These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Review article: Maxillofacial emergencies: oral pain and odontogenic infections.  

PubMed

Oral pain and odontogenic infections are common reasons for patients to present to EDs and general medical practice in Australia. Although most odontogenic infections can be managed on an outpatient basis, because of their proximity to the airway, infections in this region can be life threatening, requiring urgent surgical intervention and ICU management. This article focuses on the emergency assessment, triage and non-specialist management of oral pain and odontogenic infections. PMID:25065769

DeAngelis, Adrian F; Barrowman, Roland A; Harrod, Richard; Nastri, Alf L

2014-08-01

2

Use of metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after incision and drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces.  

PubMed

The combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole is a widely-accepted empirical regimen for infections of the odontogenic spaces. Once adequate drainage has been established micro-organisms are less likely to grow and multiply, particularly anaerobes. This may obviate the need for anaerobic coverage after drainage in healthy hosts. We studied 60 patients in this randomised prospective study, the objective of which was to evaluate metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces. Samples of pus were sent for culture and testing for sensitivity. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole were given to all patients. After incision and drainage the patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In the first group both antibiotics were continued, and in the second metronidazole was withdrawn. The groups were compared both clinically and microbiologically. There were no significant differences between the groups in the resolution of infection. Thirteen patients (n=6 in the 2-antimicrobial group, and n=7 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group) showed no improvement during the 48h postoperatively. Overall there was need to substitute another antibiotic for amoxicillin/clavulanate in only 6 cases. Six patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group required the addition of metronidazole after drainage. We conclude that in healthy subjects metronidazole is not necessary in the period after drainage, but its prescription should be based on assessment of clinical and laboratory markers of infection. PMID:25277645

Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani

2015-01-01

3

Incidence and management of severe odontogenic infections-A retrospective analysis from 2004 to 2011.  

PubMed

The management of odontogenic infections is a typical part of the spectrum of maxillofacial surgery. Normally these infections can be managed in a straight forward way however under certain conditions severe and complicated courses can arise which require interdisciplinary treatment including intensive care. A retrospective analysis of all patients affected by an odontogenic infection that received surgical therapy from 2004 to 2011 under stationary conditions was performed. Surgical treatment consisted in incision and drainage of the abscess supported by additional i.v. antibiotic medication in all patients. Detailed analysis of all patients that required postoperative intensive medical care was additionally performed with respect to special risk factors. During 8 years 814 patients affected by odontogenic infections received surgical treatment under stationary conditions representing 4% of all patients that have been treated during that period (n = 18981). In 14 patients (1.7%) intensive medical therapy after surgery was required, one lethal outcome was documented (0.12%). In all of these 14 patients a history of typical risk factors was present. According to these results two patients per week affected by an odontogenic infection required stationary surgical treatment, about two patients per year were likely to require additional intensive medical care. If well-known risk factors are present in patients affected by odontogenic infection appropriate interdisciplinary management should be considered as early as possible. PMID:25555896

Opitz, Daniel; Camerer, Christian; Camerer, Doris-Maria; Raguse, Jan-Dirk; Menneking, Horst; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Adolphs, Nicolai

2015-03-01

4

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

5

Odontogenic Cutaneous Fistula  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic cutaneous fistula or sinus is an uncommon, but well documented condition, which is often initially misdiagnosed as a sole cutaneous lesion and inappropriately treated. The misdiagnosis as a skin infection often results in inappropriate management. We here present two cases of odontogenic cutaneous fistula that were seen after being treated unnecessarily with antibiotics. PMID:21509218

Samir, Nafisa; Al-Mahrezi, Abdulaziz; Al-Sudairy, Salim

2011-01-01

6

Experimental animal models for anaerobic infections.  

PubMed

An experimental animal model that stimulates the mixed aerobic-anaerobic microflora of intraabdominal sepsis was used to study antimicrobial efficacy in vivo. Treatment of infected rats with chloramphenicol resulted in only a modest reduction in the percentage of animals surviving infection with abscesses at necropsy. This unanticipated observation led to further exploration of the predominant anaerobes associated with the experimental infection. In vitro cultures of Bacteroides fragilis, susceptible to chloramphenicol in traditional tests, were capable of reducing chloramphenicol to its aryl amine derivative, which is biologically inactive. In contrast, metronidazole, an antimicrobial agent active against anaerobes, reduced the coli-metronidazole, an antimicrobial agent active against anaerobes, reduced the coli-form-associated mortality in this animal model. Subsequent studies showed that this reduction in mortality is dependent on the presence of an anaerobe and that the levels of Escherichia coli in mixed continuous culture with B. fragilis are reduced by addition of metronidazole. This reduction following addition of metronidazole was not observed either in a pure culture of E. coli or when clindamycin was added to a mixed culture. In a modification of the previously described model, infective material was placed subcutaneously into Wistar rats. Studies with this model suggested that the host's response to bacterial challenge is dependent on the site of infection and that organotropism of the implanted bacterial species is an important determinant of infection. PMID:232936

Onderdonk, A B; Kasper, D L; Mansheim, B J; Louie, T J; Gorbach, S L; Bartlett, J G

1979-01-01

7

Odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare, benign, locally aggressive and non metastasizing neoplasm which is believed to arise from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme and bears a close microscopic resemblance to mesenchymal portion of a tooth germ. This is a case report of odontogenic myxoma in a 32 year old female patient and the treatment rendered to her. PMID:24822019

Kumar, Naresh; Kohli, Munish; Pandey, Saumya; Agarwal, Poonam

2014-06-01

8

Odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare intraosseous neoplasm, which is benign but locally aggressive. It rarely appears in any bone other than the jaws. It is considered to be derived from the mesenchymal portion of the tooth germ. Clinically, it is a slow-growing, expansile, painless, non-metastasizing, central tumor of jaws, chiefly the mandible. Here we report the case of a typical odontogenic myxoma in a 26-year-old female patient, which had acquired large dimensions and involved the entire left half of the mandible including the ramus, resulting in a gross facial deformity, within a span of one and a half years. PMID:24163558

Gupta, Suchitra; Grover, Neeraj; Kadam, Ajit; Gupta, Shally; Sah, Kunal; Sunitha, J D

2013-01-01

9

Anaerobes in biofilm-based healthcare-associated infections.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria can cause an infection when they encounter a permissive environment within the host. These opportunistic pathogens are seldom recovered as single isolates but more frequently are involved in polymicrobial infections, together with other anaerobes or aerobes. Nowadays it's known that some anaerobic bacteria are also able to grow as biofilm even if this feature and its role in the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are still poorly characterized. As consequence, the involvement of biofilm-forming anaerobic bacteria in infections related to healthcare procedures, including surgery and medical devices implantation, is underestimated.The current knowledge on the role of biofilm-growing anaerobes in HAIs has been here reviewed, with particular reference to respiratory, intestinal, intra-abdominal, wound, and urogenital tract infections. Even if the data are still scarce, the ability to form biofilm of opportunistic anaerobic species and their possible role as causative agents of HAIs should alert even more clinicians and microbiologists on the need to search for anaerobes in clinical samples when their presence can be reasonably assumed. PMID:25366223

Vuotto, Claudia; Donelli, Gianfranco

2015-01-01

10

Pharmaceutical Probiotics for the Treatment of Anaerobic and Other Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical probiotics have been used as alternative treatments or preventative therapies for a variety of clinical diseases. The overuse of antibiotics and emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistant pathogens has refocused clinical attention on the field of probiotics. Anaerobic infections which seem to respond well to probiotics are infections which involve the disruption of normal microbial flora. Gastrointestinal infections (travelers' diarrhea, antibiotic-associated

L. V. McFarland; G. W. Elmer

1997-01-01

11

Odontogenic infection involving the secondary fascial space in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a clinical comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus on the prognosis in secondary space infection. Materials and Methods Medical records, radiographic images, computed tomography, and microbial studies of 51 patients (25 diabetic patients and 26 non-diabetic patients) were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed as secondary fascial space infections with odontogenic origin and underwent treatment at Chonnam National University Hospital, in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, from January 2007 to February 2009. Results Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were presented with the following characteristics: older age (diabetic patients: 62.9 years, non-diabetic patients, 47.8 years), more spaces involved (diabetic patients, 60%; non-diabetic patients, 27.3%), more intense treatment, longer hospitalization (diabetic patients, 28.9 days; non-diabetic patients, 15.4 days), higher white blood cell and C-reactive protein values, higher incidence of complication (diabetic patients, 40%; non-diabetic patients, 7.7%), and distinctive main causative microorganisms. Conclusion These results suggest that the prognosis of diabetic patients is poorer than that of non-diabetic patients in secondary space infections since they had greater incidence rates of involved spaces, abnormal hematologic findings, more complications, and additional procedures, such as tracheostomy. PMID:24471039

Chang, Je-Shin; Yoo, Kil-Hwa; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Ha, Jiwon; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk; Park, Hong-Ju; Ryu, Sun-Youl

2013-01-01

12

Myocardial abscess with complete heart block complicating anaerobic infective endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

Myocardial abscess caused by anaerobic infection is rare and usually occurs in cases of myocardial infarction, in which it may be related to areas of low oxygen tension. Bacteroides CDC group F-1 infective endocarditis complicated by an aortic valve ring abscess with resultant complete heart block developed in a patient with steroid dependent systemic lupus erythematosus. The genitourinary system was the presumed source of the infection. Endocarditis developed after an elective abortion, despite antibiotic prophylaxis according to American Heart Association recommendations. This case shows that an anaerobic abscess of the aortic valve ring can affect contiguous vital structures of the conducting system. Immunosuppression may increase the risk of anaerobic infection after genitourinary procedures, and in this situation the recommended antibiotic prophylaxis may be inadequate. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3730202

Kopelman, H A; Graham, B S; Forman, M B

1986-01-01

13

Draining skin lesions of dental origin: the path of spread of chronic odontogenic infection.  

PubMed

Draining skin lesions in the face are a common problem in head and neck surgery. The differential diagnosis includes various types of skin infection as well as infected tumor. Often overlooked is the possibility of a chronically infected tooth. The patients in this report illustrate cutaneous drainage in five locations from different teeth. The anatomic basis for these drainage tracts and the diagnostic workup have been described. We advise that these patients have a dental evaluation. PMID:7433554

Kaban, L B

1980-11-01

14

Genotypic Diversity of Anaerobic Isolates from Bloodstream Infections?  

PubMed Central

Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of anaerobes that cause bloodstream infections is extremely limited, because identification historically has relied on conventional methods. Over a 5-year period, we profiled anaerobic bacteremia at a large tertiary care hospital with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to gain a better understanding of the taxonomical diversity of the bacteria. Of 316 isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified 316 (100%) to the genus or taxonomical group level and 289 (91%) to the species level. Conventional methods identified 279 (88%) to the genus level and 208 (66%) to the species level; 75 (24%) were misidentified at the species level, and 33 (10%) results were inconclusive. High intragenus variability was observed for Bacteroides and Clostridium species, and high intraspecies variability was observed for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Sequence-based identification has potential benefits in comparison to conventional methods, because it more accurately characterizes anaerobes within taxonomically related clusters and thereby may enable better correlation with specific clinical syndromes and antibiotic resistance patterns. PMID:18322067

Simmon, Keith E.; Mirrett, Stanley; Reller, L. Barth; Petti, Cathy A.

2008-01-01

15

Genotypic diversity of anaerobic isolates from bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of anaerobes that cause bloodstream infections is extremely limited, because identification historically has relied on conventional methods. Over a 5-year period, we profiled anaerobic bacteremia at a large tertiary care hospital with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to gain a better understanding of the taxonomical diversity of the bacteria. Of 316 isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified 316 (100%) to the genus or taxonomical group level and 289 (91%) to the species level. Conventional methods identified 279 (88%) to the genus level and 208 (66%) to the species level; 75 (24%) were misidentified at the species level, and 33 (10%) results were inconclusive. High intragenus variability was observed for Bacteroides and Clostridium species, and high intraspecies variability was observed for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Sequence-based identification has potential benefits in comparison to conventional methods, because it more accurately characterizes anaerobes within taxonomically related clusters and thereby may enable better correlation with specific clinical syndromes and antibiotic resistance patterns. PMID:18322067

Simmon, Keith E; Mirrett, Stanley; Reller, L Barth; Petti, Cathy A

2008-05-01

16

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors are very rare. They may arise from the epithelial components of the odontogenic apparatus. The rests of Malassez, the reduced enamel epithelium surrounding the crown of an impacted tooth, the rests of Serres in the gingiva, and the linings of odontogenic cysts represent the precursor cells for malignant transformation. Because metastatic carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the jaws, the diagnosis of a primary intraosseous carcinoma must always be made to the exclusion of metastatic disease. Odontogenic carcinomas include malignant (metastasizing) ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, and malignant epithelial ghost cell tumor. There are specific histopathologic features that support the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma of odontogenic epithelium which are presented in this article. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is important for distinguishing clear cell odontogenic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell tumors, yet IHC stains are not particularly helpful for other lesions in this group-all of which exhibit low molecular weight cytokeratin positivity. Aggressive growth and nodal and distant metastases occur with all of these entities. PMID:10587275

Eversole, L R

1999-11-01

17

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a benign non-invasive odontogenic tumour, having mostly a slow and sustained growth pattern. AOT is an uncommon lesion of odontogenic origin, which affects young individuals, with a female predilection and mostly occurring in the second decade. In the literature, it has been considered as a hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm because of its limited size, minimal growth potential and the lack of recurrence. We present an extrafollicular central variant of AOT with a occurrence rate of 30%, adjacent to the incisors. PMID:23814209

Prakasam, Michael; Tiwari, Saba; Satpathy, Mrinal; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

2013-01-01

18

Odontogenic myxoma of the mandible.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms found almost exclusively in the jaws and arise only occasionally in other bones. We present a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the mandible of a 19-year-old male patient with a brief review of clinical and radiological features, and diagnostic and operative dilemmas in managing the same. PMID:22830060

Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Venkata Suneel; Venkata Sarath, P; Anumula, Lavanya; Mundlapudi, Sridhar; Tanikonda, Rambabu

2012-01-01

19

Risk factors for anaerobic bloodstream infections in bone marrow transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The incidence of anaerobic bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recently increased at our institution. A retrospective case-control study of patients undergoing BMT from January 1995 through December 1998 was performed to determine the microbiological characteristics, epidemiology, and outcome of anaerobic BSI and to identify independent risk factors for infection. Anaerobic BSI occurred in 23 patients, for a rate of 4 BSIs per 100 BMT procedures, and it accounted for 17% of all BSIs that occurred during the study period. Infection occurred at a mean (+/- standard deviation) of 7+/-4 days after BMT and 7+/-5 days after the onset of neutropenia. Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently isolated pathogen (in 17 patients), followed by Leptotrichia buccalis (in 4), Clostridium septicum (in 1), and Clostridium tertium (in 1). Two case patients (9%) died. Severity of mucositis was an independent predictor of anaerobic BSI (odds ratio, 4.4; P=.01). Controlling mucositis is critical for the prevention of anaerobic BSI in this patient population. PMID:11438899

Lark, R L; McNeil, S A; VanderHyde, K; Noorani, Z; Uberti, J; Chenoweth, C

2001-08-01

20

Odontogenic skin sinus: a commonly overlooked skin presentation.  

PubMed

Facial skin lesions present routinely to clinic and are largely dermatological in origin. Odontogenic infections are an unusual cause of facial lesion and are well-described in the dental literature; however they are regularly overlooked and mismanaged, often to considerable aesthetic detriment. We present such a case and highlight important avoidable pitfalls. PMID:22542730

Herd, M K; Aldridge, T; Colbert, S D; Brennan, P A

2012-12-01

21

Bloodstream infections due to anaerobic bacteria in cancer patients: epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of anaerobic bacteremia.  

PubMed

Thirty one bacteremic episodes (BE) in 31 patients due to anaerobic bacteremia (AB) in 979 BE among 9986 admissions at a 360 beds National Cancer Institute within last 6 years were analyzed for time distribution, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome. Overall incidence of AB was 3.6%, but the proportion to other groups of microorganisms is decreasing. 73% were Bacteroides fragilis, 10.8% Peptostreptococci and Propionibacteria and 5.4% Clostridia. The most common risk factor for AB was prior surgery, solid tumor as underlying disease, prophylaxis with quinolones and previous therapy with third generation cephalosporines. 48.4% of AB were polymicrobial. Infected wound was the most common source of infection in 38.7% of our cancer patients. Six patients (19.4%) presented septic shock, and 45.2% died, but only in 22.6% death was related to bacteremia. Comparing the groups of AB due to B. fragilis (BF) to non-Bacteroides spp. (NB)AB, infection-associated mortality was higher in BFAB in comparison to NBAB. Other risk factors such as hematologic malignancies, previous prophylaxis with quinolones, prior surgery and prior therapy with broad spectrum antimicrobials, were more frequently associated with BFAB. PMID:8931747

Spánik, S; Trupl, J; Kunová, A; Pichna, P; Helpianska, L; Ilavská, I; Kukucková, E; Lacka, J; Grausová, S; Stopková, K; Drgona, L; Krcméry, V

1996-01-01

22

[Septic metastases of suppuration of odontogenic origin].  

PubMed

The infections of odontogenic origin, set in the soft tissues region of the viscerocranium are among the most frequent conditions specific to this anatomical level. A distinct category among these, represented by the conditions with diffuse character, may have serious forms, developing systemic septic metastases. The current paper displays a study approaching seven cases of odontogenic diffuse infections with metastases at distance. The ways in which the septic metastases appeared, as well as the topic and general prescribed treatment have been analyzed. The expanding at distance of the suppuration occurred at those patients who were suffering from cervical necroziting fasciitis associated to some immunodepressing conditions. Out of the 7 patients involved in the study, 4 were suffering from uncompensated diabetes and obesity. All those 7 patients had septic conditions localized in mediastinal region, and in 3 cases hepatic septic affections were observed. The best treatment possible for these conditions proved to be the surgical one associated with that concerned with the sustenance of the general state of health, the rebalancing of the homeostatic constants and the antibacterial one. The post-surgical evolution in case of 5 patients was a good one, in case of 2 patients being unfavourable because of the appearance of the multiorganic insufficiency and of death. PMID:21853745

Juncar, M; Popa, A R; Lung, T; Oni?or, F

2011-01-01

23

Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

2014-01-01

24

Giant odontogenic fibroma of maxilla  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic fibroma is a benign ectomesenchymal tumor classified as central and peripheral on the basis of its location and as an epithelium rich or epithelium poor based on its histological features. Radiological findings consist of radiolucent areas with well-defined bony margins. The lesion is detected early because of its location and usually treated with surgical excision and curettage. We present a case of giant odontogenic fibroma of right maxilla presenting as gross facial deformity and posing a dual challenge of excising the tumor mass and reconstructing the ensuing defect.

Baser, Brajendra; Kinger, Arvind; Mitra, Geeti V.; Roy, Manya Thakur

2014-01-01

25

In Vitro Activity of Moxifloxacin against 923 Anaerobes Isolated from Human Intra-Abdominal Infections  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 recent anaerobic isolates obtained from pretreatment cultures in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections was studied using the CLSI M11-A-6 agar dilution method. Moxifloxacin was active against 87% (96 of 110) Bacteroides fragilis strains at ?1 ?g/ml and 87% (79 of 90) B. thetaiotaomicron strains at ?2 ?g/ml. Species variation was seen, with B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, Clostridium clostridioforme, and C. symbiosum being least susceptible and accounting for most of the resistant isolates; excluding the aforementioned four resistant species, 86% (303 of 363) of Bacteroides species isolates and 94% (417 of 450) of all other genera and species were susceptible to ?2 ?g/ml of moxifloxacin. Overall, moxifloxacin was active against 763 of 923 (83%) of strains at ?2 ?g/ml, supporting its use as a monotherapy for some community-acquired intra-abdominal infections. PMID:16377680

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Fernandez, Helen

2006-01-01

26

Central Odontogenic Fibroma of Simple Type  

PubMed Central

Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an extremely rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth resembling dentigerous cyst. In this report, a 10-year-old male patient is presented, who was diagnosed with central odontogenic fibroma of simple type from clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. PMID:25506436

Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha V.; Amudala, Rajesh; Yanadi, Prashanthi; Rahamthullah, S. A. K. Uroof; Botu, Meeramma

2014-01-01

27

Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

2014-12-01

28

A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find.  

PubMed

Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of proteins that may be formed due to infections or genetic disorders. Asteroid body is one such inclusion that is eosinophilic and spider like that are usually found in infections like sarcoidosis and sporotrichosis. Inclusions are usually pathognomonic of certain diseases and conditions, navigating the pathologist to arrive at a diagnosis. But, here we report an unusual finding of an asteroid body encountered in an inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Amrutha N. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):131-3 . PMID:24453458

Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Amrutha, N

2013-12-01

29

Are we missing anaerobic infective endocarditis in some acute coronary syndromes?  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of intermittent fevers and dyspnoea on exertion after a dental bridge placement 2?months ago. The patient's medical history was significant for mild to moderate mitral valve prolapse. Initial evaluation was notable for a 3/6 systolic apical murmur. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and cardiac biomarkers. Patient was treated initially for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. A 2-dimensional echocardiography was concerning for a new mitral regurgitation and a questionable vegetation adjacent to the mitral valve annulus. Transoesophageal echocardiography study confirmed the diagnosis. Subsequent microbial identification was notable for Peptostreptococci and he was started on intravenous penicillin therapy. The unexplained illness with underlying valve disease prompted consideration of infective endocarditis. This case describes a rare occurrence of anaerobic endocarditis imitating an acute coronary event. PMID:24943143

Abuzaid, Ahmed; Smer, Aiman; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Bittner, Marvin

2014-01-01

30

Comparative In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem (MK-0826) against 469 Less Frequently Identified Anaerobes Isolated from Human Infections  

PubMed Central

We studied the in vitro activity of ertapenem against 469 less frequently identified anaerobes from 11 genera and 52 species isolated from human infections. Ertapenem was uniformly active against 460 of 469 (98%) strains at concentrations of ?4 ?g/ml. Only 4 of 14 Clostridium difficile, 1 of 11 Clostridium innocuum, and 4 of 6 Lactobacillus sp. strains required ertapenem concentrations of ?8 ?g/ml for inhibition. PMID:11897608

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen

2002-01-01

31

[Use of a composite organic biosilicone sorption preparation imosdinit in the treatment of anaerobic infections in surgery].  

PubMed

New application sorbent on the base of hydrogel and xerogel of methylsilicone acid with immobilized nitazole in connection with dimexide- imosdynit was investigated in experiment. High efficacy of imosdynit in the treatment of clostridial and non-clostridial anaerobic infection, caused by Klebsiella, was established. Proteus and blue pus bacillus are nonsensitive to imosdynit. Preparation was applied in 56 patients with purulent peritonitis. The frequency of wounds suppuration reduced by 2.4 times. PMID:10077942

Bieliaieva, O O; Shevchenko, Iu M

1998-01-01

32

Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

2014-01-01

33

Specific character of anaerobic bacterial infections in patients treated in transplantation wards at one of the clinical hospitals in Warsaw.  

PubMed

Immunocompromised patients and patients undergoing invasive procedures are predisposed to bacterial infections, due to the possibility of micro-organism translocation from their physiological habitat. Infectious complications may occur both in the early and late post-transplantation periods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion as well as susceptibility profiles of obligatory anaerobes in the etiology of infections in patients hospitalized at transplantation wards of a large clinical hospital in Warsaw. A total of 104 strains of obligatory anaerobes derived from patients hospitalized in two transplantation clinics at a clinical hospital in Warsaw were evaluated. The strains were isolated from 87 clinical samples collected from 84 patients of two transplantation wards between 2007 and 2012. A total of 104 obligatory anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated and identified, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria constituting 60.6% and 39.4% of the isolates, respectively. Almost exclusively non-spore-forming anaerobes were detected in evaluated samples. The present study showed all isolated Gram-positive bacteria to be susceptible to ß-lactam antibiotics. Metronidazole-resistant bacteria were found among the genera Propionibacterium and Actinomyces. All Gram-negative rods were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. Among them, Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis showed resistance to penicillin G (100%). Because of their pathogenicity and altered antibiotic susceptibility profiles, the bacteria of the genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides are of greatest clinical importance. Approximately 25% of isolates exhibit also resistance to clindamycin. Because of the growing rates of clindamycin resistance, the role of metronidazole in the treatment of Bacteroides spp. is of increasing importance. PMID:25380872

Kierzkowska, M; Majewska, A; Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Mlynarczyk, A; Chmura, A; Durlik, M; Deborska-Materkowska, D; Paczek, L; Mlynarczyk, G

2014-10-01

34

Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases.  

PubMed

Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus) through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives. PMID:23662083

Brown, Ronald S; Jones, Robert; Feimster, Tawana; Sam, Frances E

2010-01-01

35

Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus) through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives. PMID:23662083

Brown, Ronald S; Jones, Robert; Feimster, Tawana; Sam, Frances E

2010-01-01

36

Malignant odontogenic tumors: an update on selected tumors.  

PubMed

This is an update on selected odontogenic malignancies. The article deals with aspects of recognized odontogenic carcinomas, odontogenic sarcoma and a yet unrecognized entity, sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma. Odontogenic malignancies are exceedingly rare, complicating a thorough understanding of the biologic behavior, reproducible standardized diagnostic criteria, appropriate classification and clinical management. Without the knowledge of the tumor's biologic behavior, adequate clinical management is difficult and patient outcomes uncertain. The histopathologic features are emphasized as well as the more recent biomarker findings. These recent advances may facilitate further understanding of this group of malignancies and provide useful stratification to guide patient management. PMID:25409848

Richardson, Mary S; Muller, Susan

2014-12-01

37

Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence. PMID:24701462

Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

2014-01-01

38

An aggressive odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a relatively rare benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin. OM is more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. It is an asymptomatic lesion that shows an infiltrative growth pattern. When the maxillary sinus is involved, it often fills the entire antrum. Odontogenic tumors are uncommon in the maxillary molar area, which often leads to diagnostic dilemma as this region of the maxilla is in the vicinity of vital structures, and radiographic overlapping of structures is always present. We present a similar case of a 17-year-old male patient who reported with a swelling in the left maxilla that infiltrated the maxillary sinus in a short duration of time. PMID:25565756

Kiresur, Mohammad Asif; Hemavathy, Sathyavanthan

2014-10-01

39

An aggressive odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a relatively rare benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin. OM is more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. It is an asymptomatic lesion that shows an infiltrative growth pattern. When the maxillary sinus is involved, it often fills the entire antrum. Odontogenic tumors are uncommon in the maxillary molar area, which often leads to diagnostic dilemma as this region of the maxilla is in the vicinity of vital structures, and radiographic overlapping of structures is always present. We present a similar case of a 17-year-old male patient who reported with a swelling in the left maxilla that infiltrated the maxillary sinus in a short duration of time.

Kiresur, Mohammad Asif; Hemavathy, Sathyavanthan

2014-01-01

40

Orofacial and Odontogenic Infections in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing retention of teeth into advanced age places the present cohort of older people at greater risk for serious\\u000a dental disease than previous cohorts. With advancing age, older individuals go to the doctor more but to the dentist less.\\u000a Therefore, physicians caring for older patients need to be aware of common oral diseases in order to suitably advise patients

Kenneth Shay

41

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2011-01-01

42

Myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies to facilitate communication between medical and dental staff: lessons from two cases experienced odontogenic septicemia  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic diseases can be a risk factor for life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy that induces myelosuppression of variable severity. Previous studies noted the necessity of the elimination of all odontogenic foci before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To enable planning for the adequate dental intervention, the oral medicine team must understand the general status of patient and the intensity of the chemotherapy, which is sometimes difficult to be fully appreciated by dental staff. Therefore, a simplified grading would facilitate the sharing of information between hematologists, dentists and oral hygienists. This study aimed to introduce our myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies and analyze the timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection. Methods 37 patients having received various chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimens were classified into four grades based on the persistency of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy. Mild myelosuppressive chemotherapies were classified as grade A, moderate ones as grade B, severe ones as grade C, and chemotherapies that caused severe myelosuppression and persistent immunodeficiency (known as conditioning regimens for transplant) as grade D. The timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection was retrospectively investigated. Results Two patients (5.4%) had severe odontogenic infections after grade B or C chemotherapy. One occurred after extraction of non-salvageable teeth; the other resulted from advanced periodontitis in a tooth that could not be extracted because of thrombocytopenia. Both were de novo hematologic malignancy patients. During grade D chemotherapy, no patients had severe odontogenic infections. Conclusions The simplified grading introduced in this study is considered a useful tool for understanding the myelosuppressive state caused by chemotherapy and facilitating communication between medical and dental staff. During the period around the primary chemotherapy, especially for de novo hematologic malignancy patients who often received grade B to C myelosuppression chemotherapy, caution should be exercised for severe odontogenic infection by the oral medicine team, irrespective of whether invasive treatment is to be performed. PMID:23957921

2013-01-01

43

Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

44

CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions.

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

2014-01-01

45

Cell proliferation markers in the odontogenic keratocyst: effect of inflammation.  

PubMed

The immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and Ki-67 proteins and the histochemical expression of AgNORs were studied in 20 odontogenic keratocysts in order to assess the relationship between epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation within the capsule. Immunostained cells were quantified by conventional methods, and both quantitative and morphometric analyses of AgNORs were performed by TV image analysis. Non-inflamed odontogenic keratocysts showed a typical epithelial lining and inflamed odontogenic keratocysts were lined also by hyperplastic non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. A statistically significant increase of PCNA+ and Ki-67+ cells and of AgNOR numbers was detected in the linings of inflamed odontogenic keratocysts compared to non-inflamed lesions. The results suggest the existence of greater proliferative activity in the epithelial cells of inflamed odontogenic keratocysts, which may be associated with the disruption of the typical structure of odontogenic keratocyst linings. PMID:11048963

de Paula, A M; Carvalhais, J N; Domingues, M G; Barreto, D C; Mesquita, R A

2000-11-01

46

In Vitro Activities of Moxifloxacin against 900 Aerobic and Anaerobic Surgical Isolates from Patients with Intra-Abdominal and Diabetic Foot Infections  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 900 surgical isolates were determined using NCCLS testing methods. Moxifloxacin exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial activity against most aerobic (90.8%) and anaerobic (97.1%) microorganisms, suggesting that it may be effective for the treatment of polymicrobial surgical infections. PMID:14982797

Edmiston, Charles E.; Krepel, Candace J.; Seabrook, Gary R.; Somberg, Lewis R.; Nakeeb, Atilla; Cambria, Robert A.; Towne, Jonathan B.

2004-01-01

47

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-09-01

48

Classification of odontogenic tumours. A historical review.  

PubMed

Using the term odontome for any tumour arising from the dental formative tissues, Broca suggested a classification of odontogenic tumours (OTs) in 1869. From 1888 to 1914, Bland-Sutton and Gabell, James and Payne modified tumour terminology, while maintaining Broca's odontome concept. Thoma and Goldman's classification (1946) divided the OTs into tumours of ectodermal, mesodermal and mixed origin and abolished the general term odontome. The Pindborg and Clausen classification (1958) based on the idea that the reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions were also operating in the pathogenesis of OTs. In 1966, WHO established a Collaborating Centre for the Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumours and Allied Lesions (including jaw cysts) headed by Dr Jens Pindborg. In 1971, the first authoritative WHO guide to the classification of OTs and cysts appeared followed in 1992 by a second edition. In 2002, Philipsen and Reichart produced a revision of the 1992-edition and in 2003, the editors of the WHO Blue Book series: 'WHO Classification of Tumours' decided to produce a volume on the Head and Neck Tumours including a chapter on Odontogenic Tumours and Bone Related Lesions. In July of 2005 this volume was published by IARC, Lyon. PMID:16968232

Philipsen, Hans Peter; Reichart, Peter A

2006-10-01

49

Evaluation of bacterial spectrum of orofacial infections and their antibiotic susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The inappropriate use of antibiotics has contributed to a worldwide problem of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of present study is to assess the most common microorganisms causing orofacial infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility to routinely used antibiotics in this part of India. Materials and Methods: Sixty eight patients with orofacial infection were selected on the basis of a series of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples were collected under aseptic conditions and subjected to culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Descriptive statistics were provided. Results: A total of 64 aerobic and 87 anaerobic strains were isolated. The predominant bacteria were Streptococci viridans (64%), Prevotella (43%), Peptostreptococcus (26%), Porphyromonas (7%), and Fusobacterium (14%). The isolated strains seemed to be highly sensitive to the routinely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin – clavulanate and amoxicillin alone, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. In contrast, more resistance to erythromycin was observed. Conclusion: Amoxicillin still possesses powerful antimicrobial activity against major pathogens in orofacial odontogenic infections. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and clindamycin would also be advocated as being useful alternatives for the management of severe orofacial infections. However, the findings of this study indicate that erythromycin is of questionable benefit in the treatment of severe orofacial odontogenic infections. PMID:23482901

Chunduri, Nagendra S.; Madasu, Krishnaveni; Goteki, Venkateswara R.; Karpe, Tanveer; Reddy, Haranadha

2012-01-01

50

Non-Syndromic Multiple Odontogenic Keratocyst: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a common developmental odontogenic cyst affecting the maxillofacial region. Multiple OKCs are usually seen in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) but approximately 5% of patients with OKC have multiple cysts without concomitant syndromic presentation. This report represents a case of multiple OKCs in a non-syndromic patient PMID:24724137

Kargahi, N; Kalantari, M

2013-01-01

51

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

2002-01-01

52

Capacity of anaerobic bacteria from necrotic dental pulps to induce purulent infections.  

PubMed Central

Combinations of bacteria isolated from the root canals of teeth with necrotic pulps and periapical bone destruction were tested for their capacity to induce abscess formation and transmissible infections when inoculated subcutaneously into guinea pigs. Transmissible infections could be induced with combinations obtained from teeth with purulent apical inflammation, but not with combinations from symptomless teeth with chronic apical inflammation. All combinations which gave transmissible infections contained strains of Bacteroides melaninogenicus or B. asaccharolyticus (formerly B. melaninogenicus subsp. asaccharolyticus). The results suggest that purulent inflammation in the apical region in certain cases may be induced by specific combinations of bacteria in the root canal and that the presence of B. melaninogenicus or B. asaccharolyticus in such combinations is essential. However, with one exception, the strains needed the support of additional microorganisms to achieve pathogenicity. The results indicate that Peptostreptococcus micros was also essential. Histological sections of the lesions in the guinea pigs showed that all bacterial combinations induced acute inflammation with an accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the formation of an abscess. However, the presence of B. melaninogenicus or B. asaccharolyticus in the combinations resulted in a failure of abscess resolution, with a gradually increaseing accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Images PMID:489126

Sundqvist, G K; Eckerbom, M I; Larsson, A P; Sjögren, U T

1979-01-01

53

A case of cutaneous odontogenic sinus.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin are well documented, the condition is still commonly misdiagnosed, because chronic periapical periodontitis may be asymptomatic and is rarely open to the skin. A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented to our clinic with the chief complaint of a left cheek skin lesion with mild pain. Physical examination revealed a subcutaneous nodule covered with erythematous skin on her left buccal region. Cultures from the subcutaneous nodule grew Bacteroides species and Peptostreptococcus micros but did not yield acid-fast bacilli, fungi, or Actinomyces. Stains of smeared pus showed a considerable number of Gram-negative rods. The histopathological examination revealed a focal abscess formation in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Dental evaluation, including an orthopantogram, showed a radiolucent alveolar area at the left lower first molar apex, suggesting a periapical abscess. Antibiotic therapy for three weeks associated with surgical root canal therapy eliminated the subcutaneous nodule. A high degree of suspicion is required to correctly diagnose a lower facial lesion as being of odontogenic origin, and prompt dental evaluation should be considered. PMID:16361742

Yasui, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Michiya; Ichimiya, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Hamamoto, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masahiko

2005-10-01

54

Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

2014-01-01

55

Keratin metaplasia in the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find the prevalence of keratin metaplasia and its relation with clinico-pathological profile of the odontogenic cyst. Materials and Methods: Odontogenic cysts were studied histologically with special stains to identify the presence of keratin and compared with various parameters such as underlying connective tissue inflammation, average epithelial thickness, and site of the cyst, type of the cyst, age and the sex of the patient. Results: Of 71 cases of various odontogenic cysts, 26 (36.6%) cases exhibited keratinization in the epithelial lining. In cysts with severe inflammation there is absence of keratinization. Conclusions: This study reveals higher prevalence of keratin metaplasia in the odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, inflammation is found to be one of factor influencing keratin metaplasia. PMID:25210349

Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Ramesh, Venkatapathy; Oza, Nirima; Panda, Abikshyeet; Balamurali, P. D.

