduction of the antibiotic to an active intermediate product. In many institutions, certain drugs such as cefoxitin, clindamycin, and piperacillin, which were previously active against almost all strains of B. fragilis, are now effective against only 70 to 85% of this group of anaerobes. Drugs with essentially 100% activity against most anaerobic bacteria include chloramphenicol, imipenem, metronidazole, and the combinations of a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a beta-lactamase inhibitor such as ampicillin plus sulbactam and amoxicillin or ticarcillin combined with sodium clavulanate. This paper also discusses the indications for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobes as well as problems encountered with testing techniques that are currently being used. PMID:2686914

  9. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  10. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 ?g g(-1) of copper, 487 ?g g(-1) of lead, 793 ?g g(-1) of zinc, 27 ?g g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 ?g g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  11. Anaerobic and Aerobic Performance of Elite Female and Male Snowboarders

    PubMed Central

    ?ebrowska, Aleksandra; ?y?a, Dorota; Kania, Damian; Langfort, Józef

    2012-01-01

    The physiological adaptation to training is specific to the muscle activity, dominant energy system involved, muscle groups trained, as well as intensity and volume of training. Despite increasing popularity of snowboarding only little scientific data is available on the physiological characteristics of female and male competitive snowboarders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic capacity and maximal anaerobic power of elite Polish snowboarders with untrained subjects. Ten snowboarders and ten aged matched students of Physical Education performed two exercise tests. First, a 30-second Wingate test was conducted and next, a cycle ergometer exercise test with graded intensity. In the first test, peak anaerobic power, the total work, relative peak power and relative mean power were measured. During the second test, relative maximal oxygen uptake and lactate threshold were evaluated. There were no significant differences in absolute and relative maximal oxygen uptake between snowboarders and the control group. Mean maximal oxygen uptake and lactate threshold were significantly higher in men than in women. Significant differences were found between trained men and women regarding maximal power and relative maximal power. The elite snowboarders demonstrated a high level of anaerobic power. The level of relative peak power in trained women correlated negatively with maximal oxygen uptake. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate that the demanding competition program of elite snowboarders provides a significant training stimulus mainly for anaerobic power with minor changes in anaerobic performance. PMID:23487498

  12. Management of Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Saper, David; Capiro, Nina; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning

    2015-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus commonly isolated from the flora of the face, chest, and axilla region. It has emerged as a major pathogen responsible for postoperative shoulder infections after both arthroscopy and arthroplasty procedures. Patients with P. acnes shoulder infection typically present with normal laboratory values (white blood cells (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) making diagnosis difficult. Several intraoperative tissue cultures should be obtained and cultured in both agar plate and broth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions for a minimum of 13 days to optimize the sensitivity and specificity to detect P. acnes. The utilization of intraoperative frozen sections to detect P. acnes infection is not reliable. Risk factors include male, cloudy synovial fluid, lucencies around the implant, and periprosthetic membrane formation. Managements include irrigation and debridement, single or two-staged revision, and intravenous antibiotics. Open biopsy prior to the final implantation (two-staged revision) may help detect persistent P. acnes infection. Penicillin and cephalosporins are effective against clinical P. acnes infection and biofilm in vitro. Combination antibiotic therapy with rifampin and daptomycin may further increase the clinical efficacy of treatment. PMID:25596729

  13. Appraisal in the diagnostic laboratory of three commercially available anaerobic cabinets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, KD; Willis, AT

    1981-01-01

    Three commercially available anaerobic cabinets are described and their performance in relation to one another and to a standard anaerobic jar technique are reported upon from a clinical laboratory. PMID:7031095

  14. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry

    E-print Network

    Scampini, Amanda C

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

  15. Characteristics of bacteria isolated by the anaerobic roll-tube method from cheeses and ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, W M; Johnson, M G

    1976-01-01

    In this study the methods of Hungate were used to quantitate the anaerobic bacteria present in commercially available ground beef, cheddar cheese, and German hand cheese. Of 235 anaerobic roll-tube isolates from ground beef and German hand cheese, all were facultative anaerobes. Of 213 anaerobic roll-tube isolates from cheddar cheese, 91% were facultative anaerobes and 9% were obligate anaerobes. Using results of biochemical tests, 14 or the 17 obligately anaerobic isolates from cheddar cheese were Propionibacterium acnes, two were strains of Propionibacterium that could not be speciated, and one was tentatively identified as a strain of Streptococcus evolutus. Obligate anaerobes were estimated to be present in the cheddar cheese at a level of about 10(6)/g. The possible significance of these levels of P. acnes in nonsterile foods is discussed. PMID:793523

  16. DEHALOGENATION: A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF HALOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microorganisms of lake sediment and sewage sludge anaerobically metabolize halobenzoates by a novel pathway. The primary degradative event was loss of the aryl halide without the alteration of the aromatic ring. Dehalogenation required strict anaerobic conditions and depended on ...

