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1

Brain abscess potentially secondary to odontogenic infection: case report.  

PubMed

Odontogenic infections are rarely implicated in the causes of brain abscess formation. As such, there are very few reports of brain abscesses secondary to odontogenic infections in the literature. This is due partly to the relative rarity of brain abscesses but also to the difficulty in matching the causative organisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old woman whose brain abscess may potentially have been secondary to an odontogenic infection. The patient's early diagnosis, supported by imaging and microbiologic assessment, along with early minicraniotomy and extraction of infected dentition followed by a course of cephalosporins and metronidazole, contributed to a successful outcome. PMID:24157081

Yang, Joseph; Liu, Stanley Y; Hossaini-Zadeh, Mehran; Pogrel, M Anthony

2014-02-01

2

[Topics on anaerobic bacteria and anaerobic infection].  

PubMed

Considerable information has been accumulated in the field of anaerobic bacteria and anaerobic infections in the last ten years. Here we tried to briefly introduce several selected topics of clinical importance in this field: Proposal of the term "Nanaerobe", Changes of classification and nomenclature of anaerobes, Anaerobic bacteremia, Lemierre's syndrome as a revival anaerobic infection, Atopobium vaginae as Bacterial Vaginosis-associated bacteria, and new actions of the Clostridium perfringens toxins. PMID:16629490

Watanabe, Kunitomo

2006-03-01

3

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: An unusual sequel of odontogenic infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the fascial planes, which is less common in head and neck, be- cause of the rarity and higher vascularity in the region. We reviewed five patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic infection managed at a teaching hospital at Chennai, India. There were four men and one woman, of whom four patients

Krishnaraj Subhashraj; Naveen Jayakumar; Chinnasamy Ravindran

4

Infected orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a rare cause of facial cellulitis.  

PubMed

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOCs) are relatively uncommon developmental cysts lined with orthokeratinized epithelium consisting of a prominent granular layer and a basal layer of low cuboidal flattened cells that show no tendency for nuclear palisading. These cysts have been considered a distinct entity from odontogenic keratocysts since they exhibit a less aggressive behavior and a very low rate of recurrence. Developmental odontogenic cysts can become infected but serious complications, such as potentially life-threatening cellulitis, are rare. This report describes a rare case of facial cellulitis secondary to an infected OOC located in the mandible of a 27-year-old man. The relevant literature about the clinical-pathological features of OOC is reviewed. PMID:23306244

Carvalho, Cyntia Helena Pereira de; Aquino, Ana Rafaela Luz de; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Silva, José Sandro Pereira da; Germano, Adriano da Rocha; Pinto, Leão Pereira

2012-01-01

5

Brain abscess due to odontogenic infection: a case report.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a case of brain abscess due to odontogenic infection. A 53-year-old female who had been suffering from headache and trismus for two weeks visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea). Even after several routine tests, we still could not make a diagnosis. However, after the combined multidisciplinary efforts of oral surgeons and neurosurgeons, the patient was treated for odontogenic infection and made an uneventful recovery. Therefore, patients with infections in the head and neck region showing symptoms such as headache, changes in mental state, nausea, vomiting, seizures, hemiplegia, speech disturbance, and visual disturbance, a brain abscess should be included in the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:25045643

Park, Sung Yong; Suh, Dong Won; Park, Chul Min; Oh, Min Seok; Lee, Dong-Kun

2014-06-01

6

Brain abscess due to odontogenic infection: a case report  

PubMed Central

In this report, we describe a case of brain abscess due to odontogenic infection. A 53-year-old female who had been suffering from headache and trismus for two weeks visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea). Even after several routine tests, we still could not make a diagnosis. However, after the combined multidisciplinary efforts of oral surgeons and neurosurgeons, the patient was treated for odontogenic infection and made an uneventful recovery. Therefore, patients with infections in the head and neck region showing symptoms such as headache, changes in mental state, nausea, vomiting, seizures, hemiplegia, speech disturbance, and visual disturbance, a brain abscess should be included in the list of differential diagnoses.

Park, Sung Yong; Suh, Dong Won; Park, Chul Min; Oh, Min Seok

2014-01-01

7

Odontogenic cyst induction by periapical infection in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that odontogenic cysts can be induced by periapical infection. Pulp extirpation and reaming beyond the root apices were performed in 53 lower first molars in 27 Sprague-Dawley rats. The cavities were left open to allow continuous contamination by oral bacteria. Animals were killed at 6 and more than 8 months after operation. Odontogenic cysts were found in association with 8/53 teeth in 6 animals. Histologically, cysts were observed around the lower incisors below the first molars. The cyst wall consisted of fibrous connective tissue with inflammation and was lined with keratinized squamous epithelium. The cyst cavity contained a mass of keratin and necrotic debris. These results support the hypothesis that inflammatory stimulation from the apices can cause cystic changes in the enamel epithelium of underlying teeth. PMID:7693923

Bando, Y; Nagayama, M

1993-08-01

8

Microbiology of Acute and Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Associated with an Odontogenic Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the microbiology of sinusitis associated with odontogenic origin. Methods: Aspi- rates of 20 acutely and 28 chronically infected maxil- lary sinuses that were associated with odontogenic infection were processed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Results: A total of 66 isolates were recovered from the 20 cases of acute sinusitis (3.3\\/specimen), 16 aerobic and facultatives, and 50 anaerobic.

Itzhak Brook

2005-01-01

9

Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck due to an odontogenic infection: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep fascial space infections of the neck are most frequently odontogenic in origin. We describe a case of odontogenic infection\\u000a of the mandible which extended to the lateral pharyngeal space and resulted in a severe life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis\\u000a of the neck. A 69-year-old nondiabetic male complained of dysphagia and a severe toothache of the lower left molar and was\\u000a transported

Haruo Sakamoto; Hiroyuki Naito; Takayuki Aoki; Kazunari Karakida; Kazuo Shiiki

1996-01-01

10

Latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus in odontogenic disorders: comparison among ameloblastoma, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection and histogenesis of odontogenic disorders, in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) was applied to the paraffin sections of ameloblastoma, dentigerous cyst, and odontogenic keratocyst. Eight cases (15%) of 53 ameloblastomas showed scattered signals for EBER in the parenchymal cells, whereas no reaction of EBER transcript was observed in the non-neoplastic cystic lesions. In the ameloblastoma, the follicular and plexiform types revealed the signals in the nuclei, but cystic, acanthomatous, granular, and basal cell types exhibited no reaction with EBER. The distribution of the signals without monoclonarity indicated that ameloblastoma cells may exclude EBV genomes or inactivate EBER-encoded genes. The results suggested that EBV participates as one of the transforming factors in the occurrence of ameloblastoma. PMID:9234383

Fujita, S; Shibata, Y; Takahashi, H; Tsuda, N; Okabe, H

1997-07-01

11

Zygomycosis originating from an odontogenic infection in a pediatric oncology patient  

PubMed Central

The Zygomyces are an increasingly frequent cause of invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients. Here we describe the first well-documented case of Rhizopus infection of odontogenic origin, which presented as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection in a neutropenic child. The infection resolved with limited surgical debridement and antifungal therapy.

Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Rowland, Christopher; McGregor, Lisa M.; Santana, Victor M.

2011-01-01

12

[The clinical efficacy of roxithromycin in patients with acute odontogenic infections].  

PubMed

The clinical efficacy of a macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, was evaluated in 24 patients affected by acute odontogenic infections. Patients were treated with a first dose of 300 mg p.o. which was followed by 150 mg p.o. 12-hourly for the following two days. Total responses were evaluated by an arbitrary scale. The results showed that an excellent and good response was obtained in 99.96% of treated patients. On the basis of clinically compared data and the drug safety it may be concluded that roxithromycin can be successfully used in the treatment of odontogenic infections. PMID:1896005

Panattoni, E; Marcucci, M; Gabriele, M; Natale, M L; Blandizzi, C; Bernardini, N; Del Tacca, M

1991-04-01

13

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

14

Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Infected Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years). Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU) were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU) in root canals was (0.5 ± 1.1) × 106 (range 8.0 × 101–3.1 × 106), and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%). The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%), Mogibacterium (17.7%), Pseudoramibacter (17.7%), Propionibacterium (11.9%) and Parvimonas (5.9%). Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.

Sato, Takuichi; Yamaki, Keiko; Ishida, Naoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Yasuhisa; Shoji, Megumi; Sato, Emika; Matsuyama, Junko; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2012-01-01

15

[Anaerobic surgical infection and septic shock].  

PubMed

In the period 1990 through 1995, one-hundred patients operated for acute abdomen or admitted on a routine basis, presenting evidence of anaerobic infection, undergo treatment in the clinic of emergency surgery. Septic shock develops in 10/100 patients (10 per cent). In six of the latter the outcome is fatal--three with infection caused by spore-forming anaerobes (gas gangrene of the inguinal region--of Fournier, and anterior abdominal wall--anus praeternaturalis--two), and three with infection caused by non-spore-forming anaerobes (mixed anaerobic-aerobic infection). Anaerobic surgical infection and septic shock specificity is discussed, with an algorithm of therapeutic approach, based on clinical experience had with 100 patients, being proposed in either of them. Special emphasis is laid on antibiotic prophylaxis against anaerobic surgical infection. Its implementation in the concrete clinical conditions in this country demands a clearcut hospital drug policy (adoption of the "Drug Formularies" system), and elaboration of a new economical approach to the choice of antibacterial agents (using some of the forms of pharmaco-economical analysis, practicable with a view to the Bulgarian health-care model). PMID:9173169

Iar?mov, N; Viiachki, I; Tonev, D; Marina, M; Mu?kov, V; Mitov, A; Korukov, B; Ivanov, A; Miteva, M; Velkov, A

1996-01-01

16

Odontogenic infection and pachymeningitis of the cavernous sinus.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory process that causes thickening of the dura mater. Most cases are idiopathic, but it can result from many inflammatory and infective conditions. We present a case of pachymeningitis of the cavernous sinus, the aetiology of which may have been dental. PMID:24703382

Jose, Anson; Nagori, Shakil Ahmed; Bhutia, Ongkila; Roychoudhury, Ajoy

2014-07-01

17

Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents various odontogenic cysts and tumors, including periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, odontogenic keratocysts, orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, lateral periodontal cysts, glandular odontogenic cysts, ameloblastomas, clear cell odontogenic carcinomas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, squamous odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibromas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, odontomas, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors, and odontogenic myxomas. The authors provide an overview of these cysts and

Angela C. Chi; Brad W. Neville

2011-01-01

18

Odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare, benign, locally aggressive and non metastasizing neoplasm which is believed to arise from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme and bears a close microscopic resemblance to mesenchymal portion of a tooth germ. This is a case report of odontogenic myxoma in a 32 year old female patient and the treatment rendered to her. PMID:24822019

Kumar, Naresh; Kohli, Munish; Pandey, Saumya; Agarwal, Poonam

2014-06-01

19

Antimicrobial resistance and the management of anaerobic infections.  

PubMed

Management of anaerobic infections encompasses surgical procedures, antibacterial therapy and adjuncts. At present, metronidazole, penems, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and chloramphenicol have the highest activity against obligate anaerobes. Tigecycline is a promising new agent. Other antibacterials (e.g., nitazoxanide, moxifloxacin, garenoxacin and ramoplanin) and nonantibiotic agents show potential but need further investigation. The patient's characteristics, mixed anaerobic/aerobic infections, infection sites, bacterial resistance patterns, bactericidal activity of agents and their pharmacokinetics, toxicity and influence on the normal flora should be considered. Susceptibility patterns of anaerobes have become less predictable owing to increasing antibacterial resistance. Emergence of highly virulent or multidrug-resistant strains is challenging the current therapy. To counteract these trends, regular resistance surveillance in anaerobes, rational antibiotic use and evaluation of new treatment alternatives are important. PMID:17678430

Boyanova, Lyudmila; Kolarov, Rossen; Mitov, Ivan

2007-08-01

20

Odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven hundred fifty-nine cases of odontogenic tumors retrieved from the files of College of Stomatology, West China University of Medical Sciences were classified according to the World Health Organization's Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumors and compared with similar reports from other countries. Among these cases, 93.9% of the tumors were benign and 6.1% were malignant. Ameloblastomas predominated (58.6%) with a

Yong Lu; Ming Xuan; Takashi Takata; Changmei Wang; Zhixiu He; Zhiyu Zhou; David Mock; Hiromasa Nikai

1998-01-01

21

Odontogenic myxoma  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare intraosseous neoplasm, which is benign but locally aggressive. It rarely appears in any bone other than the jaws. It is considered to be derived from the mesenchymal portion of the tooth germ. Clinically, it is a slow-growing, expansile, painless, non-metastasizing, central tumor of jaws, chiefly the mandible. Here we report the case of a typical odontogenic myxoma in a 26-year-old female patient, which had acquired large dimensions and involved the entire left half of the mandible including the ramus, resulting in a gross facial deformity, within a span of one and a half years.

Gupta, Suchitra; Grover, Neeraj; Kadam, Ajit; Gupta, Shally; Sah, Kunal; Sunitha, J. D.

2013-01-01

22

Efficacy of serum CRP levels as monitoring tools for patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin: A clinicobiochemical study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Study included 20 patients with diagnosis of fascial space infections of odontogenic origin to assess efficacy of serum CRP levels as monitoring tools for determining severity of infections, hospital stay and efficacy of treatment. Materials and Methods: Blood samples taken on Day 0, 4 and 8 for measuring serum levels of marker. Simultaneously clinical parameters like swelling size, pain etc. were also recorded on Day 0, 4 and 8 and appropriate treatment given to each patient. Correlation between markers and parameters was found using regression and paired t-test. Results: Statistical analysis found strong correlation between lab. values of markes and parameters used to measure severity of infection. Also CRP is significant marker for hospital stay (P<.01). Interpretation and Conclusion: Prospective analysis indicates CRP can be effective marker for determining severity of infection, treatment efficacy and hospital stay. Duration of antibiotic usage, intensive unit care, use of nutritional supplements becomes more rationale. Markers also make treatment cost effective and help protecting patients from side effects of excess drug usage.

Sharma, Ashish; Gokkulakrishnan, Sadhasivam; Shahi, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Vijay

2012-01-01

23

Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.  

PubMed

The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

2014-05-01

24

Odontogenic infection involving the secondary fascial space in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a clinical comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus on the prognosis in secondary space infection. Materials and Methods Medical records, radiographic images, computed tomography, and microbial studies of 51 patients (25 diabetic patients and 26 non-diabetic patients) were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed as secondary fascial space infections with odontogenic origin and underwent treatment at Chonnam National University Hospital, in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, from January 2007 to February 2009. Results Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were presented with the following characteristics: older age (diabetic patients: 62.9 years, non-diabetic patients, 47.8 years), more spaces involved (diabetic patients, 60%; non-diabetic patients, 27.3%), more intense treatment, longer hospitalization (diabetic patients, 28.9 days; non-diabetic patients, 15.4 days), higher white blood cell and C-reactive protein values, higher incidence of complication (diabetic patients, 40%; non-diabetic patients, 7.7%), and distinctive main causative microorganisms. Conclusion These results suggest that the prognosis of diabetic patients is poorer than that of non-diabetic patients in secondary space infections since they had greater incidence rates of involved spaces, abnormal hematologic findings, more complications, and additional procedures, such as tracheostomy.

Chang, Je-Shin; Yoo, Kil-Hwa; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Ha, Jiwon; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk; Park, Hong-Ju; Ryu, Sun-Youl

2013-01-01

25

Enhancement of Growth of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Facultative Bacteria in Mixed Infections with Anaerobic and Facultative Gram-Positive Cocci,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic and facultative gram-positive cocci (AFGPC) mixed with other bacteria are frequently recovered from infections at different sites in the body. Although many of these organisms are synergistic, the exact role of AFGPC in these infections and thei...

I. Brook

1988-01-01

26

Bacteriological findings and antimicrobial resistance in odontogenic and non-odontogenic chronic maxillary sinusitis.  

PubMed

The main objectives of this study were to estimate the frequency of chronic maxillary sinusitis of dental origin, and to evaluate the microbiology of odontogenic and non-odontogenic chronic maxillary sinusitis. Aspirates from 59 patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis (47 non-odontogenic, 12 odontogenic), collected during a 3-year period, were microbiologically processed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated in the isolated bacteria. In this study, 20?% of chronic maxillary sinusitis cases were associated with a dental origin, and sinus lift procedures were the main aetiological factor. Our microbiological findings showed that all specimens from chronic maxillary sinusitis were polymicrobial. Sixty aerobes and 75 anaerobes were recovered from the 47 cases of non-odontogenic sinusitis (2.9 bacteria per specimen); 15 aerobes and 25 anaerobes were isolated from the 12 patients with odontogenic sinusitis (3.3 bacteria per specimen). The predominant aerobes were Staphylococcus aureus (27) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (16), while the more frequent anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus species (31) and Prevotella species (30). Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were absent in sinusitis associated with a dental origin. Overall, 22?% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were oxacillin-resistant, and 75?% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were penicillin-resistant and/or erythromycin-resistant; 21?% of anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria were penicillin-resistant, and 44?% of anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were ?-lactamase-positive. Vancomycin and quinopristin-dalfopristin had the highest in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species, respectively; amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime showed the highest in vitro activity against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria; and moxifloxacin, metronidazole and clindamycin were the most active against anaerobic bacteria. PMID:21498651

Puglisi, Salvatore; Privitera, Salvatore; Maiolino, Luigi; Serra, Agostino; Garotta, Matteo; Blandino, Giovanna; Speciale, Annamaria

2011-09-01

27

Tetanus and other clostridial and anaerobic infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, cases of clinical tetanus in the UK are more likely to be associated with injecting drug abuse, presumably from a contaminated batch of heroin currently in circulation. Other clostridial species such as Clostridium botulinum and C. histolyticum are also causing infections such as wound botulism and gangrene respectively in this population. Health-care workers should be alerted to intravenous drug-users

Brian I Duerden; Jon S Brazier

2005-01-01

28

Anaerobic  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic means "without oxygen." The term has many uses in medicine. Anaerobic bacteria are able to survive and grow in ... types of illness such as tetanus or gangrene. Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, uses energy produced ...

29

[The maxillary sinus and odontogenic cysts].  

PubMed

An unilateral maxillary sinusitis is frequently caused by dental pathology. An odontogenic cyst in the maxillary sinus usually lacks accompanying symptoms of infection. In three patients, a 35-year-old man and two women aged 16 and 28, an odontogenic cyst in the maxillary sinus was diagnosed. Consultation of a maxillofacial surgeon is needed because orthopantomographic imaging is diagnostically most helpful. In these patients combined treatment by an ENT surgeon and a maxillofacial surgeon is important. PMID:9550780

Arendse, J W; Koopmans, R; Manni, J J

1997-11-15

30

A possible inflammatory reaction in a lateral neck cyst (branchial cyst) because of odontogenic infection.  

PubMed

We present the case of a woman who suffered from an acutely infected diffuse mass in the right neck. This mass had grown rapidly after difficult extraction of a tooth. Histologic analysis of the excised material revealed a lateral neck cyst with a lymph node that showed signs of an acute inflammation near the cyst. These findings support the theory that a preexisting lateral neck cyst may be "activated" by an intraoral inflammation. The different theories of the origin of lateral neck cysts are presented and discussed in the context of the case description. PMID:7699278

Jänicke, S; Kettner, R; Kuffner, H D

1994-12-01

31

Microbiology of Odontogenic Bacteremia: beyond Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The human gingival niche is a unique microbial habitat. In this habitat, biofilm organisms exist in harmony, attached to either enamel or cemental surfaces of the tooth as well as to the crevicular epithelium, subjacent to a rich vascular plexus underneath. Due to this extraordinary anatomical juxtaposition, plaque biofilm bacteria have a ready portal of ingress into the systemic circulation in both health and disease. Yet the frequency, magnitude, and etiology of bacteremias due to oral origin and the consequent end organ infections are not clear and have not recently been evaluated. In this comprehensive review, we address the available literature on triggering events, incidence, and diversity of odontogenic bacteremias. The nature of the infective agents and end organ infections (other than endocarditis) is also described, with an emphasis on the challenge of establishing the link between odontogenic infections and related systemic, focal infections.

Parahitiyawa, N. B.; Jin, L. J.; Leung, W. K.; Yam, W. C.; Samaranayake, L. P.

2009-01-01

32

Enhancement of Experimental Anaerobic Infections by Blood, Hemoglobin, and Hemostatic Agents  

PubMed Central

Certain foreign materials have been demonstrated to enhance the infectivity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Whole blood and other protein compounds encountered in surgical settings or trauma were tested for their effect on infectivity of nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. Infectious synergistic mixtures of Bacteroides fragilis plus Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides melaninogenicus plus Fusobacterium necrophorum were each diluted to a barely noninfectious or minimally infectious concentration (subinfective inoculum) that was injected intraperitoneally into mice alone and in combination with test proteins. Infectivity was measured by deaths from sepsis or abscess(es) within the abdominal cavity at autopsy at 1 week. Two hemostatic agents, Gelfoam powder and Avitene (final concentrations, 10 mg/ml), and crystalline hemoglobin (4 g/100 ml) each produced a marked increase (P < 0.001) in the rate of infection when mixed with a normally subinfective inoculum of either bacterial mixture. Fresh homologous mouse blood (0.25 ml) injected intraperitoneally without anticoagulant also significantly enhanced infectivity (P < 0.01) of a subinfective inoculum of B. fragilis plus P. anaerobius. These studies demonstrated the capacity of whole blood, hemoglobin, and hemostatic agents to enhance the infectivity of certain nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. The high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria in the gastrointestinal, female genital, and respiratory tracts produce an increased risk of human infection after surgery or trauma in these sites; the protein agents studied here may further enhance infection.

Hill, Gale B.

1978-01-01

33

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features.\\u000a These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and\\u000a its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed.

Elizabeth A. Grasmuck; Brenda L. Nelson

2010-01-01

34

[Non-clostridial anaerobic infection in complicated cholecystitis].  

PubMed

Results of bacteriological investigations and treatment of 112 patients with complicated forms of acute cholecystitis are described. It was found that in complicated forms of acute cholecystitis an important part was played by associations of bacteria among which neclostridial anaerobes were of leading importance responsible for the aggravation of the inflammatory process and course of the postoperative period. The intracholedochal antibacterial therapy with Dioxidin in combination with antibiotics is thought to be expedient. PMID:2878517

Zemskov, V S; Tyshko, A G; Arik'iants, M S

1986-09-01

35

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The odontogenic keratocyst is a very well known odontogenic cyst. There are many types of cysts of the jaws, but what makes\\u000a the odontogenic keratocyst unusual are its characteristic histopathological and clinical features, including potentially aggressive\\u000a behaviour, high recurrence rate, and an association with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The characteristic histologic\\u000a feature i.e. the presence of parakeratin, is

Suhas S. Godhi; Pankaj Kukreja

2009-01-01

36

Odontogenic Cysts, Odontogenic Tumors, Fibroosseous, and Giant Cell Lesions of the Jaws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic cysts that can be problematic because of recurrence and\\/or aggressive growth include odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), calcifying odontogenic cyst, and the recently described glandular odontogenic cyst. The OKC has significant growth capacity and recurrence potential and is occasionally indicative of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. There is also an orthokeratinized variant, the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, which is less aggressive

Joseph A. Regezi

2002-01-01

37

Central odontogenic fibroma  

PubMed Central

Central odontogenic fibroma (COF), which has been categorized under the subheading of odontogenic tumors of ectomesenchyme, is such an uncommon neoplasm that much of its nature is left uncharted. COF is a rare tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. Clinically, the lesion grows slowly and leads to cortical expansion. Radiologically, the lesion may be unilocular or multilocular. In some cases, it may be associated with root resorption or displacement. Histopathologically, the lesion is characterized by mature collagen fibers and numerous fibroblasts. A case of COF of the mandible in a male patient aged 49 years is described in this report. The patient showed no symptoms, no history of swelling discomfort or pain, and was unaware of the presence of the lesion. Orthopantomogram (OPG) showed generalized bone loss along with a unilocular radiolucent area, with a clear sclerotic lining and angular bone loss. Surgical enucleation of the lesion along with placement of osseo-graft, which is a bioresorbable demineralized bone matrix (DMBM), and platelet-rich fibrin was carried out in the defect site. Following surgery, patient was recalled for revaluation of the lesion; the surgical site showed good healing and an increase in bone height was seen.

Venugopal, Sanjay; Radhakrishna, Satish; Raj, Akshatha; Sawhney, Anshul

2014-01-01

38

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of slow growth that is locally aggressive and tends to invade bone and adjacent soft tissue. Here is reported the case of a 21-year-old female patient with a CEOT in the left mandibular posterior region. The computerized tomography in coronal plane revealed a hypodense lesion in the posterior region of the left mandibular body with hyperdense areas inside and was associated with element 37. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed and the histopathological analysis revealed the presence of layers of epithelial odontogenic cells that formed prominent intercellular bridges. A large quantity of extracellular, eosinophilic, and amyloid-like material and an occasional formation of concentric calcifications (Liesegang rings) were also found. The histopathological diagnosis was a Pindborg tumor. Resection of the tumor with a safety margin was performed and after 6 months of follow-up there has been no sign of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:24379981

Pereira, Olavo Hoston Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Laura Priscila Barboza; Lacerda Brasileiro Junior, Vilson; de Figueiredo, Cláudia Roberta Leite Vieira

2013-01-01

39

Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of slow growth that is locally aggressive and tends to invade bone and adjacent soft tissue. Here is reported the case of a 21-year-old female patient with a CEOT in the left mandibular posterior region. The computerized tomography in coronal plane revealed a hypodense lesion in the posterior region of the left mandibular body with hyperdense areas inside and was associated with element 37. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed and the histopathological analysis revealed the presence of layers of epithelial odontogenic cells that formed prominent intercellular bridges. A large quantity of extracellular, eosinophilic, and amyloid-like material and an occasional formation of concentric calcifications (Liesegang rings) were also found. The histopathological diagnosis was a Pindborg tumor. Resection of the tumor with a safety margin was performed and after 6 months of follow-up there has been no sign of recurrence of the lesion.

Pereira, Olavo Hoston Goncalves; de Carvalho, Laura Priscila Barboza; Lacerda Brasileiro Junior, Vilson; de Figueiredo, Claudia Roberta Leite Vieira

2013-01-01

40

Odontogenic Myxoma of the Mandible  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms found almost exclusively in the jaws and arise only occasionally in other bones. We present a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the mandible of a 19-year-old male patient with a brief review of clinical and radiological features, and diagnostic and operative dilemmas in managing the same.

Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Venkata suneel; Venkata Sarath, P.; Anumula, Lavanya; Mundlapudi, Sridhar; Tanikonda, Rambabu

2012-01-01

41

[Pathogen and resistance spectrum in intraoral infections of the jaw-facial area with special reference to anaerobic bacteria].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain more knowledge about the aerobic and anaerobic species causing maxillofacial infections and their resistance patterns today. Samples of pus or infectious tissue obtained from 110 patients of maxillofacial surgery were investigated microbiologically by means of aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After incubation, the cultivated species were isolated and identified. The resistance patterns of all bacteria to penicillin, doxycyclin, and clindamycin were determined. Additionally, the resistance of aerobic species to cefuroxim was documented, and the MICs of cefoxitin and metronidazole to the anaerobic species were assessed. The most frequent disease was periodontitis apicalis (70 patients). Aerobic species alone were found in 23% of the samples, 14% of the infections harbored only anaerobes, but 63% were mixed infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In case of detection of aerobic species, streptococci were always identified. Five patients were infected by Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic rods were found in eight patients. Most of the anaerobic species were black pigmented prevotella species (62), nonpigmented prevotellae (56), and fusobacteria (37). Metronidazole and clindamycin were highly efficient to gram-negative anaerobic rods. Most of the oral species were resistant to penicillin and doxycyclin. The indication for applying antibiotics should always be noticed and these drugs should only be used after determination of the pathogenic microorganisms and their susceptibility to the antimicrobials. PMID:10994323

Eick, S; Pfister, W; Korn-Stemme, S; Mägdefessel-Schmutzer, U; Straube, E

2000-07-01

42

Genetic Changes in Sporadic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors (Odontogenic Keratocysts)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the genetic background of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT, odontogenic keratocysts). Our aim was to characterize genomic aberrations in sporadic KCOT using cDNA-expression arrays and array-comparative genomic hybridization. For cDNA-expression arrays, 10 KCOT specimens and 20 fetal tooth germs were studied. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription\\/polymerase chain-reaction and immunohistochemical studies were also undertaken. Several genes were over-expressed in 12q13,

K. Heikinheimo; K. J. Jee; P. R. Morgan; B. Nagy; S. Knuutila; I. Leivo

2007-01-01

43

Bone and joint infections due to anaerobic bacteria: an analysis of 61 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaerobic bone and joint infections (BJI) were underestimated before the advent of molecular identification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We report 61 cases of anaerobic infections based on our 4-year experience with the management of BJI. A total of 75 % of cases were post-surgical infections, associated with osteosynthesis devices (65 %). Early infections occurred in 27 % of cases, delayed infections in 17.5 % of cases, and late infections in 55 % of cases. We recorded 36 species of 93 anaerobic strains using MALDI-TOF MS (91) and molecular methods (2). We identified 20 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 13 of Finegoldia magna, six of Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, and six of P. harei. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 50 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in 93.5 % of cases. The antibiotic treatments included amoxicillin (30 %), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16 %), metronidazole (30 %), and clindamycin (26 %). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in 17 cases (28 %). The relapse rate (27 %) was associated with lower limbs localization (p?=?0.001). P. acnes BJI was associated with shoulder (p?=?0.019), vertebra (p?=?0.021), and head flap localization (p?=?0.011), and none of these cases relapsed (p?=?0.007). F. magna BJI was associated with ankle localization (p?=?0.014). Anaerobic BJI is typically considered as a post-surgical polymicrobial infection, and the management of this infection combines surgical and medical treatments. MALDI-TOF MS and molecular identification have improved diagnosis. Thus, physicians should be aware of the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic BJI to establish immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the post-surgical period until accurate microbiological results have been obtained. PMID:24577953

Walter, G; Vernier, M; Pinelli, P O; Million, M; Coulange, M; Seng, P; Stein, A

2014-08-01

44

Anaerobic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

45

[Complications of dental infections].  

PubMed

Infectious dental complications are quite frequent given the high incidence of tooth decay. Other pathologies not related to dental decay can cause mouth infectious such as periodontal infections, alveolitis, peri-coronitis of impacted wisdom tooth and secondary infection of dental fragments. Dental infection can be localised to apex (top of the root) or progress to soft and bony tissues surrounding the teeth. The most frequent germs involved in these infections are generally the same as saprophyte buccal flora but are often associated to other anaerobic germs. The following complications will be described in what concerns their etiology, pathology and treatment: abcess, fistula, phlegmon and cellulitis, odontogenic cysts, actinomycosis, craniofacial thrombophlebitis, osteitis and osteomyelitis, maxillary sinusitis, septicemia and local odontogenic infections. The consequences of these infections can vary according to immunologic resistance of the patient as well as the resistance of some germs to the most common antibiotics. Several factors should be taken in consideration in the treatment; patient history factors, germ virulence, maintaining or suppression of etiologic factors and drainage possibilities. PMID:11680190

Deroux, E

2001-09-01

46

Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically.

Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

2014-01-01

47

Dominant Obligate Anaerobes Revealed in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Horses by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella—especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica—are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin.

KINOSHITA, Yuta; NIWA, Hidekazu; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari; HARIU, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

48

Dominant Obligate Anaerobes Revealed in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Horses by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.  

PubMed

Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152

Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

2014-05-01

49

Immunohistochemical localization of large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in odontogenic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the localization of versican in odontogenic tumors by immunohistochemistry, using paraffin-embedded sections obtained from 27 patients with odontogenic tumors (17 ameloblastomas, 1 adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, 4 odontogenic keratocysts, 1 calcifying odontogenic cyst, 2 ameloblastic fibromas, and 2 malignant ameloblastomas). Deparaffinized sections were immersed in a buffered 1 : 1000 solution of an antibody, 5D5 (raised against

Yumi Ito; Yoshihiro Abiko; Yoichi Tanaka; Firoz Rahemtulla; Tohru Kaku

2002-01-01

50

Cutaneous draining sinus tract: an odontogenic etiology.  

PubMed

Although the most common cause of the intermittently suppurating cutaneous sinus tract in the face and neck area is chronic dental infection, chronic draining sinus tracts of the face and neck continue to be a diagnostic challenge. The attending clinician must look carefully for a potential odontogenic infection; chronicity, lasting for weeks, months, and even years and the recognition of the lesion as a sinus tract are keys to making the correct diagnosis. Diagnostic errors can result in multiple surgical excisions and biopsies, long-term antibiotic therapy, and even radiation therapy or electrodesiccation. A review of 137 cases of cutaneous draining sinus tracts from the literature is presented, and four cases are reported. Conservative, nonsurgical root canal therapy is recommended as the first choice of treatment. PMID:3950118

Cioffi, G A; Terezhalmy, G T; Parlette, H L

1986-01-01

51

Are we missing anaerobic infective endocarditis in some acute coronary syndromes?  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of intermittent fevers and dyspnoea on exertion after a dental bridge placement 2?months ago. The patient's medical history was significant for mild to moderate mitral valve prolapse. Initial evaluation was notable for a 3/6 systolic apical murmur. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and cardiac biomarkers. Patient was treated initially for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. A 2-dimensional echocardiography was concerning for a new mitral regurgitation and a questionable vegetation adjacent to the mitral valve annulus. Transoesophageal echocardiography study confirmed the diagnosis. Subsequent microbial identification was notable for Peptostreptococci and he was started on intravenous penicillin therapy. The unexplained illness with underlying valve disease prompted consideration of infective endocarditis. This case describes a rare occurrence of anaerobic endocarditis imitating an acute coronary event. PMID:24943143

Abuzaid, Ahmed; Smer, Aiman; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Bittner, Marvin

2014-01-01

52

Synchronous occurrence of odontogenic myxoma with multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.  

PubMed

The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. Usually, multiple KCOTs occur as a component of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The odontogenic myxoma is a rare benign tumor that represents about 3% of all odontogenic tumors. This article reports the case of mandible odontogenic myxoma with synchronous occurrence of multiple KCOTs, partial expression of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. A review of the international literature is also presented. PMID:24163866

Shao, Zhe; Liu, Bing; Zhang, WenFeng; Chen, XinMing

2013-09-01

53

A rare presentation of hybrid odontogenic tumor involving calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and plexiform ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. We presented a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a plexiform ameloblastoma. This tumor was observed in the anterior area of the mandible of a 17-year-old Indian male. Masses of ghost epithelial cells with the characteristics of CCOT were seen in the lining of the cyst. The odontogenic epithelia with the features of plexiform ameloblastoma were also observed.

Chaubey, Snehal S.; Mishra, Sunil S.; Degwekar, Shirish S.; Chaubey, Saujanya

2013-01-01

54

Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus) through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives.

Brown, Ronald S; Jones, Robert; Feimster, Tawana; Sam, Frances E

2010-01-01

55

Toll-Like Receptor 4-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Bone Destruction following Mixed Anaerobic Infection  

PubMed Central

C3H/HeJ mice have an impaired ability to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) due to a mutation in the gene that encodes Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The effect of TLR4 deficiency on host responses to endodontic infections is unknown. In the present study, we compared periapical bone destruction, sepsis, and inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ and wild-type control C3H/HeOuJ mice. The mandibular first molars of both strains were subjected to pulpal exposure and infection with a mixture of four anaerobic pathogens, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus intermedius, and Peptostreptococcus micros. At sacrifice on day 21, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice had significantly reduced periapical bone destruction compared to wild-type C3H/HeOuJ mice (P < 0.001). The decreased bone destruction in C3H/HeJ correlated with reduced expression of the bone resorptive cytokines interleukin 1? (IL-1?) (P < 0.01) and IL-1? (P < 0.05) as well as the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in the levels of gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), or IL-10 between the two strains. The expression of IL-1?, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10, and IL-12 were all significantly reduced in vitro in macrophages from both TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScNCr strains, compared to wild-type controls. Notably, the responses of TLR4-deficient macrophages to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were similarly reduced. Neither C3H/HeJ nor C3H/HeOuJ mice exhibited orofacial abscess development or infection dissemination as determined by splenomegaly or cachexia. We conclude that intact TLR function mediates increased proinflammatory responses and bone destruction in response to mixed anaerobic infections.