2014-01-01

56

Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM  

E-print Network

to aerobic metabolsm. This said, it is not uncommon to hear microbiologists talk about anaerobic respiration it for respiration. However, in many animals anaerobic metabolism may occur even when there are large amounts of O2Anaerobic Metabolism 1 ANAEROBIC METABOLISM 1 Introduction About the Next Three Sets of Class Notes

Prestwich, Ken

57

Botryoid Odontogenic Cyst: A Diagnostic Chaos  

PubMed Central

Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics. PMID:25654045

U, Urmila; Srinivas G, Vijay; Deviramisetty, Sabitha; HK, Puneeth

2014-01-01

58

Presentation of a keratocystic odontogenic tumor with agenesis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We analyzed the etiopathogenetic, clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, particularly in association with dental anomalies of number, with the aim of providing useful information for their correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. Case presentation A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented for observation of bilateral agenesis of the upper incisors, which was diagnosed by orthopantomography. Approximately one year after starting orthodontic treatment, the patient went to the emergency department because of a phlegmonous tumefaction of the lateroposterior upper left maxillary region. Diagnostic orthopantomography and axial computed tomography scan results of the facial skeleton revealed a large lesion occupying the left maxillary sinus, rhizolysis of dental elements 26 and 27, and dislocation of dental element 28. The lesion and infected sinus mucosa were removed through surgical antral-cystectomy with the Caldwell-Luc approach. Histological examination of the lesion confirmed the suspected diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The 12-month follow-up orthopantomography and computed tomography scan results showed good trabecular bone formation in the lesion area. The 24-month follow-up results showed optimal healing in the area of the lesion, positive pulp vitality tests for teeth 26 and 27, and good periodontal tissue healing, as verified through periodontal probing. Conclusions Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. More likely, they are caused by related environmental factors. Management of this case required the multidisciplinary collaboration of different specializations and careful planning to devise a correct therapeutic protocol and reach a favorable prognosis. PMID:24716509

2014-01-01

59

Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues.  

PubMed

This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The separate developmental origin of the exo- and endoskeletons. 4. The neural-crest origin of cranial skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 5. The neural-crest origin of trunk dermal skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 6. The developmental processes that control differentiation of skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues in extant vertebrates. 7. Maintenance of developmental interactions regulating skeletogenic/odontogenic differentiation across vertebrate taxa. We derive twelve postulates, eight relating to the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues and four relating to the development of these tissues in extant vertebrates and extrapolate the developmental data back to the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. The conclusions that we draw from this analysis are as follows. 8. The dermal exoskeleton of thelodonts, heterostracans and osteostracans consisted of dentine, attachment tissue (cement or bone), and bone. 9. Cartilage (unmineralized) can be inferred to have been present in heterostracans and osteostracans, and globular mineralized cartilage was present in Eriptychius, an early Middle Ordovician vertebrate unassigned to any established group, but assumed to be a stem agnathan. 10. Enamel and possibly also enameloid was present in some early agnathans of uncertain affinities. The majority of dentine tubercles were bare. 11. The contemporaneous appearance of cellular and acellular bone in heterostracans and osteostracans during the Ordovician provides no clue as to whether one is more primitive than the other. 12. We interpret aspidin as being developmentally related to the odontogenic attachment tissues, either closer to dentine or a form of cement, rather than as derived from bone. 13. Dentine is present in the stratigraphically oldest (Cambrian) assumed vertebrate fossils, at present some only included as Problematica, and is cladistically primitive, relative to bone. 14. The first vertebrate exoskeletal skeletogenic ability was expressed as denticles of dentine. 15. Dentine, the bone of attachment associated with dentine, the basal bone to which dermal denticles are fused and cartilage of the Ordovician agnathan dermal exoskeleton were all derived from the neural crest and not from mesoderm. Therefore the earliest vertebrate skeletogenic/odontogenic tissues were of neural-crest origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205303

Smith, M M; Hall, B K

1990-08-01

60

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: correlation of MRI with histopathological findings.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a rare benign and odontogenic tumor that is frequently misdiagnosed as other odontogenic cysts and tumors on radiographic examination. To acquire additional information of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, we performed magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) at a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. The lesion was divided between the peripheral portion with a thick circular shape and the central portion with a round shape on the basis of the signal intensity (SI) of MRI. The peripheral portion showed intermediate SI contained multifocal no SI on T1WI, high SI contained multifocal no SI on T2WI, and heterogeneous enhancement on CE-T1WI. These multifocal areas corresponded to the numerous punctate radiopaque foci shown on computed tomography. The central portion showed homogeneous low SI on T1WI, homogeneous very high SI on T2WI, and no enhancement on CE-T1WI. Macroscopic examination revealed the round shaped lesion included one large cystic space correspondent to the central portion with a clear cystic wall correspondent to the peripheral portion on MRI. The MRI features corresponded to the macroscopic findings of the histopathological examination. PMID:12350405

Konouchi, Hironobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Hisatomi, Miki; Kishi, Kanji

2002-10-01

61

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst of the mandible: A rare case report with a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst was initially termed as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst by the World Health Organization. It usually occurs in mandible. Various studies have shown that OOC has typical characteristic clinicopathologic features when compared to other developmental odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cyst and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Rare recurrence was noted after surgical removal of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to present a case of OOC arising in the posterior mandible and emphasize on differentiating it from the KCOT and dentigerous cyst. PMID:24818100

Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Vadera, Hitesh; Sharma, Vimal; Bhad, Kaustubh; Patel, Zinal; Thakkar, Mimansa

2014-01-01

62

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla possibly arising from an infected residual cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare type of odontogenic carcinoma arising from the jawbone. Odontogenic cysts are true cysts that arise from the dental epithelium, which is associated with tooth formation. The epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts has the potential to transform into various types of odontogenic tumor; however, this transformation from an odontogenic cyst to a malignant tumor is rare. The definitive diagnosis for PIOSCC generally requires the observation of either features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within the jawbone that are distinct from direct invasion from the surface oral epithelium, or evidence of SCC arising from odontogenic epithelium and from tumors that have metastasized to the jawbone from distant sites. In the present study, a case of PIOSCC of the maxilla is presented, which, based on the results of computed tomography and the clinical course, was hypothesized to have originated from an infected residual cyst. PMID:25435946

SUKEGAWA, SHINTARO; MATSUZAKI, HIDENOBU; KATASE, NAOKI; KANNO, TAKAHIRO; MANDAI, TOSHIKO; TAKAHASHI, YUKA; ASAUMI, JUN-ICHI; FURUKI, YOSHIHIKO

2015-01-01

63

Solid variant of keratocystic odontogenic tumour: report of a case.  

PubMed

This case report presents a solid variant of keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT), a benign uni- or multicystic intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin, with a characteristic lining of parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and potential inflammatory infiltrate. A 52-year old female patient discovered occasionally, in an orthopantomography done for other reasons, the presence of a radiolucent lesion. A 2-3 cm wide lesion with well-demarcated margins was present in the premolar region of the left hemimandible. Under local anesthesia a biopsy was done and the diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst was confirmed by histopathological examination. Under general anesthesia, the lesion was easily shelled-out and completely enucleated. The lesion had not recurred after a 6 years follow-up. The occurrence of a solid variant of KCOT could strengthen the hypothesis of a neoplastic rather than cystic nature of this lesion. PMID:21270739

Iezzi, G; Rubini, C; Zizzi, A; Aspriello, S D; Fioroni, M; Piattelli, A

2011-03-01

64

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation. PMID:21062939

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

65

Controlled clinical laboratory comparison of two supplemented aerobic and anaerobic media used in automated blood culture systems to detect bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

A 20-ml blood sample was collected from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections and distributed equally into the four volume-controlled bottles of a blood culture set consisting of aerobic and anaerobic BACTEC Plus/F bottles and aerobic and anaerobic BacT/Alert FAN bottles. All bottles were incubated in their respective instruments for a standard 5-day protocol or until the instruments signalled positivity. Samples in all bottles with negative results by these instruments were terminally subcultured. A total of 8,390 blood culture sets were obtained during the study period, of which 4,402 (52.5%) met the study criteria. Of these, 946 (21.5%) were positive either by instrument signal or by additional terminal subculture of all negative bottles and yielded growth of microorganisms. Five hundred eighty-nine (13.4%) blood culture sets were considered to have recovered 663 clinically significant organisms. When both the BACTEC and the BacT/Alert systems were used, 465 positive sets were detected; BACTEC alone detected 52 positive sets and BacT/Alert alone detected 72 (P = 0.09). No differences were found between the two systems in microbial recovery rate from blood cultures obtained from patients on antibiotic therapy. Significantly more members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.01) were detected from patients without antimicrobial therapy by BacT/Alert than by BACTEC. The false-negative rates were 0.20% for BACTEC and 0.32% for BacT/Alert. A significantly higher false-positive rate was found for BACTEC (P < 0.0001). Both systems were comparable for the time to detection of microorganisms. However, gram-positive bacteria were detected faster by BACTEC and Enterobacteriaceae were detected faster on average by BacT/Alert. We concluded that both systems are comparable in their abilities to recover aerobic and anaerobic organisms from blood cultures and a terminal subculture might not be necessary for either of the two systems. The increased positivity rate when using an anaerobic bottle in a two-bottle blood culture set is due to the additional blood volume rather than to the use of an anaerobic medium. PMID:9508291

Ziegler, R; Johnscher, I; Martus, P; Lenhardt, D; Just, H M

1998-03-01

66

Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. Case Report The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Conclusions Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision. PMID:25566331

Kornafel, Olga; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Pakulski, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

67

A Clinicopathological Study of Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors in Hamadan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Statement of the Problem: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most frequent osseous destructive lesions of the jaws; however, there is little information regarding the relative frequency of these lesions among the Iranian population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of clinically and histologically- diagnosed odontogenic cysts and tumors during a period of 13 years in Hamadan, and also its correlation with age, gender, and the site of the lesion. Materials and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 413 oral and maxillofacial specimens during 1996 to 2008.The age and the gender of patients, as well as the site of lesion were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Totally, 70 specimens were recorded as odontogenic cysts and 11 specimens were diagnosed as odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cysts (27.2%), followed by radicular cysts (18.6%) and odontogenic keratocysts (18.6%). In addition, cysts were more frequent in male than female individuals. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (64%). Conclusion: Odontogenic cysts were in correlation with age, gender and location. These results showed that dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst were more frequent than other studies. More investigations should be performed to determine the frequency of odontogenic tumors in Iran. PMID:25469355

Baghaei, Fahimeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Najmi, Hamidreza; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2014-01-01

68

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumours are known for their peculiar behaviour, varied origin, debated development, unique tendency to recur and disputed treatment modalities. Thus, it has been the subject of much research over the last 40?years. It was formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). OKC received its new title as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by the WHO (2005) in order to suggest its aggressive and recurrent nature. KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of an 11-year-old child with extensive KCOT and an impacted canine in the right maxillary sinus. The cyst was initially misdiagnosed to be a dentigerous cyst based on the clinical and radiographic features though a differential diagnosis of KCOT and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The histological examination of the specimen finally confirmed it to be a KCOT. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour along with its surgical management have been discussed. PMID:23429028

Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish; Barua, Pranamee; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

69

Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst: A Report of Three Clinical Cases  

PubMed Central

The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Surgery is the usual treatment, and recurrence or association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been described. In this report, we presented three cases of this pathology, and we review the principal clinical, histological, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Case 1. A 73-year-old female presents with a slight swelling on the right mandible, associated with an unilocular well-defined radiolucent lesion. Case 2. A 27-year-old female presents with a painful mandibular swelling associated with an unilocular radiolucent lesion posterior to the 4.8. Case 3. A 61-year-old male was casually detected presents with an unilocular radiolucent lesion distal to the 4.8. Conclusion. The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a completely different biological behaviour. PMID:24191203

González Galván, María del Carmen; García-García, Abel; Anitua-Aldecoa, Eduardo; Martinez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel

2013-01-01

70

Odontogenic osteomyelitis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of mandible of patient with autoimmune disease: clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

The key to appropriate treatment of odontogenic osteomyelitis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the mandible in patients with autoimmune diseases lies in making the correct diagnosis based on meticulous review of signs and symptoms. As this complex case involving a patient with multiple comorbidities illustrates, diagnosis can be difficult, because these conditions may overlap or be mistaken for other conditions. However, prompt treatment is essential to limit the progression, which can be devastating for these medically complex patients. It is, therefore, important to understand local and systemic conditions that can weaken the immune system and predispose patients to chronic bone infection, meticulously go through signs and symptoms, and have a complete medical history, including patient medications. PMID:23631533

Tolstunov, Len; Cox, Darren; Javid, Bahram

2012-01-01

71

p53 expression in odontogenic keratocyst epithelium.  

PubMed

The expression of p53 protein was studied in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC, 11 solitary, 5 recurrent and 6 NBCCS cysts), radicular (RC, n = 5) and dentigerous (DC, n = 5) cysts, using a panel of antibodies to p53 (clone BP53-12, clone 1801 and polyclonal CM1) and a sensitive biotin-streptavidin method on paraffin embedded sections. Of the three antibodies tested, clone BP53-12 gave the most intense and consistent nuclear staining pattern. Clone 1801 and polyclonal CM1 stained only 38% and 71% OKC linings, respectively, but not RC and DC linings. However, BP53-12+ cells were detected in the epithelial linings of all cyst types. Quantification of BP53-12+ cells was performed by manual counting and by relating cell number to unit length of basement membrane as determined by TV image analysis. BP53-12+ cell counts in solitary OKC linings (25.5 +/- 11.0 cells/mmBM) were significantly greater than those in DC (9.3 +/- 4.9 cells/mmBM, P < 0.01) and RC (6.7 +/- 2.6 cells/mmBM, P < 0.01) linings. The epithelial distribution of positive cells in OKC was predominantly suprabasal, which also varied from that of DC and RC linings (P < 0.005). There were no detectable differences in BP53-12 reactivity between the different subtypes of OKC (i.e., solitary, recurrent and NBCCS-associated OKC; P > 0.1). When data for the NBCCS-related OKC group were excluded, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) between p53 and Ki67 labelling. To detect the presence of p53 gene mutations, genomic DNA, extracted from paraffin sections of OKC (4 solitary, 2 recurrent and 4 NBCCS cysts), RC (n = 3) and normal oral mucosa (n = 1), was subjected to a combination of polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis for exons 5-10 of the p53 gene. Exon 4 was not analysed because of compromised DNA quality. No abnormality in banding patterns was found and all samples gave results similar to DNA from known, sequenced, normal p53 gene controls. Absence of p53 mutations within exons 5-9 was confirmed by the direct sequencing of 2 fresh frozen OKC samples (1 solitary and 1 NBCCS cyst). These results suggest that overexpression of p53 protein in OKC epithelium, detected by immunocytochemistry, is not reflected by alteration of the p53 gene and presumably reflects overproduction and/or stabilisation of normal p53 protein. PMID:8835823

Li, T J; Browne, R M; Prime, S S; Paterson, I C; Matthews, J B

1996-05-01

72

Surgical management of peripheral variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A rare case report with review  

PubMed Central

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion constituting around 3% of all odontogenic tumours and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It manifests as a beningn growth which affects young individuals, with a female predeliction usually in the second decade of life, exhibiting more often in the anterior region of maxilla. The current article enumerates the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of a rare case of extraosseous AOT with its therapeutic consideration

Jindwani, Karuna; Paharia, Y. K.; Kushwah, Atul Pratap Singh

2015-01-01

73

Immunohistochemical Expression of PCNA in Epithelial Linings of Selected Odontogenic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Aim: Though odontogenic lesions have in common origin from the primitive odontogenic epithelium , there is a diversity in their initiation behavior and growth. The aggressive nature of odontogenic keratocyst similar to ameloblastoma in comparision with the other common odontogenic (dentigerous and radicular) cyst could be due to possible differences in their epithelial linings. PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen) is a cell cycle related antigen, used in the study of cell kinetics of these epithelial linings, to corelate the biological behaviour among these common odontogenic lesions. Objectives: This paper has intended to study the cell kinetics of 4 selected odontogenic lesions (dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst,odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma) to demonstrate differences in their epithelial linings. Material and Methods: Sixty samples of paraffin embedded tissue specimens (archival tissues) were included (15 radicularcysts, 15 odontogenic keratocysts; 15 dentigerous cysts and15 Ameloblastoma. Results: Among cyst OKC had higher values than DC and RC. When staining results of all the cyst were compared individually with ameloblastoma ,the staining results of OKC was similar to ameloblastoma ,and ameloblastoma presented higher values than OKC (p=0.000). Conclusion: The results of this study show 1) Though OKC and DC are developmental in origin and radicular cyst is inflammatory, OKC has intrinsic growth potential among these cyst 2). Ameloblastoma has similar proliferative potential as OKC and hence it has been reinforced as KCOT(Keratocystic odontogenic tumour) in the recent classification. PMID:24392421

Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Ranganathan, Kannan; T., Rooban; Roa K., Uma Devi; Joshua, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Afroz Syed; Chittamsetty, Harika

2013-01-01

74

MIB-1 expression in odontogenic epithelial rests, epithelium of healthy oral mucosa and epithelium of selected odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the proliferative potential of rests of odontogenic epithelium found in follicles of unerupted teeth, epithelium of oral mucosa and epithelial linings of various odontogenic cysts. MIB-1 expression was studied in the rests of odontogenic epithelium (n=10), healthy oral mucosa (n=10), odontogenic keratocysts (n=10) and other odontogenic cysts (n=10) using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique on paraffin sections. The number of positively stained cells was counted on 10 representative areas of epithelium using a x40 objective. The average number of MIB-1 positive cells in each group was calculated. No MIB-1 positive cells were seen in the rests of odontogenic epithelium. The mean numbers of MIB-1 positive cells detected within the epithelium of oral mucosa, and of radicular and dentigerous cysts were similar. The number of MIB-1 positive cells was found to be increased in the presence of marked inflammatory cell infiltration. The highest number of MIB-1 positive cells was seen in the keratocysts. These findings suggest that removal of an unerupted tooth to prevent the possibility of neoplastic transformation of rests of odontogenic epithelium is not a justifiable rationale. PMID:16053855

Saraço?lu, U; Kurt, B; Günhan, O; Güven, O

2005-06-01

75

[Differential radiodiagnosis of odontogenic mandibular osteomyelitis accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the results of radiation examination in 43 patients with clinical manifestations of mandibular osteomyelitis. In 13 of them, the disease was accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy. The radiation semiotics of the changes occurring in the mandibular bone and its adjacent soft tissues in different phases of osteomyelitis is described. Comparative analysis of orthopantomograms and the images obtained by multislice spiral computed tomography has revealed the advantage of the latter in identifying insignificant changes in bone tissue and damages to the mandibular canal. Ultrasound study is of more informative value in detecting soft tissue changes in this area. High-technology radiodiagnostic techniques play a leading role in the differentiation of odontogenic and non-odontogenic trigeminal neuropathies. PMID:22288124

Solonskaia, N S; Zorina, I S

2011-01-01

76

Odontogenic myxoma of the face: mimicry of cherubism.  

PubMed

The present study is a case report of a 3-year-old girl who was referred to our clinic with the clinical features of cherubism. A locally aggressive tumor was diffusely infiltrating the maxilla and mandible. At 4 years after resection, our patient has not demonstrated any signs of recurrence, which might point to a role for adjunctive chemotherapy, in this case imatinib (Gleevec), for odontogenic myxoma. PMID:25200927

Kleiber, Grant M; Skapek, Stephen X; Lingen, Mark; Reid, Russell R

2014-11-01

77

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor (CGCOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm reported with various terms and is not included in the 2005 WHO classification of odontogenic tumors. It shows a predilection for middle-aged women, usually presenting as an asymptomatic swelling of the mandibular premolar-molar region. Radiographic manifestations include unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion, but mixed density lesions can also occur. Histopathology shows sheets and lobules of round to polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and eccentrically placed nuclei. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features suggest the histiocytic origin of granular cells. The neoplasm does not exhibit an aggressive biological behavior and hence enucleation or curettage ensuring complete removal remains the treatment of choice. We present a systematic review on clinical, radiological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspect of CGCOT. Published articles were identified through a literature search using online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus) and cross-references for papers published from the year 1950 to March 2013. From a total of 37 papers, 26 (38 cases) were extracted from the database for systematic review. PMID:23668324

Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Vaidya, Kedar

2014-03-01

78

Immediate implants after enucleation of an odontogenic keratocyst: an early return to function.  

PubMed

An odontogenic keratocyst is a unique cyst because of its locally aggressive behavior, high recurrence rate, and characteristic histologic appearance. In this article we present the case of a 22-year-old male patient with a large odontogenic keratocyst and describe his treatment with immediate dental implants. PMID:21073299

Isler, Sabri C; Demircan, Sabit; Can, Taylan; Cebi, Zerrin; Baca, Emrah

2012-09-01

79

Co-expression of hepatocyte growth factor and c-met in epithelial odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, motility and morphology in a variety of cell types. A significant role of the HGF/c-met pathway has been demonstrated in various tumors, however, little is known about the role of HGF/c-met pathway in odontogenic tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of HGF and c-met in 30 ameloblastomas, 7 unicystic ameloblastomas (luminal type), 10 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors, 10 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs), 30 keratocytic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and 6 ameloblastic carcinomas using an immunohistochemical method. HGF and c-met were generally immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of all epithelial tumor cells, except for keratinizing cells in acanthomatous ameloblastoma, in all the examined odontogenic tumors. These results, together with the expression of these two proteins in the epithelium of tooth germs, suggest that the HGF/c-met pathway is involved in the differentiation of odontogenic tumors. This pathway may also promote tumor proliferation in odontogenic tumors due to its potent mitogenic effect. The consistent and strong immunolocalization of HGF and c-met in squamous cells present in acanthomatous ameloblastomas, AOTs and ameloblastic carcinomas, and in the linings of KCOTs suggests that the HGF/c-met interaction may have an influence on squamous differentiation in these odontogenic tumors. PMID:21855117

Poomsawat, Sopee; Punyasingh, Jirapa; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol

2012-07-01

80

Salvage of an impacted canine associated with an adenomatoid odontogenic tumour: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) has been known by a number of descriptive names (adenoameloblastoma, ameloblastic adenomatoid tumour, glandular ameloblastoma, and adenomatoid ameloblastoma) since it was first reported and later recognised as a distinct odontogenic lesion unrelated to ameloblastoma. Although it was considered to be a variant of ameloblastoma at one time leading surgeons to perform unduly aggressive surgery, the

H A Shafeie; T Azizi; M H K Motamedi

2005-01-01

81

Odontogenic myxoma in a 52-year-old woman.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumour of the jaws. It is usually seen in the second to third decade of life. Women are more frequently affected than men and it has more predilections for the mandible rather than the maxilla. OM presents as an asymptomatic swelling in most of the cases. Owing to the non-capsulated and aggressive nature of OM, a high rate of recurrence has been reported. Here we present a case of OM in a 52-year-old woman managed by segmental mandibulectomy. Sign of recurrence was seen after 18?months of follow-up. PMID:24859552

Ram, Hari; Mehta, Gagan; Kumar, Manoj; Lone, Parveen

2014-01-01

82

Anaerobic bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with oral mucositis.  

PubMed

An increasing number of anaerobic bloodstream infections in neutropenic cancer patients have been reported in the last decade. The type of anaerobes isolated from most of these patients suggests an oral source of infection. We describe a case of anaerobic bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with oral mucositis that highlights the importance of considering these organisms when selecting empiric prophylactic or therapeutic antimicrobial regimens, especially in the setting of periodontal disease or oral mucositis. PMID:10746831

Vidal, A M; Sarria, J C; Kimbrough, R C; Keung, Y K

2000-03-01

83

[The role of non-clostridial anaerobic infections in the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses].  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of clinical and bacteriological examinations of 116 patients with suppurative rhinosinusitis. Bacteriological tests under anaerobic conditions revealed in 53% of the patients nonclostridium anaerobic bacteria that were highly resistant to most antibiotics and sensitive to metronidazole and its derivatives. A protocol of conservative therapy of suppurative rhinosinusitis was developed. The protocol included etiotrophic antianaerobic drugs (metronidazole and its derivatives) and oxygenation of paranasal sinuses. This therapeutic approach yielded positive effects in 92% of the patients. PMID:2382330

Mirazizov, K D; Va?man, M A; Bussel', L G; Bazhenov, L G; Iskhakova, Kh I; Mukhamedzhanov, N Z

1990-01-01

84

Comparative In Vitro Activities of ABT-773 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Animal and Human Bite Wound Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773, a new ketolide, against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic recent isolates from clinical bites using an agar dilution method and inocula of 104 CFU\\/spot for aerobes and 105 CFU for anaerobes. The following are the MIC ranges and MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of ABT-773 for various

ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN; DIANE M. CITRON; C. VRENI MERRIAM; YUMI WARREN; KERIN TYRRELL

2000-01-01

85

Differential expression of Cyclin D1 in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts  

PubMed Central

Objetives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression levels of Cyclin D1 (CCD1), a nuclear protein that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts. Study Design: A total of 58 keratin-producing odontogenic cysts, diagnosed over ten years and classified according to the WHO 2005 criteria, were immunohistochemically analyzed in terms of CCD1 expression, which was quantified in the basal, suprabasal and intermediate/superficial epithelial compartments. The extent of immunostaining was measured as a proportion of total epithelial thickness. Quantified immunohistochemical data were correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical recurrence. Results: Keratin-producing odontogenic cysts were classified as 6 syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (S-KCOT), 40 sporadic or non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOT) and 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). Immunohistochemically, CCD1 staining was evident predominantly in the parabasal region of all cystic lesions, but among-lesion differences were apparent, showing a clear expansion of parabasal compartment especially in the S-KCOT, followed to a lesser extent in the NS-KCOT, and being much more reduced in the OOC, which had the greatest average epithelial thickness. Conclusions: The differential expression of CCD1 noted in the present study suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to the S phase contributes to the different aggressiveness of these lesions. However, CCD1 expression levels did not predict NS-KCOT recurrence, which is likely influenced by factors unrelated to lesion biology. Key words:Keratin-producing odontogenic cyst, keratocyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, cyclin D1, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25475773

Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo

2015-01-01

86

Surgical management of odontogenic myxoma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic myxoma is a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior, and is relatively rare in the oral cavity. There are currently no clear surgical management guidelines for odontogenic myxoma, and a variety of approaches may be used. This study evaluated the literature concerning the surgical management of odontogenic myxoma, and reports the long-term outcome of a case managed by using a more conservative surgical approach. Case presentation We managed a 40-year-old Japanese man with odontogenic myxoma in the right mandible by enucleation and curettage, a relatively conservative approach that has proved to have been justified by a lack of recurrence over 10 years. Our strategy was compared with others reported in the literature, which was identified by a PubMed search using the term “odontogenic myxoma”. Articles without full text or with missing data were excluded. The age and sex of patients, the tumor location (maxilla/mandible), treatment (conservative/radical), recurrence, and follow-up period were compared in the reported cases that we evaluated. From the initial 211 studies identified, 20 studies qualified as mandibular cases of odontogenic myxoma. Recurrence was reported in three cases that had been treated with a more conservative surgical approach. Conclusions Enucleation and curettage has proved an effective approach in several cases in ours there has been no recurrence more than 10 years after surgery but the risk of recurrence appears to be higher. We discuss the important factors that must be considered when determining the correct management approach to odontogenic myxoma. PMID:24708884

2014-01-01

87

[Problems with diagnosis and treatment of an odontogenic fistula of facial skin].  

PubMed

Out of 16 patients with odontogenic fistulae of the facial skin, treated with in the last two years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Province Hospital No 1 in Rzeszów, the authors subjected to detailed analysis seven patients in whom, during the period preceding specialist stomatological treatment, difficulties occurred in the diagnosis and treatment. In all cases of development of facial skin fistulae, odontogenic origin should be considered in the first place. PMID:9538656

Lewandowski, B; Mac-Pietrasz, I

1997-02-01

88

Bimaxillary Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Case of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Difficulty  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) is a benign cystic intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin that is usually solitary except when syndromic. It rarely occurs in the maxilla; therefore a rapidly progressive, nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT with locoregional extension poses significant diagnostic and management challenges. To the best of the authors' knowledge, documentation of a nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT is nonexistent in the English literature. We therefore present the case of an extensive bimaxillary KCOT in a 38-year-old Nigerian male. PMID:24790606

Okoje-Adesomoju, Victoria Nwebuni; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Olajide, Mofoluwaso Abimbola

2014-01-01

89

Rare and massive odontogenic parakeratotic cyst treated by endoscopic sinus surgery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Keratocystic odontogenic tumors are benign neoplasms of odontogenic origin with a potential for aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Many different treatments for this type of lesion have been reported. However, no common consensus has emerged to date regarding the most effective therapeutic approach. Cases of maxillary sinus giant keratocystic odontogenic tumors completely excised by enucleation or marsupialization via endoscopic sinus surgery are extremely rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been described in the literature since 2005. Case presentation We report a case of a 24-year-old Italian man who came to our department with maxillary sinus region swelling, pain and left nasal obstruction. A massive keratocystic odontogenic tumor involving the right maxillary sinus and causing focal erosions of the bony walls was diagnosed. The keratocystic odontogenic tumor was removed as much as possible by a transnasal approach using endoscopic sinus surgery, which produced optimal surgical and prognostic outcomes. Follow-up is reported for an 8-year period. Conclusion Conservative management in this case demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy with a low risk of recurrence. For injuries involving the maxillary sinus, the possibility of decompression or marsupialization by endoscopic sinus surgery should always be considered because it demonstrated the potential to lead to excellent results even after 8 years of follow-up in our patient. To our knowledge, no case report has described follow-up longer than 8 years for a maxillary sinus keratocystic odontogenic tumor treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:25193270

2014-01-01

90

Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts – An immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. Materials & Methods: The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. Results: No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Conclusion: Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D’Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts – An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 . PMID:24453443

D’Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

2013-01-01

91

Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Gingiva: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a case of an uncommon and slow-growing tumor known as a central odontogenic fibroma (COF). The patient in question is a 53-year-old African-American man who was referred for periodontal evaluation of asymptomatic space formation between the mandibular central incisors. Clinical and radiological evaluations disclosed tumor-like tissue expanding the alveolar ridge in the buccolingual dimension, along with thinning of the cortical plates. Surgical excision was performed, and the specimen was sent for histopathology, which later confirmed that the lesion was a COF. Periodontal regenerative therapy was performed to rebuild the hard and soft tissue that had been compromised as a result of tumor expansion. The site was grafted, with excellent results. PMID:25646136

Soolari, Ahmad; Khan, Asghar

2015-01-01

92

CD1a-positive cells in odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

Langerhans cells (LC) are bone marrow-derived cells that have a CD1a-positive immunophenotype and are an important portion of the cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was an immunohistochemical evaluation of CD1a positive cells in different types of oral cysts. Fifty-five cysts were studied: 18 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), of which five were orthokeratotic and 13 parakeratotic; 19 radicular cysts; and 18 dentigerous cysts. Positive LC was 80% for orthokeratotic OKC, 33% for parakeratotic OKC, approximately 35% for radicular cysts, and approximately 20% for dentigerous cysts. The results show that OKC with well-differentiated epithelial linings presented a greater number of LC than the other cysts. However, when the cyst wall was inflamed there were no differences in LC expression in the different types of cysts. The data confirm that LC distribution seems to be associated with the degree of differentiation of the epithelia. PMID:12043859

Piattelli, Adriano; Rubini, Corrado; Iezzi, Giovanna; Fioroni, Massimiliano

2002-04-01

93

Central giant cell granuloma mimicking an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Central giant cell granulomas are non-neoplastic lesions of unknown etiology. They affect females more than males with the mandibular anterior region being the most common site of occurrence. Clinically central giant cell granulomas present as asymptomatic, expansile swellings causing deviation of associated teeth. Radiologically they usually presents as multilocular lesions causing expansion or perforation of cortical bone. Central giant cell granulomas are usually confused as other lesions both clinically and radiologically, and a definitive diagnosis can be made only histologically. We report here a rare case of central giant cell granuloma in association with congenitally missing tooth which was misdiagnosed to be an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor both clinically and radiologically. This case report also highlights yet another unique presentation of central giant cell granulomas that is in association with a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor. PMID:22090775

Daryani, Deepak; Gopakumar, R

2011-07-01

94

Anaerobic thermophiles.  

PubMed

The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

95

Reassessment of the incubation time in a controlled clinical comparison of the BacT/Alert aerobic FAN bottle and standard anaerobic bottle used aerobically for the detection of bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

This study assessed the minimum incubation time required to detect bloodstream infections during a controlled clinical comparison of the performance characteristics of the BacT/Alert aerobic FAN bottle and the standard anaerobic bottle used aerobically except on a selective basis. Blood was collected from adults with suspected bloodstream infections and inoculated into each bottle, which was monitored in the BacT/Alert Microbial Detection System. The anaerobic bottle was vented before incubation except when cultures were obtained from patients on the colorectal and gynecologic surgical and emergency services. Statistical analysis was limited to those culture sets in which each bottle was inoculated with > or = 8 mL of blood and bacterial growth was considered to be clinically significant. A total of 682 positive cultures from 243 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Significantly more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (p < 0.001), S. epidermidis (p < 0.001), other coagulase-negative staphylococci (p < 0.001), Enterococcus spp. (p = 0.04), Escherichia coli (p = 0.03), all Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p = 0.001), and Candida spp. (p < 0.001) were detected by the aerobic FAN bottle. Significantly more septic episodes due to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, other coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, and Candida spp. were detected by the aerobic FAN bottle. Significantly more bacterial isolates were detected by the aerobic FAN whether or not antibiotics were being administered at the time of blood culture, whereas there were significantly fewer positive cultures in the vented standard anaerobic bottle when patients were receiving antimicrobial therapy than when they were not. All but 5% of positive cultures were detected within three days. Only six of the cultures requiring four or five days of incubation represented true misses, and only one of these six resulted in a change in therapy which, however, did not affect the patent's outcome. PMID:9791750

Cornish, N; Kirkley, B A; Easley, K A; Washington, J A

1998-09-01

96

KDM6B epigenetically regulates odontogenic differentiation of dental mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified and isolated from dental tissues, including stem cells from apical papilla, which demonstrated the ability to differentiate into dentin-forming odontoblasts. The histone demethylase KDM6B (also known as JMJD3) was shown to play a key role in promoting osteogenic commitment by removing epigenetic marks H3K27me3 from the promoters of osteogenic genes. Whether KDM6B is involved in odontogenic differentiation of dental MSCs, however, is not known. Here, we explored the role of KDM6B in dental MSC fate determination into the odontogenic lineage. Using shRNA-expressing lentivirus, we performed KDM6B knockdown in dental MSCs and observed that KDM6B depletion leads to a significant reduction in alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and in formation of mineralized nodules assessed by Alizarin Red staining. Additionally, mRNA expression of odontogenic marker gene SP7 (osterix, OSX), as well as extracellular matrix genes BGLAP (osteoclacin, OCN) and SPP1 (osteopontin, OPN), was suppressed by KDM6B depletion. When KDM6B was overexpressed in KDM6B-knockdown MSCs, odontogenic differentiation was restored, further confirming the facilitating role of KDM6B in odontogenic commitment. Mechanistically, KDM6B was recruited to bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) promoters and the subsequent removal of silencing H3K27me3 marks led to the activation of this odontogenic master transcription gene. Taken together, our results demonstrated the critical role of a histone demethylase in the epigenetic regulation of odontogenic differentiation of dental MSCs. KDM6B may present as a potential therapeutic target in the regeneration of tooth structures and the repair of craniofacial defects. PMID:24158144

Xu, Juan; Yu, Bo; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu

2013-12-01

97

Linezolid Activity Compared to Those of Selected Macrolides and Other Agents against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Soft Tissue Bite Infections in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linezolid was tested against 420 aerobes and anaerobes, including 148 Pasteurella isolates, by an agar dilution method. Linezolid was active against all Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica isolates and most Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, and Pasteurella stomatis isolates. The MIC was <2 mg\\/ml for staphylococci, streptococci, EF-4b, Weeksella zoohelcum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, other fusobac- teria, Porphyromonas spp.,

ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN; DIANE M. CITRON; C. VRENI MERRIAM

1999-01-01

98

Expression of Human Papillomavirus is Correlated with Ki-67 and COX-2 Expressions in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and evaluate its association with Ki-67 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Nineteen cases were included in the present study. Conventional PCR method and immunohistochemical analysis were performed for the detection of HPV-DNA and HPV-L1 capsid protein. Moreover, the expressions of Ki-67 and COX-2 proteins were analyzed immunohistochemically. HPV-DNA was detected in 36.8 % (7/19) of tumor samples, whilst HPV-L1 protein was identified in 68.4 % (13/19) of them. The Kappa coefficient statistical test showed a moderate agreement (??0.424) between PCR and IHC assays for HPV detection. Expression of HPV-DNA was positively correlated with Ki-67 and COX-2 expressions (p?infection was present in the odontogenic epithelium of KCOT, and it was associated with increased proliferation rate and COX-2 expression. These findings suggest that HPV may have a role in the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of KCOT. Based on these conclusions, we recommend further investigations of HPV vaccine or antiviral therapy and COX-2 inhibitors as nonsurgical options in the prevention and management of KCOT. PMID:24831259

Alsaegh, Mohammed Amjed; Miyashita, Hitoshi; Zhu, Sheng Rong

2015-01-01

99

Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.  