  17. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns

  18. Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine supplementation on peak anaerobic power output (Wmax). Using a counterbalanced, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 14 well-trained men completed three trials of a protocol consisting of a series of 6-s cycle ergometer sprints, separated by 5-min passive recovery periods. Sprints were performed at progressively increasing torque factors to determine the peak power/torque relationship and Wmax. Apart from Trial 1 (familiarisation), participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo, one hour before each trial. The effects of caffeine on blood lactate were investigated using capillary samples taken after each sprint. The torque factor which produced Wmax was not significantly different (p ? 0.05) between the caffeine (1.15 ± 0.08 N·m·kg(-1)) and placebo (1.13 ± 0.10 N·m·kg(-1)) trials. There was, however, a significant effect (p < 0.05) of supplementation on Wmax, with caffeine producing a higher value (1885 ± 303 W) than placebo (1835 ± 290 W). Analysis of the blood lactate data revealed a significant (p < 0.05) torque factor × supplement interaction with values being significantly higher from the sixth sprint (torque factor 1.0 N·m·kg(-1)) onwards following caffeine supplementation. The results of this study confirm previous reports that caffeine supplementation significantly increases blood lactate and Wmax. These findings may explain why the majority of previous studies, which have used fixed-torque factors of around 0.75 N·m·kg(-1) and thereby failing to elicit Wmax, have failed to find an effect of caffeine on sprinting performance. PMID:25275888

  19. Repeated Anaerobic Microbial Redox Cycling of Iron?†

    PubMed Central

    Coby, Aaron J.; Picardal, Flynn; Shelobolina, Evgenya; Xu, Huifang; Roden, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Some nitrate- and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms are capable of oxidizing Fe(II) with nitrate as the electron acceptor. This enzymatic pathway may facilitate the development of anaerobic microbial communities that take advantage of the energy available during Fe-N redox oscillations. We examined this phenomenon in synthetic Fe(III) oxide (nanocrystalline goethite) suspensions inoculated with microflora from freshwater river floodplain sediments. Nitrate and acetate were added at alternate intervals in order to induce repeated cycles of microbial Fe(III) reduction and nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. Addition of nitrate to reduced, acetate-depleted suspensions resulted in rapid Fe(II) oxidation and accumulation of ammonium. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis of material from Fe redox cycling reactors showed amorphous coatings on the goethite nanocrystals that were not observed in reactors operated under strictly nitrate- or Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Microbial communities associated with N and Fe redox metabolism were assessed using a combination of most-probable-number enumerations and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The nitrate-reducing and Fe(III)-reducing cultures were dominated by denitrifying Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Dechloromonas) and Fe(III)-reducing Deltaproteobacteria (Geobacter), respectively; these same taxa were dominant in the Fe cycling cultures. The combined chemical and microbiological data suggest that both Geobacter and various Betaproteobacteria participated in nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in the cycling cultures. Microbially driven Fe-N redox cycling may have important consequences for both the fate of N and the abundance and reactivity of Fe(III) oxides in sediments. PMID:21742920

  20. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass after ultrasound pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Astals, Sergi; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    High rate algal ponds are an economic and sustainable alternative for wastewater treatment, where microalgae and bacteria grow in symbiosis removing organic matter and nutrients. Microalgal biomass produced in these systems can be valorised through anaerobic digestion. However, microalgae anaerobic biodegradability is limited by the complex cell wall structure and therefore a pretreatment step may be required to improve the methane yield. In this study, ultrasound pretreatment at a range of applied specific energy (16-67 MJ/kg TS) was investigated prior to microalgae anaerobic digestion. Experiments showed how organic matter solubilisation (16-100%), hydrolysis rate (25-56%) and methane yield (6-33%) were improved as the pretreatment intensity increased. Mathematical modelling revealed that ultrasonication had a higher effect on the methane yield than on the hydrolysis rate. A preliminary energy assessment indicated that the methane yield increase was not high enough as to compensate the electricity requirement of ultrasonication without biomass dewatering (8% VS). PMID:25002372

  2. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  3. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  4. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  5. Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.

    PubMed Central

    Oren, A; Padan, E

    1978-01-01

    Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae. PMID:415043

  6. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  7. Full-scale anaerobic bioremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.B.; Crawford, D.L.; Crawford, R.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An anaerobic bioremediation process for the degradation of nitroaromatic compounds in soil was demonstrated. This ex situ process was demonstrated full-scale at a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated site near Weldon Spring, MO. A bioreactor was loaded with approx 23 m{sup 3} of TNT-contaminated soil in the form of a 50:50 soil: water slurry. This slurry was augmented with a starchy carbon source (1-2% w/v) and buffered with phosphate to near-neutral pH. Indigenous soil bacteria utilized the oxygen, making the slurry anaerobic within 1-2 d. Anaerobes then degraded the TNT (3000 mg/kg) in approx 11 wk. A relatively long treatment time for the bioremediation of the TNT-contaminated soil was necessary, possibly because of the cool ambient temperatures, high clay content of the soil, high level of contamination, and high level of recalcitrance of TNT in soils.

  8. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  9. Bioremediation of wastewaters with decabromodiphenyl ether by anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Wang, Zhibin; Lv, Lu; Liang, Xueyou; Ren, Longfei; Zhou, Qingxin

    2015-04-01

    Facilities adopting anaerobic granular sludge are widely used for the treatment of high strength wastewater, and hence collect many polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). We initiated a detailed investigation to gain insight into the bioremoval of BDE-209 by anaerobic granules. Influenced by solution pH, ionic strength and temperature, the equilibrium time was ?6 h and the biosorption amount increased from 0.099 to 1.25 mg/g suspended sludge with the increase of BDE-209 concentrations. Kinetic studies indicate that BDE-209 biosorption on anaerobic granules follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Isotherm analysis exhibits that the Langmuir model fits the data at low temperature, while the Freundlich model is appropriate at room temperature. Thermodynamic analysis shows that biosorption followed an endothermic path and was nonspontaneous with negative value of ?G0. XPS and FTIR spectra confirmed that oxygen and nitrogen atoms notably contributed to BDE-209 binding. PMID:25784301

  10. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner.