Hou, Linda; Sasaki, Hajime; Stashenko, Philip

2000-01-01

56

Malignant odontogenic tumors: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a Malignant odontogenic tumors are rare lesions. Only through the gradual accumulation of single cases can one obtain some information\\u000a about their histomorphology, clinical presentation, and behavior. Just as their benign counterparts, they are of epithelial,\\u000a mesenchymal, or mixed nature. Features of the several entities currently recognized are described in this overview.

P. J. Slootweg

2002-01-01

57

A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find.  

PubMed

Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of proteins that may be formed due to infections or genetic disorders. Asteroid body is one such inclusion that is eosinophilic and spider like that are usually found in infections like sarcoidosis and sporotrichosis. Inclusions are usually pathognomonic of certain diseases and conditions, navigating the pathologist to arrive at a diagnosis. But, here we report an unusual finding of an asteroid body encountered in an inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Amrutha N. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):131-3 . PMID:24453458

Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Amrutha, N

2013-12-01

58

Differential Enamel and Osteogenic Gene Expression Profiles in Odontogenic Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic tumors occur within the jaw bones and may be derived from odontogenic epithelium or ectomesenchyme or contain active components of both tissue types. We investigated the gene expression profile of enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), genes related to osteogenesis, and the mineralization process in odontogenic tumor cell populations focusing on an ameloblastoma (AB-1), a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT-1), and a

C. Ren; M. G. Diniz; C. Piazza; H. M. Amm; D. L. Rollins; H. Rivera; P. Devilliers; D. P. Kestler; P. D. Waite; O. A. Mamaeva; M. MacDougall

2011-01-01

59

Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst  

PubMed Central

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction.

Kim, Yeon Sook

2014-01-01

60

Bilateral odontogenic keratocyst of the mandible.  

PubMed

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a cyst of dental origin with an aggressive clinical behavior, having high recurrence rate. Multiple cysts are associated with bifid-rib basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). We present a case of bilateral odontogenic keratocyst in a cleft lip patient. PMID:25018611

Ram, Hari; Mohammad, Shadab; Husain, Nuzhat; Gupta, Shalini; Kumar, Ajay

2014-09-01

61

Tuberculosis of odontogenic cyst.  

PubMed

Tuberculous infection of the oral tissues is a rare finding. An interesting case of primary tuberculosis of mouth is described, presenting as persistent discharge of pus from the lower wisdom tooth region. Incisional biopsy revealed features of an infected dentigerous cyst while histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed keratinizing cyst with secondary infection. Non-healing of the bony defect prompted curettage of the area and the submitted sample microscopically showed granuloma with characteristic Langhans' giant cells, raising the suspicion of underlying systemic tuberculosis. The importance to the dental surgeon in the recognition, especially by use of pathological examination, is emphasized and also the value of diagnosis for the patients and the community. PMID:23540089

Sharma, Preeti; Saxena, Susmita; Aggarwal, Pooja; Reddy, Vandana

2013-01-01

62

Transnasal Marsupialization Using Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Treatment of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor in Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Objective. We report the first utilisation of transnasal marsupialization to treat a keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary sinus of a 37-year-old man. Case Report. A 37-year-old man presented with a nasal discharge and right odontalgia. Computed tomography revealed an expanding cystic lesion with a calcificated wall containing an impacted tooth in the right maxillary sinus. The diagnosis was keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Transnasal marsupialization was performed using endoscopic sinus surgery to enlarge the maxillary ostium and remove a portion of the cystic wall. Pathological findings included lining squamous epithelium and inflammation. The remaining tumor shrank, becoming free of infection after surgery, without proliferation. Conclusion. Transnasal marsupialization using endoscopic sinus surgery is effective in treating keratocystic odontogenic tumors. It offers minimal surgical invasion and reductive change, making it advantageous for complete removal with fewer complications in the bones and surrounding tissue in the case of secondary surgery.

Ohki, Masafumi

2012-01-01

63

Effect of Streptococcus Faecalis on the Growth of Bacteroides Species and Anaerobic Cocci in Mixed Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between Streptococcus faecalis and anaerobic bacteria was studied in a subcutaneous abscess model in mice. Included in the study were one strain of S. faecalis, three strains each of the Bacteroides fragilis group and B. melaninogenicus g...

I. Brook

1988-01-01

64

Benign cementoblastoma - a rare odontogenic neoplasm.  

PubMed

Benign Cementoblastoma is a rare cementum producing tumour of odontogenic origin having very characteristic clinical features and radiological findings. A rare case of Benign Cementoblastoma is presented here for clinical interest. PMID:23119693

Aiyer, R G; Rajagopal, S

2000-07-01

65

Odontogenic tumours in Istanbul: 527 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrieved and analysed the records of 527 odontogenic tumours from a total of 62,565 cases in the department of tumour pathology in the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul, from 1971 to 2003. Of these 527 tumours, 521 were benign and 6 were malignant. The most common lesions were ameloblastomas (n=133) followed by odontomas (n=109), odontogenic myxomas (n=83) and

V. Olgac; B. G. Koseoglu; N. Aksakall?

2006-01-01

66

Diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours. Materials and methods: 51 patients with odontogenic tumours were subjected to pre-operative MRI examinations. For tumours with liquid components, i.e. ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), the signal intensity (SI) uniformity of their cystic components (U?) was calculated and then their U? values were compared. For tumours with solid components that had been examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), their CImax (maximum contrast index), Tmax (the time when CImax occurred), CIpeak (CImax?×?0.90), Tpeak (the time when CIpeak occurred) and CI300 (i.e. the CI observed at 300?s after contrast medium injection) values were determined from CI curves. We then classified the odontogenic tumours according to their DCE-MRI parameters. Results: Significant differences between the U? values of the ameloblastomas and KCOT were observed on T1 weighted images, T2 weighted images and short TI inversion recovery images. Depending on their DCE-MRI parameters, we classified the odontogenic tumours into the following five types: Type A, CIpeak?>?2.0 and Tpeak??2.0 and Tmax??2.0 and Tmax?>?600?s; Type E, CI300??600?s. Conclusion: Cystic component SI uniformity was found to be useful for differentiating between ameloblastomas and KCOT. However, the DCE-MRI parameters of odontogenic tumours, except for odontogenic fibromas and odontogenic myxomas, contributed little to their differential diagnosis.

Fujita, M; Matsuzaki, H; Yanagi, Y; Hara, M; Katase, N; Hisatomi, M; Unetsubo, T; Konouchi, H; Nagatsuka, H; Asaumi, J-I

2013-01-01

67

Odontogenic tumours: A review of 266 cases  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumours at a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, as well as to study the various histologic types based on WHO 2005 classification and to compare results from this study with those of previous studies. Study design: The records of the Oral Pathology Department of University College Hospital were reviewed. Lesions diagnosed as odontogenic tumours were categorized into four groups based on WHO 2005 classification and were analyzed for age, sex and site using SPSS for Window (version 18.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL) and frequency tables were generated. Results: Two hundred and sixty six (41.7%) cases of odontogenic tumours were seen. The mean age of occurrence was 32.6 (±15.815) years (range3-82 years) and peak age was in the third decade of life. Eleven (4.1%) malignant odontogenic tumours were seen. Ameloblastoma with 65.4% of cases was the most common odontogenic tumour followed by fibromyxoma (14.7%), no case of odontoma was seen in this series. Conclusion: The findings were mostly similar to those of African and Asian series and showed variations from reports from the Americas. The reason for the disparity in African and American series needs further investigations. Key words:Odontogenic tumour, classification, Nigeria.

Adisa, Akinyele O.; Olusanya, Adeola A.

2013-01-01

68

Protection of chicks against Salmonella infantis infection induced by strict anaerobically cultured intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments newly hatched broilers were orally inoculated either with intestinal microfloras cultured under different conditions or with a suspension of intestinal homogenate and challenged with high doses (3 x 10 c.f.u. per chick) of Salmonella infantis organisms.Inocula were prepared from intestinal material of mature SPF WL hens under aerobic or strictly anaerobic conditions (< 5 ppm oxygen), and

E. Goren; W. A. de Jong; P. Doornenbal; J. P. Koopman; H. M. Kennis

1984-01-01

69

Immunolocalization of PTCH Protein in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human patched gene (PTCH) functions in both embryologic development and tumor suppression. PTCH mutations have been found in odontogenic keratocysts. However, the expression and localization of the protein product of the gene have not been determined in odontogenic tumors and cysts. We investigated 68 odontogenic lesions by immunohistochemistry, and compared their PTCH expression with that in basal cell carcinomas.

D. C. Barreto; A. E. Bale; L. De Marco; R. S. Gomez

2002-01-01

70

Frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A systematic review of the literature from 1993 to 2011 was undertaken examining frequency data of the most common odontogenic cysts and tumors. Seven inclusion criteria were met for the paper to be incorporated. In the preliminary search 5231 papers were identified, of these 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. There were 18 297 odontogenic cysts reported. Of these there were 9982 (54.6%) radicular cysts, 3772 (20.6%) dentigerous cysts and 2145 (11.7%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors. With the reclassification of keratocystic odontogenic tumor in 2005 as an odontogenic tumor, there were 8129 odontogenic tumors reported with 3001 (36.9%) ameloblastomas, 1163 (14.3%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors, 533 (6.5%) odontogenic myxomas, 337 (4.1%) adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and 127 (1.6%) ameloblastic fibromas. This systematic review found that odontogenic cysts are 2.25 times more frequent than odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cyst and tumor were the radicular cyst and ameloblastoma respectively. PMID:23766099

Johnson, Nigel R; Gannon, Orla M; Savage, Neil W; Batstone, Martin D

2014-02-01

71

Conserved odontogenic potential in embryonic dental tissues.  

PubMed

Classic tissue recombination studies have demonstrated that, in the early developing mouse tooth germ, the odontogenic potential, known as the tooth-inductive capability, resides initially in the dental epithelium and then shifts to the dental mesenchyme. However, it remains unknown if human embryonic dental tissues also acquire such odontogenic potential. Here we present evidence that human embryonic dental tissues indeed possess similar tooth-inductive capability. We found that human dental epithelium from the cap stage but not the bell stage was able to induce tooth formation when confronted with human embryonic lip mesenchyme. In contrast, human dental mesenchyme from the bell stage but not the cap stage could induce mouse embryonic second-arch epithelium as well as human keratinocyte stem cells, to become enamel-secreting ameloblasts. We showed that neither post-natal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) nor stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) possess odontogenic potential or are odontogenic-competent. Our results demonstrate a conservation of odontogenic potential in mouse and human dental tissues during early tooth development, and will have an implication in the future generation of stem-cell-based bioengineered human replacement teeth. PMID:24554539

Hu, X; Lin, C; Shen, B; Ruan, N; Guan, Z; Chen, Y; Zhang, Y

2014-05-01

72

[Extraoral odontogenic fistulas: a classification and a differential diagnosis from other type head and neck fistulas].  

PubMed

The majority of extraoral facial fistulas are of odontogenic origin. Although the differential diagnosis of draining lesions should include various types of skin infection, infected tumour, specific infections, failed wound healing, foreign body, salivary gland fistula, sebaceous cysts and developmental cysts and fistulas. This report documents a group of patients with extraoral draining skin lesions and illustrates that their diagnosis is very important because clinically they can resemble many pathologic entities. One hundred and twenty-eight cases of extraoral fistulas are presented in this paper. This study aims to analyse a number of fistula cases so as to give a clear idea about relative frequency of etiology and to attract to some cases of non odontogenic etiology. PMID:3153689

Antoniadis, K; Triaridis, C; Dimitriou, C; Kommata, A; Karakasis, D

1988-01-01

73

Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

2014-01-01

74

Glandular odontogenic cyst: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst of jaws with a relative frequency between 0.012 and 1.3%. GOC is very rare and only 111 cases have been documented in the English literature so far. Generally, this cyst is encountered in the anterior areas of the mandible and is more common with a wide age range, the mean age being 49.5 years and has a tendency to recur. GOC is often misdiagnosed because of its overlapping histopathological features with that of other odontogenic cysts such as lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) or botryoid cyst and central low-grade Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of GOC is challenging for pathologist. Here, we present a case of GOC in a 40 year old male patient in left mandibular region that crossed the midline.

Shah, Monali; Kale, Hemant; Ranginwala, Amena; Patel, Govind

2014-01-01

75

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2011-01-01

76

Myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies to facilitate communication between medical and dental staff: lessons from two cases experienced odontogenic septicemia  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic diseases can be a risk factor for life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy that induces myelosuppression of variable severity. Previous studies noted the necessity of the elimination of all odontogenic foci before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To enable planning for the adequate dental intervention, the oral medicine team must understand the general status of patient and the intensity of the chemotherapy, which is sometimes difficult to be fully appreciated by dental staff. Therefore, a simplified grading would facilitate the sharing of information between hematologists, dentists and oral hygienists. This study aimed to introduce our myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies and analyze the timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection. Methods 37 patients having received various chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimens were classified into four grades based on the persistency of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy. Mild myelosuppressive chemotherapies were classified as grade A, moderate ones as grade B, severe ones as grade C, and chemotherapies that caused severe myelosuppression and persistent immunodeficiency (known as conditioning regimens for transplant) as grade D. The timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection was retrospectively investigated. Results Two patients (5.4%) had severe odontogenic infections after grade B or C chemotherapy. One occurred after extraction of non-salvageable teeth; the other resulted from advanced periodontitis in a tooth that could not be extracted because of thrombocytopenia. Both were de novo hematologic malignancy patients. During grade D chemotherapy, no patients had severe odontogenic infections. Conclusions The simplified grading introduced in this study is considered a useful tool for understanding the myelosuppressive state caused by chemotherapy and facilitating communication between medical and dental staff. During the period around the primary chemotherapy, especially for de novo hematologic malignancy patients who often received grade B to C myelosuppression chemotherapy, caution should be exercised for severe odontogenic infection by the oral medicine team, irrespective of whether invasive treatment is to be performed.

2013-01-01

77

Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?  

PubMed Central

The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC.

Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

2013-01-01

78

Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?  

PubMed

The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC. PMID:24082717

Nayak, Meghanand T; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

2013-07-01

79

[Modifying action of oxytocin on the biological properties of the causative agents of anaerobic non-clostridial infection].  

PubMed

In a number of in vitro experiments the effect of oxytocin on the antilysozyme and anticomplemental activity of Propiobacterium propionicum, Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica and Peptostreprtococcus anaerobius, isolated from patients with acute pyoinflammatory pleuropulmonary diseases, was studied. Antibiotic resistance dynamics of the infective agents under study to lincomycin, clindamycin, thienam, vancomycin was also detected. The inhibiting activity of oxytocin on the persistence properties of B. fragilis, P. melanogenica and P. anaerobius was noted. Under the influence of the preparations used changes in the sensitivity of the strains to a number of antibiotics of the lincosamide, carbapenem and glycopeptide groups were found to occur. The data thus obtained were indicative of the possible mechanisms of action of oxytocin in the treatment of acute pyoinflammatory pleuropulmonary diseases of anaerobic nonclostridial etiology. PMID:12966884

Abramzon, O M; Kirillov, D A; Pan'kov, A S; Perunova, N B; Elagina, N N; Valyshev, A V; Bukharin, O V

2003-01-01

80

p53 and PCNA Expression in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Compared with Selected Odontogenic Cysts  

PubMed Central

p53 and PCNA expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors compared with selected odontogenic cysts Summary: The aim of this study was to evaluate p53 and PCNA expression in different odontogenic lesions regarding their different clinical behaviors. Slices prepared from 94 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (25 radicular cysts (RC), 23 dentigerous cysts (DC), 23 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and 23 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT)) were stained with p53 and PCNA antibodies using immunohistochemistry procedure. The highest level of p53 expression was in the basal layer of RC, and the highest level of PCNA expression was in the suprabasal layer of KCOT. The differences of p53 expression in basal and suprabasal layers as well as PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer were significant but there was no significant difference in PCNA expression in the basal layer of these lesions. The expression of p53 in the basal layer of RC was higher than in other cysts. This may be due to intensive inflammatory infiltration. Also, the high level of PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer of KCOT may justify its neoplastic nature and tendency to recurrence. KCOT and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors did not show similar expression of studied biomarkers.

Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Siadati, Sepideh; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Keshmiri, Nazanin

2013-01-01

81

p53 and PCNA Expression in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Compared with Selected Odontogenic Cysts.  

PubMed

p53 and PCNA expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors compared with selected odontogenic cysts Summary: The aim of this study was to evaluate p53 and PCNA expression in different odontogenic lesions regarding their different clinical behaviors. Slices prepared from 94 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (25 radicular cysts (RC), 23 dentigerous cysts (DC), 23 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and 23 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT)) were stained with p53 and PCNA antibodies using immunohistochemistry procedure. The highest level of p53 expression was in the basal layer of RC, and the highest level of PCNA expression was in the suprabasal layer of KCOT. The differences of p53 expression in basal and suprabasal layers as well as PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer were significant but there was no significant difference in PCNA expression in the basal layer of these lesions. The expression of p53 in the basal layer of RC was higher than in other cysts. This may be due to intensive inflammatory infiltration. Also, the high level of PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer of KCOT may justify its neoplastic nature and tendency to recurrence. KCOT and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors did not show similar expression of studied biomarkers. PMID:24551811

Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Siadati, Sepideh; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Keshmiri, Nazanin

2013-01-01

82

Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

83

Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the\\u000a fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised\\u000a patients, and has a high mortality rate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case presentation  A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling

Rubi Lopez-Fernandez; Jorge Ramirez-Melgoza; Nora Ernestina Martinez-Aguilar; Alicia Leon-Chavez; Daniel Martinez-Fong; Juan Antonio Gonzalez-Barrios

2011-01-01

84

New findings and controversies in odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions that ranges from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of variable aggressiveness. This article shows how the lack of uniform criteria employed for their proper identification, as well as the histomorphologic similitude found among some of them which behaves in different way, and the scantiness of proper methods to determine their precise

Adalberto Mosqueda Taylor

85

C-Reactive Protein in Odontogenous Osteomyelitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During acute odontogenous osteomyelitis of the jaws, C-reactive protein appears in the blood, and the quantity of it depends on the acuteness of inflammation and the body temperature. The content of C-reactive protein is found in a reversely proportional ...

A. F. Medvedeva

1966-01-01

86

Small Central Odontogenic Fibroma Mimicking Hyperplastic Dental Follicle and Dentigerous Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central odontogenic fibroma has been defined as a benign odontogenic tumor, representing the intraosseous counterpart of a\\u000a peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The odontogenic fibroma is a rare tumor. Differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions in\\u000a the molar-premolar region of mandible which involve impacted tooth may include central odontogenic fibroma, hyperplastic dental\\u000a follicle, dentigerous cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. We describe

Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic; Belini Freire-Maia; Ricardo Santiago Gomez

87

The acute phase of experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is more severe in mice monoassociated with strict anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

1. The influence of some components of the normal human intestinal flora on the acute phase of experimental infection with strain CL of Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in 30-day-old germ-free or gnotobiotic CFW (LOB) mice monoassociated with Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp or Clostridium sp by intragastric inoculation of 10(6) bacteria 10 days before the intraperitoneal infection with 5 x 10(3) trypomastigotes/g body weight. 2. Significantly earlier parasitemia peak and mortality were observed in Bacteroides fragilis- and Clostridium-associated mice (16.75 +/- 0.96 and 15.00 +/- 1.15 days, respectively) when compared with germfree animals (18.83 +/- 1.17 days). More precocious mortality (10.40 +/- 2.06 days) and, curiously, much lower blood parasitemia were observed in Peptostreptococcus-associated mice than in other gnotobiotic mice. 3. The extent of cardiac tissue parasitism decreased in the following order: germfree, B. fragilis-associated, Clostridium-associated, and Peptostreptococcus-associated animals. The levels of inflammatory reaction decreased in the following order: germfree, Peptostreptococcus-associated, Clostridium-associated, and B. fragilis-associated mice. 4. These results show that the acute phase of experimental infection with T. cruzi was more severe in mice associated with strict anaerobic bacteria when compared with germfree animals. This suggests that a normal intestinal flora may be another factor, in addition to nutritional and genetic factors, responsible for the different susceptibility of organisms of the same species infected with T. cruzi. PMID:1342224

Barros, M C; Vieira, E C; Silva, M E; Silva, M E; Bambirra, E A; Nicoli, J R

1992-01-01

88

Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor gene, the mutations of which are closely related to the decreased differentiation of cells. Findings of studies on immunohistochemical P53 expression in odontogenic cysts are controversial. The present study was carried-out to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts. Thirty paraffin blocks of diagnosed odontogenic cysts were processed to determine

Essam Taher M. A. Gaballah; Mohamed A. Tawfik

2010-01-01

89

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient.

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-01-01

90

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla  

PubMed Central

The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position.

Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

2013-01-01

91

Sitafloxacin: in bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Sitafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial with in vitro activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including anaerobic bacteria, as well as against atypical pathogens. It is approved in Japan for use in a number of bacterial infections caused by sitafloxacin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, other Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In terms of clinical efficacy, oral sitafloxacin was noninferior to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia or an infectious exacerbation of chronic respiratory tract disease, noninferior to oral tosufloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, and noninferior to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, according to the results of randomized, double-blind, multicentre, noninferiority trials. Noncomparative studies demonstrated the efficacy of oral sitafloxacin in otorhinolaryngological infections, urethritis in men, C. trachomatis-associated cervicitis in women and odontogenic infections. Gastrointestinal disorders and laboratory abnormalities were the most commonly occurring adverse reactions in patients receiving oral sitafloxacin. Adverse reactions reported in sitafloxacin recipients in the active comparator trials were of mild to moderate severity. PMID:21504249

Keating, Gillian M

2011-04-16

92

p53 protein in odontogenic cysts: increased expression in some odontogenic keratocysts.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess p53 protein expression in a range of odontogenic cysts arising in the mouth, including those of developmental and inflammatory origin. METHODS: p53 protein was identified using the polyclonal antibody CM-1, together with a standard immunoperoxidase technique. A total of 36 cystic lesions were examined, all of which were histologically benign. RESULTS: Expression of p53 protein was identified within the lining of five of 12 odontogenic keratocysts but was not detected in the other cystic lesions in the series. CONCLUSIONS: This is believed to be the first report that identifies increased expression of p53 protein in benign cystic epithelium. The increased expression of p53 protein in the nucleus is usually associated with malignant disease. These findings are relevant to the management of odontogenic keratocysts which have a tendency to recur, and also to Gorlin Goltz syndrome in which keratocysts and multiple basal cell carcinomas are features. Images

Ogden, G. R.; Chisholm, D. M.; Kiddie, R. A.; Lane, D. P.

1992-01-01

93

PTCH1 and SMO Gene Alterations in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs, previously known as odontogenic keratocysts) are aggressive jaw lesions that may occur in isolation or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Mutations in the PTCH1 (PTCH) gene are responsible for NBCCS and are related in tumors associated with this syndrome. Mutations in the SMO gene have been identified in basal cell carcinoma and

L.-S. Sun; X.-F. Li; T.-J. Li

2008-01-01

94

Cell proliferation and apoptosis in keratocystic odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs), also known as odontogenic keratocysts, were recently classified as a benign neoplasia due to the aggressive clinical behavior. Although several studies have shown the high prolifera- tive activity of the epithelial lining, few studies have evaluated apoptosis in KOTs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the proliferation index (PI) and

Gláucia Cardoso; Paixão Mateus; Santos Pena Lanza; Pedro Henrique; Ribeiro de Moura; Martinho Campolina; Rebello Horta; Mateus GCP; Lanza GHSP; Moura PHR; Marigo HA; Horta MCR

2008-01-01

95

Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions  

PubMed Central

P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (P = 0.86). Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells.

Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Eini, Ebrahim

2013-01-01

96

Immunohistochemical expression of amelogenins in odontogenic epithelial tumours and cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amelogenins, enamel proteins in odontogenic tumours, were detected immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody. They were strongly expressed in amyloid-like material, ghost cells, and the cells surrounding ghost cells of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts, whereas calcified bodies within the tumours and cysts showed negative staining. The expression of amelogenins was also positive in tumour cells of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid

M. Mori; K. Yamada; T. Kasai; T. Yamada; H. Shimokawa; S. Sasaki

1991-01-01

97

Odontogenic keratocyst of the maxilla presenting as periodontal abscess.  

PubMed

This is a case report of an odontogenic keratocyst of the maxilla initially diagnosed and treated as a periodontal abscess. The occurrence of odontogenic keratocyst in the maxilla with involvement of the antrum is relatively rare. The radiological appearance of this lesion on both conventional and panoramic radiography can be misinterpreted and emphasizes the usefulness of the computed tomography in this region. PMID:11699363

Marzella, M L; Poon, C Y; Peck, R

2000-12-01

98

Small central odontogenic fibroma mimicking hyperplastic dental follicle and dentigerous cyst.  

PubMed

Central odontogenic fibroma has been defined as a benign odontogenic tumor, representing the intraosseous counterpart of a peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The odontogenic fibroma is a rare tumor. Differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions in the molar-premolar region of mandible which involve impacted tooth may include central odontogenic fibroma, hyperplastic dental follicle, dentigerous cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. We describe an example of a small central odontogenic fibroma mimicking hyperplastic dental follicle and dentigerous cyst, resulting in uneruption of a primary tooth. PMID:25018609

Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Freire-Maia, Belini; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

2014-09-01

99

Multiple non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts in three siblings.  

PubMed

Occurrence of multiple cysts (MC) involving the jaw is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of MC without syndromic association is extremely rare. Multiple odontogenic cysts mostly could be odontogenic keratocysts or dentigerous cysts. Odontogenic keratocyst shows involvement of mandible over maxilla, with peak incidence in second and third decade and it is exceedingly rare before 10 years of age. However multiple odontogenic keratocysts found in children are often reflective of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Here is a case report which documents multiple jaw cysts involving both the jaws, in three siblings of ages 10, 13 and 17 years with negative parental history. All three reported cases were free of any systemic involvement. As odontogenic keratocyst spreads through bone marrow, destruction is more before any clinical manifestation. Therefore, early detection and intervention are essential in preventing extensive destruction. PMID:23505078

Nirwan, Amit; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Saikhedkar, Rashmi; Karun, Vinayak

2013-01-01

100

A Huge Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor of Maxilla  

PubMed Central

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign, nonneoplastic (hamartomatous) lesion with a slow progressing growth. It occurs in both intraosseous and peripheral forms. This paper reports the case of a female aged 16 years who presented with a swelling in anterior maxilla; canine was missing, and a supernumerary tooth was present in the mid line. Radiology revealed a well-defined radiolucent area associated with impacted canine and root resorption of adjacent teeth, which was diagnosed histopathologically as AOT. The patient was treated surgically and later rehabilitated with fixed prosthesis.

Shreedhar, Balasundari; Ali, Iqbal; Agarwal, Anshita; Alam, Sarwar

2012-01-01

101

[Inflammatory odontogenic lesions of the jaws].  

PubMed

The apical granuloma, the periapical abcess and the radicular cyst are the most frequent between the inflammatory odontogenic lesions of the jaws. These three lesions are caused by the necrosis of the pulp but are very different between each other from an histological point of view and they can correspond to different stages of the same pathological process considering the fact that from a granuloma can arise a periapical abcess or a radicular cyst and from a radicular cyst and abcess can originate. About these three pathological processes we discuss in this article the clinical, radiographical, ethiological, microscopical features, we suggest the treatment and the differential diagnosis. PMID:2070926

Gallini, G; Merlini, C; Martelossi, L; Benetti, C

1991-04-15

102

Immunocytochemical expression of growth factors by odontogenic jaw cysts.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the immunocytochemical pattern of expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and TGF beta in the three most common types of odontogenic jaw cyst. METHODS: Growth factor expression was detected in paraffin wax sections of odontogenic cysts (27 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, and 10 radicular cysts) using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase technique with monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF alpha (clone 213-4.4) and TGF beta (clone TB21) and a polyclonal antibody directed against EGF (Z-12). RESULTS: The epithelial linings of all cysts showed reactivity for TGF alpha which was mainly localised to basal and suprabasal layers. Odontogenic keratocyst linings expressed higher levels of TGF alpha than those of dentigerous and radicular cysts, with 89% (24/27) of odontogenic keratocysts exhibiting a strong positive reaction compared with 50% (five of 10) of dentigerous and radicular cysts, respectively. EGF reactivity was similar in all cyst groups, weaker than that for TGF alpha and predominantly suprabasal. TGF alpha and EGF were also detected in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells within the cyst walls. The most intense TGF beta staining in odontogenic cysts was extracellular within the fibrous tissue capsules, irrespective of cyst type. CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with previous studies of EGF receptor, indicate differential expression of TGF alpha, EGF and their common receptor between the different types of odontogenic cyst, suggesting that these growth factors (via autocrine or paracrine, or both, pathways) may be involved in their pathogenesis. Images

Li, T.; Browne, R. M.; Matthews, J. B.

1997-01-01

103

Anaerobic bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen. In humans, ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

104

A Cross-Sectional Survey of Prevalence of Odontogenic Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  To analyze the relative frequency of different types of odontogenic tumors based on the WHO 2005 histopathological classification\\u000a of odontogenic tumours and to compare the data with published literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data collected from seven different hospitals in the same region of the city (south Chennai) were systematically searched\\u000a for all cases of odontogenic tumors operated on between the years 2005–2010. The

Vijay Ebenezer; Balakrishnan Ramalingam

2010-01-01

105

Non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocysts are very well documented in the literature. Multiple odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most frequent features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). It is linked with mutation in the PTCH gene (human homolog of the drosophila segment polarity gene, “patched”,). Partial expression of the gene may result in occurrence of only multiple recurring OKC without any associated systemic findings. A rare case of multiple odontogenic keratocysts unassociated with any syndrome is reported, so as to add to the growing number of such cases in the literature. The possibility of this case being a partial expression of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is discussed.

Kurdekar, Raghavendra S.; Prakash, Jeevan; Rana, A. S.; Kalra, Puneet

2013-01-01

106

Activity of Gatifloxacin Compared to Those of Five Other Quinolones versus Aerobic and Anaerobic Isolates from Skin and Soft Tissue Samples of Human and Animal Bite Wound Infections  

PubMed Central

The activity of gatifloxacin against 308 aerobes and 112 anaerobes isolated from bite wound infections was studied. Gatifloxacin was active at ?0.016 ?g/ml against all 148 Pasteurella isolates (eight species and three subspecies) tested and all other aerobes tested, including Actinobacillus-Haemophilus spp., Eikenella corrodens, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, staphylococci, and streptococci. Fusobacteria were sometimes resistant. Gatifloxacin MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 0.125 ?g/ml against Bacteroides tectum and Prevotella spp., 0.25 ?g/ml against Porphyromonas spp., and 0.5 ?g/ml against peptostreptococci.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; TyRrell, Kerin; Warren, Yumi

1999-01-01

107

Multiple odontogenic keratocysts associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.  

PubMed

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with a predisposition to cancer. Features like basal cell carcinoma, odontogenic keratocysts, calcification of falx cerebri, bifid ribs, pits on palms and soles and hypertelorism are evident. A case of this rare disease seen on a 13 year old female patient is presented here, where multiple odontogenic keratocysts were causing disfigurement of the lower jaw as well as displacement and malocclusion of the lower teeth. PMID:20502085

Dixit, S; Acharya, S; Dixit, P B

2009-01-01

108

Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) derived from keratocystic odontogenic tumor is an extremely rare tumor that is limited to the jaws. Most intraosseous carcinomas originate from the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts, so they are called odontogenic carcinomas. They occur more frequently in men and the mean age of patients is 57 years. The following report describes an extremely rare case

Farnaz Falaki; Zahra Delavarian; Jahanshah Salehinejad; Shadi Saghafi

109

[An update: keratocystic odontogenic tumor--a cyst to a tumor].  

PubMed

According to the 2005 WHO classification of head neck tumors the parakeratinized form of the odontogenic keratocyst (primordial cyst) is listed as benign odontogenic tumor and is classified as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). In this short communication the surgical regimen as well as KCOT as an entity are discussed. PMID:23945714

Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

2014-01-01

110

Characterization and management of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor in relation to its histopathological and biological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), formerly referred to as odontogenic keratocyst, is a benign neoplasm of odontogenic origin which may present an aggressive and infiltrative behavior leading to high recurrence rates. A review of the various treatment modalities, ranging from simple enucleation to radical surgery is portrayed in relation to clinical, radiological, histopathological and molecular features. Although prognostic factors based on

Rui Amaral Mendes; João F. C. Carvalho; Isaac van der Waal

2010-01-01

111

Odontogenic tumors: A review of 319 cases in a Nigerian teaching hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study sought to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in a Nigerian population and to compare these data with previous reports. Study design. Records of patients seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital between January 1980 and December 2003, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on World Health Organisation classification, 1992), were analyzed. Results. Odontogenic tumors

Akinola Ladipo Ladeinde; Oluseyi Folake Ajayi; Mobolanle Olugbemiga Ogunlewe; Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo; Godwin Toyin Arotiba; Babatunde Olamide Bamgbose; Jelili Adisa Akinwande

2005-01-01

112

Assessment of MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiographical differentiation of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) from dentigerous cysts, calcifying odontogenic cysts, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, odontogenic keratocysts and amelobastomas is sometimes difficult. We attempted to differentiate AOT from other lesions similar to AOT in radiographic findings using MRI. The MRI features of AOT in our three cases included homogeneous low SI in the cystic portion and homogeneous

Jun-ichi Asaumi; Yoshinobu Yanagi; Hironobu Konouchi; Miki Hisatomi; Hidenobu Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Shigehara; Kanji Kishi

2004-01-01

113

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst of the mandible: A rare case report with a systematic review.  

PubMed

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst was initially termed as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst by the World Health Organization. It usually occurs in mandible. Various studies have shown that OOC has typical characteristic clinicopathologic features when compared to other developmental odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cyst and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Rare recurrence was noted after surgical removal of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to present a case of OOC arising in the posterior mandible and emphasize on differentiating it from the KCOT and dentigerous cyst. PMID:24818100

Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Vadera, Hitesh; Sharma, Vimal; Bhad, Kaustubh; Patel, Zinal; Thakkar, Mimansa

2014-01-01

114

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst of the mandible: A rare case report with a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst was initially termed as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst by the World Health Organization. It usually occurs in mandible. Various studies have shown that OOC has typical characteristic clinicopathologic features when compared to other developmental odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cyst and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Rare recurrence was noted after surgical removal of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to present a case of OOC arising in the posterior mandible and emphasize on differentiating it from the KCOT and dentigerous cyst.

Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Vadera, Hitesh; Sharma, Vimal; Bhad, Kaustubh; Patel, Zinal; Thakkar, Mimansa

2014-01-01

115

Orthokeratinizing odontogenic cyst of maxilla with complex odontoma  

PubMed Central

The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) and odontoma are the odontogenic cyst and tumor respectively that are minimally invasive neoplasms of head and neck region. OOC is a rare variant of odontogenic cyst characterized by the presence of excessive orthokeratin covering the cystic lining. Odontoma is a benign neoplasm/hamartoma often discovered accidently on panoramic radiographs. We came across a case of a 26-year-old male with swelling on his face along with difficulty in breathing. On the basis of radiographic and histopathological findings the final diagnosis of OOC associated with odontoma was given. However, there is no report in the English literature of the simultaneous occurrence of these two lesions and hence this case is very rare. It is unclear whether the two lesions were just coincidental or were actually related to each other.