PubMed

Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus. PMID:25411856

Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

2014-11-19

100

[Diagnostics and treatment of acute odontogenic osteomyelitis of the mandible considering functional state of inferior alveolar nerve].  

PubMed

Evaluation of functional impairment of inferior alveolar nerve in acute odontogenic inflammatory processes was carried out in this clinical study by means of stimulation electroneurography. Possibility of early diagnosis of acute odontogenic osteomyelitis by this method and effectiveness of decompression osteoperforation for its treatment was shown. PMID:25016752

Malanchuk, V A; Pavlovski?, L L

2013-01-01

101

Expression of Odontogenic Genes in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tooth loss is a common problem and since current tooth replacement methods cannot counter balance with biological tooth structures, regenerating natural tooth structures has become an ideal goal. A challenging problem in tooth regeneration is to find a proper clinically feasible cell to seed.This study was designed to investigate the odontogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) for seeding in tooth regeneration. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used at the eleventh embryonic day and rat fetuses were removed surgically using semilunar flap under general anesthesia. The primary mandible was cut using a stereomicroscope. The epithelial and mesenchymal components were separated and the dissected oral epithelium was cultured for 3 days. We used flow cytometry analysis to confirm presence of mesenchymal stem cells and not hematopoietic cells and to demonstrate the presence of oral epithelium. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and cultured oral epithelium were then co-cultured for 14 days. BMSCs cultured alone were used as controls. Expression of two odontogenic genes Pax9 and DMP1 was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Expression of two odontogenic genes, Pax9 and DMP1, were detected in BMSCs co-cultured with oral epithelium but not in the control group. Conclusion: Expression of Pax9 and DMP1 by human BMSCs in the proximity of odontogenic epithelium indicates odontogenic potential of these cells. PMID:23862115

Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Sichani Fallahi, Hamed; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Mahdavi, Nazanin; Bagheri, Seyedeh Sara

2013-01-01

102

Podoplanin expression profiles characteristic of odontogenic tumor-specific tissue architectures.  

PubMed

Podoplanin, a representative immunohistochemical marker for lymphatic endothelial cells, is also expressed in many other kinds of cancer cells, although its pathophysiological function is largely unknown. Our aim was to determine immunolocalization modes of podoplanin among odontogenic tumors to discuss possible roles of podoplanin in their characteristic tissue architecture formation. Immunohistochemical profiles of podoplanin were investigated in 40 surgical specimens from ameloblastoma (AM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in comparison with those of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), integrin ?1, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Podoplanin was localized in the basal cell layer or in the peripheral zone of AM foci. It was found in spindle-shaped tumor cells of AOT, in both the basal and polyhedral cells of CCOT, and in the basal and parabasal cells of KCOT linings. Podoplanin-positive (+) cells were located within areas of PCNA+ cells, and integrin ?1 was localized in the cell membrane of podoplanin+ cells in the intercellular space where fibronectin and MMP-9 were deposited. In conclusion, podoplanin+ cells and areas in odontogenic tumors are in close associations with extracellular matrix signalings as well as cell proliferation. PMID:22326634

Tsuneki, Masayuki; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

2012-03-15

103

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare condition characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinitation in the form of Ghost cell with varying amounts of dysplastic dentina. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 70 year-old woman with a rapid onset of painful swelling right maxillary tumor. Magnetic resonance showed a huge tumor dependent on the right half of the right hard palate with invasion of the pterygoid process and focally to the second branch of the trigeminal. Radiological stage was T4N0. The patient underwent a right subtotal maxillectomy with clear margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given. The patient was free of residual or recurrent disease 12 months after surgery. Results: The tumor was 3,9cm in diameter. It was spongy and whitish gray. Microscopically the tumor was arranged in nets and trabeculae, occasionally forming palisade. Tumoral cells had clear cytoplasm with vesicular nuclei. There was atipia and mitosi with vascular and perineural invasion. The excised tumor was diagnosed as a GCOC. Conclusions: Ghost cell carcinoma is a rare odontogenic carcinoma. Its course is unpredictable, ranging from locally invasive tumors of slow growth to highly aggressive and infiltrative ones. Wide surgical excision with clean margins is the treatment of choice although its combination with postoperative radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, remains controversial. Key words:Ameloblastic carcinoma, calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell carcinoma, keratinizing epithelial odontogenic cyst, maxillary tumor, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:25674335

Alberola-Ferranti, Margarita; Hueto-Madrid, Juan Antonio; Bescós-Atín, Coro

2014-01-01

104

Giant Pindborg Tumor (Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor): An Unusual Case Report with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic tumors develop in the jaws from odontogenic tissues such as enamel organ, Hertwig epithelial root sheath, dental lamina, and so on. A variety of tumors unique to the maxilla and mandible are therefore seen. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare, aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin accounting for only about 1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is eponymously called “Pindborg tumor”, as it was first described by Pindborg in 1955. The origin of this locally invasive tumor remains unknown. It is thought to arise from stratum intermedium. It commonly affects the posterior mandible manifesting as a slow-growing asymptomatic swelling often associated with an impacted tooth. We report a case of CEOT, for which, owing to its huge size we have proposed the term “giant” Pindborg tumor (CEOT). This is probably the largest case of this tumor reported so far in the English literature. The present case also has the classic yet rare “driven snow” appearance of the tumor on radiographs. PMID:24516774

Misra, Satya Ranjan; Lenka, Sthitaprajna; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Mishra, Sobhan

2013-01-01

105

The effect of scaffold architecture on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown the superiority of nanofibrous (NF) poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds in supporting the osteogenic differentiation of a few cell types and bone regeneration. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether NF-PLLA scaffolds are advantageous for the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) over solid-walled (SW) PLLA scaffolds. The vitro studies demonstrated that, compared with SW scaffolds, NF scaffolds enhanced attachment and proliferation as well as odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of odontogenic genes of human DPSCs was increased on NF scaffolds compared with that on SW scaffolds. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on the NF scaffolds as demonstrated by von Kossa staining, calcium content measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Consistent with the in vitro studies, NF scaffolds promoted odontogenic differentiation and hard tissue formation compared with SW scaffolds after 8 weeks of ectopic transplantation in nude mice as confirmed by von Kossa staining, Masson’s trichrome staining and immunohistochemical staining for dentin sialoprotein. In conclusion, NF-PLLA scaffolds enhanced the odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs and mineralization both in vitro and in vivo, and are promising scaffolds for dentin regeneration. PMID:21663962

Wang, Jing; Ma, Haiyun; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Liu, Xiaohua; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X.

2011-01-01

106

Odontogenic myxofibroma: A concise review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a review of the literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and radiographic features as well as treatment of odontogenic myxofibroma (MF). Methods: The PubMed database was searched using the following keywords: “odontogenic myxofibroma”, “odontogenic fibromyxoma”, “myxofibroma of the jaw” and “fibromyxoma of the jaw”. Results: Fifteen articles reporting the experience with 24 patients were identified. Male/female ratio was 1:1.4 and the average age was 29.5 years. The most frequent location was the mandible. In 66.7% of the cases the radiographic appearance was a multilocular radiolucency. Swelling was observed in 13 patients (92.86%), varying degrees of pain in 5 (35.71%) and paresthesia in only one patient (7.14%). Six out of 24 patients (26.09%) were treated with radical surgery and 17 (73.91%) with a conservative approach. In two out of 21 cases (9.52%) a recurrence was reported. Conclusions: MF is an extremely rare tumor and no agreement exists on the causes of its development. According to the present review, the choice of treatment should depend on variables such as localization, presence of a primary or of a recurrent lesion, age, general medical conditions and aesthetic needs of the patient. Key words:Odontogenic myxofibroma, myxofibroma of the jaw, odontogenic tumors, oral surgery, oral pathology. PMID:25129249

Giovannacci, Ilaria; Corradi, Domenico; Manfredi, Maddalena; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Vescovi, Paolo

2015-01-01

107

Odontogenic Keratocyst: A Case Series of five Patients.  

PubMed

During the time period of August 2009 to August 2010, five cases of odontogenic keratocyst were admitted and treated under the care of Department of Otorhinolaryngology, MGMC and RI, Puducherry. Patients came to the ENT OPD with history of swelling in the cheek region, nasal obstruction, numbness in the upper alveolar region. On examination diffuse swelling of size 7 × 3 cm in one patient and size of 5 × 3 cm in two patients, and other two patients size of 6 × 3 cm present in the maxillary region with ill defined borders, the swelling was firm in consistency, no warmth, non tender. Anterior rhinoscopy reveals mass pushing the lateral wall medially, septum pushed to opposite side, mucopus present in nasal cavity, airway reduced on the side of swelling. On examination of oral cavity, a small granulation of size 1.0 × 0.5 cm present in two patient and swelling of size 1.5 × 1.0 cm seen in two patients in vestibule, no swelling in one patient and swelling of size 3 × 2 cm seen in hard palate of two patients and no swelling in three patients, no loosening of tooth seen in all patients. X-ray PNS reveals maxillary hazziness, diagnostic nasal endoscopy reveals lateral wall of nose pushed medially and septum pushed to opposite side. FNAC reveals resolving inflammatory aspirate in one patient, few macrophages seen in two of patients, few keratinocytes seen in two of the patients. CT nose and PNS revealed a large cystic lesion with erosion of anterior and medial wall and floor of maxilla in relation to the root of the last molar tooth in two patients and there is erosion of anterior and medial wall in other three patients. A combined endonasal and external sublabial (Caldwell-luc) approach was performed in four patients and the cystic lesion was removed and in other one patient only endonasal approach was done and cystic lesion was removed and sent for biopsy. Biopsy sent for HPE revealed odontogenic keratocyst. PMID:24605295

Priya, K; Karthikeyan, P; Nirmal Coumare, V

2014-01-01

108

A case of glandular odontogenic cyst in the mandible treated with the dredging method.  

PubMed

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare odontogenic cyst derived from the odontogenic epithelium. GOC shows unpredictable and potentially aggressive behavior. Although enucleation and curettage are applied in most cases, the recurrence rate remains relatively high. Because a standard care procedure for GOC has not been established, we propose a new treatment procedure for GOC. In this case report, we describe a 62-year-old Japanese woman who suffered from GOC arising at the anterior region of her mandible and who was treated using the dredging method. She underwent enucleation and curettage twice using the dredging method with preservation of the teeth, which were involved with the lesion, but the lesion recurred 2 years later. In addition to enucleation and curettage, apicoectomy of the teeth was performed with a third dredging method procedure, and prognosis has been good with no recurrence for 18 months since the last treatment. PMID:24374982

Motooka, Naomi; Ohba, Seigo; Uehara, Masataka; Fujita, Syuichi; Asahina, Izumi

2013-12-28

109

Using the condylar prosthesis after resection of a large odontogenic myxoma tumor in the mandible.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxomas are considered to be a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior. Because these neoplasms are rare in the oral cavity, the possible surgical management can be quite variable. Literature recommendation can vary from simple curettage and peripheral ostectomy to segmental resection. The authors report a case of a 20-year-old patient with an odontogenic myxoma tumor located in the left mandibular angle, ascending ramus, and mandibular symphysis. It was treated by radical resection followed by titanium reconstruction with condylar prosthesis, which allowed rapid return of function with improvement in quality of life and restoration of cosmetic and functional deficits. The lesion did not recur after surgical procedure. PMID:22976683

De Melo, Willian Morais; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Brêda, Marcus Antônio; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Serra e Silva, Fabrício Moreira

2012-09-01

110

Recurrent bilateral gingival peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor): a case report.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is an extremely rare, benign neoplasm, accounting for approximately 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Peripheral CEOTs commonly resemble oral hyperplastic or reactive lesions and are histologically similar to their intraosseous counterparts. We report an unusual case of multifocal peripheral CEOT. A 40-year-old female presented with bilateral soft, painful, erythematous, gingival swellings localized in premolar areas of the mandibular gingiva. The presumptive diagnosis was bilateral pyogenic granuloma. The masses were surgically excised under local anesthesia without bone curettage and both recurred 12 months later. Morphologic features, and histochemical and immunohistochemical tests revealed bilateral peripheral calcifying odontogenic epithelial tumor. There is no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence 3.5 years after excision. This multifocal phenomenon has been reported previously only for intraosseous CEOT. Gingival masses must be carefully evaluated for clinical and histologic evidence of neoplasia. PMID:19716494

Abrahão, Aline Corrêa; Camisasca, Danielle Resende; Bonelli, Beatriz R M Venturi; Cabral, Márcia Grillo; Lourenço, Simone Q C; Torres, Sandra R; Pinto, Décio Santos

2009-09-01

111

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation motivated by being able to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither

112

Altered expression of podoplanin in keratocystic odontogenic tumours following decompression  

PubMed Central

Marsupialisation or decompression is frequently performed as a conservative therapy for keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Positive podoplanin (PDPN) expression in the epithelium of KCOT has been previously reported and may be associated with neoplastic invasion. In the present study, changes in PDPN expression were observed in the epithelium of KCOTs following decompression. In total, 16 pairs of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at the time of decompression and at two-stage curettage or enucleation were collected and immunohistochemically examined using an antibody against PDPN. The intensity of PDPN staining was evaluated with a semi-quantitative detection method and statistically analysed. The immunohistochemical reactivity of PDPN was consistently markedly positive in 93.8% of KCOT samples prior to decompression. The positive staining was immunolocalised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of cells in the basal layer and extended into the suprabasal layer for two to three cell layers. At the time of curettage, 2 of the 16 (12.5%) cases were completely negative, 11 of the 16 (68.8%) cases were locally positive and 3 of the 16 (18.7%) cases showed a ‘linear staining’ pattern, as the PDPN-positive cells were restricted to within the single basal layer. The expression level of PDPN was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and a significant loss or reduction of PDPN expression was observed in KCOTs following decompression. Larger sample groups are required to further verify this result. PMID:24527067

ZHANG, XIAOMIN; WANG, JING; DING, XU; XING, SHUZHONG; ZHANG, WEI; WANG, LIZHEN; WU, HEMING; WANG, LIN

2014-01-01

113

Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is a promising alternative to aerobic biodegradation treatments in bioremediation processes. It is now proven that, besides toluene, benzene and ethylbenzene can be oxidized under anaerobic redox conditions. Anaerobic bacteria have also been shown capable of utilizing substrates not only in the pure form, but also in complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as crude

Christof Holliger; Alexander JB Zehnder

1996-01-01

114

ANAEROBIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment differs from conventional aerobic treatment. The absence of oxygen leads to controlled conversion of complex organic pollutions, mainly to carbon dioxide and methane. Anaerobic treatment has favourable effects like removal of higher organic loading, low sludge production, high pathogen removal, biogas gas production and low energy consumption. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment can be an attractive option to conventional

B. Mrowiec; J. Suschka

115

Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a slow-growing odontogenic myxoma  

PubMed Central

Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a subjacent tumoural pathology is reported. The patient was a 55-year-old black male, whose chief complaint was a progressive gingival overgrowth for more than ten years, in the buccal area of the anterior left mandible. According to the clinical features and the radiological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, a conservative surgery with enucleation and curettage was performed. Tissue submitted for histopathological analysis rendered the diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma. After 12-month of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. Clinicians should be cautious when facing any gingival enlargement to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and to indicate the appropriate treatment. PMID:23722914

Miranda Rius, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Lahor, Eduard; Mtui, Beatus; Brunet, Lluís

2013-01-01

116

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma: a case report and critical review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) associated with odontoma occurring in the posterior mandible of a 32-year-old man. Although calcifications are commonly found in the AOT, the presence of rudimentary dental structures is a very rare phenomenon. Cases with similar aspects have been described as ameloblastic dentinoma, ameloblastic odontoma, adenoameloblastic odontoma and AOT associated with odontoma. After a careful analysis of the literature we describe the clinical aspects of this tumor. Further case reports and surveys of odontogenic tumors are necessary to define whether AOT associated with odontoma is a variant of AOT or a distinct clinicopathologic condition. PMID:23938090

2013-01-01

117

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in the maxillary antrum: A rare case entity  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign tumor of odontogenic origin. It occurs in the second decade of life. Females are more commonly affected than males. AOT has a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla; however, very few cases have been reported to occur in the maxillary antrum. This is a case report of a 17-year-old male presented with a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the right maxillary antrum, which was clinically diagnosed as dentigerous cyst. The histopathological examination revealed the presence of AOT. PMID:25210372

Krishnamurthy, Kavitha; Balaji, Ranjith Singh; Devadiga, Sumana; Prasad, Rame Gowda Rajendra

2014-01-01

118

Mural Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour as Anterior Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is an uncommon, benign, hamartomatous lesion that commonly affects the anterior maxilla and has two radiographic variants, follicular and extrafollicular where the former is more common than the latter. Here, we report a case of 15-year-old female with midline swelling of the mandible. Radiographically, impacted right permanent mandibular canine was associated with the radiolucent lesion. Dentigerous cyst was given as provisional diagnosis. However, histologically the lesion represented the features of cystic variant of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. PMID:25121073

Sarkar, Reena Bhola; Grewal, Jessica; Grewal, Ripin; Bansal, Arun

2014-01-01

119

Central Granular Cell Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case with CBCT Features  

PubMed Central

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor) CGCOT) of the jaw is an exceedingly rare benign odontogenic neoplasm with 35 reported cases in the literature. Among these, very few studies have focused on the cone-beam CT features of CGCOT. Here, we report a case of an asymptomatic CGCOT in a 16-year-old girl and focus on the cone-beam CT features. Only 36 cases of this lesion, including this one, have been reported so far. The case presented is of special importance due to the young age of the patient, the posterior location of the lesion and the multilocular pattern in the cone beam CT images

Anbiaee, Najmeh; Saghafi, Shadi; Mohammadzadeh Rezaei, Maryam

2014-01-01

120

Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary sinus and zygoma: A case report.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), formally known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign developmental tumors that are found primarily in the mandibular molar region and ascending ramus. The disease is characterized by aggressive growth and a high recurrence rate following surgical treatment. The present study reports the rare case of a 25-year-old male with a giant KCOT involving the right zygoma, maxillary bone and maxillary sinus. The tumor was removed using a modified treatment of enucleation, grinding and cryotherapy. Recurrence has not been observed within the eight-month follow-up period. The present study discusses the clinical features and surgical management of this case. PMID:25364448

Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Lili; Chen, Zhenggang; Qiu, Jianzhong; Dong, Quanjiang

2014-12-01

121

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Ear (Otitis Externa) Syphilis Tetanus Tonsillitis Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic Synovitis Tuberculosis Urinary Tract Infections Vaginal Yeast Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) ...

122

Recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumours: report of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse 19 recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Methods 19 patients with recurrent KCOTs were retrospectively analysed. These patients had been treated by either enucleation or a combination of enucleation and Carnoy's solution. The analyses covered major aspects of primary KCOT and/or recurrent KCOT identities, including patient profile, clinical features, histopathology, radiology, treatment and prognosis. Results 19 (7.4%) out of 257 primary KCOT cases recurred, with an average patient age of 30.5 years (age range 18–45 years). 15 lesions were in the mandible and the remaining 4 were in the maxilla. There were more unilocular than multilocular occurrences for the primary tumours, with a ratio of 2.2:1. These KCOTs were initially treated by simple enucleation (12 cases) or enucleation with Carnoy's solution (7 cases). After the initial surgery, 15 out of 19 (78.9%) recurred within 6 years, while 4 (21.1%) recurred after 6 years. Evidently, the recurrent lesion was involved with the roots of the teeth in three out of six cases whose teeth were preserved. In addition, the recurrent KCOTs had a tendency to be more multilocular or multifocal than the primary cases, with a unilocular-to-multilocular ratio of 1.1:1. Conclusions 7.4% of primary KCOTs recurred within 6 years after initial treatment with either enucleation or a combination of enucleation and Carnoy's solution. The recurrent KCOTs were more likely to be multilocular or multifocal than the primary cases and often involved the teeth. The method of operation for these recurrent lesions would be considered as a more aggressive approach. PMID:22301637

Zhao, Y; Liu, B; Cheng, G; Wang, S-P; Wang, Y-N

2012-01-01

123

Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children  

PubMed Central

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

Brook, Itzhak

2002-01-01

124

Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

Sethi, Sneha

2014-01-01

125

Collagen and elastic fibers in odontogenic entities: analysis using light and confocal laser microscopic methods.  

PubMed

Dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) are odontogenic lesions arising from epithelial elements, such as those observed in dental follicles (DF), that have been part of the tooth forming apparatus. These lesions show different clinical and histological characteristics, as well as distinct biological behavior. This study aimed to qualify and quantify collagen and elastic fibers by means of histochemical techniques with light and confocal laser microscopic methods in three odontogenic entities. Eleven DF, 13 DC (n=10 with inflammation, n=3 without inflammation) and 13 KOT were processed to the following techniques: Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's Trichrome, Picrosirius, Direct Blue, and Orcein. DF and DC without inflammation exhibited collagen with similar characteristics: no parallel pattern of fiber orientation, thick fibers with dense arrangement, and absence of distinct layers. A comparison between DC with inflammation and KOT revealed similar collagen organization, showing distinct layers: thin collagen fibers with loose arrangement near the epithelium and thick fibers with dense arrangement in distant areas. The only difference found was that KOT exhibited a parallel collagen orientation in relation to the odontogenic epithelia. It may be suggested that the connective tissue of DC is a reactive tissue, inducing an expansive growth associated with fluid accumulation and inflammatory process, which in turn may be present as part of the lesion itself. In KOT, loosely arranged collagen may be associated with the behavior of the neoplastic epithelium. PMID:21760864

Moure, Sabrina P; Carrard, Vinicius C; Lauxen, Isabel S; Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Oliveira, Marcia G; Martins, Manoela D; Sant Ana Filho, Manoel

2011-01-01

126

The orosomucoid 1 protein (?1 acid glycoprotein) is overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, but locally invasive, neoplasm occurring in the jaws. However, the molecules implicated in its development are unknown. OM as well as Dental Follicle (DF), an odontogenic tissue surrounding the enamel organ, is derived from ectomesenchymal/mesencyhmal elements. To identify some protein that could participate in the development of this neoplasm, total proteins from OM were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the profiles were compared with those obtained from DF, used as a control. Results We identified eight proteins with differential expression; two of them were downregulated and six upregulated in OM. A spot consistently overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma, with a molecular weight of 44-kDa and a pI of 3.5 was identified as the orosomucoid 1 protein. Western blot experiments confirmed the overexpression of this protein in odontogenic myxoma and immunohistochemical assays showed that this protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of stellate and spindle-shaped cells of this neoplasm. Conclusion Orosomucoid 1, which belongs to a group of acute-phase proteins, may play a role in the modulation of the immune system and possibly it influences the development of OM. PMID:22888844

2012-01-01

127

Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy’s solution. PMID:25136427

González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

2014-01-01

128

Anaerobes in ejaculates of subfertile men.  

PubMed

The clinical significance of micro-organisms in semen samples of asymptomatic subfertile patients is a matter of constant debate. Usually little attention is paid to anaerobic bacteria as they are sensitive to transportation and culturing, and differentiation is difficult, costly and time-consuming. In the present study, special screening was carried out for anaerobes in ejaculates in addition to the routine microbial cultures of genital secretions of both partners. In addition to standard semen analysis and evaluation of sperm ability to penetrate cervical mucus (CM) in vivo (post-coital testing) and in vitro using a standardized test system, semen samples from 126 randomly chosen males of couples with a median duration of infertility of 4 years were examined for colonization with anaerobic bacteria. All couples were without clinical signs or symptoms of genital tract infection. The special care taken for anaerobic growth in semen samples gave a high rate of positive cultures and showed that nearly all ejaculates (99%) were colonized with anaerobic micro-organisms, and potentially pathogenic species were found in 71% of men. This rate was more than four times higher than that obtained with routine cultures and standard transportation (16%). Anaerobic bacterial growth of > or = 10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/ml was seen in 42% (total range 10(3)-10(8) CFU/ ml). In addition, aerobic growth was found in 96% (> or = 10(6) CFU/ml in 21%), potentially pathogenic species in 61% of semen specimens. There were no marked differences in the prevalence of anaerobic micro-organisms in patients with reduced or normal sperm count, motility or morphology. Nor was there any significant difference in anaerobic colonization between samples with impaired or good ability to penetrate CM of female partners (in vivo or in vitro), or the CM of fertile donors in the in-vitro sperm-cervical mucus penetration test (SCMPT) in this asymptomatic group of patients. There was no clear association between microbial colonization and subsequent fertility in vivo within an observation period of 6 months. The results of this study suggest that anaerobic bacteria are often not detected when routine methods for microbial evaluation are used. This should be considered during assisted reproduction and in patients with symptoms of genital tract infection and should lead to further studies in infertile patients where subclinical infection or inflammation is indicated by specific markers in semen samples. PMID:9080220

Eggert-Kruse, W; Rohr, G; Ströck, W; Pohl, S; Schwalbach, B; Runnebaum, B

1995-09-01

129

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

130

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither of these factors was a motivator

131

Anaerobic bacteremia in patients with acute leukemia.  

PubMed

We reviewed 402 hospital admissions of patients with acute leukemia to define the frequency and characteristics of anaerobic bacteremia in this patient population. Six (5.2%) of the 116 septicemia episodes documented in these patients were caused by anaerobes (Bacteroides species, 3; Fusobacterium species, 2; and Clostridium tertium, 1); two of these episodes were polymicrobial. Five patients had had prior bacteremia. All six patients were receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, including an anti-pseudomonal penicillin, at the time of the episode. In each instance, the absolute granulocyte count was 0/mm3. Five patients had clinically apparent sources of infection, including perirectal abscess, gastrointestinal bleeding, or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Anaerobic bacteremia is an infrequent occurrence in granulocytopenic patients with acute leukemia, but may occur when there is obvious disruption of normal gastrointestinal anatomic barriers. PMID:2647821

Brown, E A; Talbot, G H; Provencher, M; Cassileth, P

1989-02-01

132

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

2013-01-01

133

The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth  

PubMed Central

The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

2014-01-01

134

A large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae: A case report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxomas (OMs) are benign mesenchymal locally aggressive neoplasms of the jaw bone. Although OMs predominantly involve the mandible, maxillary tumors are usually more aggressive than mandibular tumors. The present study describes the case of a 37-year-old male with a large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae, which caused a defect in the right skull base bone. The tumor was successfully removed through radical resection of the hard tissue and local resection around the envelope of the soft tissue. The tumor exhibited no recurrence. However, the current methods for bilateral maxillary reconstruction to restore the maxillary buttress and achieve an optimal aesthetic appearance are complicated due to the lack of suitable conditions for oral rehabilitation with good dentition. PMID:25120718

LIU, YING; HAN, BO; YU, TAO; LI, LONGJIANG

2014-01-01

135

Infiltrative odontogenic myxoma of the posterior maxilla: Report of a case.  

PubMed

Myxomas of the head and neck are rare tumors of uncertain histogenesis. Odontogenic myxomas in maxilla are less common but behave more aggressively, as it spreads through maxillary antrum. It therefore reaches considerable size before being detected. The current case arouses particular interest due to the rapid growth and infiltrating nature of the lesion in a 25-year-old female patient, who denied any leading symptoms, even with the lesion involving extensively. Radiographic and microscopic similarities to a number of entities make diagnostic interpretation of odontogenic myxoma challenging. Therefore sound knowledge of clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features is important to establish an appropriate treatment aimed at a good clinical course and patient cure. PMID:24082760

Arul, A Sri Kennath J; Verma, Sonika; Arul, A Sri Sennath J; Verma, Rashmika

2013-07-01

136

A large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae: A case report.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxomas (OMs) are benign mesenchymal locally aggressive neoplasms of the jaw bone. Although OMs predominantly involve the mandible, maxillary tumors are usually more aggressive than mandibular tumors. The present study describes the case of a 37-year-old male with a large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae, which caused a defect in the right skull base bone. The tumor was successfully removed through radical resection of the hard tissue and local resection around the envelope of the soft tissue. The tumor exhibited no recurrence. However, the current methods for bilateral maxillary reconstruction to restore the maxillary buttress and achieve an optimal aesthetic appearance are complicated due to the lack of suitable conditions for oral rehabilitation with good dentition. PMID:25120718

Liu, Ying; Han, Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Longjiang

2014-09-01

137

Cutaneous draining sinus tract of odontogenic origin: unusual presentation of a challenging diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman presented with a chronically draining lesion on her cheek just lateral to the nasofacial sulcus. The lesion was refractory to treatment with oral antibiotics. Physical examination revealed poor dentition, and a panoramic radiograph demonstrated periapical abscesses in the maxillary right lateral incisor and canine. A diagnosis of cutaneous fistula of odontogenic origin was made, and the patient was treated with tooth extraction. The cutaneous fistula subsequently resolved. Intraoral examinations and radiographs are critical for making the diagnosis of cutaneous draining sinus tract of odontogenic origin. Many patients undergo unnecessary surgical therapies before having the correct diagnosis made, but root canal therapy or surgical extraction is the treatment of choice. A dental origin must be considered for any chronically draining sinus of the face or neck. PMID:15759963

Sheehan, Daniel J; Potter, Brad J; Davis, Loretta S

2005-02-01

138

Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion.

Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

2015-01-01

139

Camphorquinone Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Cells and Triggers Release of Inflammatory Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Camphorquinone (CQ) is a photoinitiator that triggers polymerization of light-curing materials such as dental adhesives and composites. CQ does not become a part of the polymer network, suggesting that CQ can be leached out into surrounding environment including dental pulp and exert adversary effects on tissues. In order to understand the mechanisms of CQ-induced side effects, we investigated the effect of CQ on cell viability, cytokine secretion, and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro. Methods Cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after CQ exposure. Western blotting was performed for p16INK4A, p21WAF1, and p53. Secretory cytokines were evaluated using the membrane–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as conventional and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effects of CQ on odontogenic differentiation were evaluated using alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red S staining methods. Results CQ treatment suppressed the proliferation of DPSCs and induced the expression of p16INK4A, p21WAF1, and p53. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 [MMP3]) were increased by CQ treatment. CQ also inhibited odontogenic differentiation and mineralization capacities of DPSC and MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Our study showed that CQ may trigger pulpal inflammation by inducing proinflammatory cytokine production from the pulpal cells and may impair odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells, resulting in pulpal irritation and inflammation. PMID:23228258

Kim, Reuben H; Williams, Drake W.; Bae, Susan; Lee, Rachel S; Oh, Ju-Eun; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Kim, Tony; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.

2013-01-01

140

A comparative analysis of LEF-1 in odontogenic and salivary tumors.  

PubMed

LEF-1 is a nuclear transcription factor of the Wnt pathway that regulates multipotent skin stem cell differentiation. ?-Catenin is considered a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with LEF-1.This study evaluates LEF-1 in a variety of odontogenic and salivary tumors and determines the prevalence of ?-catenin coexpression. Ninety-eight salivary gland tumors and 51 odontogenic tumors were evaluated for LEF-1 and ?-catenin immunohistochemical staining. Positivity was defined as at least 2+ intensity in more than 50% of tumor cells, which required a composite score of 6 or more. LEF-1 was positive in 64% (7/11) of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT). Nuclear ?-catenin was present in 82% (9/11) of CCOT. Coexpression of LEF-1 and nuclear ?-catenin was noted in all LEF-1-positive CCOT. Strong and diffuse LEF-1 expression was seen in 69% (11/16) of basal cell adenocarcinomas (BCAC) and 63% (5/8) of basal cell adenomas (BA). Nuclear ?-catenin was present in 50% (4/8) of BA and 43% (6/14) of BCAC. For BA, 4 of 5 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression of ?-catenin, and for BCAC, 5 of 9 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression. In conclusion, this study documents for the first time the presence of LEF-1 expression and nuclear ?-catenin coexpression in select basaloid salivary gland tumors and various odontogenic tumors. We demonstrate LEF-1 expression in both BA and BCAC preferentially over other salivary gland tumors suggesting some utility as a diagnostic marker. PMID:25497834

Bilodeau, Elizabeth A; Acquafondata, Marie; Barnes, E Leon; Seethala, Raja R

2015-02-01

141

Dentigerous Cyst or Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: Clinical Radiological and Histopathological Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a well-recognised slow growing benign tumor derived from complex system of dental lamina or its remnants. This lesion is categorised into three variants of which the more common variant is follicular type which is often mistaken for dentigerous cyst. We present a case of AOT in a 14-year-old male who was misdiagnosed as dentigerous cyst. Clinical radiological and therapeutic characteristics of the case are commented on in detail. PMID:25097553

Acharya, Shivesh; Goyal, Ashima; Rattan, Vidya; Vaiphei, Kim; Kaur Bhatia, Sarabjot

2014-01-01

142

A novel culture system for porcine odontogenic epithelial cells using a feeder layer.  