    PubMed

    Bera, T K; Rajapurkar, M V

    1993-07-01

    Forty male high school students, age 12-15 yrs, participated for a study of yoga in relation to body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power. Ths Ss were placed into two subsets viz., yoga group and control group. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance anaerobic power were measured using standard method. The duration of experiment was one year. The result of ANCOVA revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training. This study could not show significant change in body fat (midaxillary), skeletal diameters and most of the body circumferences. It was evident that some of the fat-folds (tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical, thigh and calf) and body circumferences (waist, umbilical and hip) were reduced significantly. PMID:8276501

  11. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  12. Anaerobic carbon metabolism by the tricarboxylic acid cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Vanlerberghe, G.C.; Horsey, A.K.; Weger, H.G.; Turpin, D.H. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Nitrogen-limited cells of Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins are able to assimilate NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the dark under anaerobic conditions. Addition of NH{sub 4}{sup +} to anaerobic cells results in a threefold increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCAC) CO{sub 2} efflux and an eightfold increase in the rate of anaplerotic carbon fixation via phosphoenspyruvate carboxylase. Both of these observations are consistent with increased TCAC carbon flow to supply intermediates for amino acid biosynthesis. Addition of H{sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to anaerobic cells assimilating NH{sub 4}{sup +} results in the incorporation of radiolabel into the {alpha}-carboxyl carbon of glutamic acid. Incorporation of radiolabel into glutamic acid is not simply a short-term phenomenon following NH{sub 4}{sup +} addition as the specific activity of glutamic acid increases over time. This indicates that this alga is able to maintain partial oxidative TCAC carbon flow while under anoxia to supply {alpha}ketoglutarate for glutamate production. During dark aerobic NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation, no radiolabel appears in fumarate or succinate and only a small amount occurs in malate. During anaerobic NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation, these metabolites contain a large proportion of the total radiolabel and radiolabel accumulates in succinate over time. Also, the ratio of dark carbon fixation to NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation is much higher under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. These observations suggest the operation of a partial reductive TCAC from oxaloacetic acid to malate, fumarate, and succinate. Such a pathway might contribute to redox balance in an anaerobic cell maintaining partial oxidative TCAC activity.

  13. Microbial degradation of lignin-derived compounds under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant form of organic carbon in the biosphere. Recent laboratory studies indicate that a large fraction of polymeric lignin is incompletely degraded by aerobic lignolytic microorganisms and is subsequently released as lignin fragments of reduced molecular size. If such lignin-derived compounds become available in the anaerobic environment, they may serve as potential sources of organic carbon for organisms which release methane precursors. The methanogenic bacteria, in turn, serve as terminal members of the anaerobic food chain, and thus, limit the accumulation of organic carbon in anaerobic sinks. This thesis presents evidence to suggest that lignin-derived compounds which have molecular sizes greater than those of single-ring aromatic compounds (MW > 200) are anaerobically biodegradable to methane. This research involved development of selective enrichment cultures capable of utilizing oligolignols as sole carbon sources. Radiolabeled water-soluble catabolites, released during aerobic lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were subjected to anaerobic degradation. The second phase of work involved capillary gas chromatographic analyses of enrichment cultures fed a /sup 14/C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate of average molecular weight 600. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid was used to inhibit methane formation and enhance buildup of metabolic intermediates, resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids, phenylacetate, benzoate, catechol, 3-phenyl-propionate, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A conceptual model for the anaerobic degradation of two- and three-ring lignin fragments is proposed which overlaps both the ferulate and benzoate degradation pathways at the level of single-ring aromatic compounds.

  14. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and discuss the potential implications for alternative energy sources.

  15. Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in head and neck infection.

    PubMed

    Brook, I

    1988-04-01

    We have summarized our experience in recovery of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) in head and neck infection (HNI). These HNI include conjunctivitis, serous and chronic otitis media, cholesteatoma, chronic mastoiditis, chronic sinusitis, adenoiditis, recurrent tonsillitis in children and adults, peritonsillar abscess, and retropharyngeal abscess. Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria were found in 262 (51%) of 513 patients with HNI; 72% had aerobic BLPB and 57% had anaerobic BLPB. The infections, where these organisms were most frequently recovered, were adenoiditis (85% of patients), tonsillitis in adults (82%) and children (74%), retropharyngeal abscess (71%), and chronic otitis media (57%). The predominant BLPB were Staphylococcus aureus (49% of patients with BLPB), the Bacteroides-melaninogenicus group (28%), the Bacteroides fragilis group (20%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), Hemophilus influenzae (5%), and Branhamella catarrhalis (3%). The high incidence of recovery of BLPB in head and neck infections may have important implications on the antimicrobial management of these infections. PMID:3258396