Kulkarni, Meena; Kheur, Supriya; Agrawal, Tripti; Ingle, Yashwant

2013-01-01

116

Odontogenic myxofibroma synchronous with primary angiosarcoma of the spleen  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxofibroma of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare tumour; moreover, primary splenic angiosarcoma (PAS) in paediatric patients is extremely rare. We report on a 15-year-old boy who presented with right TMJ swelling and subsequently developed epigastric and right upper quadrant pain. The TMJ swelling proved to be odontogenic myxofibroma and the abdominal pain was a result of primary splenic angiosarcoma with hepatic metastasis. We report for the first time the synchronous presentation of PAS and odontogenic myxofibroma in a paediatric patient, and we describe the radiological features along with the histological diagnosis and clinical outcome. Uptake in 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is also described for the first time for both these tumours.

Hadidy, A; Alsharif, A; Sheikh-Ali, R; Abukhalaf, M; Awidi, A; Abukaraki, A; Nimri, C; Omari, A

2010-01-01

117

Odontogenic Fibromyxoma of Maxilla: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Fibromyxoma is a rare odontogenic tumour which is benign, but locally aggressive. The etiology of these tumours is unknown, but because of its limitation to the teeth bearing areas and occasional presence of odontogenic epithelial fragments within the tumour which suggest that it is of odontogenic origin. It is a slow growing painless tumour that frequently occurs in second and third decades of life. Females are more commonly affected than males. The tumour can cause gradual expansion of the cortical plates and cause loosening and displacement of teeth, although root resorption may be rare. The surgical treatment of these tumours consists of complete enucleation or radical excision. The aim of this paper is to present the rarity of a fibromyxoma of the maxilla.

Reddy, G. Siva Prasad; Kumar, B. Surya; Muppa, Radhika; Regonda, Shravan Kumar; TVS, Harish Kumar

2013-01-01

118

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation.

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

119

Intraosseous carcinoma arising from an odontogenic cyst: a case report.  

PubMed

Carcinomas from an odontogenic cyst are not common, yet when they occur, squamous cell carcinomas are the most often seen. Among these cysts, the malignancy of keratocysts or dentigerous cysts are most likely. In contrast, a malignant transformation of a radicular cyst to an intraosseous carcinoma is extremely rare. In this case report, an intraosseous carcinoma arising from an odontogenic cyst in a 26-year-old male patient is presented. This case report clearly demonstrates the importance of the clinician's awareness of the malignant potential of apparently innocuous cystic lesions. PMID:22921445

Bereket, Cihan; Bekçio?lu, Burak; Koyuncu, Mehmet; ?ener, ?smail; Kandemir, Bedri; Türer, Akif

2013-12-01

120

CT imaging findings of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour.  

PubMed

We report a case of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT), also known as a Pindborg tumour, with local aggressive behaviour. CT imaging showed a large expansile bone-forming lesion in the mandible, which showed the exact extent and nature of the lesion. We briefly discuss the imaging features of CEOT and the relevant literature. PMID:22190756

Venkateswarlu, M; Geetha, P; Lakshmi Kavitha, N

2012-01-01

121

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumours are known for their peculiar behaviour, varied origin, debated development, unique tendency to recur and disputed treatment modalities. Thus, it has been the subject of much research over the last 40 years. It was formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). OKC received its new title as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by the WHO (2005) in order to suggest its aggressive and recurrent nature. KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of an 11-year-old child with extensive KCOT and an impacted canine in the right maxillary sinus. The cyst was initially misdiagnosed to be a dentigerous cyst based on the clinical and radiographic features though a differential diagnosis of KCOT and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The histological examination of the specimen finally confirmed it to be a KCOT. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour along with its surgical management have been discussed. PMID:23429028

Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish; Barua, Pranamee; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

122

Comparison between the peripheral ossifying fibroma and peripheral odontogenic fibroma.  

PubMed

This study presents previously unreported data on a series of 400 peripheral ossifying fibromas (POFs) and 13 peripheral odontogenic fibromas (PODFs). The differences between the two lesions are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reports in the literature. It is concluded that the lesions represent separate pathologic entities. PMID:2926546

Kenney, J N; Kaugars, G E; Abbey, L M

1989-04-01

123

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour mimicking a periapical cyst in pregnant woman.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOT) are uncommon odontogenic lesions characterized histologi-cally by duct-like structures derived from the epithelial component of the lesion and can be distinctly classified into follicular, extrafollicular and extraosseous variants (Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, et al. Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor. A Text Book for Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 2(nd) edition, 621-3). Most of these tumours develop in the second or third decade of life and have a distinct predilection for women. The follicular variant accounts for 75% of reported cases (Curran AE, Miller EJ, Murrah VA. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor presenting as periapical disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997;84:557-60) and is associated with the crown of an impacted tooth, commonly the maxillary canine. We present a rare case of extrafollicular AOT mimicking a periapical cyst that originated in a woman in her first trimester of pregnancy and enlarged rapidly thereafter. The lesion was enucleated and sent for histopathology and immunohistochemistry, which revealed AOT with a cystic component with no dependence on oestrogen or progestrone for its growth. This case of AOT introduces us to the unique variation in its presentation and the difficulty in differentiation from periapical disease of inflammatory origin. PMID:23739254

Bhandari, Neha; Kothari, Mohit

2010-06-01

124

Non-Syndromic Recurrent Multiple Odontogenic Keratocysts: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most frequent features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBS). It is linked with mutation in the PTCH gene. Partial expression of the gene may result in occurrence of only multiple recurring OKC. Our patient presented with nine cysts with multiple recurrences over a period of 11 years without any other manifestation of the syndrome.

Bartake, AR.; Shreekanth, NG.; Prabhu, S.; Gopalkrishnan, K.

2011-01-01

125

Microbiological examination and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck. Has anything changed?  

PubMed

Because of the growing concern about antibiotic resistance, we aimed to investigate whether the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck have changed in the last 30-40 years. We retrospectively studied 150 patients admitted for inpatient treatment of infections in the head and neck, and searched published reports from the last 30 - 40 years for comparison. There were 85 male and 65 female patients (mean age 39 years, range 1-95). Most infections originated from the teeth (n = 111) and skin (n = 16), and the submandibular (69%) and buccal (67%) spaces were involved most often. Multiple spaces were involved in 94 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity in 102 cases, and microorganisms were isolated in 91 (89%), of which 67 (74%) were aerobic infections and 24 (26%) were anaerobic. Bacteria were isolated in 87 (96%) cultures of which 60 (69%) were Gram-positive. Gram-positive cocci were isolated in 62% of cultures. The most common bacteria isolated were streptococci. Seventy percent of the bacteria were sensitive to amoxicillin and 84% to amoxicillin and metronidazole; 14% (Staphylococcus aureus from infections of the skin) were resistant to penicillin. A comparison of our results with those found in previous reports shows no significant change in the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of odontogenic infections in the head and neck over the last 30 - 40 years. Amoxicillin still treats these infections effectively. PMID:24906249

Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J; Kotecha, Rushina; Sisodia, Bijal

2014-09-01

126

Heparinase production by anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The production of heparinase by a wide range of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens was investigated. None of the 29 strains of Bacteroides fragilis produced heparinase. Of 62 other Bacteroides tested, only two of four strains of B ovatus, two of three strains of B thetaiotaomicron, and two of four strains of B uniformis were heparinase producers. None of the 48 strains of fusobacteria or seven strains of Veillonella produced heparinase. The anaerobic cocci (19 peptococci and seven peptostreptococci) were also negative for heparinase production as were 46 Clostridium spp tested. It was concluded that heparinase production by anaerobic bacteria was unlikely to play a part in the regional thrombophlebitis that sometimes occurs in anaerobic infections.

Riley, T V

1987-01-01

127

The multifocal nature of odontogenic keratocysts.  

PubMed

The odontogenic keratocyst, OKC, is a very aggressive intraosseos lesion with a recurrence rate of approximately 25 percent to 60 percent.' The tendency for this lesion to "return" after surgical treatment has prompted studies to obtain more information concerning the inherent nature of the lesion. The OKC lesions are usually treated with enucleation of the soft tissue lining, curettage and ostectomy of the bony margins, or with more aggressive block resection. The purpose of this study was to characterize the multifocal aspect of the OKC and to demonstrate the presence of cystic lesions remote from the margins of the primarily diagnosed cyst itself. A retrospective chart review was conducted of seven patients who had sustained a long history of recurrent OKCs. Three types of documentation were reviewed for each patient: Orthopantomograms, cephalograms, and CT scans, which had been taken over the long-term course of the disease, Detailed operation reports of surgical procedures to treat the OKC lesions, and; Large histologic specimens from the six patients who received total resection of the involved mandibular bodies. These hemimandibulectomy slides offered a unique opportunity to observe OKC activity throughout a wide osseous area. All patients hod been operated multiple times over a period of 10 to 21 years, coming eventually to mandibular resection. The operating surgeon in all of the cases was one of the authors, Philip J. Boyne, DMD, MS, DSc. All patients exhibited the multifocal nature of OKCs with demonstrable cyst formation at distant sites in the mandible. Two patients had local recurrences at the margins of the primary lesion in addition to cyst formation at distant sites. The authors concluded that clinicians should respect the multifocal nature of OKCs. The "recurrences" observed in OKCs may not necessarily be due to the degree of skill of the surgeon or the technique used to eradicate the primary cyst, but instead are probably a reflection of the multifocal nature of the pathologic lesion itself. The OKC is a very aggressive intraosseos lesion of the jaws, which not infrequently clinicians detect in the process of routine oral examination. PMID:16454239

Boyne, Philip J; Hou, David; Moretta, Carlos; Pritchard, Tyler

2005-12-01

128

Odontogenic osteomyelitis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of mandible of patient with autoimmune disease: clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

The key to appropriate treatment of odontogenic osteomyelitis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the mandible in patients with autoimmune diseases lies in making the correct diagnosis based on meticulous review of signs and symptoms. As this complex case involving a patient with multiple comorbidities illustrates, diagnosis can be difficult, because these conditions may overlap or be mistaken for other conditions. However, prompt treatment is essential to limit the progression, which can be devastating for these medically complex patients. It is, therefore, important to understand local and systemic conditions that can weaken the immune system and predispose patients to chronic bone infection, meticulously go through signs and symptoms, and have a complete medical history, including patient medications. PMID:23631533

Tolstunov, Len; Cox, Darren; Javid, Bahram

2012-01-01

129

Immunohistochemical detection of laminin-1 and Ki67 in radicular cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Odontogenic cysts are those which arise from the epithelium associated with the development of teeth. Some odontogenic cysts\\u000a were found to have special biological features that make them distinct from other lesions. This study was conducted to detect\\u000a the immunoepxression of laminin-1 and Ki-67 in both radicular cysts (RCs) and keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and\\u000a to examine the possible predictive

Mohamed S Ayoub; Houry M Baghdadi; Moataz El-Kholy

2011-01-01

130

Immunohistochemical Expression of PCNA in Epithelial Linings of Selected Odontogenic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Aim: Though odontogenic lesions have in common origin from the primitive odontogenic epithelium , there is a diversity in their initiation behavior and growth. The aggressive nature of odontogenic keratocyst similar to ameloblastoma in comparision with the other common odontogenic (dentigerous and radicular) cyst could be due to possible differences in their epithelial linings. PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen) is a cell cycle related antigen, used in the study of cell kinetics of these epithelial linings, to corelate the biological behaviour among these common odontogenic lesions. Objectives: This paper has intended to study the cell kinetics of 4 selected odontogenic lesions (dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst,odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma) to demonstrate differences in their epithelial linings. Material and Methods: Sixty samples of paraffin embedded tissue specimens (archival tissues) were included (15 radicularcysts, 15 odontogenic keratocysts; 15 dentigerous cysts and15 Ameloblastoma. Results: Among cyst OKC had higher values than DC and RC. When staining results of all the cyst were compared individually with ameloblastoma ,the staining results of OKC was similar to ameloblastoma ,and ameloblastoma presented higher values than OKC (p=0.000). Conclusion: The results of this study show 1) Though OKC and DC are developmental in origin and radicular cyst is inflammatory, OKC has intrinsic growth potential among these cyst 2). Ameloblastoma has similar proliferative potential as OKC and hence it has been reinforced as KCOT(Keratocystic odontogenic tumour) in the recent classification.

Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Ranganathan, Kannan; T., Rooban; Roa K., Uma Devi; Joshua, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Afroz Syed; Chittamsetty, Harika

2013-01-01

131

Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic cyst in Indian population: a 10 year retrospective study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cyst in an Indian population and compare it with various reports from the other geographic areas of the world. The files on odontogenic jaw cysts treated between 2001 and 2011 at the oral and maxillofacial surgery unit were retrieved retrospectively. Patient's demographic information mainly age, sex and location of the lesion was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The diagnosis of odontogenic cyst accounted in 150 cases and accounted for 15.31 % of all lesions biopsied throughout the period. Mean age of the patient was 32.2 years, and 58 % were males. The overall male to female ratio was 1.38:1. Radicular cyst was most prevalent histological type (48.67 %) followed by dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, lateral periodontal cyst, paradental cyst, residual cyst, adult gingival cyst, glandular odontogenic cyst, calcifying odontogenic cyst. The most common locations of the odontogenic cysts were the mandibular (49.33 %) and posterior region (33.33 %). The distribution pattern of odontogenic cyst in this study is relatively similar to that in other parts of the world but there are some geographic differences with regard to the relative frequency, sex, and anatomic distribution of the odontogenic cyst. PMID:24644390

Kambalimath, Deepashri H; Kambalimath, H V; Agrawal, S M; Singh, Mamta; Jain, Neha; Anurag, B; Michael, P

2014-03-01

132

A case of central carcinoma of the mandible arising from a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst: delineation of surgical margins and reconstruction with bilateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps.  

PubMed

A case of central carcinoma of the mandible arising from a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst is reported. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the Tokai University Hospital due to postoperative infection of a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst of the left mandible. He had had a cystectomy for an odontogenic keratocyst 4 years ago. The lesion revealed bony destruction of the mandible with worm-eating shaped margins with extension to the facial skin. A biopsy specimen revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The mandible was resected with facial skin and the sublingual space was dissected to preserve the lingual nerve. The oral and the facial resections were reconstructed with a titanium plate and bilateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps. The plate was removed due to infection around the margins and readjustment of the flaps was conducted 5 months after the surgery. He has not had a local relapse, metastasis, or incisional hernia for 8 months following surgery. Good occlusion has been attained by the residual mandible, and he is able to eat without any problems. PMID:10359504

Ota, Y; Karakida, K; Watanabe, D; Miyasaka, M; Tsukinoki, K

1998-10-01

133

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor is an intraosseous benign tumor of epithelial origin that can appear as a unicystic or multicystic lesion. It is characterized most significantly by its high recurrence rate. This is why surgical removal is the chosen therapeutic approach in most cases. However, while surgery may be the safest technique to prevent recidivism, it may also result in numerous complications with large tumors. A number of authors have suggested a more conservative treatment for large keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The case examined in this article is that of a 48-year-old male patient who presented with a five-month swelling on the left side of his face, located in the mandibular area. PMID:23691729

Sanchez-Siles, Mariano; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Salazar-Sanchez, Noemi

2013-03-01

134

Frequency of Non-Odontogenic Pain After Endodontic Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is known about ill-defined pain that persists following endodontic procedures, including an estimate of the problem’s magnitude. We conducted a systematic review of prospective studies that reported the frequency of non-odontogenic pain in patients who had undergone endodontic procedures. Methods Non-odontogenic pain was defined as dentoalveolar pain present for 6 months or more after endodontic treatment without evidence of dental pathology. Endodontic procedures reviewed were non-surgical root canal treatment, retreatment, and surgical root canal treatment. Studies were searched in four databases electronically, complemented by hand searching. A summary estimate of non-odontogenic tooth pain frequency was derived using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Of 770 articles retrieved and reviewed, 10 met inclusion criteria and 9 had data on both odontogenic and non-odontogenic causes of pain. A total of 3,343 teeth were included; 1,125 had follow-up information regarding pain status. We identified 48 teeth with non-odontogenic pain and estimated a 3.4% (95% CI: 1.4 to 5.5%) frequency of occurrence. In 9 articles containing data regarding both odontogenic and non-odontogenic causes of tooth pain, 56% (44/78) of all cases were thought to have a non-odontogenic cause. Conclusions Non-odontogenic pain is not an uncommon outcome following root canal therapy and may represent half of all cases of persistent tooth pain. These findings have implications for diagnosis and treatment of painful teeth that were previously root canal treated since therapy directed at the tooth in question would not be expected to resolve non-odontogenic pain.

Nixdorf, Donald R.; Moana-Filho, Estephan J.; Law, Alan S.; McGuire, Lisa A.; Hodges, James S.; John, Mike T.

2010-01-01

135

The incidence of satellite cysts in keratocystic odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Renaming of the Odontogenic Keratocyst as the Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor by the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on the aggressive nature of this lesion. Satellite cysts founded in the walls of the original cysts may give rise to a new lesion formation. The aim of this retrospecitve study was to identify the existence of specific features according incidence of satellite cysts and the pallisading of the basal layer of the epithelium and to establish their mutual correlation. The histopathologic data of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor on the basis of new WHO's classification (2005) were analized. Prominent palisade basal cell layer was found in 415 (94.75%) and partially absent palisade basal cell layer in 23 (5.25%) cases. Satellite cysts were presented in prominent palisade basal cell layer in 85 specimens (20.5%) and in cases with partial absent of the palisade basal layer in 3 spicemens (13%). The higher the frequency of pallisading was the higher the frequency of satellite cysts was (p > 0.05). PMID:24851628

Paveli?, Boiidar; Katunari?, Marina; Segovi?, Sanja; Karadole, Maja Cimas; Katanec, Davor; Saban, Aida; Puhar, Ivan

2014-03-01

136

Odontogenic tumors in Iran, Isfahan: A study of 260 cases  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to record the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OTs), evaluate and analyze the epidemiological features of the lesions in patients referring to dental faculty of Isfahan and compare these data with previous studies. Materials and Methods: In this study, we reviewed the records of 6,860 lesions from 1988 to 2010 archived in the oral pathology department of dental faculty of Isfahan retrospectively and using criteria for histological typification published by the WHO in 2005. Age, sex, site and extent of tumors were analyzed. Results: Among recorded lesions 260 were OTs (3.79%). Of these, 259 were benign and just 1 was malignant. The most common lesions were ameloblastomas (n = 95) followed by odontomas (n = 86), odontogenic myxomas (n = 24) and others. There were a few more female patients (n = 133, 51.15%) than male and the mean age of patients was 27.8 years (range 1.5-80 years). The posterior of mandible was the most common site (n = 86, 33%). Conclusion: According to accumulated data, odontogenic tumors are uncommon lesions and malignant tumors are very rare.

Kowkabi, Mahsa; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Khosravi, Negin; Navabi, Amir Arsalan

2012-01-01

137

An adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with unusual clinical features.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumors are uncommon odontogenic lesions characterized by duct-like structures that form from the epithelial component of the lesion. Most of these masses develop in the second or third decade of life, and there is a strong female bias in occurrence. Typically, these lesions arise in the lateral incisor/canine region of the maxilla, where they produce a swelling. Only in very rare cases is the lesion found distal to the premolar area. Nearly all of these growths are associated with an embedded anterior maxillary tooth (usually a canine), and most resemble a 1-3 cm diameter dentigerous cyst. Radiopacity is reported in two-thirds of cases. This article describes the case of a 9-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a painless swelling in the left premolar-molar region of his maxilla. This case is of particular interest because the features (patient age, gender, lesion location, size, and radiographic findings) were not typical of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. PMID:11848196

Bulut, E; Tasar, F; Akkocaoglu, M; Ruacan, S

2001-12-01

138

Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Three Cases and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign intra-bone mass originating from dental lamina or its residue. It represents 2–11% of jaw cysts, and has a slow but aggressive growth. The evaluation of molecular characteristics, immunohistochemistry, and genetic expression currently have no established classification regarding the evolution and pathophysiologic pattern of these lesions. Case Report: This is a clinical retrospective study with a full analysis of patient history regarding physical evaluation, radiologic images, pathology results, and surgical resection. We performed a major literature review concerning current concepts relating to its biological characterization. Three cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were identified. Two of the cases were large, with aggressive behavior and significant bone destruction and recurrence, which had been overlooked for more than a decade. The third case had an early diagnosis, and the treatment led to full recovery and complete healing. Conclusion: The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign lesion with slow growth, which lends itself to a more conservative treatment, even in cases of large lesions. A better understanding of these tumors, both at the biological and molecular level, could lead to guidelines for treatment and prognosis of such patients.

Caixeta Guimaraes, Alexandre; Dutra de Cassia Ferreira Santos, Mariana; Machado de Carvalho, Guilherme; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

2013-01-01

139

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst - a clinicopathologic analysis of 116 reported cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To review the literature on primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) associated with odontogenic cyst. Methods: All well-documented cases of PIOSCC published between 1938 and 2010 were collected. Only cases of PIOSCC arising from the lining of an odontogenic cyst, including the keratocystic odontogenic tumor, were selected. Age, sex, signs and symptoms, affected jaw, cyst type, treatment, histopathology, and

L. Bodner; E. Manor; M. Shear; Waal van der I

2011-01-01

140

Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour) in the mandible of a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).  

PubMed

A 13-year-old male tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) had a marked mandibular swelling noticed 12 months earlier and associated with progressive anorexia and weight loss. Radiological and post-mortem examination revealed a mass (13x15 cm) which was firm and poorly defined, with destruction of the adjacent bone tissue. Histologically, the mass was poorly demarcated, with infiltrative growth, and composed of nests, cords and islands of epithelial cells with characteristic basal cell features. Also observed were extensive squamous metaplasia, ghost cells, stellate reticulum, and fibroblastic connective tissue stroma containing inflammatory cells. A prominent feature of this tumour consisted of abundant nodular deposits of congophilic amyloid-like material with partial mineralization (Liesegang rings). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells and the amyloid-like material were positive for pancytokeratin and negative for vimentin. The findings supported the diagnosis of an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (APOT), also known as calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour in man and animals. PMID:16540113

Kang, M-S; Park, M-S; Kwon, S-W; Ma, S-A; Cho, D-Y; Kim, D-Y; Kim, Y

2006-01-01

141

Biological pathways involved in the aggressive behavior of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor and possible implications for molecular oriented treatment – An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the classification of Head and Neck Tumors, published in 2005 by the World Health Organization Classification, the odontogenic keratocyst has been reclassified as a benign intraosseous neoplasm, calling it “keratocystic odontogenic tumor” (KCOT). Significant differences on the molecular level between KCOT and other odontogenic cystic lesions suggest a different biological origin. Genetic and molecular research regarding odontogenic tumors, and

Rui Amaral Mendes; João FC Carvalho; Isaac van der Waal

2010-01-01

142

Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine: The Odontogenic Keratocyst: A Cyst, or a Cystic Neoplasm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, currently designated by the World Health Organization as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor) is a locally aggressive, cystic jaw lesion with a putative high growth potential and a propensity for recurrence. Although it is generally agreed that some features of OKCs are those of a neoplasia, notably the relatively high proliferative rate of epithelial cells, controversies over

T.-J. Li

2011-01-01

143

Recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the masseter muscle overlying the boney perforations: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of odontogenic origin with high recurrence rates and tendency to invade adjacent tissue. Most recurrences occur in the first 5 years after surgery and are usually located at the site of the primary tumor in the jaws. Here we reported a rare case of KCOT which recurred in the masseter muscle

Bing Liu; Yu Cai; Shi-Ping Wang; Yi-Fang Zhao

144

Microimaging FT-IR of head and neck tumors. V. Odontogenic cystic lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been undertaken to investigate spectral features of cystic lesions of the jaw with the aim to understand their tumoral progression and to evidence initial signals of neoplastic changes.Three important groups (according to the World Health Organization classification) representing inflammatory (radicular) and developmental (orthokeratinized odontogenic, OOC) cysts as well as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) of the jaw have

Giorgio Tosi; Paolo Balercia; Carla Conti; Paolo Ferraris; Elisabetta Giorgini; Lorenzo Lo Muzio; Simona Sabbatini; Daniela Stramazzotti; Corrado Rubini

2011-01-01

145

A retrospective study of 220 cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in 181 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocyst is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cyst due to its relatively high recurrence rate, fast growth, and its tendency to invade adjacent tissue. The aim of the present study is to analyze retrospectively the clinico-pathological characteristics of the 220 KCOTs cases in 181 and find the relationship among the various factors. And the following data were obtained:

Sung-Il Yang; Young-In Park; So-Young Choi; Jin-Wook Kim; Chin-Soo Kim

2011-01-01

146

Odontogenic tumours in children and adolescents: a study of 78 Nigerian cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is paucity of literature on odontogenic tumours in children and adolescents. Available records are difficult to compare due to differences in study criteria. To contribute to the records, a 20-year study of odontogenic tumours on the basis of the WHO classification (Kramer et al., 1992) in Nigerian African children and adolescents ?18 years of age was undertaken. Material:

Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo; Sunday Olusegun Ajike; Emmanuel Oladepo Adekeye

2002-01-01

147

Odontogenic tumors in Nigerian children and adolescents- a retrospective study of 92 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tumours arising from odontogenic tissues are rare and constitute a heterogenous group of interesting lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OT) among Nigerian children and adolescents 19 years or younger. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The histopathology records were retrospectively reviewed for all the tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral cavity

Oluseyi F Ajayi; Akinola L Ladeinde; Wasiu L Adeyemo; Mobolanle O Ogunlewe

2004-01-01

148

Comparative In Vitro Activities of ABT-773 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Animal and Human Bite Wound Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773, a new ketolide, against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic recent isolates from clinical bites using an agar dilution method and inocula of 104 CFU\\/spot for aerobes and 105 CFU for anaerobes. The following are the MIC ranges and MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of ABT-773 for various

ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN; DIANE M. CITRON; C. VRENI MERRIAM; YUMI WARREN; KERIN TYRRELL

2000-01-01

149

Odontogenic cysts: a clinical study of 695 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the files of 695 consecutive patients operated on under general anesthesia for odontogenic cysts in an adult French teaching hospital for comparison with findings in world surveys. A retrospective survey of cysts of the jaws was undertaken at the Maxillofacial department, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Paris, France. Data were retrieved from case notes, imaging, histopathology records and follow-up reports from January 1995 to January 2005. The mean age of patients was 41.8 +/- 15.8 years. There was an overall male to female ratio of 1.86:1. Mandible to maxilla ratio was 3:1. Regarding the mandible, the angle was involved in 36% of the cases, horizontal branch in 32%, parasymphysis in 18%, ramus in 11.6%, coronoid process in 1.5% and condyle in 0.9% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine to canine region was involved in 40% of the cases, premolar and molar region in 45%, and wisdom tooth region in 15% (total = 100%). The three most frequently diagnosed odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (53.5%), dentigerous cysts (22.3%) and odontogenic keratocysts (19.1%). Together, these three entities represented 94.9% of all odontogenic cysts. The mean number of operation per patient was 1.16 (SD: 0.6, range: 1-10). The mean cumulated duration of hospitalization for one patient was 2.46 days (SD: 1.9, range: 1-28). The mean length of follow-up was 8.4 months (SD: 15.2, range: 0-120). Sixty five percent had a follow-up inferior to 6 months and 18% had no follow-up at all. The two most important findings of this case series are 1) the important number of radicular cysts that could be avoided because most of these cysts develop as a consequence of advanced carious lesions and 2) regarding other types of cysts, the dramatic rate of patients lost to follow-up. PMID:16858133

Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Oprean, Nicoleta; Pitak-Arnnop, Poramate; Bertrand, Jacques-Charles

2006-06-01

150

[Odontogenic adenomatoid tumor. Apropos of 2 cases in Dakar].  

PubMed

Two cases of large adenomatoid odontogenic tumor seen recently in Senegal are thought to be the first cases of this type reported in West Africa. One patient was a 25 year old woman and the other an 11 year old boy, the clinical history and lesions being identical in both cases. Simple enucleation appeared to be the treatment of choice in view of the constantly reported benign nature of these tumors. It is difficult, or almost impossible however, to differentiate this tumor from dentigerous cyst on radiology, justifying routine minute pathologic examination of all operated paradental cysts. PMID:3475765

Cantaloube, D; Larroque, G; Ahounou, J R; Rives, J M; Seurat, P

1987-01-01

151

Spontaneous bone regeneration following mandibular resection for odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Spontaneous bone regeneration is an uncommon condition following traumatic or iatrogenic bone loss. The factors responsible for its occurrence are yet to be fully elucidated. This report presents spontaneous bone regeneration following mandibular resection for a giant odontogenic myxoma in a 16-years-old Nigerian male. New bone formation was observed at the postoperative fourth week and has continued for one year after. Likely factors that favor this occurrence are critically examined. The advantages of spontaneous bone regeneration in resource-poor settings include low biologic and economic costs as compared to bone grafting. PMID:22684138

Adebayo, Ezekiel T; Fomete, Benjamin; Ajike, Sunday O

2012-01-01

152

Odontogenic myxoma in a 52-year-old woman.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumour of the jaws. It is usually seen in the second to third decade of life. Women are more frequently affected than men and it has more predilections for the mandible rather than the maxilla. OM presents as an asymptomatic swelling in most of the cases. Owing to the non-capsulated and aggressive nature of OM, a high rate of recurrence has been reported. Here we present a case of OM in a 52-year-old woman managed by segmental mandibulectomy. Sign of recurrence was seen after 18?months of follow-up. PMID:24859552

Ram, Hari; Mehta, Gagan; Kumar, Manoj; Lone, Parveen

2014-01-01

153

[Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: peculiarities of diagnostics and treatment].  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to improve the quality of diagnostics and the choice of optimal therapy for the management of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with the localization of foreign bodies in the lateral parts of the maxillary sinuses. To this effect, multispiral computed tomography was used to enable the exact location of the foreign body inside the sinus and to choose the optimal approach for the surgical intervention. The modified Coldwell-Luc procedure was employed as the most adequate technique in the given clinical condition. PMID:24577021

Davydov, D V; Gvozdovich, V A; Stebunov, V E; Manakina, A Iu

2014-01-01

154

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient complicated by substance abuse.  

PubMed

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, potentially fatal soft tissue infection with rapid progression characterized by necrosis in the subcutaneous tissue and fascia. A case of CNF of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient, complicated by alcohol dependence and tobacco abuse, is presented with a literature review. The emergency procedure comprised hydration, colloid administration, glycemic control and broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, followed by aggressive surgical debridement. Necrosis in the platysma muscle was verified by histopathologic analysis. Reconstructive surgery was performed after suppressing the infection, and the wound was closed with an autologous skin graft. The patient had a long hospital stay, in part because the substance abuse led to a difficult recovery. The principles of early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and intensive supportive care in the treatment of CNF were confirmed in the present case. It was concluded that given the occurrence of CNF in the presence of diabetes mellitus and abuse of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, the health care professional should consider a stronger response to treatment and longer hospitalization. PMID:24789296

Camino Junior, Rubens; Naclerio-Homem, Maria G; Cabral, Lecy Marcondes; Luz, João Gualberto C

2014-01-01

155

Endoscopic removal of a huge keratocystic odontogenic tumor in maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor is derived from the proliferation of residues of the dental lamina. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors have high recurrence rate from 0% to 62%, depending on the locations and types of treatment. The controversy still exists about treatment methods ranging from simple curettage to highly invasive en bloc resection. Furthermore, there is no consensus on the most effective surgical technique. We report the first case of removal via endonasal endoscopic approach for a huge, expansile keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary sinus extending to contralateral central incisor. PMID:24621704

Mun, Mi-Jin; Jung, Da-Woon; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Cho, Kyu-Sup

2014-03-01

156

Ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible resembling odontogenic cyst in a panoramic radiograph.  

PubMed

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histologic evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor, regardless of whether it has metastasized or not. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo, with few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastoma being apparent. A case is reported of a 21-year-old caucasian female with ameloblastic carcinoma in the left angulus area of the mandible resembling an odontogenic cyst in the panoramic radiograph. In addition to the panoramic radiograph, computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images were taken preoperatively. This report demonstrates that CT or MR examinations may be crucial in differentiating odontogenic tumors from cysts. PMID:16632277

Suomalainen, Anni; Hietanen, Jarkko; Robinson, Soraya; Peltola, Jaakko Sakari

2006-05-01

157

The histochemical nature of homogeneous amorphous materials in odontogenic epithelial tumors.  

PubMed

The homogeneous acellular materials in the adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and calcifying odontogenic cyst were examined histochemically for specific staining of amino acids and protein groups. These materials gave a positive reaction for periodic acid-Sciff (PAS), alloxan-Schiff, and dinitrofluorobenzene-H-acid and low reaction for alcian blue, dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (method for tryptophan) and the Morel-Sisley diazotization method. They appear to have approximately the same composition as enamel matrix and are not amyloid in nature. The materials may be synthesized products from neoplastic epithelium that may originate from enamel organs. PMID:6153217

Mori, M; Makino, M; Imai, K

1980-02-01

158

Reassessment of the incubation time in a controlled clinical comparison of the BacT/Alert aerobic FAN bottle and standard anaerobic bottle used aerobically for the detection of bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

This study assessed the minimum incubation time required to detect bloodstream infections during a controlled clinical comparison of the performance characteristics of the BacT/Alert aerobic FAN bottle and the standard anaerobic bottle used aerobically except on a selective basis. Blood was collected from adults with suspected bloodstream infections and inoculated into each bottle, which was monitored in the BacT/Alert Microbial Detection System. The anaerobic bottle was vented before incubation except when cultures were obtained from patients on the colorectal and gynecologic surgical and emergency services. Statistical analysis was limited to those culture sets in which each bottle was inoculated with > or = 8 mL of blood and bacterial growth was considered to be clinically significant. A total of 682 positive cultures from 243 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Significantly more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (p < 0.001), S. epidermidis (p < 0.001), other coagulase-negative staphylococci (p < 0.001), Enterococcus spp. (p = 0.04), Escherichia coli (p = 0.03), all Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p = 0.001), and Candida spp. (p < 0.001) were detected by the aerobic FAN bottle. Significantly more septic episodes due to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, other coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, and Candida spp. were detected by the aerobic FAN bottle. Significantly more bacterial isolates were detected by the aerobic FAN whether or not antibiotics were being administered at the time of blood culture, whereas there were significantly fewer positive cultures in the vented standard anaerobic bottle when patients were receiving antimicrobial therapy than when they were not. All but 5% of positive cultures were detected within three days. Only six of the cultures requiring four or five days of incubation represented true misses, and only one of these six resulted in a change in therapy which, however, did not affect the patent's outcome. PMID:9791750

Cornish, N; Kirkley, B A; Easley, K A; Washington, J A

1998-09-01

159

Exploring the concept of "inflammatory angiogenesis" in keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of inflammation in angiogenesis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Study Design: Twenty inflamed and 20 non-inflamed KCOTs were selected based on quantitative scoring of inflammation which was also applied on 20 radicular cysts. Microvessel density was assessed in all samples using CD34 antibody and angiogenesis was compared between the three groups. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Scheffe test and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A statistically significant difference in angiogenesis was found between radicular cysts and both inflamed and non-inflamed KCOTs (P < 0.001), but not between inflamed and non-inflamed KCOTs (P =0.347). Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in the present study, it seems that the effect of inflammation on angiogenesis in KCOT is minimal. However further investigation using other methods of evaluation is suggested to fully clarify the role of “inflammatory angiogenesis” in this neoplasm. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumor, radicular cyst, angiogenesis, inflammation.

Alaeddini, Mojgan; Mostafaloo, Esmat; Mirmohammadkhani, Omid; Eshghyar, Nosratollah

2013-01-01

160

Linezolid Activity Compared to Those of Selected Macrolides and Other Agents against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Soft Tissue Bite Infections in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linezolid was tested against 420 aerobes and anaerobes, including 148 Pasteurella isolates, by an agar dilution method. Linezolid was active against all Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica isolates and most Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, and Pasteurella stomatis isolates. The MIC was <2 mg\\/ml for staphylococci, streptococci, EF-4b, Weeksella zoohelcum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, other fusobac- teria, Porphyromonas spp.,

ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN; DIANE M. CITRON; C. VRENI MERRIAM

1999-01-01

161

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: Similar behavior to sporadic type?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to analyze the expression of proliferative markers and p53 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) sporadic type and KCOT associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS).