PubMed

The growth of cells in vitro can provide useful models for investigating their behaviour and improving our understanding of their function in vivo. Although the developmental regulation of enamel matrix formation has been comprehensively analysed, the detailed cellular characteristics of ameloblasts remain unclear because of the lack of a system of long-term in vitro culture. Therefore, the establishment of odontogenic epithelial cell lines has taken on a new significance. Here, we report on a novel porcine odontogenic epithelial cell-culture system, which has permitted serial culture of these cells. Epithelial cells were harvested from third molar tooth buds in the fresh mandibles of 6-month-old pigs, and seeded on dishes in D-MEM containing 10% FBS. Before the cells reached confluence, the medium was changed to LHC-9 to select the epithelial cells. When trypsinized epithelial cells were plated together with 3T3-J2 cells as a feeder layer, the epithelial cells grew from single cells into colonies. The colonies then expanded and became confluent, and could be sub-cultured for up to 20 passages. The long-term culture cells expressed mRNA for amelogenin and ameloblastin, as well as enamelysin (MMP-20), which is a tissue-specific gene product unique to ameloblasts. These results show that the system is capable of sustaining the multiplication of odontogenic epithelial cells with the characteristics of ameloblasts. PMID:16257386

Honda, M J; Shimodaira, T; Ogaeri, T; Shinohara, Y; Hata, K; Ueda, M

2006-04-01

143

Evaluation and comparison of expression of p63 in odontogenic keratocyst, solid ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The behavior of odontogenic lesions varies with some tumors behaving like a cyst and some cysts behaving like tumors. p63, a member of the p53 family of tumor suppressor genes has recently come into light in view of its role as an oncogene. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of p63 protein in OKC, Solid ameloblastoma, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Follicular tissue. Materials and Methods: p63 expression was compared in 12 cases of OKC, 12 Solid Ameloblastoma, 14 cases of Unicystic ameloblastoma and 10 cases of Follicular tissue using immunohistochemical technique. All 48 cases were subjected to heat-induced antigen retrieval method using citrate buffer in a pressure cooker. Then the sections were stained with anti-p63 polyclonal antibody and visualized using super sensitive polymer HRP detection system. In each case, number of cells showing p63 positivity were assessed in two compartments - basal and suprabasal and compared. Results: Statistical analysis showed that p63 expression in the suprabasal compartment in Odontogenic keratocysts was equivalent to that of central neoplastic cells of Solid Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma type 3. Statistically significant difference in the expression of p63 was observed between OKC and Unicystic Ameloblastoma Type 1 and Solid Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma Type 1. Conclusion: We conclude that the higher expression of p63 in these odontogenic lesions correlates well with their aggressive behavior and thereby suggesting alterations in treatment modalities. PMID:25328303

Varsha, BK; Gharat, A Leena; Nagamalini, BR; Jyothsna, M; Mothkur, Sahana T; Swaminathan, Uma

2014-01-01

144

Mucous and ciliated cell metaplasia in epithelial linings of odontogenic inflammatory and developmental cysts.  

PubMed

The incidence of mucous and ciliated cells in epithelial linings was examined among odontogenic inflammatory cysts (radicular cysts) and developmental cysts (dentigerous and primordial cysts). Mucous cells were found in 20.8% of all cysts examined, while ciliated cells were found in 11.4%; however, ciliated cells were always accompanied by mucous cells. The incidence of mucous cells in radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts and that of ciliated cells in radicular cysts was higher in the maxilla than in the mandible, while the incidence of mucous cells in primordial cysts and that of ciliated cells in dentigerous cysts and primordial cysts was higher in the mandible than in the maxilla. The present results regarding mucous cells and ciliated cells in the epithelial linings of intraosseous odontogenic cysts indicate a metaplasic origin, but the cause and biological significance of this phenomenon is not known. Mucous cells were present in the surface layer of epithelial linings, and intraepithelial gland-like structures lined with mucous cells were observed in the hyperplastic regions of epithelial linings of several radicular and dentigerous cysts. Such gland-like structures lined by mucous cells in the thickened epithelial lining, which have not been demonstrated previously, resembled the glandular structures of "glandular odontogenic cysts". PMID:16050487

Takeda, Yasunori; Oikawa, Yuko; Furuya, Izuru; Satoh, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

2005-06-01

145

Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Stimulated by the Calcium Phosphate Porous Granules  

PubMed Central

Effects of three-dimensional (3D) calcium phosphate (CaP) porous granules on the growth and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined for dental tissue engineering. hDPSCs isolated from adult human dental pulps were cultured for 3-4 passages, and populated on porous granules. Cell growth on the culture dish showed an ongoing increase for up to 21 days, whereas the growth on the 3D granules decreased after 14 days. This reduction in proliferative potential on the 3D granules was more conspicuous under the osteogenic medium conditions, indicating that the 3D granules may induce the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Differentiation behavior on the 3D granules was confirmed by the increased alkaline phosphatase activity, up-regulation of odontoblast-specific genes, including dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and greater level of dentin sialoprotein synthesis by western blot. Moreover, the cellular mineralization, as assessed by Alizarin red S and calcium quantification, was significantly higher in the 3D CaP granules than in the culture dish. Taken all, the 3D CaP porous granules should be useful for dental tissue engineering in combination with hDPSCs by providing favorable 3D substrate conditions for cell growth and odontogenic development. PMID:21772958

Nam, Sunyoung; Won, Jong-Eun; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won

2011-01-01

146

Effect of lactoferrin on odontogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from human 3rd molar tooth germ.  

PubMed

Stem cell technology has been a great hope for the treatment of many common tissue regeneration-related diseases. Therefore, the main challenge in hard tissue engineering is to make a successful combination of stem cells and efficient inductors such as biomaterials or growth factors, in the concept of stem cell conversion into odontogenic cell. Even though lactoferrin has been reported to promote bone growth in vivo, the molecular mechanism of teeth formation has not been elucidated yet. Different concentrations of lactoferrin were prepared for the analysis of cell toxicity and differentiation evaluations. The odontogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) was assessed by gene expression analysis, determination of protein levels in odontogenic differentiation-related protein, measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and calcium deposit levels. Lactoferrin-treated group showed the highest ALP activity as opposed to the other groups which were untreated. In addition, the gene expression levels as well as the protein levels of odontogenic factors were found to be high in compared to the control groups. In the current study, it is shown for the first time that there is a significant increase in odontogenic differentiation capacity in hTGSCs when lactoferrin is applied in vitro. The study offers a considerable promise for the development of pulp regeneration by using stem cell technology combined with lactoferrin in functional tooth tissue engineering. PMID:25173676

Ta?l?, Pakize Neslihan; Sahin, Fikrettin

2014-11-01

147

Hybrid central odontogenic fibroma with giant cell granuloma-like component: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign ectomesenchymal tumor of the jaws. Only 12 cases of COF with giant cell granuloma (GCG)-like lesion have been reported in the English literature. Here, we present a new case of COF epithelium rich type with a GCG-like component. Radiographically, this lesion presented as a well defined unilocular radiolucency in the body of the mandible. Histologically, the lesion showed a unique confluence of odontogenic epithelial rests with multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) in a highly cellular fibrous connective tissue stroma, with osteoid and cementoid deposits. A distinct area showed the typical histological picture of each component separately. Immunohistochemical staining with pancytokeratin (CK) highlighted the odontogenic epithelial component merging with the GCG component throughout most of the lesion. The significance of GCG-like areas within COF is the reported increased risk of recurrence following curettage, possibly necessitating more aggressive therapy. PMID:20614319

Younis, Rania H; Scheper, Mark A; Lindquist, C C; Levy, Bernard

2008-09-01

148

The Histone Acetyltransferase p300 Regulates the Expression of Pluripotency Factors and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells  

PubMed Central

p300 is a well-known histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and coactivator that plays vital roles in many physiological processes. Despite extensive research on the involvement of p300 in the regulation of transcription in numerous cell lines, the roles of this protein in regulating pluripotency genes and odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the expression of OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 and the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation capacity of HDPCs following p300 overexpression. We found that p300 overexpression did not overtly affect the ability of HDPCs to proliferate. The overexpression of p300 upregulated the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression of NANOG and SOX2. The HAT activity of p300 appeared to partially mediate the regulation of these factors; indeed, when a mutant form of p300 lacking the HAT domain was overexpressed, the promoter activity and expression of NANOG and SOX2 decreased relative to p300 overexpression but was greater than in the control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA levels of the odontogenic marker genes dentine matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly decreased in HDPCs overexpressing p300 cultured under normal culture conditions and increased in HDPCs inducted to undergo odontogenic differentiation. This finding was further confirmed by measuring levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and assessing the formation of mineralized nodules. The HAT activity of p300 had no significant effect on odontogenic differentiation. p300 was recruited to the promoter regions of OCN and DSPP and might be acting as a coactivator to increase the acetylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 of OCN and DSPP. Collectively, our results show that p300 plays an important role in regulating the expression of key pluripotency genes in HDPCs and modifying odontogenic differentiation. PMID:25007265

Ning, Yanyang; Xu, Qiong

2014-01-01

149

Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gross work completed and relative to body weight. However, these differences are reduced when data is adjusted for body weight and further reduced when corrected for FFM. The study found no significant differences between men and women in either anaerobic power or anaerobic capacity when values were given relative to FFM. PMID:3730753

Maud, P J; Shultz, B B

1986-01-01

150

THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

151

Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from an odontogenic cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Cyst-like lesions in the mandible rarely develop into malignancies, and the reported incidence is between 0.3 and 2%. The present study describes a rare case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible arising from an odontogenic cyst. A 59-year-old female was referred to Asahi University Murakami Memorial Hospital (Gifu, Japan), with acute pain in the right molars. An initial examination revealed buccal swelling and paresthesia of the mental nerve. Following an intraoral examination, the oral mucosa was confirmed to be normal, however, percussion pain was experienced between the lower right first premolar and second molar. Panoramic radiography revealed a retained lower right wisdom tooth and an irregular radiolucent area between the lower right molar and a mandibular angle with unclear margins. Computed tomography revealed diffuse bone resorption and an extensive loss of cortical bone on the buccal and lingual sides. A biopsy was performed and the pathological diagnosis was of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from the epithelial lining of the odontogenic cyst. Radical dissection was subsequently performed, however, histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed neither invasion into the surrounding tissues penetrating the periosteum nor lymph node metastasis at the right submandibular lesion. Following the pathological diagnosis of primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC), the patient received 6,000 Gy radiation as post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with oral administration of tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil potassium. The patient is currently undergoing follow-up examinations. Although PIOC arising from an odontogenic cyst is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for radiolucency of the jaw bone, particularly in older patients exhibiting a history of cystic lesions. PMID:25120703

ADACHI, MAKOTO; INAGAKI, TOSHIHIRO; EHARA, YUICHI; AZUMA, MUNEHIRO; KURENUMA, AYUMI; MOTOHASHI, MASAYUKI; MURAMATSU, YASUNORI

2014-01-01

152

Comparative In Vitro Susceptibilities of 396 Unusual Anaerobic Strains to Tigecycline and Eight Other Antimicrobial Agents?  

PubMed Central

Tigecycline was tested against 396 strains of lesser-known anaerobic species encountered in human infections. It was active against all gram-positive strains and 228 of 232 gram-negative anaerobes at ?1 ?g/ml. One strain of Prevotella oralis was nonsusceptible at 8 ?g/ml. PMID:16940056

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2006-01-01

153

Report of a Rare Case of an Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a mesenchymal tissue benign neoplasia, being relatively rare which is almost exclusively seen in tooth-bearing areas. OM commonly occurs in the 2nd and 3rd decade and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. Radiographically, the myxoma appears as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 28-year-old female patient with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25031907

Manjunath, SM; Gupta, AA; Swetha, P; Moon, NJ; Singh, S; Singh, A

2014-01-01

154

Surgical treatment of odontogenic myxoma and facial deformity in the same procedure.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor with aggressive and invasive behavior. Predominant symptoms are usually slow and painless swelling, sometimes resulting in perforation of the cortical borders of the affected bone. In this paper, a case report of a patient with an OM on the right maxillary sinus and a vertical excess of maxilla will be presented. The treatment chosen was tumor resection in association with orthognathic surgery with biomodels assessment for surgical planning. A 3-year follow-up showed disease free and stability of the new position of maxilla. The international literature is evaluated to discuss this case report. PMID:24124313

Mayrink, Gabriela; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa; Olate, Sergio; Asprino, Luciana; De Moraes, Marcio

2013-07-01

155

Odontogenic keratocysts in Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple odontogenic keratocysts. Considering the rarity of this syndrome, we present a 12-year-old boy affected by this syndrome. He had multiple okcs, calcification of falx cerebri, bifid ribs, frontal bossing and hypertelorism. Characteristic cutaneous manifestation (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) was not present in this patient. The jaw cysts were treated with marsupialization then enucleation. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cystlike radiolucencies are discovered on panoramic view. PMID:20111613

2009-01-01

156

Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case  

PubMed Central

The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants. PMID:25580309

de Souza, João Gustavo Oliveira; Claus, Jonathas Daniel Paggi; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Gil, José Nazareno; Cardoso, Antonio Carlos

2014-01-01

157

Cutaneous manifestation of odontogenic infection misdiagnosed as having dermatologic etiology: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

General dentists should be aware that extraoral dental cutaneous lesions can be confused with dermatologic lesions. We report two cases of cutaneous lesions of dental origin that were initially misdiagnosed as being dermatologic in origin. Multiple treatments were performed, including plastic surgery, but the lesions did not resolve. Then, the lesions' dental etiology was identified. Endodontic intervention resulted in resolution of the problem, confirming the initial misdiagnosis. A dental etiology, as part of a differential diagnosis, should be kept in mind with orofacial skin lesions. PMID:21519581

Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Saxena, Payal

2011-06-01

158

The anaerobic digestion process  

SciTech Connect

The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-01-01

159

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

160

Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour and Variants of Ameloblastoma – A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a histopathologiocally and behaviourally unique and specific entity. It is the most aggressive and recurrent of all the cysts and shows characteristics resembling both cyst and a tumour. The unique nature of OKC and the recent shift of OKC as a tumour made us evaluate yet another factor, Inducible nitric oxide synthase an (iNos) enzyme which has been implicated in the tumourigenesis of various neoplasms. Aims and Objects: The objective of the study was to analyse and compare the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC’s) in variants of ameloblastoma affecting the oral cavity, to determine the neoplastic potential of OKC and to reinforce the classification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Materials and Methods: Thirty two specimens, eight specimens each in OKC, follicular ameloblastoma, plexiform ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma, taken from the Oral Pathology Department were randomly selected for this study and were evaluated for epithelial expression of iNOS by immunohistochemistry Results: Epithelial immunoreactivity to iNOS was strongly positive in 93.5% of follicular ameloblastomas, 68.7% of plexiform ameloblastomas, 66.9% of odontogenic keratocysts and 66.2% of unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusion: iNOS may be an important marker involved in the biological behaviour of OKC. Furthermore the presence of increased expression of iNOS in Follicular ameloblastomas followed by Plexiform ameloblastomas, OKCs and Unicystic ameloblastomas is yet another evidence to support that OKC could be considered as a neoplasm. PMID:25584300

R, Maya; B, Sekar; S, Murali; K, Ramesh

2014-01-01

161

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: Predictive Factors of Recurrence by Ki-67 and AgNOR Labelling  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Ki-67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR) between the recurrent and nonrecurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). Another aim was to compare the correlation between these two markers. Materials and Methods: 22 KCOTs were evaluated retrospectively. The actual proliferative activity of the KCOT was measured by Ki-67 labelling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions AgNOR count per nucleus. Results: Recurrence occurred in 3 patients (13.6%) during the follow-up period (mean follow-up, 37.8 months) The Ki-67 and AgNOR counts were significantly higher in the recurrent lesions comparing to the non-recurrent lesions. (p=0,045; p=0,049) The correlation between Ki-67 and AgNOR counts was found to be positive (r=0,853 p=0,0001). Conclusion: Within the limit of the present study, it is thought that Ki-67 and AgNOR might be helpful as a prognostic marker for the recurrences of KCOTs. These markers reinforced the meaning of the new classification of the lesion as an odontogenic tumor. Enucleation with curettage or decompression following enucleation with curettage is a simple and appropriate surgical model for the treatment of KCOT despite the relative high recurrence rate. On the other hand, the conservative treatment can be chosen only if there is no coronoid invasion, no interruptive cortical lysis and no tissular invasion. PMID:22639545

Selvi, Firat; Tekkesin, Merva Soluk; Cakarer, Sirmahan; Isler, S. Cemil; Keskin, Cengizhan

2012-01-01

162

The role of anaerobic bacteria in bacteremia.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria remain an important cause of bloodstream infections and account for 1-17% of positive blood cultures. This review summarizes the epidemiology, microbiology, predisposing conditions, and treatment of anaerobic bacteremia (AB) in newborns, children, adults and in patients undergoing dental procedures. The majority of AB are due to Gram-negative bacilli, mostly Bacteroides fragilis group. The other species causing AB include Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium spp., and Fusobacterium spp. Many of these infections are polymicrobial. AB in newborns is associated with prolonged labor, premature rupture of membranes, maternal amnionitis, prematurity, fetal distress, and respiratory difficulty. The predisposing conditions in children include: chronic debilitating disorders such as malignant neoplasm, hematologic abnormalities, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, or decubitus ulcers and carried a poor prognosis. Predisposing factors to AB in adults include malignant neoplasms, hematologic disorders, transplantation of organs, recent gastrointestinal or obstetric gynecologic surgery, intestinal obstruction, diabetes mellitus, post-splenectomy, use of cytotoxic agents or corticosteroids, and an undrained abscess. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these infections are of great clinical importance. PMID:20025984

Brook, Itzhak

2010-06-01

163

Early anaerobic metabolisms  

PubMed Central

Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

2006-01-01

164

[Microbiological diagnosis of pyo-inflammatory processes caused by strictly anaerobic microorganisms].  

PubMed

Basing on the literature data and their own findings, the authors have attempted a rational arrangement of the microbiologic diagnosis of anaerobic infections. The precultural and cultural stages of the diagnosis have been singled out. A hypothetic diagnosis is put forward at stage I; it is based on the sum of the clinical symptoms of anaerobic infections and on the microscopy of the native material. During the cultural stage the anaerobe colonies indication is performed in the primary inoculation dish by the technique developed by the authors; preliminary identification of the colonies is made here too. Then the obtained subcultures are finally identified according to relevant schemes and to a table with the differentiating markers. The suggested scheme accelerates and simplifies the laboratory diagnosis of anaerobic infections. PMID:2474702

Bazhenov, L G; Iskhakova, Kh I

1989-01-01

165

PTCH1 mutation and local aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocystic tumors in children: is there a relationship?  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are locally aggressive jaw lesions that may be related to PTCH1 mutations in isolation or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. We sought to clarify the role of PTCH1 mutation in KCOT aggressiveness. We assessed cyst pathological characteristics, Ki-67 immunostaining, and somatic and germinal PTCH1 mutation in 16 KCOTs from 10 unrelated patients. Ten PTCH1 mutations were identified in 16 tumors. All tumors with PTCH1 mutations presented the criteria of pathological aggressiveness. We also noted the presence of a chorionic epithelial structure apparently acting as a secondary germinal center in these same tumors. Ki-67 immunostaining was not associated with PTCH1 mutation. KCOTs harboring the mutation display a chorionic epithelial structure that acts as a secondary germinal center. Genetic and microenvironmental factors might interact to propel tumor development. PMID:23317547

Kadlub, Natacha; Coudert, Amélie; Gatibelza, Marie-Eve; El Houmami, Nawal; Soufir, Nadem; Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; L'hermine, Aurore Coulomb; Berdal, Ariane; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Descroix, Vianney; Picard, Arnaud

2013-06-01

166

Patent odontogenic sinus tract draining to the midline of the submental region: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with a cutaneous sinus tract located on the midline of the submental region secondary to a periapical abscess of the right lateral mandibular incisor. The lesion was nodulocystic and chronically drained purulent fluid. Previous topical and systemic treatments were uneffective. Radiologic examination of the mandible demonstrated diffuse radiolucency involving the apices of four affected incisors. A further radiologic sinogram revealed both the exact origin and the high grade patency of the fistolous tract. Appropriate conservative endodontic therapy led to quick resolution of the sinus tract within sixteen days. In the presence of a single chronic suppurative or nodulocystic lesion of the face, it is always useful to perform a radiologic evaluation of the maxillary and mandibular regions to promptly exclude a possible odontogenic background. PMID:8935346

Urbani, C E; Tintinelli, R

1996-04-01

167

Assessment of routine use of an anaerobic bottle in a three-component, high-volume blood culture system.  

PubMed

The relative value of routine anaerobic blood culture for recovery of organisms and identification of episodes of bloodstream infection was assessed in a three-component, high-volume blood culture system which employs aerobic and anaerobic bottles of BacT/Alert (Organon-Teknika, Durham, N.C.) and aerobic cultures of Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.). The results of 5,595 blood culture sets from patients with suspected bloodstream infection were analyzed. Compared with either the aerobic BacT/Alert bottle or aerobic culture of Isolator, the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle recovered significantly fewer isolates (242 versus 294, P < 0.05; 242 versus 298, P < 0.05) but did not detect significantly fewer episodes of bloodstream infection (141 versus 157, P > 0.05; 141 versus 147, P > 0.05). The BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle recovered significantly more isolates of obligately anaerobic bacteria (16 versus 4, P < 0.05; 16 versus 0, P < 0.05) and detected significantly more episodes of bloodstream infection caused by obligately anaerobic bacteria (10 versus 3, P < 0.05; 10 versus 0, P < 0.05) than either the aerobic bottle of BacT/Alert or the aerobic culture of Isolator. The combination of the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle and the aerobic culture of Isolator recovered as may isolates (374 versus 377) and detected as many episodes of bloodstream infection (194 versus 191) as the combination of the aerobic bottle of BacT/Alert and the aerobic culture of Isolator, and both of these combinations identified at least 8% more isolates and detected at least 3% more bloodstream infections than the combination of the BacT/Alert aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Further analysis of the data revealed that the utility of the BacT/Alert anaerobic bottle, especially when combined with the aerobic culture of Isolator, resulted from not only enhanced recovery of obligately anaerobic bacteria but also effective recovery of facultatively anaerobic bacteria. These results demonstrate the utility of the anaerobic BacT/Alert bottle for detecting bloodstream infection caused by either facultatively anaerobic bacteria or obligately anaerobic bacteria and support the routine inclusion of anaerobic blood culture in the three-component blood culture system used in our hospital. PMID:8880517

Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmesen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R

1996-10-01

168

Odontogenic stimulation of human dental pulp cells with bioactive nanocomposite fiber.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a composite nanofibrous matrix made of biopolymer blend polycaprolactone-gelatin (BP) and mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). BGN-BP nanomatrices, with BGN content of up to 20?wt%, were produced via electrospinning. The differentiation of the HDPCs was evaluated by using an ALP activity assay, calcified nodule formation, and mRNA expression for markers. Integrin and its underlying signal pathways were assessed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Although cell growth and attachment on the BGN-BP nanomatrix was similar to that on BP, ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and mRNA, expressions involving ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1 were greater on BGN-BP. BGN-BP upregulated the key adhesion receptors (integrin components ?1, ?2, ?5, and ?1) and activated integrin downstream pathways, such as phosphorylated-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and p-paxillin. In addition, BGN-BP activated BMP receptors, BMP-2 mRNA, and p-Smad 1/5/8, and such activation was blocked by the BMP antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, BGN-BP induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase 38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases and activated expression of the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix in HDPCs. Collectively, the results indicated for the first time that a BGN-BP composite nanomatrix promoted odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs through the integrin, BMP, and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Moreover, the nanomatrix is considered to be promising scaffolds for the culture of HDPCs and dental tissue engineering. PMID:25098335

Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Yong-Duk; Lee, So-Youn; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2015-01-01

169

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumour suppressor genes in benign and malignant mixed odontogenic tumours.  

PubMed

Although molecular alterations are reported in different types of odontogenic tumours, their pathogenesis remains to be established. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies allow the identification of minimal regions of deletions of known or putative tumour suppressor genes, the losses of which may promote neoplastic growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate LOH in a set of odontogenic mixed tumours. Tumour suppressor gene loci on 3p, 9p, 11p, 11q and 17p chromosomes were analysed in five samples of ameloblastic fibroma (AF), three samples of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) and three samples of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS). The most frequently lost genetic loci were p53 (17p13, 62%) and CHRNB1 (17p13, 55%). LOH at the chromosome regions 3p24.3, 9p22 and 9p22-p21 was identified only in AFS. No sample showed LOH at the chromosomal loci 3p21.2 and 11q13.4. For the region 9p22-p13, LOH occurred in one sample of AFO. The fractional allelic loss (FAL) was calculated for each sample. The mean FAL of the benign lesions (i.e. AF and AFO) was 22%, whereas the mean FAL of the malignant lesions (i.e. AFS) was 74.6%. In conclusion, our results show a higher FAL in AFS compared to its benign counterparts and reveal a different pattern of LOH of tumour suppressor genes in AFS, which may regulate changes in tumour behaviour. PMID:22082131

Galvão, Clarice F; Gomes, Carolina C; Diniz, Marina G; Vargas, Pablo A; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Loyola, Adriano M; Gomez, Ricardo S

2012-05-01

170

In vitro evaluation of the odontogenic potential of mouse undifferentiated pulp cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the odontogenic potential of undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21 cell line) through chemical stimuli in vitro. Cells were divided into uninduced cells (OD-21), induced cells (OD-21 cultured in supplemented medium/OD-21+OM) and odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23 cell line). After 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of culture, it was evaluated: proliferation and cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein content, mineralization, immunolocalization of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteopontin (OPN) and quantification of genes ALP, OSTERIX (Osx), DMP1 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p<0.05). There was a decrease in cell proliferation in OD-21 + OM, whereas cell viability was similar in all groups, except at 7 days. The amount of total protein was higher in group OD-21 + OM in all periods; the same occurred with ALP activity after 10 days when compared with OD-21, with no significant differences from the MDPC-23 group. Mineralization was higher in OD-21+OM when compared with the negative control. Immunolocalization demonstrated that DMP1 and ALP were highly expressed in MDPC-23 cells and OD-21 + OM cells, whereas OPN was high in all groups. Real-time PCR revealed that DMP1 and ALP expression was higher in MDPC-23 cell cultures, whereas RUNX2 was lower for these cells and higher for OD-21 negative control. Osx expression was lower for OD-21 + OM. These results suggest that OD-21 undifferentiated pulp cells have odontogenic potential and could be used in dental tissue engineering. PMID:23207845

Semeghini, Mayara Sgarbi; Fernandes, Roger Rodrigo; Chimello, Daniela Thomazatti; de Oliveira, Fabíola Singaretti; Bombonato-Prado, Karina Fittipaldi

2012-01-01

171

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

2013-09-01

172

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2010-04-01

173

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2012-04-01

174

Economic viability of anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

175

Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes and lake sediments. Microbial formation of methane also plays a role in the

Velsen van A. F. M

1981-01-01

176

Anaerobic and Aerobic Beer Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Šavel J., Košin P., Brož A. (2010): Anaerobic and aerobic beer aging . Czech J. Food Sci., 28: 18-26. Yellow, orange, red and brown pigments are formed by air oxidation of single polyphenols or by thermal degradation of sugars to caramels. Caramels increase their colours during anaerobic heating or decrease them by air oxidation. Epicatechin and caramel undergo reversible redox

Budweiser Budvar

2010-01-01

177

Arterial ischemic stroke as a complication to disseminated infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum.  

PubMed

Lemierre syndrome (LS) is a rare complication of oropharyngeal and odontogenic infections in otherwise healthy young individuals. It is characterized by septic internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis and disseminated metastatic abscesses. Cerebral arterial ischemic stroke is rarely seen in LS. The authors present a 14-year-old, previously healthy girl, who developed cerebral arterial infarction following acute tonsillitis and abscess formations due to Fusobacterium necrophorum. PMID:24227208

Ratnasingham, Yamuna; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjaer; Gammelgaard, Lise; Balslev, Thomas

2014-04-01

178

The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immobilization on mobile support materials: in the latter case, combined with settling of the anaerobic sludge aggregates.This dissertation focuses

L. W. Hulshoff Pol

1989-01-01

179

Anaerobic granulation technology for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using granular sludge reactors is a developing technology, in which granular sludge is the core component. So far, around 900 anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide. Although intensive research attention has been given to anaerobic granules in the past 20 years, the mechanisms responsible for anaerobic granulation and the strategy of how to expedite substantially

Yu Liu; Hai-Lou Xu; Kuan-Yeow Show; Joo-Hwa Tay

2002-01-01

180

Economic feasibility of anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Farms which have existing adequate manure utilization, such as storage and field application, would normally only consider an anaerobic digestion system based on its energy producing benefits relative to all costs of the system. This paper presents an economic feasibility analysis of a particular on-farm anaerobic digestion system and assesses the impact on feasibility of varying the oil and electricity prices. (Refs. 2).

Criner, G.K.

1987-01-01

181

The relationship between radiological features and clinical manifestation and dental expenses of keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to identify correlations between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) data from CT sections, and data on the KCOT clinical manifestation and resulting dental expenses. Materials and Methods Following local Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a seven-years of retrospective study was performed regarding patients with KCOTs treated at the Seoul National University Dental Hospital. A total of 180 KCOT were included in this study. The following information was collected: age, gender, location and size of the lesion, radiological features, surgical treatment provided and dental expenses. Results There was no significant association between the size of the KCOT and age, gender, and presenting preoperative symptoms. In both jaws, it was unusual to find KCOTs under 10 mm. The correlation between the number of teeth removed and the size of the KCOT in the tooth bearing area was statistically significant in the mandible, whereas in the maxilla, no significant relationship was found. Dental expenses compared with the size of the KCOT were found to be significant in both jaws. Conclusion The size of KCOT was associated with a significant increase in dental expenses for both jaws and the number of teeth removed from the mandible. These findings emphasize the importance of routine examinations and early detection of lesions, which in turn helps preserving anatomical structures and reducing dental expenses. PMID:23807932

Min, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yi, Won-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Choi, Jin-Woo

2013-01-01

182

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a Hong Kong community: the clinical and radiological features  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and conventional radiological features of a consecutive series of cases of “keratocystic odontogenic tumour” (KCOT) affecting a Hong Kong Chinese community and to determine their outcome by follow-up. Methods All cases were accompanied by appropriate radiography and were histopathologically confirmed. Results 33 consecutive KCOTs were reviewed. 18 patients were male. The mean age at first presentation was 30.6 years. Swelling was the most frequent presenting symptom. Those patients first presenting with pain were significantly older, whereas those first presenting with a maxillary lesion were significantly younger. The maxilla and mandible were affected in 13 and 20 cases, respectively. KCOTs were most frequently confined to the posterior sextants of both jaws. KCOTs affecting the maxilla were mainly unilocular, whereas those affecting the mandible were multilocular. Patients with multilocular KCOTs were significantly older. Patients with KCOTs associated with root resorption were significantly older, whereas patients associated with unerupted teeth were significantly younger. 69% displaced teeth, 41% resorbed them and 56% were associated with unerupted teeth. All but two were followed up for at least 2 years. Three lesions recurred. Conclusions KCOTs in this community displayed some differences from those reported in the literature. PMID:20203279

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S; Li, T K

2010-01-01

183

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour: immunohistochemical demonstration of transferrin, ferritin and alpha-one-antitrypsin.  

PubMed

Three cases of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) were examined by morphological and immunohistochemical methods, to define the nature of tumour cells and to determine the correlation between the occurrence of extracellular eosinophilic amorphous material and epithelial tumour cells. The epithelial tumour cell components observed in this study were divided into three cell types (cell type I: small compact cells in a solid nodule and pseudoglandular cells in a duct-like structure; cell type II: peripheral elongated cells and spindle-shaped cells in a cribriform pattern; and cell type III: metaplastic squamous cells). The mesenchymal components consisted of eosinophilic amorphous material and calcified material. Immunohistochemically, the type I cells reacted positively with antibodies to transferrin, ferritin and alpha-one-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), whereas the type II cells constantly indicated intense expression only for transferrin and alpha1-AT. All types of epithelial tumour cells reacted negatively with lactoferrin, alpha-one-antichymotrypsin, S-100 protein, S-100alpha subunit and S-100beta subunit. Moreover, the eosinophilic amorphous material and calcified material examined were positive for the antibody against alpha1-AT. These materials expressed immunophenotypes similar to those of the epithelial tumour cells, except for metaplastic squamous cells. The present study showed that iron-binding proteins and proteinase inhibitor might be related to the pathogenesis of AOT. Furthermore, we indicated that the formation of eosinophilic amorphous material was associated with type I and type II cells. PMID:11302244

Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Shibata, Y; Yamaguchi, A

2001-04-01

184

Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 gene-transfected stem cells from human tooth apical papilla: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) have odontogenic potential, which plays a pivotal role in the root dentin development of permanent teeth. Human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a well-known gene that participates in regulating the odontogenic differentiation of dental tissue-derived stem cells. However, little is known regarding the effects of the BMP2 gene on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. This study aimed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation potential of lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene-transfected human SCAP (SCAP/BMP2) in vitro. SCAP were isolated by enzymatic dissociation of human teeth apical papillae. The multipotential of SCAP was verified by their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation characteristics. The phenotype of SCAP was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The proliferation status of the blank vector-transfected SCAP (SCAP/Vector) and SCAP/BMP2 was analyzed by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Odontogenic genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) of the two groups of cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). ALP staining and alizarin red (AR) staining of the cells was performed on the 16th day after transfection. In vitro results of CCK-8, qPCR, ALP and AR staining demonstrated that: i) SCAP/BMP2 had a comparable proliferation rate to SCAP/Vector; ii) SCAP/BMP2 presented significantly better potential to differentiate into odontoblasts compared to SCAP/Vector by upregulating ALP, OCN, DSPP and DMP1 genes; iii) more ALP granules and mineralized deposits were formed by SCAP/BMP2 as compared to SCAP/Vector. The results suggested that lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene transfection enhances the odontogenic differentiation capacity of human SCAP in vitro. PMID:25070743

ZHANG, WEN; ZHANG, XIAOLEI; LING, JUNQI; LIU, WEI; ZHANG, XINCHUN; MA, JINGLEI; ZHENG, JIANMAO

2014-01-01

185

The odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on nanofibrous (NF) poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Highly porous NF-PLLA scaffolds which mimic the architecture of collagen type I (Col I) fibers were fabricated by the combination of a phase separation technique and a porogen leaching method. The human DPSCs were then seeded onto the scaffolds and cultured in different media for odontogenic differentiation: “Control” medium without supplements; “DXM” medium containing 10?8 M dexamethasone (DXM), 50 ?g/mL ascorbic acid and 5 mM ?-glycerophosphate; “BMP-7 + DXM” medium containing 10?8 M DXM, 50 ?g/mL ascorbic acid, 5 mM ?-glycerophosphate plus 50 ng/mL bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7). For odontogenic differentiation study in vitro, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity quantification, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), von Kossa staining and calcium content quantification were carried out. While both “DXM” medium and “BMP-7+DXM” medium induced the DPSCs to odontoblast-like cells, the “BMP-7 + DXM” medium had greater inducing capacity than the “DXM” medium. Consistent with the in vitro studies, “BMP-7 + DXM” group presented more extracellular matrix (ECM) and hard tissue formation than “DXM” group after 8 weeks of ectopic implantation in nude mice. Differentiation of DPSCs to odontoblast-like cells was identified by the positive immunohistochemical staining for dentin sialoprotein (DSP). In conclusion, odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs can be achieved on NF-PLLA scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo; the combination of BMP-7 and DXM induced the odontogenic differentiation more effectively than DXM alone. The NF-PLLA scaffold and the combined odontogenic inductive factors provide excellent environment for DPSCs to regenerate dental pulp and dentin. PMID:20406702

Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiaohua; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Haiyun; Hu, Jiang; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X.

2013-01-01

186

Bacterial drug tolerance under clinical conditions is governed by anaerobic adaptation but not anaerobic respiration.  

PubMed

Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, ?-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

Hemsley, Claudia M; Luo, Jamie X; Andreae, Clio A; Butler, Clive S; Soyer, Orkun S; Titball, Richard W

2014-10-01

187

Epigenetic Marks Define the Lineage and Differentiation Potential of Two Distinct Neural Crest-Derived Intermediate Odontogenic Progenitor Populations  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, play an active role in the differentiation and lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, epigenetic states and differentiation profiles of two odontogenic neural crest-derived intermediate progenitor populations were compared: dental pulp (DP) and dental follicle (DF). ChIP on chip assays revealed substantial H3K27me3-mediated repression of odontoblast lineage genes DSPP and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in DF cells, but not in DP cells. Mineralization inductive conditions caused steep increases of mineralization and patterning gene expression levels in DP cells when compared to DF cells. In contrast, mineralization induction resulted in a highly dynamic histone modification response in DF cells, while there was only a subdued effect in DP cells. Both DF and DP progenitors featured H3K4me3-active marks on the promoters of early mineralization genes RUNX2, MSX2, and DLX5, while OSX, IBSP, and BGLAP promoters were enriched for H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Compared to DF cells, DP cells expressed higher levels of three pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Finally, gene ontology comparison of bivalent marks unique for DP and DF cells highlighted cell–cell attachment genes in DP cells and neurogenesis genes in DF cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the DF intermediate odontogenic neural crest lineage is distinguished from its DP counterpart by epigenetic repression of DSPP and DMP1 genes and through dynamic histone enrichment responses to mineralization induction. Findings presented here highlight the crucial role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the terminal differentiation of odontogenic neural crest lineages. PMID:23379639

Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia

2013-01-01

188

PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

189

Reassessment of the routine anaerobic culture and incubation time in the BacT/Alert FAN blood culture bottles.  