  16. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL AND RECOVERY FROM SWINE WASTE: RESULTS OF PRETREATMENT WITH AN ANAEROBIC SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Largus T. Angenent; Lutgarde Raskin

    An approach is presented for the on-site treatment of diluted swine waste. The approach (1) incorporates anaerobic digestion with an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) to stabilize waste, reduce odor, and reduce solids and organic compounds, while producing biogas; (2) increases the ortho-phosphate concentration of the anaerobic digester effluent by enhanced biological phosphorus removal; and (3) uses chemical precipitation of

  17. Colony formation by Helicobacter pylori after long-term incubation under anaerobic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Yamaguchi; Takako Osaki; Motomichi Takahashi; Haruhiko Taguchi; Shigeru Kamiya

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the viability of Helicobacter pylori cultured under anaerobic conditions, H. pylori strain TK1029 was grown on blood agar in a microaerophilic environment at 37°C for 4 days, and subsequently cultured under anaerobic conditions for 1 to 35 days. Colony formation by bacteria on blood agar plates cultured under anaerobic conditions was observed only for up to 4 days

  18. The use of the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for wastewater treatment: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Barber; David C. Stuckey

    1999-01-01

    A review concerning the development, applicability and possible future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment is presented. The reactor design has been developed since the early 1980s and has several advantages over well established systems such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and the anaerobic filter. These include: better resilience to hydraulic and organic shock loadings, longer

  19. Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion

    E-print Network

    Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

  20. The isolation and properties of the predominant anaerobic bacteria in the caeca of chickens and turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ella M. Barnes; C. S. Impey

    1970-01-01

    Several anaerobic techniques and a number of different media were compared for the isolation of the anaerobic bacteria from chicken and turkey caeca. Under optimal conditions it was possible to isolate more than 25 per cent of the total flora. An analysis was made of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from 5?week?old chickens, the organisms being divided into groups based on

  1. Anaerobic Treatment of Tetra-Methyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) Containing Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Foo Chang; Show-Ying Yang; Huey-Song You; Jill Ruhsing Pan

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity of tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) by anaerobic toxicity assay test. System performance was determined by monitoring total organic carbon (TOC) and ion chromatograph (IC) analysis. The result indicates that TMAH concentration less than 10000 mg\\/L is nontoxic to the anaerobic archaea. TMAH containing in the wastewater was completely degraded under

  2. Biodegradability of biodegradable\\/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mohee; G. D. Unmar; A. Mudhoo; P. Khadoo

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive

  3. Greenhouse gas production: A comparison between aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Y. Cakir; M. K. Stenstrom

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment offers improved energy conservation with potential reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Pitfalls exist in that the methane produced in anaerobic treatment can offset any reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, if it is released to the environment. This paper analyzes greenhouse gas emissions from both aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems, including sludge digestion and the losses of dissolved

  4. Bifurcation and stability analysis of a two step model for monitoring anaerobic digestion processes$

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bifurcation and stability analysis of a two step model for monitoring anaerobic digestion processes in simulation. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, biotechnology, steady state analysis, $ This work was supported the phenomenologic behavior of anaerobic digestion systems following the idea that all the available information

  5. Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System@cornell.edu URL: http://www.jove.com/video/3978/ DOI: 10.3791/3978 Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, J.G., Spirito, C.M., Angenent, L.T. Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic

  6. Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Noike; Ginro Endo; Juu-En Chang; Jun-Ichi Yaguchi; Jun-Ichiro Matsumoto

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the degradation of cellulose, soluble starch, and glucose in the acidogenic phase and the effects of the substrate loading rate and biological solids retention time on the methanogenic phase of anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results obtained from continuous experiments using laboratory-scale anaerobic chemostat reactors elucidated the true rate-limiting step of anaerobic digestion. The specific rate of

  7. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft be used to model the rheological behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge. Keywords Glassy materials in pipes or in tanks and reactors, such as anaerobic digesters. However, sludge properties continuously

  8. Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled Terence Bayen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen , Francis by light and an anaerobic digester. The mathematical model for the dynamics of the reactors takes for sustainable energy production [2]. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to recover the energy stored

  9. Anaerobic waste-activated sludge digestion - A bioconversion mechanism and kinetic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Shimizu; Kenzo Kudo; Yoshikazu Nasu

    1993-01-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of raw and mechanically lysed waste-activated sludge was kinetically investigated. The hydrolysis of the biopolymers, such as protein, which leaked out from the biological sludge with ultrasonic lysis, was a first-order reaction in anaerobic digestion and the rate constant was much higher than the decay rate constant of the raw waste activated sludge. An anaerobic digestion model

  10. Comparative In Vitro Activities of Gemifloxacin, Other Quinolones, and Nonquinolone Antimicrobials against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kleinkauf, Niels; Ackermann, Grit; Schaumann, Reiner; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin was compared to that of other quinolone and nonquinolone antimicrobials against 204 anaerobes by the agar dilution technique. The data indicate that gemifloxacin has a rather selective anaerobic activity. Most Peptostreptococcus, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium species are susceptible, while gemifloxacin's activity against other gram-negative anaerobes appears to be variable. PMID:11353648

  11. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLID WASTE TREATMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Chavez-Vazquez; David M. Bagley

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely- used technology in Europe with more than 50 full- scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools

  12. The role of natural wood constituents on the anaerobic treatability of forest industry wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sierra-Alvarez

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment has been shown to be an efficient and energy conserving method for treating various types of readily biodegradable non-inhibitory forest industry wastewaters. However, the high toxicity of paper mill effluents derived from chemical wood processing operations has hampered the wide spread application of anaerobic treatment in the forest industry.This dissertation describes research on the anaerobic treatment of inhibitory

  13. Anaerobic digestion of wood ethanol stillage using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Callander, I.J.; Clark, T.A.; McFarlane, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of wood ethanol stillage in a UASB reactor was studied. At organic loading rates below 16 kg COD/m/sup 3/ day the reactor performed effectively, achieving soluble COD and BOD removals in excess of 86 and 93%, respectively. Removal of color averaged 40%. At a loading rate of 16 kg COD/m/sup 3/ day the methane yield was 0.302 L CH/sub 4/ (STP)/g COD removed, and the observed cell yield was 0.112 g VSS/g COD removed. Operation of the reactor at higher loading rates was unsuccessful. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and alkalinity were supplemented. No additions of the essential trace elements Fe, Co, and Ni were required.

  14. Microbial fuel cells in relation to conventional anaerobic digestion technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rabaey; P. Aelterman; P. Clauwaert; L. De Schamphelaire; W. Verstraete

    2006-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion based bioconversion processes produce\\u000a biogas and have as such been widely applied for the production of\\u000a renewable energy so far. An innovative technology, based on the use of\\u000a microbial fuel cells, is considered as a new pathway for bioconversion\\u000a processes towards electricity. In comparison with conventional anaerobic\\u000a digestion, the microbial fuel cell technology holds some specific\\u000a advantages,

  15. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  16. An adaptive strategy to control anaerobic digesters for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, O.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Cuervo, F.; Femat, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico)] [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1996-10-01

    The design and implementation of a new adaptive controller for anaerobic digesters is presented using a general nonlinear model and an uncertainties estimation scheme. The primary advantage of this controller over standard adaptive controllers is that biogas flow rate measurements are not required. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard adaptive controllers and can be tuned analogously. The adaptive control strategy has been implemented in a pilot-scale anaerobic digester showing good performance and robustness against changes in the feed load.

  17. Swarming characteristics of Proteus mirabilis under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, M L; Niederhoffer, E C

    1995-12-01

    Nutrients have a pronounced effect on the growth and swarming behaviour of Proteus mirabilis 7002. Iron, zinc, amino acids, and dioxygen are important for rapid growth and normal swarming. Anaerobically grown cultures of P. mirabilis 7002 were unable to swarm on anaerobically maintained rich nutrient agar. Upon exposure to aerobic conditions, P. mirabilis 7002 resumed swarming behaviour. Scanning electron microscopy was used to demonstrate the presence of community organization and mature rafts during normal swarming. These results support the importance of dioxygen and redox status in cell differentiation. PMID:16887546

  18. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Timur; I. Özturk

    1999-01-01

    Anaerobic treatability of municipal landfill leachate was evaluated using lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) at 35°C. Experimental studies were conducted at wide-range of volumetric (0.4–9.4g CODl?1d?1) and specific (0.2–1.9g CODg?1 VSSd?1) loading rates by varying hydraulic retention times (HRT) (10–1.5days) and influent wastewater COD's (3800–15900mgl?1). The COD removal efficiencies were in the range of 64–85% depending on volumetric and

  19. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step towards such a system was to evaluate two different on-line instruments. Both had severe stability problems, which made them unsuitable as parts in a system for control of the nutrient dosage. PMID:16459803

  20. Anaerobic dehalogenation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    1999-05-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, the authors report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) from congeners such as 3,3{prime},5,5{prime}-tetrachloro-4,4{prime}-dihydroxybiphenyl.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of secondary residuals from an anaerobic bioreactor at a brewery to enhance bioenergy generation.

    PubMed

    Bocher, Benjamin T; Agler, Matthew T; Garcia, Marcelo L; Beers, Allen R; Angenent, Largus T

    2008-05-01

    Many beer breweries use high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) systems to treat their soluble high-strength wastewater. Biogas from these AD systems is used to offset nonrenewable energy utilization in the brewery. With increasing nonrenewable energy costs, interest has mounted to also digest secondary residuals from the high-rate digester effluent, which consists of yeast cells, bacteria, methanogens, and small (hemi)cellulosic particles. Mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) lab-scale, low-rate continuously-stirred anaerobic digestion (CSAD) bioreactors were operated for 258 days by feeding secondary residuals at a volatile solids (VS) concentration of approximately 40 g l(-1). At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and a VS loading rate of 2.7 g VS l(-1) day(-1), the mesophilic bioreactor showed an average specific volumetric biogas production rate of 0.88 l CH4 l(-1) day(-1) and an effluent VS concentration of 22.2 g VS l(-1) (43.0% VS removal efficiency) while the thermophilic bioreactor displayed similar performances. The overall methane yield for both systems was 0.21 l CH4 g(-1) VS fed and 0.47-0.48 l CH4 g(-1) VS removed. A primary limitation of thermophilic digestion of this protein-rich waste is the inhibition of methanogens due to higher nondissociated (free) ammonia (NH3) concentrations under similar total ammonium (NH4+) concentrations at equilibrium. Since thermophilic AD did not result in advantageous methane production rates or yields, mesophilic AD was, therefore, superior in treating secondary residuals from high-rate AD effluent. An additional digester to convert secondary residuals to methane may increase the total biogas generation at the brewery by 8% compared to just conventional high-rate digestion of brewery wastewater alone. PMID:18188623