Adriana Figueroa; Maria Correnti; Maira Avila; Aleodor Andea; Patricia DeVilliers; Helen Rivera

2010-01-01

162

Multiple, Multifocal Odontogenic Keratocysts in Non-Syndrome Patient: A Case-report.  

PubMed

Occurrence of multiple odontogenic keratocyst involving the jaws is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of multiple odontogenic keratocyst without syndromic association is extremely rare. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome which is also known as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. Multiple Odontogenic Keratocysts (OKCs) are principle features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome). However, a case of multiple odontogenic keratocysts unassociated with any syndrome is reported here so as to add to the growing number of such cases in the literature. The possibility of this case being a partial expression of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is discussed. PMID:24984621

Hammannavar, Reshma; Holikatti, Kiran; Bassappa, Sharan; Shinde, Nagesh; Reddy, Manjunath; Chidambaram, Y S

2014-06-01

163

Induction of Bone in Vivo Across Millipore Filters by Mouse Odontogenic Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The osteogenic potential of odontogenic tissues and their possible inductive interaction with host connective tissues were investigated. Molar tooth buds of newborn Swiss Albino mice (Webster strain) were dissected free from their bony sockets and inserte...

P. R. Garant P. Goldhaber G. Szabo

1964-01-01

164

Bimaxillary keratocystic odontogenic tumour: a case of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) is a benign cystic intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin that is usually solitary except when syndromic. It rarely occurs in the maxilla; therefore a rapidly progressive, nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT with locoregional extension poses significant diagnostic and management challenges. To the best of the authors' knowledge, documentation of a nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT is nonexistent in the English literature. We therefore present the case of an extensive bimaxillary KCOT in a 38-year-old Nigerian male. PMID:24790606

Okoje-Adesomoju, Victoria Nwebuni; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Olajide, Mofoluwaso Abimbola

2014-01-01

165

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst: A review on terminologies and classifications  

PubMed Central

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a relatively uncommon odontogenic lesion characterized by varied clinical, radiographical features and biological behavior. CGCOC can exhibit either as a cystic or a solid lesion. Since its first description by Gorlin et al, in 1962, it has been known by different names and classified and sub-classified into various types. In this article we present a case of CGCOC and discuss the related literature regarding the terminology, classification and biological behavior of CGCOC.

Thinakaran, Meera; Sivakumar, Palanivelu; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Jeddy, Nadeem; Balaguhan, S.

2012-01-01

166

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst: A review on terminologies and classifications.  

PubMed

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a relatively uncommon odontogenic lesion characterized by varied clinical, radiographical features and biological behavior. CGCOC can exhibit either as a cystic or a solid lesion. Since its first description by Gorlin et al, in 1962, it has been known by different names and classified and sub-classified into various types. In this article we present a case of CGCOC and discuss the related literature regarding the terminology, classification and biological behavior of CGCOC. PMID:23248487

Thinakaran, Meera; Sivakumar, Palanivelu; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Jeddy, Nadeem; Balaguhan, S

2012-09-01

167

Surgical management of odontogenic myxoma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic myxoma is a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior, and is relatively rare in the oral cavity. There are currently no clear surgical management guidelines for odontogenic myxoma, and a variety of approaches may be used. This study evaluated the literature concerning the surgical management of odontogenic myxoma, and reports the long-term outcome of a case managed by using a more conservative surgical approach. Case presentation We managed a 40-year-old Japanese man with odontogenic myxoma in the right mandible by enucleation and curettage, a relatively conservative approach that has proved to have been justified by a lack of recurrence over 10 years. Our strategy was compared with others reported in the literature, which was identified by a PubMed search using the term “odontogenic myxoma”. Articles without full text or with missing data were excluded. The age and sex of patients, the tumor location (maxilla/mandible), treatment (conservative/radical), recurrence, and follow-up period were compared in the reported cases that we evaluated. From the initial 211 studies identified, 20 studies qualified as mandibular cases of odontogenic myxoma. Recurrence was reported in three cases that had been treated with a more conservative surgical approach. Conclusions Enucleation and curettage has proved an effective approach in several cases in ours there has been no recurrence more than 10 years after surgery but the risk of recurrence appears to be higher. We discuss the important factors that must be considered when determining the correct management approach to odontogenic myxoma.

2014-01-01

168

Bimaxillary Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Case of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Difficulty  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) is a benign cystic intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin that is usually solitary except when syndromic. It rarely occurs in the maxilla; therefore a rapidly progressive, nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT with locoregional extension poses significant diagnostic and management challenges. To the best of the authors' knowledge, documentation of a nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT is nonexistent in the English literature. We therefore present the case of an extensive bimaxillary KCOT in a 38-year-old Nigerian male.

Okoje-Adesomoju, Victoria Nwebuni; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Olajide, Mofoluwaso Abimbola

2014-01-01

169

Profiling of radicular cyst and odontogenic keratocyst cytokine production suggests common growth mechanisms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the cytokine expression profiles of cyst fluids (CFs) and tissue culture supernatants (SUPs) from 7 radicular cysts (RCs) and 7 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) by using Human Cytokine Antibody Array to identify the specific cytokines involved in formation and expansion of RCs and OKCs, respectively. There were significant differences in relative expression levels of IL-1 beta, MCP1, MIP1 beta, FGF-9, GDNF, HGF, IGFBP-3, Ang, IP-10, MIF, OPG, and TGF-beta2 between RC-CF and OKC-CF (P < .05). On the other hand, the cytokine expression patterns of RC-SUP (HGF, IL-8, NAP-2, IL-6, TIMP-1 and 2, GRO, IP-10, and Ang) were similar to those of OKC-SUP. Only the relative expression level of GRO differed between RC-SUP and OKC-SUP (P < .05). The similarities of cytokine production by tissue cultures derived from RC and OKC indicate that the expansion mechanisms of RC and OKC might involve similar biologic mechanisms other than infection. PMID:18155485

Hayashi, Makoto; Ohshima, Takafumi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Miyata, Hirofumi; Takeichi, Osamu; Ogiso, Bunnai; Ito, Koichi; Ostman, Arne; Otsuka, Kichibee

2008-01-01

170

Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Background: Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. Materials & Methods: The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. Results: No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Conclusion: Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D'Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 . PMID:24453443

D'Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

2013-12-01

171

Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients.

Yildirim, Gulsun; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

2010-01-01

172

Linezolid Activity Compared to Those of Selected Macrolides and Other Agents against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Soft Tissue Bite Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

Linezolid was tested against 420 aerobes and anaerobes, including 148 Pasteurella isolates, by an agar dilution method. Linezolid was active against all Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica isolates and most Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, and Pasteurella stomatis isolates. The MIC was ?2 ?g/ml for staphylococci, streptococci, EF-4b, Weeksella zoohelcum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, other fusobacteria, Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., peptostreptococci, and almost all Bacteroides tectum isolates.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni

1999-01-01

173

A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a relatively uncommon distinct odontogenic neoplasm. It is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin with varying number of ductlike structures and inductive changes in the stroma. It is a benign and slow growing epithelial tumor and represents 3% of all odontogenic tumors. Its occurrence is more common in anterior region of the maxilla than mandible. Most of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors occur intra-osseously but few peripheral variant have been reported which are attached to the gingival structures. The intra-osseous Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor may be related to unerrupted tooth (follicular varient) or may not (extrafollicular varient) be related to unerrupted tooth. This paper is to present a rare case of an extrafollicular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor occurring in the body of the mandible in a male patient which is distinct and secondly it was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as residual cyst. The diagnosis of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was confirmed by Histopathological investigation. How to cite this article: Shivali V, Khanna VD, Khanna P, Singh A, Pandey A, Ahuja T. A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):124-8.

Shivali, Vaid; Pandey, Anil; Khanna, Vidhi D; Khanna, Prateek; Singh, Ashish; Ahuja, Tarun

2013-01-01

174

Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively), morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate. PMID:24346047

Telles, Déborah Campos; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

2013-01-01

175

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of Ameloblastomas and Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: Differentiation by Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Cystic Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors are major ag- gressive odontogenic tumors in the maxillomandibular regions, but the differentiation between these 2 tumors is frequently ineffective based on only conventional CT and MR imaging findings. Here, we evaluated diffusion-weighted MR imaging for the differentiation of these 2 odontogenic tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 9 patients with

M. Sumi; Y. Ichikawa; I. Katayama; S. Tashiro; T. Nakamura

176

Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis-related Proteins in Sporadic Odontogenic Keratocysts and Odontogenic Keratocysts Associated with the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocysts are occasionally (4-5%) associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a pleiotropic, autosomal disorder presenting a spectrum of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition for the development of different neoplasms. The aim of this study was to establish whether keratocysts showing clinically aggressive behavior associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome reflect differences in cellular proliferation rate and\\/or

L. Lo Muzio; S. Staibano; G. Pannone; P. Bucci; P. F. Nocini; E. Bucci; G. De Rosa

1999-01-01

177

Odontogenic tumors: a 14-year retrospective study in Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

PubMed

Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are lesions that develop exclusively on maxillary bones, and form a heterogeneous group. They vary from hamartomatous lesions to benign and malign tumors. Although they are rarely observed in dentistry clinics, it is extremely important for the dentist to be aware of them. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of odontogenic tumors diagnosed in the population of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Cases of odontogenic tumors were selected from the anatomopathological diagnostic services at Federal University of Santa Catarina from 1998 to 2011. Clinical data on these cases were collected from biopsy reports and patient files. Seventy-eight cases of odontogenic tumors were surveyed. Of these diagnoses, 51% were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs); the remaining cases were mainly ameloblastomas and odontomas. The most frequently observed lesion in this retrospective study was KCOT (more than half of cases). Thus, this study shows that modifying the classification of the OTs altered the frequency of the lesions, possibly making KCOT the most common lesion observed in diagnostic services worldwide. PMID:25000597

Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Porto, Juliana Cristina; Vieira, Daniella Serafim Couto; Siqueira, Filipe Modolo; Rivero, Elena Riet Correa

2014-01-01

178

Expression of Odontogenic Genes in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tooth loss is a common problem and since current tooth replacement methods cannot counter balance with biological tooth structures, regenerating natural tooth structures has become an ideal goal. A challenging problem in tooth regeneration is to find a proper clinically feasible cell to seed.This study was designed to investigate the odontogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) for seeding in tooth regeneration. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used at the eleventh embryonic day and rat fetuses were removed surgically using semilunar flap under general anesthesia. The primary mandible was cut using a stereomicroscope. The epithelial and mesenchymal components were separated and the dissected oral epithelium was cultured for 3 days. We used flow cytometry analysis to confirm presence of mesenchymal stem cells and not hematopoietic cells and to demonstrate the presence of oral epithelium. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and cultured oral epithelium were then co-cultured for 14 days. BMSCs cultured alone were used as controls. Expression of two odontogenic genes Pax9 and DMP1 was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Expression of two odontogenic genes, Pax9 and DMP1, were detected in BMSCs co-cultured with oral epithelium but not in the control group. Conclusion: Expression of Pax9 and DMP1 by human BMSCs in the proximity of odontogenic epithelium indicates odontogenic potential of these cells.

Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Sichani Fallahi, Hamed; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Mahdavi, Nazanin; Bagheri, Seyedeh Sara

2013-01-01

179

The effect of scaffold architecture on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the superiority of nanofibrous (NF) poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds in supporting the osteogenic differentiation of a few cell types and bone regeneration. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether NF-PLLA scaffolds are advantageous for the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) over solid-walled (SW) PLLA scaffolds. The in vitro studies demonstrated that, compared with SW scaffolds, NF scaffolds enhanced attachment and proliferation as well as odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of odontogenic genes of human DPSCs were increased on NF scaffolds compared with that on SW scaffolds. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on the NF scaffolds, as demonstrated by von Kossa staining, calcium content measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Consistent with the in vitro studies, NF scaffolds promoted odontogenic differentiation and hard tissue formation compared with SW scaffolds after 8 weeks of ectopic transplantation in nude mice, as confirmed by von Kossa staining, Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemical staining for dentin sialoprotein. In conclusion, NF-PLLA scaffolds enhanced the odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs and mineralization both in vitro and in vivo, and are promising scaffolds for dentin regeneration. PMID:21663962

Wang, Jing; Ma, Haiyun; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Liu, Xiaohua; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X

2011-11-01

180

Odontogenic tumors and giant cell lesions of jaws - a nine year study  

PubMed Central

Objectives A definite geographic variation has been observed in the frequency of odontogenic tumors and giant cell lesions of the jaws reported from different parts of the world. However, there are a few studies on these lesions, especially giant cell lesions, reported from India. Hence, this study was designed to provide a demographic data on the odontogenic tumors and giant cell lesions reported from our institute located in the city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad is the capital city of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh in India. A retrospective analysis of odontogenic tumors and giant cell lesions of jaws reported in our institute between the years 2000 and 2009 was done and this data was compared with previous reports from different parts of the world and India. Methods Biopsies of the lesions received between the years 2000 and 2009 were reviewed and patient's history, clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics were analyzed. Results A total of 77 biopsies were received during the nine year study period. These lesions were more frequently seen in the males, in a younger age group and showed a predilection for the mandible. Most of them presented as radiolucent, slow growing and painless lesions. Ameloblastomas (71.4%) constituted the majority of odontogenic tumors while central giant cell granulomas (7.8%) constituted the majority of giant cell lesions. Conclusion These lesions showed a definite geographic variation with ameloblastomas being the most common odontogenic tumors and odontomas being relatively rarer lesions in our region.

2011-01-01

181

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause ... Immunizations: Chickenpox Vaccine Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Your Child's Immunizations: Hepatitis A Vaccine ( ...

182

Anaerobic benzene degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have indicated that benzene persists under anaerobic conditions in petroleum-contaminated environments, it has recently been documented that benzene can be anaerobically oxidized with most commonlyconsidered electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. These include: Fe(III),sulfate, nitrate, and possibly humic substances. Benzene can also be convertedto methane and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions. There is evidencethat benzene can be degraded

Derek R. Lovley

2000-01-01

183

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor: the first reported case in Oriental people and literature review.  

PubMed

The central granular cell odontogenic tumor (CGCOT) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm, usually occurring in the mandible of middle-aged women. Previous studies have reported only 34 cases, all of whom were white or black individuals. The present study reports an additional case of CGCOT, occurring in the posterior mandible of a 69-year-old Taiwanese man. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in Oriental people. The odontogenic epithelium exhibited strong positive immunoreactivity for pan-cytokeratin, and focal weak staining for bcl-2. The granular cells showed strong positivity for vimentin and ?1-antichymotrypsin, and focal weak staining for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and CD68. These features indicated a mesenchymal origin and possible histiocytic lineage for the granular cells. This study also presents a literature review and describes immunohistochemical features of the tumor. PMID:24428977

Chiang, Chien-Ta; Hu, Kwang-Yu; Tsai, Chien-Chen

2014-05-01

184

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) without calcification: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is a rare benign odontogenic tumor that was first described by Pindborg in 1955. It accounts for less than 1% of all odontogenic neoplasms. The tumor is characterized histologically by the presence of polygonal epithelial cells, calcification, and eosinophilic deposits resembling amyloid. Noncalcifying Pindborg tumor is very rare and only three cases have been documented in the English language literature so far. We present an additional case of noncalcifying Pindborg tumor and review the previously reported cases. Because noncalcifying Pindborg tumor is believed to be an aggressive variant, a definitive resection of the tumor with tumor-free surgical margins and long-term follow-up is recommended.

Kaushal, Seema; Mathur, Sandeep R; Vijay, Maneesh; Rustagi, Ankur

2012-01-01

185

A Case of Odontogenic Orbital Cellulitis Causing Blindness by Severe Tension Orbit  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness by severe tension orbit. A 41-yr old male patient had visited the hospital due to severe periorbital swelling and nasal stuffiness while he was treated for a periodontal abscess. He was diagnosed with odontogenic sinusitis and orbital cellulitis, and treated with antibiotics. The symptoms were aggravated and emergency sinus drainage was performed. On the next day, a sudden decrease in vision occurred with findings of ischemic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion. Deformation of the eyeball posterior pole into a cone shape was found from the orbital CT. A high-dose steroid was administered immediately resulting in improvements of periorbital swelling, but the patient's vision had not recovered. Odontogenic orbital cellulitis is relatively rare, but can cause blindness via rapidly progressing tension orbit. Therefore even the simplest of dental problems requires careful attention.

Park, Chang Hyun; Jee, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

186

Altered expression of podoplanin in keratocystic odontogenic tumours following decompression  

PubMed Central

Marsupialisation or decompression is frequently performed as a conservative therapy for keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Positive podoplanin (PDPN) expression in the epithelium of KCOT has been previously reported and may be associated with neoplastic invasion. In the present study, changes in PDPN expression were observed in the epithelium of KCOTs following decompression. In total, 16 pairs of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at the time of decompression and at two-stage curettage or enucleation were collected and immunohistochemically examined using an antibody against PDPN. The intensity of PDPN staining was evaluated with a semi-quantitative detection method and statistically analysed. The immunohistochemical reactivity of PDPN was consistently markedly positive in 93.8% of KCOT samples prior to decompression. The positive staining was immunolocalised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of cells in the basal layer and extended into the suprabasal layer for two to three cell layers. At the time of curettage, 2 of the 16 (12.5%) cases were completely negative, 11 of the 16 (68.8%) cases were locally positive and 3 of the 16 (18.7%) cases showed a ‘linear staining’ pattern, as the PDPN-positive cells were restricted to within the single basal layer. The expression level of PDPN was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and a significant loss or reduction of PDPN expression was observed in KCOTs following decompression. Larger sample groups are required to further verify this result.

ZHANG, XIAOMIN; WANG, JING; DING, XU; XING, SHUZHONG; ZHANG, WEI; WANG, LIZHEN; WU, HEMING; WANG, LIN

2014-01-01

187

Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a slow-growing odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a subjacent tumoural pathology is reported. The patient was a 55-year-old black male, whose chief complaint was a progressive gingival overgrowth for more than ten years, in the buccal area of the anterior left mandible. According to the clinical features and the radiological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, a conservative surgery with enucleation and curettage was performed. Tissue submitted for histopathological analysis rendered the diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma. After 12-month of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. Clinicians should be cautious when facing any gingival enlargement to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and to indicate the appropriate treatment. PMID:23722914

Miranda Rius, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Lahor, Eduard; Mtui, Beatus; Brunet, Lluís

2013-09-01

188

Fulminant spread of a femur anaerobic osteomyelitis to abdomen in a 17-year-old boy.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, distant spread of infection in anaerobic osteomyelitis has not been described before. In this article, we report a case of anaerobic osteomyelitis of femur with fulminant spread of infection to the abdomen in a 17-year-old boy with no predisposing medical factors and minimal bone involvement. PMID:22482093

Yazdi, Hamid Reza; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Hoseini, Mohammad Ghorban; Masdari, Zahra

2012-02-01

189

Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. PMID:24182558

Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

2014-01-01

190

Recurrence of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Clinicopathological Features and Immunohistochemical Study of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Critical factors responsible for the recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) were examined. Methods: The clinicopathological features were retrospectively studied in 74 patients with 75 sporadic KCOTs. From the 75 KCOTs, 23 were examined for the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Patched and Smoothened (SMO) by immunohistochemistry. Results: Recurrence in multilocular lesions was more frequent than in unilocular lesions.

Takahiro Yagyuu; Tadaaki Kirita; Tomonori Sasahira; Yukiko Moriwaka; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Hiroki Kuniyasu

2008-01-01

191

Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible  

PubMed Central

We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed.

Chen, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chung-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

2013-01-01

192

Histopathological Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: A Descriptive Study of 177 Cases From a Brazilian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic features of 177 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) diagnosed in a Brazilian population. A total of 177 KCOTs were reviewed and affected 158 patients with ages ranging from 5 to 79 years (mean age = 32 years) with a slight female predominance. Mandible was the most common affected site (69.3%), and

Rebeca Souza Azevedo; Márcia Grillo Cabral; Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu dos Santos; Albanita Viana de Oliveira; Oslei Paes de Almeida; Fábio Ramôa Pires

2012-01-01

193

Expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Tumors arising from epithelium of the odontogenic apparatus or from its derivatives or remnants exhibit considerable histologic variation and are classified into several benign and malignant entities. A high proliferative activity of the odontogenic epithelium in ameloblastoma (AM) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has been demonstrated in some studies individually. However, very few previous studies have simultaneously evaluated cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes in AM and KCOT, comparing both lesions. The aim of this study was to assess and compare cell proliferation and apoptotic rates between these two tumors. Specimens of 15 solid AM and 15 KCOT were evaluated. The proliferation index (PI) was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and the apoptotic index (AI) by methyl green-pyronin stain. KCOT presented a higher PI than AM (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found in the AI between AM and KCOT. PI and AI were higher in the peripheral cells of AM and respectively in the suprabasal and superficial layers of KCOT. In conclusion, KCOT showed a higher cell proliferation than AM and the AI was similar between these tumors. These findings reinforce the classification of KCOT as an odontogenic tumor and should contribute to its aggressive clinical behavior. PMID:24090509

Metgud, Rashmi; Gupta, Kanupriya

2013-12-01

194

Diagnostically Challenging Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: A Selective Review of 7 Jawbone Lesions  

PubMed Central

Considerable variation in the clinicopathologic presentation of epithelial odontogenic tumors can sometimes be confusing and increase the chance of misdiagnosis. Seven diagnostically challenging jawbone lesions are described. There were 2 cases of mistaken identity in our ameloblastoma file. One unicystic type, initially diagnosed and treated as a lateral periodontal cyst, showed destructive recurrence 6 years postoperatively. The other globulomaxillary lesion was managed under the erroneous diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and recurred 4 times over an 11-year period. This tumor was found in retrospect to be consistent with an adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid. The diagnosis of cystic squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) occurring as a radicular lesion of an impacted lower third molar was one of exclusion. Of two unsuspected keratocystic odontogenic tumors, one depicted deceptive features of pericoronitis, while the other case has long been in our files with the diagnosis of globulomaxillary SOT. Two cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma appeared benign clinically and exhibited unexpected findings; an impacted third molar began to erupt in association with the growth of carcinoma and another periradicular carcinoma showed dentinoid formation. Cases selectively reviewed in this article present challenging problems which require clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls.

Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

2009-01-01

195

The orosomucoid 1 protein (?1 acid glycoprotein) is overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, but locally invasive, neoplasm occurring in the jaws. However, the molecules implicated in its development are unknown. OM as well as Dental Follicle (DF), an odontogenic tissue surrounding the enamel organ, is derived from ectomesenchymal/mesencyhmal elements. To identify some protein that could participate in the development of this neoplasm, total proteins from OM were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the profiles were compared with those obtained from DF, used as a control. Results We identified eight proteins with differential expression; two of them were downregulated and six upregulated in OM. A spot consistently overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma, with a molecular weight of 44-kDa and a pI of 3.5 was identified as the orosomucoid 1 protein. Western blot experiments confirmed the overexpression of this protein in odontogenic myxoma and immunohistochemical assays showed that this protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of stellate and spindle-shaped cells of this neoplasm. Conclusion Orosomucoid 1, which belongs to a group of acute-phase proteins, may play a role in the modulation of the immune system and possibly it influences the development of OM.

2012-01-01

196

Expression ofCellCycle andApoptosis-relate d Proteins inSporadic Odontogenic Keratocysts andOdontogenic Keratocysts Associated with theNevoidBasal CellCarcinoma Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocysts areoccasionally (4-5%) associated withthenevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a pleiotropic, autosomal disorder presenting aspectrum of developmental abnormalities andapredisposition forthe development ofdifferent neoplasms. Theaimofthis study was toestablish whether keratocysts showing clinically aggressive behavior associated withnevoid basal cell carcinoma syn- dromereflect differences incellular proliferation rate and\\/or intheexpression ofoncoproteins andtumorsuppressor genes. Forthis reason, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of odontogenic keratocysts associated withthenevoid

L. LoMuziol; S. Staibano; G. Pannone; P. Buccil; P. RNocini; E. Buccil

197

Imaging modality correlations of an odontogenic keratocyst in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a family case report.  

PubMed

Multiple maxillary and mandibular cysts are principle features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome). We present a family case report of NBCCS with odontogenic keratocyst where the findings on plain films, CT, clinical, and histopathologic examinations are compared and analyzed. The systemic manifestations included frontal bossing, odontogenic keratocyst, ectopic calcification in 1 patient, and bifid rib in 1 patient. CT examination displayed aspects of bone morphology not visible on the plain films. Odontogenic keratocyst diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The features identified by these combined clinical, imaging, and histologic findings are helpful in identifying an NBCCS patient, distinguishing keratocyst from others cysts or neoplasic lesions, and can therefore influence surgical management. NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome, which is important to recognize when a patient has multiple odontogenic keratocysts, because lifelong monitoring is essential for patient management. PMID:15316550

Melo, Edielle Sant' Anna; Kawamura, Juliana Yuri; Alves, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Jorge, Waldyr Antonio; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso

2004-08-01

198

A comparative immunohistochemical analysis of COX2, p53, and Ki67 expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and more commonly used markers, such as p53 and Ki-67. Study design. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in 20 biopsy specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) has been analyzed and compared with the expression of previously reported markers

Rui Amaral Mendes; João F. C. Carvalho; Isaac van der Waal

2011-01-01

199

CD56 expression is associated with neuroectodermal differentiation in ameloblastomas: an immunohistochemical evaluation in comparison with odontogenic cystic lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ameloblastoma (AB), which is the most common odontogenic tumor, may originate from the dental lamina remnants. The expression\\u000a of CD56, which is a transmembrane molecule, is associated with neuroectodermal differentiation of the embryonal cells. The\\u000a aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD56 in AB, in comparison with other odontogenic cysts. We used formalin-fi\\u000a xed, paraffi n-embedded

Kimihide Kusafuka; Kumiko Hirobe; Masahiro Wato; Akio Tanaka; Takashi Nakajima

2011-01-01

200

Life-threatening complications of deep neck space infections.  

PubMed

Odontogenic infections represented a challenge for every craniomaxillofacial surgeon in the pre-antibiotic era, not least due to the frequent association with septic complications and lethal consequences. Nowadays, the incidences of serious infection-related complications are less frequent thanks to the medical progress. Nevertheless, the development of severe infections is still hard to foresee. The following analysis provides an overview of four patients with severe, life-threatening odontogenic deep neck space infections treated at the University Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Innsbruck and describes the etiology, therapy, and outcome for each patient while analyzing differences between the single cases. Crucial aspects in origin, progression, and treatment of DNIs are highlighted, comparing the results with the international literature. PMID:24146325

Dalla Torre, Daniel; Brunold, Silvia; Kisielewsky, Irene; Kloss, Frank R; Burtscher, Doris

2013-11-01

201

THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

202

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient.

Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

2013-01-01

203

Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

Cardoso, Gerusa O M; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N R; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

2013-01-01

204

Malignant Transformation of an Odontogenic Cyst in a Period of 10 Years  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (PIOSCC) might arise from odontogenic epithelium, more commonly from a previous odontogenic cyst. The aim of this case is to illustrate that the clinician should consider that an apparent benign dentigerous cyst can suffer malignant transformation and that all material removed from a patient must be evaluated histologically. A 44-year-old man presented in a routine periapical X-ray an impacted lower left third molar with radiolucency over its crown. Ten years later, the patient complained of pain in the same region and the tooth was extracted. After one month, the patient still complained of pain and suffered a fracture of the mandible. A biopsy was performed and carcinoma was diagnosed. The patient was treated surgically with adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy and after 8 years, he is well without signs of recurrences. This report describes a central mandibular carcinoma probably developed from a previous dentigerous cyst.

Araujo, Juliane Piragine; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Rodrigues, Monica Lucia; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Lopes Pinto, Clovis Antonio; Alves, Fabio Abreu

2014-01-01

205

Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumors: a review.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are benign but locally aggressive lesions of the gnathic skeleton with high propensity to recur following surgical treatment. High proliferative activity of KCOTs epithelial cells is considered as one of the factors contributing to their aggressive clinical behavior. Aggressive growth within the jaws, tendency to invade surrounding anatomical structures and occasional malignant alteration are the features that distinguish KCOTs from other types of odontogenic tumors. Due to their unique clinical and biological features, KCOTs still present an important problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This is especially true when a choice of the most appropriate treatment modality should be made. Establishing balance between effective reduction of recurrence risk and selection of a less aggressive surgical procedure is an issue that should be carefully considered for each individual patient. PMID:22740199

Jurisic, M; Andric, M; dos Santos, J N; Jurisic, V

2012-01-01

206

The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth  

PubMed Central

The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

2014-01-01

207

Clear cell variant of extraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor occurring most frequently in the posterior part of the lower jaw. Extraosseous CEOT is one of the rarest forms of this tumor, and few such cases involving the maxillary gingiva have been reported in the literature. Here we present a case that showed progressive enlargement in the left maxillary gingival area over a period of 11 years. Clinical examination showed an ulcerated mass measuring 52 x 38 mm located adjacent to the lateral incisor and canine. Histologically, the tumor showed proliferation of sheets and cords of epithelial cells with granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei. In other areas, the epithelial cells exhibited a clear, vacuolated cytoplasm and foci of eosinophilic, homogeneous material representing amyloid deposition. The present case of extraosseous CEOT with clear cells was considered to be a very rare form of this tumor. PMID:19776521

Habibi, Ataollah; Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Zare, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2009-09-01

208

The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.  

PubMed

The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

2014-01-01

209

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of maxilla: A case report and mini review  

PubMed Central

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor occurring predominantly in posterior mandible during 5th-7th decades with a female predilection. It is a potentially aggressive tumor, capable of frequent recurrences and loco-regional and distant metastases. Till date, only 73 cases have been reported in the literature. Current case is of a 55-year-old woman with tumor mass extending from canine to molar region on the left maxillary arch. Being locally aggressive tumor with the capacity to metastasize, it demands to be distinguished from other primary and metastatic clear cell tumors of the oral and maxillofacial region. A brief compilation of the reported cases is being attempted in the current article to better understand the behavior of the tumor.

Swain, Niharika; Dhariwal, Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal

2013-01-01

210

Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence.

Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

2013-01-01

211

Cutaneous draining sinus tract of odontogenic origin: unusual presentation of a challenging diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman presented with a chronically draining lesion on her cheek just lateral to the nasofacial sulcus. The lesion was refractory to treatment with oral antibiotics. Physical examination revealed poor dentition, and a panoramic radiograph demonstrated periapical abscesses in the maxillary right lateral incisor and canine. A diagnosis of cutaneous fistula of odontogenic origin was made, and the patient was treated with tooth extraction. The cutaneous fistula subsequently resolved. Intraoral examinations and radiographs are critical for making the diagnosis of cutaneous draining sinus tract of odontogenic origin. Many patients undergo unnecessary surgical therapies before having the correct diagnosis made, but root canal therapy or surgical extraction is the treatment of choice. A dental origin must be considered for any chronically draining sinus of the face or neck. PMID:15759963

Sheehan, Daniel J; Potter, Brad J; Davis, Loretta S

2005-02-01

212

Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem and 11 other antimicrobial agents against 405 aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections from animal and human bites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faropenem, a new oral ?-lactam agent with a penem structure, was very active against 405 aerobic and anaerobic bite isolates. It inhibited 232 of 236 (98%) aerobic isolates, including all Pasteurella spp. and Eikenella corrodens at ?0.25 mg\\/L, and 164\\/169 (97%) anaerobic isolates, at ?1 mg\\/L. The 10 isolates that required ?2 mg\\/L for inhibition were one strain each of

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

213

Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of maxilla: Report of a rare case.  

PubMed

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign tumor of the jaws. Pindborg's tumor having clear cells is extremely rare. Twelve central lesions have been reported of which only three cases have occurred in maxilla. Clear cell variant is a distinct entity, has more aggressive biological behavior and higher chances of recurrence. Hence it is important that presence of clear cells be included in histopathological diagnosis. Here we present a rare case of clear cell CEOT having aggressive behavior. PMID:24574681

Badrashetty, Dinesh; Rangaswamy, Shruthi; Belgode, Niranjan

2013-09-01

214

Diagnostically Challenging Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: A Selective Review of 7 Jawbone Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable variation in the clinicopathologic presentation of epithelial odontogenic tumors can sometimes be confusing and\\u000a increase the chance of misdiagnosis. Seven diagnostically challenging jawbone lesions are described. There were 2 cases of\\u000a mistaken identity in our ameloblastoma file. One unicystic type, initially diagnosed and treated as a lateral periodontal\\u000a cyst, showed destructive recurrence 6 years postoperatively. The other globulomaxillary lesion was

Fumio Ide; Kenji Mishima; Ichiro Saito; Kaoru Kusama

2009-01-01

215

Altered expression of cytokeratins in primary, recurrent and syndrome keratocystic odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) is a benign cystic tumor that affects the jaw bones and may be associated with the nevoid\\u000a basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Twenty-five cases diagnosed as KOT, including primary and recurrent tumors and those\\u000a associated with NBCCS, were submitted to immunohistochemical study for analysis of cytokeratins (CKs) 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 18\\u000a and 19. The

Jean Nunes dos SantosGabriel; Gabriel Queiroz Vasconcelos Oliveira; Clarissa Araújo Silva Gurgel; Renata Oliveira de Souza; Caroline Brandi Schlaepfer Sales; Alberto de Aguiar Pires Valença Neto; Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves Ramos

2009-01-01

216

Anatomical variation of mandibular canal simulating a recurrence of odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Mandibular nerve has an important role in the field of oral maxillofacial surgery. Furthermore, several anatomical variations can be found and are clinically relevant mainly in procedures involving the posterior mandible. The unknown of these anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar nerve have been implicated with complications in the performance of surgical procedures and anesthesia in dental and maxillofacial practice. The present paper reports a rare anatomical variation of inferior alveolar nerve mimicking a recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24987611

Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Correa; Da Mata Rezende, Diogo Dos Santos; Pontes, Helder Antonio Rebelo

2014-01-01

217

Anatomical variation of mandibular canal simulating a recurrence of odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Mandibular nerve has an important role in the field of oral maxillofacial surgery. Furthermore, several anatomical variations can be found and are clinically relevant mainly in procedures involving the posterior mandible. The unknown of these anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar nerve have been implicated with complications in the performance of surgical procedures and anesthesia in dental and maxillofacial practice. The present paper reports a rare anatomical variation of inferior alveolar nerve mimicking a recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

Guimaraes, Douglas Magno; Pontes, Flavia Sirotheau Correa; Da Mata Rezende, Diogo Dos Santos; Pontes, Helder Antonio Rebelo

2014-01-01

218

Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of maxilla: Report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign tumor of the jaws. Pindborg's tumor having clear cells is extremely rare. Twelve central lesions have been reported of which only three cases have occurred in maxilla. Clear cell variant is a distinct entity, has more aggressive biological behavior and higher chances of recurrence. Hence it is important that presence of clear cells be included in histopathological diagnosis. Here we present a rare case of clear cell CEOT having aggressive behavior.

Badrashetty, Dinesh; Rangaswamy, Shruthi; Belgode, Niranjan

2013-01-01

219

Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor in a Shih-Tzu dog.  

PubMed

A 9-month-old male Shih-Tzu dog had a right mandibular tumor composed of strands, or nest-like proliferation of epithelial cells with abundant fibrous stroma characterized by spheroid to large nodular deposition of amyloid with Congo-red stain. Globule calcification was also seen throughout the tumor tissue and the spheroid depositions often had a concentrically laminated structure (Liesegang rings). The case was diagnosed as amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor in a dog. PMID:10907696

Kuwamura, M; Kanehara, T; Yamate, J; Shimada, T; Kotani, T

2000-06-01

220

Comparison of Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Follicle Cells and Human Dental Papilla Cells  

PubMed Central

Classical tooth development theory suggests that dental papilla cells (DPCs) are the precursor cells of odontoblasts, which are responsible for dentin development. However, our previous studies have indicated that dental follicle cells (DFCs) can differentiate into odontoblasts. To further our understanding of tooth development, and the differences in dentinogenesis between DFCs and DPCs, the odontogenic differentiation of DFCs and DPCs was characterized in vitro and in vivo. DFCs and DPCs were individually combined with treated dentin matrix (TDM) before they were subcutaneously implanted into the dorsum of mice for 8 weeks. Results showed that 12 proteins were significantly differential, and phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), Isoform 2 of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A) and Isoform 1 of annexin A2 (ANXA2), were the most significantly differential proteins. These proteins are related to regulation of bone balance, angiogenesis and cell survival in an anoxic environment. Both DFCs and DPCs express odontogenic, neurogenic and peridontogenic markers. Histological examination of the harvested grafts showed that both DFCs and DPCs form pulp-dentin/cementum-periodentium-like tissues in vivo. Hence, DFCs and DPCs have similar odontogenic differentiation potential in the presence of TDM. However, differences in glucose and amino acid metabolism signal transduction and protein synthesis were observed for the two cell types. This study expands our understanding on tooth development, and provides direct evidence for the use of alternative cell sources in tooth regeneration.