PubMed

A total of 9,130 blood cultures were collected from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The recommended 20 mL sample of blood was divided equally between the aerobic and anaerobic FAN bottles and monitored in the BacT/Alert Microbial Detection System for a total of 5 days. There were 757 clinically significant positive culture pairs from 291 patients. Significant differences were found with greater recovery of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < 0.001), Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.002), coagulase-negative staphylococci other than Staphylococcus epidermidis (p = 0.002), and Candida spp. (p < 0.001) from the aerobic bottle and greater recovery of anaerobic bacteria (p < 0.001) from the anaerobic bottle. Significantly more episodes of P. aeruginosa bacteremia (p < 0.003) and candidemia (p < 0.001) were detected by the aerobic FAN bottle and significantly more episodes of anaerobic bacteremia (p < 0.001) were detected by the anaerobic FAN bottle (Table 2). No other significant differences between systems in their detection of bacteremias were noted. Anaerobic bacteremias were encountered in diverse and often unpredictable clinical settings. All clinically significant episodes of bloodstream infection were detected within 4 days of incubation of their cultures. We conclude routine, rather than selective, use of the anaerobic FAN bottle in the blood culture set and a 4-day incubation of blood cultures in the BacT/Alert aerobic and anaerobic FAN bottles is an appropriate routine procedure. PMID:10579087

Cornish, N; Kirkley, B A; Easley, K A; Washington, J A

1999-10-01

190

ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic conditions predominate in contaminated aquifers and are not uncommon in noncontaminated areas. Comparatively little is known about degradative processes and nutrient cycling under anaerobic conditions. However, it is apparent these processes are fundamentally differen...

191

Ki-67 and p53 expression in solitary sporadic, syndrome associated and recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Background: Ki-67 and p53 are markers expressed in actively proliferating cells, particularly in neoplasms. Objectives: (1) To study the proliferative potential of epithelia in Solitary Sporadic, Syndrome-associated and Recurrent Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) using Ki67 and p53 labeling indices (LI). (2) To derive a relationship if any between the expression of these proteins and the biologic behavior of Solitary Sporadic and Syndrome associated KCOTs. Study Design: Thirteen paraffin embedded blocks of KCOTs (Solitary Sporadic, n = 03; Recurrent, n = 03; Syndrome associated, n = 07) were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67 and p53 and labeling indices were calculated. Statistical Analysis: Z test with predetermined alpha set at 0.05 was used for the comparison of Ki-67 positivity between the three groups and p53 positivity between the three groups. Results: Ki-67 labeling indices were: 30% in solitary sporadic; 26% in recurrent; and 32% in syndrome associated KCOTs. p53 labeling indices were: 19% in solitary sporadic; 23% in recurrent; and 21% in syndrome-associated KCOTs. There was no difference seen in the rate of proliferation in the epithelial linings between the three groups. However, in our cases where Ki-67 positivity was seen there was expression of p53. Though not statistically significant a trend was seen, reflecting the loss of balance between the proliferative potential and apoptotic activity. Conclusion: On the basis of proliferative index alone it is not possible to comment on biological behavior of KCOTs associated with syndrome versus those of solitary and recurrent. There is probably a mesenchymal role which needs to be researched. PMID:25364174

Alur, Jyoti; Narayan, T V; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana; Jamadar, Saleha; Shetty, Shobith

2014-01-01

192

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst in a Hong Kong community: the clinical and radiological features  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim was to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiological features of a consecutive series of cases of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) affecting a Hong Kong Chinese community and to determine the outcome by follow-up. Methods All cases were accompanied by appropriate radiography and were confirmed by histopathology. Results The clinical and conventional radiological presentations, differential diagnoses and outcomes of follow-up of five consecutive OOCs were reviewed. There were two males and three females. All affected the posterior sextant. The mean age at first presentation was 33.5 years. The mean of their period of prior awareness was 0.11 years. Swelling was the most frequent presenting symptom. All presented as well-defined corticated radiolucencies; three were unilocular and two were multilocular and all displayed expansion. This resulted in displacement and erosion of the lower border of the mandible in one case and the downward displacement past the lower border of a lateral cortex in two others. The inferior dental canal in each mandibular case exhibited both displacement and absence. The antrum was affected in a sole maxillary case. Four patients were followed up for a mean of 8.5 years. The fifth patient discharged himself shortly after surgery. No lesions recurred. Conclusions OOCs in this community displayed an expansile character, but did not recur after moderately long follow-up. The time between the prior awareness of their disease and their presentation for diagnosis and treatment was, so far, the shortest for any lesion affecting the jaw in this Hong Kong Chinese community. PMID:20395466

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S; Li, T K

2010-01-01

193

The effectiveness of decompression for patients with dentigerous cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, and unicystic ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the clinical effectiveness of decompression in decreasing the size of a cyst. In addition to the different types of cysts, we tried to reveal what effect host factors, such as the initial size of the lesion and the age of the patient, have on the velocity of cyst shrinkage. Materials and Methods With the aid of a panoramic view, we measured the size of the cysts before and after decompression in 13 dentigerous cysts (DCs), 14 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KTOCs), and 5 unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) cases. The velocity of shrinkage in the three cystic groups was calculated. Relationships between the age of the patient, the initial size of the cyst, and the shrinkage velocity were investigated. Results The three types of cysts showed no inter-type differences in their velocity of shrinkage. However, there was a statistically meaningful relationship between the initial size of the lesion and the absolute velocity of shrinkage in the DC group (P=0.02, R=0.65) and the KTOC group (P=0.02, R=0.56). There was also a significant relationship between the age of the patient and the absolute velocity of shrinkage in the KTOC group (P=0.04, R=0.45) and the UA group (P=0.04, R=0.46). Conclusion There was no difference in the decrease in size due to decompression among the different types of cysts. However, the age of the patient and the initial size of the lesion showed a significant relationship with the velocity of shrinkage.

Park, Hyun-Soo; Song, In-Seok; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Lee, Jong-Ho

2014-01-01

194

[Seasonal changes in the frequency of isolating strict anaerobes in purulent-inflammatory processes].  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in the isolation rate of obligate anaerobes from the pathological material of patients with purulent inflammatory diseases were studied. For this purpose 707 samples of pathological material were analysed in the course of 1982-1986. Anaerobes were detected in 160 samples, which constituted 22.6% of all samples under study and 33.5% of the samples showing microbial growth. A statistically significant increase in the isolation rate of anaerobes from pathological material at the period of March-April was established. It was considered expedient to regard this newly found effect as an additional risk factor in the appearance of anaerobic infections and to take it into account in planning and carrying out prophylactic and diagnostico-therapeutic measures. PMID:2735169

Bazhenov, L G; Iskhakova, Kh I

1989-04-01

195

Hydrogen production from inhibited anaerobic composters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated hydrogen production from a model lignocellulosic waste in inhibited solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Acetylene at 1% vv in the headspace was as effective as bromoethanesulfonate in inhibiting methanogenic activity in batch anaerobic composters containing 25% (wv) total organic solids inoculated with an undefined cellulotytic consortium derived from anaerobic digesters. Acetylene also had no effect on the rate

R. Sparling; D. Risbey; H. M. Poggi-Varaldo

1997-01-01

196

Module 12: Biogas/Anaerobic Digesters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students anaerobic digester basics, the benefits of anaerobic digesters, the anaerobic digester process, and a variety of related topics. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 55 slide PowerPoint presentation.

2014-09-02

197

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries  

E-print Network

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries Practical Information and Case Studies Sandec: Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries #12;Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste-3-906484-58-7 Bibliographic reference: Vögeli Y., Lohri C. R., Gallardo A., Diener S., Zurbrügg C. (2014). Anaerobic Digestion

Wehrli, Bernhard

198

Identification of the involvement of LOXL4 in generation of keratocystic odontogenic tumors by RNA-Seq analysis  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) are benign, locally aggressive intraosseous tumors of odontogenic origin. KCOT have a higher stromal microvessel density (MVD) than dentigerous cysts (DC) and normal oral mucosa. To identify genes in the stroma of KCOT involved in tumor development and progression, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed using samples from KCOT and primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from gingival tissues. Seven candidate genes that possess a function potentially related to KCOT progression were selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), the only candidate gene that encodes a secreted protein, was enhanced at both the mRNA and protein levels in KCOT stromal tissues and primary KCOT stromal fibroblasts compared to control tissues and primary fibroblasts (P<0.05). In vitro, high expression of LOXL4 could enhance proliferation and migration of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). There was a significant, positive correlation between LOXL4 protein expression and MVD in stroma of KCOT and control tissues (r=0.882). These data suggest that abnormal expression of LOXL4 of KCOT may enhance angiogenesis in KCOT, which may help to promote the locally aggressive biological behavior of KCOT. PMID:24357854

Jiang, Wei-Peng; Sima, Zi-Han; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Sun, Li-Sha; Chen, Feng; Li, Tie-Jun

2014-01-01

199

Importance of Different Modalities of Treatment For the Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Five year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumors is a benign but one of most aggressive developmental cyst with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features and high recurrence rate. In the given study, authors have studied and presented their experience of managing Keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The aim of the study was to define an appropriate treatment protocol for the management of KCOT. Materials and Methods: Total 8 patients, whose histopathological reports confirmed Gorlin – Goltz syndrome and KCOT, with age between 10 – 50 years, were selected from cases being treated at Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, India. Enucleation and resection were the surgical techniques employed. Modality of treatment was based on parameters like age , size, aggressiveness and extent of the lesion. All the patients were operated under general anaesthesia. Cases were studied, reviewed and followed up for five years between 2007-2012. Results: The study included 8 cases in which three cases were opted for resection and five cases for enucleation followed by application of Carnoy’s solution. Conclusion: Treatment modality should be decided on age, extent, aggressiveness and nature of the tumour. PMID:24783143

Ebenezer, Vijay; Ramalingam, Balakrishnan

2014-01-01

200

Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with ?-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and ?-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation. PMID:25175224

Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

2014-10-01

201

Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Background Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to anaerobiosis. Here we performed deep sequencing to compare the gonococcal transcriptomes of aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. Using the information derived from this sequencing, we discuss the implications of the robust transcriptional response to anaerobic growth. Results We determined that 198 chromosomal genes were differentially expressed (~10% of the genome) in response to anaerobic conditions. We also observed a large induction of genes encoded within the cryptic plasmid, pJD1. Validation of RNA-seq data using translational-lacZ fusions or RT-PCR demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be very reproducible. Surprisingly, many genes of prophage origin were induced anaerobically, as well as several transcriptional regulators previously unknown to be involved in anaerobic growth. We also confirmed expression and regulation of a small RNA, likely a functional equivalent of fnrS in the Enterobacteriaceae family. We also determined that many genes found to be responsive to anaerobiosis have also been shown to be responsive to iron and/or oxidative stress. Conclusions Gonococci will be subject to many forms of environmental stress, including oxygen-limitation, during the course of infection. Here we determined that the anaerobic stimulon in gonococci was larger than previous studies would suggest. Many new targets for future research have been uncovered, and the results derived from this study may have helped to elucidate factors or mechanisms of virulence that may have otherwise been overlooked. PMID:21251255

2011-01-01

202

Anaerobic growth of Candida albicans does not support biofilm formation under similar conditions used for aerobic biofilm.  

PubMed

C. albicans is an opportunistic fungus causing life-threatening systemic infections particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The organism is a commensal in humans and grows either aerobically, e.g., the oral cavity, or anaerobically, e.g., the gut. We studied anaerobic growth of C. albicans in a defined yeast nitrogen base dextrose medium after adaptation and subculturing in an anaerobic chamber. At 37 degrees C in suspension culture, much slower growth was observed anaerobically with a generation time of 248 min compared to 98 min for aerobic growth. Although the organism grew well on solid medium, shaking increased the growth rate in suspension culture at 37 degrees C. Growth was enhanced at acidic pH compared to neutral or alkaline pH. Cells grown anaerobically produced hyphae, but did not produce biofilm on plastic surface or denture acrylic under either static conditions or with mild shaking, conditions that support aerobic biofilm formation. PMID:15991052

Biswas, Swarajit K; Chaffin, W LaJean

2005-08-01

203

ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF TRIFLURALIN [ABSTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dinitroaniline herbicides, such as trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine) persist in oxic terrestrial environments, yet are rapidly degraded under certain anaerobic conditions. We examined the roles of Fe(II) minerals and trifluralin bioavailability in fate of the her...

204

Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.  

PubMed

Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

2014-08-01

205

Anaerobic brain abscess following chronic suppurative otitis media in a child from Uganda  

PubMed Central

Brain abscess, while rare, confers high mortality, especially in the developing world. The case of a Ugandan child with a polymicrobial brain abscess including infection with Tissierella praeacuta/Clostridium hastiforme requiring repeated drainage and eventual surgical excision is reported. The case demonstrates the importance of considering anaerobic organisms in the treatment of children with brain abscess from the developing world. PMID:20808460

Cox, KA; Al-Rawahi, G; Kollmann, TR

2009-01-01

206

Anaerobic Pretreatment of Strong Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot<\\/sub> with averages higher than 1200 mg\\/l and with a

M. M. Halalsheh

2002-01-01

207

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor invading the maxillary sinus: a case report of collaborative surgery between an oral surgeon and an otorhinolaryngologist.  

PubMed

We report a case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in a 21-year-old female patient. The patient was referred to our clinic from a dental clinic for the radical treatment of recurrent KCOT in the maxilla. She had undergone conservative drainage surgery twice at that clinic.The tumor was cystic and covered with a bony capsule, which extended high into the maxillary sinus. A pinhole fistula, which was created during a previous surgery, was identified in the gingivobuccal sulcus. The whole tumor was successfully removed using a bidirectional approach from the fistula and from the antrostomy in the middle meatus. This report shows that the intimate collaboration between an otorhinolaryngologist and an oral surgeon could provide a minimally invasive, and at the same time, radical surgical treatment for certain kinds of tumor in the head and neck region. We also recommend the introduction of endoscopic surgeries by the oral surgeon. PMID:25501756

Kunihiro, Takanobu; Kawana, Hiromasa; Kodaka, Rie; Oba, Toshihiko

2014-12-01

208

Human infections with Fusobacterium necrophorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacillus that can be a primary pathogen causing either localised abscesses and throat infections or systemic life-threatening disease. Systemic infections due to F. necrophorum are referred to as either Lemierre's disease\\/syndrome, post-anginal sepsis or necrobacillosis, but in the context of this mini-review, all are included under the umbrella term of ‘invasive F. necrophorum disease’

Jon S. Brazier

2006-01-01

209

Superoxide dismutase in anaerobic bacteria of clinical significance.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two anaerobic bacteria isolated from infected sites and normal fecal flora were assayed for superoxide dismutase (SOD). The organisms were also classified according to their oxygen tolerance into aerotolerant, intermediate, and extremely oxygen-sensitive groups. There was a correlation between the enzyme level and the oxygen tolerance, in that the aerotolerant and intermediate organisms had SOD, whereas the extremely oxygen-sensitive isolates had low or undetectable enzyme. Among the oxygen-tolerant organisms, gram-negative bacteria had higher levels of SOD than gram-positive organisms. Oxygen was shown to induce SOD production in a strain of Bacteriodes fragilis grown in minimal medium under continuous-culture conditions. Enzyme levels in this isolate grown under static conditions were lower in minimal medium than in complex medium, indicating that other components in the complex medium were stimulating the production of SOD. Our data suggest that the variation in oxygen tolerance of anaerobes is usually related to their level of SOD. It is postulated that SOD may be a virulence factor that allows pathogenic anaerobes to survive in oxygenated tissues until the proper reduced conditions are established for their growth. PMID:326669

Tally, F P; Goldin, B R; Jacobus, N V; Gorbach, S L

1977-01-01

210

Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure  

E-print Network

be the minimum size required for economic feasibility of methane production. Morris et al. (1975) concluded that anaerobic digestion was not feasible for a 100 cow dairy. Ifeadi and Brown (1975) estimated that the break even size for methane production from a... and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic...

Egg, Richard P

2012-06-07

211

Subdural empyema secondary to odontogenic masticator space abscess: detection by indium-111-labeled white cell scan.  

PubMed

Subdural empyema (SDE) is an extremely rare but serious complication of dental infection. A case is presented in which dental infection was complicated by a masticator space abscess and eventually led to a SDE. This report illustrates a rare sequence of events leading to SDE and its serendipitous detection by indium-111-labeled leucocyte scan. PMID:11435034

Shotelersuk, V; Goyal, M; Rauchenstein, J N; Konez, O

2001-01-01

212

Multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars in a non-syndromic patient with associated orthokeratised odontogenic cyst- A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Multiple supernumerary teeth are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. They are commonly associated with syndromes like Gardner's syndrome and cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth have a predilection to occur in the mandibular premolar region. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising about 10% of the cases that had been previously implied as odontogenic keratocysts. More than half of the cases of OOC are associated with impacted tooth; but not a single case of OOC associated with supernumerary teeth is reported. Hence, the purpose of this article is to report the first case of multiple supernumerary mandibular premolars associated with OOC in a 35-year-old male and to review the literature associated with multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars. PMID:23230374

Kasat, Vikrant O.; Saluja, Harish; Kalburge, Jitendra V.; Kini, Yogesh; Nikam, Atul; Laddha, Ruchi

2012-01-01

213

In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against 623 Diverse Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of ceftaroline, a novel, parenteral, broad-spectrum cephalosporin, and four comparator antimicrobials were determined against anaerobic bacteria. Against Gram-positive strains, the activity of ceftaroline was similar to that of amoxicillin-clavulanate and four to eight times greater than that of ceftriaxone. Against Gram-negative organisms, ceftaroline showed good activity against ?-lactamase-negative strains but not against the members of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Ceftaroline showed potent activity against a broad spectrum of anaerobes encountered in respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. PMID:20100877

Citron, D. M.; Tyrrell, K. L.; Merriam, C. V.; Goldstein, E. J. C.

2010-01-01

214

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed Central

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-01-01

215

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

PubMed

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

1994-03-01

216

Microbial activity measurements for anaerobic sludge digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of particulate substrate in the anaerobic sludge digestion process makes it difficult to measure the biomass in these reactors. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were investigated as indicators of the sludge activity for the anaerobic sludge digestion process. ATP measures the energy pools in the biomass and is therefore a measure of the total sludge activity.

Chung

1988-01-01

217

Anaerobic sealants: still a problem today.  

PubMed

Acrylic anaerobic sealants are widely used in engineering and electronic industries. They may induce allergic contact dermatitis of the first three fingers and onycholysis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to anaerobic sealants and we underline some practical problems connected with the frequency of sensitization, patch-testing and material safety data sheet availability. PMID:10980471

Corazza, M; Bacilieri, S; Virgili, A

2000-08-01

218

Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

Manning, James M.; And Others

219

ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI: POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI: POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS 1 2 Ravinder Nagpal, Anil Kumar Puniya*, Gareth, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India. (*puniya1234@rediffmail.com) Anaerobic fungi are the significant constituent of rumen microbiota in livestock that rely on poor-quality fibrous diets. Such fungi

Griffith, Gareth

220

Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions.  

PubMed

Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2-4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

Mastroianni, Jennifer R; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E; Ouellette, André J

2014-01-01

221

Oxygen tolerance of fresh clinical anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The oxygen tolerance and sensitivity of 57 freshly isolated anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens was studied. All the organisms tolerated 8 h or more of exposure to oxygen in room air. Growth of the isolates in increasing oxygen concentrations demonstrated that the 57 isolates varied in oxygen sensitivity from strict to aerotolerant anaerobes. Comparison of the oxygen tolerance and sensitivity showed that the most tolerant organisms (best survival after prolonged exposure) included anaerobes capable of growth at only 0.4% or less O2 (strict) as well as those able to grow in as much as 10% O2. The least tolerant were predominately strict anaerobes. Decrease in the inoculum size from a concentration of 10(8) to 10(6) colony-forming units per ml had only a minor effect. The data indicate that the brief oxygen exposure with bench techniques in clinical laboratories would not be deleterious to the anaerobic bacteria present in clinical specimens. PMID:1176601

Tally, F P; Stewart, P R; Sutter, V L; Rosenblatt, J E

1975-01-01

222

Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion. PMID:25457225

Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

2014-12-01

223

Anaerobic digestion in rural China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

Henderson, J.P. [City of Vancouver (Canada)

1997-01-01

224

Infected cementoblastoma  

PubMed Central

Cementoblastoma is a relatively uncommon, benign odontogenic neoplasm of jaws. Mandible is affected more than the maxilla. The lesions are generally diagnosed on a routine radiograph. The localized expansion of cortical plates is observed. Radiographically, it consists of well-defined radiopacity with a radiolucent band. Here is a case report of a female aged 55 years having swelling in the right mandibular angle with an extraoral draining sinus. A panoramic radiograph shows a dense radiopaque mass along the roots of the third molar surrounded by a radiolucent band. Surgical excision was carried out and a histopathological examination was carried out which was suggestive of cementoblastoma. PMID:22639514

Kumar, Sudesh; Prabhakar, Vikram; Angra, Raman

2011-01-01

225

Isolation of anaerobes from bubo associated with chancroid.  

PubMed

Ten men with bubo associated with chancroid were studied for bacterial flora especially anaerobes. Anaerobes were isolated from all 10 buboes and eight out of 10 ulcers of chancroid. Anaerobic cocci, B melaninogenicus and B fragilis were the most common isolates. anaerobes probably play a role in the pathogenesis of bubo in chancroid. PMID:1680792

Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V; Ayyagiri, A

1991-02-01

226

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

227

The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of

J. A. Field

1989-01-01

228

Anaerobic bacteremia and fungemia in patients undergoing endodontic therapy: an overview.  

PubMed

Oral focal infection, a concept neglected for several decades, is a subject of controversy. Recent progress in classification and identification of oral microorganisms has renewed interest in focal infection. The aim of this study was to use phenotypic and genetic methods to trace microorganisms released into the bloodstream during and after endodontic treatment back to their presumed source--the root canal. Microbiological samples were taken from the root canals of 26 patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis of single-rooted teeth. The blood of the patients was drawn during and 10 minutes after endodontic therapy. Microorganisms in blood were collected after anaerobic lysis filtration and cultured anaerobically on blood agar plates. The phenotypic methods used for characterization and tracing of microorganisms in blood and root canals were: biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility test, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell soluble proteins, and gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. Phenotypic data were verified by DNA restriction patterns and corresponding ribotypes of the root canal and blood isolates by using a computer-assisted system fro gel analysis. All root canals contained anaerobic bacteria. The frequency of bacteremia varied from 31% to 54%. The microorganisms from the root canal and blood presented identical phenotype and genetic characteristics within the patients examined. These characteristics differed between patients. The present study demonstrated that endodontic treatment can be the cause of anaerobic bacteremia and fungemia. The phenotypic and genetic methods used appeared valuable for tracing microorganisms in the blood back to their origin. PMID:9722712

Debelian, G J; Olsen, I; Tronstad, L

1998-07-01

229

Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden  

SciTech Connect

Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

Not Available

1982-02-01

230

A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

2014-01-01

231

Immunohistochemical analysis of factors related to apoptosis and cellular proliferation in relation to inflammation in dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of inflammation on pathogenesis and biological behavior of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and dentigerous cyst (DC) is not completely understood. Hence, we aimed to analyze the effect of inflammation on biological behavior of OKC and DC using a proliferative and anti-apoptotic marker, i.e., proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2, respectively. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-PCNA and Bcl-2 antibody in 10 cases each of classical OKC, inflamed OKC and classical DC and inflamed DC. Results: Inflamed OKC and DC showed a significant increase in PCNA expression and decrease in Bcl-2 expression when compared with non-inflamed cyst. Correlation between inflammation and proliferative and anti-apoptotic activity was found to be statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Inflammation is responsible for change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC and hence should be treated meticulously, whereas in DC it is responsible for changes in the epithelial lining. PMID:24678208

Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Raju, M. Vijaya; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Manjunath, SM; Shetty, Sujan; Agarwal, Rakesh Kumar

2014-01-01

232

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor arising at the mandibular ramus with an impacted tooth: a case report and mimic lesions.  

PubMed

Objectives: To consider the biologic behaviors of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts. Methods: A 63-year-old Japanese man presented with swelling and discomfort in the left cheek during jaw movement. Examination revealed a multilocular lesion within the mandible extending from the left second premolar to the left mandibular ramus and coronoid process; the lesion contained a deviated impacted tooth. The tumor had expanded beyond the bone and was invading the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles. Marginal mandibulectomy with a free iliac bone graft was performed. Results: No recurrence was observed during a 7-year follow-up. Discussion: The histopathological diagnosis of the lesion showed it was a KCOT. These tumors usually grow within the bone, causing bone expansion. However, this tumor had expanded beyond the bone and invaded surrounding muscles. Thus, KCOTs can, in rare cases, manifest themselves as described here. Evaluating preoperative images and histopathological findings is important to determine the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25371100

Kimura, Takashi; Ohba, Seigo; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Shuichi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Sano, Kazuo

2014-11-01

233

Influence of in-vivo endotoxin liberation on anti-anaerobic antimicrobial efficacy.  

PubMed

The ability of cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, meropenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam to cause gram-negative anaerobic bacteria to release endotoxin and the influence of such liberated endotoxin on antibiotic efficacy were investigated in in-vivo experiments in animal models. Experimental infections in various animal models (mice, hamster and infant rats) with cultures of wild and reference strains of Bacteroides fragilis group and Fusobacterium spp. were carried out by injecting these animals with different inocula (10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cfu/ml) of the bacterial suspension, Appropriate doses of the test antibiotics were then injected and the plasma lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) release measured by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay. Evidence of worsening of the outcome of the infections post-therapy was assessed, including histopathological changes in the internal organs. Infection with generalized septicemia was established with F. nucleatum in the mice and hamster models while with the B. fragilis group, infections only led to intra-abdominal abscess formation. Plasma endotoxin release was higher in animals infected with F. nucleatum than B. fragilis and was unrelated to the bacterial inoculum. Imipenem, meropenem and cefoxitin, in that order, induced the highest levels of endotoxin activities in the animal model, particularly following F. nucleatum infection. Histological examination of the internal organs of various animals showed variation in the pattern of histopathological changes; grades 3-4 inflammatory changes in the liver were observed in the Fusobacterium-infected animals that were treated with the carbapenems and cefoxitin. Therapy with the other antibiotics did not exacerbate anaerobic sepsis. In this study, bacteremia did not lead to massive endotoxin release and antibiotic therapy appeared not to have negatively influenced the outcome of most of the gram-negative anaerobic infections, except for infections caused by Fusobacterium spp. However, it is conceivable that if the gastrointestinal tract is the source of the endotoxin in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, then the obligate anaerobes like Bacteroides and Fusobacterium species, which are members of the gut flora, may play a major role in the unfavorable outcome of antibiotic therapy in some of these infections. PMID:11760215

Rotimi, V O; Al-Sweih, N N; Anim, J T; Ahmed, K; Verghese, T L; Khodakhast, F B

2001-10-01

234

Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars. Images PMID:7034646

Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

1982-01-01

235

Analysis of 281,797 consecutive blood cultures performed over an eight-year period: trends in microorganisms isolated and the value of anaerobic culture of blood.  

PubMed

The results for 281,797 blood culture sets of specimens collected from adult patients at the Mayo Clinic over an approximately 8-year period (1 November 1984 through 30 November 1992) were analyzed in order to determine whether there were differences in the types of microorganisms isolated over this time and to assess the usefulness of anaerobic culturing of blood. Each blood culture set consisted of two aerobic blood cultures (Septi-Chek [Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD] and Isolator [Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ]) and one anaerobic culture (nonvented tryptic or trypticase soy broth [NVTSB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, or Becton Dickinson]). The relative frequency of isolation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-positive bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria increased over the second half of the 1984-1992 surveillance period. The value of the NVTSB anaerobic blood culture was demonstrated for diagnosing bloodstream infections caused by certain facultatively anaerobic bacteria in addition to obligately anaerobic bacteria and supported the inclusion of the NVTSB anaerobic blood culture as a standard part of the three-component blood culture set used at this institution. PMID:9114192

Cockerill, F R; Hughes, J G; Vetter, E A; Mueller, R A; Weaver, A L; Ilstrup, D M; Rosenblatt, J E; Wilson, W R

1997-03-01

236

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

237

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

238

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

239

The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

1990-01-01

240

ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In an international conference, microbiologists from five countries presented results of research into the anaerobic dehalogenation of compounds of environmental interest being performed at selected universities, government agencies, and private companies. he conference, held fro...

241

Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion  

E-print Network

Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

2014-01-01

242

Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater was rather unpopular because of the production of H2S under anaerobic conditions. Gaseous and dissolved sulphides cause physical-chemical (corrosion, odour, increased effluent chemical oxygen demand) or biological (toxicity) constraints, which may lead to process failure. Anaerobic treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater can nevertheless be applied successfully provided a proper treatment strategy is selected. The

Look W. Hulshoff Pol; Piet N. L. Lens; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gatze Lettinga

1998-01-01

243

Challenge of psychrophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment is an attractive option for wastewaters that are discharged at moderate to low temperature. The expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor has been shown to be a feasible system for anaerobic treatment of mainly soluble and pre-acidified wastewater at temperatures of 5–10°C. An organic loading rate (OLR) of 10–12 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter

Gatze Lettinga; Salih Rebac; Grietje Zeeman

2001-01-01

244

The Continuous Culture of Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Modifications to an anaerobic continuous culture apparatus to allow pH control, and pH and Eh measurements, are described. Two anaerobic rumen bacteria were grown under different conditions, but as carbohydrate-limited cultures. The effects of growth rate, pH value and Eh value on yields of bacteria, enzyme activities and fermentation products are described. Optimum bacterial yields per mole of substrate

P. N. HOBSON; R. SUMMERS

1967-01-01

245

Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress. PMID:24723105

Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

246

Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

1995-01-01

247

Bloodstream infection with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens: a potentially lethal infection.  

PubMed

Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens (A succiniciproducens), a spiral, Gram-negative anaerobic rod which is part of the normal intestinal flora of cats and dogs, has rarely been reported as a cause of bacteremia and diarrhea in humans, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Although it can be associated with significant mortality, the full extent of its pathogenicity, clinical spectrum, and optimal therapy remain to be determined. We review the available literature on microbiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment options for Anaerobiospirillum infection. PMID:21297548

Kelesidis, Theodoros

2011-03-01

248

Physical properties and biological/odontogenic effects of an experimentally developed fast-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate-based pulp capping material  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, fast-setting ?-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) cement was developed for use in the pulp capping process. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of ?-TCP cement in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods We measured the setting time, pH values, compressive strength, and solubility of the two materials. We evaluated biocompatibility on the basis of cell morphology and a viability test using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The expression of odontogenic-related genes was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The calcified nodule formation was measured by Alizarin red staining. We performed the pulp capping procedure on rat teeth for histological investigation. The data were analyzed by an independent t-test for physical properties, one-way ANOVA for biological effects, and the Mann-Whitney U test for tertiary dentin formation. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results The setting time, pH values, and compressive strength of ?-TCP was lower than that of MTA (P??0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that cells attached to both materials were flat and had cytoplasmic extensions. The expression of odontogenic-related markers and mineralized nodule formation were higher in the two experimental groups compared to the control group (P?odontogenicity comparable to MTA, whereas it had a quicker setting time. PMID:25015173

2014-01-01

249

Co-occurrence of anaerobic bacteria in colorectal carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous cancers have been linked to microorganisms. Given that colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths and the colon is continuously exposed to a high diversity of microbes, the relationship between gut mucosal microbiome and colorectal cancer needs to be explored. Metagenomic studies have shown an association between Fusobacterium species and colorectal carcinoma. Here, we have extended these studies with deeper sequencing of a much larger number (n = 130) of colorectal carcinoma and matched normal control tissues. We analyzed these data using co-occurrence networks in order to identify microbe-microbe and host-microbe associations specific to tumors. Results We confirmed tumor over-representation of Fusobacterium species and observed significant co-occurrence within individual tumors of Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia and Campylobacter species. This polymicrobial signature was associated with over-expression of numerous host genes, including the gene encoding the pro-inflammatory chemokine Interleukin-8. The tumor-associated bacteria we have identified are all Gram-negative anaerobes, recognized previously as constituents of the oral microbiome, which are capable of causing infection. We isolated a novel strain of Campylobacter showae from a colorectal tumor specimen. This strain is substantially diverged from a previously sequenced oral Campylobacter showae isolate, carries potential virulence genes, and aggregates with a previously isolated tumor strain of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Conclusions A polymicrobial signature of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria is associated with colorectal carcinoma tissue. PMID:24450771

2013-01-01

250

Enzymes Involved in Anaerobic Respiration Appear To Play a Role in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Virulence  

PubMed Central

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is able to survive on respiratory epithelia, in tonsils, and in the anaerobic environment of encapsulated sequesters. It was previously demonstrated that a deletion of the anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase gene (dmsA) results in attenuation in acute disease (N. Baltes, S. Kyaw, I. Hennig-Pauka, and G. F. Gerlach, Infect. Immun. 71:6784-6792, 2003). In the present study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we identified an aspartate ammonia-lyase (AspA) which is upregulated upon induction with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This enzyme is involved in the production of fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The coding gene (aspA) was cloned and shown to be present in all A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains. The transcriptional start point was identified downstream of a putative FNR binding motif, and BALF-dependent activation of aspA was confirmed by construction of an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae mutant carrying a chromosomal aspA::luxAB transcriptional fusion. Two aspA deletion mutants, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA, were constructed, both showing reduced growth under anaerobic conditions in vitro. Pigs challenged with either of the two mutants in an aerosol infection model showed a lower lung lesion score than that of the A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type (wt) controls. Pigs challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA?dmsA had a significantly lower clinical score, and this mutant was rarely reisolated from unaltered lung tissue; in contrast, A. pleuropneumoniae ?aspA and the A. pleuropneumoniae wt were consistently reisolated in high numbers. These results suggest that enzymes involved in anaerobic respiration are necessary for the pathogen's ability to persist on respiratory tract epithelium and play an important role in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis. PMID:15618158

Jacobsen, Ilse; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Baltes, Nina; Trost, Matthias; Gerlach, Gerald-F.

2005-01-01

251

Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester.

Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

1985-01-01

252

Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

1984-01-01

253

The value of early intraoral incisions in patients with perimandibular odontogenic maxillofacial abscesses.  

PubMed

Perimandibular abscesses require drainage and removal of the underlying cause of infection. Traditionally drainage was established extraorally, but this can be associated with delay to treatment, because this is done under general anaesthesia. Between July 2008 and June 2013, 205 patients were initially either treated by immediate intraoral incision under local anaesthesia or extraoral incisions under general anaesthesia and prospectively evaluated. Predictors of treatment outcomes and complications were analysed. Fewer secondary procedures were needed for patients with primary treatment under general anaesthesia (p < 0.0001), but the overall stay in hospital was shorter after initial treatment under local anaesthesia (p < 0.0001, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.85). Postoperative complications occurred significantly more often under general anaesthesia (p < 0.0001, OR = 16.63, 95% CI 5.59-49.5). Significant prognostic variable was the administration of amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid (p = 0.016, OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41) and adverse prognostic factors were infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (p = 0.048, OR 17.45, 95% CI 1.02-298) or diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003, OR 10.39, 95% CI 2.23-48.41). Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid showed a significant impact on the treatment course of patients with perimandibular abscesses. PMID:25523398

Mücke, Thomas; Dujka, Nina; Ermer, Michael A; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco; Mitchell, David A; Ritschl, Lucas; Deppe, Herbert

2015-03-01

254

Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22902601

Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

2013-02-01

255

Infection Caused by Propionibacterium in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred eighty-six isolates of Propionibacterium sp. were recovered from 2,003 specimens studied for the identification of anaerobic bacteria in children during a 15-year period. Three hundred forty-three (89%) of these were Propionibacterium acnes. A total of 50 (13%) Propionibacterium isolates identified from 45 patients were considered to cause infection. Clinically significant infections caused by Propionibacterium sp. were associated with

Itzhak Brook

1994-01-01

256

Integrated Genotypic Analysis of Hedgehog-Related Genes Identifies Subgroups of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with Distinct Clinicopathological Features  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) arises as part of Gorlin syndrome (GS) or as a sporadic lesion. Gene mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the hedgehog receptor PTCH1 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of KCOT. However, some KCOT cases lack evidence for gene alteration of PTCH1, suggesting that other genes in the hedgehog pathway may be affected. PTCH2 and SUFU participate in the occurrence of GS-associated tumors, but their roles in KCOT development are unknown. To elucidate the roles of these genes, we enrolled 36 KCOT patients in a study to sequence their entire coding regions of PTCH1, PTCH2 and SUFU. LOH and immunohistochemical expression of these genes, as well as the downstream targets of hedgehog signaling, were examined using surgically-excised KCOT tissues. PTCH1 mutations, including four novel ones, were found in 9 hereditary KCOT patients, but not in sporadic KCOT patients. A pathogenic mutation of PTCH2 or SUFU was not found in any patients. LOH at PTCH1 and SUFU loci correlated with the presence of epithelial budding. KCOT harboring a germline mutation (Type 1) showed nuclear localization of GLI2 and frequent histological findings such as budding and epithelial islands, as well as the highest recurrence rate. KCOT with LOH but without a germline mutation (Type 2) less frequently showed these histological features, and the recurrence rate was lower. KCOT with neither germline mutation nor LOH (Type 3) consisted of two subgroups, Type 3A and 3B, which were characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic GLI2 localization, respectively. Type 3B rarely exhibited budding and recurrence, behaving as the most amicable entity. The expression patterns of CCND1 and BCL2 tended to correlate with these subgroups. Our data indicates a significant role of PTCH1 and SUFU in the pathogenesis of KCOT, and the genotype-oriented subgroups constitute entities with different potential aggressiveness. PMID:23951062

Shimada, Yasuyuki; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Kabasawa, Yuji; Morita, Kei-ichi; Omura, Ken; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sakamoto, Kei

2013-01-01

257

Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst  

PubMed Central

Introduction: p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and periapical cyst (PA). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 ?m were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. Results: The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%), whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1) OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60%) whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2) The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. Conclusion: OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA. PMID:25210385

Sajeevan, Thara Purath; Saraswathi, Tillai Rajasekaran; Ranganathan, Kannan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Uma Devi K.

2014-01-01

258

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

259

Anaerobic bacterial recovery from two transport systems in a study of gynecologic flora.  

PubMed

Several systems for transporting specimens to the laboratory to test for the presence of anaerobic bacteria are available to clinicians. To date, these have not been systematically compared, especially regarding cost-effectiveness. This study compares recovery of anaerobic organisms from genital cultures of gynecological patients under bacteriologic study for research purposes. Two transport systems for delivery of specimens to the laboratory were studied: 1) the commercially available Anaswab system, and 2) a modified Stuart medium (transport charcoal medium) with 0.2% added agar in addition to 0.2% added charcoal. Our data shows no significant difference in kinds of anaerobic organisms recovered using either system when specimens are transported to the laboratory within 24 hours. Although the sites of culturing compared in this study are not directly applicable to the problem of pelvic infection, nevertheless the potential for lowering cost by selecting alternative systems for anaerobic recovery should prompt further comparisons in clinical settings. Some practical suggestions are made for applying agar-modified transport charcoal medium, the less expensive alternative, to clinical situations. PMID:683619

Grossmann, J H; Adams, R L

1978-07-01

260

Application of enzymes in anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Owing to the very low economic value of brewer's spent grains, its utilisation for biogas production is very promising. The hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose is the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Enzymatic pre-treatment promotes the hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose, breaking it down to lower molecular weight substances which are ready to be utilised by the bacteria. A cheap raw multi-enzyme produced by a solid state fermentation (SSF) process is a good substitute for expensive conventional enzyme. The SSF enzyme application to spent grain has been investigated by carrying out enzymatic solubility tests, hydrolytic experiments and two-step anaerobic fermentation of spent grain. Gas chromatograph analysis was conducted to quantify fatty acids concentrations, while CH(4), CO(2), O(2), H(2) and H(2)S were measured to determine biogas quality by means of a gas analyser. DS, oDS, pH were also measured to analyse the anaerobic digestion. The result shows that enzyme application promotes the hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose, indicated by higher enzymatic solubility and fatty acid concentration in a hydrolytic bioreactor. Moreover, biogas production is also increased. The quality of the gases produced is also enhanced. Since the anaerobic digestion can be operated in a stable performance, it can also be concluded that SSF enzyme is compatible with anaerobic digestion. PMID:18048974

Bochmann, G; Herfellner, T; Susanto, F; Kreuter, F; Pesta, G

2007-01-01

261

Fusobacterium nucleatum prosthetic hip infection in an adult with sickle cell-beta thalassemia.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus commensal to the human oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract which causes an array of human infection, yet it has never been associated with infection of prosthetic joints. We report the first case of prosthetic hip infection caused by F. nucleatum in a man with sickle cell-beta thalassemia. PMID:22002730

Verma, K; McNabb, P C; Kurtz, W; Green, J; Trabue, C H

2012-06-01

262

ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LITERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the review is to evaluate and summarize available information about the role of microorganisms in the anaerobic transformation of xenobiotic compounds in natural environments. The review focuses on the anaerobic transformation of xenobiotic compounds and natural st...

263

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

264

Use of biochars in anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

This study investigated the behavior of biochars from pyrolysis (pyrochar) and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochar) in anaerobic digestion regarding their degradability and their effects on biogas production and ammonia inhibition. A batch fermentation experiment (42°C, 63 days) was conducted in 100mL syringes filled with 30 g inoculum, 2g biochar and four levels of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN). For pyrochar, no clear effect on biogas production was observed, whereas hydrochar increased the methane yield by 32%. This correlates with the hydrochar's larger fraction of anaerobically degradable carbon (10.4% of total carbon, pyrochar: 0.6%). Kinetic and microbiota analyses revealed that pyrochar can prevent mild ammonia inhibition (2.1 g TANk g(-1)). Stronger inhibitions (3.1-6.6 g TAN kg(-1)) were not mitigated, neither by pyrochar nor by hydrochar. Future research should pay attention to biochar-microbe interactions and the effects in continuously-fed anaerobic digesters. PMID:24859210

Mumme, Jan; Srocke, Franziska; Heeg, Kathrin; Werner, Maja

2014-07-01

265

Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria recovered from the uteri of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes and postparturient endometritis.  

PubMed

The uteri of 77 postparturient dairy cows were sampled. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically, and the nature of bacterial growth was identified. A mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection was found in 55% of the samples. Actinomyces pyogenes was the predominant aerobic species; it was found in 70% of the samples, whereas Bacteroides melaninogenicus was the most frequent anaerobic species isolated. Altogether, 16 species belonging to the genus Bacteroides were identified with variable frequencies. It appears that more than one Bacteroides species colonizes the uterus of a given cow postpartum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clindamycin, metronidazole, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin for 83 anaerobic isolates were determined. All isolates were susceptible to clindamycin (MIC90 of 0.064 microgram/ml) and all but two to metronidazole. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was variable, with a bimodal distribution of MIC values. The MIC of tetracycline for 90% of the isolates was > 256 micrograms/ml. PMID:8767765

Cohen, R O; Colodner, R; Ziv, G; Keness, J

1996-06-01

266

Adhesion of anaerobic bacteria to platelet containers.  

PubMed

Anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus saccharolyticus are frequently isolated during platelet screening with anaerobic culture methods. Although neither P. acnes nor S. saccharolyticus proliferates during platelet storage, both species survive well in this environment. This study was aimed at determining whether strains of P. acnes and/or S. saccharolyticus form surface-attached bacterial cell aggregates, known as biofilms, under platelet storage conditions. We report that these organisms are able to adhere to the inner surface of platelet containers in tight interaction with activated platelets. PMID:24602052

Kumaran, D; Kalab, M; Rood, I G H; de Korte, D; Ramirez-Arcos, S

2014-08-01

267

The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

2012-01-01

268

Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation: an alternative to soil fumigation?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil disinfestation methods using anaerobic decomposition of organic matter were developed in the Netherlands and Japan as an ecological alternative to MeBr. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) works by creating a combination of anaerobic soil conditions and readily available carbon pools to stimula...

269

Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion  

E-print Network

Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion Sudeep C Thermophilic anaerobic digestion Pathogen inactivation Ascaris suum Helminth eggs Poliovirus Enteric viruses a b s t r a c t Thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion is a promising process to divert waste

270

Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food waste collected in the City of San Francisco, California, was characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The daily and weekly variations of food waste composition over a two-month period were measured. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas and methane yields of the food waste were evaluated using batch anaerobic digestion tests performed at

Ruihong Zhang; Hamed M. El-Mashad; Karl Hartman; Fengyu Wang; Guangqing Liu; Chris Choate; Paul Gamble

2007-01-01

271

Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Fournier's gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier's gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy. PMID:21173921

Oiso, Naoki; Rai, Shinya; Kawara, Shigeru; Tatsumi, Yoichi; Kawada, Akira

2010-01-01

272

Cholera toxin production during anaerobic trimethylamine N-oxide respiration is mediated by stringent response in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ?relA ?spoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (?relA ?spoT ?relV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ?dksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ?relA ?spoT ?relV or ?dksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ?relA ?spoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae. PMID:24648517

Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

2014-05-01

273

Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment  

SciTech Connect

This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

1996-01-01

274

Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections. PMID:25371913

Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Corpus, Erika; Silva-Herzog, Daniel; Aragon-Piña, Antonio; Cohenca, Nestor

2014-01-01

275

Thermochemical liquidization of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge and anaerobic retreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment effect of thermochemical liquidization for the anaerobic retreatment of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge was studied. The digested sludge (dry matter; 15.7%) was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and 4 MPa with a holding time of 1 h. The liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to produce a supernatant of 44.7% (w\\/w) and precipitate of 52.3%. The liquidized sludge

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tomoko Ogi

1996-01-01

276

Submerged filter biotreatment of hazardous leachate in aerobic, anaerobic, and anaerobic\\/aerobic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic\\/aerobic biotreatment of an industrial hazardous waste landfill leachate was evaluated in bench scale biofilm reactor systems operated under steady-and non-steady-state conditions. The leachate contained volatile and semi-volatile organics that exceeded the best-demonstrated-available-technology (BDAT) standard established for multi-source leachate wastewater under the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The influent leachate stream was continuously applied to three

1995-01-01

277

Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations,

David P Chynoweth; John M Owens; Robert Legrand

2001-01-01

278

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent  

E-print Network

at an existing wastewater treatment plant. Based on scale-up evaluation, the test system should yield an energy.6 acre, which is on the same scale currently used at the host wastewater treatment facility to treat Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated

279

In vitro activity of penicillins against anaerobes.  

PubMed

The in vitro susceptibility of 162 anaerobic isolates from clinical material were tested to pencillin G, BL-P1654, and carbenicillin. Penicillin G and BL-P1654 showed good activity against Bacteroides fragilis, but only 60% of strains were susceptible to carbenicillin at achievable blood levels (128 mug/ml). PMID:1041215

Tally, F P; Jacobus, N V; Bartlett, J G; Gorbach, S L

1975-04-01

280

Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

281

Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. Experiments were carried out in three periods, where different organic loading rates (OLR) were applied

M. B. Osuna; J. M. Iza; M. H. Zandvoort; P. N. L. Lens

2003-01-01

282

Drug Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for routine, reproducible global surveillance of the drug susceptibility status of the anaerobic protozoa Trichomonas, Entamoeba, and Giardia is described. Data collected using this technique can be readily compared among different laboratories and with previously reported data. The technique employs a commercially available sachet and bag system to generate a low-oxygen environment and log2 drug dilutions in

JACQUELINE A. UPCROFT; PETER UPCROFT

2001-01-01

283

Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrophilic (2 to 20°C) anaerobic treatment of low strength synthetic and malting wastewater was investigated using a single and hvo module expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efftciencies found in the experiments exceeded 90% in the single module reactor at an organic loading rate up to 12g COD dm?3’ day?1 and a HRT

Salih Rebac; Jules B. van Lier; Piet Lens; Alfons J. M. Stams; Freddy Dekkers; Koen Th. M. Swinkels; Gatze Lettinga

1999-01-01

284

ORIGINAL PAPER Biostimulation of anaerobic BTEX biodegradation  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Biostimulation of anaerobic BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogenic biostimulation to enhance BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogen- ic conditions in groundwater, USA e-mail: alvarez@rice.edu 123 Biodegradation (2013) 24:333­341 DOI 10.1007/s10532-012-9589-y #12

Alvarez, Pedro J.

285

Monitoring the Atmosphere in an Anaerobic Chamber  

PubMed Central

The Couloximeter, a fuel cell designed to measure trace amounts of oxygen, was used to monitor the atmosphere in an anaerobic chamber. The device, easy to operate and to maintain, allowed both major and minor fluctuations in oxygen concentration to be measured. Using a hose attached to the outlet within the box, defective (ruptured) gloves were consistently distinguishable from intact gloves. PMID:16350004

Sudo, Sara Z.; Hersch, Paul A.

1974-01-01

286

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

287

Methanosaeta fibers in anaerobic migrating blanket reactors  

E-print Network

; ribosomal RNA; Methanosaeta Introduction During the last 30 years, anaerobic systems that rely associated with UASB reactors (Angenent and Dague, 1996). The AMBR is a flow-through reactor consisting of three to five compartments and is operated by reversing the flow periodically (Figure 1) (Angenent

Angenent, Lars T.

288

The aggressive nature of the odontogenic keratocyst: is it a benign cystic neoplasm? Part 3. Immunocytochemistry of cytokeratin and other epithelial cell markers.  

PubMed

Numerous studies of keratin expression by the more common odontogenic cysts were done to determine whether patterns of cytokeratin staining could provide accurate diagnostic markers for the different varieties; to see whether comparative studies with oral mucosa and developing odontogenic epithelium could explain the pathogenesis of the cysts; and whether cytokeratin patterns could provide clues in elucidating the aggressive nature of the OKC. This review was a complex task with a range of at least 19 different cytokeratins being studied and also a broad range of antibodies in use for the same cytokeratin or group of cytokeratins. Moreover, there was not always standardisation of laboratory techniques in the selection and preparation of material. These difficulties were, in general, recognised by the different workers in the field, particularly when there was disagreement on results and caution was expressed about drawing conclusions from some positive findings. It would be fair to conclude that cytokeratin immunocytochemistry has not advanced to any meaningful extent, its use as a diagnostic marker for the OKC nor in eludidating its pathogenesis. With regard to OKC behaviour, it has been pointed out that there was strong reaction of OKC lining for keratin 16, a cytokeratin that has been associated with high proliferative activity. Yet other studies have also shown keratin 16 expression in dentigerous and radicular cysts. Differences in cytokeratin, EMA and CEA immunocytochemical reactivity between the parakeratinised and orthokeratinised varieties of cyst were demonstrated and the suggestion made that the orthokeratinised type has a considerably less aggressive behaviour, is a different entity and should bear a different name. Furthermore, Ki67 positive cells in the parakeratinised OKC linings were considerably more frequent than in the orthokeratinised linings.OKC, dentigerous and radicular cyst epithelium reacted positively for epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFr) but a trend indicating the most intense staining in the OKCs, followed by the dentigerous and then the radicular cyst linings led to the conclusion that the OKCs have an intrinsic growth potential not present in other odontogenic cysts. PMID:12110333

Shear, Mervyn

2002-07-01

289

Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

290

Microbiota Associated with Infections of the Jaws  

PubMed Central

The microbial infections involving the craniofacial skeleton, particularly maxilla and mandible, have direct relationship with the dental biofilm, with predominance of obligate anaerobes. In some patients, these infections may spread to bone marrow or facial soft tissues, producing severe and life-threatening septic conditions. In such cases, local treatment associated with systemic antimicrobials should be used in order to eradicate the sources of contamination. This paper discuss the possibility of spread of these infections and their clinical implications for dentistry, as well as their etiology and aspects related to microbial virulence and pathogenesis. PMID:22829824

Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luis Fernando; de Oliveira, Kathlenn Liezbeth; Costa, Iracy; Ranieri, Robson Varlei; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

2012-01-01

291

Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of anaerobic bacteria from exposure to oxygen during the transport of clinical specimens to the laboratory is crucial for the survival of these organisms. Because the use of swabs may encourage collection of superficial specimens that represent colonizing bacteria instead of the etiologic agents found deeper in the infected tissues, aspirates have always been preferable to swab systems for

DIANE M. CITRON; YUMI A. WARREN; MARIE K. HUDSPETH; ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN

2000-01-01

292

MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and impairs mineralization in tooth models of X-linked hypophosphatemia.  

PubMed

Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide - a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization - derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23451077

Salmon, Benjamin; Bardet, Claire; Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D; Chaussain, Catherine

2013-01-01

293

MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide ? a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization ? derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23451077

Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

2013-01-01

294

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

295

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new possibility for the identification and typing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria predominate in the normal flora of humans and are important, often life-threatening pathogens in mixed infections originating from the indigenous microbiota. The isolation and identification of anaerobes by phenotypic and DNA-based molecular methods at a species level is time-consuming and laborious. Following the successful adaptation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the routine laboratory identification of bacteria, the extensive development of a database has been initiated to use this method for the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Not only frequently isolated anaerobic species, but also newly recognized and taxonomically rearranged genera and species can be identified using direct smear samples or whole-cell protein extraction, and even phylogenetically closely related species can be identified correctly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Typing of anaerobic bacteria on a subspecies level, determination of antibiotic resistance and direct identification of blood culture isolates will revolutionize anaerobe bacteriology in the near future. PMID:24571074

Nagy, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

296

The role of anaerobic sludge recycle in improving anaerobic digester performance.  

PubMed

Solids retention time (SRT) is a critical parameter for the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD) in wastewater treatment plants. AD SRT should increase when active biomass is input to the AD by recycling anaerobic sludge via the wastewater-treatment tanks, creating a hybrid aerobic/anaerobic system. When 85% of the flow through the AD was recycled in pilot-scale hybrid systems, the AD SRT increased by as much as 9-fold, compared to a parallel system without anaerobic-sludge recycle. Longer AD SRTs resulted in increased hydrolysis and methanogenesis in the AD: net solids yield decreased by 39-96% for overall and 23-94% in the AD alone, and AD methane yield increased 1.5- to 5.5-fold. Microbial community assays demonstrated higher, more consistent Archaea concentrations in all tanks in the wastewater-treatment system with anaerobic-sludge recycle. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that AD-sludge recycle increased AD SRT, solids hydrolysis, and methane generation. PMID:23265819

Young, Michelle N; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Liu, Wenjun; Doyle, Michael L; Rittmann, Bruce E

2013-01-01

297

Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Chemicals in Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Chemicals in Groundwater" report and database are available at this site. The report (.pdf format), by Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC), reviews anaerobic groundwater biodegradation literature "for 44 common organic chemicals (including BTEX, chlorinated aliphatic compounds, phenolic compounds, common freons, ketones, organic acids, and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons)" and provides biodegradation rate constants based on these studies. The database, which may be downloaded (.zip format), contains information about the site, including location and type, sampling protocol and analysis, type of study, compound status, "pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentrations, redox conditions, initial and final concentrations of the compound, a published or calculated rate constant, length of the study, lag period, control results, general comments, and an abbreviated reference."

Aronson, Dallas.

298

Potential for anaerobic treatment of whey  

SciTech Connect

Results of experiments on 3 laboratory-scale reactors loaded with whey at different daily rates showed that a daily loading of 85 lb COD/1000 cubic feet achieved a COD reduction efficiency of 86% with a gas yield (50% methane) of 5 cubic feet/gal of treated whey. High microorganism population and pH control were essential for stable operation. Overall 1st order COD removal rate constants were 1.13, 0.70 and 1.73/day at 35, 50 and 60 degrees Celcius respectively. The economic impact of anaerobic whey treatment was evaluated for small, medium and large cheese plants, and annual operating costs were projected for a 20-year period. Among several systems that were compared, the anaerobic treatment of whey was shown to be the only one that had a potential of paying for itself. Treatment costs represented from 0.85 to 2.6% of the mean US milk price to producers.

Schlottfeldt, G.A.B.

1980-01-01

299

Anaerobic Life at Extremely High Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental and submarine solfataric fields turned out to contain various extremely thermophilic anaerobic organisms which all belong to the archaebacteria. They are living autotrophically on sulphur, hydrogen and CO2 or by methanogenesis or heterotrophically on different organic substrates by sulphur respiration or, less frequently, by fermentation. The most extremely thermophilic isolates are growing between 80 and 110°C with an optimum around 105°C.

Stetter, Karl O.

1984-12-01

300

On the kinetics of anaerobic power  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a treadmill at different exercise intensities. The aerobic power, based on the measured oxygen uptake, was used as input to the models, whereas the simulated blood lactate concentration was compared with experimental results. Thereafter, the metabolic rate from phosphocreatine break down was calculated theoretically. Finally, the models were used to compare phosphocreatine break down during continuous and interval exercises. Results Good similarity was found between experimental and simulated blood lactate concentration during steady state exercise intensities. The measured blood lactate concentrations were lower than simulated for intensities above the lactate threshold, but higher than simulated during recovery after high intensity exercise when the simulated lactate concentration was averaged over the whole lactate space. This fit was improved when the simulated lactate concentration was separated into two compartments; muscles + internal organs and blood. Model 2 gave a better behavior of alactic energy than Model 1 when compared against invasive measurements presented in the literature. During continuous exercise, Model 2 showed that the alactic energy storage decreased with time, whereas Model 1 showed a minimum value when steady state aerobic conditions were achieved. During interval exercise the two models showed similar patterns of alactic energy. Conclusions The current study provides useful insight on the kinetics of anaerobic power. Overall, our data indicate that blood lactate levels can be accurately modeled during steady state, and suggests a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. PMID:22830586

2012-01-01

301

Sulfonates: novel electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enrichment and isolation in pure culture of a bacterium, identified as a strain of Desulfovibrio, able to release and reduce the sulfur of isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) and other sulfonates to support anaerobic\\u000a respiratory growth, is described. The sulfonate moiety was the source of sulfur that served as the terminal electron acceptor,\\u000a while the carbon skeleton of isethionate functioned as an

Thomas J. Lie; Thomas Pitta; E. R. Leadbetter; Jared R. Leadbetter

1996-01-01

302

Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf is strongly controlled by dynamic physical sedimentation processes. Rapidly accumulating, physically reworked deltaic sediments characteristic of much of the shelf typically support what appear to be low rates of steady state anaerobic methane oxidation at depths of 5-8 m below the sediment-water interface. Methane oxidation in these cases is responsible for < {approximately}10% of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} inventory in the oxidation zone and is limited largely by the steady-state diffusive flux of methane into the overlying sulfate reduction zone. In contrast, a large area of the shelf has been extensively eroded, reexposing once deeply buried (>10 m) methane-charged sediment directly to seawater. In this nonsteady-state situation, methane is a major source of recently produced {Sigma}CO{sub 2} and an important reductant for sulfate. These observations suggest that authigenic sedimentary carbonates derived from anaerobic methane oxidation may sometimes reflect physically enhanced nonsteady-state exposure of methane to sulfate in otherwise biogeochemically unreactive deposits. The concentration profiles of CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} in the eroded deposit were reproduced by a coupled reaction-transport model. This area of the shelf was reexposed to seawater approximately 5-10 years ago based on the model results and the assumption that the erosion of the deposit occurred as a single event that has now ceased. The necessary second order rate constant for anaerobic methane oxidation was {le}0.1 mM{sup -1} d{sup -1}.

Blair, N.E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Aller, R.C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

303

Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p. 477-484.

Beal, E.; House, C.

2007-12-01

304

Anaerobic Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus? †  

PubMed Central

An investigation of gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus after a switch from aerobic to anaerobic growth was initiated by using the proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. In the absence of external electron acceptors like oxygen or nitrate, an induction of glycolytic enzymes was observed. At the same time the amount of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes was very low. NAD is regenerated by mixed acid and butanediol fermentation, as indicated by an elevated synthesis level of fermentation enzymes like lactate dehydrogenases (Ldh1 and Ldh2), alcohol dehydrogenases (AdhE and Adh), ?-acetolactate decarboxylase (BudA1), acetolactate synthase (BudB), and acetoin reductase (SACOL0111) as well as an accumulation of fermentation products as lactate and acetate. Moreover, the transcription of genes possibly involved in secretion of lactate (SACOL2363) and formate (SACOL0301) was found to be induced. The formation of acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-phosphate might be catalyzed by pyruvate formate lyase, whose synthesis was found to be strongly induced as well. Although nitrate was not present, the expression of genes related to nitrate respiration (NarH, NarI, and NarJ) and nitrate reduction (NirD) was found to be upregulated. Of particular interest, oxygen concentration might affect the virulence properties of S. aureus by regulating the expression of some virulence-associated genes such as pls, hly, splC and splD, epiG, and isaB. To date, the mechanism of anaerobic gene expression in S. aureus has not been fully characterized. In addition to srrA the mRNA levels of several other regulatory genes with yet unknown functions (e.g., SACOL0201, SACOL2360, and SACOL2658) were found to be upregulated during anaerobic growth, indicating a role in the regulation of anaerobic gene expression. PMID:17384184

Fuchs, Stephan; Pané-Farré, Jan; Kohler, Christian; Hecker, Michael; Engelmann, Susanne

2007-01-01

305

Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

2013-09-01

306

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation: Occurrence and Ecology  

PubMed Central

Anoxic sediments and digested sewage sludge anaerobically oxidized methane to carbon dioxide while producing methane. This strictly anaerobic process showed a temperature optimum between 25 and 37°C, indicating an active microbial participation in this reaction. Methane oxidation in these anaerobic habitats was inhibited by oxygen. The rate of the oxidation followed the rate of methane production. The observed anoxic methane oxidation in Lake Mendota and digested sewage sludge was more sensitive to 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid than the simultaneous methane formation. Sulfate diminished methane formation as well as methane oxidation. However, in the presence of iron and sulfate the ratio of methane oxidized to methane formed increased markedly. Manganese dioxide and higher partial pressures of methane also stimulated the oxidation. The rate of methane oxidation in untreated samples was approximately 2% of the CH4 production rate in Lake Mendota sediments and 8% of that in digested sludge. This percentage could be increased up to 90% in sludge in the presence of 10 mM ferrous sulfate and at a partial pressure of methane of 20 atm (2,027 kPa). PMID:16345488

Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Brock, Thomas D.

1980-01-01

307

Metabolic Interactions Between Methanogenic Consortia and Anaerobic Respiring Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective\\u000a electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic\\u000a respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron\\u000a acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect

A. J. M. Stams; S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink; P. Westermann

2003-01-01

308

Global Perspective of Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While anaerobic process had been widely used for stabilizing concentrated solids, the process long suffered a poor reputation\\u000a because of lack of understanding regarding its fundamentals. Nearly a century later, anaerobic treatment is now arguably the\\u000a most promising and favorable wastewater treatment system for meeting the desired criteria for future technology in environmentally\\u000a sustainable development. The development of anaerobic processes,

Kuan Yeow Show; Joo Hwa Tay; Yung-Tse Hung

309

Odontoblasts in odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Odontoblasts are secretory cells displaying epithelial and mesenchymal features, which exist in a monolayer at the interface between the dentin and pulp of a tooth. During embryogenesis, these cells form a dentin shell and throughout life continue to produce dentin while, also acting as sensor cells helping to mediate tooth sensitivity. In this process, odontoblasts are forced to migrate inwards, resulting in an ongoing loss of pulp volume. Correspondingly, there is also a decrease in the surface area of the dentin which supports the odontoblast cell layer. As these events transpire, odontoblasts maintain a tightly controlled monolayer relationship to each other as well as to their dentin substrate. Stability is maintained laterally by epithelial attachment structures and transversely by complex cytoplasmic extensions into the supporting dentin. As a result, it is not possible for the layer to buckle to relieve the mechanical stresses, which develop during the inward migration. A theoretical consequence of this distinctive self-generated niche is the development of long term compressive stresses within the odontoblast population. We present a mechanobiology model, which causally relates the increase in cellular compressive stresses to contact inhibition of proliferation. We link this hypothesis to the observation that there are no reports of pulpal odontoblasts showing neoplasia or acquisition of changes suggestive of a pre-neoplastic phenotype. PMID:23786903

Milos, Nadine C; Peters, Edmund; Daley, Tom

2013-09-01

310

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

311

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

312

Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic bacteria, is among the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of childbearing age. It is well known that BV has an influence in acquisition of certain genital infections. However, association between BV and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been

Evy Gillet; Joris FA Meys; Hans Verstraelen; Carolyne Bosire; Philippe De Sutter; Marleen Temmerman; Davy Vanden Broeck

2011-01-01

313

Clostridium difficile Infection: A Worldwide Disease  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic toxigenic bacterium, causes a severe infectious colitis that leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both enhanced bacterial toxins and diminished host immune response contribute to symptomatic disease. C. difficile has been a well-established pathogen in North America and Europe for decades, but is just emerging in Asia. This article reviews the epidemiology, microbiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of C. difficile. Prompt recognition of C. difficile is necessary to implement appropriate infection control practices. PMID:24516694

Burke, Kristin E.

2014-01-01

314

Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic  

E-print Network

Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

Zhao, Huimin

315

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES  

E-print Network

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES Simeonov, I variables of anaerobic digestion processes. For this purpose, different mathematical models of anaerobic digestion and different theoretical approaches (differential algebraic approach, Kalman filter modifications

Boyer, Edmond

316

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2013-07-01

317

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2012-07-01

318

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2011-07-01

319

In Vitro Activities of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates showed that erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal strains were susceptible to ABT-773 (?0.125 ?g/ml); the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus spp. was 4 ?g/ml; and all Moraxella spp. and beta-lactamase-producing Prevotella species strains were inhibited by ?0.125 ?g/ml. Among the anaerobes tested, only fusobacteria (45%) required ?4 ?g of ABT-773/ml for inhibition. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections. PMID:11451698

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin

2001-01-01

320

Dentigenous infectious foci – a risk factor of infective endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. Material/Methods The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired heart disease, along with the presence at least 2 odontogenic infectious foci (ie, 2 or more teeth with gangrenous pulp and periodontitis). The group had earlier been qualified for the procedure of heart valve replacement. Swabs of removed heart valve tissue with inflammatory lesions and blood were then examined microbiologically. Swabs of root canals and their periapical areas, of periodontal pockets, and of heart valves were also collected. Results Microbial flora, cultured from intradental foci, blood and heart valves, fully corresponded in 14 patients. This was accompanied in almost all cases by more advanced periodontitis (2nd degree, Scandinavian classification), irrespective of the bacterial co-occurrence mentioned. In the remaining patients, such consistency was not found. Conclusions Among various dentigenous, infectious foci, the intradental foci appear to constitute a risk factor for infective endocarditis. PMID:22293883

Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Sójka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

2012-01-01

321

Polymicrobial bloodstream infection with Eggerthella lenta and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.  

PubMed

The advancement in culture identification methods has made possible the culture and identification of slow-growing anaerobic bacteria in clinical samples. Here, we describe a case of polymicrobial bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by Eggerthella lenta and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, identified by API 20A and Vitek 2 systems and by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:20720029

Liderot, Karin; Larsson, Martin; Boräng, Stina; Ozenci, Volkan

2010-10-01

322

Staphylococcal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

323

Tinea Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... infections? My child has to take showers after gym class. How can I keep him/her from getting tinea infections? If I have cracks in my skin, ... Diagnosis and Management of Common Tinea Infections by SL Noble, Pharm. ...

324

Whipworm infection  

MedlinePLUS

Whipworm infection is caused by the roundworm, Trichuris trichiura. It is a common infection that mainly affects children. Children may become infected if they swallow soil contaminated with whipworm eggs. When ...

325

Management of human and animal bite wound infection: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter’s\\u000a oral cavity and the victim’s skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections.\\u000a Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp,

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

326

Postoperative Abdominal Infection Caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium minutissimum is a non-spore forming, gram-positive, aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacillus. It is the causative organism of erythrasma, a common superficial infection of skin, which typically presents as reddish-brown macular patches. To date, it has rarely been found to cause invasive disease, although other non-diphtheria corynebacteria are becoming increasingly common as opportunistic pathogens. We report on a rare case of abdominal infection due to C. minutissimum in an immunocompetent adult who was successfully treated with intravenous amoxicillin/sulbactam. PMID:25566407

Shin, Ji Young; Lee, Woon Kee; Seo, Yiel-Hea

2014-01-01

327

Design of Mulch Biowalls for Enhanced In Situ Anaerobic Bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force is demonstrating the use of permeable mulch biowalls for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Biowall trench systems using mulch and compost are intended to provide a long-term carbon source to stimulate anaerobic degradation of contaminants in groundwater over a period of 10 years or more. Biowalls are typically installed in trenches oriented perpendicular to

Bruce M. Henry; Douglas C. Downey; Daniel R. Griffiths; Matt Krumholz; James R. Gonzales; Erica S. K. Becvar

328

Aerobic culture of anaerobic bacteria using antioxidants: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Antioxidants have been shown to help the growth of anaerobic bacteria. We were able to grow six anaerobe species (including Fusobacterium necrophorum and Ruminococcus gravus) and seven aerobic species all aerobically in Schaedler agar tubes and agar plates with high doses of ascorbic acid and/or glutathione. This may deeply change strategies for culturing bacteria. PMID:24820294

La Scola, B; Khelaifia, S; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D

2014-10-01

329

Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize

Priya Narasingarao; Max M. Haggblom

2007-01-01

330

Anaerobic respiration in the polychaete Euzonus (Thoracophelia) mucronata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intertidal polychaete Euzonus mucronata (Treadwell) is found in great numbers within beach sands that undergo periodic anoxia. Short-term exposures (2 to 4 h) to anaerobicity are withstood through the use of a supply of oxyhemoglobin to support continued aerobic metabolism. Longer periods of environmental anoxia activate an anaerobic metabolism capable of sustaining life for up to 20 days, and

E. G. Ruby; D. L. Fox

1976-01-01

331

Manganese oxide reduction as a form of anaerobic respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some instances of bacterial manganese oxide reduction observed in nature and under laboratory conditions are a form of respiration. Anaerobiosis is not a necessary condition for its occurrence, although anaerobic reduction of manganese oxide which is inhibited by air has been reported. It is the kind of manganese reducing microorganism involved which determines whether anaerobic conditions are required. In at

Henry L. Ehrlich

1987-01-01

332

Novel forms of anaerobic respiration of environmental relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel forms of anaerobic respiration continue to be discovered. Many of these are environmentally significant as they have important impacts on the fate of organic carbon and the cycling of many inorganic compounds. Furthermore, anaerobic respiration is becoming increasing recognized as a strategy for the remediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

Derek R Lovley; John D Coates

2000-01-01

333

Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionicsurfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primarysludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usuallystabilized anaerobically and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of thesexenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of LinearAlkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and

Hariklia N. Gavala; Birgitte K. Ahring

2002-01-01

334

Numerical modeling of oxygen exclusion experiments of anaerobic bioventing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical and experimental study of transport phenomena underlying anaerobic bioventing (ABV) is presented. Understanding oxygen exclusion patterns in vadose zone environments is important in designing an ABV process for bioremediation of soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents. In particular, the establishment of an anaerobic zone of influence by nitrogen injection in the vadose zone is investigated. Oxygen exclusion experiments are

Philip G Mihopoulos; Makram T Suidan; Gregory D Sayles; Sebastien Kaskassian

2002-01-01

335

Fuzzy Modeling for an Anaerobic Tapered Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy modeling has great adaptability to the variations of system configuration and operation conditions. This paper investigates the fuzzy modeling of a laboratory scale system of anaerobic tapered fluidized bed reactor (ATFBR). The studied system is the anaerobic digestion of synthetic wastewater derived from the starch processing industries. The experiment was carried out in a mesophilic ATFBR reactor with mesoporous

Zsolt Csaba Johanyák; Rangasamy Parthiban; Ganesan Sekaran

336

Anaerobic rumen SBR for degradation of cellulosic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis of organic particulates under anaerobic conditions is generally regarded as the rate limiting step in solid digestion processes. Rumen-based ecosystems appear to achieve very high hydrolysis rates for cellulosic organic material. This study aimed at the development and demonstration of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process operating with a rumen-based microbial inoculum. Fibrous alpha cellulose was used as

S. P. Barnes; J. Keller

2004-01-01

337

Original article Effect of anaerobic fungi on the ruminal  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of anaerobic fungi on the ruminal proteolysis in gnotobiotic lambs F. The proteolytic activity of the rumen fluid against !4C-casein was not affected by the fungi. Therefore / proteolysis / anaerobic fungi / chytridiomycetes Résumé ― Effet des champignons anaérobies sur la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Interactions of rumen chitinolytic bacterium, Clostridium tertium with anaerobic fungi  

E-print Network

Interactions of rumen chitinolytic bacterium, Clostridium tertium with anaerobic fungi B Hodrova J 104000, Czech Republic The anaerobic fungi were reported as the most effective cellulose degrading microorganisms in the rumen (Wilson and Wood, 1992, Enzyme Microb Technol, 14, 258-264). Similarly to other fungi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Anaerobic treatment of natural tannin extracts in UASB reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin extracts are substances commonly used in leather production processes. Since most of the steps of tannery manufacturing processes are carried out in aqueous environments, the presence of these compounds in the wastewaters is important. The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of the anaerobic degradation of three natural tannin extracts in three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

J. López-Fiuza; F. Omil; R. Méndez

340

Multi-fed upflow anaerobic filter: Development and features  

Microsoft Academic Search

To overcome two of the main problems intrinsic to upflow anaerobic filters used to treat industrial waste water, clogging and poor efficiency in the upper zone, a new feeding strategy consisting of distributing the influent flow through several entrances along the system was studied. Two identical upflow anaerobic filters, a single-fed reactor (SFR) and a multi-fed reactor (MFR), were used

A. Punal; R. Mendez; J. M. Lema

1998-01-01

341

A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments. Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles, radiotracer experiments and stable carbon isotope data. But the elusive microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is

Antje Boetius; Katrin Ravenschlag; Carsten J. Schubert; Dirk Rickert; Friedrich Widdel; Armin Gieseke; Rudolf Amann; Bo Barker Jørgensen; Ursula Witte; Olaf Pfannkuche

2000-01-01

342

Metabolism of alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and other hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and its refined products. Whereas degradation of hydrocarbons by oxygen-respiring microorganisms has been known for about a century, utilization of hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions has been investigated only during the past decade. Diverse strains of anaerobic bacteria have been isolated that degrade toluene anaerobically, using nitrate, iron(III), or sulfate as

Alfred M. Spormann; Friedrich Widdel

2000-01-01

343

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

344

A modeling approach to describe ZVI-based anaerobic system.  

PubMed

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is increasingly being added into anaerobic reactors to enhance the biological conversion of various less biodegradable pollutants (LBPs). Our study aimed to establish a new structure model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate such a ZVI-based anaerobic reactor. Three new processes, i.e., electron release from ZVI corrosion, H2 formation from ZVI corrosion, and transformation of LBPs, were integrated into ADM1. The established model was calibrated and tested using the experimental data from one published study, and validated using the data from another work. A good relationship between the predicted and measured results indicates that the proposed model was appropriate to describe the performance of the ZVI-based anaerobic system. Our model could provide more precise strategies for the design, development, and application of anaerobic systems especially for treating various LBPs-containing wastewaters. PMID:23932771

Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-10-15

345

An evaluation of tests of anaerobic power.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between two recently developed laboratory tests of anaerobic power (AnP) and to compare these tests to other measures of AnP. Fifteen male subjects, aged 20-34 years, performed: a 30-s maximal cycle ergometer test (Wingate test), a 60-s isokinetic knee extension test (isokinetic endurance test), a 50-m sprint, a 200-m sprint, and the Margaria stair-climb test. Significant correlations ranging from 0.52-0.76 were found between the Wingate and isokinetic endurance tests for peak and mean values of power and torque, respectively. Indices from both these tests also correlated significantly with the other tests of AnP. The best single index was mean power from the Wingate test, which had correlations of -0.79, -0.82, and 0.74 with the 50-m and 200-m sprint times and the Margaria test, respectively. The data suggest that both the Wingate and isokinetic endurance tests represent valid laboratory tests for evaluating high-intensity, short-term exercise in which the muscle is primarily dependent upon anaerobic processes for energy release. PMID:3579806

Patton, J F; Duggan, A

1987-03-01

346

Anaerobic expanded bed treatment of whey  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic treatment of whey offers the dual advantage of energy production and pollution control. The energy produced is in the form of methane which is a valuable form of energy in that it is easily separated from the liquid digesting whey, has a high caloric value and can be used for heating and cooking at the cheese plants where it is produced. Based on the data of a survey conducted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, it was shown that a significant portion (up to 46%) of the energy needs (in natural gas and oil) at cheese production plants in New York State could be recovered by methane generated from whey produced as a by-product of cheese manufacturing at the plants. Finally, the results of a preliminary feasibility study of a new type of innovative, compact, high rate, anaerobic fixed film process show that efficient treatment of whey is possible at low retention times, and at high organic loading rates.

Switzenbaum, M.S. (Clarkson Coll. of Tech., Potsdam, NY); Danskin, S.C.

1982-01-01

347

Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

2014-01-01

348

Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters using anaerobic filters.  

PubMed

In this paper, a laboratory-scale experimentation allowed comparing the performances of two upflow anaerobic packed-bed filters filled with different packing materials and operating at mesophilic conditions (30 degreeC) for treating slaughterhouse wastewaters. Methane production was experimentally evaluated considering different volumetric organic loading rates as well as feeding overloading conditions. Although filter performances declined with loading rates higher than 6 kg CODin m-3 d-1 , the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency remained always above 60%. The experimental results allowed for determining kinetic parameters for bacterial growth rate and methane production, following Monod and Chen-Hashimoto models, respectively. Results demonstrated that the reactors reached a cellular retention time significantly greater than the hydraulic retention time. The kinetic parameter values (Ks, l/max) revealed the low microorganisms' affinity for the substrate and confirmed the moderate biodegradability of slaughterhouse wastewater. The kinetic analysis also allowed the comparison of the filters performances with another anaerobic system and the assessment of the parameters useful for real-scale plant design. The system design, applied to a medium-sized Argentinean slaughterhouse, demonstrated to (i) be energetically self-sufficient and (ii) contribute to the plant's water heating requirements. PMID:24600871

Martinez, Sandra Luz; Torretta, Vincenzo; Minguelac, Jésus Vázquez; Siñeriz, Faustino; Raboni, Massimo; Copelli, Sabrina; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco

2014-01-01

349

Tolerance of Anaerobic Bacteria to Chlorinated Solvents  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

Koenig, Joanna C.; Groissmeier, Kathrin D.; Manefield, Mike J.

2014-01-01

350

Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections  

PubMed Central

Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2011-01-01

351

[Characteristics of war wound infection].  

PubMed

War wounds are the most complex type of non-targeted injuries due to uncontrolled tissue damage of varied and multifold localizations, exposing sterile body areas to contamination with a huge amount of bacteria. Wound contamination is caused by both the host microflora and exogenous agents from the environment (bullets, cloth fragments, dust, dirt, water) due to destruction of the host protective barriers. War wounds are the consequence of destructive effects of various types of projectiles, which result in massive tissue devitalization, hematomas, and compromised circulation with tissue ischemia or anoxia. This environment is highly favorable for proliferation of bacteria and their invasion in the surrounding tissue over a relatively short period of time. War wounds are associated with a high risk of local and systemic infection. The infection will develop unless a timely combined treatment is undertaken, including surgical intervention within 6 hours of wounding and antibiotic therapy administered immediately or at latest in 3 hours of wound infliction. Time is a crucial factor in this type of targeted combined treatment consisting of surgical debridement, appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy, and specific antitetanic prophylaxis. Apart from exposure factors, there are a number of predisposing factors that favor the development of polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic infection. These are shock, pain, blood loss, hypoxia, hematomas, type and amount of traumatized tissue, age, and comorbidity factors in the wounded. The determinants that define the spectrum of etiologic agents in contaminated war wounds are: wound type, body region involved, time interval between wounding and primary surgical treatment, climate factors, season, geographical area, hygienic conditions, and patient habits. The etiologic agents of infection include gram-positive aerobic cocci, i. e. Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp and Enterococcus spp, which belong to the physiological flora of the human skin and mucosa; gram-negative facultative aerobic rods; members of the family Enterobacteriacea (Escherichia coil, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae), which predominate in the physiological flora of the intestines, transitory flora of the skin and environment; gram-negative bacteria, i. e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus - A. baumanii complex; environmental bacteria associated with humid environment and dust; anaerobic gram-positive sporogeneous rods Clostridium spp, gram-negative asporogeneous rods Bacteroides spp and gram-positive anaerobic cocci; Peptostreptococcus spp and Peptococcus spp. The latter usually colonize the intestine, primarily the colon, and the skin, while clostridium spores are also found in the environment. Early empirical antibiotic therapy is used instead of standard antibiotic prophylaxis. Empirical antimicrobial therapy is administered to prevent the development of systemic infection, gas gangrene, necrotizing infection of soft tissue, intoxication and death. The choice of antibiotics is determined by the presumed infective agents and localization of the wound. It is used in all types of war wounds over 5-7-10 days. The characteristics of antibiotics used in war wounds are the following: broad spectrum of activity, ability to penetrate deep into the tissue, low toxicity, long half-life, easy storage and application, and cost effectiveness. The use of antibiotics is not a substitution for surgical treatment. The expected incidence of infection, according to literature data, is 35%-40%. If the time elapsed until surgical debridement exceeds 12 hours, or the administration of antibiotics exceeds 6 hours of wound infliction, primary infection of the war wound occurs (early infection) in more than 50% of cases. The keys for the prevention of infection are prompt and thorough surgical exploration of the wound, administration of antibiotics and antitetanic prophylaxis, awareness of the probable pathogens with respect to localization of the wound, and optimal choi

Kucisec-Tepes, Nastja; Bejuk, Danijela; Kosuta, Dragutin

2006-09-01

352

Kerathocyst Odontogenic Tumor: Importance of Selection the Best Treatment Modality and A Periodical Follow-up to Prevent from Recurrence: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively common oral and maxillofacial lesion with specific characteristics such us rapid growth, extension into the surrounding tissues and high rates of recurrence. Various treatment modalities have been reported. Due to the very thin and friable lining characteristic of the tumor, enucleation can be difficult undertaken and for this reason it is associated with the highest recurrence rates. A 22-year-old male referred to our clinic due to a slight expansion in the right mandible from 2 years ago. He has a history of occurrence of KCOT in this region that was treated surgically by enucleation and curettage 5 years ago. Cone beam computed tomography showed a multilocular radiolucent lesion that extended from the angle of the mandible to the symphysis. Incisional biopsy showed a KCOT recurrence that surgically treated with resection of the right mandible by continuity preservation. Selection of the best treatment modality and also a periodical lifelong follow-up is very important to reduce the rate of recurrence and morbidity of the patient. PMID:24049625

Jafaripozve, Nasim; Jafaripozve, Shahram; Khorasgani, Masoud Ataie

2013-01-01

353

Anaerobic treatment of atrazine bearing wastewater.  

PubMed

Performance of mixed microbial anaerobic culture in treating synthetic waste-water with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and varying atrazine concentration was studied. Performance of hybrid reactors with wood charcoal as adsorbent, with a dose of 10 g/l and 40 g/l, along with the microbial mass was also studied. All the reactors were operated in sequential mode with Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 5 days. In all the cases, COD removal after 5 days was found to be above 81%. Initial COD was above 1,000 mg/l. From a hybrid reactor COD removal after 2 days was observed to be 90%. Atrazine reduction after 5 days by microbial mass alone was 43.8%, 40% and 33.2% with an initial concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively. MLSS on all the cases were almost same. Increasing MLSS concentration by about 2 fold did not increase the atrazine removal efficiency significantly. Maximum atrazine removal was observed to be 64% from the hybrid reactor with 10 g/l of wood charcoal and 69.4% from the reactor with 40 g/l of wood charcoal. Atrazine removal from the hybrid reactors after 15 days were observed to be 35.7% and 38.7%, which showed that the higher dose of wood charcoal in hybrid reactor did not improve the atrazine removal efficiency significantly. Specific methanogenic activity test showed no inhibitory effect of atrazine on methane producing bacteria. The performance of anaerobic microorganisms in removing atrazine with no external carbon source and inorganic nitrogen source was studied in batch mode. With an initial concentration of 1.0 mg/l, reduction of atrazine by the anaerobic microorganisms in absence of external carbon source after 35 days was observed to be 61.8% where as in absence of external carbon and inorganic nitrogen source the reduction was only 44.2% after 150 days. Volatilization loss of atrazine was observed to be insignificant. PMID:11411853

Ghosh, P K; Philip, L; Bandyopadhyay, M

2001-05-01

354

Detection of bacterial and yeast species with the Bactec 9120 automated system with routine use of aerobic, anaerobic, and fungal media.  

PubMed

During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

2008-12-01

355

Microbiology (1998), 144, 15651573 Printed in Great Britain Phytase activity of anaerobic ruminal bacteria  

E-print Network

Microbiology (1998), 144, 1565­1573 Printed in Great Britain Phytase activity of anaerobic ruminal of obligately anaerobic ruminal bacteria. Measurable activities were demonstrated in strains of Selenomonas-or- ganisms that has not been examined are the strict anaerobes, in particular ruminal anaerobes, which

Selinger, Brent

356

Methods of assessing microbial activity and inhibition under anaerobic conditions: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the existing methodologies for assessing microbial activity and inhibition under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion process consists of several metabolic steps–the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has attempted to describe these steps in the form of a mathematical model with the intention of providing a reference base for all further efforts in the modelling of anaerobic

Alberto Rozzi; Enrico Remigi

2004-01-01

357

Transcriptional regulation and energetics of alternative respiratory pathways in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli is able to grow by aerobic and by anaerobic respiration. Despite the large difference in the amount of free energy that could maximally be conserved from aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, the proton potential and ?g?Phos are similar under both conditions. O2 represses anaerobic respiration, and nitrate represses fumarate respiration. By this the terminal reductases of

Gottfried Unden

1998-01-01

358

Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production  

E-print Network

Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production Accepted 24 May 2013 Available online Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Ammonia Bioenergy Bioammonia Hydrogen Anaerobic digestion-bioammonia to hydrogen (ADBH) a b s t r a c t During anaerobic digestion, organic matter

359

Application of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors in wastewater treatment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past ten years, anaerobic process has become a popular technology for treating concentrated effluents. Research and development programmes led by both engineers and microbiologists have resulted in a better understanding of the microbiology of anaerobic reactions and reactor design for anaerobic processes. Considerable progress has been achieved in the development of high rate anaerobic reactors with several configurations

R. Saravanane; D. V. S. Murthy

2000-01-01

360

Invited review: anaerobic fermentation of dairy food wastewater.  

PubMed

Dairy food wastewater disposal represents a major environmental problem. This review discusses microorganisms associated with anaerobic digestion of dairy food wastewater, biochemistry of the process, factors affecting anaerobic digestion, and efforts to develop defined cultures. Anaerobic digestion of dairy food wastewater offers many advantages over other treatments in that a high level of waste stabilization is achieved with much lower levels of sludge. In addition, the process produces readily usable methane with low nutrient requirements and no oxygen. Anaerobic digestion is a series of complex reactions that broadly involve 2 groups of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic microorganisms: acidogens and methanogens. The first group of microorganisms breaks down organic compounds into CO(2) and volatile fatty acids. Some of these organisms are acetogenic, which convert long-chain fatty acids to acetate, CO(2), and hydrogen. Methanogens convert the acidogens' products to methane. The imbalance among the different microbial groups can lead not only to less methane production, but also to process failure. This is due to accumulation of intermediate compounds, such as volatile fatty acids, that inhibit methanogens. The criteria used for evaluation of the anaerobic digestion include levels of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids, methane:carbon ratio, and the gas production rate. A steady state is achieved in an anaerobic digester when the pH, chemical oxygen demand of the effluent, the suspended solids of the effluent, and the daily gas production remain constant. Factors affecting efficiency and stability of the process are types of microorganisms, feed C:N ratio, hydraulic retention time, reactor design, temperature, pH control, hydrogen pressure, and additives such as manure and surfactants. As anaerobic digesters become increasingly used in dairy plants, more research should be directed toward selecting the best cultures that maximize methane production from dairy food waste. PMID:22981583

Hassan, A N; Nelson, B K

2012-11-01

361

Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation  

PubMed Central

The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43°C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox process was completely inhibited by nitrite concentrations higher than 0.1 g of nitrogen per liter. Addition of trace amounts of either of the anammox intermediates (1.4 mg of nitrogen per liter of hydrazine or 0.7 mg of nitrogen per liter of hydroxylamine) restored activity completely. PMID:10388731

Strous, Marc; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Jetten, Mike S. M.

1999-01-01

362

Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

1991-01-01

363

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01

364

Cellulase production by the anaerobic digestion process  

SciTech Connect

An anaerobic digestion process is described for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using a methanogenic cellulose-enrichment culture. After a heat treatment designed to destroy all but spore-forming bacteria, this culture produced cellulase from a variety of cellulosic materials as well as from cellobiose. The enzyme system contained endo- and exoglucanase, acted on filter paper, and showed cellobiase and xylanase activities. It was stable at 2/sup 0/C under aerobic conditions and showed a pH optimum at 5 and a temperature optimum at 50/sup 0/C. Endoglucanase and filter paper activities were mostly exogenic, whereas cellobiase and xylanase activities were cell associated. The cellulolytic activity produced by this mixed culture was comparable to that of commercially available fungal preparations, and the process could be useful as an alternate source for these enzymes.

Khan, A.W.; van den Berg, L.

1981-01-01

365

Syntrophy in Anaerobic Global Carbon Cycles  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Syntrophy is an essential intermediary step in the anaerobic conversion of organic matter to methane where metabolically distinct microorganisms are tightly linked by the need to maintain the exchanged metabolites at very low concentrations. The need for syntrophy is thermodynamically constrained, and is probably a prime reason why it is difficult to culture microbes as these approaches disrupt consortia. Reconstruction of artificial syntrophic consortia has allowed uncultured syntrophic metabolizers and methanogens to be optimally grown and studied biochemically. The pathways for syntrophic acetate, propionate and longer chain fatty acid metabolism are mostly understood, but key steps involved in benzoate breakdown and cyclohexane carboxylate formation are unclear. Syntrophic metabolism requires reverse electron transfer, close physical contact, and metabolic synchronization of the syntrophic partners. Genomic analyses reveal that multiple mechanisms exist for reverse electron transfer. Surprisingly, the flagellum functions were implicated in ensuring close physical proximity and synchronization of the syntrophic partners. PMID:19897353

McInerney, Michael J.; Sieber, Jessica R.

2009-01-01

366

Frequency, Microbial Interactions, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum Isolated from Primary Endodontic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the prevalence and microbial interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum in primary endodontic infections from a Brazilian population and their antimicrobial susceptibility to some antibiotics by the E-test. One hundred ten samples from infected teeth with periapical pathologies were analyzed by culture methods. Five hundred eighty individual strains were isolated; 81.4% were strict anaerobes. F. nucleatum

Rogério C. Jacinto; Francisco Montagner; Fernanda G. C. Signoretti; Geovania C. Almeida; Brenda P. F. A. Gomes

2008-01-01

367

Facile method for monitoring inhibition of anaerobic spore outgrowth.  

PubMed

A device is presented for the laboratory monitoring of spore outgrowth under controlled temperature and anaerobic conditions. Alterations in pH, redox potential, headspace composition, and optical density are followed as the activated spores grow out into vegetative cells. An interlock system allows the addition of test solutions or the removal of medium under anaerobic conditions. The device may also be used for rapid (<4 h) chemical inhibition studies or adapted for temperature injury studies of aerobic or anaerobic cells. Data on outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes and inhibition by nitrite solutions are presented. PMID:16345911

Benedict, R C; Tartaglia, J S

1981-12-01

368

Comparison of media in the Anaerobe-Tek and Presumpto plate systems and evaluation of the Anaerobe-Tek system for identification of commonly encountered anaerobes.  

PubMed Central

Using a variety of sporeforming and nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria, we compared 10 differential agar media of the Anaerobe-Tek (A/T) system recently marketed by Flow Laboratories, Inc. (McLean, Va.) with 10 comparable media in Presumpto quadrant plates (Presumpto 1, 2, and 3) developed by the Centers for Disease Control Anaerobic Bacteria Branch. The A/T identification system was evaluated by comparing the species identity of anaerobes determined as recommended by the manufacturer's instruction manual with the identity of the strains obtained by the Centers for Disease Control Anaerobe Reference Laboratory by using conventional procedures. We also compared reactions obtained with the Presumpto plates with a chopped meat glucose broth culture as a source of inoculum with those obtained by using a turbid cell suspension from growth on blood agar as inoculum. The agreement of results for the 16 characteristics compared ranged from 92.8 to 100%. Comparison of test results obtained with 10 media in the Presumpto plate and A/T systems from the examination of 223 strains of anaerobes, representing 54 different taxa, showed the following agreement between A/T and CDC systems: catalase production, esculin hydrolysis, glucose fermentation, and lecithinase production (100%); inhibition of growth by bile agar (99.6%); lipase production (99%); DNase (98.7%); fermentation of lactose and mannitol (98.2%); starch hydrolysis (96.9%); gelatin hydrolysis (96.4%); and casein hydrolysis (94.6%). Of the 204 strains of common anaerobes tested with the A/T system, only 70% were correctly identified to the species level. However, several strains could have been identified correctly with the A/T system if data on certain other characteristics had been included in the A/T data base. PMID:6761359

Lombard, G L; Whaley, D N; Dowell, V R

1982-01-01

369

Microbial and Physicochemical Characteristics of Compact Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Granules in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor ?  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Due to the low growth rate of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, efficient biomass retention is essential for reactor operation. Therefore, we studied the settling ability and community composition of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules, which were cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor seeded with aerobic granules. With this seed, the start-up period was less than 160 days at a NH4+-N removal efficiency of 94% and a loading rate of 0.064 kg N per kg volatile suspended solids per day. The formed granules were bright red and had a high settling velocity (41 to 79 m h?1). Cells and extracellular polymeric substances were evenly distributed over the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules. The high percentage of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules could be visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules were determined to be 4.6 × 108 copies ml?1. The results of this study could be used for a better design, shorter start-up time, and more stable operation of anammox systems for the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewaters. PMID:20190088

Ni, Bing-Jie; Hu, Bao-Lan; Fang, Fang; Xie, Wen-Ming; Kartal, Boran; Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Jetten, Mike; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

2010-01-01

370

Staph Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... most staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . Which of these infections do you worry ... You may also have heard about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA for short. MRSA is a type ...

371

Staph Infections  

MedlinePLUS

About Staph Infections Staph infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Many healthy people carry these bacteria on ... MRSA You may have heard about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a type of staph bacteria with a ...

372

Eye Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... infants are treated with antibiotic eye ointment or drops in the delivery room. Such infections must be ... Eye infections are very contagious. Except to administer drops or ointment, you should avoid direct contact with ...

373

Campylobacter Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections Article Body Campylobacter are a type of bacteria that produce infections in the GI tract. They ... in the laboratory for the presence of Campylobacter bacteria. This will help your pediatrician give you an ...

374

Streptococcal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... throat. It causes a red rash on the body. Impetigo - a skin infection Toxic shock syndrome Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia ...

375

Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Act and HIV/AIDS Community Engagement Incarceration Immigration HIV/AIDS Care Continuum Funding Opportunities How To ... of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents AIDSinfo â?? Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of ...

376

Infection Control  

MedlinePLUS

... lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective way ...

377

Oxygen, wound healing and the development of infection. Present status.  

PubMed

Wounds do not heal in tissue that does not bleed and almost always heal in tissue that bleeds extensively. A continuous supply of oxygen to the tissue is vital for the healing process and to resist infection. External factors may decrease the peripheral oxygen supply, but supplementary perioperative oxygen reduces the surgical wound infection rate to half in patients having colorectal resections. Hyperbaric oxygen may be beneficial when the flow and oxygen supply to the healing tissue are compromised by local injury and particularly if anaerobic infection is present. Assessment of perfusion and oxygenation is essential during and after surgery. PMID:12375606

Gottrup, Finn

2002-01-01

378

NATURAL BIOLOGICAL ATTENUATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is little consistent difference in the calculated half-lives of aromatic hydrocarbons in different anaerobic environments, but methanogenic environments might be generally the least supportive of rapid biotransformation. Toluene was usually the most rapidly biotransformed...

379

Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile cultivation. PMID:24084491

Edwards, Adrianne N.; Suarez, Jose M.; McBride, Shonna M.

2014-01-01

380

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

381

Rhodoferax ferrireducens sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, facultatively anaerobic bacterium  

E-print Network

Rhodoferax ferrireducens sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, facultatively anaerobic bacterium ferrireducens sp. nov. INTRODUCTION Fe(III) is often an abundant electron acceptor for microbial respiration other forms of respiration. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that there is a wide

Lovley, Derek

382

Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

SciTech Connect

Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1991-07-01

383

Siderophore Production by Pseudomonas stutzeri under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions?  

PubMed Central

The siderophore production of the facultative anaerobe Pseudomonas stutzeri, strain CCUG 36651, grown under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The bacterial strain has been isolated at a 626-m depth at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, where experiments concerning the geological disposal of nuclear waste are performed. In bacterial culture extracts, the iron in the siderophore complexes was replaced by gallium to facilitate siderophore identification by mass spectrometry. P. stutzeri was shown to produce ferrioxamine E (nocardamine) as the main siderophore together with ferrioxamine G and two cyclic ferrioxamines having molecular masses 14 and 28 atomic mass units lower than that of ferrioxamine E, suggested to be ferrioxamine D2 and ferrioxamine X1, respectively. In contrast, no siderophores were observed from anaerobically grown P. stutzeri. None of the siderophores produced by aerobically grown P. stutzeri were found in anaerobic natural water samples from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. PMID:17675442

Essén, Sofia A.; Johnsson, Anna; Bylund, Dan; Pedersen, Karsten; Lundström, Ulla S.

2007-01-01

384

Agar medium for gas-liquid chromatography of anaerobes.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a method of performing gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) by direct extraction of fatty acids from agar for identification of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria. The potential use of agar cultures for GLC was studied by comparing chromatograms of 117 clinically isolated anaerobes grown in peptone yeast glucose broth and chopped meat carbohydrate broth, and on enriched brucella blood agar. For 98 of 117 anaerobes, fatty acid patterns from agar cultures were similar to those in broth. Significant differences were only found with Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tertium, and Actinomyces species, which produced less of certain fatty acids on agar than in broth. Results of this study indicate that GLC of short chain fatty acids produced on agar medium by anaerobes, combined with simple tests such as Gram's stain and colonial morphology, may allow fir direct presumptive genus identification from an initial pure agar culture. PMID:3940426

Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

1986-01-01

385

Investigation of Anaerobic Herbicide Degradation in Agricultural Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic microbial pesticide degradation has received little attention, particularly in agricultural soils that receive routine inputs of halogenated herbicides. Seasonal rainfall in many regions can produce zones of periodic anaerobiosis in soil. Redox gradients within soil aggregates can also for...

386

Bacteriology of acute appendicitis with special reference to anaerobes.  

PubMed

Bacterial flora of 105 patients of acute appendicitis of which 101 showed acute inflammation and 4 a normal appendix, was studied. A total of 121 anaerobes and 149 aerobes were isolated with an average of 1.15 anaerobes and 1.41 aerobes per specimen. Mixed flora was found in 100 (95.2%) specimens. Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli were the most predominant anaerobes and aerobes respectively and their combination was most frequently seen. There were no significant differences in the rate of isolation of B. fragilis between the perforated/non perforated and inflamed/normal appendices. Hundred percent anaerobes were sensitive to clindamycin and 93.38% to metronidazole. PMID:7814062

Jindal, N; Kaur, G D; Arora, S; Rajiv

1994-07-01

387

REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF DICHLOROPHENOLS IN ANAEROBIC POND SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The time required for the microbially mediated dechlorination of chloroaromatics in anaerobic freshwater sediments may he dependent upon sediment microbial communities and physical characteristics, as well as chlorine position on the aromatic ring. o better understand such possib...

388

Reproducibility of running anaerobic sprint test (rast) for soccer players.  

PubMed

Although the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) presents reliability when performed on firmer surfaces (i.e. athletic track), its application on less rigid surfaces can compromise the measure determinations. PMID:25373469

de Andrade, V L; Pereira Santiago, P R; Kalva Filho, C A; Campos, E Z; Papoti, M

2014-11-01

389

Economic implications of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Texas  

E-print Network

are forcing dairies and policymakers to balance environmental concerns with farm profitability. Dairies are entering a realm filled with technologies to combat waste concerns. Anaerobic digester technology may play a role in helping dairies balance profit...

Jackson, Randy Scott, Jr.

2007-09-17

390

Design of an anaerobic digester in Quebec, Canada  

E-print Network

.In response to the future Quebec, Canada regulations prohibiting landfilling of organic matter by 2020, EBI, a waste management company located near Montreal is considering constructing an anaerobic digester. This thesis ...

Bouaziz, Alexandre N. (Alexandre Nathanel)

2014-01-01

391

Degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aerobic and anaerobic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of C?labeled pentachlorophenol (PCP) was examined in nitrogen aerated, moist Hagerstown silty clay loam with or without cellulose amendments. In anaerobic soil, PCP reduced soil respiration in the presence of cellulose; volatilization losses accounted for only 0.5% of the PCP added to soil; no CO2 was detected; and organic solvent extractable radioactivity was the same from

N. B. K. Murthy; D. D. Kaufman; G. F. Fries

1979-01-01

392

Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa  

SciTech Connect

Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

Rivard, C

1993-01-01

393

Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

1989-06-01

394

High-rate anaerobic treatment of purified terephthalic acid wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

During production of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) a concentrated waste stream is generated, containing both readily (acetate and benzoate) and slowly (terephthalate and para-toluate) degradable organic substrates. Based on our experimental experiences with the anaerobic treatment of this waste stream, this paper presents an optimized concept for start-up and operation of a two-stage anaerobic biore- actor system. Based on considerations

R. Kleerebezem; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

395

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

396

Apparatus for the anaerobic digestion of natural organic waste  

SciTech Connect

The title system consists of a feed tank, from which sewage is provided to a digester tank at an adjustable continuous weight, in which the sewage is anaerobically digested. The gas produced in the anaerobic digester is collected at the top and pumped to a diffuser at the bottom of the digester. The supernatent from the treated sewage is transferred to an outlet tank, and sludge is removed from the bottom of the digester tank.

Hawkes, D.L.; Horton, R.; Stafford, D.A.

1980-11-11

397

Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of

W. Hao; W. Hongtao

2008-01-01

398

Aerobic and anaerobic performance improvement through yogic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature supports the impact of yogic practice on physical performance especially, the aerobic aspects. The study therefore attempted to compare the effect of 3 months yogic practice on aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Healthy young male volunteers of age 21–33 years, height 174.8±3.52 cm and weight 69.6±7.17 kg (mean±SD) were participated in this study (64 volunteers for anaerobic (n1=64) and 21

M Saha; O S Tomer; K Halder; A Pathak

2010-01-01

399

Struvite precipitation from anaerobically treated municipal and landfill wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage treatment system including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor pre-treatment combined with a chemical post treatment system such as magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation was proposed as a comparable alternative to conventional biological treatment. In this study, anaerobically pre-treated domestic wastewater, domestic wastewater mixed with 2% and 3% of leachate by volume and raw leachate were further treated chemically

M. Altinbas; C. Yangin; I. Ozturk

2002-01-01

400

Anaerobic biogranulation in a hybrid reactor treating phenolic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulation was examined in four similar anaerobic hybrid reactors 15.5L volume (with an effective volume of 13.5L) during the treatment of synthetic coal wastewater at the mesophilic temperature of 27±5°C. The hybrid reactors are a combination of UASB unit at the lower part and an anaerobic filter at the upper end. Synthetic wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Anushyaa Ramakrishnan; S. K. Gupta

2006-01-01

401

Design Considerations for Full-Scale Anaerobic Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic filters represent a developing technology suitable for treatment of industrial wastes containing soluble biodegradable organic materials. A number of full-scale systems have been designed and constructed since 1977, and sufficient data are available to compare field performance to the performance of laboratory-scale units. These comparisons show good agreement between laboratory- and full-scale anaerobic filters and show that the most

James C. Young; Byung S. Yang

1989-01-01

402

Anaerobic degradation of benzoate to methane by a microbial consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stabilized consortium of microbes which anaerobically degraded benzoate and produced CH4 was established by inoculation of a benzoate-mineral salts medium with sewage sludge; the consortium was routinely subcultured anaerobically in this medium for 3 years. Acetate, formate, H2 and CO2 were identified as intermediates in the overall conversion of benzoate to CH4 by the culture. Radioactivity was equally divided

J. G. Ferry; R. S. Wolfe

1976-01-01

403

Biofilm-based infections in long-term care facilities.  

PubMed

The recent trend in the early admittance to long-term care facilities (LTCFs) of severely injured patients transferred from general hospitals has given a new dynamic to the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, including biofilm-based infections related to the implant of urinary and intravascular catheters, and the onset of pressure ulcers. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections lead in most of the surveys on LTCFs, approximately 80% of urinary tract infections in these settings being due to the short- or long-term insertion of a urinary catheter. Furthermore, the implantation of intravascular catheters is often responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections caused by the development of an intraluminal biofilm. Pressure ulcers, frequently occurring in bedridden patients admitted to LTCFs, are also susceptible to infection by biofilm-growing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, the biofilm formation on the wound being the main reason for its delayed healing. PMID:24571072

Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia

2014-01-01

404

In Vitro Activities of the New Semisynthetic Glycopeptide Telavancin (TD6424), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, and Four Comparator Agents against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species and Corynebacterium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2004-01-01

405

Reconstructing the mosaic glycolytic pathway of the anaerobic eukaryote Monocercomonoides.  

PubMed

All eukaryotes carry out glycolysis, interestingly, not all using the same enzymes. Anaerobic eukaryotes face the challenge of fewer molecules of ATP extracted per molecule of glucose due to their lack of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. This may have pressured anaerobic eukaryotes to acquire the more ATP-efficient alternative glycolytic enzymes, such as pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, through lateral gene transfers from bacteria and other eukaryotes. Most studies of these enzymes in eukaryotes involve pathogenic anaerobes; Monocercomonoides, an oxymonad belonging to the eukaryotic supergroup Excavata, is a nonpathogenic anaerobe representing an evolutionarily and ecologically distinct sampling of an anaerobic glycolytic pathway. We sequenced cDNA encoding glycolytic enzymes from a previously established cDNA library of Monocercomonoides and analyzed the relationships of these enzymes to those from other organisms spanning the major groups of Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. We established that, firstly, Monocercomonoides possesses alternative versions of glycolytic enzymes: fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase, both pyruvate kinase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (class II, type B). Secondly, we found evidence for the monophyly of oxymonads, kinetoplastids, diplomonads, and parabasalids, the major representatives of the Excavata. We also found several prokaryote-to-eukaryote as well as eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers involving glycolytic enzymes from anaerobic eukaryotes, further suggesting that lateral gene transfer was an important factor in the evolution of this pathway for denizens of this environment. PMID:17071828

Liapounova, Natalia A; Hampl, Vladimir; Gordon, Paul M K; Sensen, Christoph W; Gedamu, Lashitew; Dacks, Joel B

2006-12-01

406

Reconstructing the Mosaic Glycolytic Pathway of the Anaerobic Eukaryote Monocercomonoides? †  

PubMed Central

All eukaryotes carry out glycolysis, interestingly, not all using the same enzymes. Anaerobic eukaryotes face the challenge of fewer molecules of ATP extracted per molecule of glucose due to their lack of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. This may have pressured anaerobic eukaryotes to acquire the more ATP-efficient alternative glycolytic enzymes, such as pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, through lateral gene transfers from bacteria and other eukaryotes. Most studies of these enzymes in eukaryotes involve pathogenic anaerobes; Monocercomonoides, an oxymonad belonging to the eukaryotic supergroup Excavata, is a nonpathogenic anaerobe representing an evolutionarily and ecologically distinct sampling of an anaerobic glycolytic pathway. We sequenced cDNA encoding glycolytic enzymes from a previously established cDNA library of Monocercomonoides and analyzed the relationships of these enzymes to those from other organisms spanning the major groups of Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. We established that, firstly, Monocercomonoides possesses alternative versions of glycolytic enzymes: fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase, both pyruvate kinase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (class II, type B). Secondly, we found evidence for the monophyly of oxymonads, kinetoplastids, diplomonads, and parabasalids, the major representatives of the Excavata. We also found several prokaryote-to-eukaryote as well as eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers involving glycolytic enzymes from anaerobic eukaryotes, further suggesting that lateral gene transfer was an important factor in the evolution of this pathway for denizens of this environment. PMID:17071828

Liapounova, Natalia A.; Hampl, Vladimir; Gordon, Paul M. K.; Sensen, Christoph W.; Gedamu, Lashitew; Dacks, Joel B.

2006-01-01

407

Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

Lopez Torres, M. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)], E-mail: matilde.lopez@cnic.edu.cu; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)

2008-11-15

408

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R. [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

1999-06-01

409

Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure with enhanced ammonia removal.  

PubMed

Poor ammonia-nitrogen removal in methanogenic anaerobic reactors digesting animal manure has been reported as an important disadvantage of anaerobic digestion (AD) in several studies. Development of anaerobic processes that are capable of producing reduced ammonia-nitrogen levels in their effluent is one of the areas where further research must be pursued if AD technology is to be made more effective and economically advantageous. One approach to removing ammonia from anaerobically digested effluents is the forced precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH4PO4 x 6H2O), commonly called struvite. Struvite is a valuable plant nutrient source for nitrogen and phosphorus since it releases them slowly and has non-burning features because of its low solubility in water. This study investigated coupling AD and controlled struvite precipitation in the same reactor to minimize the nitrogen removal costs and possibly increase the performance of the AD by reducing the ammonia concentration which has an adverse effect on anaerobic bacteria. The results indicated that up to 19% extra COD and almost 11% extra NH3 removals were achieved relative to a control by adding 1750 mg/L of MgCl2 x 6H2O to the anaerobic reactor. PMID:17257738

Uludag-Demirer, S; Demirer, G N; Frear, C; Chen, S

2008-01-01

410

Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation. PMID:25397976

Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

2015-01-01

411

Nitric oxide-dependent killing of aerobic, anaerobic and persistent Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are fastidious to treat with conventional antibiotic therapy, often involving a combination of drugs and long-term regimes. Bacterial genetic determinants contribute to the resistance of B. pseudomallei to many classes of antibiotics. In addition, anaerobiosis and hypoxia in abscesses typical of melioidosis select for persistent populations of B. pseudomallei refractory to a broad spectrum of antibacterials. We tested the susceptibility of B. pseudomallei to the drugs hydroxyurea, spermine NONOate and DETA NONOate that release nitric oxide (NO). Our investigations indicate that B. pseudomallei are killed by NO in a concentration and time-dependent fashion. The cytoxicity of this diatomic radical against B. pseudomallei depends on both the culture medium and growth phase of the bacteria. Rapidly growing, but not stationary phase, B. pseudomallei are readily killed upon exposure to the NO donor spermine NONOate. NO also has excellent antimicrobial activity against anaerobic B. pseudomallei. In addition, persistent bacteria highly resistant to most conventional antibiotics are remarkably susceptible to NO. Sublethal concentrations of NO inhibited the enzymatic activity of [4Fe-4S]-cofactored aconitase of aerobic and anaerobic B. pseudomallei. The strong anti-B. pseudomallei activity of NO described herein merits further studies on the application of NO-based antibiotics for the treatment of melioidosis. PMID:22521523

Jones-Carson, Jessica; Laughlin, James R.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Voskuil, Martin I.; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

2012-01-01

412

Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Epithelial Linings of Odontogenic Keratocyst, Dentigerous Cyst and Radicular Cyst: A Pathological Insight  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study is aimed at analyzing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) in order to understand the possible role of iNOS with special reference to its neoplastic nature and local aggressive of cysts. Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS and secondary aim is to compare the iNOS expression, pattern and intensity of staining among the epithelial linings of OKC, DC and RC. Materials and Methods: iNOS in the epithelial lining cells were analyzing in 10 OKC's, 10 DC's and 10 RC's using immunohistochemistry. The percentage of positive cells was assessed and presented as mean ± standard deviation. The correlation with respect to the intensity and percentage of staining within the epithelial linings of OKCs, DCs and RCs was carried out using (analysis of variance and Student's t-test) Chi-square test. Results: Staining intensity of iNOS portion was seen in the entire thickness of the epithelial linings of OKC, whereas in DC's only one case had entire thickness of the epithelial lining staining and in RC's none of the cases showed entire thickness of staining. On comparing the staining intensity of iNOS between OKC, DC and RC groups, using Chi-square test, there was a statistically significant difference between these groups (P < 0.01). On analyzing the immuno-reactivity of iNOS in OKC, DC and RC there was a positive variable expression iNOS between the cysts. Conclusion: iNOS was over expressed in OKCs when compared with DC and RC suggesting that iNOS may contribute to the aggressive behavior of OKC. This is yet another evidence to support that OKC is the neoplasm. PMID:25221709

Swetha, P; Ramesh, KSV; Madhavan, N; Veeravarmal, V; Sameera, ASS

2014-01-01

413

Molecular ecology of anaerobic oxidation of methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is present in huge amounts in marine sediments and exists either as crystalline, solid phase methane hydrates, or as free gas. Little of the methane reaches the oxic water column because it is converted to CO_2 by microorganisms in the anoxic sediments. There is strong geochemical evidence, based on microbial process measurements and stable carbon isotope data that the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is directly coupled to sulfate reduction. Recent studies demonstrated that AOM is mediated by a structured consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the D'sarcina/D'coccus group and archaea belonging to the ANME-2 group, which is affiliated with the order Methanosarcinales. A second archaeal group (ANME-1), distantly related to Methanosarcinales, has also been shown to mediate AOM. So far, neither ANME-1 nor ANME-2 has been isolated. Consortia of archaea and SRB were present in all sediments investigated. In addition to structured consortia (Hydrate Ridge, Eel River Basin), we also found unstructured consortia (Haakon Mosby Mud Vulcano, Guaymas Basin, Gulf of Mexico) as well as consortia consisting of just two archaeal cells and a single SRB cell (Congo Basin). The consortia were highly abundant in Hydrate Ridge sediments with a maximum of 1.4x10^8 aggregates cm-3. The diameter of the aggregates ranged from 1 µm up to ca. 15 ?m, with an average of 3.2 ?m. The microbial diversity of anaerobic methane oxidizing communities was investigated by 16S rDNA clone library analysis. The bacterial diversity was always high, and comparable with that of coastal sediments. The archaeal diversity was low in all habitats investigated. Most sequences belong to the recently described groups of uncultivated methanogenic archaea, ANME-1 and ANME-2. ANME-1 cells were found in high abundance in situ. In Hydrate Ridge sediments up to 33% of "free-living" cells (= up to 17% of total cells) were accounted for by the ANME-1. The phylogenetic analysis of all published sequences retrieved from different methane-rich habitats showed that at least four AOM-specific, globally distributed groups could be defined.

Knittel, K.; Boetius, A.; Lemke, A.; Amann, R.

2003-04-01

414

Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure culture studies. Our recent work has extended the study of hydrogen to cyanobacterial mat communities. The large amounts of reducing power generated during photosynthetic activity carry the potential to contribute a swamping term to the H2 economy of the anaerobic microbial populations within the mat - and thereby to alter the population structure and biogeochemical function of the mat as a whole. In hypersaline microbial mats, we observe a distinct diel cycle in H2 production and a substantial corresponding flux. On an early Earth dominated by microbial mats, this transmission of photosynthetic reducing power may have carried important implications for both biospheric and atmospheric evolution.

Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

415

In vitro biofilm formation of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species under dynamic and anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

An understanding of biofilm behavior of Candida species under different environmental conditions is key to the development of effective preventive measures for candidal infections. Hence in this study we assessed the impact of the environmental milieu on Candida biofilm formation using polystyrene, flat-bottomed 96-well microtiter plates. A total of 20, comprising 10 clinical isolates each of Candida albicans and, non-albicans species of Candida were compared for their biofilm forming ability both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and static and dynamic conditions. XTT reduction assay was used to quantify the sessile growth. Biofilm formation of all 10 C. albicans isolates differed significantly between dynamic and static states under both atmospheric conditions (P<0.05). For non-albicans Candida species, a significant difference in biofilm growth between dynamic and static states was noted only when incubated aerobically (P<0.05), and no significant difference in biofilm formation was noted between aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that C. albicans produced a compact multilayered biofilm embedded in noticeably higher quantity of extracellular polymeric matrix in aerobic/dynamic conditions compared with anaerobic/static conditions. Our data indicate that biofilm formation of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species is modulated by hydrodynamic conditions and ambient oxygen gradients. However, further work is required to fully elucidate how Candida biofilms persist within the oral milieu under such challenging ecological pressures. PMID:17321487

Thein, Zaw M; Samaranayake, Yuthika H; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

2007-08-01

416

Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. Experiments were carried out in three periods, where different organic loading rates (OLR) were applied to the reactors. The total trace metal concentration steadily decreased at a rate of 48 microg metal/g TS.d in the deprived reactor (down to 35% of their initial value). In contrast, trace metals accumulated in granules present in the control reactor. At the end of the experiment, the COD removal efficiencies were 99% and 77% for the control and deprived reactors, respectively, due to the lack of propionate conversion. Cobalt sorption experiments were carried out in order to study its speciation, and its effects on the speciation of other metals as well. A paper mill wastewater treating granular sludge was also included in the study as a comparison. Results obtained showed that the principal metal forms normally associated with any sludge are a function of each soluble metal concentration in the system, and the characteristics of the particular sludge. PMID:14640193

Osuna, M B; Iza, J; Zandvoort, M; Lens, P N L

2003-01-01

417

Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: byproducts formation.  

PubMed

This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 min. The wastewater used in this research was generated by the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), University of São Paulo - Brazil. The total coliform inactivation range was 2.00-4.06 log(10), and the inactivation range for Escherichia coli was 2.41-4.65 log(10). Mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were 37.6%, 48.8% and 42.4% for doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1), respectively. Aldehyde formation varied with dosage only when the ozone dose was increased from 5.0 to 8.0mg O(3)L(-1) for acetaldehyde and from 5.0 to 8.0 and from 8.0 to 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for glyoxal. PMID:20434908

Silva, G H R; Daniel, L A; Bruning, H; Rulkens, W H

2010-09-01

418

Anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludges using anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS) and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) using an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AnFBR) employing zeolite particles as the carrier media was investigated at different organic loading rates (OLRs). PS was tested at OLRs from 4.2 to 39kgCOD/m(3)-d corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) from 1.0 to 8.9days. The highest COD removal and VSS destruction efficiencies for primary sludge of 85% and 88%, respectively, were achieved at an HRT of 8.9days and OLR of 4.2kgCOD/m(3)-d. For TWAS, VSS destruction efficiencies varied from 42% at an HRT of 2.6days and OLR of 13.1kgCOD/m(3)-d to 69% at an HRT of 8.8days and an OLR of 4.2kgCOD/m(3)-d. The first-order COD biodegradation rates in the AnFBR for PS and TWAS were 0.4d(-1) and 0.1d(-1), respectively, almost double the rates in conventional high-rate digesters. PMID:25280599

Mustafa, Nizar; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

2014-11-01

419

Characterisation and anaerobic batch degradation of materials accumulating in anaerobic digesters treating poultry slaughterhouse waste.  

PubMed

We characterised materials accumulating in two failed mesophilic semi-continuous anaerobic digesters treating poultry slaughterhouse waste and, for reference, materials in the two well-performing digesters, to find the anaerobic degradability of these materials and the factors affecting their degradation. We also studied materials accumulating and stratifying in various layers in one of the two well-performing digesters. The material from the most severely failed digesters produced methane sluggishly and did not improve appreciably even with 33 percent dilution suggesting that the recovery of failed process is slow. The methane production was apparently affected by the accumulated long-chain fatty acids, totalling 8.1 g l-1, which degraded slowly. However, the material produced methane in the end, which shows that the failure was reversible. In the well-performing digester, considerable amounts of long-chain fatty acids already floated on top of the digester after 20 hours without mixing, a phenomenon which may have affected their bioavailability and toxicity. However, materials from the top, middle, and bottom layers of the digester were readily and largely methanised by the microbial populations present in them and additional inocula did not markedly enhance the methanation. The results indicate that long-chain fatty acids are apparently the main factor affecting both the failure and recovery of a poultry slaughterhouse waste digester. Thus excessive feeding of lipids into the digester should be avoided. PMID:11424735

Salminen, E; Einola, J; Rintala, J

2001-05-01

420

Anaerobic treatment performance and microbial population of thermophilic upflow anaerobic filter reactor treating awamori distillery wastewater.  

PubMed

Distillery wastewater from awamori making was anaerobically treated for one year using thermophilic upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) reactors packed with pyridinium group-containing nonwoven fabric material. The microbial structure and spatial distribution of microorganisms on the support material were characterized using molecular biological methods. The reactor steadily achieved a high TOC loading rate of 18 g/l/d with approximately 80% TOC removal efficiency when non-diluted wastewater was fed. The maximum TOC loading rate increased to 36 g/l/d when treating thrice-diluted wastewater. However, the TOC removal efficiency and gas evolution rate decreased compared with that when non-diluted wastewater was used. Methanogens closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanoculleus bourgensis and bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were predominant methanogens and bacteria in the thermophilic UFA reactor, as indicated by 16S rRNA gene clone analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that a large quantity of bacterial cells adhered throughout the whole support, and Methanosarcina-like methanogens existed mainly in the relative outside region while Methanoculleus cells were located in the relative inner part of the support. The support material used proved to be an excellent carrier for microorganisms, and a UAF reactor using this kind of support can be used for high-rate treatment of awamori/shochu distillery wastewater. PMID:18023800

Tang, Yue-Qin; Fujimura, Yutaka; Shigematsu, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

2007-10-01

421

Anaerobic treatment of distillery spent wash - a study on upflow anaerobic fixed film bioreactor.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from a distillery industry having very high COD (1,10,000-1,90,000 mg/L) and BOD (50,000-60,000 mg/L) was studied in a continuously fed, up flow fixed film column reactor using different support materials such as charcoal, coconut coir and nylon fibers under varying hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates. The seed consortium was prepared by enrichment with distillery spent wash in a conventional type reactor having working capacity of 3 L and was used for charging the anaerobic column reactor. Amongst the various support materials studied the reactor having coconut coir could treat distillery spent wash at 8d hydraulic retention time with organic loading rate of 23.25 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) leading to 64% COD reduction with biogas production of 7.2 m3 m(-3)d(-1) having high methane yield without any pretreatment or neutralization of the distillery spent wash. This study indicates fixed film biomethanation of distillery spent wash using coconut coir as the support material appears to be a cost effective and promising technology for mitigating the problems caused by distillery effluent. PMID:17765535

Acharya, Bhavik K; Mohana, Sarayu; Madamwar, Datta

2008-07-01

422

Epidemiological characteristics of infections caused by Bacteroides, Prevotella and Fusobacterium species: a prospective observational study.  

PubMed

In order to investigate differences among infections due to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides, Prevotella and Fusobacterium spp.), clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological data were collected and evaluated from 206 anaerobic infections. The most frequently isolated species was Bacteroides fragilis. The majority of the cases were intra-abdominal infections (49%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (24.7%). Logistic regression analysis showed that Bacteroides spp. strains were more often isolated from intra-abdominal infections (p = 0.002), whereas Prevotella spp. were isolated more frequently from cases with shorter duration of hospitalization (p = 0.026), and less frequently from bloodstream infections (p = 0.049). In addition, Bacteroides spp. were associated with coinfection due to Enterobacteriaceae species (p = 0.007), whereas Prevotella spp. were associated with coinfection due to Staphylococcus spp. (p = 0.002). Patients with an infection due to B. fragilis, were more frequently admitted in a general surgical ward (p = 0.017), or have been treated with a 2nd generation cephalosporin before anaerobic infection onset (p = 0.05). Total mortality was 10.9% and was associated with bacteremia (p = 0.026), and hematological (p = 0.028), or solid organ malignancy (p = 0.007). Metronidazole resistance was detected only among Prevotella spp. (16.2%) and B. fragilis group (0.8%) isolates. In conclusion, this study indicated differences between infections due to the most frequently isolated Gram-negative anaerobic species, differences that may affect the design and implementation of empirical antimicrobial chemotherapy guidelines. PMID:21664284

Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Katsandri, Anastasia; Pantazatou, Angeliki; Stefanou, Ioanna; Avlamis, Athina; Legakis, Nicholas J; Tsakris, Athanassios

2011-06-01

423

Clostridium difficile infection: molecular pathogenesis and novel therapeutics.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile produces toxins A and B, which can cause a spectrum of diseases from pseudomembranous colitis to C. difficile-associated diarrhea. A limited number of C. difficile strains also produce a binary toxin that exhibits ADP ribosyltransferase activity. Here, the structure and the mechanism of action of these toxins as well as their role in disease are reviewed. Nosocomial C. difficile infection is often contracted in hospital when patients treated with antibiotics suffer a disturbance in normal gut microflora. C. difficile spores can persist on dry, inanimate surface for months. Metronidazole and oral vancomycin are clinically used for treatment of C. difficile infection but clinical failure and concern about promotion of resistance are motivating the search for novel non-antibiotic therapeutics. Methods for controlling both toxins and spores, replacing gut microflora by probiotics or fecal transplant, and killing bacteria in the anaerobic gut by photodynamic therapy are discussed. PMID:24410618

Rineh, Ardeshir; Kelso, Michael J; Vatansever, Fatma; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

2014-01-01

424

Clostridium difficile infection: molecular pathogenesis and novel therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile produces toxins A and B, which can cause a spectrum of diseases from pseudomembranous colitis to C. difficile-associated diarrhea. A limited number of C. difficile strains also produce a binary toxin that exhibits ADP ribosyltransferase activity. Here, the structure and the mechanism of action of these toxins as well as their role in disease are reviewed. Nosocomial C. difficile infection is often contracted in hospital when patients treated with antibiotics suffer a disturbance in normal gut microflora. C. difficile spores can persist on dry, inanimate surface for months. Metronidazole and oral vancomycin are clinically used for treatment of C. difficile infection but clinical failure and concern about promotion of resistance are motivating the search for novel non-antibiotic therapeutics. Methods for controlling both toxins and spores, replacing gut microflora by probiotics or fecal transplant, and killing bacteria in the anaerobic gut by photodynamic therapy are discussed. PMID:24410618

Rineh, Ardeshir; Kelso, Michael J; Vatansever, Fatma; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

2015-01-01

425

Anaerobic and Aerobic Performance of Elite Female and Male Snowboarders  

PubMed Central

The physiological adaptation to training is specific to the muscle activity, dominant energy system involved, muscle groups trained, as well as intensity and volume of training. Despite increasing popularity of snowboarding only little scientific data is available on the physiological characteristics of female and male competitive snowboarders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic capacity and maximal anaerobic power of elite Polish snowboarders with untrained subjects. Ten snowboarders and ten aged matched students of Physical Education performed two exercise tests. First, a 30-second Wingate test was conducted and next, a cycle ergometer exercise test with graded intensity. In the first test, peak anaerobic power, the total work, relative peak power and relative mean power were measured. During the second test, relative maximal oxygen uptake and lactate threshold were evaluated. There were no significant differences in absolute and relative maximal oxygen uptake between snowboarders and the control group. Mean maximal oxygen uptake and lactate threshold were significantly higher in men than in women. Significant differences were found between trained men and women regarding maximal power and relative maximal power. The elite snowboarders demonstrated a high level of anaerobic power. The level of relative peak power in trained women correlated negatively with maximal oxygen uptake. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate that the demanding competition program of elite snowboarders provides a significant training stimulus mainly for anaerobic power with minor changes in anaerobic performance. PMID:23487498

?ebrowska, Aleksandra; ?y?a, Dorota; Kania, Damian; Langfort, Józef

2012-01-01

426

Rapid extraction of total RNA from an anaerobic sludge biocoenosis.  

PubMed

In order to assess the activity of metabolic pathways during anaerobic biogas production, it is necessary to isolate total RNA from the anaerobic sludge. mRNA activity profiling complements the quantification of excreted metabolites for a comprehensive anaerobic digestion model (ADM1). Four non-commercial total RNA extraction protocols were examined to extract total RNA from suspended solids of anaerobic sludge. The most suitable protocol was identified and optimised. In relation to total RNA extraction efficiency, total RNA purity and RNA integrity, the best homogenisation method was a combined method of nitrogen grinding and bead beating. When bead beating or nitrogen grinding was used alone for homogenisation, total RNA extraction efficiency was lower than when both homogenisation methods were applied. Depending on the homogenisation method, the whole RNA extraction procedure takes approximately 2 to 3 h, which is as fast as when using commercial available soil RNA extraction kits. The proposed method is rapid in extracting total RNA from a biocoenosis present in an anaerobic sludge environment. Furthermore, we could apply any of the extracted homogenization methods for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification of the gene for the methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA/mrtA). PMID:23990476

Rittmann, Simon; Holubar, Peter

2014-03-01

427

Electrochemical mineralization of anaerobically digested olive mill wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel approach was developed for the energetic valorisation and treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW), combining anaerobic digestion and electrochemical oxidation. The electrochemical treatment was proposed as the final step to mineralize the remaining OMW fraction from the anaerobic reactor. The electrooxidation of anaerobically digested OMW was investigated over dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs). RuO(2) based anode was significantly more efficient than IrO(2)-type DSA, mainly for the COD removal. IrO(2) based anode promoted a selective oxidation of phenols and colour removal. For instance, after an electrolysis charge of 10.4 × 10(4) C L(-1), COD removals of 14 and 99%, phenols removals of 91 and 100% and colour removals of 85 and 100% were obtained for IrO(2) and RuO(2) DSAs-type, respectively. The electrochemical post-treatment was effectively performed without using a supporting electrolyte and in the presence of the solids that remained from the anaerobic process. The achievement of the required effluent quality for sewer systems disposal depends on the operating conditions of the anaerobic process. Consequently, special care must be taken with the chloride and nitrogen levels that may surpass the legal discharge limits. The electrochemical oxidation over RuO(2) based DSA is an appropriate second-step treatment for OMW disposal, after the recovery of its energetic potential. PMID:22687524

Gonçalves, M R; Marques, I P; Correia, J P

2012-09-01

428

Anaerobic waste digestion in Germany--status and recent developments.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment processes are especially suited for the utilization of wet organic wastes from agriculture and industry as well as for the organic part of source-separated household wastes. Anaerobic degradation is a very cost-effective method for treating biogenic wastes because the formed biogas can be used for heat and electricity production and the digester residues can be recycled to agriculture as a secondary fertilizer. Anaerobic technology will also be used for the common treatment of wastes together with renewable energy crops in order to reduce the CO2-emissions according the Kyoto protocol. Various process types are applied in Germany which differ in material, reaction conditions and in the form of the used reactor systems. The widespread introduction of anaerobic digestion in Germany has shown that biogenic organic wastes are a valuable source for energy and nutrients. Anaerobic waste treatment is done today in approx. 850 biogas plants on small farm scale as well as on large industrial scale with the best beneficial and economic outcome. Due to some new environmental protection acts which promote the recycling of wastes and their utilization for renewable energy formation it can be expected that several hundreds new biogas plants will be built per year in Germany. In order to use the synergetic effects of a combined fermentation of wastes and energy crops new process types must be developed in order to optimize the substrate combinations and the process conditions for maximum biodegradation. PMID:11587446

Weiland, P

2000-01-01

429

Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.  

PubMed

The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

2013-04-01

430

Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine supplementation on peak anaerobic power output (Wmax). Using a counterbalanced, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 14 well-trained men completed three trials of a protocol consisting of a series of 6-s cycle ergometer sprints, separated by 5-min passive recovery periods. Sprints were performed at progressively increasing torque factors to determine the peak power/torque relationship and Wmax. Apart from Trial 1 (familiarisation), participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo, one hour before each trial. The effects of caffeine on blood lactate were investigated using capillary samples taken after each sprint. The torque factor which produced Wmax was not significantly different (p ? 0.05) between the caffeine (1.15 ± 0.08 N·m·kg(-1)) and placebo (1.13 ± 0.10 N·m·kg(-1)) trials. There was, however, a significant effect (p < 0.05) of supplementation on Wmax, with caffeine producing a higher value (1885 ± 303 W) than placebo (1835 ± 290 W). Analysis of the blood lactate data revealed a significant (p < 0.05) torque factor × supplement interaction with values being significantly higher from the sixth sprint (torque factor 1.0 N·m·kg(-1)) onwards following caffeine supplementation. The results of this study confirm previous reports that caffeine supplementation significantly increases blood lactate and Wmax. These findings may explain why the majority of previous studies, which have used fixed-torque factors of around 0.75 N·m·kg(-1) and thereby failing to elicit Wmax, have failed to find an effect of caffeine on sprinting performance. PMID:25275888

Glaister, Mark; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

2014-10-01

431

Leptotrichia species in human infections.  

PubMed

Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. These anaerobic bacteria belong to the normal flora of humans and are seldom found in clinically significant specimens. However, on rare occasions, Leptotrichia has been isolated from blood cultures of patients with lesions in the oral mucosa, in particular from patients with neutropenia. These organisms should be considered potential pathogens in neutropenic patients, especially when breaks in the mucosal barriers are present through which they frequently spread to the bloodstream. Leptotrichia has also been recovered from immunocompetent persons, e.g. patients with endocarditis. Although their role in infections remains elusive and not much is known, they have been suggested as emerging pathogens. The present review deals with taxonomy, diagnosis, clinical importance, pathogenesis, host defence, infection control, and spectrum of Leptotrichia infections, and ends with a few typical case reports. Currently, six species have been validly published, but a number of yet uncultivable species exist. Molecular methods recovering uncultivable species should be used to get a real idea of their role as pathogens. PMID:18539056

Eribe, Emenike Ribs K; Olsen, Ingar

2008-06-01

432

Detection of Prosthetic Hip Infection at Revision Arthroplasty by Immunofluorescence Microscopy and PCR Amplification of the Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 19 January 1999\\/Returned for modification 2 May 1999\\/Accepted 26 June 1999 In this study the detection rates of bacterial infection of hip prostheses by culture and nonculture methods were compared for 120 patients with total hip revision surgery. By use of strict anaerobic bacteriological practice during the processing of samples and without enrichment, the incidence of infection by culture

MICHAEL M. TUNNEY; SHEILA PATRICK; MARTIN D. CURRAN; GORDON RAMAGE; DONNA HANNA; JAMES R. NIXON; SEAN P. GORMAN; RICHARD I. DAVIS; NEIL ANDERSON

1999-01-01

433

Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in animals: Pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming anaerobe, is a normal inhabitant of the alimentary tract of animals and humans. Two subspecies of F. necrophorum, subsp. necrophorum (biotype A) and subsp. funduliforme (biotype B), have been recognized, that differ morphologically, biochemically, and biologically. The subsp. necrophorum is more virulent and is isolated more frequently from infections than the subsp. funduliforme. The organism

T. G. Nagaraja; S. K. Narayanan; G. C. Stewart; M. M. Chengappa

2005-01-01

434

Computer simulation of control strategies for optimal anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Three previously published control strategies for anaerobic digestion were implemented in Simulink/Matlab using Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to model the biological process. The controllers' performance were then simulated and evaluated based on their responses from five different types of process scenarios i.e. start-up and steady state performance as well as disturbances from concentration, pH and ammonia in the inflow. Of the three evaluated control strategies, the extremum-seeking variable gain controller gave the best overall performance. However, a proportional feedback controller based on the pH-level, used as a reference case in the evaluation, proved to give as good results as the extremum-seeking variable gain controller but with a lower wear on the pump. It was therefore concluded that a fast proportional control of the reactor pH is a key element for optimally controlling a low-buffering anaerobic digestion process. PMID:23202565

Strömberg, S; Possfelt, M O; Liu, J

2013-01-01

435

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

2003-12-01

436

Performance of anaerobic granules for degradation of pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol (PCP), listed as a priority pollutant by the US EPA, is used for preservation of wood and wood products. This article examines the feasibility of the development of methanogenic granules with high dechlorinating activity and investigates the performance of the granules in treating wastewaters containing high PCP concentrations in a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Acetate, propionate butyrate, and methanol were used as carbon sources for supporting the growth of anaerobic organisms involved in PCP dechlorination and phenol mineralization. The investigators found that stable anaerobic granules can be developed in the presence of toxic xenobiotics such as PCP, and that PCP-degrading granules may be an alternative for treating PCP-contaminated wastewaters, especially those with high COD contents. Metabolic pathways of reductive dechlorination of PCP is discussed.

Wu, Weimin (Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing (United States)); Bhatnagar, L.; Zeikus, J.G. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

1993-02-01

437

Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA  

SciTech Connect

Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

Xun, Luying

2005-06-01

438

Promotion of polylactide degradation by ammonia under hyperthermophilic anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the promotion effect of ammonia on the biodegradation of polylactide (PLA) under hyperthermophilic (80°C) and thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic condition. The results showed that PLA was transformed to lactic acid under hyperthermophilic conditions, but that the transformation ratio was negligible under thermophilic conditions. The hydrolysis process can be markedly increased with ammonia addition and microorganism activity. The maximum transformation ratios of the two kinds of PLA used in this study were 65.2% and 51.8%, respectively, with ammonia addition of 4 g N/L over 3 days treatment of anaerobic sludge. After the hyperthermophilic pretreatment, the hydrolysis products were converted to methane by methanogens under the thermophilic and anaerobic conditions. The final methane conversion ratios of the two kinds of PLA after 22 days treatment were 81.8% and 77.0%, respectively. PMID:21907571

Wang, Feng; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Hidaka, Taira; Tsubota, Jun

2011-11-01

439

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM. PMID:8900001

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

440

Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass after ultrasound pretreatment.  

PubMed

High rate algal ponds are an economic and sustainable alternative for wastewater treatment, where microalgae and bacteria grow in symbiosis removing organic matter and nutrients. Microalgal biomass produced in these systems can be valorised through anaerobic digestion. However, microalgae anaerobic biodegradability is limited by the complex cell wall structure and therefore a pretreatment step may be required to improve the methane yield. In this study, ultrasound pretreatment at a range of applied specific energy (16-67 MJ/kg TS) was investigated prior to microalgae anaerobic digestion. Experiments showed how organic matter solubilisation (16-100%), hydrolysis rate (25-56%) and methane yield (6-33%) were improved as the pretreatment intensity increased. Mathematical modelling revealed that ultrasonication had a higher effect on the methane yield than on the hydrolysis rate. A preliminary energy assessment indicated that the methane yield increase was not high enough as to compensate the electricity requirement of ultrasonication without biomass dewatering (8% VS). PMID:25002372

Passos, Fabiana; Astals, Sergi; Ferrer, Ivet

2014-11-01

441

Microstructure of anaerobic granules bioaugmented with Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1.  

PubMed

Oligonucleotide probes were used to study the structure of anaerobic granular biofilm originating from a pentachlorophenol-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor augmented with Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated successful colonization of anaerobic granules by strain PCP-1. Scattered microcolonies of strain PCP-1 were detected on the biofilm surface after 3 weeks of reactor operation, and a dense outer layer of strain PCP-1 was observed after 9 weeks. Hybridization with probes specific for Eubacteria and Archaea probes showed that Eubacteria predominantly colonized the outer layer, while Archaea were observed in the granule interior. Mathematical simulations showed a distribution similar to that observed experimentally when using a specific growth rate of 2.2 day(-1) and a low bacterial diffusion of 10(-7) dm(2) day(-1). Also, the simulations showed that strain PCP-1 proliferation in the outer biofilm layer provided excellent protection of the biofilm from pentachlorophenol toxicity. PMID:12147505

Lanthier, M; Tartakovsky, B; Villemur, R; DeLuca, G; Guiot, S R

2002-08-01

442

Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner.  

PubMed

Forty male high school students, age 12-15 yrs, participated for a study of yoga in relation to body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power. Ths Ss were placed into two subsets viz., yoga group and control group. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance anaerobic power were measured using standard method. The duration of experiment was one year. The result of ANCOVA revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training. This study could not show significant change in body fat (midaxillary), skeletal diameters and most of the body circumferences. It was evident that some of the fat-folds (tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical, thigh and calf) and body circumferences (waist, umbilical and hip) were reduced significantly. PMID:8276501

Bera, T K; Rajapurkar, M V

1993-07-01

443

Infection of Lake Whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis) with motile Aeromonas spp. in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections with motile Aeromonas species were detected in lake whitefish collected over a one-year period from four stocks within lakes Michigan and Huron, USA. Sixty-nine isolates were recovered from the kidneys and swim-bladders of sixty-four infected fish. Representative isolates were Gram-negative bacilli that produced cytochrome oxidase, grew in the absence of salt, were facultative anaerobes, and were resistant to the

Thomas P. Loch; Mohamed Faisal

2010-01-01

444

[Aerogenesis evolution of the anaerobic-semiaerobic bioreactor landfill].  

PubMed

A novel bioreactor landfill, the anaerobic-semiaerobic bioreactor landfill (AN-SABL), was devised by combining an anaerobic bioreactor landfill (ANBL) with a semi-aerobic aged refuse biofilter (SAARB). Meanwhile, relevant parameters such as gas production volume and rate, and gas constituents were investigated to provide a theoretical foundation for the collection, utilization and treatment of landfill gas. Results indicated that the gas production of the anaerobic units was inhibited in the AN-SABLs. The gas production rates in the ANBL2 unit and the ANBL3 unit were 49 L x kg(-1) and 39 L x kg(-1) respectively, which were only 94.2% and 75.0% of that in the ANBL1. However, the gas production in the anaerobic unit could be accelerated by increasing the recirculation frequency. The maximum methane content could reach up to 62.67%. Moreover, the gas production volume and velocity in the ANBL were much higher in summer than those in winter, and the gas production peak could be observed with a 12-hour cycle. Besides, the nitrification and the denitrification in the anaerobic units would be enhanced remarkably in the AN-SABLs. It resulted that the content of N2O, which fluctuated between 0.0017% and 4.0179%, was influenced obviously by the seasonal variation and the landfill types. Based on the mathematical model of aerogenesis, the cumulative gas volume of the ANBL increased logarithmically in the initial aerobic phase, then increased linearly in the anaerobic acid phase, and increased exponentially in the methane production of acid phase afterwards. PMID:22946204

Han, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Dan; Li, Qi-Bin

2012-06-01

445

Anaerobic Oxidation of Benzene by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ferroglobus placidus?†  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]benzene to [14C]carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism, and [14C]benzoate was produced from [14C]benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not upregulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- than in benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. p