  2. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  3. Modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 for dry and semi-dry anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; Chatellier, Patrice; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The role of total solids (TS) content in anaerobic digestion of selected complex organic matter, e.g. rice straw and food waste, was investigated. A range of TS from wet (4.5%) to dry (23%) was evaluated. A modified version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 for a complex organic substrate is proposed to take into account the effect of the TS content on anaerobic digestion. A linear function that correlates the kinetic constants of three specific processes (i.e. disintegration, acetate and propionate up-take) was included in the model. Results of biomethanation and volatile fatty acids production tests were used to calibrate the proposed model. Model simulations showed a good agreement between numerical and observed data. PMID:25311887

  4. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Bailey, V.L.; Plymale, A.E.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2006-04-05

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by co-disposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Pu(IV)-EDTA is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds. Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) is likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions and the anaerobic biodegradation of Pu-EDTA. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV), the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA, how the Pu(III)-EDTA competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, soluble Pu(III)-EDTA under anaerobic conditions would require anaerobic degradation of the EDTA to limit Pu(III) transport. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have never been isolated. Recent results have shown that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium, can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(IV) was provided as insoluble PuO2. The highest rate of Pu(IV) reduction was with the addition of AQDS, an electron shuttle. Of the total amount of Pu solubilized (i.e., soluble through a 0.36 nm filter), approximately 70% was Pu(III). The amount of soluble Pu was between 4.8 and 3.2 micromolar at day 1 and 6, respectively, indicating rapid reduction. The micromolar Pu is significant since the drinking water limit for Pu is 10{sup -12} M. On-going experiments are investigating the influence of EDTA on the rate of Pu reduction and the stability of the formed Pu(III). We have also begun to enrich and isolate bacteria capable of aerobic and anaerobic degradation of EDTA. Environmental samples (e.g., sludges, river sediments) were incubated aerobically and anaerobically with EDTA or NTA as the sole carbon and energy source. Aerobic enrichment with EDTA has not resulted in any cultures, but NTA has provided several isolates. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and sequence comparison identified four separate strains closely related to Microbacterium oxydans, Aminobacter sp., Achromobacter sp., Aminobacter sp., respectively. Anaerobic enrichments with either EDTA or NTA are still in progress since metabolism and growth is relatively slow. In addition to the biotransformation experiments, studies are underway to determine/validate complexation constants of Pu(III) with EDTA and the influence of competing ions on Pu(III)-EDTA complexes. These data are being obtained through solubility studies of PuPO{sub 4}(s) and Pu(OH){sub 3}(s) as a function of time, pH, and EDTA and competing ion concentrations. These results have begun to fill-in knowledge gaps of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop Pu transport in groundwater at DOE sites.

  5. Streptococcal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Strep throat - a sore, red throat, sometimes with white spots on the tonsils Scarlet fever - an illness that follows strep throat. It causes a red rash on the body. Impetigo - a skin infection Toxic shock syndrome Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group ...

  6. Paratyphoid Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The numerous motile Salmonella serotypes are often referred to collectively as paratyphoid (PT) salmonellae. Found throughout the world, these organisms can infect a very wide variety of hosts (including invertebrate and vertebrate wildlife, domestic animals, and humans) to yield either asymptomati...

  7. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with intrauterine infection: study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leticia Krauss-Silva; Maria Elizabeth L Moreira; Mariane B Alves; Maria R Rezende; Alcione Braga; Karla G Camacho; Maria Rosa R Batista; Clarisse Savastano; Antonio Almada-Horta; Fernando Guerra

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous preterm deliveries that occur before the 34th week of gestation, and particularly before the 32nd week of gestation, have been strongly associated to intrauterine infection, ascending from vagina, and represent the largest portion of neonatal deaths and neurological problems. Bacterial vaginosis, characterized by a diminished or absent flora of lactobacilli and increased colonization of several anaerobic or facultative

  8. Anaerobic digestion of fish processing by-products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Ward; Bill Slater

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion can be used to treat many organic waste streams. However, fish wastes pose a particular technological problem, as they release high levels of ammonia when digested, which then inhibits the digestion process. Having overcome these technical problems, it is important that there is a long term, financially viable outlet for the products of the digestion process. The organic

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of lipids of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Grossi; Peter Blokker; Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility to anaerobic biodegradation of the different lipid biomarkers present in a marine microalga containing algaenan, portions of one large batch of cultured Nannochloropsis salina (Eustigmatophyceae) were incubated in anoxic sediment slurries for various times. After 442 days, all lipids studied [mono-, di-, and tri-unsaturated hydrocarbons, long-chain unsaturated alcohols and alkyl diols, phytol, sterols, saturated

  10. Engineering We now know that some anaerobic bacteria gain

    E-print Network

    Chemical Engineering We now know that some anaerobic bacteria gain energy through extracellular for respiration outside the cells. In addition to the fundamental implications for physiology and microbial communication, a physics-based understanding of this extracellular respiration will impact the transmission