Qiao, Xiangchen; Yu, Mei; Tang, Wei; Wang, Hang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

2013-01-01

221

Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Stimulated by the Calcium Phosphate Porous Granules  

PubMed Central

Effects of three-dimensional (3D) calcium phosphate (CaP) porous granules on the growth and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined for dental tissue engineering. hDPSCs isolated from adult human dental pulps were cultured for 3-4 passages, and populated on porous granules. Cell growth on the culture dish showed an ongoing increase for up to 21 days, whereas the growth on the 3D granules decreased after 14 days. This reduction in proliferative potential on the 3D granules was more conspicuous under the osteogenic medium conditions, indicating that the 3D granules may induce the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Differentiation behavior on the 3D granules was confirmed by the increased alkaline phosphatase activity, up-regulation of odontoblast-specific genes, including dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and greater level of dentin sialoprotein synthesis by western blot. Moreover, the cellular mineralization, as assessed by Alizarin red S and calcium quantification, was significantly higher in the 3D CaP granules than in the culture dish. Taken all, the 3D CaP porous granules should be useful for dental tissue engineering in combination with hDPSCs by providing favorable 3D substrate conditions for cell growth and odontogenic development.

Nam, Sunyoung; Won, Jong-Eun; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won

2011-01-01

222

Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to

Vincent M Isabella; Virginia L Clark

2011-01-01

223

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.

224

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

225

Age-dependent odontogenic lesions in rats after a single i.p. injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea.  

PubMed

The development of a variety of odontogenic lesions was elicited by a single i.p. injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. A total of 190 male Wistar/Furth rats were used in this study. The odontogenic lesions appeared macroscopically, mainly as supernumerary lower incisors, 88 +/- 3.48 (SE) days after administration of the carcinogen. Tumors were classified as compound and complex odontomas, odontoameloblastomas and ameloblastomas. 72% of rats (31 out of 43) 6 weeks old at the time of inoculation developed microscopic alterations in the odontogenic organs of the incisors; only 4% (2 of 49) of rats injected at 8 weeks of age developed similar alterations. These findings suggest the presence of an ontogenic mechanism susceptible to damage by chemical carcinogens. PMID:6883630

Smulow, J B; Konstantinidis, A; Sonnenschein, C

1983-09-01

226

In Vivo and In Vitro Anaerobic Mating in Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37°C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37°C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents

Raluca Dumitru; D. H. M. L. P. Navarathna; C. P. Semighini; C. G. Elowsky; R. V. Dumitru; D. Dignard; M. Whiteway; A. L. Atkin; K. W. Nickerson

2007-01-01

227

Early anaerobic metabolisms  

PubMed Central

Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle.

Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

2006-01-01

228

The Histone Acetyltransferase p300 Regulates the Expression of Pluripotency Factors and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells  

PubMed Central

p300 is a well-known histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and coactivator that plays vital roles in many physiological processes. Despite extensive research on the involvement of p300 in the regulation of transcription in numerous cell lines, the roles of this protein in regulating pluripotency genes and odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the expression of OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 and the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation capacity of HDPCs following p300 overexpression. We found that p300 overexpression did not overtly affect the ability of HDPCs to proliferate. The overexpression of p300 upregulated the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression of NANOG and SOX2. The HAT activity of p300 appeared to partially mediate the regulation of these factors; indeed, when a mutant form of p300 lacking the HAT domain was overexpressed, the promoter activity and expression of NANOG and SOX2 decreased relative to p300 overexpression but was greater than in the control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA levels of the odontogenic marker genes dentine matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly decreased in HDPCs overexpressing p300 cultured under normal culture conditions and increased in HDPCs inducted to undergo odontogenic differentiation. This finding was further confirmed by measuring levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and assessing the formation of mineralized nodules. The HAT activity of p300 had no significant effect on odontogenic differentiation. p300 was recruited to the promoter regions of OCN and DSPP and might be acting as a coactivator to increase the acetylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 of OCN and DSPP. Collectively, our results show that p300 plays an important role in regulating the expression of key pluripotency genes in HDPCs and modifying odontogenic differentiation.

Ning, Yanyang; Xu, Qiong

2014-01-01

229

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Chaperones, Bip/GRP78 and Calnexin are Overexpressed in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts that have been reclassified according World Health Organization (WHO), to keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), a term that better reflects their neoplastic nature. The aim of present study is to evaluate the induction of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and execution of the resulting unfolded protein response in keratinocystic odontogenic tumours. Material and Methods We analyzed by immunohistochemistry the expression of the chaperones BiP/GRP78 and calnexin in 24 cases of KCOTs. As controls, we have used 9 cases of periapical or radicular cysts (PACs) and 5 cases of Fibromas (FBs). The PACs and the FBs were included in the analysis, as PACs are the most common type of inflammatory odontogenic cysts of and FBs, as lesions of the connective tissue with unaffected epithelium. Results Analysis revealed a strong association between both BiP/GRP78 and calnexin expression and KCOTs: 18 out of 24 (75%) KCOTs expressed BiP/GRP78 as opposed to 1 out of 9 (13%) PACs, and none of 5 FBs evaluated (P < 0.001, x2-test). Calnexin was expressed in 11 out of 24 KCOTs (46%) but only one out of 9 (13%) PACs, and none of the 5 FBs analyzed (P < 0.001, x2-test). Conclusions Study results imply that induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress maybe of diagnostic value in keratocystic odontogenic tumours characterization. In addition to recent findings suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a causative role in keratinization of epithelia, pharmacological interference with the execution of the unfolded protein response should be considered for the management of keratocystic odontogenic tumours.

Pavli, Maria; Farmaki, Elena; Merkourea, Stavroula; Vastardis, Helen; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Tzerbos, Fotios

2014-01-01

230

An infected dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted permanent maxillary canine, inverted mesiodens and impacted supernumerary teeth  

PubMed Central

A dentigerous cyst is an odontogenic cyst associated with the crown of the impacted or unerupted teeth. Such cyst remain initially completely asymptomatic unless when infected and can be discovered only on routine radiographic examination. Here, such a case of dentigerous cyst, which was discovered on routine radiographic examination, is discussed here.

Mohan, Karthik Rajaram; Natarajan, Balan; Mani, Sudhaamani; Sahuthullah, Yasmeen ahmed; Kannan, Arivukkadal Vijaya; Doraiswamy, Haritha

2013-01-01

231

The Interrelationship of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour and Dentigerous Cyst: A Report of a Rare Case and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion which mainly affects females in their second decade of life, exhibiting predilection for the anterior region of the maxilla. The lesion is usually associated with the crown of an enclosed tooth, most commonly the maxillary canine. In this paper we present a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with a dentigerous cyst affecting the left maxilla in a 15-year-old female. We also discuss clinical, radiographic, histopathologic, and therapeutic features of the case.

Agarwal, Anshita; Giri, K. Y.; Alam, Sarwar

2012-01-01

232

A rare case of recurring calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst in the maxillary sinus: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst (CEOC) is an odontogenic cyst with epithelial lining. CEOC is a rare entity that occurs in a wide age range, does not show any gender predilection, and accounts for only 1% of all jaw cysts. The lesion generally occurs in the region anterior to maxillary and mandibular molars and either intraosseously or extraosseusly. This entity might present as a cystic or solid lesion. Enucleation is the recommended treatment for a simple, unicystic CEOC. A case of recurring CEOC in the right maxilla antrum is presented here. The patient presented to the authors after postsurgical recurrence. The case was evaluated thoroughly, and the cyst was resolved. PMID:24064174

Karun, Vinayak; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Saikhedkar, Rashmi

2013-01-01

233

Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla: A report of a rare case and review on histogenetic and diagnostic concepts  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm (comprising of 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors) found exclusively in the jaws. OM commonly occurs in the second and third decades, and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 37-year-old female patient with a brief review of the pathogenesis, clinical, radiological, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of OM.

Shah, Ajaz; Lone, Parveen; Latoo, Suhail; Ahmed, Irshad; Malik, Altaf; Hassan, Shahid; Naik, Aijaz; Rashid, Rizwan Ur

2011-01-01

234

Anaerobic Growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

PubMed Central

The obligately autotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was grown on elemental sulfur in anaerobic batch cultures, using ferric iron as an electron acceptor. During anaerobic growth, ferric iron present in the growth media was quantitatively reduced to ferrous iron. The doubling time in anaerobic cultures was approximately 24 h. Anaerobic growth did not occur in the absence of elemental sulfur or ferric iron. During growth, a linear relationship existed between the concentration of ferrous iron accumulated in the cultures and the cell density. The results suggest that ferric iron may be an important electron acceptor for the oxidation of sulfur compounds in acidic environments.

Pronk, J. T.; de Bruyn, J. C.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J. G.

1992-01-01

235

Mixed Infections and their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The necessity for treating all components of mixed infections has now been adequately documented in both experimental and clinical studies. The importance of synergistic antimicrobial therapy that will be effective against both aerobic and anaerobic bacte...

I. Brook

1983-01-01

236

Study of immunohistochemical demonstration of Bcl-2 protein in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Background: The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma) gene product also known as apoptotic inhibitor is expressed in many normal and tumor tissues. This Bcl-2 gene protects the cell by blocking postmitotic differentiation from apoptosis, thus maintaining the stem cell pool. Objective: To study the expression of Bcl-2 protein in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) to determine their apoptotic behaviors and to analyze biological nature of KCOT, which has higher proliferative potential and aggressive clinical behavior like odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of ameloblastoma (n = 20) and KCOT (n = 20) are considered for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody against antihuman Bcl-2 oncoprotein. Lymphomas (n = 3) were used as controls. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was performed using software package of social science version 16. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Student's t test. In all the above tests, P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: The positive ratio of Bcl-2 was 85% (17/20) in ameloblastoma, 85% (17/20) in KCOT and 100% (3/3) in lymphomas. Bcl-2 was expressed in peripheral cells and few scattered cells of stellate reticulum in ameloblastoma. KCOT showed strong positivity for Bcl-2 mainly in the basal layer. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the aggressive nature of KCOT and intrinsic growth potential of its lining epithelium. This study clearly demonstrates that KCOT like ameloblastoma demonstrates aggressive clinical and noticeable invasive behavior. Therefore, it is now considered as no longer a developmental cyst but as odontogenic tumor.

Sindura, CS; Babu, Chaitanya; Mysorekar, Vijaya; Kumar, Vinod

2013-01-01

237

Immunohistochemical comparison of cyclin D1 and P16 in odontogenic keratocyst and unicystic ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background: The different growth mechanism and biologic behavior of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) compared to other odontogenic cysts might be related to the proliferating capacity of its epithelium. In this study, the aim was to evaluate and compare the distribution and staining intensity of P16 and cyclin D1 in OKC and unicystic ameloblastoma (UA). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides of OKCs and UAs available from the archives of the oral pathology laboratory of the Esfahan School of Dentistry were examined. Twenty-five noninflamed solitary odontogenic keratocysts and 25 unicystic ameloblastomas (of either type) were selected and stained immunohistochemically. Distribution and staining intensity score (SID score) for P16- and cyclin D1-positive cells was calculated in both groups. Results were analyzed statistically with Wilcoxon, Friedman, and Mann-Whitney tests; P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The highest expression of Cyclin D1-positive cells was seen in the suprabasal layer of keratocysts (P < 0.05) and in the peripheral layer of UAs (P < 0.05). Likewise, the highest expression of P16-positive cells was observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of keratocysts (P > 0.05) and central portions of UAs (P > 0.05). Expression of Cyclin D1 was higher in UAs compared to keratocyts (P < 0.05), although P16 did not show a significant difference between the two study groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Cyclin D1 did show a higher staining intensity in UAs compared to the keratocysts, although the expression of P16 was similar in the studied groups. The invasive growth of OKC might be related to the state of expression of cyclin D1 and P16 in the epithelium of this cyst.

Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Poursadeghi, Hamid; Aminzadeh, Atousa

2013-01-01

238

Odontogenic differentiation and dentin formation of dental pulp cells under nanobioactive glass induction.  

PubMed

Bioactive glass (BG) has been widely used in bone regeneration; however, reports on the biological effects of BG on dental pulp cells are rare. This study aims to investigate the effects of nanoscale BG (n-BG) on odontogenic differentiation and dentin formation of dental pulp cells and to compare these effects with those of microscale BG (m-BG). Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) from third molars were cultured directly with m-BG and n-BG in vitro. The cell proliferation increased at 0.1mgml(-1) BG, which also had a chemotactic effect on hDPCs. The mineralization capacity and expression of odontogenic-related proteins and genes (dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1 and collagen type I) of hDPCs were significantly up-regulated under BG induction, and were particularly higher in the n-BG group than in the control group. m-BG and n-BG combined with pulp tissues were transplanted into the dorsum of immunodeficient mice to observe their biological effects on dental pulp cells in vivo. A continuous layer of dentin-like tissue with uniform thickness, a well-organized dentinal tubule structure and polarizing odontoblast-like cells aligned along it was generated upon the n-BG layer, whereas some irregular sporadic osteodentin-like mineralized tissues were observed in the control group. This study reveals that BG, especially n-BG, induces the odontogenic differentiation and dentin formation of dental pulp cells and may serve as a potential material for pulp repair and dentin regeneration. PMID:24576581

Wang, Sainan; Gao, Xuejun; Gong, Weiyu; Zhang, Zhichun; Chen, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yanmei

2014-06-01

239

Report of a Rare Case of an Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a mesenchymal tissue benign neoplasia, being relatively rare which is almost exclusively seen in tooth-bearing areas. OM commonly occurs in the 2nd and 3rd decade and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. Radiographically, the myxoma appears as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 28-year-old female patient with a brief review of the literature.

Manjunath, SM; Gupta, AA; Swetha, P; Moon, NJ; Singh, S; Singh, A

2014-01-01

240

Peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with a dilacerated maxillary central incisor: a case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a 16-year-old male with peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) in the anterior maxilla associated with dilaceration of a tooth in its vicinity. A solitary, exophytic and sessile growth was present between the maxillary right central and lateral incisors and extended from the labial mucosa to the palatal gingiva. A periapical radiograph of the maxillary right central incisor revealed a shortened and dilacerated root. The growth was excised and sent for histopathologic examination. A diagnosis of POF (World Health Organization type) was rendered. The clinical and microscopic features are discussed. PMID:23738522

Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Baliga, Vidya; Prasad, Umesh Chandra

2011-10-01

241

Odontogenic keratocysts in Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple odontogenic keratocysts. Considering the rarity of this syndrome, we present a 12-year-old boy affected by this syndrome. He had multiple okcs, calcification of falx cerebri, bifid ribs, frontal bossing and hypertelorism. Characteristic cutaneous manifestation (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) was not present in this patient. The jaw cysts were treated with marsupialization then enucleation. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cystlike radiolucencies are discovered on panoramic view.

2009-01-01

242

Surgical treatment of odontogenic myxoma and facial deformity in the same procedure  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor with aggressive and invasive behavior. Predominant symptoms are usually slow and painless swelling, sometimes resulting in perforation of the cortical borders of the affected bone. In this paper, a case report of a patient with an OM on the right maxillary sinus and a vertical excess of maxilla will be presented. The treatment chosen was tumor resection in association with orthognathic surgery with biomodels assessment for surgical planning. A 3-year follow-up showed disease free and stability of the new position of maxilla. The international literature is evaluated to discuss this case report.

Mayrink, Gabriela; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa; Olate, Sergio; Asprino, Luciana; De Moraes, Marcio

2013-01-01

243

Anaerobic dechlorination and degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening studies with strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria showed that Clostridium app. and several other representatives of Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae actively degraded ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) under anaerobic conditions. Representatives of Lactobacillaceae and Propronibacterium were inactive. With 36Cl-labelled ?-HCH a nearly complete dechlorination was shown to occur in 4–6 days by Clostridium butyricum, C. pasteurianum and Citrobacter freundii, while other facultative anaerobic

G. Jagnow; K. Haider; P.-Chr. Ellwardt

1977-01-01

244

Anaerobic CO2 Cabinet for the Cultivation of Strict Anaerobes  

PubMed Central

The design and construction of an anaerobic CO2 cabinet are described. Air is displaced by a stream of oxygen-free CO2, and anerobic conditions are produced in 3 hr. The equipment is simple and cheap to operate and has been found to be satisfactory for the isolation of strict anaerobes from the mouse intestine. Images

Leach, P. Ann; Bullen, J. J.; Grant, I. D.

1971-01-01

245

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

2013-09-01

246

Management of Severe Abdominal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nearly all bacteria causing abdominal infections are derived from the endogenous flora of the alimentary tract. The resulting infection is typically polymicrobial and comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. They can be classified by their severity as uncomplicated and complicated or by their origin as community or hospital acquired. Escherichia

Dietrich Hasper; Joerg C. Schefold; Daniel C. Baumgart

2009-01-01

247

Assessment of routine use of an anaerobic bottle in a three-component, high-volume blood culture system.  

PubMed Central

The relative value of routine anaerobic blood culture for recovery of organisms and identification of episodes of bloodstream infection was assessed in a three-component, high-volume blood culture system which employs aerobic and anaerobic bottles of BacT/Alert (Organon-Teknika, Durham, N.C.) and aerobic cultures of Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.). The results of 5,595 blood culture sets from patients with suspected bloodstream infection were analyzed. Compared with either the aerobic BacT/Alert bottle or aerobic culture of Isolator, the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle recovered significantly fewer isolates (242 versus 294, P < 0.05; 242 versus 298, P < 0.05) but did not detect significantly fewer episodes of bloodstream infection (141 versus 157, P > 0.05; 141 versus 147, P > 0.05). The BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle recovered significantly more isolates of obligately anaerobic bacteria (16 versus 4, P < 0.05; 16 versus 0, P < 0.05) and detected significantly more episodes of bloodstream infection caused by obligately anaerobic bacteria (10 versus 3, P < 0.05; 10 versus 0, P < 0.05) than either the aerobic bottle of BacT/Alert or the aerobic culture of Isolator. The combination of the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle and the aerobic culture of Isolator recovered as may isolates (374 versus 377) and detected as many episodes of bloodstream infection (194 versus 191) as the combination of the aerobic bottle of BacT/Alert and the aerobic culture of Isolator, and both of these combinations identified at least 8% more isolates and detected at least 3% more bloodstream infections than the combination of the BacT/Alert aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Further analysis of the data revealed that the utility of the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle, especially when combined with the aerobic culture of Isolator, resulted from not only enhanced recovery of obligately anaerobic bacteria but also effective recovery of facultatively anaerobic bacteria. These results demonstrate the utility of the anaerobic BacT/Alert bottle for detecting bloodstream infection caused by either facultatively anaerobic bacteria or obligately anaerobic bacteria and support the routine inclusion of anaerobic blood culture in the three-component blood culture system used in our hospital.

Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmesen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R

1996-01-01

248

The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. `Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH+4 min?1 (mg protein)?1 using

Mike S. M Jetten; Marc Strous; Katinka T van de Pas-Schoonen; Jos Schalk; Udo G. J. M van Dongen; Astrid A van de Graaf; Susanne Logemann; Gerard Muyzer; Mark C. M van Loosdrecht; J. Gijs Kuenen

1998-01-01

249

Recurrence rate of keratocystic odontogenic tumor after conservative surgical treatment without adjunctive therapies – A 35-year single institution experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recurrence rate in conservative surgical treatment, without adjunctive treatment, of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has been studied. A total number of 68 patients, previously untreated and fulfilling the histopathological criteria provided by the 2005 WHO classification, has been retrospectively reviewed. The study period lasted from 1975 to 2009. Treatment consisted of enucleation (n = 58) or marsupialization (n

Judith A. E. M. Zecha; Rui Amaral Mendes; Victor B. Lindeboom; Isaäc van der Waal

2010-01-01

250

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with clear langerhans cells: a novel variant, report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CCEOT) is a rare variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT). While it is not surprising to find clear cells in odontogenic lesions, the exact nature of the clear cells in CCEOT has not been elucidated. Herein, we report a case of peripheral CCEOT of anterior mandible in a 37 year old black female. Histologically, the tumour consisted of cords and small nests of clear cells surrounded by dense deposits of amyloid and basophilic calcifications. The cells possessed abundant clear cytoplasm and eccentrically located indented nuclei. Admixed with the clear cells were eosinophilic cuboidal to polyhedral cells. The clear cells were PAS negative and immunoreactive for S100 protein, CD1a and Langerin. The clear cells were negative for MNF-116, SMA, Desmin and CK-19. It is therefore recommended to recognize two variants of CCEOT, namely, CEOT with clear cell change and CEOT with clear Langerhans cells (LC). We further suggest that the contradictory term "non-calcifying variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with LC" to be abandoned, as the current case clearly indicates that LC could be seen in CEOT irrespective of the presence or absence of calcifications. PMID:24037599

Afrogheh, Amir; Schneider, Johann; Mohamed, Noor; Hille, Jos

2014-06-01

251

Expansile keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the maxilla: immunohistochemical studies and review of literature.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) - previously termed odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) - are characterized by aggressive behavior and a high rate of recurrence. Histopathologically, the basal layer of KCOT shows a higher cell proliferation rate and increased expression of anti-apoptosis genes. Clinically, KCOT is frequently involved in the mandibular posterior region but is not common in the posterior maxilla. However, it should be noted that due to its expansive characteristics, KCOT involved near the maxillary sinus could easily expand to an enormous size and occupy the entire maxilla. To achieve total excision of these expanded cystic tumors in the maxilla, a more aggressive approach would be needed. In this report, we describe two cases of expansile KCOT involving the entire unilateral maxilla and maxillary sinus; they were completely excised using the Weber-Ferguson approach, showing no evidence of recurrence during the follow-up period of more than two years. In immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor specimens, p53 and p63 showed strong expression, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and MKI67 (Ki-67) showed moderate or weak expression, however, detection of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) was almost negative. These data indicate that expansile KCOT possesses increased anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation rate but decreased apoptosis. These properties of KCOT may contribute to tumor enlargement, aggressive behavior, and high recurrence rate. PMID:24471040

Byun, June-Ho; Kang, Young-Hoon; Choi, Mun-Jeong; Park, Bong-Wook

2013-08-01

252

Expansile keratocystic odontogenic tumor in the maxilla: immunohistochemical studies and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) - previously termed odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) - are characterized by aggressive behavior and a high rate of recurrence. Histopathologically, the basal layer of KCOT shows a higher cell proliferation rate and increased expression of anti-apoptosis genes. Clinically, KCOT is frequently involved in the mandibular posterior region but is not common in the posterior maxilla. However, it should be noted that due to its expansive characteristics, KCOT involved near the maxillary sinus could easily expand to an enormous size and occupy the entire maxilla. To achieve total excision of these expanded cystic tumors in the maxilla, a more aggressive approach would be needed. In this report, we describe two cases of expansile KCOT involving the entire unilateral maxilla and maxillary sinus; they were completely excised using the Weber-Ferguson approach, showing no evidence of recurrence during the follow-up period of more than two years. In immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor specimens, p53 and p63 showed strong expression, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and MKI67 (Ki-67) showed moderate or weak expression, however, detection of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) was almost negative. These data indicate that expansile KCOT possesses increased anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation rate but decreased apoptosis. These properties of KCOT may contribute to tumor enlargement, aggressive behavior, and high recurrence rate.

Byun, June-Ho; Kang, Young-Hoon; Choi, Mun-Jeong

2013-01-01

253

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: Predictive Factors of Recurrence by Ki-67 and AgNOR Labelling  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Ki-67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR) between the recurrent and nonrecurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). Another aim was to compare the correlation between these two markers. Materials and Methods: 22 KCOTs were evaluated retrospectively. The actual proliferative activity of the KCOT was measured by Ki-67 labelling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions AgNOR count per nucleus. Results: Recurrence occurred in 3 patients (13.6%) during the follow-up period (mean follow-up, 37.8 months) The Ki-67 and AgNOR counts were significantly higher in the recurrent lesions comparing to the non-recurrent lesions. (p=0,045; p=0,049) The correlation between Ki-67 and AgNOR counts was found to be positive (r=0,853 p=0,0001). Conclusion: Within the limit of the present study, it is thought that Ki-67 and AgNOR might be helpful as a prognostic marker for the recurrences of KCOTs. These markers reinforced the meaning of the new classification of the lesion as an odontogenic tumor. Enucleation with curettage or decompression following enucleation with curettage is a simple and appropriate surgical model for the treatment of KCOT despite the relative high recurrence rate. On the other hand, the conservative treatment can be chosen only if there is no coronoid invasion, no interruptive cortical lysis and no tissular invasion.

Selvi, Firat; Tekkesin, Merva Soluk; Cakarer, Sirmahan; Isler, S. Cemil; Keskin, Cengizhan

2012-01-01

254

Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

2000-12-01

255

Comparison of Lysis Filtration and an Automated Blood Culture System (BACTEC) for Detection, Quantification, and Identification of Odontogenic Bacteremia in Children  

PubMed Central

Lysis filtration (LyF) was compared with BACTEC PAEDS PLUS in estimating the prevalence of, and sensitivity for, detection of odontogenic bacteremia. Both real bacteremia and simulated bacteremia (seeded blood or saline samples) were assessed to determine the validity of LyF in estimating bacteremia. The simulated bacteremia was also used to assess the reliability of LyF to estimate intensity of bacteremia in CFU per milliliter of blood. Reference organisms were used to assess the abilities of LyF and BACTEC to isolate known oral streptococci. There was no difference in the number of CFU per milliliter of seeded saline, seeded blood, and drop cultures of the organisms plated directly onto agar. Blood cell volume had a negligible effect on the yield of organisms for simulated bacteremia. When LyF and BACTEC were compared, the time to detection of bacteremia was always significantly shorter for BACTEC. For aerobic cultures, these times were 43.7 and 9.6 h, respectively (P < 0.01). For anaerobic cultures, these times were 45.1 and 9.9 h, respectively (P < 0.01). These differences occurred as well for bacteremia following the extraction of a single tooth, with LyF and BACTEC aerobic cultures taking 78 and 30.5 h, respectively (P < 0.0001). For anaerobic cultures, the times were 90.8 and 45 h, respectively (P < 0.0004). A preextraction bacteremia was detected on 2.1% of occasions with BACTEC compared to 31% of occasions with LyF (P < 0.05) The use of LyF was an effective and reliable means of estimating the intensity of pre- and postextraction bacteremia. The values were 3.6 and 5.9 CFU/ml, respectively (P < 0.4729), and the difference was not statistically significant. In summary, BACTEC is quicker than LyF, but less sensitive. LyF provides additional important information in estimating the intensity of bacteremia.

Lucas, Victoria S.; Lytra, Vasiliki; Hassan, Thoraya; Tatham, Helen; Wilson, M.; Roberts, Graham J.

2002-01-01

256

Frequency of odontogenic periradicular lesions in diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetic patients are more prone to oral infections and periradicular lesions due to changes in their immune system and qualitative and quantitative changes in normal flora of their mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of periradicular lesions in diabetic patients in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: From October 2011 to March 2012, 135 diabetic patients who referred to the Iranian Diabetes Society - Babol Branch and Endocrinology Clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences were studied. The demographic features as well as the duration of the diagnosis of diabetes (> 48 months was called long term and < 48 months short term) is the quality of control of their diabetes. For all the patients, panoramic and periapical radiography were performed for the presence of any radicular radiolucent lesions. Vitality test has been done for the recorded teeth except for the root treated ones and periodontal involvement necrotic teeth. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: Periradicular lesions were seen on 90.37% of the patients. The frequency of periradicular lesions in long term patients was 85 (94.4%) and in short term was 37 (82.2%) (p=0.023). The mean of teeth with periradicular lesions in long and short term diabetic patients was 2.63±2.23 and 2.11±1.79, respectively (p=0.174). Conclusion: The results show that the frequency of periradicular lesions in diabetic patients is higher in long-term diabetic patients than the short-term diabetic patients.

Mesgarani, Abbas; Haghanifar, Sina; Eshkevari, Narges; Ehsani, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya; Nafarzade, Shima; Damankesh, Zahra

2014-01-01

257

Ki-67 and MCM-2 in Dental Follicle and Odontogenic Cysts: The Effects of Inflammation on Proliferative Markers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between inflammation and the expression of markers of cell cycle entry (Ki-67 and MCM-2) in dental follicle (DF) of asymptomatic impacted teeth and odontogenic cysts. The study consisted of 70 DFs and 20 odontogenic cysts (radicular cyst (RC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocytic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) located at posterior mandibular region. Histological findings of inflammation for all specimen and mucous cell prosoplasia, squamous metaplasia, glandular epithelium for all DFs were stained with hematoxyline and eosin, periodic acid schiff, alcian blue, and mucin. Epithelial cell proliferation was determined by using immunohistochemical labeling for Ki-67 and MCM-2. The histologic examinations showed 16% mucous cell prosoplasia, 54% squamous metaplasia, 20% glandular epithelium, 37% inflammation. Inflammation was detected in all RCs and %62 in DF, %43 in DC and KCOT. Positive correlation was found between the inflammation of DF and odontogenic cysts (P < 0.01). The mean Ki-67 and MCM-2 expressions were found 9, 64 ± 5, 99 and 6, 34 ± 3, 81 in DF, 11, 85 ± 9, 01 and 13, 6 ± 9, 94 in odontogenic cysts, respectively. While the mean Ki-67 expressions were statistically significant in DF and KCOT (P < 0.01), MCM-2 were significant in RC and KCOT (P < 0.01). MCM-2 expresion in RCs were statistically significant than KCOT (P < 0.01). The results of this study indicated that the higher MCM-2 expressions in RC than the KCOT might be related to the inflammation and this protein might be more sensitive to inflammation.

Guler, Nurhan; Comunoglu, Nil; Cabbar, Fatih

2012-01-01

258

Adaptation and antibiotic tolerance of anaerobic Burkholderia pseudomallei.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and is remarkably resistant to most classes of antibacterials. Even after months of treatment with antibacterials that are relatively effective in vitro, there is a high rate of treatment failure, indicating that this pathogen alters its patterns of antibacterial susceptibility in response to cues encountered in the host. The pathology of melioidosis indicates that B. pseudomallei encounters host microenvironments that limit aerobic respiration, including the lack of oxygen found in abscesses and in the presence of nitric oxide produced by macrophages. We investigated whether B. pseudomallei could survive in a nonreplicating, oxygen-deprived state and determined if this physiological state was tolerant of conventional antibacterials. B. pseudomallei survived initial anaerobiosis, especially under moderately acidic conditions similar to those found in abscesses. Microarray expression profiling indicated a major shift in the physiological state of hypoxic B. pseudomallei, including induction of a variety of typical anaerobic-environment-responsive genes and genes that appear specific to anaerobic B. pseudomallei. Interestingly, anaerobic B. pseudomallei was unaffected by antibacterials typically used in therapy. However, it was exquisitely sensitive to drugs used against anaerobic pathogens. After several weeks of anaerobic culture, a significant loss of viability was observed. However, a stable subpopulation that maintained complete viability for at least 1 year was established. Thus, during the course of human infection, if a minor subpopulation of bacteria inhabited an oxygen-restricted environment, it might be indifferent to traditional therapy but susceptible to antibiotics frequently used to treat anaerobic infections. PMID:21537012

Hamad, Mohamad A; Austin, Chad R; Stewart, Amanda L; Higgins, Mike; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Voskuil, Martin I

2011-07-01

259

Adaptation and Antibiotic Tolerance of Anaerobic Burkholderia pseudomallei ? †  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and is remarkably resistant to most classes of antibacterials. Even after months of treatment with antibacterials that are relatively effective in vitro, there is a high rate of treatment failure, indicating that this pathogen alters its patterns of antibacterial susceptibility in response to cues encountered in the host. The pathology of melioidosis indicates that B. pseudomallei encounters host microenvironments that limit aerobic respiration, including the lack of oxygen found in abscesses and in the presence of nitric oxide produced by macrophages. We investigated whether B. pseudomallei could survive in a nonreplicating, oxygen-deprived state and determined if this physiological state was tolerant of conventional antibacterials. B. pseudomallei survived initial anaerobiosis, especially under moderately acidic conditions similar to those found in abscesses. Microarray expression profiling indicated a major shift in the physiological state of hypoxic B. pseudomallei, including induction of a variety of typical anaerobic-environment-responsive genes and genes that appear specific to anaerobic B. pseudomallei. Interestingly, anaerobic B. pseudomallei was unaffected by antibacterials typically used in therapy. However, it was exquisitely sensitive to drugs used against anaerobic pathogens. After several weeks of anaerobic culture, a significant loss of viability was observed. However, a stable subpopulation that maintained complete viability for at least 1 year was established. Thus, during the course of human infection, if a minor subpopulation of bacteria inhabited an oxygen-restricted environment, it might be indifferent to traditional therapy but susceptible to antibiotics frequently used to treat anaerobic infections.

Hamad, Mohamad A.; Austin, Chad R.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Higgins, Mike; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Voskuil, Martin I.

2011-01-01

260

Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of oral infections, especially periodontitis, as a causal factor for systemic diseases. Three mechanisms or pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: (i) metastatic spread of infection from the oral cavity as a result of transient bacteremia, (ii) metastatic injury from the effects of circulating oral microbial toxins, and (iii) metastatic inflammation caused by immunological injury induced by oral microorganisms. Periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host's susceptibility to systemic disease in three ways: by shared risk factors; subgingival biofilms acting as reservoirs of gram-negative bacteria; and the periodontium acting as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators. Proposed evidence and mechanisms of the above odontogenic systemic diseases are given.

Li, Xiaojing; Kolltveit, Kristin M.; Tronstad, Leif; Olsen, Ingar

2000-01-01

261

PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

Not Available

1989-03-01

262

Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

Cohen, Arlette

1984-01-01

263

Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium.

Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

1987-01-01

264

Odontogenic myxoma presenting as localized inflammatory gingival enlargement: A diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in the maxillofacial region. The radiographic and clinical features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. A case of OM of the maxilla is described in a 19-year-old female, previously diagnosed as inflammatory gingival enlargement. Clinical, histological, radiographic, and computed tomographic (CT) scan assessments were done, which were confirmatory for OM. Surgical excision of the lesion was done. The patient was put on periodic recall, as the recurrence rate of the lesion was high. The biological spectrum of OM was highly variable and diagnosis at an early stage was very difficult. Gingival enlargement presentation might not always be an inflammatory reaction. All possible differential diagnosis should be explored and various diagnostic tools utilized, to screen the enlargement. PMID:23162348

Singhal, Rameshwari; Singh, Aparna; Rastogi, Pavitra; Dixit, Jaya

2012-07-01

265

A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

2013-01-01

266

PTCH1 mutation and local aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocystic tumors in children: is there a relationship?  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are locally aggressive jaw lesions that may be related to PTCH1 mutations in isolation or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. We sought to clarify the role of PTCH1 mutation in KCOT aggressiveness. We assessed cyst pathological characteristics, Ki-67 immunostaining, and somatic and germinal PTCH1 mutation in 16 KCOTs from 10 unrelated patients. Ten PTCH1 mutations were identified in 16 tumors. All tumors with PTCH1 mutations presented the criteria of pathological aggressiveness. We also noted the presence of a chorionic epithelial structure apparently acting as a secondary germinal center in these same tumors. Ki-67 immunostaining was not associated with PTCH1 mutation. KCOTs harboring the mutation display a chorionic epithelial structure that acts as a secondary germinal center. Genetic and microenvironmental factors might interact to propel tumor development. PMID:23317547

Kadlub, Natacha; Coudert, Amélie; Gatibelza, Marie-Eve; El Houmami, Nawal; Soufir, Nadem; Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; L'hermine, Aurore Coulomb; Berdal, Ariane; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Descroix, Vianney; Picard, Arnaud

2013-06-01

267

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: a rare neoplasm of the maxillary bone.  

PubMed

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with only 74 cases in the English-language literature. It displays a propensity for the mandible, most commonly presenting in the fifth to seventh decades. Histopathologically, CCOC is characterized by sheets and islands of vacuolated and clear cells. The aggressive nature of CCOC was noted in its first description in 1985, although it was not formally classified as malignant by the World Health Organization until 2005. This report describes a case of CCOC presenting atypically in a young patient and at an uncommon site. The authors review the details of this case, outlining management strategies referencing their experience and that described in the other limited cases in the literature. PMID:24359996

Kalsi, Amardip S; Williams, Stephen P; Shah, Ketan A; Fasanmade, Adekunmi

2014-05-01

268

Pigmented keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A case report with review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare benign neoplasm of odontogenic origin. The squamous epithelium of KCOT usually does not contain melanocytes, however, pigmented KCOT has been documented, albeit extremely rarely. In the present study, we described an additional case of pigmented KCOT and review the clinicopathological features of this extremely rare lesion. A 23-year-old Japanese female presented with a relatively well-circumscribed round unilocular radiolucency that impacted the third molar in her right mandibula. Surgical resection was performed subsequent to a clinical diagnosis of KCOT. Histopathological study of the resected mandibular cyst showed that it was covered by a parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which had slightly enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei. On the luminal surface, a wavy layer of parakeratin was observed. In addition, dendritic melanocytes without atypia were observed in approximately half of the squamous epithelium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that these melanocytes were positive for S-100 protein, Melan-A and HMB-45. Therefore, a diagnosis of pigmented KCOT was made. Review of the clinicopathological features of the previously reported cases of pigmented KCOT as well as the present case revealed that: i) this lesion occurs mostly in young persons (average age, 18 years) and shows female predominance; ii) most cases are solitary and involve the mandibula; and iii) the reported incidence is 0.36–10.6% and this difference may be associated with ethnicity. Thus, we described the ninth reported case of pigmented KCOT. The mechanism by which melanocytes appear and the difference in ethnic prevalence remain unclear. Additional clinicopathological studies are needed to clarify these issues.

ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; KOSHINUMA, SHINYA; OUE, KEISUKE; HIGO, TOMOKI; YAMAMOTO, GAKU; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

2013-01-01

269

Bilophila wadsworthia : a Unique Gram-negative Anaerobic Rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although comprising less than 0·01% of the normal human gastrointestinal microbiota,Bilophila wadsworthiais the third most common anaerobe recovered from clinical material obtained from patients with perforated and gangrenous appendicitis. Since its discovery in 1988,B. wadsworthiahas been recovered from clinical specimens associated with a variety of infections, including sepsis, liver abscesses, cholecystitis, Fournier's gangrene, soft tissue abscesses, empyema, osteomyelitis, Bartholinitis, and

Ellen Jo Baron

1997-01-01

270

Differential expression of protease inhibitor and small proline-rich protein genes between normal human oral tissue and odontogenic keratocysts.  

PubMed

The technique of differential hybridization was used to compare gene transcription between normal oral mucosa and odontogenic keratocyst lining. Protease inhibitors, elafin and stefin-B as well as beta-actin and two epithelial-specific small proline-rich (spr) proteins, which we have named SPRC and SPRK and which are distinct from salivary proline-rich proteins, were differentially expressed. Increased abundance of alpha I(I) collagen and elafin transcripts was demonstrated in the keratocyst, with decreased abundance of stefin B, SPRC and cytokeratins 4 and 13 transcripts compared to normal palatal mucosa. The deduced protein sequences of SPRC and SPRK were described and compared, and the relative abundance of their respective cDNAs in palatal and keratocyst libraries determined. Identification of factors controlling transcription of these genes could advance our understanding of the development of odontogenic keratocysts. PMID:8018055

Robinson, P A; Marley, J J; High, A S; Hume, W J

1994-03-01

271

Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance.

Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

2001-01-01

272

Modelling anaerobic biofilm reactors--a review.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment has become a technically as well as economically feasible option for treatment of liquid effluents after the development of reactors such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, anaerobic biofilter and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). Considerable effort has gone into developing mathematical models for these reactors in order to optimize their design, design the process control systems used in their operation and enhance their operational efficiency. This article presents a critical review of the different mathematical models available for these reactors. The unified anaerobic digestion model (ADM1) and its application to anaerobic biofilm reactors are also outlined. PMID:16517049

Saravanan, V; Sreekrishnan, T R

2006-10-01

273

PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

274

Pilot Anaerobic Biological Treatment of Pulp Mill Evaporator Foul Condensate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A...

E. J. Donovan

1985-01-01

275

Impaired odontogenic differentiation of senescent dental mesenchymal stem cells is associated with loss of Bmi-1 expression  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dental mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) may differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and form mineralized nodules. In the current study, we investigated the effects of senescence on odontogenic differentiation of dMSCs. Methods dMSCs were serially subcultured until senescence. Telomere lengths and telomerase activities were determined by quantitative PCR. Expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, e.g., Bmi-1, p16INK4A, osteocalcin (OC), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) were assayed by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Exogenous Bmi-1 was expressed in dMSC using retroviral vectors. Odontogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Results Subculture-induced replicative senescence of dMSCs led to reduced expression of Bmi-1, OC, DSPP, and BSP compared with rapidly proliferating cells, while p16INK4A level increased. The cells exhibited progressive loss of telomeric DNA during subculture, presumably due to lack of telomerase activity. Bmi-1 transduction did not affect proliferation of cells, but enhanced the expression of OC and DSPP in the late passage cultures. Bmi-1-transduced cells also demonstrated enhanced ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation. Conclusions These results indicate that dMSCs lose their odontogenic differentiation potential during senescence, in part, by reduced Bmi-1 expression.

Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju Eun; Chung, Christine L.; Chen, Wei; Kim, Reuben H.; Shi, Songtao; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.

2011-01-01

276

Anaerobic digestion of woody biomass  

SciTech Connect

Woody biomass without pretreatment is generally considered to be refractive to anaerobic decomposition. This refractory property is attributed to its low moisture content, crystalline nature of the cellulose, and complex association of the component carbohydrates with lignin. This study investigated the methane fermentation (anaerobic digestion) of various wood species using conventional anaerobic digestion and batch anaerobic biogasification potential assays. Most experiments were conducted at 35/sup 0/C with a particle size in the range of 1 to 2 mm, and with a full complement of inorganic nutrient supplements. Conventional CSTR semicontinuous feed anaerobic digestion resulted in low methane yields and low conversion (less than 5% organic reduction). Significantly higher conversion (as high as 54%) and higher methane yields (as high as 5.4 SCF/lb VS added) were observed for several hardwood species in ABP assays employing low loading and long residence times (60 days). One softwood (loblolly pine) and eucalyptus were refractory under these conditions. Pretreatments, including particle size reduction and NaOH, increased rates but not total conversion. These results demonstrate that woody biomass can be decomposed by the methane fermentation and support the potential for development of this process for commercial wood conversion applications. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Chynoweth, D.P.; Jerger, D.E.

1984-01-01

277

[Identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic susceptibilities].  

PubMed

Routine isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria present several difficulties leading to defects in the determination of local susceptibility patterns which will guide empirical treatment protocols. This study was carried out to identify the anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical materials obtained from the suspected patients with anaerobic infection and to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities against several antibiotics. One hundred clinical specimens (36 blood, 31 abscess, 12 peritoneal fluid, 7 joint fluid, 7 pleural fluid, 3 biopsies, 3 cerebrospinal fluids and 1 surgical wound) that were examined in our laboratory during March 20-October 30 2007, were included in the study. The specimens were collected and transported under anaerobic conditions and inoculated to conventional aerobic media and to Wilkins Chalgren agar, Schaedler agar and chopped-meat broth for anaerobic isolation. Isolated anaerobic bacteria were identified with API 20A panels (Bio-Merieux, France) via conventional methods and by the help of AN-IDENT Discs (Oxoid, England). Penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem susceptibility tests were performed with E- test method. Twenty two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 14 clinical specimens; 7 of the specimens yielding the growth of more than one type of anaerobic bacteria and 8 specimens yielding both anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial (4 Escherichia coli and 4 Enterococcus spp.) growth. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 89 abscess and in 6 peritoneal fluid specimens. The distribution of the anaerobic bacteria identified among these specimens were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis (n = 6), Bacteroides spp. other than B.fragilis (n = 4), Clostridium spp. (n = 2), Fusobacterium necrophorum/nucleatum (n = 1), Prevotella intermedia/disiens (n = 1), Peptococcus niger (n = 2), Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 5), and Lactobacillus acidophilus/lenseii (n = 1). Beta-lactamase activity was detected only in 2 of the 6 B. fragilis isolates. All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. The highest rate of resistance was detected against penicillin G (9/22; 41%). While anaerobic gram-positive cocci (n = 7) were found to be sensitive to all antibiotics, the rate of resistance among anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were 75% (9/12) to penicillin, 33.3% (4/12) to clindamycin, 8.3% (1/12) to metronidazole. Among anaerobic gram-positive bacilli (n = 3), 2 were resistant to metronidazole, one to clindamycin and one to cefoxitin. The results of this first anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing study performed at Konya area in Turkey revealed that penicillin was not appropriate in empirical treatment of anaerobic infections, clindamycin susceptibility should be tested before use, metronidazole and cefoxitin could be used in empirical treatment and imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam should be saved for the treatment of complicated infections and infections caused by resistant bacteria. PMID:20549955

Do?an, Metin; Baysal, Bülent

2010-04-01

278

Granulation in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment was designed to study Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor and to evaluate a methane fermentation process for the treatment of wastewater. The essential feature of the UASB process is high activity of anaerobic bacterial mass in t...

T. Hoaki T. Tomozawa S. Kaneko

1987-01-01

279

ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic conditions predominate in contaminated aquifers and are not uncommon in noncontaminated areas. Comparatively little is known about degradative processes and nutrient cycling under anaerobic conditions. However, it is apparent these processes are fundamentally differen...

280

The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

1980-01-01

281

Oxygen sensitivity of various anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobes differ in their sensitivity to oxygen, as two patterns were recognizable in the organisms included in this study. Strict anaerobes were species incapable of agar surface growth at pO(2) levels greater than 0.5%. Species that were found to be strict anaerobes were Treponema macrodentium, Treponema denticola, Treponema oralis n. sp., Clostridium haemolyticum, Selenomonas ruminatium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, and Lachnospira multiparus. Moderate anaerobes would include those species capable of growth in the presence of oxygen levels as high as 2 to 8%. The moderate anaerobes could be exposed to room atmosphere for 60 to 90 min without appreciable loss of viability. Species considered as moderate anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, B. melaninogenicus, B. oralis, Fusobacteria nucleatum, Clostridium novyi type A, and Peptostreptococcus elsdenii. The recognition of at least two general types of anaerobes would seem to have practical import in regard to the primary isolation of anaerobes from source material. PMID:5370458

Loesche, W J

1969-11-01

282

Decolorization of Azo Dyes Under Batch Anaerobic and Sequential Anaerobic\\/Aerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)\\/aerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were used to determine the color and COD removals under anaerobic\\/aerobic conditions. Two azo dyes namely “Reactive Black 5 (RB 5),” “Congo Red (CR),” and glucose as a carbon source were used for synthetic wastewater. The course of the decolorization process approximates to first order

Mustafa I??k; Delia Teresa Sponza

2004-01-01

283

Anaerobic Digestion in Suspended Growth Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter concerns the principles of suspended growth anaerobic digestion. The fundamentals of anaerobic metabolism of\\u000a organic matter are first presented. This is followed by presentation of anaerobic process stoichiometry and energetics as\\u000a well as kinetics as these are prerequisites for the design of anaerobic processes. The importance of the feed characteristics\\u000a that make a particular substrate medium or feedstock

Gerasimos Lyberatos; Pratap C. Pullammanappallil

284

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

2013-12-01

285

Kinetics of anaerobic treatment: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals of microbial kinetics and continuous culture models are presented. The kinetics of the anaerobic treatment processes are reviewed recognizing that anaerobic degradation of complex, polymeric organic materials is a combination of series and parallel reactions. Such reactions include hydrolysis, fermentation, anaerobic oxidation of fatty acids, and methanogenesis. The intrinsic rates of each step are reviewed and literature data

S. G. Pavlostathis

1991-01-01

286

Endogenous Metabolism of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the possible role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the anaerobe Zymomonas anaerobia has been carried out. he enzymic constitution of cells grown in both complex and defined medium has been examined and only four enzymes of the cycle,...

E. A. Dawes M. Ishaq M. Midgley

1970-01-01

287

Induced Sludge Bed Anaerobic Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An induced sludge bed anaerobic reactor includes a vessel in which a septum or other partition is positioned to maintain solids in wastewater being treated toward a lower zone in the reactor. A gas trap, which may also comprise an overpressure protection ...

C. L. Hansen C. S. Hansen E. D. Watts K. D. Pack

2005-01-01

288

Sulfide production in anaerobic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of free sulfide in tidal flat sediments and the mechanisms leading to its generation were investigated by growing mixed cultures of anaerobic sediment bacteria in media containing organic material extracted from sediments and benthic algae. Sulfide pro- duction was observed in all cultures; stoichiometric considerations indicated sulfate reduc- tion was the most important mechanism. Sulfide production rates were

Alan E. Ramml; DAVID A. BELLA

1974-01-01

289

Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-10-01

290

Effect of anaerobic digestion on oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella.  

PubMed Central

The effect of anaerobic digestion of poultry waste on oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella, a common enteric pathogen that causes coccidiosis in poultry, was investigated in this study. Thermophilic (50 degrees C) and mesophilic (35 degrees C) anaerobic digestors, with poultry manure as the substrate, were inoculated with the oocysts. The oocysts were damaged during anaerobic digestion, as determined by morphological change and loss of their ability to sporulate. The recovered oocysts were tested for their infectivity in young chicks, as measured by body weight gain, mortality, and cecal lesions. Oocysts lost all their infectivity during thermophilic digestion, while oocysts subjected to mesophilic digestion remained moderately infective in comparison with untreated oocysts, which produced severe coccidiosis, high mortality, and low body weight gain in chicks. Oocysts were inactivated at 50 degrees C when they were suspended in digestor fluid or saline. Inactivation at 35 degrees C was significantly stronger in the digestor fluid than in the saline, which implied that factors other than temperature were involved in the lethal effect of anaerobic digestion on protozoan oocysts. In this study we demonstrated that the treatment of animal waste by anaerobic digestion, especially at a thermophilic temperature, has the benefits of pathogen control and protection of human and animal health in a farm environment. Images

Lee, M R; Shih, J C

1988-01-01

291

The relationship between radiological features and clinical manifestation and dental expenses of keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to identify correlations between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) data from CT sections, and data on the KCOT clinical manifestation and resulting dental expenses. Materials and Methods Following local Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a seven-years of retrospective study was performed regarding patients with KCOTs treated at the Seoul National University Dental Hospital. A total of 180 KCOT were included in this study. The following information was collected: age, gender, location and size of the lesion, radiological features, surgical treatment provided and dental expenses. Results There was no significant association between the size of the KCOT and age, gender, and presenting preoperative symptoms. In both jaws, it was unusual to find KCOTs under 10 mm. The correlation between the number of teeth removed and the size of the KCOT in the tooth bearing area was statistically significant in the mandible, whereas in the maxilla, no significant relationship was found. Dental expenses compared with the size of the KCOT were found to be significant in both jaws. Conclusion The size of KCOT was associated with a significant increase in dental expenses for both jaws and the number of teeth removed from the mandible. These findings emphasize the importance of routine examinations and early detection of lesions, which in turn helps preserving anatomical structures and reducing dental expenses.

Min, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yi, Won-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Choi, Jin-Woo

2013-01-01

292

Dental pulp stem cells express proteins involved in the local invasiveness of odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Little is known about the histogenesis of the odontogenic myxoma (OM). Dental pulp stem cells could be candidate precursors of OM because both OM and the dental pulp share the same embryological origin: the dental papilla. For the purpose of comparing OM and stem cells, this study analyzed the expression of two proteins related to OM invasiveness (MMP-2 and hyaluronic acid) in human immature dental pulp stem cells (hIDPSCs). Three lineages of hIDPSCs from deciduous and permanent teeth were used in this study. Immunofluorescence revealed positive reactions for MMP-2 and hyaluronic acid (HA) in all hIDPSCs. MMP-2 appeared as dots throughout the cytoplasm, whereas HA appeared either as diffuse and irregular dots or as short fibrils throughout the cytoplasm and outside the cell bodies. The gene expression profile of each cell lineage was evaluated using RT-PCR analysis, and HA was expressed more intensively than MMP-2. HA expression was similar among the three hIDPSCs lineages, whereas MMP-2 expression was higher in DL-1 than in the other cell lines. The expression of proteins related to OM invasiveness in hIDPSCs could indicate that OM originates from dental pulp stem cells. PMID:22473349

Miyagi, Sueli Patricia Harumi; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Marques, Márcia Martins

2012-01-01

293

FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing ?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Odontoblasts and osteoblasts develop from multipotent craniofacial neural crest cells during tooth and jawbone development, but the mechanisms that specify and sustain their respective fates remain largely unknown. In this study we used early mouse molar and incisor tooth germs that possess distinct tooth-forming capability after dissociation and reaggregation in vitro to investigate the mechanism that sustains odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme during tooth development. We found that after dissociation and reaggregation, incisor, but not molar, mesenchyme exhibits a strong osteogenic potency associated with robustly elevated ?-catenin signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to failed tooth formation in the reaggregates. Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits ?-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation. The lack of FGF retention on the cell surface of incisor mesenchyme appears to account for the differential osteogenic potency between incisor and molar, which can be further attributed to the differential expression of syndecan 1 and NDST genes. We further demonstrate that FGF signaling inhibits intracellular ?-catenin signaling by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate the subcellular localization of active GSK3? in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results reveal a novel function for FGF signaling in ensuring the proper fate of dental mesenchyme by regulating ?-catenin signaling activity during tooth development. PMID:24067353

Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Zhongchen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing

2013-11-01

294

Tooth replacement and putative odontogenic stem cell niches in pharyngeal dentition of medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

The small-sized teleost fish medaka, Oryzias latipes, has as many as 1000 pharyngeal teeth undergoing continuous replacement. In this study, we sought to identify the tooth-forming units and determine its replacement cycles, and further localize odontogenic stem cell niches in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka to gain insights into the mechanisms whereby continuous tooth replacement is maintained. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pharyngeal epithelium and sequential fluorochrome labeling of pharyngeal bones and teeth indicated that the individual functional teeth and their successional teeth were organized in families, each comprising up to five generations of teeth and successional tooth germs, and that the replacement cycle of functional teeth was approximately 4 weeks. BrdU label/chase experiments confirmed the existence of clusters of label-retaining epithelial cells at the posterior end of each tooth family where the expression of pluripotency marker Sox2 was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Label-retaining cells were also identified in the mesoderm immediately adjacent to the posterior end of each tooth family. These data suggest the importance of existence of slow-cycling dental epithelial cells and Sox2 expressions at the posterior end of each tooth family to maintain continuous tooth formation and replacement in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka. PMID:24463193

Abduweli, Dawud; Baba, Otto; Tabata, Makoto J; Higuchi, Kazunori; Mitani, Hiroshi; Takano, Yoshiro

2014-04-01

295

Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.  

PubMed

Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

2014-08-01

296

Epigenetic Marks Define the Lineage and Differentiation Potential of Two Distinct Neural Crest-Derived Intermediate Odontogenic Progenitor Populations  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, play an active role in the differentiation and lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, epigenetic states and differentiation profiles of two odontogenic neural crest-derived intermediate progenitor populations were compared: dental pulp (DP) and dental follicle (DF). ChIP on chip assays revealed substantial H3K27me3-mediated repression of odontoblast lineage genes DSPP and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in DF cells, but not in DP cells. Mineralization inductive conditions caused steep increases of mineralization and patterning gene expression levels in DP cells when compared to DF cells. In contrast, mineralization induction resulted in a highly dynamic histone modification response in DF cells, while there was only a subdued effect in DP cells. Both DF and DP progenitors featured H3K4me3-active marks on the promoters of early mineralization genes RUNX2, MSX2, and DLX5, while OSX, IBSP, and BGLAP promoters were enriched for H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Compared to DF cells, DP cells expressed higher levels of three pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Finally, gene ontology comparison of bivalent marks unique for DP and DF cells highlighted cell–cell attachment genes in DP cells and neurogenesis genes in DF cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the DF intermediate odontogenic neural crest lineage is distinguished from its DP counterpart by epigenetic repression of DSPP and DMP1 genes and through dynamic histone enrichment responses to mineralization induction. Findings presented here highlight the crucial role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the terminal differentiation of odontogenic neural crest lineages.

Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia

2013-01-01

297

Expression of Ki67, p53 and p63 proteins in keratocyst odontogenic tumours: an immunohistochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, p53 and p63 in Keratocyst Odontogenic Tumours (KOTs) in order\\u000a to contribute to the biological profile of this tumor. \\u000a Methods Immunohistochemical technique was performed using the EnVision™ System in 37 cases of KOTs. \\u000a Results Ki-67- and p53-immunostained cells were mainly located in the suprabasal layers. p63-positive cells were found throughout\\u000a the lining

Clarissa Araújo Silva Gurgel; Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves Ramos; Roberto Almeida Azevedo; Viviane Almeida Sarmento; Ana Maria da Silva Carvalho; Jean Nunes dos Santos

2008-01-01

298

Anaerobic filter for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study evaluated the performance of an anaerobic filter in producing biogas from pig waste with 30,000 mg\\/l of COD. The filter packing was bamboo rings of 1 and 1\\/2 in. diameter, 1 in. long; the bamboo-bed filter operated satisfactorily in a wide COD loading range of 3.74-15.65 kg\\/cu m\\/d which corresponds to the hydraulic retention of 8.47 to

S. Chavadej

1980-01-01

299

The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.  

PubMed

From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. 'Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH4+ min-1 (mg protein)-1 using nitrogen dioxide as electron acceptor. This reaction, which may involve NO as an intermediate, is thought to generate energy sufficient for survival under anoxic conditions, but not for growth. A novel obligately anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process was recently discovered in a denitrifying pilot plant reactor. From this system, a highly enriched microbial community with one dominating peculiar autotrophic organism was obtained. With nitrite as electron acceptor a maximum specific oxidation rate of 55 nmol NH4+ min-1 (mg protein)-1 was determined. Although this reaction is 25-fold faster than in Nitrosomonas, it allowed growth at a rate of only 0.003 h-1 (doubling time 11 days). 15N labeling studies showed that hydroxylamine and hydrazine were important intermediates in this new process. A novel type of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase containing an unusual P468 cytochrome has been purified from the Anammox culture. Microsensor studies have shown that at the oxic/anoxic interface of many ecosystems nitrite and ammonia occur in the absence of oxygen. In addition, the number of reports on unaccounted high nitrogen losses in wastewater treatment is gradually increasing, indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation may be more widespread than previously assumed. The recently developed nitrification systems in which oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is prevented form an ideal partner for the Anammox process. The combination of these partial nitrification and Anammox processes remains a challenge for future application in the removal of ammonium from wastewater with high ammonium concentrations. PMID:9990725

Jetten, M S; Strous, M; van de Pas-Schoonen, K T; Schalk, J; van Dongen, U G; van de Graaf, A A; Logemann, S; Muyzer, G; van Loosdrecht, M C; Kuenen, J G

1998-12-01

300

In vitro activity of azlocillin, metronidazole and its hydroxy metabolite against anaerobes. Bacteriostatic synergism studies.  

PubMed

The in vitro inhibitory activity of azlocillin (Securopen), metronidazole (Cloni) and its hydroxy metabolite was determined against 27 gram-negative and 13 gram-positive species of anaerobes by means of agar dilution tests. The 63 anaerobic strains were also tested against the pairs azlocillin-metronidazole and azlocillin-hydroxy metabolite by means of agar dilution tests. Gram-negative species (Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp. etc.) were inhibited by 0.125-256 micrograms/ml azlocillin, 0.01-4 micrograms/ml metronidazole and 0.01-4 micrograms/ml hydroxy metabolite. With gram-positive anaerobes (Clostridium spp., Peptococcaceae etc.) the MIC ranges were 0.125-4 micrograms/ml for azlocillin, 0.03-1 micrograms/ml for metronidazole and 0.125-2 micrograms/ml for the hydroxy metabolite. A synergistic effect was observed exclusively with gram-negative anaerobes (Bacteroides fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. disiens etc.). There were few instances of antagonism, likewise with gram-negative species. The preponderant combination effect against gram-positive anaerobes was addition. In view of the broad antiaerobic spectrum of azlocillin, the present in vitro findings do not preclude combined therapy with metronidazole in cases of anaerobic-aerobic poly-bacterial infections. PMID:6683537

Werner, H; Schädler, G; Krasemann, C

1983-01-01

301

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: 1. ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED. 2. ANFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses two developing technologies for the treatment of municipal wastewaters. These technologies are anaerobic fluidized bed systems and an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor (ANFLOW). The report discusses: available laboratory data on system performance; fluidized b...

302

Anaerobic Transport in Escherichia coli Membrane Vesicles*  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ?-galactoside transport in whole cells and membrane vesicles from E. coli ML 308-225 is coupled to the oxidation of ?-glycerol-P or D-lactate with fumarate as an electron acceptor. Alternatively, anaerobic ?-galactoside transport may be coupled to the oxidation of formate utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor. Both anaerobic electron-transfer systems are induced by growth of the organisms under appropriate conditions. Components of both systems are loosely bound to the membrane, necessitating the use of a modified procedure for vesicle preparation in order to demonstrate anaerobic transport in vitro. Addition of ATP or an ATP-generating system to vesicles prepared from anaerobically-grown cells or inclusion of ATP or the ATP-generating system during preparation of vesicles does not stimulate transport. The results support the conclusion that active transport under anaerobic conditions is coupled primarily to electron flow. Images

Konings, Wilhelmus N.; Kaback, H. Ronald

1973-01-01

303

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: report of 6 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare malignant tumor. To date, only 67 cases were described in the English literature and complete understanding of the behavior of CCOC was based on limited case reports. In this article, we reported 6 additional cases and reviewed the relevant literature. Our cases included 4 men and 2 women with an average age of 52.8 years. The tumors were all in the mandible and presented as poorly marginated radiolucencies. Patients were treated with resection. All cases consisted of islands and sheets of clear cells that were separated by fibrous septa. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pan-cytokeratins, CK14, CK19, and epithelial membrane antigen, but negative for S-100 protein, smooth muscle actin, desmin, human melanoma antigen, CD3, CD45, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A series of literature review disclosed the tumor has a female preponderance (44 female vs. 23 male, 1.9:1). The mean age was 54.5 years and the predominant site was the mandible (51, 76.1%). Forty-seven (70.1%) patients were initially treated with surgical resection, 15 (22.4%) patients underwent curettage or enucleation, and 1 patient was treated with chemotherapy. Nine patients had a neck dissection in addition to a surgical resection. Seven (9.6%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The recurrence rate after resection was lower than conservative therapy (29 vs. 86.7%). Nine patients died of the tumor. CCOC is a potentially aggressive lesion and owing to a high recurrent rate of conservative measure; therefore, radical surgical treatment is recommended and long-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:20827579

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Li; Pan, Jie; Tian, Xiaoguang; Tan, Jiali; Zhou, Jun; Duan, Yinzhong

2011-12-01

304

A clinicoradiological study of odontogenic carcinomas and their impact on clinical diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of odontogenic carcinomas (OCs) and evaluate their impact on early clinical diagnosis. Methods The clinical and radiological features of all patients with OCs in our pathology record from January 1988 to December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The impact on a tentative diagnosis before final histological examination of clinical, panoramic and CT features was investigated. Results Of 474 cases with malignant jaw tumours, 417 (88%) were gingival squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 27 (6%) were OCs. The average age of the patients with OCs was significantly lower than that of those with gingival SCCs. 20 OCs were in the mandible and 7 were in the maxilla. 22 OC patients (81%) had pain and/or swelling as an initial symptom of the disease. Although the majority of OCs showed irregularly contoured radiolucency, one-third of the cases showed cyst-like radiolucency totally or partially surrounded by a sclerotic rim on panoramic radiography. Permeative or gross cortical bone destruction and mass extension outside the jaw bone were found on CT and a diagnosis of malignant tumour was more common. Mass extension outside the cortex had a significant influence on malignant diagnosis. However, 22% of the patients were still clinically diagnosed as having osteomyelitis after CT. Conclusions Although CT was useful to obtain a diagnosis of malignant tumour in OC patients, 22% of patients were clinically diagnosed as having osteomyelitis even after CT. When an osteomyelitis case is resistant to conventional therapy and gross bone destruction and/or mass extension is found on CT, a histopathological examination should be done.

Ida, M; Tetsumura, A; Kuribayashi, A; Okada, N; Kurabayashi, T

2012-01-01

305

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1991-06-01

306

Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety and Anaerobic Performance  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02) whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance. Key pointsShort time total sleep deprivation (30 hours) increases state anxiety without any competition stress.Anaerobic performance parameters such as peak power, mean power and minimum power may not show a distinctive difference from anaerobic performance in a normal sleep day despite the high anxiety level induced by short time sleep deprivation.Partial sleep deprivation does not affect anxiety level and anaerobic performance of the next day.

Vardar, Selma Arzu; Ozturk, Levent; Kurt, Cem; Bulut, Erdogan; Sut, Necdet; Vardar, Erdal

2007-01-01

307

Anaerobic granule formation and tetrachloroethylene (TCE) removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing tetrachloroethylene (TCE) in a 2 liters laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of TCE was investigated during the granulation process by reducing the HRT and increasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TCE loadings. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively.

Delia Teresa Sponza

2001-01-01

308

Ecological clarification of cheese whey prior to anaerobic digestion in upflow anaerobic filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey wastewaters (CW) was investigated in a system consisting of an ecological pretreatment followed by upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The pretreatment was conducted to solve the inhibition problems during anaerobic treatment of CW caused by the amounts of fats, proteins and carbohydrates and to avoid the major problems of clogging in the reactor. The optimized ecological

H. Gannoun; E. Khelifi; H. Bouallagui; Y. Touhami; M. Hamdi

2008-01-01

309

Hydrodynamic behavior of anaerobic biosolids during crossflow filtration in the membrane anaerobic bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biosolids deposition on the membrane surface has a significant effect on flux decline in membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactors (MCAB). The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of anaerobic biosolids during crossflow ultrafiltration of digestion broth in the MCAB. A theoretical approach to predict flux decline was made considering the biosolids transport mechanism based on hydrodynamics and

Kwang-Ho Choo; Chung-Hak Lee

1998-01-01

310

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: Clinical features and implications of development of basal cell carcinoma in skin and keratocystic odontogenic tumor in jaw and their gene expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present report, we review the clinical features and biophysiological roles, including gene expression, of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) in Japanese cases. The frequency of clinical findings of Japanese cases (n=186) was reported in NBCCS including keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs). The syndromes resulted from mutation in the patched (PTCH1) gene in both neoplastic lesion basal cell carcinoma

Toshiro Yamamoto; Hiroaki Ichioka; Kenta Yamamoto; Narisato Kanamura; Shinichiro Sumitomo; Michio Shikimori; Masahiko Mori

2011-01-01

311

Identification of the involvement of LOXL4 in generation of keratocystic odontogenic tumors by RNA-Seq analysis.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) are benign, locally aggressive intraosseous tumors of odontogenic origin. KCOT have a higher stromal microvessel density (MVD) than dentigerous cysts (DC) and normal oral mucosa. To identify genes in the stroma of KCOT involved in tumor development and progression, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed using samples from KCOT and primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from gingival tissues. Seven candidate genes that possess a function potentially related to KCOT progression were selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), the only candidate gene that encodes a secreted protein, was enhanced at both the mRNA and protein levels in KCOT stromal tissues and primary KCOT stromal fibroblasts compared to control tissues and primary fibroblasts (P<0.05). In vitro, high expression of LOXL4 could enhance proliferation and migration of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). There was a significant, positive correlation between LOXL4 protein expression and MVD in stroma of KCOT and control tissues (r=0.882). These data suggest that abnormal expression of LOXL4 of KCOT may enhance angiogenesis in KCOT, which may help to promote the locally aggressive biological behavior of KCOT. PMID:24357854

Jiang, Wei-Peng; Sima, Zi-Han; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Sun, Li-Sha; Chen, Feng; Li, Tie-Jun

2014-03-01

312

Importance of Different Modalities of Treatment For the Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Five year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumors is a benign but one of most aggressive developmental cyst with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features and high recurrence rate. In the given study, authors have studied and presented their experience of managing Keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The aim of the study was to define an appropriate treatment protocol for the management of KCOT. Materials and Methods: Total 8 patients, whose histopathological reports confirmed Gorlin – Goltz syndrome and KCOT, with age between 10 – 50 years, were selected from cases being treated at Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, India. Enucleation and resection were the surgical techniques employed. Modality of treatment was based on parameters like age , size, aggressiveness and extent of the lesion. All the patients were operated under general anaesthesia. Cases were studied, reviewed and followed up for five years between 2007-2012. Results: The study included 8 cases in which three cases were opted for resection and five cases for enucleation followed by application of Carnoy’s solution. Conclusion: Treatment modality should be decided on age, extent, aggressiveness and nature of the tumour.

Ebenezer, Vijay; Ramalingam, Balakrishnan

2014-01-01

313

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis associated with an infected dentigerous cyst.  

PubMed

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare condition in which an infection from the head and neck propagates into the mediastinum. The most common cause of DNM is odontogenic infection. DNM is spread by the fascial planes from the neck into the mediastinum and requires an aggressive surgical drainage through cervical and thoracic approaches. We report on a 67-year-old male patient, who had acute mediastinitis related to an infected dentigerous cyst in the left parasymphyseal region. A multidisciplinary team approach was used to treat the patient. The team consisted of thoracic surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, and a radiologist. After the drainage of the mediastinum and pleural cavity, the cyst was enucleated. The patient was discharged at the 42nd day of hospitalization. The aim of this article is to present diagnosis, management, and follow-up of an infected dentigerous cyst that caused DNM. PMID:22862987

Bas, Burcu; Ozden, Bora; Bekcioglu, Burak; Sanal, Koray; Yilmaz, Seda; Celik, Burcin; Basoglu, Ahmet; Celenk, Cetin

2012-09-01

314

Fourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicrobial agents using Etest methodology. Results According to EUCAST breakpoints, >90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were susceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993–94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011–12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy.

Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche, Dorien; Soetens, Oriane; Vekens, Evilien; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Claeys, Geert; Glupczynski, Youri; Ieven, Margareta; Melin, Pierrette; Nonhoff, Claire; Rodriguez-Villalobos, Hector; Verhaegen, Jan; Pierard, Denis

2014-01-01

315

Pathogenicity of anaerobic gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenicity of 20 strains of facultative or anaerobic gram-positive cocci (AGPC) was investigated by injecting them alone or mixed with other flora into mice, utilizing the subcutaneous abscess model. Abscesses induced by a mixture of two organisms were uniformly larger than those induced by single organisms. The relationships among seven AGPC strains, eight aerobes, and two Bacteroides spp. were determined by treating the infected animals with antibiotics and observing the effect of therapy directed against one or both organisms present in the abscess. A total of 70 different combinations were tested. As judged by their responses to antimicrobial therapy, facultative cocci or AGPC were relatively more important than the other species in 6 combinations, equally important in 35 combinations, and less important in 29 combinations. The AGPC most often found to be equal to or more important than the other bacteria were Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus constellatus, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were frequently found to be of more importance than the AGPC.

Brook, I; Walker, R I

1984-01-01

316

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-03-01

317

Upflow anaerobic clarification tank (UACT) to upgrade existing anaerobic effluents.  

PubMed

The Upflow Anaerobic Clarification Tank (UACT) is of interest as a post-treatment step for high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. The UACT contributes to extra capture of methane from the raw wastewater. It also significantly facilitates the reuse of the treated water. The efficiency of the UACT process is demonstrated in this study using laboratory-scale reactors. The water produced by the UACT had a low total COD, in most cases below 145 mg/L and a soluble COD below 60 mg/L at surface loading rates between 0.1-0.4 m(3)/(m(2) h) and hydraulic retention times between 5-6 h. The sludge bed of the UACT was characterised by 6-10 times higher substrate affinity (for ethanol, acetate and propionate) compared to the parent UASB and similar specific activity. The results suggest that a UASB followed by the UACT can, upon subsequent application of a rapid filtration, qualify as a total COD removal, no longer necessitating aerobic treatment. PMID:19542647

Diamantis, V I; Verstraete, W; Aivasidis, A

2009-01-01

318

40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes Anaerobic process type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Anaerobic sludge digester; anaerobic...

2013-07-01

319

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Solid Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues can be converted to methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of agricultural residues to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes that help digest dying plants in anaerobic conditions. Agricultural solid residues (ASR) represent a potential energy resource

Ayhan Demirbas; Temel Ozturk

2005-01-01

320

Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

Manning, James M.; And Others

321

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

322

Anaerobic Biodegradation of BTEX in Aquifer Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in two petroleum-contaminated aquifers to examine the anaerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) under ambient conditions. At both sites, destructive microcosm experiments were conducted following the EPA protocol for estimation of anaerobic microbiological transformation rate data (Federal Register, Vol. 53, No. 115). Aquifer material was collected from locations at the

Robert C. Borden; Melody J. Hunt; Michael B. Shafer; Morton A. Barlaz

323

Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and 2) to combine this system with proper aerobic post treatment processes, such as the activated sludge process or

Kaijun Wang

1994-01-01

324

Anaerobic digestion for household organics  

SciTech Connect

Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

1995-04-01

325

Early infection of hip joint prosthesis by Clostridium difficile in an HIV-1 infected patient.  

PubMed

Anaerobes are less frequently described as causative pathogen of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We report the first case of early PJI after hip arthroplasty due to Clostridium difficile in a diabetic and HIV-1 infected patient with bacteremia. Our patient was successfully treated through surgical debridement and prosthesis retention combined with targeted antibiotic therapy. PMID:24705255

Brassinne, L; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Jonckheere, S; Dubuc, J E; Yombi, J C

2014-06-01

326

Vitamin B12-Mediated Restoration of Defective Anaerobic Growth Leads to Reduced Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes cell elongation and forms robust biofilms during anaerobic respiratory growth using nitrate (NO3?) as an alternative electron acceptor. Understanding the mechanism of cell shape change induced upon anaerobiosis is crucial to the development of effective treatments against P. aeruginosa biofilm infection. Here, we uncovered the molecular basis of anaerobiosis-triggered cell elongation and identified vitamin B12 to be a molecule that can reinstate defective anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. The ratio of total cellular DNA content to protein content was significantly decreased in the PAO1 strain grown under anaerobic conditions, indicating that DNA replication is impaired during anaerobic growth. Anaerobic growth of PAO1 reached a higher cell density in the presence of vitamin B12, an essential coenzyme of class II ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, cell morphology returned to a normal rod shape and transcription of stress-response genes was downregulated under the same anaerobic growth conditions. These results suggest that vitamin B12, the production of which was suppressed during anaerobic growth, can restore cellular machineries for DNA replication and therefore facilitate better anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa with normal cell division. Importantly, biofilm formation was substantially decreased when grown with vitamin B12, further demonstrating that anaerobiosis-induced cell elongation is responsible for robust biofilm formation. Taken together, our data reveal mechanistic details of a morphological change that naturally occurs during anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and illustrates the ability of vitamin B12 to modulate the biofilm-forming capacity of P. aeruginosa under such condition.

Lee, Kang-Mu; Go, Junhyeok; Yoon, Mi Young; Park, Yongjin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yong, Dong Eun

2012-01-01

327

Infections in elderly patients associated with impacted third molars.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of infections caused by impacted third molars in elderly persons. Infectious disorders (26 pericoronitis, 8 secondarily infected dentigerous cysts, 4 perimandibular abscesses with limited osteomyelitis, 2 chronic mandibular osteomyelitis, and 1 odontogenic skin fistula) associated with the impacted third molars impacted third molars were clinically investigated in 41 patients over 60 years of age. Twenty-nine causative teeth were located in the mandibular angle and nine in the ramus; the three remaining lesions (two cysts one pericoronitis) were associated with the maxillary third molar. Bone resorption was noted in most patients, and this caused the originally embedded tooth to become exposed intraorally. It was concluded that oral infection in elder persons are occasionally caused by retained impacted third molars with overlapping of other factors. PMID:7614172

Osaki, T; Nomura, Y; Hirota, J; Yoneda, K

1995-02-01

328

Biosorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by granular and dispersed anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic granular sludge from Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors contain a complete consortia of anaerobic microorganisms in an optimal spatial configuration. The importance of the spatial relationship of microbes in anaerobic granular sludge versus increased surface area (granules vs. free cells) as it pertains to biosorption and microbial toxicity is unknown. In this study, biosorption isotherms are reported for

Pham Thi Tham; Kevin J. Kennedy

1994-01-01

329

Immunohistochemical analysis of factors related to apoptosis and cellular proliferation in relation to inflammation in dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of inflammation on pathogenesis and biological behavior of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and dentigerous cyst (DC) is not completely understood. Hence, we aimed to analyze the effect of inflammation on biological behavior of OKC and DC using a proliferative and anti-apoptotic marker, i.e., proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2, respectively. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-PCNA and Bcl-2 antibody in 10 cases each of classical OKC, inflamed OKC and classical DC and inflamed DC. Results: Inflamed OKC and DC showed a significant increase in PCNA expression and decrease in Bcl-2 expression when compared with non-inflamed cyst. Correlation between inflammation and proliferative and anti-apoptotic activity was found to be statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Inflammation is responsible for change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC and hence should be treated meticulously, whereas in DC it is responsible for changes in the epithelial lining.

Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Raju, M. Vijaya; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Manjunath, SM; Shetty, Sujan; Agarwal, Rakesh Kumar

2014-01-01

330

Anaerobic filter for biogas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory study evaluated the performance of an anaerobic filter in producing biogas from pig waste with 30,000 mg/l of COD. The filter packing was bamboo rings of 1 and 1/2 in. diameter, 1 in. long; the bamboo-bed filter operated satisfactorily in a wide COD loading range of 3.74-15.65 kg/cu m/d which corresponds to the hydraulic retention of 8.47 to 1.68 days. At the optimum loading of 7.299 kg COD/cu m/d, the largest gas rate of 0.212 cu m/kg of COD was produced. The required volume of the digester for 1.2 cu m/d of gas production would be only 1.5 cu m; in practical applications, consideration should be given to the gas collecting system and clogging problems.

Chavadej, S.

1980-01-01

331

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteome during Anaerobic Growth‡  

PubMed Central

Isotope-coded affinity tag analysis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins expressed during anaerobic growth. Out of the 617 proteins identified, 158 were changed in abundance during anaerobic growth compared to during aerobic growth, including proteins whose increased expression was expected based on their role in anaerobic metabolism. These results form the basis for future analyses of alterations in bacterial protein content during growth in various environments, including the cystic fibrosis airway.

Wu, Manhong; Guina, Tina; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Nguyen, Hai; Eng, Jimmy; Miller, Samuel I.

2005-01-01

332

Anaerobic microbial transformations in subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

The first draft of a literature review article entitled, ''Metabolism of Homocyclic (Benzenoid) and Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Microorganisms Under Anaerobic Conditions'' is completed. The article covers biodegradation of both heterocyclic and homocyclic aromatic compounds under a variety of conditions including nitrate reducing, fermentation, sulfate reducing, and methanogensis. Laboratory experiments have been designed to study the anaerobic biotransformation processes involving organic substance derived from energy residual wastes. The test compounds selected for the initial anaerobic biodegradation experiments include aniline, indole, and pyridine. A Hungate apparatus is presently in operation.

Bollag, J.M.; Berry, D.F.; Chanmugathas, P.

1985-04-01

333

TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) REMOVAL DURING ANAEROBIC GRANULATION IN AN UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET (UASB) REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biotransformation of TCE was investigated during the granulation process by reducing the HRT and increasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TCE loadings in a 2 l laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Initial granules were developed after 1.5 months of start-up, which grew at

Delia Teresa Sponza

2002-01-01

334

Infected tumor prostheses.  

PubMed

Infection of tumor prostheses has been a major concern because of the extensive soft tissue dissection, long operating times, and patients' immunosuppression by cancer and adjuvant treatments. Infections most often present within 2 years postoperatively, with approximately 70% of postoperative deep infections presenting within 12 months after surgery. They are typically low organism burden infections, the pathogenesis of which is related to bacteria growing in biofilms. Staphylococci are the most common pathogens involved in prosthetic joint infections, accounting for approximately 50% of infections overall, followed by streptococci, enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and anaerobe species. Multiple pathogens may be isolated in approximately 25% of cases, with the most common combination being coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and group-D Streptococcus. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary. However, diagnosis may be challenging because clinical symptoms are highly variable and numerous preoperative and intraoperative diagnostic laboratory tests are nonspecific. In most cases, a 1- or 2-stage revision surgery is necessary for eradicating the megaprosthetic infection. Prevention of infection is important. The future will see technical advances for infections of tumor prostheses in areas such as microbiological diagnostics and biofilm-resistant prostheses. PMID:22147218

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Coll-Mesa, Luis; Pala, Elisa; Guerra, Giovanni; Ruggieri, Pietro

2011-12-01

335

Water Induced Sporulation of Anaerobic Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contaminated water used in the preparation of canned foods is a common cause of spoilage. Water must be tested for general contamination and colititer, and must be filtered to detect anaerobic spores. Data are presented indicating the effectiveness of chl...

V. I. Rogachev

1969-01-01

336

Anaerobic digestibility of algal bioethanol residue.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of algal bioethanol residue from saccharification and fermentation processes. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests using saccharification and fermentation residue showed that the maximum methane yields of saccharification residue and fermentation residue were 239 L/kg VS (Volatile Solids) and 283 L/kg VS (Volatile Solids), respectively. Energy recovered by anaerobic digestion of the residue was 2.24 times higher than that from the ethanol produced in the main process. 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), a saccharification byproduct, could retard methanogenesis at over 3g/L however, the inhibition was prevented by increasing cell biomass concentration. Anaerobic digestion of residue has the potential to enhance bioenergy recovery and environmental sustainability of algal bioethanol production. PMID:22364770

Park, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Park, Hee-Deung; Lim, Dong Jung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

2012-06-01

337

ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In an international conference, microbiologists from five countries presented results of research into the anaerobic dehalogenation of compounds of environmental interest being performed at selected universities, government agencies, and private companies. he conference, held fro...

338

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

339

Gonococcal Nitric Oxide Reductase Is Encoded by a Single Gene, norB, Which Is Required for Anaerobic Growth and Is Induced by Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding a nitric oxide reductase has been identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The norB gene product shares significant identity with the nitric oxide reductases in Ralstonia eutropha and Synechocystis sp. and, like those organisms, the gonococcus lacks a norC homolog. The gonococcal norB gene was found to be required for anaerobic growth, but the absence of norB did not dramatically decrease anaerobic survival. In a wild-type background, induction of norB expression was seen anaerobically in the presence of nitrite but not anaerobically without nitrite or aerobically. norB expression is not regulated by FNR or NarP, but a functional aniA gene (which encodes an anaerobically induced outer membrane nitrite reductase) is necessary for expression. When aniA is constitutively expressed, norB expression can be induced both anaerobically and aerobically, but only in the presence of nitrite, suggesting that nitric oxide, which is likely to be produced by AniA as a product of nitrite reduction, is the inducing agent. This was confirmed with the use of the nitric oxide donor, spermine-nitric oxide complex, in an aniA null background both anaerobically and aerobically. NorB is important for gonococcal adaptation to an anaerobic environment, a physiologically relevant state during gonococcal infection. The presence of this enzyme, which is induced by nitric oxide, may also have implications in immune evasion and immunomodulation in the human host.

Householder, Tracey C.; Fozo, Elizabeth M.; Cardinale, Jean A.; Clark, Virginia L.

2000-01-01

340

Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

G. Lettinga

1995-01-01

341

Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to design a high-rate anaerobic system for the treatment low strength wastewaters under psychrophilic conditions.Psychrophilic (3 to 20 °C) anaerobic treatment of low strength synthetic and malting wastewater was investigated using a single and two stage expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies found in the experiments

S. Rebac; Lier van J. B; P. Lens; A. J. M. Stams; F. Dekkers; K. T. M. Swinkels; G. Lettinga

1998-01-01

342

A dynamic model for anaerobic filter.  

PubMed

Anaerobic filters are frequently used to treat medium to high strength wastewater (2000-20000 mg/L COD), but have fewer applications to low strength wastewater (< 1000 mg/L COD). In order to understand the applicability of anaerobic treatment for low strength wastewater, such as domestic sewage, a dynamic mathematical model was developed. This Monod-type kinetic model, which predicts treatment efficiency and gas production, was used to describe literature observations and is offered as a predictive tool. PMID:14524662

Cakir, Fatma Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

2003-01-01

343

Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater was rather unpopular because of the production of H2S under anaerobic conditions. Gaseous and dissolved sulphides cause physical-chemical (corrosion, odour, increased effluent chemical oxygen demand) or biological (toxicity) constraints, which may lead to process failure. Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater can nevertheless be applied successfully provided a proper treatment strategy is selected. The

Look W. Hulshoff Pol; Piet N. L. Lens; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gatze Lettinga

1998-01-01

344

Altered expression of cell–cell adhesion molecules ?-catenin\\/E-cadherin and related Wnt-signaling pathway in sporadic and syndromal keratocystic odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential diagnosis of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) still represents a challenging problem especially if compared\\u000a with the dentigerous cyst, which is similar in clinical and radiological course. Histological assessment of this entity may\\u000a therefore draw crucial attention since various radical procedures are recommended for such lesions in contrast to dentigerous\\u000a cysts. Since recent reports could prove the involvement of

Samer George Hakim; Hartwig Kosmehl; Peter Sieg; Thomas Trenkle; Hans-Christian Jacobsen; Geza Attila Benedek; Julika Ribbat; Oliver Driemel

2011-01-01

345

Assessment of the Impact of Two Different Isolation Methods on the Osteo\\/Odontogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Dental Stem Cells Derived from Deciduous Teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human deciduous teeth have been proposed as a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells for application in bone and dental\\u000a tissue engineering. We established cultures of mesenchymal stem cells from the pulp of human deciduous teeth (deciduous teeth\\u000a stem cells, DTSCs) and analyzed their morphologic, growth, immunophenotypic, and osteo\\/odontogenic differentiation characteristics\\u000a using different isolation methods and culturing environments. We compared

Athina Bakopoulou; Gabriele Leyhausen; Joachim Volk; Asterios Tsiftsoglou; Pavlos Garefis; Petros Koidis; Werner Geurtsen

2011-01-01

346

Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

1995-01-01

347

Unusual anaerobic bacteria in keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: diagnosis using molecular biology methods.  

PubMed

Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was performed in the left eye of a 57-year-old man for residual ametropia after phacoemulsification. The patient was given topical tobramycin and a corticosteroid for 1 week postoperatively. Fifteen days later, he developed 3 corneal infiltrates beneath the flap with a gas bubble, suggesting an anaerobic infection. Tobramycin and ofloxacin were administered every 2 hours, but the condition worsened. Corneal scrapings were taken from beneath the flap for microbiological cultures and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The PCR amplification was negative for fungi and mycobacteria and positive for bacterial DNA. Sequence analysis showed Propionibacterium granulosum as the causal agent, but cultures were negative. Treatment with vancomycin and cefazolin led to clinical improvement, with resolution of corneal infiltrates. Anaerobic microorganisms can cause keratitis after LASIK. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA typing can help detect microorganisms involved in these ocular infections. PMID:15313309

Ferrer, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Prats, Jose L; Abad, José L; Alió, Jorge L

2004-08-01

348

Induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic human keratinocytes by transfection with thymosin beta 4.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the recombination of cells liberated from developing tooth germs develop into teeth. However, it is difficult to use human developing tooth germ as a source of cells because of ethical issues. Previous studies have reported that thymosin beta 4 (Tmsb4x) is closely related to the initiation and development of the tooth germ. We herein attempted to establish odontogenic epithelial cells from non-odontogenic HaCaT cells by transfection with TMSB4X. TMSB4X-transfected cells formed nodules that were positive for Alizarin-red S (ALZ) and von Kossa staining (calcium phosphate deposits) when cultured in calcification-inducing medium. Three selected clones showing larger amounts of calcium deposits than the other clones, expressed PITX2, Cytokeratin 14, and Sonic Hedgehog. The upregulation of odontogenesis-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Amelogenin (AMELX), Ameloblastin (AMBN) and Enamelin (ENAM) was also detected. These proteins were immunohistochemically observed in nodules positive for the ALZ and von Kossa staining. RUNX2-positive selected TMSB4X-transfected cells implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of nude mice formed matrix deposits. Immunohistochemically, AMELX, AMBN and ENAM were observed in the matrix deposits. This study demonstrated the possibility of induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic HaCaT cells by TMSB4X. PMID:24342703

Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Wada, Hiroko; Ookuma, Yukiko F; Shiotsuka, Maho; Kihara, Makiko; Hasegawa, Kana; Someya, Hirotaka; Sakai, Hidetaka

2014-01-01

349

Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress. PMID:24723105

Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

350

In vivo and in vitro anaerobic mating in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37 degrees C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37 degrees C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnesol production is turned off in opaque cells. These in vitro observations suggest that naturally anaerobic sites, such as the efficiently colonized gastrointestinal (GI) tract, could serve as niches for C. albicans mating. In a direct test of mating in the mouse GI tract, prototrophic cells were obtained from auxotrophic parent cells, confirming that mating will occur in this organ. These cells were true mating products because they were tetraploid, mononuclear, and prototrophic, and they contained the heterologous hisG marker from one of the parental strains. PMID:17259544

Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Semighini, Camile P; Elowsky, Christian G; Dumitru, Razvan V; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L; Nickerson, Kenneth W

2007-03-01

351

In Vivo and In Vitro Anaerobic Mating in Candida albicans?  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37°C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37°C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnesol production is turned off in opaque cells. These in vitro observations suggest that naturally anaerobic sites, such as the efficiently colonized gastrointestinal (GI) tract, could serve as niches for C. albicans mating. In a direct test of mating in the mouse GI tract, prototrophic cells were obtained from auxotrophic parent cells, confirming that mating will occur in this organ. These cells were true mating products because they were tetraploid, mononuclear, and prototrophic, and they contained the heterologous hisG marker from one of the parental strains.

Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Semighini, Camile P.; Elowsky, Christian G.; Dumitru, Razvan V.; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

2007-01-01

352

Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

1982-01-01

353

Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

Lewis, B. G.

2000-07-01

354

Infected cementoblastoma  

PubMed Central

Cementoblastoma is a relatively uncommon, benign odontogenic neoplasm of jaws. Mandible is affected more than the maxilla. The lesions are generally diagnosed on a routine radiograph. The localized expansion of cortical plates is observed. Radiographically, it consists of well-defined radiopacity with a radiolucent band. Here is a case report of a female aged 55 years having swelling in the right mandibular angle with an extraoral draining sinus. A panoramic radiograph shows a dense radiopaque mass along the roots of the third molar surrounded by a radiolucent band. Surgical excision was carried out and a histopathological examination was carried out which was suggestive of cementoblastoma.

Kumar, Sudesh; Prabhakar, Vikram; Angra, Raman

2011-01-01

355

Infected cementoblastoma.  

PubMed

Cementoblastoma is a relatively uncommon, benign odontogenic neoplasm of jaws. Mandible is affected more than the maxilla. The lesions are generally diagnosed on a routine radiograph. The localized expansion of cortical plates is observed. Radiographically, it consists of well-defined radiopacity with a radiolucent band. Here is a case report of a female aged 55 years having swelling in the right mandibular angle with an extraoral draining sinus. A panoramic radiograph shows a dense radiopaque mass along the roots of the third molar surrounded by a radiolucent band. Surgical excision was carried out and a histopathological examination was carried out which was suggestive of cementoblastoma. PMID:22639514

Kumar, Sudesh; Prabhakar, Vikram; Angra, Raman

2011-07-01

356

Enzymes Involved in Anaerobic Respiration Appear To Play a Role in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Virulence  

PubMed Central

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is able to survive on respiratory epithelia, in tonsils, and in the anaerobic environment of encapsulated sequesters. It was previously demonstrated that a deletion of the anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase gene (dmsA) results in attenuation in acute disease (N. Baltes, S. Kyaw, I. Hennig-Pauka, and G. F. Gerlach, Infect. Immun. 71:6784-6792, 2003). In the present study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we identified an aspartate ammonia-lyase (AspA) which is upregulated upon induction with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This enzyme is involved in the production of fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The coding gene (aspA) was cloned and shown to be present in all A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains. The transcriptional start point was identified downstream of a putative FNR binding motif, and BALF-dependent activation of aspA was confirmed by construction of an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae mutant carrying a chromosomal aspA::luxAB transcriptional fusion. Two aspA deletion mutants, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA, were constructed, both showing reduced growth under anaerobic conditions in vitro. Pigs challenged with either of the two mutants in an aerosol infection model showed a lower lung lesion score than that of the A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type (wt) controls. Pigs challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA had a significantly lower clinical score, and this mutant was rarely reisolated from unaltered lung tissue; in contrast, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and the A. pleuropneumoniae wt were consistently reisolated in high numbers. These results suggest that enzymes involved in anaerobic respiration are necessary for the pathogen's ability to persist on respiratory tract epithelium and play an important role in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis.

Jacobsen, Ilse; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Baltes, Nina; Trost, Matthias; Gerlach, Gerald-F.

2005-01-01

357

Clinicopathologic spectrum of the so-called calcifying odontogenic cysts: a study of 21 intraosseous cases with reconsideration of the terminology and classification.  

PubMed

The so-called calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) represents a heterogeneous group of lesions that exhibit a variety of clinicopathologic and behavioral features. Because of this diversity, there has been confusion and disagreement on the terminology and classification of these lesions. We reviewed the clinicopathologic features of 21 intraosseous cases that were previously diagnosed as COC or under related diagnostic terms. Based on the biologic behavior, the lesions of the present series were divided into three subgroups: cyst, benign tumor, and malignant tumor. Sixteen cases (nine men and seven women) proved to be unicystic lesions with (five cases) or without associated odontoma. The lining epithelium of the cystic lesions fulfilled the histologic criteria for COC proposed by the World Health Organization, and their overall clinicopathologic features were consistent with that of developmental odontogenic cysts. The age of patients from the cyst group peaked at the second decade. The maxilla was affected more often (69%) than the mandible, with a predilection for the canine-premolar region (62.5%). Thirteen patients with follow-up information revealed no recurrence following enucleation. The four cases in the benign tumor group had variable clinicopathologic features. Two cases were solid tumors consisting of ameloblastoma-like sheets of odontogenic epithelium that contained ghost cells/calcification foci and juxtaepithelial dentinoid. Both patients experienced multiple recurrences following conservative surgeries. The other two lesions contained typical areas of COC and other types of odontogenic tumors (one ameloblastoma and one odontogenic myxofibroma). All four lesions occurred in the mandible and were relatively large. In the present series one case identified as malignant tumor arose from a previously benign COC. The tumor shared some features of COC (ghost cell foci and dystrophic calcification) but also had prominent mitotic activity, nuclear and cytoplasmic pleomorphism, areas of tumor necrosis, and infiltrative/destructive growth. Recognizing the extreme diversity in clinicopathologic features and biologic behavior among the so-called COCs, we suggest that the term COC should be used to specifically designate the unicystic lesions with or without an associated odontoma, i.e., lesions of the cyst group, and other related lesions identified as benign tumor and malignant tumor should be termed and classified separately. A tentative scheme with respect to the terminology and classification for this group of disparately behaving lesions was herein proposed to reflect the likely difference of their nature. PMID:12604894

Li, Tie-Jun; Yu, Shi-Feng

2003-03-01

358

General method for determining anaerobic biodegradation potential.  

PubMed Central

A simple, generalized method was refined and validated to test whether an organic chemical was susceptible to anaerobic degradation to CH4 + CO2. The method used digested sewage sludge diluted to 10% and incubated anaerobically in 160-ml serum bottles with 50 micrograms of C per ml of test chemical. Biodegradation was determined by the net increase in gas pressure in bottles with test chemicals over the pressure in nonamended sludge bottles. Gas production was measured by gas chromatography and by a pressure transducer. The latter method is recommended because of its speed, accuracy, and low cost. Sewage sludge from municipal digesters with 15- to 30-day retention times was found to be suitable. The sludge could be stored anaerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 4 weeks with satisfactory test results. p-Cresol, phthalic acid, and ethanol are suggested as reference chemicals to confirm sludge activity and method reliability. A revised anaerobic salts medium was developed which minimizes problems of a biological gas production (CO2), avoids precipitation, and meets the requirements of the anaerobic microbiota. When greater than 75% of the theoretical gas production was observed, the chemical was judged to be degradable, and when 30 to 75% of the expected gas was produced, it was termed partially degradable. This method has been tested on more than 100 chemicals of various physical properties and found to reproducibly determine anaerobic biodegradation potential. Of the chemicals tested, 46 were found to be anaerobically degraded. Sludges from nine different municipal treatment plants were surveyed for their ability to degrade nine chemicals which differed in susceptibility to degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images

Shelton, D R; Tiedje, J M

1984-01-01

359

Propionibacterium spp. in prosthetic joint infections: a diagnostic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  \\u000a Propionibacterium species are common inhabitants of the skin and usually non-pathogenic for humans. However, Propionibacterium spp. can occasionally cause infections, but are estimated to play a minor role in prosthetic joint infections (PJI). The\\u000a relative frequency of these anaerobes and their potential to cause surgical site infection may be clinically underestimated.\\u000a An unknown proportion of these infections might be

Björn Zappe; Susanne Graf; Peter E. Ochsner; Werner Zimmerli; Parham Sendi

2008-01-01

360

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

361

Application of enzymes in anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Owing to the very low economic value of brewer's spent grains, its utilisation for biogas production is very promising. The hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose is the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Enzymatic pre-treatment promotes the hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose, breaking it down to lower molecular weight substances which are ready to be utilised by the bacteria. A cheap raw multi-enzyme produced by a solid state fermentation (SSF) process is a good substitute for expensive conventional enzyme. The SSF enzyme application to spent grain has been investigated by carrying out enzymatic solubility tests, hydrolytic experiments and two-step anaerobic fermentation of spent grain. Gas chromatograph analysis was conducted to quantify fatty acids concentrations, while CH(4), CO(2), O(2), H(2) and H(2)S were measured to determine biogas quality by means of a gas analyser. DS, oDS, pH were also measured to analyse the anaerobic digestion. The result shows that enzyme application promotes the hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose, indicated by higher enzymatic solubility and fatty acid concentration in a hydrolytic bioreactor. Moreover, biogas production is also increased. The quality of the gases produced is also enhanced. Since the anaerobic digestion can be operated in a stable performance, it can also be concluded that SSF enzyme is compatible with anaerobic digestion. PMID:18048974

Bochmann, G; Herfellner, T; Susanto, F; Kreuter, F; Pesta, G

2007-01-01

362

Modified Device for Anaerobic Dispensing of Reduced Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem often confronting those engaged in the culture of obligate anaerobic bacteria is the dispensation of culture media while attempting to maintain anaerobic conditions. A modification of the technique reported in this report makes the apparatus and...

C. A. Willingham

1964-01-01

363

ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

364

Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

1981-01-01

365

Use of biochars in anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

This study investigated the behavior of biochars from pyrolysis (pyrochar) and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochar) in anaerobic digestion regarding their degradability and their effects on biogas production and ammonia inhibition. A batch fermentation experiment (42°C, 63 days) was conducted in 100mL syringes filled with 30 g inoculum, 2g biochar and four levels of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN). For pyrochar, no clear effect on biogas production was observed, whereas hydrochar increased the methane yield by 32%. This correlates with the hydrochar's larger fraction of anaerobically degradable carbon (10.4% of total carbon, pyrochar: 0.6%). Kinetic and microbiota analyses revealed that pyrochar can prevent mild ammonia inhibition (2.1 g TANk g(-1)). Stronger inhibitions (3.1-6.6 g TAN kg(-1)) were not mitigated, neither by pyrochar nor by hydrochar. Future research should pay attention to biochar-microbe interactions and the effects in continuously-fed anaerobic digesters. PMID:24859210

Mumme, Jan; Srocke, Franziska; Heeg, Kathrin; Werner, Maja

2014-07-01

366

Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

2010-11-01

367

Anaerobic digestion Of a Petrochemical Wastewater using the UASB process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of effluent from a petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid has been tested using two Upflow Anaerobic\\u000a Sludge Blanket (USAB) reactors. The reactors were seeded with two different inocula: one from an anaerobic stabilization pond\\u000a receiving wasted sludge from the aerobic treatment plant of the petrochemical industry (reactor A); the other was an anaerobically\\u000a adapted activated sludge from a

J. P. Guyot; H. Macarie; A. Noyola

1990-01-01

368

Adhesion of anaerobic bacteria to platelet containers.  

PubMed

Anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus saccharolyticus are frequently isolated during platelet screening with anaerobic culture methods. Although neither P. acnes nor S. saccharolyticus proliferates during platelet storage, both species survive well in this environment. This study was aimed at determining whether strains of P. acnes and/or S. saccharolyticus form surface-attached bacterial cell aggregates, known as biofilms, under platelet storage conditions. We report that these organisms are able to adhere to the inner surface of platelet containers in tight interaction with activated platelets. PMID:24602052

Kumaran, D; Kalab, M; Rood, I G H; de Korte, D; Ramirez-Arcos, S

2014-08-01

369

Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge.

Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

1990-04-01

370

Increased expression of autophagy-related proteins in keratocystic odontogenic tumours: its possible association with growth potential.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation status of autophagy in keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT), and to investigate its possible association with growth potential. We detected the expression of some key autophagy-related proteins in clinical samples of KCOT and radicular cysts and compared then by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. The correlation between the autophagy-related proteins tested, and with cell antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) or proliferative (Ki-67) markers in KCOT was explored using Spearman's rank correlation, followed by cluster analysis. The results showed that both the expression of mRNA and the immunoreactivity of the autophagy-related proteins tested were considerably increased in samples of KCOT compared with those in samples of radicular cysts. The correlation analyses showed that the immunostains of autophagy-related proteins in samples of KCOT correlated closely with each other. The immunostains of these autophagy-related proteins also correlated closely with the immunostains of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in KCOT. More importantly, double-labelling immunofluorescence analyses also showed that the distribution of autophagic and proliferative markers was partially synchronous in samples from KCOT. We have, to our knowledge for the first time, implicated the activation of autophagy in KCOT, and showed its possible association with growth potential. PMID:24703774

Li, Rui-Fang; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Yi; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Liu, Bing

2014-07-01

371

Survivin gene promoter polymorphism -31G/C as a risk factor for keratocystic odontogenic tumor development.  

PubMed

Several single nucleotide polymorphisms in survivin gene promoters, notably -31G/C, have been shown to modulate the expression and activity of the survivin protein. Consequently, the -31G/C polymorphism has been identified as a risk factor for the development of several types of tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between the -31G/C polymorphism and the risk for keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) development. DNA from 52 biopsy specimens of KCOTs and from 82 buccal swabs of healthy individuals was subjected to PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify individual genotypes. The distribution of genotypes in KCOT and control groups, respectively, was: GG: 30 (57.7%) vs. 26 (31.7%); CG: 17 (32.7%) vs. 45 (54.9%); and CC: 5 (9.6%) vs. 11 (13.4%), respectively. These differences were statistically significant. The G allele was more common in the KCOT group than in the control group: 76 (74%) vs. 96 (59%), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that GC heterozygotes had a considerably decreased susceptibility for KCOTs compared with GG homozygotes. The same was true for GC+CC vs. GG. The GG genotype of the -31G/C polymorphism might be a risk factor for KCOT development. PMID:22288915

Andric, Miroslav; Nikolic, Na?a; Boskovic, Marija; Milicic, Biljana; Skodric, Sanja; Basta Jovanovic, Gordana; Milasin, Jelena

2012-02-01

372

Differentiation of dermal multipotent cells into odontogenic lineage induced by embryonic and neonatal tooth germ cell-conditioned medium.  

PubMed

Stem cell-based therapy represents a novel and more advantageous modality of treatment for tooth defect or loss. However, this strategy is challenged in the circumstances where tooth-derived stem cells are not readily accessible. In present study we sought to explore the possibility of utilizing dermal multipotent cells (DMCs) easily available from skin tissue for odontogenic induction. Using the limiting dilution technique, colony-forming cell population was isolated and characterized by proliferative activity and multilineage differentiation potential. By exposure to conditioned medium of embryonic and neonatal tooth germ cells in culture, the proliferation and mineralization activity of DMCs was elevated, while the embryonic tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (ETGC-CM) produced more significant effects. Meanwhile, ETGC-CM-treated DMCs phenocopied the odontoblasts in vitro as indicated by specific lineage markers. Following in vivo transplantation as cell pellet, ETGC-CM-treated DMCs were capable of producing blocks of mineralized tissues, which resembled those of dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) explants in the same subcutaneous pockets environment. These observations suggest that although more sufficient and continuous inductive microenvironment may be needed for undifferentiated DMCs to perform as odontoblasts, ETGC-CM-treated DMCs indeed acquire properties as those of DPSCs. Our work highlights the potential utility of DMCs as an alternative candidate cell source in hopes of developing more practical strategy of tooth regeneration research and offering promising opportunities for therapeutic approach. PMID:19469666

Huo, Na; Tang, Liang; Yang, Zhenhua; Qian, Hong; Wang, Yinxiong; Han, Chun; Gu, Zexu; Duan, Yinzhong; Jin, Yan

2010-01-01

373

77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...variety of bacterial pathogens are responsible for cIAIs, including Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria, and there are also mixed infections. This draft guidance includes recommendations for...

2012-10-01

374

IN SITU\\/EX SITU ACCELERATED ANAEROBIC REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic reduction of perchlorate via indigenous subsurface bacteria is fast becoming a widely accepted tool for the remediation of perchlorate-impacted soil and groundwater. Pilot tests were initiated in 2001 to determine the applicability and effectiveness of stimulating the anaerobic biological treatment of soils and groundwater. Anaerobic composting was demonstrated as an effective ex situ method for treating heavily perchlorate-impacted

William Smith; Kevin A. Morris; Christopher Underwood

375

Value of routine anaerobic blood cultures for pediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Anaerobic bacteremia rarely occurs in children. Therefore we assessed the usefulness of routinely obtaining anaerobic blood cultures in our pediatric patients. Study design: Records of 9360 paired aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles (Bactec NR660 System) containing blood specimens from pediatric inpatients and outpatients at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C., were reviewed retrospectively. Yield and speed of detection

Anita K. M. Zaidi; Andrew L. Knaut; L. Barth Reller

1995-01-01

376

Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-containing waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphate-containing wastewaters from the paper and board industry, molasses-based fermentation industries and edible oil refineries present difficulties during anaerobic treatment, leading to problems of toxicity, reduction in methane yield, odour and corrosion. The microbiology and biochemistry of dissimilatory sulphate reduction are reviewed in order to illustrate the potential competition between sulphate reducers and other anaerobes involved in the sequential anaerobic

Emer Colleran; Siobhain Finnegan; Piet Lens

1995-01-01

377

Evaluation of the inactivation of human Coxsackievirus by thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion using integrated cell culture and reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The virucidal effects of anaerobic digestion were evaluated using human Coxsackievirus as a model for the Enterovirus family. Coxsackievirus was inactivated completely by thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). By 4 h no living and infectious virus remained and no detectable viral RNA was present after 2 days in TAD (7.0 log reduction). Compared to TAD, 2.6 log reduction of viral RNA was achieved by 14 days in mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) (p < 0.0001). Although cytopathogenic effect was not observed in the cultured cells, low levels of intracellular viral RNA were detected after one day of MAD treatment indicating that Coxsackievirus had infected the cells but could not replicate. The combination of thermal and biochemical effects in TAD plays a critical role for viral disinfection. The results of this study indicate that selection of the right configuration of anaerobic digestion for treatment of biowaste may reduce the risk of viral contamination to the environment and water source. PMID:23764576

Gao, Tiejun; Tong, Yupin; Cao, Ming; Li, Xiaomei; Pang, Xiaoli

2013-09-01

378

Cholera Toxin Production during Anaerobic Trimethylamine N-Oxide Respiration Is Mediated by Stringent Response in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ?relA ?spoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (?relA ?spoT ?relV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ?dksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ?relA ?spoT ?relV or ?dksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ?relA ?spoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae. PMID:24648517

Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

2014-05-01

379

Anaerobic granule development for removal of pentachlorophenol in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulation process using synthetic wastewater containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in four 1.1l laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was studied, and the anaerobic biotransformation of PCP during the granulation process investigated. After 110 days granular sludge was developed and up to 160 and 180mg\\/l of PCP was added into the reactors R1 and R2, respectively, when they were

Fen-Xia Ye; Dong-Sheng Shen; Xiao-Shan Feng

2004-01-01

380

Thermochemical liquidization of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge and anaerobic retreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment effect of thermochemical liquidization for the anaerobic retreatment of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge was studied. The digested sludge (dry matter; 15.7%) was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and 4 MPa with a holding time of 1 h. The liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to produce a supernatant of 44.7% (w\\/w) and precipitate of 52.3%. The liquidized sludge

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tomoko Ogi

1996-01-01

381

Fosfomycin and tobramycin in combination downregulate nitrate reductase genes narG and narH, resulting in increased activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The activity of aminoglycosides, which are used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is reduced under the anaerobic conditions that reflect the CF lung in vivo. In contrast, a 4:1 (wt/wt) combination of fosfomycin and tobramycin (F:T), which is under investigation for use in the treatment of CF lung infection, has increased activity against P. aeruginosa under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased activity of F:T under anaerobic conditions. Microarray analysis was used to identify the transcriptional basis of increased F:T activity under anaerobic conditions, and key findings were confirmed by microbiological tests, including nitrate utilization assays, growth curves, and susceptibility testing. Notably, growth in subinhibitory concentrations of F:T, but not tobramycin or fosfomycin alone, significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) nitrate reductase genes narG and narH, which are essential for normal anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. Under anaerobic conditions, F:T significantly decreased (P < 0.001) nitrate utilization in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14, and PA14 lasR::Gm, a mutant known to exhibit increased nitrate utilization. A similar effect was observed with two clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Growth curves indicate that nitrate reductase transposon mutants had reduced growth under anaerobic conditions, with these mutants also having increased susceptibility to F:T compared to the wild type under similar conditions. The results of this study suggest that downregulation of nitrate reductase genes resulting in reduced nitrate utilization is the mechanism underlying the increased activity of F:T under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23959314

McCaughey, Gerard; Gilpin, Deirdre F; Schneiders, Thamarai; Hoffman, Lucas R; McKevitt, Matt; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M

2013-11-01

382

Fosfomycin and Tobramycin in Combination Downregulate Nitrate Reductase Genes narG and narH, Resulting in Increased Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Anaerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

The activity of aminoglycosides, which are used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is reduced under the anaerobic conditions that reflect the CF lung in vivo. In contrast, a 4:1 (wt/wt) combination of fosfomycin and tobramycin (F:T), which is under investigation for use in the treatment of CF lung infection, has increased activity against P. aeruginosa under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased activity of F:T under anaerobic conditions. Microarray analysis was used to identify the transcriptional basis of increased F:T activity under anaerobic conditions, and key findings were confirmed by microbiological tests, including nitrate utilization assays, growth curves, and susceptibility testing. Notably, growth in subinhibitory concentrations of F:T, but not tobramycin or fosfomycin alone, significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) nitrate reductase genes narG and narH, which are essential for normal anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. Under anaerobic conditions, F:T significantly decreased (P < 0.001) nitrate utilization in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14, and PA14 lasR::Gm, a mutant known to exhibit increased nitrate utilization. A similar effect was observed with two clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Growth curves indicate that nitrate reductase transposon mutants had reduced growth under anaerobic conditions, with these mutants also having increased susceptibility to F:T compared to the wild type under similar conditions. The results of this study suggest that downregulation of nitrate reductase genes resulting in reduced nitrate utilization is the mechanism underlying the increased activity of F:T under anaerobic conditions.

McCaughey, Gerard; Gilpin, Deirdre F.; Schneiders, Thamarai; Hoffman, Lucas R.; McKevitt, Matt; Elborn, J. Stuart

2013-01-01

383

Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.  

PubMed

The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

2006-01-01

384

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

385

Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

386

Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum.  

PubMed

A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20-40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production yield, fast cell growth, and rapid sugar consumption with xylose being consumed after glucose depletion, while P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under these conditions. It is further demonstrated that for S. passalidarum, the xylose conversion takes place by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to the balance between the cofactor's supply and demand through this XR-XDH pathway. Only few XRs with NADH preference have been reported so far. 2-Deoxy glucose completely inhibited the conversion of xylose by S. passalidarum under anaerobic conditions, but only partially did that under aerobic conditions. Thus, xylose uptake by S. passalidarum may be carried out by different xylose transport systems under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The presence of glucose also repressed the enzymatic activity of XR and XDH from S. passalidarum as well as the activities of those enzymes from P. stipitis. PMID:22124720

Hou, X

2012-04-01

387

Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. PMID:22444687

Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola

2012-07-01

388

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate

S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink

1998-01-01

389

Anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several researchers have used crude glycerol as a source of substrate for methane production and power generation, which is a way of adding value to this residue that has a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and is rich in impurities. This review article summarizes recent data and discussions on the use of crude glycerol as substrate and co-substrate for anaerobic

M. B. Viana; A. V. Freitas; R. C. Leitão; G. A. S. Pinto; S. T. Santaella

2012-01-01

390

Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate...

J. Wiegel

1994-01-01

391

Phytase activity of anaerobic ruminal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase catalyses the release of phosphate from phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the predominant form of phosphorus in cereal grains, oilseeds and legumes. The presence of phytase activity was investigated in 334 strains of 22 species of obligately anaerobic ruminal bacteria. Measurable activities were demonstrated in strains of Selenomonas ruminantium, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola, Mitsuokella multiacidus and Treponema spp. Strains isolated from

L. J. Yanke; H. D. Bae; L. B. Selinger; K.-J. Cheng

1998-01-01

392

Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

Wiegel, J.

1994-05-01

393

Fusobacterium nucleatum prosthetic hip infection in an adult with sickle cell-beta thalassemia.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus commensal to the human oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract which causes an array of human infection, yet it has never been associated with infection of prosthetic joints. We report the first case of prosthetic hip infection caused by F. nucleatum in a man with sickle cell-beta thalassemia. PMID:22002730

Verma, K; McNabb, P C; Kurtz, W; Green, J; Trabue, C H

2012-06-01

394

Physical properties and biological/odontogenic effects of an experimentally developed fast-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate-based pulp capping material  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, fast-setting ?-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) cement was developed for use in the pulp capping process. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of ?-TCP cement in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods We measured the setting time, pH values, compressive strength, and solubility of the two materials. We evaluated biocompatibility on the basis of cell morphology and a viability test using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The expression of odontogenic-related genes was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The calcified nodule formation was measured by Alizarin red staining. We performed the pulp capping procedure on rat teeth for histological investigation. The data were analyzed by an independent t-test for physical properties, one-way ANOVA for biological effects, and the Mann-Whitney U test for tertiary dentin formation. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results The setting time, pH values, and compressive strength of ?-TCP was lower than that of MTA (P??0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that cells attached to both materials were flat and had cytoplasmic extensions. The expression of odontogenic-related markers and mineralized nodule formation were higher in the two experimental groups compared to the control group (P?odontogenicity comparable to MTA, whereas it had a quicker setting time.

2014-01-01

395

Predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in early positive anaerobic blood culture bottles in BacT/Alert system.  

PubMed

We collected and analyzed the time to detection (TTD) of blood cultures in the BacT/Alert automated system from 2002 to 2007. Among the 10,893 monomicrobial isolates from a total of 133,735 blood culture sets, the recoveries of aerobic bottles were compared with those of anaerobic bottles in this study. Significantly more Gram-positive cocci (except Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci), glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast were recovered from aerobic bottles than from anaerobic bottles. The average TTD was 19.0 hr and 20.1 hr for the aerobic and anaerobic bottles, respectively, and 96.8% of the microorganisms were detected within the first 72 hr. Of the 5,489 microorganisms recovered from both of the blood culture bottle pair, microbial growth was significantly more often detected first in the anaerobic bottles than the aerobic bottles for Enterobacteriaceae except Serratia marcescens, while S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more often detected first in the aerobic bottles. According to these data, we conclude that the earlier positivity of anaerobic bottles is a useful marker for rapid presumptive identification of Enterobacteriaceae infection. PMID:23349061

Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Lee, Shih-Yi; Tang, Sheng-Hui; Lu, Jang-Jih; Sun, Jun-Ren

2013-03-01

396

Comparison of digestive microflora between feedlot cattle with and without infection by Cryptosporidium andersoni.  

PubMed

The influence of cryptosporidial abomasitis on digestive anaerobic microflora in feedlot cattle with spontaneous Cryptosporidium andersoni colonization of abomasum was shown. Significant differences were found after the cultivation of abomasal content. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was detected in damaged areas of infected abomasum. PCR analysis of ruminal fluid showed no differences between the two animal groups regarding qualitative composition of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic rumen microflora. The concentration of volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) and ammonia in the rumen content showed that examined metabolic parameters were within normal limits except for ammonia content, which was higher in infected (291 mg/kg) than in healthy animals (203 mg/kg). PMID:15227789

Holko, I; Pavlásek, I; Barton, L; Kmet, V

2004-01-01

397

Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated.

Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

398

Integrated Genotypic Analysis of Hedgehog-Related Genes Identifies Subgroups of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with Distinct Clinicopathological Features  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) arises as part of Gorlin syndrome (GS) or as a sporadic lesion. Gene mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the hedgehog receptor PTCH1 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of KCOT. However, some KCOT cases lack evidence for gene alteration of PTCH1, suggesting that other genes in the hedgehog pathway may be affected. PTCH2 and SUFU participate in the occurrence of GS-associated tumors, but their roles in KCOT development are unknown. To elucidate the roles of these genes, we enrolled 36 KCOT patients in a study to sequence their entire coding regions of PTCH1, PTCH2 and SUFU. LOH and immunohistochemical expression of these genes, as well as the downstream targets of hedgehog signaling, were examined using surgically-excised KCOT tissues. PTCH1 mutations, including four novel ones, were found in 9 hereditary KCOT patients, but not in sporadic KCOT patients. A pathogenic mutation of PTCH2 or SUFU was not found in any patients. LOH at PTCH1 and SUFU loci correlated with the presence of epithelial budding. KCOT harboring a germline mutation (Type 1) showed nuclear localization of GLI2 and frequent histological findings such as budding and epithelial islands, as well as the highest recurrence rate. KCOT with LOH but without a germline mutation (Type 2) less frequently showed these histological features, and the recurrence rate was lower. KCOT with neither germline mutation nor LOH (Type 3) consisted of two subgroups, Type 3A and 3B, which were characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic GLI2 localization, respectively. Type 3B rarely exhibited budding and recurrence, behaving as the most amicable entity. The expression patterns of CCND1 and BCL2 tended to correlate with these subgroups. Our data indicates a significant role of PTCH1 and SUFU in the pathogenesis of KCOT, and the genotype-oriented subgroups constitute entities with different potential aggressiveness.

Shimada, Yasuyuki; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Kabasawa, Yuji; Morita, Kei-ichi; Omura, Ken; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sakamoto, Kei

2013-01-01

399

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with granular sludge selected from an anaerobic digestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the development of the anammox process by the use of granular sludge selected from\\u000a a digestion reactor as a potential seed source in a lab-scale UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor system. The reactor\\u000a was operated for approximately 11 months and was fed by synthetic wastewater. After 200 days of feeding with

Hung-Thuan Tran; Young-Joo Park; Mi-Kyeoung Cho; Dong-Jin Kim; Dae-Hee Ahn

2006-01-01

400

Bacteremic skin and soft tissue infection caused by Prevotella loescheii  

PubMed Central

Background Anaerobes are a major component of gut flora. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections resulting from breaches in mucus membranes. Because of the difficulties in cultivating and identifying it, their role continues to be undermined. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Prevotella loescheii bacteremic skin and soft tissue infection and review the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man was admitted for an elective bariatric surgery. A lengthy intensive care unit stay and buttocks decubitus ulcers complicated his post-operative course. After being transferred to a long-term care facility, the decubitus ulcer became secondarily infected with multiple bacteria including P. loescheii; an anaerobe that grew in blood and wound cultures. The patient was treated successfully with aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics and subsequent wound care. Conclusion P. loescheii colonizes the gut and plays an important role in periodontal infections. In rare occasions and under suitable circumstances, it can infect skin and soft tissues as well as joints. Given the difficulties in isolating anaerobes in the microbiology lab, considering this bacterium alongside other anaerobes in infections of devitalized tissue is indicated even if cultures were reported negative.

2014-01-01

401

Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified.

Muller, Miklos; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

2012-01-01

402

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

PubMed Central

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

403

Ginsenoside Rg1 of Panax ginseng stimulates the proliferation, odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation and gene expression profiles of human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active components of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) play an important role in the dentin formation, reparation and tooth tissue engineering. This study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on the proliferation, odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs and revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms. [³H]-thymidine incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis were applied to investigate the proliferation of hDPSCs after the treatment of ginsenoside Rg1. Immunocytochemistry analysis and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) were performed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Gene and protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) were detected by FQ-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Roche Nimblegen Whole Human Genome Expression profile microarray was used to detected representative gene expression profiles of hDPSCs by ginsenoside Rg1. The results indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly increased hDPSCs proliferation (p<0.05). Gene expressions of DSPP, ALP, OCN, BMP-2, FGF2 and protein expressions of BMP-2 and FGF2 were increased compared with the untreated group (p<0.05). Gene expression profile analysis revealed that 2059 differentially expressed genes were detected by ginsenoside Rg1. Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted the proliferation and differentiation of hDPSCs through alteration of gene expression profiles. PMID:24075212

Wang, Ping; Wei, Xi; Zhang, Fujun; Yang, Kai; Qu, Chen; Luo, Huiqiong; He, Longzhu

2014-01-15

404

Bilateral adenomatoid odontogenic tumour of the maxilla in a 2-year-old female--the report of a rare case and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Multifocal odontogenic lesions are uncommon and have only been observed in conditions associated with known genetic mutations. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of multifocal adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOT) have previously been reported in the literature. In this study, we report the first case of a bilateral, separate AOT in the maxilla in the midline in a 2-year-old female. The patient presented with bilateral expansile masses in the maxilla on either side of the midline which had been present for 6 months. She was asymptomatic and had occasional difficulty in breathing. The tumour was diagnosed as AOT and was surgically enucleated along with the associated teeth. The patient recovered well and has been on recall for 5 years. The follow-up panoramic radiograph made a fortnight ago revealed evidence of three new radio-opaque lesions with an associated tooth in the region of the anterior mandible, the premolar region of the right maxilla and the molar region of the left maxilla. To acquire additional information about AOT, all reports regarding AOT cited in ‘PubMed’ from 1995 onward were reviewed and the incidence, clinical features, radiographic features and management of AOT are discussed in this study.

Mehkri, S; Rajkumar, GC; Nagesh, KS; Manjunath, GS

2012-01-01

405

Anaerobic contribution during maximal anaerobic running test: correlation with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were: (i) to measure energy system contributions in maximal anaerobic running test (MART); and (ii) to verify any correlation between MART and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Eleven members of the armed forces were recruited for this study. Participants performed MART and MAOD, both accomplished on a treadmill. MART consisted of intermittent exercise, 20 s effort with 100 s recovery, after each spell of effort exercise. Energy system contributions by MART were also determined by excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate response, and oxygen uptake measurements. MAOD was determined by five submaximal intensities and one supramaximal intensity exercises corresponding to 120% at maximal oxygen uptake intensity. Energy system contributions were 65.4±1.1% to aerobic; 29.5±1.1% to anaerobic a-lactic; and 5.1±0.5% to anaerobic lactic system throughout the whole test, while only during effort periods the anaerobic contribution corresponded to 73.5±1.0%. Maximal power found in MART corresponded to 111.25±1.33 mL/kg/min but did not significantly correlate with MAOD (4.69±0.30 L and 70.85±4.73 mL/kg). We concluded that the anaerobic a-lactic system is the main energy system in MART efforts and this test did not significantly correlate to MAOD. PMID:21210856

Zagatto, A; Redkva, P; Loures, J; Kalva Filho, C; Franco, V; Kaminagakura, E; Papoti, M

2011-12-01

406

Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?  

PubMed Central

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-01-01

407

Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.  

PubMed

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-06-01

408

Syntrophy of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidisers.  

PubMed

Deammonification is known as an efficient and resource saving sidestream process option to remove the nitrogen load from sludge liquors. The transfer of the intermediate product nitrite between both syntrophic groups of organisms - aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizers (AOB) - appears very sensitive to process conditions such as temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and operating nitrite level. Growth kinetics for aerobic and anaerobic AOBs differ by one order of magnitude and require an adequate selection of sludge retention time. This paper provides measurement- and model-based results on how selected sludge wasting impacts population dynamics in a suspended growth deammonification system. Anammox enrichment up to a doubled portion in mixed liquor solids can substantially improve process stability in difficult conditions. A case-study on low temperature operations outlines two possible strategies to balance syntrophic consumption of ammonium and nitrite. PMID:20388987

Wett, B; Hell, M; Nyhuis, G; Puempel, T; Takacs, I; Murthy, S

2010-01-01

409

Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Chemicals in Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Chemicals in Groundwater" report and database are available at this site. The report (.pdf format), by Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC), reviews anaerobic groundwater biodegradation literature "for 44 common organic chemicals (including BTEX, chlorinated aliphatic compounds, phenolic compounds, common freons, ketones, organic acids, and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons)" and provides biodegradation rate constants based on these studies. The database, which may be downloaded (.zip format), contains information about the site, including location and type, sampling protocol and analysis, type of study, compound status, "pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentrations, redox conditions, initial and final concentrations of the compound, a published or calculated rate constant, length of the study, lag period, control results, general comments, and an abbreviated reference."

Aronson, Dallas.; Howard, Philip H.

410

Aerobic and anaerobic performances in tethered swimming.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the critical force (CritF) and anaerobic impulse capacity (AIC) - estimated by tethered swimming - reflect the aerobic and anaerobic performance of swimmers. 12 swimmers performed incremental test in tethered swimming to determine lactate anaerobic threshold (AnTLAC), maximal oxygen uptake ( ?VO2MAX) and force associated with the ?VO2MAX (i ?VO2MAX). The swimmers performed 4 exhaustive (tlim) exercise bouts (100, 110, 120 and 130% i ?VO2MAX) to compute the CritF and AIC (F vs. 1/tlim model); a 30-s all-out tethered swimming bout to determine their anaerobic fitness (ANF); 100, 200, and 400-m time-trials to determine the swimming performance. CritF (57.09±11.77 N) did not differ from AnTLAC (53.96±11.52 N, (P>0.05) but was significantly lower than i ?VO2MAX (71.02±8.36 N). In addition, CritF presented significant correlation with AnTLAC (r=0.76; P<0.05) and i ?VO2MAX (r=0.74; P<0.05). On the other hand, AIC (286.19±54.91 N.s) and ANF (116.10±13.66 N) were significantly correlated (r=0.81, p<0.05). In addition, CritF and AIC presented significant correlations with all time-trials. In summary, this study demonstrates that CritF and AIC can be used to evaluate AnTLAC and ANF and to predict 100, 200, and 400-m free swimming. PMID:23382009

Papoti, M; da Silva, A S R; Araujo, G G; Santiago, V; Martins, L E B; Cunha, S A; Gobatto, C A

2013-08-01

411

Microbial activity measurements for anaerobic sludge digestion  

SciTech Connect

The use of particulate substrate in the anaerobic sludge digestion process makes it difficult to measure the biomass in these reactors. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were investigated as indicators of the sludge activity for the anaerobic sludge digestion process. ATP measures the energy pools in the biomass and is therefore a measure of the total sludge activity. DHA measurement relies on the addition of specific substrates to stimulate the metabolic activity of the bacteria. Glucose, starch, propionic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid, and digester feed as added substrates were used to stimulate the metabolic activity for DHA measurements. Laboratory experiments were performed to monitor the microbial activity of anaerobic sludge digesters operated both under steady state and in batch mode. The ATP content responded rapidly to changes in the digester operation, which may be the result of increased non-growth associated biochemical activity, not that of increased numbers of the bacteria. DHA was more sensitive than ATP at both low and high sludge ages and seemed to be correlated with the cell's growth phase. At low sludge ages (less than 10 days) glucose as added substrate showed the highest DHA responses, while the digester food and no added substrated showed the highest response when the sludge age exceeded 20 days. A kinetic model based on the solids balances was developed to determine the microbial mass and activity. Both ATP and DHA on a VSS basis (viability) appeared nearly constant over a wide range of sludge ages for the kinetic model data, indicating that ATP and DHA may be used as a rapid and convenient indicator of microbial mass and activity for anaerobic sludge digestion.

Chung, Y.C.

1988-01-01

412

Anaerobic Life at Extremely High Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental and submarine solfataric fields turned out to contain various extremely thermophilic anaerobic organisms which all belong to the archaebacteria. They are living autotrophically on sulphur, hydrogen and CO2 or by methanogenesis or heterotrophically on different organic substrates by sulphur respiration or, less frequently, by fermentation. The most extremely thermophilic isolates are growing between 80 and 110°C with an optimum around 105°C.

Stetter, Karl O.

1984-12-01

413

Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55°C and for some experiments also at 37°C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619dm3kg?1 respectively,

Anette Hejnfelt; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

414

Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf is strongly controlled by dynamic physical sedimentation processes. Rapidly accumulating, physically reworked deltaic sediments characteristic of much of the shelf typically support what appear to be low rates of steady state anaerobic methane oxidation at depths of 5-8 m below the sediment-water interface. Methane oxidation in these cases is responsible for < {approximately}10% of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} inventory in the oxidation zone and is limited largely by the steady-state diffusive flux of methane into the overlying sulfate reduction zone. In contrast, a large area of the shelf has been extensively eroded, reexposing once deeply buried (>10 m) methane-charged sediment directly to seawater. In this nonsteady-state situation, methane is a major source of recently produced {Sigma}CO{sub 2} and an important reductant for sulfate. These observations suggest that authigenic sedimentary carbonates derived from anaerobic methane oxidation may sometimes reflect physically enhanced nonsteady-state exposure of methane to sulfate in otherwise biogeochemically unreactive deposits. The concentration profiles of CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} in the eroded deposit were reproduced by a coupled reaction-transport model. This area of the shelf was reexposed to seawater approximately 5-10 years ago based on the model results and the assumption that the erosion of the deposit occurred as a single event that has now ceased. The necessary second order rate constant for anaerobic methane oxidation was {le}0.1 mM{sup -1} d{sup -1}.

Blair, N.E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Aller, R.C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

415

ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographers noticed already many years ago that far less ammonium accumulated in anoxic fjords and basins, than would be\\u000a expected from the stoichiometry of heterotrophic denitrification. It was suggested that this ‘missing’ ammonium was oxidized\\u000a with nitrate to freeN2. Since then several otherworkers have argued based on chemical profiles that ammonium is oxidized anaerobically in oxygen\\u000a deficient marine sediments and

Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Bo Thamdrup

416

Detection of anaerobic mycoplasmas in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A commercially available anaerobic generator and incubation system that develops a low oxidation-reduction potential was used\\u000a for the assay of cell cultures for mycoplasmal contamination. Mycoplasma broth and agar media supplemented with dextrose,\\u000a yeast extract, and horse serum were used. This system supported growth of some mycoplasmas that failed to grow in incubators\\u000a with 5% CO2 in nitrogen previously used

Gerard J. McGarrity; Lewis L. Coriell

1973-01-01

417

Anaerobic toxic wastes treatment: dilution effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of waste strength on the treatability of toxic wastes such as coal gasification wastewater by the anaerobic GAC reactor operating with periodic GAC replacement was assessed by operating three units treating 30%, 60% and full strength wastewater. At a COD loading of 4.7 kg\\/m3 d performance was unimpacted by dilution at all the GAC replacement rates investigated in

G. F. Nakhla; M. T. Suidan

1995-01-01

418

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation: Occurrence and Ecology  

PubMed Central

Anoxic sediments and digested sewage sludge anaerobically oxidized methane to carbon dioxide while producing methane. This strictly anaerobic process showed a temperature optimum between 25 and 37°C, indicating an active microbial participation in this reaction. Methane oxidation in these anaerobic habitats was inhibited by oxygen. The rate of the oxidation followed the rate of methane production. The observed anoxic methane oxidation in Lake Mendota and digested sewage sludge was more sensitive to 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid than the simultaneous methane formation. Sulfate diminished methane formation as well as methane oxidation. However, in the presence of iron and sulfate the ratio of methane oxidized to methane formed increased markedly. Manganese dioxide and higher partial pressures of methane also stimulated the oxidation. The rate of methane oxidation in untreated samples was approximately 2% of the CH4 production rate in Lake Mendota sediments and 8% of that in digested sludge. This percentage could be increased up to 90% in sludge in the presence of 10 mM ferrous sulfate and at a partial pressure of methane of 20 atm (2,027 kPa).

Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Brock, Thomas D.

1980-01-01

419

Bacteriological skin and subcutaneous infections in injecting heroin users-relevance for custody.  

PubMed

Forensic medical examiners, custody nurses and police not infrequently come into physical contact with injecting heroin users whose injection sites maybe infected. Karch evaluated published reports on bacteriological findings at infected injection sites in drug users in 1996. Studies were then 10 years out of date. Recent concern has been about unexplained deaths in injecting heroin users, partly attributed to toxins produced by Clostridium novyii, Clostridium perfringens (welchii) and Clostridium botulinum. In response to this epidemic Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Health Authority (London, UK) urged investigation and treatment of injection site infection in heroin users within their area; circularising police stations and general practices with an official notice. In response, I followed up and treated in general practice 35 injecting heroin users with injection site infection presenting as detainees at two South London police stations. All swabs taken had a 48 hour incubation for anaerobic bacteria. At audit, no spore forming anaerobes were found. Just under 25% had non spore forming anaerobes such as bacteroides. Just over 50% had staphylococci in the injection site infection. Just under 20% had streptococci, half of which were beta haemolytic, a possible contact risk of infection being erysipelas, cellulitis, impetigo or conjunctivitis. No comparable studies were found but a study in New York in 1984 tabulated bacteriological findings of soft tissue infections in 29 hospitalised parenteral drug users. They found similar proportions of staphylococci, far more with streptococci, hardly any with non spore forming anaerobes and one case of spore forming anaerobic clostridium perfringens. PMID:16083689

Lettington, W

2002-06-01

420

Microbiota Associated with Infections of the Jaws  

PubMed Central

The microbial infections involving the craniofacial skeleton, particularly maxilla and mandible, have direct relationship with the dental biofilm, with predominance of obligate anaerobes. In some patients, these infections may spread to bone marrow or facial soft tissues, producing severe and life-threatening septic conditions. In such cases, local treatment associated with systemic antimicrobials should be used in order to eradicate the sources of contamination. This paper discuss the possibility of spread of these infections and their clinical implications for dentistry, as well as their etiology and aspects related to microbial virulence and pathogenesis.

Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luis Fernando; de Oliveira, Kathlenn Liezbeth; Costa, Iracy; Ranieri, Robson Varlei; Okamoto, Ana Claudia; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

2012-01-01

421

Anammox bacteria enrichment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reaction in a labscale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.\\u000a Our aim was to detect and enrich the organisms responsible for the anammox reaction using a synthetic medium that contained\\u000a low concentrations of substrates (ammonium and nitrite). The reactor was inoculated with granular sludge collected from a\\u000a full-scale anaerobic digestor used for treating

Tran-Hung Thuan; Deok-Jin Jahng; Jin-Young Jung; Dong-Jin Kim; Won-Kyoung Kim; Young-Joo Park; Ji-Eun Kim; Dae-Hee Ahn

2004-01-01

422

Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange by anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange (MO) by anaerobic sludge in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were\\u000a investigated. The anaerobic sludge was found to have a saturated adsorption capacity of 36?±?1 mg g MLSS?1 to MO. UV\\/visible spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical results indicated that the MO adsorption\\u000a and decolorization occurred simultaneously in this system. This process at various substrate concentrations

Lei Yu; Wen-Wei Li; Michael Hon-Wah Lam; Han-Qing Yu

2011-01-01

423

Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted. PMID:23530761

Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

2013-06-01

424

Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

Boopathy, Raj

425

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2013-07-01

426

ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification – denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with

S. Suneethi; Kurian Joseph

2011-01-01

427

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

428

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections.

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

429

Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor with sepiolite as support for anaerobic treatment of vinasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An anaerobic fluidized bed reactor, using sepiolite as support, for the treatment of distillery wastewater was started-up using a stepped loading regime with addition of methanol. Six different steady states at hydraulic retention times between 0.5 and 2.48 days were studied achieving a COD removal efficiency of 70.5 to 88.6%.

M. D. Balaguer; M. T. Vicent; J. M. París

1992-01-01

430

Role of anaerobic flora in the translocation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed Central

It is thought that the normal enteric microflora acts not only to prevent intestinal colonization but also to prevent subsequent systemic dissemination of ingested, potentially pathogenic bacteria. To determine the relative roles of specific components of the intestinal bacterial flora in bacterial translocation out of the gut, mice were given various antimicrobial agents to selectively eliminate specific groups of intestinal bacteria. The cecal flora and the translocating bacteria in mesenteric lymph nodes were monitored both before and after oral inoculation with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli C25. Orally administered streptomycin selectively eliminated cecal facultative gram-negative bacilli, orally administered bacitracin-streptomycin eliminated all cecal bacterial species except low numbers of aerobic sporeformers, and parenterally administered metronidazole selectively eliminated cecal anaerobic bacteria. Compared with control mice, only metronidazole-treated mice had significantly increased rates of dissemination of intestinal bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes, indicating that the exclusive absence of anaerobic bacteria facilitated the translocation of the intestinal facultative bacteria. In a parallel experiment with streptomycin-resistant E. coli C25 as a marker, parallel results were obtained. Metronidazole increased the translocation of the marker strain and the indigenous strains of intestinal bacteria. Thus, anaerobes appeared to play a key role in confining indigenous bacteria to the gut. However, intestinal colonization and translocation of E. coli C25 occurred most readily after bacitracin-streptomycin treatment, suggesting that in addition to anaerobic bacteria, other bacterial groups may play a role in limiting the intestinal colonization and extraintestinal dissemination of E. coli C25.

Wells, C L; Maddaus, M A; Reynolds, C M; Jechorek, R P; Simmons, R L

1987-01-01

431

Human serum activity of telithromycin, azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate against common aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

Telithromycin is a new ketolide antimicrobial with a good in vitro activity against both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity over time of telithromycin (800mg), azithromycin (500mg), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (875/125mg) in serum following single oral doses of these agents to 10 healthy subjects. Inhibitory and bactericidal titers were determined at 2, 6, 12, and 24h after each dose and the median titer was used to determine antibacterial activity. Against two azithromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, both telithromycin (MIC=0.25 and 0.5 microg/mL) and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited inhibitory and cidal activity for at least 6h. All three antibiotics provided prolonged (>or=12h) inhibitory activity against strains of Hemophilus influenzae (telithromycin MIC=4.0 microg/ml). Both telithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited rapid and prolonged inhibitory activity (>or=12h) against each of the anaerobes studied (Finegoldia [Peptostreptococcus] magna Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella bivia, and Prevotella melaninogenica). Moreover, both agents provided bactericidal activity against both Prevotella species. In this ex vivo pharmacodynamic study, we found that telithromycin provided rapid and prolonged antibacterial activity in serum against macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of H. influenzae, and common respiratory anaerobic pathogens. These findings suggest that telithromycin could have clinical utility in the treatment of community-acquired mixed aerobic-anaerobic respiratory tract infections, including chronic sinusitis and aspiration pneumonia. PMID:17189093

Stein, Gary E; Schooley, Sharon; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

2007-01-01

432

Bacterial Findings in Infected Hip Joint Replacements in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis: A Study of 318 Revisions for Infection Reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register  

PubMed Central

High rates of Staphylococcus aureus are reported in prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients are considered to have a high risk of infection with bacteria of potentially oral or dental origin. One thousand four hundred forty-three revisions for infection were reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR) from 1987 to 2007. For this study 269 infection episodes in 255 OA patients served as control group. In the NAR we identified 49 infection episodes in 37 RA patients from 1987 to 2009. The RA patients were, on average, 10 years younger than the OA patients and there were more females (70% versus 54%). We found no differences in the bacterial findings in RA and OA. A tendency towards a higher frequency of Staphylococcus aureus (18% versus 11%) causing PJI was found in the RA patients compared to OA. There were no bacteria of potential odontogenic origin found in the RA patients, while we found 4% in OA. The bacteria identified in revisions for infection in THRs in patients with RA did not significantly differ from those in OA. Bacteria of oral or dental origin were not found in infected hip joint replacements in RA.

Schrama, J. C.; Lutro, O.; Langvatn, H.; Hallan, G.; Espehaug, B.; Sjursen, H.; Engesaeter, L. B.; Fevang, B.-T.

2012-01-01

433

Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.  

PubMed

It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In addition, transmural pressure created by the muscle contraction reduces blood flow, causing relative hypoxia. PMID:9889877

Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

1998-01-01

434

Anaerobic microbial transformations in subsurface environments: highlights  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic microorganisms under appropriate conditions affect trace metal dissolution and mobilization or immobilization in the subsurface environments by one or more of the following processes: (1) changes in pH and Eh (which affect the valence or ionic state of the metals and enhance their mobility in the subsurface environment by retarding the subsoil binding characteristics); (2) chelation or production of specific sequestering agents (solubilization and leaching of certain elements by microbial metabolites or decomposition products); and (3) bioaccumulation and release of metals due to remineralization elsewhere in the environment.

Francis, A.J.

1985-09-01

435

Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation  

PubMed Central

The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43°C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox process was completely inhibited by nitrite concentrations higher than 0.1 g of nitrogen per liter. Addition of trace amounts of either of the anammox intermediates (1.4 mg of nitrogen per liter of hydrazine or 0.7 mg of nitrogen per liter of hydroxylamine) restored activity completely.

Strous, Marc; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Jetten, Mike S. M.

1999-01-01

436

Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Anaerobic Microorganisms from Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms from Hudson River sediments reductively dechlorinated most polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions, thus demonstrating PCB dechlorination by anaerobic bacteria in the laboratory. The most rapid dechlorination was observed at the highest PCB concentration used; at 700 parts per million Aroclor, 53 percent of the total chlorine was removed in 16 weeks, and the proportion of

John F. Quensen; James M. Tiedje; Stephen A. Boyd

1988-01-01

437

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and

Abramowicz

1995-01-01

438

Anaerobic dehalogenation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, the authors report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho

JUERGEN WIEGEL; XIAOMING ZHANG; QINGZHONG WU

1999-01-01

439

Products of anaerobic phloroglucinol degradation by Coprococcus sp. Pe15.  

PubMed

Under anaerobic conditions, resting cell suspensions of Coprococcus sp. Pe15 degraded 1 molecule of phloroglucinol to 2 molecules of acetic acid and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide. The organism metabolized the flavonoids rhamnetin and quercetin anaerobically in 20% rumen fluid medium but failed to grow under similar conditions at the expense of any of 39 other aromatic or flavonoid compounds tested. PMID:944077

Tsai, C G; Gates, D M; Ingledew, W M; Jones, G A

1976-02-01