  11. Anaerobic respiration with elemental sulfur and with disulfides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiner Hedderich; Oliver Klimmek; Achim Kröger; Reinhard Dirmeier; Martin Keller; Karl O. Stetter

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic respiration with elemental sulfur\\/polysulfide or organic disulfides is performed by several bacteria and archaea, but has only been investigated in a few organisms in detail. The electron transport chain that catalyzes polysulfide reduction in the Gram-negative bacterium Wolinella succinogenes consists of a dehydrogenase (formate dehydrogenase or hydrogenase) and polysulfide reductase. The enzymes are integrated in the cytoplasmic membrane with

  12. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of food waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve hydrogen fermentation of food waste in a leaching-bed reactor by heat-shocked anaerobic sludge, and also to investigate the effect of dilution rate (D) on the production of hydrogen and metabolites in hydrogen fermentation. Among various reaction constraints affecting the fermentation of food waste, a key factor is the adjustment of environmental conditions during the

  13. Anaerobic digestion of sludge from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natella Mirzoyan; Yossi Tal; Amit Gross

    2010-01-01

    Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) produce high volumes of biosolid waste which is a potential source of pollution if not properly treated. A reduction in sludge-mass would therefore minimize the potential environmental hazard and economic burden stemming from its disposal. Recently, anaerobic digestion was suggested as an alternative to aquaculture sludge digestion and stabilization in RAS. This practice results not

  14. ANAEROBIC SUBSTRATE TOLERANCE IN'SPOROBOLUS VIRGINICUS' (L.) KUNTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and how the two genetically distinct forms, marsh and dune, of Sporobolus virginicus, tolerate anaerobic substrates. The treatments in the hydroponic study, conducted in the greenhouse for approximately 6 months, involved growing the ...

  15. The anaerobic biodegradation of diethanolamine by a nitrate reducing bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy S. Knapp; Nicholas D. Jenkey; Colin C. Townsley

    1989-01-01

    The ability of bacterial cultures to degrade diethanolamine under anoxic conditions with nitrate as an electron acceptor was investigated. A mixed culture capable of anaerobic degradation of diethanolamine was obtained from river sediments by enrichment culture. From this a single bacterial strain was isolated which could use diethanolamine, monoethanolamine, triethanolamine and N-methyl diethanolamine as its sole carbon and energy sources

  16. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  17. Advanced dynamical risk analysis for monitoring anaerobic digestion process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Hess; Olivier Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Methanogenic fermentation involves a natural ecosystem that can be used for waste water treatment. This anaerobic process can have two locally stable steady-states and an unstable one making the process hard to handle. The aim of this work is to propose analytical criteria in order to detect hazardous working modes, namely situations where the system evolves towards the acidification of

  18. Anaerobic digestion of household organic waste to produce biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir-Akbar Hessami; Sky Christensen; Robert Gani

    1996-01-01

    Biogas may be readily obtained by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste. If communities and towns could harness the energy which is contained in the organic waste which they presently dispose of in landfills or compost, this fuel could supplement or completely satisfy their heat energy requirements.Biogas production from household organic waste is rare because existing digesters are not suitable

  19. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Long Chain Fatty Acids: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Alcina Pereira; Diana Sous; Ana Júlia Cavaleiro

    If an effluent with high lipid content is fed to a continuous high rate anaerobic digester, a significant accumulation of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA) onto the sludge aggregates (flocs or granules) is observed, without further mineralization to methane. That accumulation is progressive and, after some time, the sludge becomes surrounded by whitish foam and tends to float, leading, most

  20. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.W. [Scientific Utilization, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  1. Reduction of Malodorous Compounds from a Treated Swine Anaerobic Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Loughrin; Ariel A. Szogi; Matias B. Vanotti

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can eliminate envi- ronmental problems associated with anaerobic lagoons. These tech- nologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens, and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these needs, a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was installed as a demonstration project on one of three 4360-pig (Sus scrofa) production units

  2. ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING EOS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Lindow; Robert C. Borden

    2004-01-01

    Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of Edible Oil Substrate (EOS®) into the subsurface can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for the enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a variety of pollutants including acid mine drainage (AMD). EOS® is prepared from a mixture of slowly biodegradable emulsified oil (e.g. soybean oil) and easily biodegradable substrates. As AMD impacted water

  3. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Dalsgaard; Bo Thamdrup; Donald E. Canfield

    2005-01-01

    Anammox, anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, is now recognized as an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. The bacteria conducting anammox are highly specialized and appear to belong to the Planctomycetales. The process has now been found in a range of environments including marine sediments, sea ice and anoxic water columns, and it may be responsible for up to

  4. Integration of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation, Methanogensis and Denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zu Bo; Shiqiang Wei

    2011-01-01

    If EGSB reactor was inoculated with the aerobic activated sludge, then after the reactor start-up operation of 120 d, Granular sludge can be formed. Denitrification bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria were cultured and enriched for 270 d in EGSB reactor with nitrite and ammonium. The removal efficiency of COD was 85%, ammonium nitrogen 35%, nitrite nitrogen 99.9%, and total

  5. Significance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the Bess B. Ward

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    Significance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the ocean Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences: bacteria capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrogen gas (N2). This new source of N2 has now been detected the existence of bacteria capable of coupling the oxidation of ammonium directly to the reduction of nitrate [6

  6. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) and Denitrification in Marine Environments (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Rich

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a newly recognized pathway of nitrogen removal in marine ecosystems, providing a second mechanism to classical denitrification for the net loss of nitrogen. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to dinitrogen production has been investigated in several important regions of nitrogen loss, including the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP), Arabian Sea, Chesapeake Bay and coastal

  7. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation improvement via a novel capsule bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Chou; S. K. Tseng; C. M. Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a capsule bioreactor made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to entrap anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria for the removal of nitrogen from synthetic wastewater. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANAMMOX bacteria were entrapped inside the capsule and not washed out from the bioreactor. This method also avoids damaging the ANAMMOX bacteria during immobilization. The proposed bioreactor also has

  8. Cultivation, Detection, and Ecophysiology of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boran Kartal; Wim Geerts; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite under anoxic conditions. The anammox process is currently used to remove ammonium from wastewater and contributes significantly to the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans. In this chapter, we focus on the ecophysiology of anammox bacteria and describe new methodologies to grow these microorganisms. Now, it is possible to enrich anammox

  9. Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (‘anammox’) process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike S. M Jetten; Michael Wagner; John Fuerst; Mark van Loosdrecht; Gijs Kuenen; Marc Strous

    2001-01-01

    Ten years ago, an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (‘anammox’) process was discovered in a denitrifying pilot plant reactor. From this system, a highly enriched microbial community was obtained, dominated by a single deep-branching planctomycete, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans. Phylogenetic inventories of different wastewater treatment plants with anammox activity have suggested that at least two genera in Planctomycetales can catalyse the anammox process.

  10. Cell biology of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. M. P. van Niftrik

    2008-01-01

    Anammox bacteria perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation to dinitrogen gas and belong to the phylum Planctomycetes. Whereas most Prokaryotes consist of one compartment, the cytoplasm bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall, the species within this phylum are compartmentalized by intracellular membranes. In the anammox case, compartmentalization results in the cytoplasm being divided into three compartments surrounded by individual bilayer

  11. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I.3 to 11 m that were oriented parallel to the flow path. The center of the leachate plume was characterized of leachate contamination into underlying aquifers. Landfills are the U.S.'s largest anthropogenic source

  12. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Müller; N. Noykova; M. Gyllenberg; J. Timmer

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical reactions can often be formulated mathematically as ordinary differential equations. In the process of modeling, the main questions that arise are concerned with structural identifiability, parameter estimation and practical identifiability. To clarify these questions and the methods how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes using two data sets obtained

  13. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold D. May; Greg S. Miller; Birthe V. Kjellerup; Kevin R. Sowers

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial dechlorination is an important step in the detoxification and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but a microorganism capable of coupling its growth to PCB dechlorination has not been isolated. Here we describe the isolation from sediment of an ultramicrobacterium, strain DF-1, which is capable of dechlo- rinating PCBs containing double-flanked chlorines added as single congeners or as Aroclor

  14. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a tropical freshwater system (Lake Tanganyika)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten J. Schubert; Edith Durisch-Kaiser; Bernhard Wehrli; Bo Thamdrup; Phyllis Lam; Marcel M. M. Kuypers

    2006-01-01

    Summary Here we provide the first direct evidence for the anam- mox process (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) in a lacustrine system, Lake Tanganyika, the second larg- est lake in the world. Incubations with 15 N labelled nitrate showed that anammox occurred in the suboxic water layer at 100-110 m water depth. Anammox rates up to 10 nM N 2 h -

  15. EFFECT OF BTEX AND ETHANOL ON ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently demonstrated that natural anaerobic biotransformation of MTBE to TBA can account for the natural attenuation of MTBE in a plume from a gasoline spill at Parsippany, New Jersey. It is well established in the literature that the presence of the BTEX compounds natu...

  16. Anaerobic thiosulfate leaching: Development of in situ gold leaching systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Heath; M. I. Jeffrey; H. G. Zhang; J. A. Rumball

    2008-01-01

    Ferric EDTA and ferric oxalate complexes are both effective oxidants for the aerobic and anaerobic dissolution of gold in thiosulfate solutions, and therefore are potential candidates for the development of an in situ leaching system. The thiosulfate and polythionates were quantified during leaching using HPLC with perchlorate eluent and an anion exchange column, and it was found that both the

  17. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  18. Extremely thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobes from icelandic hot springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Bredholt; Indra M. Mathrani; Birgitte K. Ahring

    1995-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with Avicel as substrate and inoculated with biomat samples from Icelandic hot springs were cultured at 70 ° or 78 °C and examined for the presence of microorganisms that produce extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. From four enrichments grown at 78 °C eighteen strains were isolated. Five of the strains were screened for their substrate utilization, and

  19. A STUDY OF LAND APPLICATION OF ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale research project was conducted in 2004-2005 to evaluate land application of anaerobically digested biosolids at agronomic levels. Biosolids had not been applied to this land previously. For this study, biosolids wee applied in a 100-m diameter circle by a side dis...

  20. Anaerobic psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alisa Townsend; Elena V. Pikuta; Melissa Guisler; Sarah Stahl; Richard B. Hoover

    2009-01-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology