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Sample records for anaerobic odontogenic infections

  1. Treatment of orofacial infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Heimdahl, A; Nord, C E

    1985-01-01

    Acute purulent orofacial infections are often of odontogenic origin. The microorganisms and the anatomical site involved, largely determine the clinical manifestations. The infections are usually self-limiting but serious complications may ensue. Direct invasion of different anatomical spaces may cause mediastinitis, airway obstruction and also intracranial spread. Anaerobic bacteria belonging to the normal oropharyngeal flora (anaerobic cocci, bacteroides and fusobacteria) are usually isolated from orofacial abscesses. Surgical treatment including incision and drainage is essential. The drug of choice for antimicrobial therapy is penicillin. Penicillin resistant anaerobic bacteria may however make penicillin ineffective and antimicrobial agents such as metronidazole or clindamycin are then recommended to be used. PMID:3865348

  2. Management of complex multi-space odontogenic infections.

    PubMed

    Bratton, Terrance A; Jackson, D Carl; Nkungula-Howlett, Tania; Williams, Charles W; Bennett, C Ray

    2002-01-01

    The successful management of multi-space orofacial odontogenic infections involves identification of the source of the infection, the anatomical spaces encountered, the predominant microorganisms that are found during the various stages of odontogenic fascial space infection, the impact of the infectious process on defense systems, the ability to use and interpret laboratory data and imaging studies, and a thorough understanding of contemporary antibiotic and supportive care. The therapeutic goals, when managing multi-space odontogenic infections, are to restore form and/or function while limiting patient disability and preventing recurrence. Odontogenic infections are commonly the result of pericoronitis, carious teeth with pulpal exposure, periodontitis, or complications of dental procedures. The second and third molars are frequently the etiology of these multi-space odontogenic infections. Of the two teeth, the third molar is the more frequent source of infection. Diagnostic imaging modalities are selected based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, physical findings and laboratory results. Periapical and panoramic x-rays are reliable initial screening instruments used in determining etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are ideal imaging studies that permit assessment of the soft tissue involvement to include determining fluid collections, distinguishing abscess from cellulitis, and offering insight as to airway patency. Antibiotics are administered to assist the host immune system's effort to control and eliminate invading microorganisms. Early infections, first three (3) days of symptoms, are primarily caused by aerobic streptococci which are sensitive to penicillin. Amoxicillin is classified as an extended spectrum penicillin. The addition of clavulanic acid to amoxicillin (Augmentin) increases the spectrum to staphylococcus and other anaerobes by conferring beta-lactamase resistance. In late infections, more than three (3) days of symptoms, the predominant microorganisms are anaerobes, predominantly Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, or Bacteroides, that are resistant to penicillin. Clindamycin is an attractive alternative drug for first line therapy in the treatment of these infections. The addition of metronidazole to penicillin is also an excellent treatment choice. Alternatively, Unasyn (Ampicillin/Sublactam), should be considered. The mainstay of management of these infections remains appropriate culture for bacterial identification, timely and aggressive incision and drainage, and removal of the etiology. It is usually preferable to drain multi-space infections involving the submandibular, submental, masseteric, pterygomandibular, temporal, and/or lateral pharyngeal masticator spaces, as early as possible from an extraoral approach. Trismus and airway management are important considerations and may preclude the selection of other surgical approaches. The patients with multi-space infections should be hospitalized and patient care provided by experienced clinicians capable of management of airway problems, in administration of parenteral antibiotics and fluids, utilization of interpretation of laboratory and diagnostic imaging studies, and control of possible surgical complications. PMID:12572406

  3. Odontogenic infection secondary to Leuconostoc species.

    PubMed Central

    Wenocur, H S; Smith, M A; Vellozzi, E M; Shapiro, J; Isenberg, H D

    1988-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are gaining importance as pathogenic organisms. We present the first case of odontogenic infection caused by Leuconostoc spp. Isolates initially identified as streptococci were found to be vancomycin resistant. Rigorous bacteriologic investigation subsequently classified these organisms as Leuconostoc mesenteroides. PMID:3183032

  4. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been associated with conditions like chronic ear infections, deep skin infections, and lung abscesses. Cultures can be ... Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute ...

  5. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly encountered anaerobic organisms associated with PJI. Since anaerobic PJI has also been linked to dental procedures, we also reviewed information on the use of dental procedures and prophylaxis, when available. PMID:26341272

  6. Actinomyces Colonization in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an anaerobic infection that involves the craniofacial region and its colonization has rarely been reported in the developmental odontogenic cysts. In the present report, a case of odontogenic keratocyst (which is now called keratocystic odontogenic tumor) with the colonization of actinomyces is introduced and its significance is discussed.  PMID:26046110

  7. Zygomycosis originating from an odontogenic infection in a pediatric oncology patient

    PubMed Central

    Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Rowland, Christopher; McGregor, Lisa M.; Santana, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The Zygomyces are an increasingly frequent cause of invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients. Here we describe the first well-documented case of Rhizopus infection of odontogenic origin, which presented as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection in a neutropenic child. The infection resolved with limited surgical debridement and antifungal therapy. PMID:20227220

  8. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  9. Deep Neck Infection and Descending Mediastinitis as a Complication of Propionibacterium acnes Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Refaely, Yael; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which causes numerous types of infections. Isolated Propionibacterium acnes deep neck infections are very rare. We present an interesting case of deep neck infection complicated by descending mediastinitis of isolated Propionibacterium acnes infection. PMID:26693363

  10. Deep Neck Infection and Descending Mediastinitis as a Complication of Propionibacterium acnes Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Refaely, Yael; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which causes numerous types of infections. Isolated Propionibacterium acnes deep neck infections are very rare. We present an interesting case of deep neck infection complicated by descending mediastinitis of isolated Propionibacterium acnes infection. PMID:26693363

  11. Spectrum and treatment of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobes, the antimicrobial chosen should provide for adequate coverage of both. The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobes are: metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline, cefoxitin and clindamycin. PMID:26620376

  12. The clinical relevance of microbiology specimens in head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J

    2014-09-01

    It is common surgical practice to take a specimen for microbial culture and sensitivity when incising and draining infections of odontogenic origin in the head and neck. We aimed to find out if routine testing has any therapeutic value. We retrospectively studied 90 patients (57 male and 33 female) admitted to Northampton General Hospital for treatment of odontogenic infections, and reviewed admission details, antimicrobial treatment, microbiological findings and their sensitivity or resistance, and complications. Specimens were sent from 72 (80%) patients of which 61 (85%) were infected. The most commonly isolated organism was Streptococcus viridans. Interim reports were published after a mean of 3 days (range 1-4), and 94% of patients were discharged within a mean of 2 days (range 0-9) postoperatively. Almost 95% of patients were discharged before results were available, and there were no reported complications. We therefore suggest that microbial culture has little therapeutic value in the management of these patients. With culture and sensitivity tests costing £25 - £30, omission of this practice in the case of uncomplicated (single tissue space) odontogenic infections could save resources in the National Health Service without affecting the care of patients. PMID:24906248

  13. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    PubMed Central

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A. S. Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875?mg/125?mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150?mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  14. Odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L

    1999-11-01

    The odontogenic fibroma is a rare tumor that has generated controversy, perhaps disproportionately to its importance in the family of odontogenic tumors. The clinical and radiographic features are well documented but the histologic aspects have generated controversy. The behavior is benign, and published accounts indicate a low recurrence rate following treatment by curettage. The tumor recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) is the legitimate odontogenic fibroma. Histologic variants include the granular cell type and the hybrid odontogenic fibroma giant cell-like tumor. Although the extraosseous "peripheral" odontogenic fibroma presents as a gingival enlargement clinically indistinguishable from other gingival lesions, its histomorphology is similar to the central tumor. A normal dental follicle around the crown of an unerupted tooth may histologically mimic the odontogenic fibroma and other odontogenic tumors. PMID:10587271

  15. Ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible manifesting as an infected odontogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Owosho, Adepitan A; Potluri, Anitha; Bauer Iii, Richard E; Bilodeau, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare malignant odontogenic tumor. Although most ACs appear to originate de novo, some cases originate from a pre-existing ameloblastoma. This article presents the case of a 69-year-old man with an AC in the left body of the mandible. Radiographically, the lesion resembled an odontogenic cyst surrounding an impacted tooth. While ACs tend to have aggressive features that distinguish them from their benign counterparts, some are more subtle in their presentation. Therefore, it is important that dentists rule out malignancy in lesions that do not display obvious radiographic features. PMID:25574726

  16. Anaerobes in genitourinary infections in men.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Duerden, B I

    1983-01-01

    Urethral and sub-preputial swabs from 150 men were examined. There was a strong association between the isolation of anaerobic bacteria, particularly Bacteroides spp, and a clinical diagnosis of balanoposthitis, non-specific urethritis (NSU), or both. Aerobic bacteria formed the predominant flora in 28 healthy controls whereas anaerobes were predominant in specimens from 79 patients with balanoposthitis, from 24 with NSU, and from 19 with both. Bacteroides spp were the commonest isolates in all patient groups; B asaccharolyticus, B melaninogenicus ss intermedius, B ureolyticus, and B bivius were the most common species. The results obtained with the two swabs were identical except that Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated from the urethral swab only in five patients. PMID:6871653

  17. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  18. Cerebral Abscess Potentially of Odontogenic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hadj Hassine, Marouene; Oualha, Lamia; Derbel, Amine; Douki, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic origins are rarely implicated in the formation of brain abscesses. The relative paucity of this kind of infection and the difficulty in matching the causative microorganisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source can explain the late management of patients. We herein describe a case of a 46-year-old man with a cerebellar abscess that was probably due to an odontogenic infection. The diagnosis supported by imaging and microscopic identification, mini craniectomy for abscess drainage followed by eradication of all potential dental infectious foci, and an antibiotic regimen based on cephalosporins, metronidazole, and vancomycine contributed to a successful outcome. PMID:25705523

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  20. Moxifloxacin versus Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone in the management of odontogenic maxillofacial infectious processes: A preliminary, intrahospital, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arámbula, Hansel; Hidalgo-Hurtado, Antonio; Rodríguez-Flores, Rosaura; González-Amaro, Ana-María; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the days of hospitalization length between patients treated with Moxifloxacin with that of patients treated with a Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination and additionally, to isolate and identify the oral pathogens involved in orofacial odontogenic infections. Material and Methods A pilot-controlled-clinical-trial was carried out on hospitalized patients with cervicofacial odontogenic abscesses or cellulitis, who were randomly asigned to two study groups: 1) patients who received Moxifloxacin, and 2) patients receiving Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination. Infiltrate samples were collected through transdermic or transmucosal punction and later cultured on a media specific for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Mean hospitalization duration in days until hospital discharge and susceptibility assessment in rates were established. Results Mean hospitalization time in days of patients treated with Moxifloxacin was 7.0 ± 1.6 days, while in the Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone group, this was 8.4 ± 1.8 days, although significant difference could not be demonstrated (p=0.074). A total of 43 strains were isolated, all of these Gram-positive. These strains appeared to be highly sensitive to Moxifloxacin (97.5%) and Ceftriaxone (92.5%). Conclusions Moxifloxacin and Ceftriaxone appear to be potential convenient and rational alternatives to traditional antibiotics, for treating severe odontogenic infections, in conjunction with surgical extraoral incision, debridement, and drainage. Key words:Orofacial odontogenic infections, antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26644841

  1. Microbiology of Odontogenic Bacteremia: beyond Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Parahitiyawa, N. B.; Jin, L. J.; Leung, W. K.; Yam, W. C.; Samaranayake, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The human gingival niche is a unique microbial habitat. In this habitat, biofilm organisms exist in harmony, attached to either enamel or cemental surfaces of the tooth as well as to the crevicular epithelium, subjacent to a rich vascular plexus underneath. Due to this extraordinary anatomical juxtaposition, plaque biofilm bacteria have a ready portal of ingress into the systemic circulation in both health and disease. Yet the frequency, magnitude, and etiology of bacteremias due to oral origin and the consequent end organ infections are not clear and have not recently been evaluated. In this comprehensive review, we address the available literature on triggering events, incidence, and diversity of odontogenic bacteremias. The nature of the infective agents and end organ infections (other than endocarditis) is also described, with an emphasis on the challenge of establishing the link between odontogenic infections and related systemic, focal infections. PMID:19136433

  2. Central odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; de Moraes, Maiara; Neto, Antonio Capistrano; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas

    2011-12-01

    Odontogenic fibroma (OF) is a benign odontogenic tumor characterized by various amounts of odontogenic epithelium in a mature fibrous stroma. Two variants can be distinguished: an intraosseous or central OF (COF) and an extraosseous or peripheral. The intraosseous variant is an extremely rare tumor that presents clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic variable findings. A thorough review of the English literature revealed 78 cases of COF so far. Thus, we report an additional case of COF occurring in the maxilla of a 36-year-old woman. In addition, we performed a brief description and discussion of the cases reported in the maxilla and mandible. PMID:20971024

  3. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Daley, T D; Wysocki, G P

    1994-09-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma is characterized by a fibrous or fibromyxomatous proliferation that contains varying amounts of odontogenic or presumed odontogenic epithelium. It has been considered a rare gingival neoplasm that, because of a lack of follow-up information in most reported cases, has had an unknown biologic behavior. Clinical data from this study indicate that the lesion is more common than previously reported and that it has a significant recurrence rate. Light and electron microscopic data reveal a relatively broad spectrum of epithelial and mesenchymal components, including a rare granular cell type. Because the presence of both epithelial and mesenchymal elements are required for its diagnosis, the lesion is logically classified as a mixed epithelial/mesenchymal odontogenic tumor, rather than a purely mesenchymal tumor. PMID:7970594

  4. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A; Ficarra, G; Hansen, L S

    1987-10-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) is an uncommon lesion of the gingiva; 18 well-documented cases have been published. It is considered to be the extraosseous counterpart of the central odontogenic fibroma. Because of the paucity of reported cases, the full histomorphologic spectrum of this lesion has not yet been established. This article presents nine cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma that illustrate the variety of its histopathologic findings. The connective tissue ranged from loose (almost myxomatous) to markedly cellular to relatively acellular and well-collagenized. Islands and/or strands of odontogenic epithelium were present in all lesions. Matrix of mineralized material was present in three cases, and juxtaepithelial hyalinization was seen in one case. To avoid the introduction of additional diagnostic terms, we suggest that all these lesions be considered a spectrum of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type). We also suggest that the term WHO type be used to distinguish peripheral odontogenic fibromas from the peripheral ossifying fibroma with which they have often been confused. PMID:3477764

  5. Metronidazole is still the drug of choice for treatment of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Löfmark, Sonja; Edlund, Charlotta; Nord, Carl Erik

    2010-01-01

    Metronidazole has been used for the treatment of infections for >45 years and is still successfully used for the treatment of trichomoniasis, amoebiasis, and giardiasis. Anaerobic bacterial infections caused by Bacteroides species, fusobacteria, and clostridia respond favorably to metronidazole therapy. Good clinical results in the treatment of vaginosis due to Gardnerella vaginalis have also been reported. Rates of resistance to metronidazole are still generally low; however, several studies have reported decreased susceptibility among Bacteroides species, as well as different mechanisms of resistance. Metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains have been described, but combination therapy (eg, metronidazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin plus omeprazole) is still recommended for eradication of this pathogen in patients with gastroduodenal ulcers. Metronidazole is considered to be a cost-effective drug because of its low cost, good activity against pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and minor adverse effects. Metronidazole is still the criterion standard for therapy of anaerobic infections, as was described by Tally and colleagues 35 years ago. PMID:20067388

  6. A rare benign odontogenic neoplasm: peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sasidhar V; Medikonda, Suresh Kumar; Konda, Amarnath; Natta, Sreelakshmi

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a relatively rare, benign, unencapsulated and gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue, considered to be the extraosseous counterpart of the central odontogenic fibroma. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma was earlier quite commonly confused with peripheral ossifying fibroma, until WHO classification (1992), classified it under odontogenic tumours. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is seen so infrequently that little is known about this neoplasm; the largest series of cases have been that of Farman who found five cases in the literature and added another 10 cases. Through this case report we try to clarify the features of this condition and attempt to clear its distinction with other commonly occurring conditions. PMID:24920510

  7. Maxillary adenomatoid odontogenic tumour.

    PubMed

    Barodiya, Animesh; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Vyawahare, Saket

    2013-01-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a benign, slow-growing, relatively rare oral tumour, which accounts for about 3-7% of all odontogenic tumours as reported in the literature. It is an unusual benign neoplasm which shares clinical and radiographical characteristics with odontogenic cystic lesions denoting a distinct behaviour. The three variants-follicular, extrafollicular and peripheral-present with identical histological findings. This report describes a patient with an AOT in the anterior maxilla. Radiographically, the lesion was characterised by a well circumscribed unilocular radiolucent area displacing left maxillary lateral incisor, canine and first premolars. The final diagnosis was AOT. The lesion was enucleated under local anaesthesia. The patient was followed-up for one year. This paper also provides a refresher for general dental practitioners about various diagnostic aspects of this tumour and highlights the controversies regarding its origin and management in the light of recent findings. PMID:23771977

  8. [The diagnostic of anaerobic infection induced by Clostridium perfringens in patient with post-traumatic phlegmon: a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Zhevlakova, Iu A; Khokhlova, O I; Semenikhina, V M; Ust'iantseva, I M

    2013-06-01

    The article presents uncommon clinical case of anaerobic gas-producing infection induced by Clostridium perfringens. The disease resulted in lethal outcome at fourth day after admission of patient into hospital. The successful treatment requires timely diagnostic of clostridium infection based on complex of microbiologic, clinical and laboratory data. The early diagnostic is possible in case of bacteriologic analysis of native material. PMID:24340950

  9. The identification of gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from clinical infections.

    PubMed Central

    Duerden, B. I.

    1980-01-01

    Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from specimens submitted to the routine diagnostic bacteriology laboratory and regarded as significant pathogens were identified by conventional bacteriological tests; 399 strains isolated from 356 specimens submitted from 332 patients were studied and most were readily identified by the results of a combined set of morphological, biochemical, tolerance and antibiotic disk resistance tests; B. fragilis has particular pathogenic potential and was the commonest species isolated, accounting for greater than 50% of strains. The next commonest was B. asaccharolyticus with 55 strains, and 16 other species or groups were represented by smaller numbers. Many (68%) were from infections related to the gastro-intestinal tract, but there were significant numbers from infections of the male and female genito-urinary tracts, the head, neck and central nervous system and from a variety of soft tissue infections. Most infections were mixed, and a pure culture of a Bacteroides sp. was obtained from only 26% of infections; two or more strains of Bacteroides were recovered from 55 infections. The specific identification of Bacteroides may help the bacteriologist to judge the significance of laboratory findings, influence the patient's management and prognosis and help determine the source of infection. PMID:6987300

  10. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  11. Bone and joint infections due to anaerobic bacteria: an analysis of 61 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Walter, G; Vernier, M; Pinelli, P O; Million, M; Coulange, M; Seng, P; Stein, A

    2014-08-01

    The diagnosis of anaerobic bone and joint infections (BJI) were underestimated before the advent of molecular identification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We report 61 cases of anaerobic infections based on our 4-year experience with the management of BJI. A total of 75% of cases were post-surgical infections, associated with osteosynthesis devices (65%). Early infections occurred in 27% of cases, delayed infections in 17.5% of cases, and late infections in 55% of cases. We recorded 36 species of 93 anaerobic strains using MALDI-TOF MS (91) and molecular methods (2). We identified 20 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 13 of Finegoldia magna, six of Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, and six of P. harei. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 50 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in 93.5% of cases. The antibiotic treatments included amoxicillin (30%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), metronidazole (30%), and clindamycin (26%). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in 17 cases (28%). The relapse rate (27%) was associated with lower limbs localization (p?=?0.001). P. acnes BJI was associated with shoulder (p?=?0.019), vertebra (p?=?0.021), and head flap localization (p?=?0.011), and none of these cases relapsed (p?=?0.007). F. magna BJI was associated with ankle localization (p?=?0.014). Anaerobic BJI is typically considered as a post-surgical polymicrobial infection, and the management of this infection combines surgical and medical treatments. MALDI-TOF MS and molecular identification have improved diagnosis. Thus, physicians should be aware of the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic BJI to establish immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the post-surgical period until accurate microbiological results have been obtained. PMID:24577953

  12. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  13. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

    2013-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

  14. Peripheral granular cell odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Rinaggio, Joseph; Cleveland, Deborah; Koshy, Ranie; Gallante, Albert; Mirani, Neena

    2007-11-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare lesion that arises on the gingiva and can clinically mimic a variety of reactive lesions, benign neoplasms, and metastases. We describe a symptomatic lesion arising on the mandibular gingiva of a 58-year-old female with no history of trauma or dental disease in the area. An excisional biopsy showed the lesional stroma to contain numerous polyhedral granular cells with occasional interspersed islands of inactive odontogenic epithelium. We believe this to represent the fourth case of peripheral granular cell odontogenic fibroma to be reported in detail in the literature. PMID:17223586

  15. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma with clear cell odontogenic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Siar, C H; NG, K H

    1995-01-01

    The clinical and histological features of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma are briefly outlined. A case arising from the attached lingual gingiva between the mandibular right permanent first molar and the second molar in a 67 year old Indian female is reported here. The unusual occurrence of marked clear cell differentiation within the odontogenic epithelial component, and histogenetic link to the clear cell rests of the dental lamina and surface epithelium are discussed. PMID:9227094

  16. Report of Two Cases of Combined Odontogenic Tumors: Ameloblastoma with Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastic Fibroma with Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Ashley Nicole; Montague, Lindsay; Cohen, Donald; Islam, Nadim; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2015-09-01

    Combined odontogenic neoplasms have rarely been documented. Such tumors have also been described by other researchers as "hybrid" lesions. The histologic features are often identical to other individually well-established odontogenic neoplasms such as ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma (AF), and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Their clinical presentation is variable, ranging from cysts to neoplasms showing varying degrees of aggressive behavior. Most combined tumors contain features of one of the odontogenic tumors in combination with either a calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) or a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor. We present two new cases of combined odontogenic tumors: an ameloblastoma with an odontogenic keratocyst and an AF with COC. Predicting clinical outcome is challenging when a combination tumor is encountered due to the paucity of such lesions. One must understand salient features of these entities and differentiate them from the more common conventional neoplasms to expand classification and provide prognostic criteria. PMID:25552434

  17. Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

  18. Giant odontogenic fibroma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Baser, Brajendra; Kinger, Arvind; Mitra, Geeti V; Roy, Manya Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic fibroma is a benign ectomesenchymal tumor classified as central and peripheral on the basis of its location and as an epithelium rich or epithelium poor based on its histological features. Radiological findings consist of radiolucent areas with well-defined bony margins. The lesion is detected early because of its location and usually treated with surgical excision and curettage. We present a case of giant odontogenic fibroma of right maxilla presenting as gross facial deformity and posing a dual challenge of excising the tumor mass and reconstructing the ensuing defect. PMID:25593878

  19. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of Simple Type

    PubMed Central

    Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha V.; Amudala, Rajesh; Yanadi, Prashanthi; Rahamthullah, S. A. K. Uroof; Botu, Meeramma

    2014-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an extremely rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth resembling dentigerous cyst. In this report, a 10-year-old male patient is presented, who was diagnosed with central odontogenic fibroma of simple type from clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. PMID:25506436

  20. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A

    1989-04-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) is a relatively rare, benign, unencapsulated, exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue. Odontogenic epithelium is found within the gingival mass, but usually appears to play a minor role when compared to the fibrous component. According to the present concept, cases reported in the literature under the terms "odontogenic gingival epithelial harmartoma" "hamartoma of the dental lamina" and "peripheral ameloblastic fibrodentinoma" are actually examples of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Review of the literature revealed only 30 acceptable cases that fit the present concept of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Because of the paucity of reported cases, the histomorphological spectrum and the clinical features of this lesion have not yet been fully established. This article presents five new cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The connective tissue ranged from markedly cellular to relatively acellular well collagenized. Islands and strands of epithelium were present in all five cases: in four they were scanty and in one abundant. A matrix of mineralized material was present in four cases. The peripheral odontogenic fibroma must be differentiated histologically from peripheral ossifying fibroma, which is a reactive lesion, and from the peripheral ameloblastoma and the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. PMID:2651484

  1. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction. PMID:25013415

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Anila; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Nellithady, Ganesh Shreekanth; Krishnapillai, Rekha; Prabhu, Sudeendra

    2014-01-01

    Calretinin is expressed primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system and extensively studied in colon adenocarcinoma and mesotheliomas. Calretinin is known to be expressed in the odontogenic epithelium and odontogenic tumors. However, the role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors is yet to be confirmed. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and role of calretinin in selected odontogenic tumors. The study included 30 ameloblastomas, 30 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, and 30 keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Staining intensity, pattern, and localization of the immunopositive cells were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results showed that 90% ameloblastomas and 80% keratocystic odontogenic tumors were immunopositive to calretinin, whereas none of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors showed reactivity. Intensity was higher in the ameloblastomas compared with the keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Statistically significant differences were observed when the expression of calretinin was compared, except between the ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. However, the intensity of calretinin was significantly higher in the ameloblastoma when compared with the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that calretinin might be used as a specific immunohistochemical marker for the ameloblastomas and could play an important role in the differentiation of aggressiveness of different odontogenic tumors. Depending on the cell regulatory processes, we suggest a possible role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas and have to be further studied along with other proliferative cell cycle and apoptotic markers with larger sample size. PMID:25046230

  3. Pediatric Odontogenic Cysts of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Arce, Kevin; Streff, Christopher S; Ettinger, Kyle S

    2016-02-01

    Odontogenic cysts represent a common form of pathology of the jaws, and the natural history, clinicopathologic findings, and appropriate management strategies are important to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Odontogenic cysts in the pediatric populations are important pathologic entities given their potential impact on the growth and development of the maxillofacial complex. Inappropriate management strategies can severely affect the form and function of the growing child. Categorizing pediatric odontogenic cysts into inflammatory or developmental causes provides a convenient way of conceptualizing these various entities and helps facilitate the appropriate diagnosis and the subsequent management. PMID:26614698

  4. Disseminated necrotic mediastinitis spread from odontogenic abscess: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Filiaci, Fabio; Riccardi, Emiliano; Mitro, Valeria; Piombino, Pasquale; Rinna, Claudio; Agrillo, Alessandro; Ungari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims Deep neck infections are rare but potentially fatal complication of pulpal abscess of the teeth. If an infection can progress rapidly from a toothache to a life threatening infection, then it is critical that dentists be able to recognize the danger signs and identify the patients who are at risk. Mediastinitis is a severe inflammatory process involving the connective tissues that fills the intracellular spaces and surrounds the organs in the middle of the chest. This pathology has both an acute and a chronic form and, in most cases, it has an infectious etiology. This study want to expose the experience acquired in the Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences Department, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, regarding two clinical cases of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis starting from an odontogenic abscess. Methods We report two clinical cases of disseminated necrotic mediastinitis with two different medical and surgical approaches. The radiographic and photographic documentation of the patients was collected in the pre-and post-operatively. All patients underwent a CT scan and MRI. Results Mediastinitis can result from a serious odontogenic abscess, and the extent of its inflammation process must be never underestimated. Dental surgeons play a key role as a correct diagnosis can prevent further increasing of the inflammation process. Conclusions A late diagnosis and an inadequate draining represent the major causes of the elevated mortality rate of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:26330907

  5. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: an uncommonly overviewed lesion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carolina Amália Barcellos; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Moraes, Paulo de Camargo; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2013-05-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is considered a gingival tumor characterized by a proliferation of relatively cellular fibrous or fibromyxomatous connective tissue which exhibits variable amounts of odontogenic epithelium and sometimes foci of calcification in the form of dentinoid, cementicles, or bone. It is considered the extraosseous counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. This lesion usually is presented as a focal swelling in the gingiva, occurring in a wide age range, and the anterior region of the gingiva is the most frequent anatomic site. Conservative local excision is the treatment frequently adopted and its recurrence rate varies widely, and its biologic behavior is still unknown. In this study, the authors discuss 3 cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and present their clinical and histopathological features and management. PMID:23714966

  6. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions. PMID:26155575

  7. Diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, M; Matsuzaki, H; Yanagi, Y; Hara, M; Katase, N; Hisatomi, M; Unetsubo, T; Konouchi, H; Nagatsuka, H; Asaumi, J-I

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours. Materials and methods: 51 patients with odontogenic tumours were subjected to pre-operative MRI examinations. For tumours with liquid components, i.e. ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), the signal intensity (SI) uniformity of their cystic components (U?) was calculated and then their U? values were compared. For tumours with solid components that had been examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), their CImax (maximum contrast index), Tmax (the time when CImax occurred), CIpeak (CImax?×?0.90), Tpeak (the time when CIpeak occurred) and CI300 (i.e. the CI observed at 300?s after contrast medium injection) values were determined from CI curves. We then classified the odontogenic tumours according to their DCE-MRI parameters. Results: Significant differences between the U? values of the ameloblastomas and KCOT were observed on T1 weighted images, T2 weighted images and short TI inversion recovery images. Depending on their DCE-MRI parameters, we classified the odontogenic tumours into the following five types: Type A, CIpeak?>?2.0 and Tpeak??2.0 and Tmax??2.0 and Tmax?>?600?s; Type E, CI300??600?s. Conclusion: Cystic component SI uniformity was found to be useful for differentiating between ameloblastomas and KCOT. However, the DCE-MRI parameters of odontogenic tumours, except for odontogenic fibromas and odontogenic myxomas, contributed little to their differential diagnosis. PMID:23468124

  8. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  9. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of amelogenins in odontogenic epithelial tumours and cysts.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Yamada, K; Kasai, T; Yamada, T; Shimokawa, H; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Amelogenins, enamel proteins in odontogenic tumours, were detected immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody. They were strongly expressed in amyloid-like material, ghost cells, and the cells surrounding ghost cells of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts, whereas calcified bodies within the tumours and cysts showed negative staining. The expression of amelogenins was also positive in tumour cells of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, squamous odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic fibroma. Peripheral tumour cells of the follicular ameloblastoma were positive with relatively intense staining. Undifferentiated or flattened tumour cells of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour and non-keratinized tumour cells of the squamous odontogenic tumour showed marked staining. Reduced ameloblasts in the odontoma displayed the strongest staining for amelogenins. The study suggests that biosynthesis of amelogenins may occur in the homogeneous materials of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts. PMID:2024453

  11. Odontogenic keratocyst: What is in the name?

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Singhvi, Abhishek; Sharma, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The classification of odontogenic cysts is complicated and can create confusion for both clinicians and pathologists. The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an enigmatic developmental cyst that deserves special attention. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features; but, what makes this cyst special is its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately the clinicians still have to face difficulties in the management of this commonly found jaw lesion. This article is an effort to provide an overview of various aspects of OKC with emphasis on nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC. PMID:24082717

  12. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Stavan; Vakkas, John; Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF), an extraosseous variant of the central odontogenic fibroma, is considered an uncommon benign gingival lesion with a small recurrence rate. Clinically, it mimics a variety of benign neoplasms, metastases and reactive lesions, but it is most commonly confused with the peripheral ossifying fibroma. In this report, we describe a healthy 32-year-old male who was seen with a recurrent POF of the right maxilla. The surgical excision site was repaired using a free palatal graft, leading to a favorable outcome in an esthetic region of the oral cavity. PMID:21894830

  13. A rare case of hybrid odontogenic tumor: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor combined with ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwan, Vijay; Sharma, Preeti; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. Nevertheless, such tumors have been reported in the literature for academic and research interest. However, it is still obscure whether they behave as a new entity or they solely present separate histopathologic patterns. Here, we present a true hybrid neoplasm of combined ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor showing intermixed histopathologic patterns of both the tumors. PMID:26604514

  14. Biochemical and Cytological Comparison of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours to Nonkeratinising Odontogenic Cysts Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pushparaj; Patidar, Nitesh; Mittal, Sugandh; Singh, Hanspal; Chethna

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the levels of albumin, prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and presence of keratinocytes in the cystic fluid for the diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning of keratocystic odontogenic tumours and other non keratinizing odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods Fifteen keratocystic odontogenic tumour and 15 controls were studied. The cystic fluid was aspirated and analysed to determine the levels of albumin, prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and the presence of keratinocytes. The data collected was statistically evaluated using Mann Whitney U-Test and Student’s t-test. Results A highly significant difference (p<0.0001) was seen when a comparison of Prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and presence of keratinocytes was made between keratocystic odontogenic tumour and non keratinizing odontogenic cysts. The presence of albumin also showed a significant difference (p<0.01). Conclusion A combined analysis of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, inorganic phosphorous and detection of epithelial squames may be used as a diagnostic adjunct in the preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a minimally invasive and highly accurate fashion. PMID:26393202

  15. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions. PMID:25587387

  16. Odontogenic fibroma, including amyloid and ossifying variants.

    PubMed

    Eversole, Lewis R

    2011-12-01

    Sixty-five cases of odontogenic fibroma (OdonF) are herein presented having been segregated into peripheral, extra bony tumors (n = 40) and tumors arising in bone or centrally (n = 25). All cases were characterized microscopically by a fibrous proliferation that varied within and between cases in cellularity and collagen fibril diameter, with intermixed odontogenic epithelial islands and cords. All central lesions presented as well demarcated radiolucencies and resorption of contiguous tooth roots was a common finding. These intraosseous lesions were of the WHO type; the so-called nonWHO type was excluded as all lesions with this diagnosis were devoid of an epithelial component and could be reclassified as other soft tissue fibrogenic tumors. Neither the central tumors nor the peripheral lesions recurred following enucleation/curettage, with a mean follow-up of 4 and 3.4 years respectively. Three distinct microscopic variations were encountered in this series: (1) two cases of OdonF with giant cell reaction, (2) two instances of OdonF with ossifying fibroma; and (3) four instances of OdonF with odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), an amyloid-like protein found deposited adjacent to epithelial cords plus CD1a+/S-100+ Langerhans dendritic cells entwined around the epithelial element. A single instance of the odontogenic fibroma-like hamartoma/enamel hypoplasia syndrome has been included in this series. PMID:21751042

  17. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R; Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-07-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  18. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  19. Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

    2013-09-01

    Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

  20. Amelogenin in odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Anigol, Praveen; Kamath, Venkatesh V.; Satelur, Krishnanand; Anand, Nagaraja; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amelogenins are the major enamel proteins that play a major role in the biomineralization and structural organization of enamel. Aberrations of enamel-related proteins are thought to be involved in oncogenesis of odontogenic epithelium. The expression of amelogenin is possibly an indicator of differentiation of epithelial cells in the odontogenic lesions. Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to observe the expression of amelogenin immunohistochemically in various odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Paraffin sections of 40 odontogenic lesions were stained immunohistochemically with amelogenin antibodies. The positivity, pattern and intensity of expression of the amelogenin antibody were assessed, graded and statistically compared between groups of odontogenic cysts and tumors. Results: Almost all the odontogenic lesions expressed amelogenin in the epithelial component with the exception of an ameloblastic carcinoma. Differing grades of intensity and pattern were seen between the cysts and tumors. Intensity of expression was uniformly prominent in all odontogenic lesions with hard tissue formation. Statistical analysis however did not indicate significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The expression of amelogenin antibody is ubiquitous in odontogenic tissues and can be used as a definitive marker for identification of odontogenic epithelium. PMID:25937729

  1. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

    2013-01-01

    The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position. PMID:24396609

  2. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  3. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    de Villiers Slabbert, H; Altini, M

    1991-07-01

    The clinicopathologic features of 30 cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma are reviewed. The age distribution is wide (11 to 76 years), and there is a slight predilection for males. The majority of the lesions (93%) occurred in blacks on the attached gingiva, and with equal frequency in the maxilla and mandible. Size varied between 1 and 3 cm in diameter. One case recurred after 14 months. Histologically, the lesions are nonencapsulated and poorly delineated. The amount of odontogenic epithelium varies considerably and consists usually of small islands or strands, although larger follicles are sometimes present. In one case the epithelial cells had a clear cytoplasm, whereas in another it was granular and eosinophilic. Origin from the surface oral mucosa can sometimes be seen. The connective tissue component is usually cellular, but collagenous, myxomatous, and mixed forms occur. Calcifications were present in 22 cases and consisted of tissue interpreted as either dentinoid, cementum, bone, or dystrophic calcific material. PMID:1891248

  4. Epithelial odontogenic tumours in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K M; Denholm, L J; Cooper, B J

    1987-09-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumours are uncommon, poorly understood and often difficult to diagnose, oral neoplasms. Dental organ pre-ameloblasts and basal lamina induce development of mesenchymal cells into odontoblasts, which produce dentin and induce pre-ameloblasts to mature into secretory ameloblasts. These reciprocal sequential inductive interactions between dental epithelium and mesenchyme form the basis for classifying epithelial odontogenic tumours. There are three tumours classified as non-inductive: ameloblastoma characterized by cords and islands of stellate reticulum with peripheral palisades of polarized columnar cells, adenomatoid ameloblastoma which has acini, rosettes and ducts of polarized columnar cells and stellate reticulum and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour which contains foci of Congo-red-positive material surrounded by pleomorphic polygonal epithelial cells. There are five tumours in which induction of mesenchymal tissue is evident: ameloblastic fibroma with characteristics of ameloblastoma plus proliferation of closely associated pulp-like mesenchyme; dentinoma consisting of masses of dentin, often with minimal cellular component; ameloblastic odontoma which contains palisaded epithelium and stellate reticulum as in ameloblastoma, as well as foci of dentin and/or enamel; complex odontoma which is a disorderly array of dentin, enamel, ameloblastic epithelium and odontoblasts; and compound odontoma containing denticles with well-organized tooth morphology. This paper reviews the embryogenesis of teeth and describes six types of epithelial odontogenic tumours in 13 animals. The literature concerning these tumours in nearly 250 animals is reviewed. The most commonly reported tumour is ameloblastoma and the species in which all types are most commonly reported is the dog. PMID:3316314

  5. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma with chondroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sen, R; Kalra, K

    1996-10-01

    An unusual case of peripheral odontogenic fibroma, presenting as a swelling on gingiva involving hard palate in a 3-year-old female child, is described. Even with cellular stroma and unencapsulation these tumors behave in a benign fashion. To the best of our knowledge, cartilagenous differentiation of stroma as observed in this case has not been reported in English literature so far. PMID:9009488

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of P63 expression in odontogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Eini, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (P = 0.86). Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells. PMID:24350278

  7. Small central odontogenic fibroma mimicking hyperplastic dental follicle and dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Freire-Maia, Belini; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2014-09-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma has been defined as a benign odontogenic tumor, representing the intraosseous counterpart of a peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The odontogenic fibroma is a rare tumor. Differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions in the molar-premolar region of mandible which involve impacted tooth may include central odontogenic fibroma, hyperplastic dental follicle, dentigerous cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. We describe an example of a small central odontogenic fibroma mimicking hyperplastic dental follicle and dentigerous cyst, resulting in uneruption of a primary tooth. PMID:25018609

  8. Molecular and genetic aspects of odontogenic tumors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kavita; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Fareed, Wamiq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors contain a heterogeneous collection of lesions that are categorized from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of inconstant aggressiveness. Odontogenic tumors are usually extraordinary with assessed frequency of short of 0.5 cases/100,000 population for every year. The lesions such as odontogenic tumors are inferred from the components of the tooth-structuring contraption. They are discovered solely inside the maxillary and mandibular bones. This audit speaks to experiences and cooperation of the molecular and genetic variations connected to the development and movement of odontogenic tumors which incorporate oncogenes, tumor-silencer genes, APC gene, retinoblastoma genes, DNA repair genes, onco-viruses, development components, telomerase, cell cycle controllers, apoptosis-related elements, and regulators/conttrollers of tooth development. The reasonable and better understanding of the molecular components may prompt new ideas for their detection and administrating a better prognosis of odontogenic tumors. PMID:26221475

  9. Extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: An uncommon variant.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Navin; Sah, Kunal; Chandra, Sunira; Gupta, Suchitra; Mittal, Shaksham; Agarwal, Mansi

    2013-07-01

    Odontogenic cysts comprise a diverse group of exceptional lesions derived from epithelial elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a rare odontogenic lesion, which represents about 2% of all odontogenic tumors and cysts. It may occur in a central (intraosseous) or peripheral (extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor [ECCOT]) location. ECCOT in contrast to central, tends to affect the older patients, commonly located in the anterior lower jaw, is less aggressive and the recurrence is rare. Here, we report clinico-pathological and radiographic features of ECCOT located in relation to 48 (posterior lower jaw) measuring about 1 cm in the greatest diameter in a 17-year-old male. PMID:24665187

  10. Peripheral odontogenic tumours--differential diagnosis in gingival lesions.

    PubMed

    Manor, Y; Mardinger, O; Katz, J; Taicher, S; Hirshberg, A

    2004-04-01

    Peripheral odontogenic tumours (POT) are rare benign focal overgrowths of the oral soft tissue, usually occurring in the gingiva. Between 1996-2000, 6 out of 406 excised gingival lesions were diagnosed as POT (1.5%). Tumours included peripheral odontogenic fibroma (2 patients), peripheral calcifying odontogenic cyst (2 patients), peripheral ameloblastoma (1 patient), and peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (1 patient). Review of the literature reveals that peripheral odontogenic fibroma and peripheral ameloblastoma were the most common POT. The purpose of this article was to analyse the clinical data of these tumours according to the presented cases and the literature review, to elucidate typical features of each tumour type and enhance easy identification. PMID:15287310

  11. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Baiju, C S; Rohatgi, Sumidha

    2011-07-01

    Odontogenic tumors mainly occur as intraosseous growths but sometimes may present in a peripheral location on the gingiva where they are referred to as peripheral odontogenic tumors (POTs) which are a rare entity, the most common of them being the peripheral odontogenic fibroma that is an otherwise uncommon, slowly growing, benign odontogenic neoplasm of the periodontal soft tissues. In fact, peripheral odontogenic fibroma is the only POT that is more frequent than its central counterpart. Although considered to be with a potential to recur after excision, the actual recurrence rate is not known due to paucity of literature. This paper presents a case report along with review of the available literature and reinforces the importance of patient follow-up in addition to radiographic and histological examination of seemingly innocuous gingival exophytic lesions. PMID:22028517

  12. Multiple non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts in three siblings

    PubMed Central

    Nirwan, Amit; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Saikhedkar, Rashmi; Karun, Vinayak

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of multiple cysts (MC) involving the jaw is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of MC without syndromic association is extremely rare. Multiple odontogenic cysts mostly could be odontogenic keratocysts or dentigerous cysts. Odontogenic keratocyst shows involvement of mandible over maxilla, with peak incidence in second and third decade and it is exceedingly rare before 10?years of age. However multiple odontogenic keratocysts found in children are often reflective of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Here is a case report which documents multiple jaw cysts involving both the jaws, in three siblings of ages 10, 13 and 17?years with negative parental history. All three reported cases were free of any systemic involvement. As odontogenic keratocyst spreads through bone marrow, destruction is more before any clinical manifestation. Therefore, early detection and intervention are essential in preventing extensive destruction. PMID:23505078

  13. Evaluation of stromal myofibroblasts expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumor and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Swati; Garg, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has an aggressive clinical course and a high tendency of recurrence, while orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) has different characteristics and does not show aggressive behaviour. Even the treatment of these two lesions varies considerably. A large number of epithelial molecules have been studied in order to differentiate odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) from OOC, but stromal factors have not been adequately studied. Recently, tumor stroma has evolved as a particular field of interest. In the present study, we aim to evaluate and compare the expression of stromal myofibroblasts (MFs) in these entities and correlate it to its aggressive behavior. The term ‘keratocystic odontogenic tumor’ has been introduced by WHO in 2005 for odontogenic keratocyst keeping in mind its aggressive behavior, however still many pathologists and clinicians use the term OKC synonymously. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases of KCOT and 10 cases of OOC were stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) for demonstration of stromal MFs. MF frequency was assessed as the number of ?SMA-positive stromal cells in 10 high power fields, presented as the mean number of positive cells per field. Results: Counts showed that the mean number of positive cells in KCOT (20.6 ± 2.05) was significantly higher than that seen in OOC (10.4 ± 1.06) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The different behaviors of these lesions are compatible with the finding of the present study. The increased number of stromal MFs in KCOT in comparison to OOC correlates with its aggressive behavior and increased tendency towards recurrence. PMID:24250080

  14. Peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor - Case report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepthi; Jayade, Bhushan V; Jayade, Gautam; Gopalkrishnan, K

    2014-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), Pindborg tumor is a benign, slow growing, but locally invasive neoplasm. It is known to have a common intraosseous variant and a very rare extraosseous variant. We report an unusual case of an extraosseous variant of CEOT of unusual large size and maxillary anterior location, the treatment was planned considering the clinical, radiological and histological features. Though peripheral types are less aggressive and had no recurrence, in our case regular follow up is required considering the aggressiveness of the lesion and its proximity to important adjacent structures. PMID:25737934

  15. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  16. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  17. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Vrinda Sunil; Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-07-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  18. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with unerupted first primary molar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Seo; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Ok-Jun; Kim, Young-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are an uncommon benign odontogenic tumor. Both central and peripheral forms occur. Radiographically, the central variants are comprised of a follicular type (those associated with the crown of an embedded tooth) and an extrafollicular type (those with no embedded tooth). A review of the literature showed that only 3 cases of an association between AOT and unerupted primary teeth have been published. The purpose of this paper was to report a rare case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted primary first molar in a 7-year-old boy. PMID:23265168

  19. Ameloblastomatous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour: a rare variant.

    PubMed

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Gantala, Ramlal; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-03-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  20. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  1. Odontogenic carcinosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Pae, Sang-Pill; Cho, Hyun-Young; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, In-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Odontogenic carcinosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor with only a few reported cases. It is characterized by a true mixed tumor showing malignant cytology of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It has been assumed to arise from pre-existing lesions such as ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma, and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. To date, the reported cases have exhibited considerably aggressive clinical behavior. The case of an odontogenic carcinosarcoma in the mandible of a 61-year-old male is described herein. The tumor destroyed the cortex of the mandible and invaded the adjacent tissues. Treatment was performed by surgical resection and reconstruction. The purposes of this article are to introduce odontogenic carcinosarcoma through this case study, to distinguish it from related diseases and to discuss features of the tumor in the existing literature. PMID:26131431

  2. Maxillary adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with a premolar.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vimal; Kalra, Geeta; Kaushal, Nitin; Sharma, Vikas; Vermani, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) represents 3-7% of all odontogenic tumors, and over 750 cases have been reported in the literature. This lesion was formerly considered to be a variant of the ameloblastoma and was designated as adenoameloblastoma. These lesions may infrequently produce dentinoid material and rarely enamel matrix. Consequently, the WHO (2005) classification of odontogenic lesions considered this process to represent a mixed odontogenic neoplasm. We present a case of a 12-year-old female patient with an AOT of diameter 5 cm × 5 cm located in the anterolateral region of the maxilla in association with an impacted premolar tooth. The rarity of AOT, association of this lesion with regards to maxillary premolar, the exaggerated size at presentation, the eruption of the displaced canine postoperatively and uneventful healing of the bony defect without adjunctive therapy makes this case unique. PMID:26389050

  3. Odontogenic carcinosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Sang-Pill; Cho, Hyun-Young; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, In-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor with only a few reported cases. It is characterized by a true mixed tumor showing malignant cytology of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It has been assumed to arise from pre-existing lesions such as ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma, and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. To date, the reported cases have exhibited considerably aggressive clinical behavior. The case of an odontogenic carcinosarcoma in the mandible of a 61-year-old male is described herein. The tumor destroyed the cortex of the mandible and invaded the adjacent tissues. Treatment was performed by surgical resection and reconstruction. The purposes of this article are to introduce odontogenic carcinosarcoma through this case study, to distinguish it from related diseases and to discuss features of the tumor in the existing literature. PMID:26131431

  4. Bilateral orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pimpalkar, Rahul Devidas; Barpande, Suresh R; Bhavthankar, Jyoti D; Mandale, Mandakini S

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst of jaw and was initially considered by the World Health Organization (1992) as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). However, studies have shown that OOC has peculiar clinicopathologic aspects when compared with other developmental odontogenic cysts, especially OKC. So orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst now stands out to be a distinct entity. Clinically, it occurs as a single cyst, shows a predilection for males and is most often found in the second to the fifth decade. Its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. The purpose of the article is to present a rare case of bilateral OOC arising in the mandible and review the literature on bilateral occurrence of this lesion. PMID:25328309

  5. Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis. PMID:24124309

  6. Current concepts and occurrence of epithelial odontogenic tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Yeon Sook

    2013-06-01

    Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

  7. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, K S; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation "keratocyst" was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  8. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla- A Rare case Report

    PubMed Central

    Subramaiam, Ramkumar; Narasimhan, Malathi; Giri, Veda; Kumar, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive, non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme that usually occurs in the tooth bearing areas of the jaws. These lesions arouse special interest as they pose high diagnostic challenge. Here, we present a rare case of OM of the maxilla in an 18-year-old male. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed in this paper. PMID:26155585

  9. The keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT)-an odyssey.

    PubMed

    Pogrel, M A

    2015-12-01

    The most appropriate management for the lesion now known as the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (previously known as the odontogenic keratocyst) remains controversial. This article reviews the different management protocols adopted by one surgical unit over the last 30 years and the results obtained from the different treatment modalities. A current treatment protocol consisting of initial decompression followed by aggressive curettage and peripheral ostectomy with methylene blue staining appears to be successful, but our longest follow-up is only 6 years. PMID:26003518

  10. Conservative management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Pavan; Laverick, Sean; Bounds, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Since the term odontogenic keratocyst first appeared in the literature, controversy has surrounded its terminology and surgical management. Recent articles would suggest that surgical opinion is still divided between aggressive radical resection and a more conservative approach. We present an interesting case of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour shown to have eroded through bony cortices and present within soft tissues that was satisfactorily managed conservatively by decompression and secondary enucleation. PMID:25210136

  11. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, K. S.; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation “keratocyst” was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  12. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma-a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A Ravi; Sairam, V; Srinivas Reddy, P

    2015-03-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare odontogenic tumour with female predilection occurring in the anterior region of the mandible with peak age incidence of 5th and 7th decade of life. Here we report a case occurred in the posterior mandible of a 42 year old male patient which highlights the clinicopathologic features of CCOC that were confirmed by histopathologic examination. We add up yet another case of CCOC to the published literature. PMID:25838670

  13. Microbiological examination and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck. Has anything changed?

    PubMed

    Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J; Kotecha, Rushina; Sisodia, Bijal

    2014-09-01

    Because of the growing concern about antibiotic resistance, we aimed to investigate whether the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck have changed in the last 30-40 years. We retrospectively studied 150 patients admitted for inpatient treatment of infections in the head and neck, and searched published reports from the last 30 - 40 years for comparison. There were 85 male and 65 female patients (mean age 39 years, range 1-95). Most infections originated from the teeth (n = 111) and skin (n = 16), and the submandibular (69%) and buccal (67%) spaces were involved most often. Multiple spaces were involved in 94 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity in 102 cases, and microorganisms were isolated in 91 (89%), of which 67 (74%) were aerobic infections and 24 (26%) were anaerobic. Bacteria were isolated in 87 (96%) cultures of which 60 (69%) were Gram-positive. Gram-positive cocci were isolated in 62% of cultures. The most common bacteria isolated were streptococci. Seventy percent of the bacteria were sensitive to amoxicillin and 84% to amoxicillin and metronidazole; 14% (Staphylococcus aureus from infections of the skin) were resistant to penicillin. A comparison of our results with those found in previous reports shows no significant change in the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of odontogenic infections in the head and neck over the last 30 - 40 years. Amoxicillin still treats these infections effectively. PMID:24906249

  14. Smoothened gene alterations in keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been widely demonstrated that the hedgehog pathway is strongly associated with basal cell carcinoma of the skin (NBCCS). To assess potential DNA alterations related to keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), we sequenced smoothened (SMO) genes in 12 sporadic KCOTs. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), capillary electrophoresis and dideoxy chain-termination sequencing were used to examine potential DNA alterations in sporadic KCOTs. Results Five alterations in SMO genes were detected. Four of these mutations consisted of two synonymous and three missense mutations; two of which have not been reported to date (c.T776A, c.T1281G). Conclusions SMO genes may play an important role in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway and could also be responsible for generating KCOTs and NBCCS. However, their influence on SHH signaling remains to be elucidated. PMID:25189937

  15. Botryoid Odontogenic Cyst: A Diagnostic Chaos

    PubMed Central

    U, Urmila; Srinivas G, Vijay; Deviramisetty, Sabitha; HK, Puneeth

    2014-01-01

    Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics. PMID:25654045

  16. Presentation of a keratocystic odontogenic tumor with agenesis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed the etiopathogenetic, clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, particularly in association with dental anomalies of number, with the aim of providing useful information for their correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. Case presentation A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented for observation of bilateral agenesis of the upper incisors, which was diagnosed by orthopantomography. Approximately one year after starting orthodontic treatment, the patient went to the emergency department because of a phlegmonous tumefaction of the lateroposterior upper left maxillary region. Diagnostic orthopantomography and axial computed tomography scan results of the facial skeleton revealed a large lesion occupying the left maxillary sinus, rhizolysis of dental elements 26 and 27, and dislocation of dental element 28. The lesion and infected sinus mucosa were removed through surgical antral-cystectomy with the Caldwell-Luc approach. Histological examination of the lesion confirmed the suspected diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The 12-month follow-up orthopantomography and computed tomography scan results showed good trabecular bone formation in the lesion area. The 24-month follow-up results showed optimal healing in the area of the lesion, positive pulp vitality tests for teeth 26 and 27, and good periodontal tissue healing, as verified through periodontal probing. Conclusions Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. More likely, they are caused by related environmental factors. Management of this case required the multidisciplinary collaboration of different specializations and careful planning to devise a correct therapeutic protocol and reach a favorable prognosis. PMID:24716509

  17. A positive correlation between immunohistochemical expression of CD31 and mast cell tryptase in odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Dibazar, Sana

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we compared mast cell tryptase and CD31 expression between odontogenic tumors with the aim of predicting the clinical behavior of these lesions at the time of initial biopsy. We also evaluated the correlation between mast cell tryptase and CD31 expression to clarify the role of mast cells (MCs) in the growth of odontogenic tumors. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-MC tryptase and anti-CD31 antibodies was performed on 48 cases of odontogenic tumors including solid ameloblastoma (SAM), unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), odontogenic myxoma (OM), cystic calcifying odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). Ten high power fields were analyzed for each sample. Total MC count was significantly increased in SAM compared to other odontogenic tumors (p<0.05). Microvessel density was statistically higher in SAM and AOT compared to remaining odontogenic tumors (p<0.05). A significant correlation was observed between MCs and microvessels in odontogenic tumors (p=0.018, r=0.34). Our findings suggest a role for MCs in aggressive clinical behavior of odontogenic tumors. The significant correlation found between MC count and microvessel density in odontogenic tumors is in agreement with the theory of participation of MCs in tumor progression. Targeting MC activity may represent an important nonsurgical therapeutic approach, especially for aggressive odontogenic tumors. PMID:26247531

  18. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  19. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vezhavendan, N.; Shabana, F.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Arunakiry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  20. Intraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Vijayvargiya, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a locally aggressive, rare benign odontogenic neoplasm that accounts for <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It was first described by a Dutch pathologist Jens Jorgen Pindborg in 1955. It is most often located in the posterior mandible. The tumor usually appears between the second and sixth decade of life and has no gender predilection. It is slow-growing neoplasm with a recurrence rate of 10–15% and with rare malignant transformation. Early diagnosis is essential to avoid oro-maxillofacial deformation and destruction. CEOT is rarely reported in India. We, herewith present a rare case of CEOT with unusual features associated with an impacted right third molar in the posterior mandible of 35 years male, with an emphasis on clinical, radiographic, histopathology and immunohistochemical features.

  1. An unusual case of gingival enlargement: peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Livada, Rania; Fine, Norman; Anderson, K Mark; Shiloah, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is an uncommon gingival enlargement. It is a benign, unencapsulated exophytic gingival mass, which is composed of fibrous connective tissue associated with various amounts of calcifications and islands of odontogenic epithelium.The lesion is usually firm to palpation and non-tender, and it could be mistaken for other more common exophytic gingival lesions, such as peripheral ossifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma, or peripheral giant cell granuloma. Therefore, a histopathologic examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis. This article presents a well-documented case of POdF and a review of the literature in regards to its diagnostic features, treatment modalities, and recurrence. PMID:24564729

  2. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kornafel, Olga; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Pakulski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. Case Report The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Conclusions Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision. PMID:25566331

  3. Diffuse peripheral odontogenic fibroma: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Weber, A; van Heerden, W F; Ligthelm, A J; Raubenheimer, E J

    1992-02-01

    Since peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) is characteristically described as a solitary lesion and no diffuse POF had been reported in the literature, our cases should be considered as extremely unusual. Three diffuse cases of POF are described of which one case was seen in association with ocular and skin lesions. The question arises whether POF should be considered as a true odontogenic tumor rather than a diffuse hamartomatous lesion caused by uncontrolled induction of the gingiva. It is also possible that such lesions could be part of a yet undescribed syndrome. PMID:1556666

  4. HSP70 expression in dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Fakharian, Mehrnaz

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) work as molecular chaperones that can assist cells to deal with stressful situations. Members of the HSP70 family can regulate cell growth and transformation and are involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In view of the distinct clinical behavior of odontogenic lesions, the objective of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of HSP70 in these lesions. In this study, 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion-16 unicystic ameloblastomas (UAs), 17 solid ameloblastomas (SAs), 18 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DCs)-were reviewed by immunohistochemistry for HSP70 staining. In this study, HSP70 immunostaining was evident in all groups of the specimen. Mean percentage of HSP70 staining in SAs (84.2?±?11.3) and OKCs (83.4?±?6.8) were significantly higher than UAs (64.4?±?9.8) and DCs (12.6?±?10.2) (p?=?0.00). But, there was no statistically significant difference between HSP70 expression in SAs and OKCs. The result of this study proposes that high expression rate of HSP70 has a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma and OKC and is one of the reasons for the aggressive behavior of ameloblastoma and high recurrence role of OKC, reinforcing the classification of OKC as an odontogenic tumor. PMID:25854321

  5. Comparison between the peripheral ossifying fibroma and peripheral odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J N; Kaugars, G E; Abbey, L M

    1989-04-01

    This study presents previously unreported data on a series of 400 peripheral ossifying fibromas (POFs) and 13 peripheral odontogenic fibromas (PODFs). The differences between the two lesions are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reports in the literature. It is concluded that the lesions represent separate pathologic entities. PMID:2926546

  6. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

  7. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

  8. An intraosseous sclerosing odontogenic tumor predominantly composed of epithelial cells: relation to (so-called) sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and epithelial-rich central odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sze Hwa; Yeo, Jin Fei; Kheem Pang, Brendan Nghee; Petersson, Fredrik

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an asymptomatic sclerosing odontogenic tumor in a 31-year-old woman. Radiologically, the tumor was well circumscribed, was predominantly radiolucent, and had a peripheral sclerotic margin. Histopathologically, the tumor showed small clusters, strands, and cords of small to medium-sized epithelial tumor cells in a sclerotic collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for broad-spectrum cytokeratins (CKs) (CK7, CK5/6, CK19, and CAM 5.2) and p63. Membranous staining for E-cadherin was present. There was weak to moderate nuclear expression of p16 in 30% of cells. Rare tumor cells were positive for p53. Progesterone receptors were expressed in about 60% of the tumor cells. The proliferative activity (Ki-67) was approximately 2%. A molecular genetic (fluorescence in situ hybridization) study showed no EWSR1 (EWS RNA-binding protein 1) gene rearrangement. No recurrence or metastatic events have been documented at 1-year follow-up. This tumor represents a classification dilemma mainly between epithelial-rich central odontogenic fibroma and the so-called sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:24767700

  9. Surgical management of peripheral variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A rare case report with review.

    PubMed

    Jindwani, Karuna; Paharia, Y K; Kushwah, Atul Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion constituting around 3% of all odontogenic tumours and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It manifests as a beningn growth which affects young individuals, with a female predeliction usually in the second decade of life, exhibiting more often in the anterior region of maxilla. The current article enumerates the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of a rare case of extraosseous AOT with its therapeutic consideration. PMID:25684929

  10. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  11. Fibromatous epulis in dogs and peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings: two equivalent lesions.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G; Baker, D C

    1991-03-01

    This article compares the clinical and histopathologic features of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings and the fibromatous epulis in dogs. They are apparently equivalent lesions. Both are odontogenic tumors of limited growth potential that do not recur if adequately excised; both occur in middle and late adulthood of the species concerned. The one difference is that the peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare condition, whereas the canine fibromatous epulis is common. PMID:2011354

  12. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: reclassification of the odontogenic keratocyst from cyst to tumour.

    PubMed

    Madras, Jonathan; Lapointe, Henry

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the features and behaviour of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), now officially known as the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT); to analyze a series of histologically confirmed KCOT cases; and to review and discuss the redesignation of KCOT and the implications for treatment. Redesignation of the OKC as the KCOT by the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on the well-known aggressive behaviour of this lesion, its histology and new information regarding its genetics. Abnormal function of PTCH, a tumour suppressor gene, is noted to be involved in both nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and sporadic KCOTs. Normally, PTCH forms a receptor complex with the oncogene SMO for the SHH ligand. PTCH binding to SMO inhibits growth-signal transduction. SHH binding to PTCH releases inhibition of the signal transduction pathway. If normal functioning of PTCH is lost, the proliferation-stimulating effects of SMO are permitted to predominate. A review of the literature was conducted and results were tabulated to determine whether treatment modality is related to recurrence rate. More aggressive treatment - resection or enucleation supplemented with Carnoy"s solution with or without peripheral ostectomy - results in a lower recurrence rate than enucleation alone or marsupialization. Notably, the recurrence rate after marsupialization followed by enucleation is not significantly higher than that following the so-called aggressive modalities. Our case series consists of 21 patients treated for KCOTs. Results were organized to demonstrate recurrence as it relates to size of lesion and time since treatment and incidence as it relates to patient age and location in the jaws. In our series, the average KCOT surface area measured radiographically was 14 cm2. Most lesions were within the 0-15 cm2 range and lesions in this range resulted in the greatest number and proportion of recurrences. The recurrence rate of 29% in our case series was consistent with previously established data; all recurrences occurred within 2 years post-intervention. The incidence of primary lesions was highest in the age group 70-79 years; most lesions occurred in the posterior mandible. WHO"s reclassification of the OKC as the KCOT based on behaviour, histology and genetics underscores the aggressive nature of the lesion and should motivate clinicians to manage the disease in a correspondingly aggressive manner. The most effective interventions for the KCOT are either enucleation with Carnoy"s solution, or marsupialization with later cystectomy. Future treatment may involve molecular-based modalities, which may reduce or eliminate the need for aggressive surgical management. PMID:18353202

  13. Carnoy's solution in the mangement of odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivanmalai, Sivaraj; Kandhasamy, Kohila; Prabu, Neetika; Prince, Christo Naveen; Prabu, Chandrakala Shekarappa Annapurna Pannaikadu Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Carnoy's solution is a substance used as a complementary treatment after the conservative excision of odontogenic keratocyst. The application of Carnoy's solution promotes a superficial chemical necrosis and is intended to reduce recurrence rates. However, the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus can occasionally be exposed after the removal of a lesion. The safety of the application of Carnoy's solution over this plexus has been reported, but to date, no clinical report has been made. The authors present a case that was given Carnoy's solution over the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus as a complementary treatment for the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Effective control of recurrence with low and transient neural morbidity was suggested with this technique. PMID:23066248

  14. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: case report with CT and ultrasonography findings

    PubMed Central

    Sumer, Mahmut; Celenk, Peruze; Danaci, Murat; Gunhan, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor with a potentially aggressive and infiltrative behavior. KCOT is most commonly occurred in mandible and demonstrate a unilocular, round, oval, scalloped radiolucent area, while large lesions may appear multilocular. An important characteristic of KCOT is its propensity to grow in an antero-posterior direction within medullary cavity of bone causing minimal expansion. Definitive diagnosis relies on histological examination. In this report, a KCOT that had an expansion both buccal and lingual cortical bone is described including its features in computed tomography and ultrasonographic exams. The lesion was removed surgically via an intraoral approach under local anesthesia and histologically reported as a KCOT. PMID:22474650

  15. Twist expression in dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Pardis, Soheil; Ranjbaran, Pegah

    2015-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process which is associated with a loss of intercellular adhesion, acquired mesenchymal shape, and increased motility by epithelial cells. Twist is one of the key regulators of EMT.In view of the distinct clinical behavior of odontogenic lesions, the objective of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Twist in these lesions. In this study, 70 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion consisting of 16 unicystic ameloblastomas (UA), 17 solid ameloblastomas (SA), 18 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DC) were reviewed using immunohistochemistry for Twist staining. In this study, Twist immunostaining was evident in all groups of the specimens except the dentigerous cyst group. Twist expression was seen in 58.8 % (10/17) of SA, 50 % (8/16) of UA, and 44.4 % (8/18) of OKCs. 23.5 % of SA, 18.8 % of UA, and 16.7 % of OKCs showed Twist expression in more than 50 % of cells. Statistical analysis showed that Twist expression levels were significantly higher in ameloblastomas (SA and UA) and OKCs than dentigerous cysts (P?=?0.002). There were no significant differences between Twist expression in SAs, UAs, and OKCs (P?>?0.05). The results of this study propose that the high expression rate of Twist plays a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas and OKCs and might be one of the reasons for the aggressive behavior of ameloblastomas and high recurrence of OKCs and could reinforce the classification of OKC as an odontogenic tumor. PMID:25088731

  16. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    More, Chandramani B; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  17. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Three Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta Guimarães, Alexandre; Dutra de Cassia Ferreira Santos, Mariana; Machado de Carvalho, Guilherme; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign intra-bone mass originating from dental lamina or its residue. It represents 2–11% of jaw cysts, and has a slow but aggressive growth. The evaluation of molecular characteristics, immunohistochemistry, and genetic expression currently have no established classification regarding the evolution and pathophysiologic pattern of these lesions. Case Report: This is a clinical retrospective study with a full analysis of patient history regarding physical evaluation, radiologic images, pathology results, and surgical resection. We performed a major literature review concerning current concepts relating to its biological characterization. Three cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were identified. Two of the cases were large, with aggressive behavior and significant bone destruction and recurrence, which had been overlooked for more than a decade. The third case had an early diagnosis, and the treatment led to full recovery and complete healing. Conclusion: The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign lesion with slow growth, which lends itself to a more conservative treatment, even in cases of large lesions. A better understanding of these tumors, both at the biological and molecular level, could lead to guidelines for treatment and prognosis of such patients. PMID:24303448

  18. Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Saravani, Shirin; Kamyab, Nazanin; Jahantigh, Mehdi; Torabi Parizi, Molouk

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs. Conclusions: The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor.

  19. Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum-Contaminated Harbor Sediments under Sulfate of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in- situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum- contaminated did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe

  20. [Ki-67 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the follicular cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, and ameloblastoma].

    PubMed

    Bibichenko, I I; Semkin, V A; Katushkina, A A

    2013-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study using antibodies against Ki-67 protein was conducted, which characterized the proliferative activity of cells and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in follicular cyst, variants of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (with a preponderance of hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis), and ameloblastoma. The marked proliferative activity of a parabasal cell layer (28.0+/-8.4%) was found in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of parakeratosis; the proliferative activity of the peripheral layer of ameloblastoma cells was equal to 7.0+/-5.6%. The maximal matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a predominance of hyperkeratosis was 1.1 +/-0.9 conventional units (CU) and that in the ameloblastoma was 1.9+/-1.3 CU versus 0.4+/-0.5 CU in the follicular cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of hyperkeratosis. The values of Ki-67 and MMP-9 expression allow one to distinguish benign odontogenic cysts and tumors (follicular cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a predominance of hyperkeratosis) and odontogenic tumors characterized by an aggressive clinical course (keratocystic odontogenic tumor with a preponderance of parakeratosis and ameloblastoma). PMID:23805466

  1. Diffuse peripheral odontogenic fibroma with concomitant plasma cell gingivitis--a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wood, N H; Carim, R; Ngwenya, S P

    2012-09-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm that occurs on the gingiva, and cases of diffuse gingival involvement are most uncommon. An example of such a case compounded by superimposed plasma cell gingivtis is presented together wth a review of the literature. PMID:23951810

  2. Odontogenic tumors: A retrospective study of four Brazilian diagnostic pathology centers

    PubMed Central

    da-Costa, Daniela O P.; Maurício, Almir S.; de-Faria, Paulo A S.; da-Silva, Licínio E.; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the results of a retrospective study of the frequency and classification of odontogenic tumors recorded at four centers of diagnostic pathology in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Study Design: All medical records and microscopic slides of odontogenic tumor specimens for the years 1997 to 2007 were retrieved from the files of four services of diagnostic pathology in Rio de Janeiro City. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Results: A total of 201 odontogenic tumors were found among 15,758 oral biopsies (1.3%). The frequencies of these tumors at the four centers ranged from 0.5% at the National Cancer Institute to 3.3% in a private laboratory. Chi-square analysis revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the proportions of odontogenic tumors in the studied centers. Of these, 94.5% were benign and 5.5% were malignant. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (32.3%) was the most frequent lesion, followed by ameloblastoma (29.8%) and odontoma (18.4%). Conclusions: Odontogenic tumors are uncommon in Brazil. Different pathology laboratories reported divergent frequencies of odontogenic tumors, which may reflect institutional specializations and the patient populations served. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, WHO classification. PMID:22143740

  3. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma of the attached gingiva: a case report.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, P L

    1992-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is an uncommon, benign, unencapsulated, exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue covered with a surface epithelium. Odontogenic epithelium and mineralized material may be found in the mass. A case is reported of a lesion that recurred in the attached gingiva following initial excision. Differential diagnosis of exophytic gingival lesions and post-operative management are also discussed. PMID:1507044

  4. [Revision of the 1992 edition of the WHO histological typing of odontogenic tumors. A suggestion].

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Philipsen, H P

    2003-03-01

    The WHO classification of odontogenic tumors (1992, OT) was revised. The following main changes were proposed: (1) OT are not only "related to" odontogenic tissues but are derived from these; (2) the stroma of the epithelial tumor group (1.1.1) is of a fibrous nature and does not contain any ectomesenchymal component; (3) subtypes of ameloblastomas have to be differentiated (intra-, extraosseous, desmoplastic, unicystic); (4) eponyms are no longer used in the revised classification; (5) the AOT is reclassified as an epithelial OT; (6) a neoplastic and non-neoplastic line of the ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is proposed; (7) the calcifying ghost cell odontogenic tumor is included in the classification; (8) the simple and the WHO type of odontogenic fibroma are included in the classification; (9) the classification of malignant OT is adapted from Eversole (1999) with a few changes. In particular, ameloblastic carcinoma is differentiated from malignant ( metastasizing) ameloblastoma; (10) the term carcinoma in intraosseous (peripheral) ameloblastoma is introduced. Also, the malignant epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumor is termed calcifying ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma; (11) the clear cell odontogenic tumor is termed clear cell odontogenic carcinoma; (12) the so-called pseudocysts are termed "cavities" (aneurysmal bone cavity, simple bone cavity, lingual and buccal mandibular bone cavity, focal marrow-containing jaw cavity). PMID:12664253

  5. [Odontogenic fibroma of the jaws. Report of a clinical case and etiopathogenic considerations].

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Dell'Aquila, A; De Rosa, I; Russo, S; Sica, G S

    1998-05-01

    A case of peripheral odontogenic fibroma is reported and its epidemiology, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis are discussed. It is supposed that the epithelial component may be related to odontogenic embrionary tissue inclusions: These inclusions may stimulate a local mesenchymal reaction giving place to a proliferative lesion, as observed. PMID:9677820

  6. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus. PMID:25411856

  7. Er:YAG Laser Assisted Treatment of Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Magalhães, João; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma is a very rare benign odontogenic tumour characterized by a fibrous mature stroma with variable strands or islands of inactive-looking odontogenic epithelium. Our aim is to report a case of a central odontogenic fibroma and describe the clinical usefulness of Er:YAG laser for the surgical treatment of this tumour. A 74-year-old woman presented with an expansive lesion located in a mandible with multilocular and mixed radiographic appearance. A conservative excision using Er:YAG laser was performed. Complete removal was obtained. There were no postoperative complications. The histopatologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of central odontogenic fibroma of rich-epithelium type. No recurrence was observed during follow-up. PMID:26457211

  8. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with an odontome – a diverse lesion encountered

    PubMed Central

    Radheshyam, Chourasia; Alokenath, Bandyopadhyay; Kumar, Harish; Abikshyeet, Panda

    2015-01-01

    The human jaw is an exclusive habitat for odontogenic lesions. Ghost cells associated odontogenic lesions are a diverse group with a variety of presentations in the jaws. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin which demonstrates ghost cells in the epithelial component. This tumor sometimes mimics the features of a cyst clinically and radiographically, but histopathologically as well as behavior-wise shows the features of a tumor. Many classification systems have been proposed and revised from time to time. Presently a dualistic concept is highlighted to classify this group of lesions. The present case highlights a case of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with a complex composite odontome, which appeared like a cyst clinically and radiographically. PMID:26345145

  9. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  10. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum ?-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  11. Pediatric Metastatic Odontogenic Ghost Cell Carcinoma: A Multimodal Treatment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Safia K.; Watanabe, Masayo; deMello, Daphne E.; Daniels, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC) is a rare and aggressive tumor wherein optimal treatment remains uncertain. We report the first pediatric metastatic OGCC case treated with multimodal therapy: surgery, adjuvant chemoradiation, and adjuvant immunotherapy. Adjuvant therapy was utilized due to locally advanced disease with pathologic features indicative of high recurrence risk. This multimodal approach was modeled after management of primary head and neck cancer, where adjuvant chemoradiation and immunotherapy are associated with improved outcomes. Our patient is alive and disease free at 14 months indicating a potentially positive role for multimodal therapy in the management of OGCC. PMID:26266014

  12. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: a rare histological variant.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Venkatesh, S; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurs mainly as an intraosseous lesion in mandible or maxilla, but the peripheral variation of COC has also been reported. The confusion regarding its nature as cyst or tumour has not been resolved and a vast diversity has been noted in clinicopathological aspects of COC. We report a case of COCs with minimal mural ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with a painless swelling in the left jaw causing mild facial asymmetry. PMID:23696143

  13. Diagnostic Factors of Odontogenic Cysts in Iranian Population: A Retrospective Study Over the Past Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Hassan; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Sabour, Siamak; Aghdashi, Farzad; Dehghani, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of odontogenic cysts due to their silent progression is always a challenging problem for clinicians. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the frequency of odontogenic cysts and related factors in a selected Iranian population. Patients and Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 312 patients’ recorded data in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April 1993 to December 2013. All related data were extracted from the records and categorized in tables. The correlation between the variables was analyzed by either chi-square or multinominal logistic regression tests. The P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Evaluation of 312 patients’ records (185 males and 127 females) with the mean age of 27.6 showed that Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) was the most common odontogenic cyst of all followed by the dentigerous cyst as the second most common lesion. Most of the patients were in the second or third decades of their lives, although there was no statistically significant age distribution. The finding of the current study showed that calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurrence was significantly related to the history of trauma. Enucleation and curettage of the odontogenic cysts were the most common treatment plans of all. Conclusions: The current study showed that clinicians should consider the many factors associated with the occurrence of odontogenic cysts. PMID:26357548

  14. Defects of the Carney complex's gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Sílvia F; Gomez, Ricardo S; Diniz, Marina G; Bernardes, Vanessa F; Soares, Flávia FC; Brito, João Artur R; Liu, Sophie; Pontes, Hélder Antônio R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of some odontogenic tumors often leads to tooth and maxillary bone loss as well as facial deformity. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in their pathogenesis may result in alternative molecular therapies. The PRKAR1A gene shows loss of protein expression, as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ectomesenchymal neoplasm. We used a combination of qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, LOH analysis and direct sequencing of all PRKAR1A exons to assess if this gene is altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. Thirteen tumors were included, being six ameloblastic fibromas, four ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, one ameloblastic fibrodentinoma and two ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The epithelial component of the tumors was separated from the mesenchymal by laser microdissection in most of the cases. We also searched for odontogenic pathology in Prkar1a+/? mice. PRKAR1A mRNA/protein expression was decreased in the benign mixed odontogenic tumors in association with LOH at markers around PRKAR1A gene. We also detected a missense and two synonymous mutations, besides two 5’-UTR and four intronic mutations in the mixed odontogenic tumors. Prkar1a+/? mice did not show evidence of odontogenic tumor formation, suggesting that additional genes may be involved in their pathogenesis, at least in rodents. We conclude that the PRKAR1A gene and its locus are altered in mixed odontogenic tumors. PRKAR1A's expression is decreased in a subset of tumors but not in all, and Prkar1a+/? mice do not show abnormalities, suggesting that additional genes play a role in this tumor's pathogenesis. PMID:25870248

  15. Valuable Radiographic Tool for Odontogenic Jaw Keratocyst Diagnosis and Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Lai, R-F; Li, Z-J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of patients with odontogenic jaw keratocyst and to guide computer-aided surgical treatment planning. Methods: Imaging, image processing, and visualization technologies were used to produce clear diagnosis, provide proper treatment, and formulate favourable prognosis. Cone beam computed tomography was used to collect medical information including site, extent, shape, and other characteristic features of a patient with large odontogenic jaw keratocyst. Results: The imaging technique produced excellent results in imaging, image processing and threedimensional (3D) visualization. Conclusion: The 3D digital reconstruction model of the odontogenic jaw keratocyst was shown intuitively. PMID:25429483

  16. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with dentigerous cyst: Report of a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikramjeet; Goyal, Sunder; Sheikh, Soheyl; Shambulingappa, P; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ravinder

    2012-09-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion derived from the complex system of dental lamina or its remnant. It is categorized into three variants (follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral). We present a rare case of AOT arising from a dentigerous cyst around the unerupted canine in a 28-year-old female. We believe that this case z an odontogenic cyst with neoplastic development, containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components. As more cases accumulate, we will be able to study these rare lesions further whether the AOTs derived from an odontogenic cyst could represent a distinct "hybrid" variant separate to the three variants described thus far. PMID:23230373

  17. Peripheral odontogenic myxoma: a review of the literature and report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, Erich J; Noffke, Claudia E

    2012-03-01

    Two cases of peripheral odontogenic myxoma with a verifiable location in gingival soft tissue and without bone involvement were compared with those reported in the literature. This study showed that they form a distinct albeit rare clinical entity with a potential to grow into large disfiguring lesions. The probability that small peripheral odontogenic myxomas are interpreted as edematous irritation fibromas may contribute to the small number of peripheral odontogenic myxomas recorded in the literature. The differential diagnosis of soft tissue myxoid proliferations is discussed. PMID:23449257

  18. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A rare presentation in an elderly female

    PubMed Central

    Vijayabanu, B.; Sreeja, C.; Bharath, N.; Aesha, I.; Kannan, V. Sadesh; Devi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are rare benign neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, comprising 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors. They are slow growing, non-metastasizing, often asymptomatic with local aggressiveness due to its infiltrative nature and hence high recurrence rate, with a high incidence of occurrence in the mandible. Most frequently occurs in second to third decade of life, seldom occurs beyond these age groups. Hereby, we present a case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla in a 65-year-old female managed by partial maxillectomy. PMID:26538962

  19. Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) Syphilis Tetanus Tonsillitis Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic Synovitis Tuberculosis Urinary Tract Infections Vaginal ... Roseola Rubella (German Measles) Scabies Scarlet Fever Toxic Shock Syndrome Vitiligo Warts Sign up for our free ...

  20. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  1. Diversity of thermophilic anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Isaac D; Wiegel, Juergen

    2008-03-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes are Archaea and Bacteria that grow optimally at temperatures of 50 degrees C or higher and do not require the use of O(2) as a terminal electron acceptor for growth. The prokaryotes with this type of physiology are studied for a variety of reasons, including (a) to understand how life can thrive under extreme conditions, (b) for their biotechnological potential, and (c) because anaerobic thermophiles are thought to share characteristics with the early evolutionary life forms on Earth. Over 300 species of thermophilic anaerobes have been described; most have been isolated from thermal environments, but some are from mesobiotic environments, and others are from environments with temperatures below 0 degrees C. In this overview, the authors outline the phylogenetic and physiological diversity of thermophilic anaerobes as currently known. The purpose of this overview is to convey the incredible diversity and breadth of metabolism within this subset of anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:18378585

  2. Metastatic Ghost Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: Description of a Case and Search for Actionable Targets

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Maximilien J.; Showell, Darion L.; Edenfield, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is an exceedingly rare malignant tumor on the spectrum of already uncommon odontogenic or dentinogenic tumors. We describe here the case of metastatic GCOC in a patient with a history of recurrent dentinogenic ghost cell tumor of the mandible, now presenting with bilateral pleural effusions. We will discuss typical histopathologic and histochemical features of GCOC, along with results of genomic testing and their role in directing therapy. PMID:26500725

  3. Bimaxillary Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Case of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Okoje-Adesomoju, Victoria Nwebuni; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Olajide, Mofoluwaso Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) is a benign cystic intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin that is usually solitary except when syndromic. It rarely occurs in the maxilla; therefore a rapidly progressive, nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT with locoregional extension poses significant diagnostic and management challenges. To the best of the authors' knowledge, documentation of a nonsyndromic bimaxillary KCOT is nonexistent in the English literature. We therefore present the case of an extensive bimaxillary KCOT in a 38-year-old Nigerian male. PMID:24790606

  4. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  5. Rare and massive odontogenic parakeratotic cyst treated by endoscopic sinus surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Keratocystic odontogenic tumors are benign neoplasms of odontogenic origin with a potential for aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Many different treatments for this type of lesion have been reported. However, no common consensus has emerged to date regarding the most effective therapeutic approach. Cases of maxillary sinus giant keratocystic odontogenic tumors completely excised by enucleation or marsupialization via endoscopic sinus surgery are extremely rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been described in the literature since 2005. Case presentation We report a case of a 24-year-old Italian man who came to our department with maxillary sinus region swelling, pain and left nasal obstruction. A massive keratocystic odontogenic tumor involving the right maxillary sinus and causing focal erosions of the bony walls was diagnosed. The keratocystic odontogenic tumor was removed as much as possible by a transnasal approach using endoscopic sinus surgery, which produced optimal surgical and prognostic outcomes. Follow-up is reported for an 8-year period. Conclusion Conservative management in this case demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy with a low risk of recurrence. For injuries involving the maxillary sinus, the possibility of decompression or marsupialization by endoscopic sinus surgery should always be considered because it demonstrated the potential to lead to excellent results even after 8 years of follow-up in our patient. To our knowledge, no case report has described follow-up longer than 8 years for a maxillary sinus keratocystic odontogenic tumor treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:25193270

  6. A rare case of extrafollicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in the posterior region of the mandible: misdiagnosed as residual cyst.

    PubMed

    Shivali, Vaid; Pandey, Anil; Khanna, Vidhi D; Khanna, Prateek; Singh, Ashish; Ahuja, Tarun

    2013-10-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a relatively uncommon distinct odontogenic neoplasm. It is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin with varying number of ductlike structures and inductive changes in the stroma. It is a benign and slow growing epithelial tumor and represents 3% of all odontogenic tumors. Its occurrence is more common in anterior region of the maxilla than mandible. Most of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors occur intra-osseously but few peripheral variant have been reported which are attached to the gingival structures. The intra-osseous Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor may be related to unerrupted tooth (follicular varient) or may not (extrafollicular varient) be related to unerrupted tooth. This paper is to present a rare case of an extrafollicular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor occurring in the body of the mandible in a male patient which is distinct and secondly it was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as residual cyst. The diagnosis of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was confirmed by Histopathological investigation. How to cite this article: Shivali V, Khanna VD, Khanna P, Singh A, Pandey A, Ahuja T. A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):124-8. PMID:24324316

  7. Nasal Sinus Tract of Odontogenic Origin: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Sagar; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Divya; Sajjanhar, Isha; Goel, Kopal; Gupta, Vaibhav Sheel

    2015-01-01

    Extraoral sinus tract often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician owing to its rare occurrence and absence of symptoms. The accurate diagnosis and comprehensive management are inevitable as the aetiology of such lesions is often masked and requires holistic approach. The present case report encompasses the management of an extraoral discharging sinus tract at the base of the right nostril in a chronic smoker. The lesion which was earlier diagnosed to be of nonodontogenic origin persisted even after erratic treatment modalities. Our investigations showed the aetiology of sinus tract to be odontogenic. Initially, a five-step program as recommended by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was used for smoking cessation followed by root canal therapy (RCT) and surgical management of the sinus tract. The patient has been under stringent follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. PMID:26649208

  8. Surgical treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    KCOT is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cysts with a high recurrence rate, this was explained histopathologically as it typically shows a thin, friable wall, which is often difficult to enucleate from the bone in one piece, and have small satellite cysts within the fibrous wall. Multiple surgical approaches were introduced including decompression, marsupilization, enucleation with or without adjunct (Carnoy’s solution, enucleation) and resection. Depending on other studies KCOT can be conservatively treated with enucleation and application of Carnoy’s solution or cryotherapy. This can be used specially in the large lesions that when treated with resection, the continuity of the jaw will be interrupted. This technique shows comparable results to other more aggressive techniques. PMID:24151416

  9. An ultrastructural study of calcifying odontogenic cyst, especially calcified material.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kimijima, Yutaka; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sasaki, Kodo; Amagasa, Teruo

    2002-06-01

    The ultrastructural features of calcification in a case of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) were studied. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the inner parts of the cyst wall revealed many short microvilli, and X-ray microanalysis of the high-density masses in the intercellular parts showed prominent calcium peaks, which meant that these masses were calcified materials. On transmission electron microscopic observations, many calcifications exhibited a distinctive ring formation around the periphery of a central core that consisted of an amorphous structure. These calcifications were observed with necrotic remnants of nuclear material and many identifiable mitochondria, thin fibers, and epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of ghost cells consisted of numerous short electron-dense tonofilament bundles. Needle-like structures were shown in the tonofilament bundles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the needle-like crystals were hydroxyapatite. It is suggested that calcification in a COC may be related to degenerative mitochondria and tonofilament bundles of ghost cells. PMID:12181653

  10. Assessment of BRAFV600E and SMOF412E mutations in epithelial odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Guimarães, Bruna Viana Antonini; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Cardoso, Sergio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia Amaral; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2015-07-01

    The classification of ameloblastoma in multicystic or unicystic variants is associated with its clinical behaviour. Recently, BRAF and SMO mutations have been reported in ameloblastomas. However, it is not clear if such mutations are shared by the multi- and unicystic variants of ameloblastoma or by odontogenic carcinomas. We assessed BRAFV600E and SMOF412E in multicystic, unicystic and desmoplastic ameloblastomas. In addition, we investigated whether the BRAFV600E mutation occurs in odontogenic carcinomas. A total of 28 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, comprising 17 ameloblastomas and 11 odontogenic carcinomas, were included. The BRAFV600E mutation was assessed by real-time PCR with a specific TaqMan probe and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The SMOF412E mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing. Fourteen out of 17 (82 %) ameloblastomas showed the BRAFV600E mutation, specifically, 5/6 (83 %) unicystic, 7/9 (78 %) multicystic and 2/2 desmoplastic ameloblastomas. BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 4/11 (36 %) malignant tumours, specifically, 3/8 (38 %) ameloblastic carcinomas and 1/1 clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, while the two ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas did not harbour this mutation. The SMOF412E mutation was not detected in ameloblastoma. The BRAFV600E-activating mutation is a common event in ameloblastomas, occurring regardless of site or histological type. This mutation is also detected in odontogenic carcinomas. SMO somatic mutation is a secondary genetic event in the ameloblastoma pathogenesis. Our findings support the possibility for personalised, molecular-targeted therapy for ameloblastomas and odontogenic carcinomas harbouring the BRAFV600E mutation. PMID:25854168

  11. Podoplanin expression profiles characteristic of odontogenic tumor-specific tissue architectures.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2012-03-15

    Podoplanin, a representative immunohistochemical marker for lymphatic endothelial cells, is also expressed in many other kinds of cancer cells, although its pathophysiological function is largely unknown. Our aim was to determine immunolocalization modes of podoplanin among odontogenic tumors to discuss possible roles of podoplanin in their characteristic tissue architecture formation. Immunohistochemical profiles of podoplanin were investigated in 40 surgical specimens from ameloblastoma (AM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in comparison with those of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), integrin ?1, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Podoplanin was localized in the basal cell layer or in the peripheral zone of AM foci. It was found in spindle-shaped tumor cells of AOT, in both the basal and polyhedral cells of CCOT, and in the basal and parabasal cells of KCOT linings. Podoplanin-positive (+) cells were located within areas of PCNA+ cells, and integrin ?1 was localized in the cell membrane of podoplanin+ cells in the intercellular space where fibronectin and MMP-9 were deposited. In conclusion, podoplanin+ cells and areas in odontogenic tumors are in close associations with extracellular matrix signalings as well as cell proliferation. PMID:22326634

  12. Odontogenic myxofibroma: A concise review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Giovannacci, Ilaria; Corradi, Domenico; Manfredi, Maddalena; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Vescovi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a review of the literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and radiographic features as well as treatment of odontogenic myxofibroma (MF). Methods: The PubMed database was searched using the following keywords: “odontogenic myxofibroma”, “odontogenic fibromyxoma”, “myxofibroma of the jaw” and “fibromyxoma of the jaw”. Results: Fifteen articles reporting the experience with 24 patients were identified. Male/female ratio was 1:1.4 and the average age was 29.5 years. The most frequent location was the mandible. In 66.7% of the cases the radiographic appearance was a multilocular radiolucency. Swelling was observed in 13 patients (92.86%), varying degrees of pain in 5 (35.71%) and paresthesia in only one patient (7.14%). Six out of 24 patients (26.09%) were treated with radical surgery and 17 (73.91%) with a conservative approach. In two out of 21 cases (9.52%) a recurrence was reported. Conclusions: MF is an extremely rare tumor and no agreement exists on the causes of its development. According to the present review, the choice of treatment should depend on variables such as localization, presence of a primary or of a recurrent lesion, age, general medical conditions and aesthetic needs of the patient. Key words:Odontogenic myxofibroma, myxofibroma of the jaw, odontogenic tumors, oral surgery, oral pathology. PMID:25129249

  13. Surgical management of dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor in children: a conservative approach and 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    DEBONI, Maria Cristina Zindel; BROZOSKI, Mariana Aparecida; TRAINA, Andreia Aparecida; ACAY, Renata Rodrigues; NACLÉRIO-HOMEM, Maria da Graça

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the jaws and rarely recurs. On the other hand, keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), is considered a benign unicystic or multicystic intraosseous neoplasm and one of the most aggressive odontogenic lesions presenting relatively high recurrence rate and a tendency to invade adjacent tissue. Two cases of these odontogenic lesions occurring in children are presented. They were very similar in clinical and radiographic characteristics, and both were treated by marsupialization. The treatment was chosen in order to preserve the associated permanent teeth with complementary orthodontic treatment to direct eruption of the associated permanent teeth. At 7-years of follow-up, none of the cases showed recurrence. PMID:22666848

  14. THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

  15. Mandibular intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma lesion associated with odontogenic keratocyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Seop; Geum, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Cho, Yeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the oral cavity, and it accounts for about 90% of all oral cancers. Several risk factors for oral SCC have been identified; however, SCC associated with odontogenic keratocysts have rarely been reported. The present study describes the case of a 36-year-old man with SCC of the right ramus of the mandible, which was initially diagnosed as a benign odontogenic cyst. He underwent enucleation at another hospital followed by segmental mandibulectomy and fibular free flap reconstruction at our institution. In this case, we introduce a patient with oral cancer associated with odontogenic cyst on the mandible and report a satisfactory outcome with wide resection and immediate free flap reconstruction. PMID:25922819

  16. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour – a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  17. Using the condylar prosthesis after resection of a large odontogenic myxoma tumor in the mandible.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Willian Morais; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Brêda, Marcus Antônio; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Serra e Silva, Fabrício Moreira

    2012-09-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are considered to be a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior. Because these neoplasms are rare in the oral cavity, the possible surgical management can be quite variable. Literature recommendation can vary from simple curettage and peripheral ostectomy to segmental resection. The authors report a case of a 20-year-old patient with an odontogenic myxoma tumor located in the left mandibular angle, ascending ramus, and mandibular symphysis. It was treated by radical resection followed by titanium reconstruction with condylar prosthesis, which allowed rapid return of function with improvement in quality of life and restoration of cosmetic and functional deficits. The lesion did not recur after surgical procedure. PMID:22976683

  18. Case Presentation of Concomitant and Contiguous Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor and Focal Cemento-Ossifying Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Gita; Donoghue, Mandana; Reichart, Peter A; Pazuhi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year-old male was presented for the diagnosis of an asymptomatic bony expansion in relation to the right maxillary canine and first premolar. The unilocular radiolucent lesion with central foci of calcification had caused divergence of canine and first premolar roots without any resorption. This case report details a diagnosis of two distinct disease processes of different cellular origin namely, focal cemento-ossifying dysplasia and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a previously unreported concomitant and contiguous relationship. The diagnosis was determined by a combination of clinical, radiographic, histopathological and surgical evidence. This case highlights two points, first the need to examine all mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions with advanced imaging techniques to assess the number and extent of the lesions prior to treatment planning. Second a likely role of periodontal ligament as the tissue source for odontogenic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells required for the development of odontogenic tumors and cemento-osseous dysplasias. PMID:26464605

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression between Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Priyadharsini, Nataraj; Gnanaselvi, U Punitha; Sathishkumar, Srinivasan; Srikanth, R P; Nagarathinam, A E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with an aggressive clinical behavior suggesting a change in its terminology from a cyst to a tumor and has now been renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The purpose of this study was to assess and compare angiogenesis in ameloblastoma and OKC. Materials and Methods: Angiogenesis was assessed by studying the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The study samples included 15 ameloblastomas and 15 KCOTs. The immunoreactivity was statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: VEGF expression was higher in ameloblastoma than KCOTs. However, a non-significant difference of VEGF expression was noted between ameloblastoma and KCOTs (P = 0.345). Conclusion: The results suggest that tumor angiogenesis may play a significant role in aggressive biologic behavior of KCOT. Thus, angiogenesis could be a potent target for developing anatiangiogenic therapeutic strategies. PMID:25709368

  20. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; Romañach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25810830

  1. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour - a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tarakji, Bassel; Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  2. Radiological and clinical features of peripheral keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling; Yang, Jie; Zheng, Jia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (PKCOT) is rare and has not been reported with imaging findings. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore CT and MR imaging characteristics of two PKCOTs in lateral facial deep region (LFDR), and to present a review of the literature regarding their anatomic locations and characteristics of epidemiology and Radiology. Methods and material: Eighteen PKCOTs, sixteen from the previous literatures and two new cases of the authors, were reviewed. Fifteen of them had original sites in the gingival, one in buccal space and two in LFDR. CT imaging features were based on one PKCOT in the buccal space and two in LFDR. MR imaging features on one PKCOT in LFDR, and conventional radiographic characteristics on eight PKCOTs were analyzed. Results: The subjects’ ages ranged from 37 to 81 years, with a mean of 54.7 years. The male and female ratio was 1:1.14, with no predilection for either gender. Buccal space (6%) and LFDR (11%) were relatively rare original sites to PKCOTs, compared to gingival (83%). PKCOTs were clearly depicted on CT and MR imaging as they had cystic changes. Contents of the cysts were further analyzed by using different series of MRI. No radiological features were found on radiographs except one subject with minimal bone resorption in the alveolar crest. Conclusions: LFDR is rare original site for PKCOT. PKCOT should be included as one of differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion found in LFDR on CT and MR imaging. PMID:24482721

  3. Altered expression of podoplanin in keratocystic odontogenic tumours following decompression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOMIN; WANG, JING; DING, XU; XING, SHUZHONG; ZHANG, WEI; WANG, LIZHEN; WU, HEMING; WANG, LIN

    2014-01-01

    Marsupialisation or decompression is frequently performed as a conservative therapy for keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Positive podoplanin (PDPN) expression in the epithelium of KCOT has been previously reported and may be associated with neoplastic invasion. In the present study, changes in PDPN expression were observed in the epithelium of KCOTs following decompression. In total, 16 pairs of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at the time of decompression and at two-stage curettage or enucleation were collected and immunohistochemically examined using an antibody against PDPN. The intensity of PDPN staining was evaluated with a semi-quantitative detection method and statistically analysed. The immunohistochemical reactivity of PDPN was consistently markedly positive in 93.8% of KCOT samples prior to decompression. The positive staining was immunolocalised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of cells in the basal layer and extended into the suprabasal layer for two to three cell layers. At the time of curettage, 2 of the 16 (12.5%) cases were completely negative, 11 of the 16 (68.8%) cases were locally positive and 3 of the 16 (18.7%) cases showed a ‘linear staining’ pattern, as the PDPN-positive cells were restricted to within the single basal layer. The expression level of PDPN was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and a significant loss or reduction of PDPN expression was observed in KCOTs following decompression. Larger sample groups are required to further verify this result. PMID:24527067

  4. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: biologic profile based on 499 cases.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, H P; Reichart, P A; Zhang, K H; Nikai, H; Yu, Q X

    1991-04-01

    Topographically, the AOT occurs in peripheral and central variants, the latter further in follicular (with embedded tooth) and extrafollicular (no embedded tooth) types. The AOT is slow growing with few or no symptoms. Tumor growth may cause displacement of teeth rather than root resorption. The follicular AOT mimics a follicular cyst, the extrafollicular a residual or "globulo-maxillary" cyst and the peripheral a gingival fibroma. All variants of AOT show identical histologic features. The central variants account for 97.2%, 73.0% of which are follicular. The follicular variant (M:F ratio 1 to 1.9) is three times as frequent as the extrafollicular. The follicular variant is diagnosed earlier in life (mean age 17 yr) than the extrafollicular (mean age 24 yr). 53.1% of all variants occur within the teens (13-19 yr). Follicular AOT is associated with one embedded tooth in 93.2%. Maxillary permanent canines account for 41.7% and all four canines for 60.1% of AOT-associated embedded teeth. Ranking four among the odontogenic tumors the AOT is not a particularly rare tumor. Conservative surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Documented recurrences have not been reported. PMID:2061853

  5. Treatment of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor/Pindborg tumor by a conservative surgical method

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswaran, T.; Naveena, R.

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) also known as Pindborg tumor is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far nearly 200 cases have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. Approximately, 50% of the cases are associated with an unerupted tooth or odontome, but was not so with our case. Considering the intrabony mandibular location of the lesion and its limited size, we opted for a more conservative surgery. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features and the surgical treatment done are discussed with relevant references. PMID:26015736

  6. An unusual presentation of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma in mandibular anterior region

    PubMed Central

    Ganvir, Sindhu M; Gajbhiye, Namrata Yashwant

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive odontogenic epithelial tumor with tendency for recurrence. It was first described as a clinicopathological entity in 1985 and to date only 73 cases has been reported in English literature. A case of CCOC in 64-year-old male patient in mandibular anterior region is presented which when recurred in soft tissue 5 years after wide surgical resection of mandible, revealed a biphasic pattern as against monophasic pattern of primary neoplasm and was unusually associated with primary squamous cell carcinoma, suggestive of hybrid tumor. PMID:25949004

  7. Aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of mandible showing root resorption: A histological case report.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Ramandeep; Kaur, Gurkiran; Singh, Preetinder

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor with slow but progressive growth. The three variants: Follicular, extra follicular (both central type), and peripheral present with identical histologic findings. This case report describes a patient with a large AOT in the mandible of the extra follicular type which is the less common of the two central types. It also strikes as an unusual case as it shows significant root resorption of the involved displaced teeth which is not generally reported in AOT's. PMID:23946750

  8. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: a rare gingival neoplasm with clinico-pathological differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Shradha; Sharma, Aanchal; Andhare, Vinod; Sabir, Husain

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare gingival neoplasm, characterised by relatively mature collagenous fibrous tissue and varying amounts of odontogenic epithelium. It can be described as a slow growing, firmly attached, solid and smooth gingival mass which may be present asymptomatically for years, which may cause displacement of adjacent teeth. The purpose of this article is to discuss a case of POdF, occurring in the maxillary anterior region, with detailed clinico-pathological differential diagnosis to clarify characteristic features of various gingival overgrowths to enhance easy identification. PMID:26259385

  9. Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary sinus and zygoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIANHUA; WANG, LILI; CHEN, ZHENGGANG; QIU, JIANZHONG; DONG, QUANJIANG

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), formally known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign developmental tumors that are found primarily in the mandibular molar region and ascending ramus. The disease is characterized by aggressive growth and a high recurrence rate following surgical treatment. The present study reports the rare case of a 25-year-old male with a giant KCOT involving the right zygoma, maxillary bone and maxillary sinus. The tumor was removed using a modified treatment of enucleation, grinding and cryotherapy. Recurrence has not been observed within the eight-month follow-up period. The present study discusses the clinical features and surgical management of this case. PMID:25364448

  10. An immunohistochemical study of two cases of either peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) or peripheral ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chong Huat Siar; Kok Han, N g

    1996-03-01

    Two cases of either peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) (WHO type) or peripheral ameloblastoma are reported. Their immunohistochemical characteristics were investigated in an attempt to clarify their histogenesis. The results showed that the epithelial component of this neoplasm tended to retain its distinct odontogenic character and expressed a keratin profile different from that of the overlying oral epithelium from which both cases most probably originated. The connective tissue element of these tumors was vimentin-positive and S-100 protein negative, confirming their mesodermal nature but precluding the possibility of ectomesenchymal derivation. No reactivity for desmin was noted. PMID:8648412

  11. Mural Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour as Anterior Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Bhola; Grewal, Jessica; Grewal, Ripin; Bansal, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is an uncommon, benign, hamartomatous lesion that commonly affects the anterior maxilla and has two radiographic variants, follicular and extrafollicular where the former is more common than the latter. Here, we report a case of 15-year-old female with midline swelling of the mandible. Radiographically, impacted right permanent mandibular canine was associated with the radiolucent lesion. Dentigerous cyst was given as provisional diagnosis. However, histologically the lesion represented the features of cystic variant of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. PMID:25121073

  12. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient.

  13. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  14. Odontogenic tumors: A collaborative study of 218 cases diagnosed over 12 years and comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nazl?m, Sinan; Etoz, Meryem; Den?z, Kemal; Yasa, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, and to compare the findings with those reported in the literature. Study Design: The records of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology Departments at Erciyes University, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization classification, 2005), over a 12-year period, were analyzed. The relative frequency of different types of tumors was also analyzed and compared with the literature. Results: OTs in the present study constituted 2.74% of all the 7,942 registered biopsies. A total of 218 cases of OTs were collected and reviewed. Of these, (94.04%) were benign and (5.96%) were malignant. The mandible was the most commonly affected anatomic location, with 170 cases (77.9%). Ameloblastoma with a predilection for the posterior mandible was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (30.28%), followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (19.5%), odontoma (13.4%), and odontogenic myxoma (8.5%). Conclusions: OTs are rare neoplasms and appear to show geographic variations in the world. In Cappadocia, Turkey, they are more common in the mandible, with ameloblastoma followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumors with the incidences observed in the present study being similar to those of previous studies from Asia and Africa, and in contrast to those reported from American countries. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, WHO classification, prevalence, jaws. PMID:25481228

  15. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors of Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Nurhan; ?ençift, Kemal; Demirkol, Özge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate different surgical treatment methods for keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and the outcome of those treatments over a 9-year period. Patients and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on 43 KCOTs in 39 patients. In radiographic evaluations for diagnosis, follow ups and before and after treatment, panoramic, 3D CT and MR images were used. The three groups of different surgical treatment were (1) enucleation for small unilocular lesions without certainty of histology; (2) enucleation with Carnoy's solution, for small unilocular lesions after previous histological confirmation of KOCT; (3) marsupialization followed by enucleation with Carnoy's solution implemented for large often multilocular KCOTs with intact or destruction of cortical bone without infiltration of neighbouring tissue. Results. 43 KCOT cases were mostly localized in mandible (76.7%), radiologically unilocular (72%), and parakeratocysts (88.4%). Inflammation and satellite cysts (daughter cysts) were detected histopathologically in 14 (32.5%) and 7 (16.3%), respectively. Among the 43 cysts, 20 (46.5%) were associated with the impacted third molar and of 21 (48.8%) was in tooth bearing area, and 5 (11, 6%) located on edentulous areas. It was located mostly in the anterior region of maxilla (90%) and in mandibular molar and ramus (62.8%). The treatments of KCOTs were 18 (41.9%) for group 1, and 10 (23.3%) group 2, and 15 (34.8%) group 3. A statistically significant relationship was found between the radiographic appearance and treatment methods (P = 0.00). No recurrence was found on 40.54 ± 23.02 months follow up. Conclusion. We concluded that successful treatment methods were enucleation and Carnoy's solution in small lesions and marsupialization in lesions that have reached a very large size, but because KCOT was observed in second decade mostly, long-term follows up are suggested. PMID:22454609

  16. Recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumours: report of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Liu, B; Cheng, G; Wang, S-P; Wang, Y-N

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse 19 recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Methods 19 patients with recurrent KCOTs were retrospectively analysed. These patients had been treated by either enucleation or a combination of enucleation and Carnoy's solution. The analyses covered major aspects of primary KCOT and/or recurrent KCOT identities, including patient profile, clinical features, histopathology, radiology, treatment and prognosis. Results 19 (7.4%) out of 257 primary KCOT cases recurred, with an average patient age of 30.5 years (age range 18–45 years). 15 lesions were in the mandible and the remaining 4 were in the maxilla. There were more unilocular than multilocular occurrences for the primary tumours, with a ratio of 2.2:1. These KCOTs were initially treated by simple enucleation (12 cases) or enucleation with Carnoy's solution (7 cases). After the initial surgery, 15 out of 19 (78.9%) recurred within 6 years, while 4 (21.1%) recurred after 6 years. Evidently, the recurrent lesion was involved with the roots of the teeth in three out of six cases whose teeth were preserved. In addition, the recurrent KCOTs had a tendency to be more multilocular or multifocal than the primary cases, with a unilocular-to-multilocular ratio of 1.1:1. Conclusions 7.4% of primary KCOTs recurred within 6 years after initial treatment with either enucleation or a combination of enucleation and Carnoy's solution. The recurrent KCOTs were more likely to be multilocular or multifocal than the primary cases and often involved the teeth. The method of operation for these recurrent lesions would be considered as a more aggressive approach. PMID:22301637

  17. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Hard Palate-Invading Maxillary Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Arakawa, Kazuya; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Yamazaki, Yuto; Ozawa, Daiki; Nomura, Yuri; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is one of the benign developmental odontogenic cystic lesions arising from impacted teeth. In comparison to other odontogenic cysts, such as radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts, KCOT is known to be more aggressive and is associated with a relatively high recurrence rate. Traditionally, KCOT has been treated with total resection through sublabial incision. Marsupialization is advocated to reduce surgical invasion. However in all the cases, marsupialization was performed in the oral cavity. With the recent development of appropriate instruments and the endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) technique, which allows preservation of the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct, an exclusive endoscopic approach to KCOT becomes possible. However, when the KCOT invades the hard palate, total resection of the tumor requires subtotal maxillectomy including hard palate. Consequently, as the maxillary sinus connects to the oral cavity, life-long use of a prosthesis becomes mandatory. Here we report a case of a seventeen-year-old female with a hard palate-invading KCOT who was successfully treated with the EMMM approach. The KCOT was fenestrated to the nasal cavity, leading to preservation of the hard palate. The lesion invading the hard palate was found to remain unchanged over one year upon follow-up. The trans-nasal approach with EMMM is a direct, minimally invasive method providing a direct field of view for the treatment of maxillary odontogenic cysts. Marsupialization of the KCOT with the EMMM technique might be a viable treatment option if the maxillary KCOT invades surrounding structures. PMID:26567556

  18. Expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Rashmi; Gupta, Kanupriya

    2013-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelium of the odontogenic apparatus or from its derivatives or remnants exhibit considerable histologic variation and are classified into several benign and malignant entities. A high proliferative activity of the odontogenic epithelium in ameloblastoma (AM) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has been demonstrated in some studies individually. However, very few previous studies have simultaneously evaluated cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes in AM and KCOT, comparing both lesions. The aim of this study was to assess and compare cell proliferation and apoptotic rates between these two tumors. Specimens of 15 solid AM and 15 KCOT were evaluated. The proliferation index (PI) was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and the apoptotic index (AI) by methyl green-pyronin stain. KCOT presented a higher PI than AM (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found in the AI between AM and KCOT. PI and AI were higher in the peripheral cells of AM and respectively in the suprabasal and superficial layers of KCOT. In conclusion, KCOT showed a higher cell proliferation than AM and the AI was similar between these tumors. These findings reinforce the classification of KCOT as an odontogenic tumor and should contribute to its aggressive clinical behavior. PMID:24090509

  19. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. PMID:24182558

  20. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Burgos, Rocío; González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy's solution. PMID:25136427

  1. Rare peripheral odontogenic tumors: report of 5 cases and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral odontogenic tumor (POT) is a rarely encountered lesion. We report 5 cases of POT including adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), ameloblastic fibroma (AF), developing odontoma (DO), and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), and also provide a review of relevant literature to define the tumor profile. Except for PCCOT with enough frequency (>100 cases), PAOT (n = 14), PKCOT (n = 15), PAF (n = 5), and PDO (n = 7) were scarce in the literature. As to the age distribution, PAOT, PAF, and PDO fell within the first 2 decades, whereas PKCOT arose in middle-aged adults. A marked female predominance was apparent in PAOT, PKCOT, and PAF. Approximately 90% of PAOT occurred in the maxilla. PAOT and PDO arose primarily in the incisor area, and PKCOT and PAF were typically located in permanent canine/premolar and deciduous molar regions, respectively. Although most PAOT and all PKCOT affected the buccal gingiva, PDO showed a strong predilection for the lingual aspect. With the exception of PKCOT, there was no propensity for recurrence in the above POT. At this time, it remains to be determined whether the biologic behavior of PKCOT is the same as for KCOT. In view of the reported cases, a true extraosseous origin of PAOT and PAF, for the most part, is challenging. PMID:18718792

  2. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: A Selective Review of 7 Jawbone Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Considerable variation in the clinicopathologic presentation of epithelial odontogenic tumors can sometimes be confusing and increase the chance of misdiagnosis. Seven diagnostically challenging jawbone lesions are described. There were 2 cases of mistaken identity in our ameloblastoma file. One unicystic type, initially diagnosed and treated as a lateral periodontal cyst, showed destructive recurrence 6 years postoperatively. The other globulomaxillary lesion was managed under the erroneous diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and recurred 4 times over an 11-year period. This tumor was found in retrospect to be consistent with an adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid. The diagnosis of cystic squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) occurring as a radicular lesion of an impacted lower third molar was one of exclusion. Of two unsuspected keratocystic odontogenic tumors, one depicted deceptive features of pericoronitis, while the other case has long been in our files with the diagnosis of globulomaxillary SOT. Two cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma appeared benign clinically and exhibited unexpected findings; an impacted third molar began to erupt in association with the growth of carcinoma and another periradicular carcinoma showed dentinoid formation. Cases selectively reviewed in this article present challenging problems which require clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:20596984

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  4. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade

    PubMed Central

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy’s solution. PMID:25136427

  5. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1?g/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:25813393

  6. Recovery of anaerobic bacteria from wounds after lawn-mower injuries.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2005-02-01

    Accidental injury while using lawn mowers can cause serious infectious complications in the injured extremity. Anaerobic bacteria were rarely recovered from this infection. Two children who sustained injury in their foot by a lawn mower developed severe wound infection. Culture of the wound from 1 patient had heavy growth of Clostridium bifermentans and Peptostreptococcus magnus, and the culture from the other child grew Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrobial therapy directed at the pathogens and vigorous surgical irrigation and debridement led to complete recovery from the infection. This report illustrates the recovery of anaerobic bacteria from children that had wound infection after lawn-mower injury. PMID:15699821

  7. The Role of ORAI1 in the Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S; Park, Y; Srikanth, S; Arai, A; Song, M; Yu, B; Shin, K-H; Kang, M K; Wang, C; Gwack, Y; Park, N-H; Kim, R H

    2015-11-01

    Pulp capping, or placing dental materials directly onto the vital pulp tissues of affected teeth, is a dental procedure that aims to regenerate reparative dentin. Several pulp capping materials are clinically being used, and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) released from these materials is known to mediate reparative dentin formation. ORAI1 is an essential pore subunit of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), which is a major Ca(2+) influx pathway in most nonexcitable cells. Here, we evaluated the role of ORAI1 in mediating the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). During the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs, the expression of ORAI1 increased in a time-dependent manner. DPSCs knocked down with ORAI1 shRNA (DPSC/ORAI1sh) or overexpressed with dominant negative mutant ORAI1(E106Q) (DPSC/E106Q) exhibited the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and suppression of odontogenic differentiation and mineralization as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/staining as well as alizarin red S staining when compared with DPSCs of their respective control groups (DPSC/CTLsh and DPSC/CTL). The gene expression for odontogenic differentiation markers such as osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) was also suppressed. When DPSC/CTL or DPSC/E106Q cells were subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice, DPSC/CTL cells induced mineralized tissue formation with significant increases in ALP and DMP1 staining in vivo, whereas DPSC/E106Q cells did not. Collectively, our data showed that ORAI1 plays critical roles in the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of DPSCs by regulating Ca(2+) influx and that ORAI1 may be a therapeutic target to enhance reparative dentin formation. PMID:26403672

  8. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  9. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Enucleation, Excision of the Overlying Mucosa and Electrocauterization – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, A; Rani, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Odontogenic keratocyst remains an enigma for clinicians and researchers, although gains in knowledge in recent years have improved the understanding of this interesting lesion. The diagnostic problems are mainly related to the relative lack of specific clinical and radiographic features that unequivocally point to a proper diagnosis. Of particular interest to clinicians is the biologic behaviour of keratocysts which includes high rates of recurrence and potential existence as a benign odontogenic neoplasm, keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Various surgical modalities have evolved in an attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, including curettage, peripheral ostectomy, removal of overlying mucosa in cases of cortical perforation and osseous resection in the form of marginal or segmental osteotomies. The present case report describes the conservative surgical management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a young patient with no evidence of recurrence at two years follow-up. PMID:25867564

  10. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Enucleation, Excision of the Overlying Mucosa and Electrocauterization - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, A; Rani, G

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst remains an enigma for clinicians and researchers, although gains in knowledge in recent years have improved the understanding of this interesting lesion. The diagnostic problems are mainly related to the relative lack of specific clinical and radiographic features that unequivocally point to a proper diagnosis. Of particular interest to clinicians is the biologic behaviour of keratocysts which includes high rates of recurrence and potential existence as a benign odontogenic neoplasm, keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Various surgical modalities have evolved in an attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, including curettage, peripheral ostectomy, removal of overlying mucosa in cases of cortical perforation and osseous resection in the form of marginal or segmental osteotomies. The present case report describes the conservative surgical management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a young patient with no evidence of recurrence at two years follow-up. PMID:25867564

  11. Concomitant occurrence of cemento-ossifying fibroma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with bilateral impacted permanent canines in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A Ravi; Reddy, P Sreenivas; Bavle, Radhika M

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon, benign and slow growing odontogenic tumor, which is usually located in an anterior region of the maxilla without pain. Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a relatively rare benign tumor of the jaw. Here we present 2 lesions presenting in unusual forms, follicular variant of AOT in the mandible and COF associated with impacted canine in the mandible, occurring concomitantly in the same patient. Both lesions presented classic histopathologic features. PMID:23059596

  12. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  13. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

  18. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  19. Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

    2000-12-01

    Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

  20. A large glandular odontogenic cyst of the mandible: report of case.

    PubMed

    Erta?, Umit; Büyükkurt, M Cemil; Güngörmü?, Metin; Kaya, Omer

    2003-02-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is generally considered uncommon, but several investigators claim there is a more frequent occurrence than previously thought. However these case reports lacked confirming data to validate their claim. On the other hand, it is possible that cases of central mucepidermoid carcinoma or later periodontal cyst might be viewed as glandular odontogenic cyst. This is a report of a case of a 70-year old male who presented with a firm swelling in the right side of his edentulous mandible. Radiographic examination revealed a multilocular radiolucent lesion in the mandible extending from the right first premolar to the left second premolar and reaching the inferior mandible. Clinical findings, the health history, and microscopic examination of excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of GOC. The lesion was excised and post-operative healing was uneventful. PMID:12595933

  1. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

  2. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-01-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  3. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gerusa O M; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N R; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  4. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Extraosseal Spread: Evaluation of the Effect Carnoy's Solution.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Macho?, Vladimír; Grill, Pavel; Hirjak, Dušan; Foltán, René

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour is relatively rare benign tumour. It is characterized by its fast aggressive growth and high risk of recurrence. Treatment is always surgical: conservative (enucleation, marsupialization) or aggressive (enucleation followed by application of Carnoy's solution, cryotherapy; peripheral ostectomy or en block resection of the jaw). Authors analysed retrospectively 22 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria, i.e. had odontogenic keratocystic tumour of mandible, wherein antero-posterior dimension was at least 30 mm, and the tumour penetrated into the surrounding soft tissues. All patients underwent tumour enucleation, in 11 patients Carnoy's solution was given into the bone cavity after enucleation. The recurrence rate in the evaluation at least 36 months after surgery was both patient groups the same: 45.4%. PMID:26654803

  5. Simultaneous occurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma in the mandible: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GAMOH, SHOKO; AKIYAMA, HIRONORI; TOMINAGA, KAZUYA; NAKAJIMA, MASAHIRO; KAKUDO, KENJI; TANAKA, AKIO; SHIMIZUTANI, KIMISHIGE

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and ameloblastomas are benign odontogenic tumors that primarily occur in the molar region of the mandible. However, it is uncommon for these tumors to arise simultaneously in a patient's jaw. The present study reported the diagnostic process and features of a rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of KCOT and ameloblastoma in the mandible of a 45-year-old male. Image-based diagnosis was challenging due to several conditions, including the intactness of the teeth and bone cortex as well as the sizes and locations of the lesions. Based on radiographic evidence, the patient was initially misdiagnosed and underwent a biopsy for a radicular cyst and a simple bone cyst prior to the correct diagnoses of KCOT and ameloblastoma, respectively. In addition, the present study discussed the diagnostic process of the present case and reviewed previous literature regarding the simultaneous occurrence of benign tumors of the jaw. PMID:26622570

  6. Peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumour - is it really peripheral?: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, N; Rajeshwari, M R C; Bharathi, R; Shaheen, A

    2013-07-01

    A Peripheral Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (PAOT) is quite a rare entity which has been infrequently reported in the literature. These uncommon clinical variants of an Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (AOT), typically manifest as a soft tissue mass of the gingiva, which mimick a common epulis, but yet have an identical histopathologic presentation as their intraosseous counterpart. These lesions, though they are indolent in nature, have a tendency to cause well defined deep bony pockets. Only fourteen cases have been adequately documented so far. We are reporting a case of a PAOT of the anterior maxillary gingiva, with a periodontal bone defect in a 12 year old girl. The relevant literature has been briefly reviewed, with an insight into the probable origin of PAOTs with bony defects. PMID:23998113

  7. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  8. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

  9. Obstruction of the eruption pathway by peripheral odontogenic fibroma: report of a patient.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri; Marini, Ida; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Checchi, Luigi

    2008-02-01

    The diagnostic process and interdisciplinary treatment of a healthy 12-year-old boy with impactions due to a localized peripheral odontogenic fibroma are presented. The treatment consisted of the surgical excision of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma and interceptive orthodontic treatment with an activator appliance to allow the passive eruption of the impacted teeth. Complete orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was used later to level and coordinate the arches. This report illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of tooth impactions associated with diffuse gingival enlargement. The cooperation of various specialists in making a differential diagnosis, developing a comprehensive plan for conservative treatment, and delivering excellent care led to a successful result for this patient. PMID:18249298

  10. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-12-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  11. Dentigerous Cyst or Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: Clinical Radiological and Histopathological Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Shivesh; Goyal, Ashima; Rattan, Vidya; Vaiphei, Kim; Kaur Bhatia, Sarabjot

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a well-recognised slow growing benign tumor derived from complex system of dental lamina or its remnants. This lesion is categorised into three variants of which the more common variant is follicular type which is often mistaken for dentigerous cyst. We present a case of AOT in a 14-year-old male who was misdiagnosed as dentigerous cyst. Clinical radiological and therapeutic characteristics of the case are commented on in detail. PMID:25097553

  12. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago. PMID:24972654

  13. Evaluation and comparison of expression of p63 in odontogenic keratocyst, solid ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Varsha, BK; Gharat, A Leena; Nagamalini, BR; Jyothsna, M; Mothkur, Sahana T; Swaminathan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The behavior of odontogenic lesions varies with some tumors behaving like a cyst and some cysts behaving like tumors. p63, a member of the p53 family of tumor suppressor genes has recently come into light in view of its role as an oncogene. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of p63 protein in OKC, Solid ameloblastoma, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Follicular tissue. Materials and Methods: p63 expression was compared in 12 cases of OKC, 12 Solid Ameloblastoma, 14 cases of Unicystic ameloblastoma and 10 cases of Follicular tissue using immunohistochemical technique. All 48 cases were subjected to heat-induced antigen retrieval method using citrate buffer in a pressure cooker. Then the sections were stained with anti-p63 polyclonal antibody and visualized using super sensitive polymer HRP detection system. In each case, number of cells showing p63 positivity were assessed in two compartments - basal and suprabasal and compared. Results: Statistical analysis showed that p63 expression in the suprabasal compartment in Odontogenic keratocysts was equivalent to that of central neoplastic cells of Solid Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma type 3. Statistically significant difference in the expression of p63 was observed between OKC and Unicystic Ameloblastoma Type 1 and Solid Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma Type 1. Conclusion: We conclude that the higher expression of p63 in these odontogenic lesions correlates well with their aggressive behavior and thereby suggesting alterations in treatment modalities. PMID:25328303

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

  15. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et al. 2007. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 514 - 512. Hoeft, S.E, et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2741 - 2747. Oremland, R.S., et al. 2005. Science 308: 1305 - 1308. Kulp, T.R. et al. 2008. Science 321: 967 - 970.

  16. Paradoxical anaerobism in desert pupfish.

    PubMed

    Heuton, Matt; Ayala, Luis; Burg, Chris; Dayton, Kyle; McKenna, Ken; Morante, Aldo; Puentedura, Georgina; Urbina, Natasha; Hillyard, Stanley; Steinberg, Spencer; van Breukelen, Frank

    2015-12-01

    In order to estimate metabolic demands of desert pupfish for conservation purposes, we measured oxygen consumption in fish acclimated to the ecologically relevant temperatures of 28 or 33°C. For these experiments, we used fish derived from a refuge population of Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). Measurement of routine oxygen consumption (V?O2,routine) revealed some 33°C-acclimated fish (10% of 295 assayed fish) periodically exhibited periods of no measurable oxygen consumption despite available ambient oxygen tensions that were above the critical PO2 . We call this phenomenon paradoxical anaerobism. The longest observed continuous bout with no oxygen consumption was 149?min, although typical bouts were much shorter. Fish maintained normal posture and ventilation rate (>230 ventilations per minute) during paradoxical anaerobism. Fish rarely demonstrated a compensatory increase in oxygen use following a period of paradoxical anaerobism. In contrast, only one out of 262 sampled fish acclimated at 28°C spontaneously demonstrated paradoxical anaerobism. Muscle lactate concentration was not elevated during periods of paradoxical anaerobism. However, the amount of ethanol released by the 33°C-acclimated fish was 7.3 times greater than that released by the 28°C acclimation group, suggesting ethanol may be used as an alternative end product of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure to exogenous ethanol, in concentrations as low as 0.1%, produced periods of paradoxical anaerobism even in 28°C-acclimated fish. PMID:26632453

  17. Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory.

    PubMed

    Shabuer, Gulimila; Ishida, Keishi; Pidot, Sacha J; Roth, Martin; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Around 25% of vegetable food is lost worldwide because of infectious plant diseases, including microbe-induced decay of harvested crops. In wet seasons and under humid storage conditions, potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium puniceum). We found that these anaerobic plant pathogens harbor a gene locus (type II polyketide synthase) to produce unusual polyketide metabolites (clostrubins) with dual functions. The clostrubins, which act as antibiotics against other microbial plant pathogens, enable the anaerobic bacteria to survive an oxygen-rich plant environment. PMID:26542569

  18. A retrospective study of 21 cases of malignant odontogenic tumours from two tertiary health centres in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Akinyamoju, Akindayo Olufunto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant odontogenic tumours (MOTs) are relatively rare tmours and only few cases have been reported in the sub-Sahara African literature. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic distribution of malignant odontogenic tumours in two tertiary health centres based on the current WHO 2005 classification scheme. Methods We reviewed 21 malignant odontogenic tumours out of a total of 374 odontogenic tumours from two Tertiary Health Centres. Information regarding histology, location, patients age and gender for MOTs were analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results Twenty one (5.6%) MOTs out of a total of 374 odontogenic tumours were seen from the two institutions over the study period. The median age for MOTs was 42.0 (±19.0) years (range = 16-66 years). The male: female ratio was 2.5:1 and 85.7% occurred in the mandible. Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) with 13 (61.9%) cases was the most common MOT. AC had a mean age of 37.5 (±11.9) years. AC had a mandible: maxilla ratio of 5.5:1 with majority (84.6%) occurring in the posterior mandible. Conclusion This study showed that MOTs are rare lesions. AC was the most common MOT and majority of MOTs occurred in the posterior mandible of male patients. The study helps to better elucidate the demography of MOTs in sub-Sahara Africans. PMID:26185562

  19. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance. PMID:11148007

  20. Drug targets and mechanisms of resistance in the anaerobic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Upcroft, P; Upcroft, J A

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance. PMID:11148007

  1. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour of the Mandible: a case report of decompression with a customised removable tube and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Smit, R B; Moore, B K; Lou, S M Y

    2015-09-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT or KCOT) is defined by the WHO to be 'a benign uni- or multicystic, intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin'. In 2005, the World Health Organization renamed the lesion; previously known as an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) as the KCOT. WHO recommends the term KCOT as it reflects its neoplastic nature. In this case report, a 21-year-old female with a histologically proven large parakeratinised KCOT of the right mandible underwent treatment that involved a 14-month period of decompression, followed by enucleation (with Carnoys application) of the residual cyst. During the period of decompression, a custom made removable mandibular chrome-cobalt appliance was used to hold the decompression tube in the oral cavity. PMID:26502597

  2. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal-spatial visualization of bacteria. Methods used in this study can be applied to any cultivable anaerobe and any eukaryotic cell type. PMID:26709454

  3. Novel PTCH1 Mutations in Patients with Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Screened for Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Guarneri, Carmelo; Ghiorzo, Paola; Longo, Caterina; Bruno, William; Giusti, Francesca; Bassoli, Sara; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Ruini, Cristel; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic tumors that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, KCOTs of the jaws and a variety of other tumors. PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs. The aim of the current study was to assess whether a combined clinical and bio-molecular approach could be suitable for the detection of NBCCS among patients with a diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). The authors collected keratocystic odontogenic tumors recorded in the database of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia during the period 1991–2011. Through interviews and examinations, family pedigrees were drawn for all patients affected by these odontogenic lesions. We found out that 18 of the 70 patients with KCOTs and/or multiple basal cell carcinomas actually met the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of NBCCS. A wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was evident in the families. Ameloblastomas (AMLs) were reported in two probands that are also carriers of the PCTH1 germline mutations. Nine germline mutations in the PTCH1 gene, 5 of them novel, were evident in 14 tested probands. The clinical evaluation of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors can be used as screening for the detection of families at risk of NBCCS. Keratocystic odontogenic lesions are uncommon, and their discovery deserves the search for associated cutaneous basal cell carcinomas and other benign and malignant tumors related to NBCCS. PMID:22952776

  4. Study of immunohistochemical demonstration of Bcl-2 protein in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sindura, CS; Babu, Chaitanya; Mysorekar, Vijaya; Kumar, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma) gene product also known as apoptotic inhibitor is expressed in many normal and tumor tissues. This Bcl-2 gene protects the cell by blocking postmitotic differentiation from apoptosis, thus maintaining the stem cell pool. Objective: To study the expression of Bcl-2 protein in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) to determine their apoptotic behaviors and to analyze biological nature of KCOT, which has higher proliferative potential and aggressive clinical behavior like odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of ameloblastoma (n = 20) and KCOT (n = 20) are considered for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody against antihuman Bcl-2 oncoprotein. Lymphomas (n = 3) were used as controls. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was performed using software package of social science version 16. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Student's t test. In all the above tests, P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: The positive ratio of Bcl-2 was 85% (17/20) in ameloblastoma, 85% (17/20) in KCOT and 100% (3/3) in lymphomas. Bcl-2 was expressed in peripheral cells and few scattered cells of stellate reticulum in ameloblastoma. KCOT showed strong positivity for Bcl-2 mainly in the basal layer. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the aggressive nature of KCOT and intrinsic growth potential of its lining epithelium. This study clearly demonstrates that KCOT like ameloblastoma demonstrates aggressive clinical and noticeable invasive behavior. Therefore, it is now considered as no longer a developmental cyst but as odontogenic tumor. PMID:24250074

  5. Anaerobic digestion of woody biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Jerger, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Woody biomass without pretreatment is generally considered to be refractive to anaerobic decomposition. This refractory property is attributed to its low moisture content, crystalline nature of the cellulose, and complex association of the component carbohydrates with lignin. This study investigated the methane fermentation (anaerobic digestion) of various wood species using conventional anaerobic digestion and batch anaerobic biogasification potential assays. Most experiments were conducted at 35/sup 0/C with a particle size in the range of 1 to 2 mm, and with a full complement of inorganic nutrient supplements. Conventional CSTR semicontinuous feed anaerobic digestion resulted in low methane yields and low conversion (less than 5% organic reduction). Significantly higher conversion (as high as 54%) and higher methane yields (as high as 5.4 SCF/lb VS added) were observed for several hardwood species in ABP assays employing low loading and long residence times (60 days). One softwood (loblolly pine) and eucalyptus were refractory under these conditions. Pretreatments, including particle size reduction and NaOH, increased rates but not total conversion. These results demonstrate that woody biomass can be decomposed by the methane fermentation and support the potential for development of this process for commercial wood conversion applications. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma of the maxilla: a case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Elneel Ahmed Mohamed; karrar, Musadak Ali; El-Siddig, Abeer Abdalla; Gafer, Nahla; satir, Ali Abdel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a rare case of a Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) of a 21-year-old man with review of the literature. The patient was treated surgically, and one of the surgical margins was involved, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy for local control. Five months later, patient presented with infraorbital lesion which was proven histological to be GCOC. Radiological images, histological sections and clinical photographs are also presented. One year after the second surgery, the patient was tumor free. The only effective treatment modality was surgical removal. PMID:26523195

  7. Clinicopathological study of peripheral odontogenic fibromas (WHO-type) in Malaysians (1967-95).

    PubMed

    Siar, C H; Ng, K H

    2000-02-01

    Analysis of case records of 46 patients with peripheral odontogenic fibroma (1967-95) diagnosed in the Division of Stomatology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, disclosed a relatively young age of onset (mean, 32.2 years; range 5 months-64 years; peak incidence second decade of life), a slight female preponderance (M:F ratio 1:1.3), no racial predilection, a slight bias towards location in the mandible (52%) and a wide histomorphological range. All cases were treated by simple excision. Follow-up records were generally not available, so we do not know what the recurrence rate is. PMID:10783442

  8. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with a dilacerated maxillary central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Baliga, Vidya; Prasad, Umesh Chandra

    2011-10-01

    The authors report a case of a 16-year-old male with peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) in the anterior maxilla associated with dilaceration of a tooth in its vicinity. A solitary, exophytic and sessile growth was present between the maxillary right central and lateral incisors and extended from the labial mucosa to the palatal gingiva. A periapical radiograph of the maxillary right central incisor revealed a shortened and dilacerated root. The growth was excised and sent for histopathologic examination. A diagnosis of POF (World Health Organization type) was rendered. The clinical and microscopic features are discussed. PMID:23738522

  9. Treatment of odontogenic myxoma: a multidisciplinary approach-6-year follow-up case.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Gustavo Oliveira; Claus, Jonathas Daniel Paggi; Ouriques, Felipe Damerau; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Gil, José Nazareno; Cardoso, Antonio Carlos; Bianchini, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants. PMID:25580309

  10. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, João Gustavo Oliveira; Claus, Jonathas Daniel Paggi; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Gil, José Nazareno; Cardoso, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants. PMID:25580309

  11. Odontogenic tumours manifesting in the first two decades of life in a rural African population sample: a 26 year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mamabolo, M; Noffke, C; Raubenheimer, E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequencies and clinico-pathological features of odontogenic tumours affecting the jaw bones of patients in the first two decades of life and of rural and periurban African extract. Methods Files of patients younger than 20 years of age diagnosed over a period of 26 years with odontogenic tumours were retrieved and analysed for gender, site, tumour size and radiographic appearance. Results 33% of odontogenic tumours diagnosed in the population sample presented during the first 2 decades of life. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent benign tumour (43%) followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumour (19%) and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (10%). Four patients (1.6%) presented with ameloblastic carcinoma. Conclusions Owing to the unique population demographics of South Africa, odontogenic tumours in the first two decades of life comprise a larger percentage of the total number of cases than in other communities. The frequency of the different odontogenic tumour types generally follows the pattern of those reported in Africa, China and parts of South America. Radiographic examination is indispensable in establishing an accurate diagnosis. PMID:21831971

  12. ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic conditions predominate in contaminated aquifers and are not uncommon in noncontaminated areas. Comparatively little is known about degradative processes and nutrient cycling under anaerobic conditions. However, it is apparent these processes are fundamentally differen...

  13. Management of industrial pollutants by anaerobic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obayashi, A.W.; Gorgan, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this book, the management of industrial pollutants by anaerobic processes as an industrial waste management option is fully described. The document brings together information on current and potential anaerobic process applications.

  14. Expression of LAP, a SecA2-dependent secretory protein, is induced under anaerobic environment.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Kristin M; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Mishra, Krishna K; Medina, Sarimar; Hahm, Byoung-Kwon; Kim, Hyochin; Bhunia, Arun K

    2009-09-01

    Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), an alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase homolog (lmo1634) in Listeria monocytogenes, promotes bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Investigation of the effect of anaerobiosis, an intrinsic gastrointestinal condition, on LAP expression and LAP-mediated infection should elucidate its significance during intestinal infection. The influence of anaerobiosis on LAP expression was determined by growing L. monocytogenes wild type (WT), and lap-deficient (KB208) and -complemented (CKB208) strains anaerobically and monitoring LAP in secreted, cell wall, and whole-cell protein fractions. The effect of anaerobiosis on LAP-mediated infection was evaluated in cell culture adhesion assays and mouse infection models. Additionally, the role of secretory system SecA2 in LAP secretion was investigated. Anaerobic growth induced significant increases in level of lap transcript and protein secretion, and secretion was SecA2-dependent. Anaerobiosis facilitated greater LAP-mediated adhesion of L. monocytogenes to cultured intestinal cells. Oral administration of WT, KB208 and CKB208 to mice confirmed that LAP is essential for full virulence, and anaerobically-grown WT exhibited greater translocation to liver and spleen relative to aerobically-grown organisms. LAP, a SecA2-dependent secreted virulence factor, plays an important role during intestinal infection, particularly when L. monocytogenes is subjected to an anaerobic environment. PMID:19454322

  15. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  17. A prospective epidemiological study on odontogenic tumours in a black African population, with emphasis on the relative frequency of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oginni, F O; Stoelinga, P J W; Ajike, S A; Obuekwe, O N; Olokun, B Aluko; Adebola, R A; Adeyemo, W L; Fasola, O; Adesina, O A; Akinbami, B O; Iwegbu, I O; Ogunmuyiwa, S A; Obimakinde, O S; Uguru, C C

    2015-09-01

    The persistent view in the literature is that the relative frequency of ameloblastomas is higher in the black population than in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of all odontogenic tumours (OT) in a 100% black population and to compare our findings with those of previous studies. A prospective study was undertaken of all patients presenting with OT to all 16 Nigerian departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over a 4-year period. The following data were obtained: patient demographics, delay to presentation, extent of the lesion, and histological diagnosis. Six hundred and twenty-two cases were studied. A slight male preponderance was observed (male to female ratio 1.17:1). Patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the third decade. The relative frequency of OT was 0.99 per million and that of ameloblastoma was 0.76 per million. Ameloblastoma was the most prevalent OT (76.5%), followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (5.6%), odontogenic myxoma (4.5%), and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) (3.1%). The relative frequency of ameloblastoma among Nigerians was not different from frequencies reported previously among Caucasian and Tanzanian black populations. KCOTs were, however, rarely diagnosed in Nigerians as compared to the white population in the Western world. PMID:25937364

  18. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with clear langerhans cells: a novel variant, report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Afrogheh, Amir; Schneider, Johann; Mohamed, Noor; Hille, Jos

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CCEOT) is a rare variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT). While it is not surprising to find clear cells in odontogenic lesions, the exact nature of the clear cells in CCEOT has not been elucidated. Herein, we report a case of peripheral CCEOT of anterior mandible in a 37 year old black female. Histologically, the tumour consisted of cords and small nests of clear cells surrounded by dense deposits of amyloid and basophilic calcifications. The cells possessed abundant clear cytoplasm and eccentrically located indented nuclei. Admixed with the clear cells were eosinophilic cuboidal to polyhedral cells. The clear cells were PAS negative and immunoreactive for S100 protein, CD1a and Langerin. The clear cells were negative for MNF-116, SMA, Desmin and CK-19. It is therefore recommended to recognize two variants of CCEOT, namely, CEOT with clear cell change and CEOT with clear Langerhans cells (LC). We further suggest that the contradictory term "non-calcifying variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with LC" to be abandoned, as the current case clearly indicates that LC could be seen in CEOT irrespective of the presence or absence of calcifications. PMID:24037599

  19. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour and Variants of Ameloblastoma – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    R, Maya; B, Sekar; S, Murali; K, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a histopathologiocally and behaviourally unique and specific entity. It is the most aggressive and recurrent of all the cysts and shows characteristics resembling both cyst and a tumour. The unique nature of OKC and the recent shift of OKC as a tumour made us evaluate yet another factor, Inducible nitric oxide synthase an (iNos) enzyme which has been implicated in the tumourigenesis of various neoplasms. Aims and Objects: The objective of the study was to analyse and compare the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC’s) in variants of ameloblastoma affecting the oral cavity, to determine the neoplastic potential of OKC and to reinforce the classification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Materials and Methods: Thirty two specimens, eight specimens each in OKC, follicular ameloblastoma, plexiform ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma, taken from the Oral Pathology Department were randomly selected for this study and were evaluated for epithelial expression of iNOS by immunohistochemistry Results: Epithelial immunoreactivity to iNOS was strongly positive in 93.5% of follicular ameloblastomas, 68.7% of plexiform ameloblastomas, 66.9% of odontogenic keratocysts and 66.2% of unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusion: iNOS may be an important marker involved in the biological behaviour of OKC. Furthermore the presence of increased expression of iNOS in Follicular ameloblastomas followed by Plexiform ameloblastomas, OKCs and Unicystic ameloblastomas is yet another evidence to support that OKC could be considered as a neoplasm. PMID:25584300

  20. Vismodegib hedgehog-signaling inhibition and treatment of basal cell carcinomas as well as keratocystic odontogenic tumors in Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Booms, Patrick; Harth, Marc; Sader, Robert; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib hedgehog signaling inhibition treatment has potential for reducing the burden of multiple skin basal cell carcinomas and jaw keratocystic odontogenic tumors. They are major criteria for the diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome, also called nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Clinical features of Gorlin syndrome are reported, and the relevance of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition by oral vismodegib for maxillofacial surgeons is highlighted. In summary, progressed basal cell carcinoma lesions are virtually inoperable. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors have an aggressive behavior including rapid growth and extension into adjacent tissues. Interestingly, nearly complete regression of multiple Gorlin syndrome-associated keratocystic odontogenic tumors following treatment with vismodegib. Due to radio-hypersensitivity in Gorlin syndrome, avoidance of treatment by radiotherapy is strongly recommended for all affected individuals. Vismodegib can help in those instances where radiation is contra-indicated, or the lesions are inoperable. The effect of vismodegib on basal cell carcinomas was associated with a significant decrease in hedgehog-signaling and tumor proliferation. Vismodegib, a new and approved drug for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma, is a specific oncogene inhibitor. It also seems to be effective for treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors and basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome, rendering the surgical resections less challenging. PMID:26389028

  1. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: Predictive Factors of Recurrence by Ki-67 and AgNOR Labelling

    PubMed Central

    Selvi, Firat; Tekkesin, Merva Soluk; Cakarer, Sirmahan; Isler, S. Cemil; Keskin, Cengizhan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Ki-67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR) between the recurrent and nonrecurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). Another aim was to compare the correlation between these two markers. Materials and Methods: 22 KCOTs were evaluated retrospectively. The actual proliferative activity of the KCOT was measured by Ki-67 labelling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions AgNOR count per nucleus. Results: Recurrence occurred in 3 patients (13.6%) during the follow-up period (mean follow-up, 37.8 months) The Ki-67 and AgNOR counts were significantly higher in the recurrent lesions comparing to the non-recurrent lesions. (p=0,045; p=0,049) The correlation between Ki-67 and AgNOR counts was found to be positive (r=0,853 p=0,0001). Conclusion: Within the limit of the present study, it is thought that Ki-67 and AgNOR might be helpful as a prognostic marker for the recurrences of KCOTs. These markers reinforced the meaning of the new classification of the lesion as an odontogenic tumor. Enucleation with curettage or decompression following enucleation with curettage is a simple and appropriate surgical model for the treatment of KCOT despite the relative high recurrence rate. On the other hand, the conservative treatment can be chosen only if there is no coronoid invasion, no interruptive cortical lysis and no tissular invasion. PMID:22639545

  2. Metallothionein immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Aline-Cristina-Batista-Rodrigues; Caliari, Marcelo-Vidigal; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Aguiar, Maria-Cássia-Ferreira; Mesquita, Ricardo-Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the metallothionein (MT) immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT), to correlate MT with cellular proliferation, and to evaluate the influence of inflammation in MT. Material and Methods Fourteen cases of KOT were submitted to immunohistochemistry for MT and Ki-67 analysis. The lesions were grouped according to their grade of inflammation, and statistical analysis was performed. Results MT was higher in non-syndromic KOT than in syndromic KOT (p<0.05). No statistical difference in Ki-67 could be identified; however, an inverse correlation was observed between MT and Ki-67 in both lesions. When analysing inflammation, non-syndromic KOT showed no differences in either MT or Ki-67. Conclusions The MT immunophenotype of syndromic KOT was different from non-syndromic KOT. MT might not be involved in the proliferation control of both KOT. MT and Ki-67 immunoexpressions proved to be unaffected by inflammation in non-syndromic KOT. Key words: Odontogenic tumours, basal cell nevus syndrome, metallothionein, Ki-67 Antigen, immunohistoche-mistry. PMID:25858080

  3. Odontogenic fibroma WHO-type simulating periodontal disease: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma World Health Organization (WHO)-type (OFWT) is a rare lesion that has differential diagnosis with other radiolucent periapical lesions. It has a slow growth and is usually an asymptomatic lesion found in routine examinations. We report a case of a central OFWT occurring in the maxilla, for which the first symptom was teeth mobility, simulating a periodontal condition. A 54-year-old woman, with superior premolar mobility, was referred to our clinic. An oral examination showed teeth vitality and advanced periodontal disease. Radiography showed a unilocular radiolucent area between the left superior lateral incisor and first left molar, with bone reabsorption. The granulomatous tissue was removed and microscopic examination revealed cellular connective tissue with multiple islands of odontogenic epithelium, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, confirming the OFWT diagnosis. The central OFWT is a non-aggressive lesion, with rare recidivism. Biopsy is an important procedure for correct diagnosis and treatment, as some radiolucent lesions can lead to misdiagnosis. PMID:24744552

  4. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  5. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF TRIFLURALIN [ABSTRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dinitroaniline herbicides, such as trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine) persist in oxic terrestrial environments, yet are rapidly degraded under certain anaerobic conditions. We examined the roles of Fe(II) minerals and trifluralin bioavailability in fate of the her...

  6. Anaerobic Power and Muscle Strength in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Edwardo; Guttierrez-Teissoonniere, Suzanne; Conde, Jose G.; Baez-Cordova, Jose A.; Guzman-Villar, Brenda; Lopafegui-Corsino, Edgar; Frontera, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anaerobic power and muscle strength of preadolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Design Cross-sectional design. Setting Human performance laboratory at the University District Hospital at the Puerto Rico Medical Center. Participants Fifteen preadolescents (8 girls and 7 boys) with a classification of HIV A and B attending an investigational treatment program at the University Pediatric Hospital. Fifteen seronegative control subjects matched by age and gender also were included. Main Outcome Measures The power of the lower extremities was measured with use of the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test on a MONARK cycle ergometer (mean power in watts). Local muscle strength of the dominant knee extensors (peak torque/body weight × 100) was tested with an isokinetic dynamometer set at 60 deg/s. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and statistical significance was accepted at an ? level of <.05. Results No significant differences between the control group and study group were detected on muscle strength testing. The study group presented a lower anaerobic power (mean power) compared with control subjects (P = .04). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that HIV-infected preadolescents present lower anaerobic power compared with uninfected control subjects. Our findings of impaired anaerobic capacity can have clinical implications in this population because most of the activities of daily living, such as play, leisure, and sport activities, are short term and high intensity (anaerobic) in nature. PMID:22364955

  7. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the environment. PMID:26385434

  8. Anaerobic digestion of brewery byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, J.D.; Kormi, I.

    1981-01-01

    Energy recovery in the brewery industry by mesophilic anaerobic digesion of process by-products is technically feasible. The maximum achievable loading rate is 6g dry substrate/L-day. CH4 gas production declines as the loading rate increases in the range 2-6 g/L day. CH4 production increases in the range 8-15 days; optimal design criteria are a 10-day detention time with a loading rate of 6 g dry substrate/L day.

  9. Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Fraser, J.; Klepp, B.E.; Mueller, P.A.

    1987-11-01

    This project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of wastewater dilution, GAC (granular activated carbon) replacement rate, GAC particle size, operating temperature, and reactor configuration on the treatment of coal gasification wastewater with the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic bioreactor. Coal gasification wastewater used was generated in a low BTU, elevated pressure, stirred fixed-bed, gasifier operated by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The treatability of another wastewater generated in a full-scale, slagging fixed-bed modification of a conventional dry-ash, pressurized gasifier located at the Great Plains gasification Association (GPGA) facility in North Dakota was also evaluated. Full-strength METC wastewater was found to be effectively treated at chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates as high as 19.4 g/kg GAC-day. At this rate, an excess of 50% of the applied COD was converted to methane, and a carbon utilization rate of 10 g GAC per liter of wastewater treated was employed. At these operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies across the treatment system exceeded 95%. Good COD removal and efficient COD conversion to methane were attainable at loading rates exceeding 70 g COD/kg GAC-day. Wastewater generated at the GPGA facility was found to be treatable at full-strength in the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor at COD loading rates as high as 48 g COD/kg GAC-day. COD removal efficiencies at this loading rate exceeded 90%. Coal gasification wastewater was found to resist treatment under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. The thermophilic expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor affected very poor conversion efficiencies of phenol, even when fed a synthetically prepared phenol bearing wastewater. 29 refs., 77 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Fibroblasts Regulate Variable Aggressiveness of Syndromic Keratocystic and Non-syndromic Odontogenic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Yu, F.-Y.; Qu, J.-F.; Chen, F.; Li, T.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are jaw lesions that can be either sporadic or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, which typically occurs as multiple, aggressive lesions that can lead to large areas of bone destruction and resorption and cause major impairment and even jaw fracture. To clarify the role of fibroblasts in the aggressivness of syndromic (S-) as compared with non-syndromic (NS-) KCOTs, we assessed fibroblasts derived from 16 S- and NS-KCOTs for differences in cell proliferation, multilineage differentiation potential, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteoclastogenic potential. S-KCOT fibroblasts had proliferative and osteoclastogenic capacity higher than those from NS-KCOTs, as evidenced by higher numbers of tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase-positive multinuclear cells, expression of cyclooxygenase 2, and ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor–kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin. The osteogenic potential was higher for S- than for NS-KCOT fibroblasts and was associated with lower mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type I ?1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin as well as reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggest that the distinct characteristics of fibroblasts in KCOTs are responsible for the greater aggressiveness observed in the syndromic subtype. Abbreviations: AP, alkaline phosphatase; CK, cytokeratin; COL1A1, collagen type I ?1; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL-1?, interleukin 1?; KCOT, keratocystic odontogenic tumor; NBCCS, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; NS-KCOT, non-syndrome-associated KCOT; OCN, osteocalcin; OPG, osteoprotegerin; OPN, osteopontin; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand; Runx2, runt-related transcription factor 2; S-KCOT, syndrome-associated KCOT; TAF, tumor-associated fibroblast; and TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. PMID:24972872

  11. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: 1. ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED. 2. ANFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses two developing technologies for the treatment of municipal wastewaters. These technologies are anaerobic fluidized bed systems and an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor (ANFLOW). The report discusses: available laboratory data on system performance; fluidized b...

  12. Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Heider, J; Fuchs, G

    1997-02-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of low-molecular-mass natural compounds (amino acids, quinones, flavonoids, etc.) and biopolymers (lignin, melanin). They are almost exclusively degraded by microorganisms. Aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterised by the extensive use of molecular oxygen. Monoxygenases and dioxygenases are essential for the hydroxylation and cleavage of aromatic ring structures. Accordingly, the characteristic central intermediates of the aerobic pathways (e.g. catechol) are readily attacked oxidatively. Anaerobic aromatic catabolism requires, of necessity, a quite different strategy. The basic features of this metabolism have emerged from studies on bacteria that degrade soluble aromatic substrates to CO2 in the complete absence of molecular oxygen. Essential to anaerobic aromatic metabolism is the replacement of all the oxygen-dependent steps by an alternative set of novel reactions and the formation of different central intermediates (e.g. benzoyl-CoA) for breaking the aromaticity and cleaving the ring; notably, in anaerobic pathways, the aromatic ring is reduced rather than oxidised. The two-electron reduction of benzoyl-CoA to a cyclic diene requires the cleavage of two molecules of ATP to ADP and P1 and is catalysed by benzoyl-CoA reductase. After nitrogenase, this is the second enzyme known which overcomes the high activation energy required for reduction of a chemically stable bond by coupling electron transfer to the hydrolysis of ATP. The alicyclic product cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA is oxidised to acetyl-CoA via a modified beta-oxidation pathway; the ring structure is opened hydrolytically. Some phenolic compounds are anaerobically transformed to resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) or phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene). These intermediates are also first reduced and then as alicyclic products oxidised to acetyl-CoA. This review gives an outline of the anaerobic pathways which allow bacteria to utilize aromatics even in the absence of oxygen. We focus on previously unknown reactions and on the enzymes characteristic for such novel metabolism. PMID:9057820

  13. In vitro osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Durante, Sandra; Mazzotti, Antonio; Dicarlo, Manuela; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering. PMID:26578970

  14. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the Mediterranean French coast in the Rhone Delta, is also described. PMID:8177169

  15. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  16. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  17. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  18. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  19. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  20. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  1. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Assessment of anaerobic benzene degradation

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Assessment of anaerobic benzene degradation potential using 16S rRNA gene Engineering, Rice University, MS 317, Houston, TX 77251-1892, USA. Summary Benzene is a common groundwater-contaminated aquifers. Thus, determining the potential for anaerobic benzene deg- radation is important to assess

  2. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion. PMID:25457225

  3. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal decarboxylation. The microbial consortia will be developed using a fermentor system first under batch and then in a continuous system. The main objectives for this quarter were to develop microbial consortia that would decarboxylate coal and isolate potential anaerobic microorganisms with decarboxylating, ability from these enriched microbial consortia, to continue to compare the known cultures with reward to their ability to decarboxylate coal, and to characterize the anaerobically biotreated coal using FTIR to confirm decarboxylation of coal. Significant achievements during the period include: coal decarboxylation was possible only under anaerobic conditions. microbial consortia that can anaerobically decarboxylate coal have been developed using anaerobic vials and batch fermentor system, and loss of carboxyl groups in biotreated coal has been confirmed by FT-IR.

  4. Anaerobic digestion for household organics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

  5. Vitamin B12-Mediated Restoration of Defective Anaerobic Growth Leads to Reduced Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Go, Junhyeok; Yoon, Mi Young; Park, Yongjin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yong, Dong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes cell elongation and forms robust biofilms during anaerobic respiratory growth using nitrate (NO3?) as an alternative electron acceptor. Understanding the mechanism of cell shape change induced upon anaerobiosis is crucial to the development of effective treatments against P. aeruginosa biofilm infection. Here, we uncovered the molecular basis of anaerobiosis-triggered cell elongation and identified vitamin B12 to be a molecule that can reinstate defective anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. The ratio of total cellular DNA content to protein content was significantly decreased in the PAO1 strain grown under anaerobic conditions, indicating that DNA replication is impaired during anaerobic growth. Anaerobic growth of PAO1 reached a higher cell density in the presence of vitamin B12, an essential coenzyme of class II ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, cell morphology returned to a normal rod shape and transcription of stress-response genes was downregulated under the same anaerobic growth conditions. These results suggest that vitamin B12, the production of which was suppressed during anaerobic growth, can restore cellular machineries for DNA replication and therefore facilitate better anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa with normal cell division. Importantly, biofilm formation was substantially decreased when grown with vitamin B12, further demonstrating that anaerobiosis-induced cell elongation is responsible for robust biofilm formation. Taken together, our data reveal mechanistic details of a morphological change that naturally occurs during anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and illustrates the ability of vitamin B12 to modulate the biofilm-forming capacity of P. aeruginosa under such condition. PMID:22371376

  6. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  7. Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay

    2015-02-01

    Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

  8. Recurrent squamous odontogenic tumor: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, BARBARA; WINTER, JOCHEN; WAHL, GERHARD; JANSKA, EMILIA

    2015-01-01

    Squamous odontogenic tumors (SOTs) are benign, locally infiltrative neoplasms that localize to the periodontium. In total, <50 cases have been reported since the first description of SOTs in 1975. Although the exact etiology of SOTs is unknown, the tumors are considered to derive from the epithelial cell rests of Malassez. SOTs are characterized by radiological and clinical signs and symptoms, including pain with increased sensitivity in the affected area, bone expansion and increased tooth mobility. The present study describes the case of a patient that experienced numerous SOT recurrences and also discusses recommendations for treatment. A locally invasive mandibular SOT was identified in a Caucasian 41-year-old female patient. The treatment involved recommended conservative surgery, including local curettage. In addition, 49 cases published in the literature were reviewed to assess the treatment strategies. The present patient experienced two recurrences of the tumor during the 6-year follow-up period. Ultimately, the vitality of the adjacent teeth was compromised. An apicoectomy with a small amount of resection of the marginal bone was necessary. In >50% of the reported cases of SOT in the literature the adjacent teeth were extracted. The present case of SOT and the associated literature were also discussed. It was concluded that the treatment of choice appears to be a conservative surgical removal, but the successful management of SOTs often requires the removal of the adjacent teeth. PMID:26722231

  9. Vitamin D Promotes Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells via ERK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Su-Mi; Lim, Hae-Soon; Jeong, Kyung-Yi; Kim, Seon-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D such as 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known key regulatory factor in bone metabolism. However, little is known about the potential of vitamin D as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 metabolite, 1?,25(OH)2D3, on odontoblastic differentiation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from maxillary supernumerary incisors and third molars were directly cultured with 1?,25(OH)2D3 in the absence of differentiation-inducing factors. Treatment of HDPCs with 1?,25(OH)2D3 at a concentration of 10 nM or 100 nM significantly upregulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein1 (DMP1), the odontogenesis-related genes. Also, 1?,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in HDPCs. In addition, 1?,25(OH)2D3 induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), whereas the ERK inhibitor U0126 ameliorated the upregulation of DSPP and DMP1 and reduced the mineralization enhanced by 1?,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrated that 1?,25(OH)2D3 promoted odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via modulating ERK activation. PMID:26062551

  10. M2-polarized macrophages in keratocystic odontogenic tumor: relation to tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wen-Qun; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Xue-Peng; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of M2-polarized macrophages and their relationships to angiogenesis in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). M2-polarized macrophages were detected in KCOT samples by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Meanwhile, microvessel density measured with antibody against CD31 was closely correlated with the presence of M2-polarized macrophages. In addition, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) significantly contributed to the activation of M2-polarized macrophages. Moreover, the results of in vitro wound healing, cell migration and tube formation assays further revealed the pro-angiogenic function of M2-polarized macrophage-like cells. This function might be associated with secretion of angiogenic cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9). This study demonstrates for the first time that M2-polarized macrophages are prevalent in KCOT, and their presence is dependent on M-CSF expression. More importantly, these tumor-supportive cells can also promote tumor angiogenesis by secreting angiogenic cytokines. PMID:26508096

  11. Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

  12. The relationship between radiological features and clinical manifestation and dental expenses of keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yi, Won-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to identify correlations between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) data from CT sections, and data on the KCOT clinical manifestation and resulting dental expenses. Materials and Methods Following local Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a seven-years of retrospective study was performed regarding patients with KCOTs treated at the Seoul National University Dental Hospital. A total of 180 KCOT were included in this study. The following information was collected: age, gender, location and size of the lesion, radiological features, surgical treatment provided and dental expenses. Results There was no significant association between the size of the KCOT and age, gender, and presenting preoperative symptoms. In both jaws, it was unusual to find KCOTs under 10 mm. The correlation between the number of teeth removed and the size of the KCOT in the tooth bearing area was statistically significant in the mandible, whereas in the maxilla, no significant relationship was found. Dental expenses compared with the size of the KCOT were found to be significant in both jaws. Conclusion The size of KCOT was associated with a significant increase in dental expenses for both jaws and the number of teeth removed from the mandible. These findings emphasize the importance of routine examinations and early detection of lesions, which in turn helps preserving anatomical structures and reducing dental expenses. PMID:23807932

  13. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78-year-old female: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Moon-Ki; Choi, Eun-Joo; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features. PMID:25279347

  14. A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  15. Disruption of Smad4 in Odontoblasts Causes Multiple Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors and Tooth Malformation in Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuanrong; Yang, Guan; Weng, Tujun; Du, Juan; Wang, Xuejiu; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Songlin; Yang, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic epithelial neoplasias with a high recurrence rate. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of KCOTs are still largely unknown. Here, we show that specific ablation of Smad4 in odontoblasts unexpectedly resulted in spontaneous KCOTs in mice. The mutant mice exhibited malformed teeth characterized by fractured incisors and truncated molar roots. These abnormalities were mainly caused by disrupted odontoblast differentiation that led to irregular dentin formation. The cystic tumors arising from the reactivation of epithelial rests of Malassez (ERM), in which Smad4 remained intact, proliferated and formed stratified and differentiated squamous epithelia that exhibited a dramatic upregulation of Hedgehog signaling. Odontoblasts, which are responsive to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals, may produce signal molecules to inhibit the activation of ERM. Indeed, we observed a downregulation of BMP signals from Smad4 mutant odontoblasts to the adjacent Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). Intriguingly, KCOTs frequently emerged from Smad4-deficient ERM in keratinocyte-specific Smad4 knockout mice, suggesting a novel mechanism in which reciprocal TGF-?/BMP signaling between odontoblasts and HERS was required for tooth root development and suppression of KCOT formation. These findings provide insight into the genetic basis underlying KCOTs and have important implications for new directions in KCOT treatment. PMID:19703995

  16. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma in a Taiwan chinese population: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Tzu; Chuang, Fu-Hsiung; Chen, Jeng-Huey; Chen, Chun-Ming; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

    2008-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of 25 cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma (World Health Organization type) (PODF [WHO-type]) in a Taiwan Chinese population was performed at a single institution. The clinical findings, which included a wide age distribution, a female preponderance and no racial predilection, were consistent with those of previous case series reports; however, a slight preference for location in the maxilla was found in the current case series. It is noteworthy that one particularly sizable lesion was identified in a 30-year-old Chinese female who presented with a swollen mass in the right mandible that had been present for about 2 years. Intraoral examination revealed an exophytic firm mass that measured 4.5 x 4 cm, located over the right mandibular edentulous ridge from the second premolar to the second molar area. Both panoramic radiography and computerized tomography revealed multiple radiopacities within the tumor. In conclusion, the analysis of clinical data in the current case series of PODFs (WHO-type) occurring in Taiwan Chinese mostly corroborates other reports; however, an unusually large mandible lesion was noted, indicative of the apparent size that such tumors can reach unless they are surgically removed at an early stage. PMID:18926955

  17. The use of vismodegib to shrink keratocystic odontogenic tumors in basal cell nevus syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Mina S.; Tang, Jean Y.; Joseph, Timmy; Thompson, Bobbye; Lindgren, Joselyn; Raphael, Maria Acosta; Ulerio, Grace; Chanana, Anita M.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M.; Bickers, David R.; Epstein, Ervin H

    2014-01-01

    Importance Keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the jaw (KCOTs) affect more than 65% of patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Surgery frequently causes facial disfigurement and is not always curative. Most BCNS-related and some sporadic KCOTs have malignant activation of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Observations We examined the effect of vismodegib (an oral HH-pathway inhibitor) on KCOT size in BCNS patients enrolled in a clinical trial testing vismodegib for BCC prevention (NCT00957229), using pre and post-treatment MRIs. Four men and 2 women had pretreatment KCOTs, mean longest diameter 2.0cm (range: 0.7–3.3cm), occurring primarily in the mandible. Subjects were treated with vismodegib (150mg/day) for a mean 18 months (SD: 4.8, range: 11–24). Four subjects experienced a size reduction and 2 had no change. Vismodegib reduced the mean longest diameter of KCOTs in all subjects by 1.0cm (95% CI: 0.03, 1.94, p= 0.02) or 50% from baseline. We observed no enlargement of existing KCOTs or new KCOT development. Conclusions and relevance Vismodegib shrinks some KCOTs in BCNS patients and may offer an alternative to surgical therapy. These effects were maintained for at least 9 months after drug cessation in 1 patient. Further studies assessing long-term efficacy and optimal maintenance regimens should be performed. PMID:24623282

  18. Early dental epithelial transcription factors distinguish ameloblastoma from keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, K; Kurppa, K J; Laiho, A; Peltonen, S; Berdal, A; Bouattour, A; Ruhin, B; Catón, J; Thesleff, I; Leivo, I; Morgan, P R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the molecular relationship between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) by means of a genome-wide expression analysis. Total RNA from 27 fresh tumor samples of 15 solid/multicystic intraosseous ameloblastomas and 12 sporadic KCOTs was hybridized on Affymetrix whole genome arrays. Hierarchical clustering separated ameloblastomas and KCOTs into 2 distinct groups. The gene set enrichment analysis based on 303 dental genes showed a similar separation of ameloblastomas and KCOTs. Early dental epithelial markers PITX2, MSX2, DLX2, RUNX1, and ISL1 were differentially overexpressed in ameloblastoma, indicating its dental identity. Also, PTHLH, a hormone involved in tooth eruption and invasive growth, was one of the most differentially upregulated genes in ameloblastoma. The most differentially overexpressed genes in KCOT were squamous epithelial differentiation markers SPRR1A, KRTDAP, and KRT4, as well as DSG1, a component of desmosomal cell-cell junctions. Additonally, the epithelial stem cell marker SOX2 was significantly upregulated in KCOT when compared with ameloblastoma. Taken together, the gene expression profile of ameloblastoma reflects differentiation from dental lamina toward the cap/bell stage of tooth development, as indicated by dental epithelium-specific transcription factors. In contrast, gene expression of KCOT indicates differentiation toward keratinocytes. PMID:25398365

  19. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78-year-old female: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Moon-Ki; Choi, Eun-Joo; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features. PMID:25279347

  20. Biochemically enhanced hybrid anaerobic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, E.L.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for treatment of highly contaminated industrial waste waters, comprising: introducing influent wastewater into a lower suspended growth zone of a digestion vessel wherein anaerobic digestion commences; receiving up-flow of digestion product through a middle fixed film zone of the digestion vessel to effect solids/liquids/gas separation; drawing off waste solids from the floor of the digester vessel at a predetermined rate of removal; receiving liquids/gas up-flow through an upper quiescent zone of the digestion vessel; drawing off treated effluent from said quiescent zone; selecting a portion of treated effluent for conduction via recycle line back to said point of introduction for mixture with said influent wastewater; and injecting selected ones of plural process enhancement chemicals in predetermined amounts into said recycle line, which plurality includes preselected amounts of Mg(OH)[sub 2] and iron chloride to effect cleaning of the biogas.

  1. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion. PMID:26337848

  2. Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

  3. Gonococcal nitric oxide reductase is encoded by a single gene, norB, which is required for anaerobic growth and is induced by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Householder, T C; Fozo, E M; Cardinale, J A; Clark, V L

    2000-09-01

    The gene encoding a nitric oxide reductase has been identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The norB gene product shares significant identity with the nitric oxide reductases in Ralstonia eutropha and Synechocystis sp. and, like those organisms, the gonococcus lacks a norC homolog. The gonococcal norB gene was found to be required for anaerobic growth, but the absence of norB did not dramatically decrease anaerobic survival. In a wild-type background, induction of norB expression was seen anaerobically in the presence of nitrite but not anaerobically without nitrite or aerobically. norB expression is not regulated by FNR or NarP, but a functional aniA gene (which encodes an anaerobically induced outer membrane nitrite reductase) is necessary for expression. When aniA is constitutively expressed, norB expression can be induced both anaerobically and aerobically, but only in the presence of nitrite, suggesting that nitric oxide, which is likely to be produced by AniA as a product of nitrite reduction, is the inducing agent. This was confirmed with the use of the nitric oxide donor, spermine-nitric oxide complex, in an aniA null background both anaerobically and aerobically. NorB is important for gonococcal adaptation to an anaerobic environment, a physiologically relevant state during gonococcal infection. The presence of this enzyme, which is induced by nitric oxide, may also have implications in immune evasion and immunomodulation in the human host. PMID:10948150

  4. ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an international conference, microbiologists from five countries presented results of research into the anaerobic dehalogenation of compounds of environmental interest being performed at selected universities, government agencies, and private companies. he conference, held fro...

  5. Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion

    E-print Network

    Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

  6. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  7. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  8. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  9. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Lainoff, Alexis J.; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  10. Glandular odontogenic cyst – Literature review and report of a paediatric case

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Ansar; Ansari, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an extremely rare lesion occurring in the jawbones. The present paper is a review of 181 cases of GOCs reported in English literature, since it was first reported by Padayache and Van Wyk in 1987. Mandible was involved in 130 cases and maxilla in 51 cases. Anterior mandible was the most common area of involvement. Radiographic appearance was that of a unilocular radiolucency in 98 of 176 reported cases. Rest presented as multilocular radiolucency. Cortical expansion was observed in 136 of the 180 reported cases while cortex breach or perforation was seen in 81 cases. The treatment of choice was that of minor procedures that included enucleation with or without curettage, peripheral ostectomy, cryotherapy, etc. in 157 of the total 177 reported cases. Marginal jaw resection, segmental mandibulectomy etc. was reported in 20 cases. Although minor surgical procedures were the treatment of choice in most studies, two major studies of Kaplan et al. and Fowler et al. involving 111 and 46 cases, recorded a recurrence rate of 35.9 and 19.6%, respectively. The age range was between 11 and 82 years. The respective mean age of patients in the above mentioned studies was 45.7 for Kaplan's and 51 years for Fowler's whereas in our study, the mean age was 45.9 years. Very rarely does GOC presents itself in a paediatric patient. The paper also reports a case of an 11-year-old child whose histopathogy came out to be a case of a GOC. PMID:26587384

  11. Critical evaluation of the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Becker, T; Buchner, A; Kaffe, I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOTs). Methods A total of 272 cases (267 from the English-language literature and 5 new cases) were analysed with special emphasis on their radiological features. Results The patients' ages at time of diagnosis ranged from 3 years to 82 years (mean 18.4 years). The maxilla-to-mandible ratio was 1.7:1. Mandibular lesions were significantly more frequent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.032). Expansion of the cortex was significantly more prominent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.045). There was a positive correlation between the size of the lesion and the age of the patient at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.016). The size was also associated with increased root resorption (p < 0.001), ill-defined borders (p < 0.001), expansion (p < 0.001) and perforation of the cortex (p < 0.001). Small opacities were present in 77% of lesions and were associated with expansion of the cortex (p = 0.043). The significant radiological features in patients aged 30 years and above were root resorption (p = 0.013) and lesions crossing the midline (p = 0.019). Conclusions The size of an AOT is influenced by the patient's age. It is also associated with root resorption, ill-defined borders, expansion and perforation of the cortex, but it cannot be ruled out that those changes reflect a longer duration of the lesion. PMID:22752319

  12. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lainoff, Alexis J; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2015-05-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  13. General method for determining anaerobic biodegradation potential.

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, D R; Tiedje, J M

    1984-01-01

    A simple, generalized method was refined and validated to test whether an organic chemical was susceptible to anaerobic degradation to CH4 + CO2. The method used digested sewage sludge diluted to 10% and incubated anaerobically in 160-ml serum bottles with 50 micrograms of C per ml of test chemical. Biodegradation was determined by the net increase in gas pressure in bottles with test chemicals over the pressure in nonamended sludge bottles. Gas production was measured by gas chromatography and by a pressure transducer. The latter method is recommended because of its speed, accuracy, and low cost. Sewage sludge from municipal digesters with 15- to 30-day retention times was found to be suitable. The sludge could be stored anaerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 4 weeks with satisfactory test results. p-Cresol, phthalic acid, and ethanol are suggested as reference chemicals to confirm sludge activity and method reliability. A revised anaerobic salts medium was developed which minimizes problems of a biological gas production (CO2), avoids precipitation, and meets the requirements of the anaerobic microbiota. When greater than 75% of the theoretical gas production was observed, the chemical was judged to be degradable, and when 30 to 75% of the expected gas was produced, it was termed partially degradable. This method has been tested on more than 100 chemicals of various physical properties and found to reproducibly determine anaerobic biodegradation potential. Of the chemicals tested, 46 were found to be anaerobically degraded. Sludges from nine different municipal treatment plants were surveyed for their ability to degrade nine chemicals which differed in susceptibility to degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:6721493

  14. Importance of Different Modalities of Treatment For the Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Five year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, Vijay; Ramalingam, Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumors is a benign but one of most aggressive developmental cyst with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features and high recurrence rate. In the given study, authors have studied and presented their experience of managing Keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The aim of the study was to define an appropriate treatment protocol for the management of KCOT. Materials and Methods: Total 8 patients, whose histopathological reports confirmed Gorlin – Goltz syndrome and KCOT, with age between 10 – 50 years, were selected from cases being treated at Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, India. Enucleation and resection were the surgical techniques employed. Modality of treatment was based on parameters like age , size, aggressiveness and extent of the lesion. All the patients were operated under general anaesthesia. Cases were studied, reviewed and followed up for five years between 2007-2012. Results: The study included 8 cases in which three cases were opted for resection and five cases for enucleation followed by application of Carnoy’s solution. Conclusion: Treatment modality should be decided on age, extent, aggressiveness and nature of the tumour. PMID:24783143

  15. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes Anaerobic process type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Anaerobic sludge digester;...

  16. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes Anaerobic process type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Anaerobic sludge digester;...

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  18. Anaerobic protocol for assessing industrial waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.C.; Khandaker, N.R.

    1996-11-01

    Recent promulgation of strict standards for industrial waste pretreatment has greatly increased the number of wastewaters that are candidates for anaerobic treatment. The challenge with industrial wastes is to determine the potential for anaerobic biodegradation prior to investing large amounts of time and expense in design and field investigation. Various methods have been used to assess the treatability of industrial wastewaters, but the methodology has varied significantly. In response to the need for a consistent procedure for determining the treatability of different industrial wastewaters by anaerobic processes, Young developed an anaerobic treatability screening protocol. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol and to report a number of case studies in which the test protocol was used to determine the feasibility of using anaerobic processes for treating specific industrial wastes. Specific examples include food processing wastes, chemical production wastes, petroleum wastes, and landfill leachate. Treatability was based on assessment of the rate and extent of biodegradation, identification of the presence of toxic substances, and dilution effects.

  19. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-06-01

    It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection. PMID:23805543

  20. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chlamydia can infect the urinary tract. In women, infection of the reproductive system can lead to pelvic ... Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. In men, chlamydia can ...

  1. Meningococcal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the ... also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis. Meningococcal infections can spread from person ...

  2. Wingate Anaerobic Test peak power and anaerobic capacity classifications for men and women intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Michael F; Arata, Alan W; Dawson, Letitia H; Wile, Alfred L; Payn, Tamara L; Hannon, Megan E

    2009-12-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) has been established as an effective tool in measuring both muscular power and anaerobic capacity in a 30-second time period; however, there are no published normative tables by which to compare WAnT performance in men and women intercollegiate athletics. The purpose of this study was to develop a classification system for anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity for men and women National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes using the WAnT. A total of 1,585 (1,374 men and 211 women) tests were conducted on athletes ranging from the ages of 18 to 25 years using the WAnT. Absolute and relative peak power and anaerobic capacity data were recorded. One-half standard deviations were used to set up a 7-tier classification system (poor to elite) for these assessments. These classifications can be used by athletes, coaches, and practitioners to evaluate anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity in their athletes. PMID:19910814

  3. Submerged filter biotreatment of hazardous leachate in aerobic, anaerobic, and anaerobic/aerobic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of an industrial hazardous waste landfill leachate was evaluated in bench scale biofilm reactor systems operated under steady-and non-steady-state conditions. The leachate contained volatile and semi-volatile organics that exceeded the best-demonstrated-available-technology (BDAT) standard established for multi-source leachate wastewater under the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The influent leachate stream was continuously applied to three parallel systems: (1) an upflow anaerobic filter followed by a submerged aerobic filter, both plastic packing, (2) an anaerobic granular activated carbon column, and (3) an upflow, plastic packed aerobic filter. All systems achieved steady-state COD removals of 66-82 percent. The sequential anaerobic/aerobic filter system was most resistant to hydraulic and organic shock loading, whereas the aerobic filter performance deteriorated significantly. Though transformations of specific chemical compounds were achieved in both anaerobic and aerobic treatment, the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system was cost effective for meeting BDAT standards for hazardous organics. 25 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  5. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  6. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  7. Comparative in vitro activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rylander, M; Nord, C E; Norrby, S R

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 against 229 aerobic and 330 anaerobic clinical isolates was determined using the agar dilution technique. For comparison, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, erythromycin and metronidazole (only anaerobic bacteria) were tested. Bay v 3522 was found to have high activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens and fusobacteria. When tested against a higher inoculum or using the broth dilution technique, the activity of Bay v 3522 showed little dependence on inoculum size and the bactericidal activity was similar to inhibitory activity in most bacterial groups. Bay v 3522 may be useful in the treatment of skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections. Clinical studies are thus warranted. PMID:2261923

  8. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge.

  9. Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    E-print Network

    Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion Sudeep C Thermophilic anaerobic digestion Pathogen inactivation Ascaris suum Helminth eggs Poliovirus Enteric viruses a b s t r a c t Thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion is a promising process to divert waste

  10. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation: an alternative to soil fumigation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil disinfestation methods using anaerobic decomposition of organic matter were developed in the Netherlands and Japan as an ecological alternative to MeBr. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) works by creating a combination of anaerobic soil conditions and readily available carbon pools to stimula...

  11. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  12. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment T.G. Muuller a,*, N how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment identifiability; Confidence intervals; Waste water treatment processes 1. Introduction Anaerobic waste water

  13. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  14. Clostridial Infections in Children: Spectrum and Management.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2015-11-01

    Clostridia can cause unique histotoxic syndromes produced by specific toxins (e.g., gas gangrene and food poisoning) as well as non-syndromic infections (e.g., abscess, local infections, and blood born infection). Clostridia can also be recovered from various body sites as part of polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic infection. These include intra-abdominal (peritonitis and abscess), biliary tract, female genital tract, abscess (rectal area and oropharyngeal), pleuropulmonary, central nervous system, and skin and soft-tissue infections. Clostridia were recovered from children with bacteremia of gastrointestinal origin, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sickle cell disease. They have also been isolated in acute and chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis and mastoiditis, peritonsillar abscesses, and neonatal conjunctivitis. Early and aggressive surgical debridement, decompression, and drainage of affected tissues are critical to successful outcome of histotoxic infections. Effective antimicrobials include penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and vancomycin. PMID:26431956

  15. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  16. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion with the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  17. Methanosaeta fibers in anaerobic migrating blanket reactors

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    . Immobilization of biomass without a carrier material was first observed in UASB reactors as the formation of dense, spherical biofilms, called granules. Granules consist of conglomerates of anaerobic carrier material has become obvious for a variety of reasons. For example, non- compartmentalized reactors

  18. Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...

  19. Comparing Two Different Types of Anaerobic Copper

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Comparing Two Different Types of Anaerobic Copper Biocorrosion by Sulfate- and Nitrate MIC mechanisms of copper by sulfate-re- ducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria. It is said of elemental metal such as elemental iron (Fell), Microbes such as sulfate-reducing bacLeria (SRn) utilize Fell

  20. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

  1. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  2. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Stams, Alfons J M; de Bok, Frank A M; Plugge, Caroline M; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Dolfing, Jan; Schraa, Gosse

    2006-03-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- and manganese-oxide as well as inert graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells, also transfer electrons exocellularly. Soluble compounds, like humic substances, quinones, phenazines and riboflavin, can function as exocellular electron mediators enhancing this type of anaerobic respiration. However, direct electron transfer by cell-cell contact is important as well. This review addresses the mechanisms of exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities. There are fundamental differences but also similarities between electron transfer to another microorganism or to an insoluble electron acceptor. The physical separation of the electron donor and electron acceptor metabolism allows energy conservation in compounds as methane and hydrogen or as electricity. Furthermore, this separation is essential in the donation or acceptance of electrons in some environmental technological processes, e.g. soil remediation, wastewater purification and corrosion. PMID:16478444

  3. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  4. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  5. Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism Aerobic = oxidative metabolism

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism · Aerobic = oxidative metabolism ­ 1 mol glucose CO2 and H20, 36 are disrupted · All activity in vertebrates is aerobic ­ anaerobiosis in vertebrates is just aerobiosis and velocity (F9.9) From McNab 2002. #12;Locomotion in Reptiles · Aerobic scope appears to vary among taxa

  6. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to PD 131628.

    PubMed

    Nord, C E; Hagelbäck, A

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PD 131628 against anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides spp. and fusobacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. This activity was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol. PD 131628, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were the most active agents tested. PMID:1314176

  7. Enucleation of large keratocystic odontogenic tumor at mandible via unilateral sagittal split osteotomy: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Geun; Rhee, Seung-Hyun; Noh, Chung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a common benign tumor of osseous lesions in dental and maxillofacial practice. We describe three cases of large KCOT located in the posterior part of the mandible extending to the angle and ramus region, which were enucleated via sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) of the mandible. There are cases in which a conventional enucleation procedure does not ensure complete excision of the entire lesion without damage to vital structures like the inferior alveolar nerve. In such cases, a SSO approach could be a better choice than conventional methods. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience using unilateral mandibular SSO for removal of a KCOT from the mandible. PMID:26339581

  8. Expression of CD105 in tumor angiogenesis a comparative study (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dentigerous cyst)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dandena Vinay; Hemavathy, Satheavanthan; Kulkarni, Dinraj; Rudraiah, Pradeep Mattighatta; Sidramayya Mathpati, Santosh Kumar; Priya, Sharan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Demonstrate the expression of CD105 (angiogenetic marker) in ameloblastoma (AM), keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and dentigerous cyst (DC). Material and Methods: Assessment of microvessel density (MVD) in 70 cases, including 20 KCOT, 20 DC and 20 solid AMs. Assessment of MVD should be done as the mean number of microvessels per high-power-field. Results: AM and KCOT demonstrated a higher mean value of 7.98 (±2.70) and 6.25 (±2.88) respectively while DC demonstrated a lower mean of 3.75 (±1.42). There was no statistically significant difference between AM and KCOT (P > 0.05). The difference between AM and DC; and between KCOT and DC were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study suggested that angiogenesis may be one of the mechanisms possibly contributing to the different biological behaviors of KCOT, DCs and solid AMs. PMID:26124595

  9. STAT3 is a key pathway in primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shu-Li; Ye, Wei-Min; Zheng, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) arising within an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is rare malignancy, entailing a poor prognosis for delayed diagnosis. The number of reports concerning this entity is extremely small. The aim of this study is to present the clinical and pathologic characteristics of PIOSCC and investigate its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: This study describes three patients with mandibular PIOSCC derived from an OKC over a seven-year period, each of which suffering from decompression in mandible. Important diagnostic criteria included the absence of overlying oral mucosal ulceration, the absence of a distant potential primary tumor, and the presence of a completely intraosseus lesion. The malignant transformation of OKC to PIOSCC was confirmed by pathologic evaluation of surgical resection specimens. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluating expression of Ki-67, p65, EGFR, phospho-AKT, and STAT3 in each of the three tumors and adjacent cyst walls. Results: Analysis by IHC indicated that Ki67, P65, EGFR and STAT3 were substantially elevated in PIOSCC. There was an obvious positive correlation between Ki67, P65, EGFR and STAT3 expression in adjacent benign epithelium. Each tumor exhibited long-standing chronic inflammation in the benign odontogenic cyst, suggesting that a sustained immune response may be partially responsible for malignant transformation of the benign cystic lining cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that inflammation may be the principal mediator in PIOSCC ex-OKC, and the STAT3 signaling pathway is an important contributor to this process. Combined detection of Ki67, P65, and EGFR in the lesional epithelium can support the diagnosis of PIOSCC.

  10. Central odontogenic fibroma (simple type) in a four-year-old boy: atypical cone-beam computed tomographic appearance with periosteal reaction

    PubMed Central

    Anbiaee, Najme; Sanaei, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. A case of COF (simple type) of the mandible in a four-year-old boy is described in this report. The patient showed asymptomatic swelling in the right inferior border of the lower jaw for one week. A panoramic radiograph showed a poorly-defined destructive unilocular radiolucent area. Cone-beam computed tomography showed expansion and perforation of the adjacent cortical bone plates. A periosteal reaction with the Codman triangle pattern was clearly visible in the buccal cortex. Since the tumor had destroyed a considerable amount of bone, surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted. PMID:26125006

  11. Central odontogenic fibroma of the jawbone: 2 case reports describing its imaging features and an analysis of its DCE-MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Hara, Marina; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Katase, Naoki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Unetsubo, Teruhisa; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Odontogenic fibroma (OF) is a rare nonepithelial benign tumor arising from the odontogenic mesenchymal tissue in the jawbone. OFs are topographically categorized into 2 types, the central type and peripheral type, and are histopathologically divided into the epithelium-poor type and epithelium-rich type. The radiological findings of central OF commonly include a uni- or multilocular radiolucent area with a well-defined margin, which are similar to those of cysts and other benign tumors of the jawbone. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish OF from these jawbone lesions on radiographs because of their noncharacteristic radiological findings. In this article, we report the cases of 2 patients with central OF who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) examinations and describe the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for diagnosing OF. PMID:22668718

  12. Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  13. Bone Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  14. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

  15. Staph Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Staph Infection? Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus (pronounced: staf-uh-low-KAH-kus), a type ... most staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . Which of these infections do you ...

  16. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  17. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:26392784

  18. Potential for anaerobic treatment of whey

    SciTech Connect

    Schlottfeldt, G.A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Results of experiments on 3 laboratory-scale reactors loaded with whey at different daily rates showed that a daily loading of 85 lb COD/1000 cubic feet achieved a COD reduction efficiency of 86% with a gas yield (50% methane) of 5 cubic feet/gal of treated whey. High microorganism population and pH control were essential for stable operation. Overall 1st order COD removal rate constants were 1.13, 0.70 and 1.73/day at 35, 50 and 60 degrees Celcius respectively. The economic impact of anaerobic whey treatment was evaluated for small, medium and large cheese plants, and annual operating costs were projected for a 20-year period. Among several systems that were compared, the anaerobic treatment of whey was shown to be the only one that had a potential of paying for itself. Treatment costs represented from 0.85 to 2.6% of the mean US milk price to producers.

  19. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Adrien A P; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A; Chergui, Majed

    2015-10-01

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment. PMID:26520998

  20. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P.; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A.; Chergui, Majed

    2015-10-01

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  1. Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.E.; Aller, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf is strongly controlled by dynamic physical sedimentation processes. Rapidly accumulating, physically reworked deltaic sediments characteristic of much of the shelf typically support what appear to be low rates of steady state anaerobic methane oxidation at depths of 5-8 m below the sediment-water interface. Methane oxidation in these cases is responsible for < {approximately}10% of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} inventory in the oxidation zone and is limited largely by the steady-state diffusive flux of methane into the overlying sulfate reduction zone. In contrast, a large area of the shelf has been extensively eroded, reexposing once deeply buried (>10 m) methane-charged sediment directly to seawater. In this nonsteady-state situation, methane is a major source of recently produced {Sigma}CO{sub 2} and an important reductant for sulfate. These observations suggest that authigenic sedimentary carbonates derived from anaerobic methane oxidation may sometimes reflect physically enhanced nonsteady-state exposure of methane to sulfate in otherwise biogeochemically unreactive deposits. The concentration profiles of CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} in the eroded deposit were reproduced by a coupled reaction-transport model. This area of the shelf was reexposed to seawater approximately 5-10 years ago based on the model results and the assumption that the erosion of the deposit occurred as a single event that has now ceased. The necessary second order rate constant for anaerobic methane oxidation was {le}0.1 mM{sup -1} d{sup -1}.

  2. Anaerobic expanded bed treatment of whey

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Danskin, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of anaerobic attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) for whey treatment is described and the potential for implementation of substitute natural gas from whey is discussed. A significant portion (less than or equal to 46%) of the energy needs at cheese-production plants could be recovered by CH/sub 4/ manufactured from whey. Efficient treatment of whey is possible by AAFEB at low retention times and at high organic loading rates.

  3. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  4. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to tosufloxacin.

    PubMed

    Nord, C E; Lindmark, A; Persson, I; Runow, C

    1992-03-01

    The in vitro activity of tosufloxacin against anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides spp. and fusobacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. This activity was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol. Tosufloxacin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were the most active agents tested. Tosufloxacin has an antibacterial activity that warrants investigation in clinical trials. PMID:1597207

  5. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  6. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8?d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179?mg/L to 12341?mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587?mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30?mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65?m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  7. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  8. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  9. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H

    1997-01-01

    The microbiology of perirectal abscesses in 144 patients was studied. Aerobic or facultative bacteria only were isolated in 13 (9%) instances, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 27 (19%) instances, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated in 104 (72%) instances. A total of 325 anaerobic and 131 aerobic or facultative isolates were recovered (2.2 anaerobic isolates and 0.9 aerobic isolates per specimen). The predominant anaerobes were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis group (85 isolates), Peptostreptococcus spp. (72 isolates), Prevotella spp. (71 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (21 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (20 isolates), and Clostridium spp. (15 isolates). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (34 isolates), Streptococcus spp. (28 isolates), and Escherichia coli (19 isolates). These data illustrate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of perirectal abscesses. PMID:9350771

  10. Catalase (KatA) Plays a Role in Protection against Anaerobic Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J.; Mahtani, Harry K.; Li, Qian; VanderWielen, Bradley D.; Makris, Thomas M.; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D.; Irvin, Randall T.; Schurr, Michael J.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Kovall, Rhett A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ?nirS produced ?50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ?katA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ?katA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ?katA mutant, and dramatically in a ?norCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ?nirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ?norCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ?6 ?M). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of NO are approached. PMID:24663218

  11. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  12. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underly- ing a former refinery. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization

  13. 40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film,...

  14. Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

  15. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of anaerobic and aerobic yeast cultures reveals post-

    E-print Network

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of anaerobic and aerobic yeast cultures reveals post was investigated using metabolic stable-isotope labelling in aerobic and anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat, probability density function; RAnae : Ae, relative protein ratios (anaerobic : aerobic); RMS, root

  16. 40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

  17. Microbiology of animal bite wound infections.

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2011-04-01

    The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  18. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  19. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an infected dentigerous cyst-A case report.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chih-Yu; Huang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Ming-Yi; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Yu, Chuan-Hang

    2015-08-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma (IOVC) arising from an odontogenic cyst is extremely rare. We report a case of intraosseous verrucous carcinoma in a 74-year-old male who presented with a left mandibular swelling with recurrent pus discharge from gingiva of tooth #35. Panoramic radiography revealed an impacted tooth #34 and a large well-defined, radiolucent lesion surrounding the crown of tooth #34. The clinical diagnosis was an infected dentigerous cyst. Surgical excision of the cyst together with extraction of tooth #34 was performed. Histopathological examination showed proliferation of hyperparakeratotic stratified squamous cyst lining epithelium and down-growth of broad and bulbous epithelial ridges with pushing border invasion into the fibrous cystic wall. A verrucous carcinoma arising from an infected dentigerous cyst was diagnosed. There was no recurrence of the tumor 5 months after surgery. PMID:26254175

  20. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome having distinct PTCH1 mutations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Fujii, Katsunori; Saito, Kayoko; Ando, Tomohiro

    2010-08-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to cancers. Although multiple jaw tumors, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), are one of the most frequent complications in NBCCS, the molecular mechanism for how KCOTs develop in NBCCS is poorly understood. A 15-year-old girl with 2 jaw tumors was diagnosed as NBCCS according to the clinical criteria. The pathologic findings indicated that the 2 tumors were consistent with KCOTs. A PTCH1 mutation, c.1472delT, was detected in her peripheral blood as well as in the 2 tumors. Interestingly, an additional PTCH1 mutation, c.264_265insAATA, that was not present in the peripheral blood, was found in the maxillary tumor but not the mandibular tumor. The Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in the maxillary KCOT (17.7%) than in the mandibular KCOT (14.3%). These findings indicate distinct molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis in these KCOTs. PMID:20659694

  1. PTCH1 Gene Mutations in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: A Study of 43 Chinese Patients and a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Li, Xue-Fen; Luo, Hai-Yan; Chen, Feng; Li, Tie-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive cystic jaw lesion that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH1, the gene responsible for NBCCS, may play an important role in sporadic KCOTs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the distribution pattern of PTCH1 mutations in patients with sporadic and NBCCS-associated KCOTs. Methods We detected PTCH1 mutations in 14 patients with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 29 patients with sporadic KCOTs by direct sequencing. In addition, five electronic databases were searched for studies detecting PTCH1 mutations in individuals with NBCCS-associated or sporadic KCOTs, published between January 1996 and June 2013 in English language. Results We identified 15 mutations in 11 cases with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 19 mutations in 13 cases with sporadic KCOTs. In addition, a total of 204 PTCH1 mutations (187 mutations from 210 cases with NBCCS-associated and 17 mutations from 57 cases with sporadic KCOTs) were compiled from 78 published papers. Conclusions Our study indicates that mutations in transmembrane 2 (TM2) are closely related to the development of sporadic KCOTs. Moreover, for the early diagnosis of NBCCS, a genetic analysis of the PTCH1 gene should be included in the new diagnostic criteria. PMID:24204797

  2. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F.; Brandt, Sarah; Mousavi, Nabi; Kragh, Kasper N.; Aydogan, Sevtap; Uppal, Haleema A.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance towards antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is recognized as a major cause of therapeutic failure of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This lung infection is characterized by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in mucus with zones of O2 depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and the production of detectable levels of OH?? on several strains of planktonic P. aeruginosa. Therefore, we propose that production of OH?? may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (?katA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates in normoxic- or anoxic atmosphere with 1 mM nitrate. The killing of bacteria during colistin treatment was measured by CFU counts, and the OH? formation was measured by 3?-(p-hydroxylphenyl fluorescein) fluorescein (HPF) fluorescence. Validation of the assay was done by hydrogen peroxide treatment. OH? formation was undetectable in aerobic PAO1 biofilms during 3 h of colistin treatment. Interestingly, we demonstrate increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms towards colistin during anaerobic conditions. In fact, the maximum enhancement of killing by anaerobic conditions exceeded 2 logs using 4 mg L?1 of colistin compared to killing at aerobic conditions.

  3. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F; Brandt, Sarah; Mousavi, Nabi; Kragh, Kasper N; Aydogan, Sevtap; Uppal, Haleema A; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø

    2016-02-01

    Tolerance towards antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is recognized as a major cause of therapeutic failure of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This lung infection is characterized by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in mucus with zones of O2 depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and the production of detectable levels of OH?? on several strains of planktonic P. aeruginosa. Therefore, we propose that production of OH?? may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (?katA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates in normoxic- or anoxic atmosphere with 1 mM nitrate. The killing of bacteria during colistin treatment was measured by CFU counts, and the OH? formation was measured by 3(')-(p-hydroxylphenyl fluorescein) fluorescein (HPF) fluorescence. Validation of the assay was done by hydrogen peroxide treatment. OH? formation was undetectable in aerobic PAO1 biofilms during 3 h of colistin treatment. Interestingly, we demonstrate increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms towards colistin during anaerobic conditions. In fact, the maximum enhancement of killing by anaerobic conditions exceeded 2 logs using 4 mg L(-1) of colistin compared to killing at aerobic conditions. PMID:26458402

  4. Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

    1978-03-01

    Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction. PMID:25047

  5. DEGRADATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS BY ENZYMES FROM ANAEROBIC FUNGI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic fungi were not discovered until 1975. Most of the isolated anaerobic fungi are capable of growth on plant cell wall polysaccharides. This ability is attributed to their production of a number of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The enzymes are either secreted into culture medium or att...

  6. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  7. LOVES CREEK ANAEROBIC, UPFLOW (ANFLOW) PILOT PLANT: PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic filter technology for municipal wastewater treatment has been studied in Knoxville, Tennessee with a 190-m exp 3 /d facility from August 1981 to October 1983. The ORNL project (described by the acronym ANFLOW for the anaerobic, upflow characteristics of the technology) ...

  8. Giardia Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water. Diarrhea is the main symptom of giardia infection. Others include Passing gas Greasy stools Stomach cramps ... people have no symptoms at all. Symptoms of infection often last two to six weeks. Stool sample ...

  9. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Infections Opportunistic Infections and Their Relationship to HIV/AIDS People with healthy immune systems can be exposed ... Disease Dementia Hospitalization & Palliative Care Related Topics on AIDS.gov Signs and Symptoms Immune System 101 Stages ...

  10. Infection Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective way ...

  11. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  12. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  13. Anaerobic expanded bed treatment of whey

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Danskin, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of whey offers the dual advantage of energy production and pollution control. The energy produced is in the form of methane which is a valuable form of energy in that it is easily separated from the liquid digesting whey, has a high caloric value and can be used for heating and cooking at the cheese plants where it is produced. Based on the data of a survey conducted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, it was shown that a significant portion (up to 46%) of the energy needs (in natural gas and oil) at cheese production plants in New York State could be recovered by methane generated from whey produced as a by-product of cheese manufacturing at the plants. Finally, the results of a preliminary feasibility study of a new type of innovative, compact, high rate, anaerobic fixed film process show that efficient treatment of whey is possible at low retention times, and at high organic loading rates.

  14. Integrating anaerobic processes into wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    McAdam, E J; Lüffler, D; Martin-Garcia, N; Eusebi, A L; Lester, J N; Jefferson, B; Cartmell, E

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, the concept of anaerobic processes for the treatment of low temperature domestic wastewater has been introduced. This paper uses a developed wastewater flowsheet model and experimental data from several pilot scale studies to establish the impact of integrating anaerobic process into the wastewater flowsheet. The results demonstrate that, by integrating an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor to treat settled wastewater upstream of the activated sludge process, an immediate reduction in imported electricity of 62.5% may be achieved for a treated flow of c. 10,000 m(3) d(-1). This proposed modification to the flowsheet offers potential synergies with novel unit processes including physico-chemical ammonia removal and dissolved methane recovery. Incorporating either of these unit operations can potentially further improve the flowsheet net energy balance to between +0.037 and +0.078 kWh m(-3) of produced water. The impact of these secondary unit operations is significant as it is this contribution to the net energy balance that facilitates the shift from energy negative to energy positive wastewater treatment. PMID:21508551

  15. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  16. Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Miklós; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

  17. Interaction between Endogenous Bacterial Flora and Latent HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Victoriano, Ann Florence B.; Imai, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Human commensal bacteria do not normally cause any diseases. However, in certain pathological conditions, they exhibit a number of curious behaviors. In HIV infection, these bacteria exhibit bidirectional relationships: whereas they cause opportunistic infections based on immunological deterioration, they also augment HIV replication, in particular, viral replication from latently infected cells, which is attributable to the effect of butyric acid produced by certain anaerobic bacteria by modifying the state of chromatin. Here, we review recent evidence supporting the contributory role of such endogenous microbes in disrupting HIV latency and its potential link to the clinical progression of AIDS. PMID:23616411

  18. Effect of bioreduced graphene oxide on anaerobic biotransformation of nitrobenzene in an anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haikun; Wang, Di; Lu, Hong; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-01-01

    Bioreduced graphene oxide (BRGO) has been proven to be capable of accelerating nitrobenzene (NB) biotransformation by anaerobic sludge (AS). To realize its application, in the present study, two continuous anaerobic reactors (R1 with BRGO/AS composite; R2 with AS) were employed to treat NB-containing wastewater during a long-term run. Compared with R2, the start-up time of R1 was shortened from 70 to 45 d and R1 exhibited better removal efficiency (87% of R1 and 74% of R2 with an influent NB concentration of 200?mg?L(-1) at hydraulic retention time?=?24?h, NaCl?=?3%). Moreover, R1 exhibited better stability with over 81% NB removal efficiency within 90 d. Further study demonstrated that the presence of BRGO facilitated microorganisms to secrete extracellular polymeric substances, resulting in the higher electrochemical and dehydrogenase activities of R1 compared with those of R2. PMID:26114402

  19. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. PMID:25528544

  20. Integrated Genotypic Analysis of Hedgehog-Related Genes Identifies Subgroups of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with Distinct Clinicopathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yasuyuki; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Kabasawa, Yuji; Morita, Kei-ichi; Omura, Ken; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sakamoto, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) arises as part of Gorlin syndrome (GS) or as a sporadic lesion. Gene mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the hedgehog receptor PTCH1 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of KCOT. However, some KCOT cases lack evidence for gene alteration of PTCH1, suggesting that other genes in the hedgehog pathway may be affected. PTCH2 and SUFU participate in the occurrence of GS-associated tumors, but their roles in KCOT development are unknown. To elucidate the roles of these genes, we enrolled 36 KCOT patients in a study to sequence their entire coding regions of PTCH1, PTCH2 and SUFU. LOH and immunohistochemical expression of these genes, as well as the downstream targets of hedgehog signaling, were examined using surgically-excised KCOT tissues. PTCH1 mutations, including four novel ones, were found in 9 hereditary KCOT patients, but not in sporadic KCOT patients. A pathogenic mutation of PTCH2 or SUFU was not found in any patients. LOH at PTCH1 and SUFU loci correlated with the presence of epithelial budding. KCOT harboring a germline mutation (Type 1) showed nuclear localization of GLI2 and frequent histological findings such as budding and epithelial islands, as well as the highest recurrence rate. KCOT with LOH but without a germline mutation (Type 2) less frequently showed these histological features, and the recurrence rate was lower. KCOT with neither germline mutation nor LOH (Type 3) consisted of two subgroups, Type 3A and 3B, which were characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic GLI2 localization, respectively. Type 3B rarely exhibited budding and recurrence, behaving as the most amicable entity. The expression patterns of CCND1 and BCL2 tended to correlate with these subgroups. Our data indicates a significant role of PTCH1 and SUFU in the pathogenesis of KCOT, and the genotype-oriented subgroups constitute entities with different potential aggressiveness. PMID:23951062

  1. Inactivation of the Odontogenic ameloblast-associated gene affects the integrity of the junctional epithelium and gingival healing.

    PubMed

    Wazen, R M; Moffatt, P; Ponce, K J; Kuroda, S; Nishio, C; Nanci, A

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) gene cluster. It is expressed by the epithelial ameloblasts during the accrued mineralisation of enamel and by cells of the junctional epithelium (JE), a specialised portion of the gingiva that plays a critical role in periodontal health. In both cases, ODAM localises at the interface between the cells and the tooth surface. It is also present among the cells of the JE, and is distinctively highly expressed in many epithelial tumours. ODAM has been proposed to be a matricellular protein implicated in the adhesion of epithelial cells to tooth surfaces, and possibly in mediating cell status. To gain further understanding of the role of ODAM, we have created an Odam knockout (KO) mouse by deleting coding exons 2-6. Inactivation of the gene was verified by Southern blot, PCR, real-time qPCR and loss of immunostaining for the protein. Young Odam KO mice showed no readily apparent phenotype. No significant differences were observed in enamel volume and density, rod-interrod organisation, and its attrition. However, in older animals, the JE presented some detachment, an increase in inflammatory infiltrate, and apical down-growth. In addition, its regeneration was delayed following a gingivectomy challenge. Our results indicate that inactivation of Odam expression has no dramatic consequence on enamel but the phenotype in older animals replicates some JE changes seen during human periodontal disease. Altogether, our results suggest that ODAM plays a role in maintaining integrity of the JE. PMID:26412389

  2. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production Accepted 24 May 2013 Available online Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Ammonia Bioenergy Bioammonia Hydrogen Anaerobic digestion-bioammonia to hydrogen (ADBH) a b s t r a c t During anaerobic digestion, organic matter

  3. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35kg/m(3) day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge. PMID:25458762

  4. Low temperature anaerobic biotreatment of priority pollutants.

    PubMed

    McKeown, R M; Collins, G; Chinalia, F A; Mahony, T; O'Flaherty, V

    2008-01-01

    The effect of low operating temperature and pollutant concentration on the performance of five anaerobic hybrid reactors was investigated. Stable and efficient long-term (>400 days) treatment of a cold (6-13 degrees C), volatile fatty acid (VFA)-based, wastewater was achieved at applied organic loading rates (OLRs) of 5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) with COD removal efficiencies c. 84% at 6 degrees C (sludge loading rate (SLR) 1.04-1.46 kg COD kg [VSS](-1) d(-1)). VFA-based wastewaters, containing up to 14 g pentachlorophenol (PCP) m(-3) d(-1) or 155 g toluene m(-3) d(-1) were successfully treated at applied OLRs of 5-7 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Despite transient declines in reactor performance in response to increasing toxicant loading rates, stable operation (COD removal efficiencies > 90%) and satisfactory toxicant removal efficiencies (>88%) were demonstrated by the systems. PMID:18359987

  5. Kinetics of biogas production in Anaerobic Filters.

    PubMed

    Krümpel, Johannes; Schäufele, Friedrich; Schneider, Johannes; Jungbluth, Thomas; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates methane production kinetics from individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) in an Upflow Anaerobic Filter (AF). 1gCOD in the form of acetic (HAc), propionic (HPr) or butyric acid (HBu) was injected into the AF while operating at an organic loading rate (OLRCOD) of 3.5gL(-1)d(-1). A new method is introduced to separate gas production of the baseload from the product formation of VFA degradation after the injection. The lag phase, fractional rate of gas production and half-life has been determined for the methane production of the three VFAs. The half-lives were in the order HAc

  6. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  7. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  8. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. PMID:24630580

  10. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  11. Neural fuzzy modeling of anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; Zhang, X.

    1999-12-01

    Anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems are difficult to model because their performance is complex and varies significantly with different reactor configurations, influent characteristics, and operational conditions. Instead of conventional kinetic modeling, advanced neural fuzzy technology was employed to develop a conceptual adaptive model for anaerobic treatment systems. The conceptual neural fuzzy model contains the robustness of fuzzy systems, the learning ability of neural networks, and can adapt to various situations. The conceptual model was used to simulate the daily performance of two high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems with satisfactory results obtained.

  12. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  13. Five years follow-up of a keratocyst odontogenic tumor treated by marsupialization and enucleation: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Verzola, Mario H.; Pires, Luana C.; Mascarenhas, Vinicius I.; da Silva, Rodrigo B.; Cirelli, Joni A.; Barbeiro, Roberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are considered as nonneoplasic benign lesions. Among the cysts, keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is an intra-osseous tumor characterized by parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and a potential for aggressive, infiltrative behavior, and for the possibility to develop carcinomas in the lesion wall. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe a clinical case of KCOT in a young patient and discuss the treatment alternatives to solve this case. A 15-year-old male was referred for treatment of a giant lesion in his left side of the mandible. After the biopsy, a diagnostic of KCOT was made, and the following procedures were planned for KCOT treatment. Marsupialization was performed for lesion decompression and consequent lesion size reduction. Afterward, enucleation for complete KCOT removal was performed followed by third mandibular molar extraction. After 5 years, no signs of recurrence were observed. The treatment proposed was efficient in removing the KCOT with minimal surgical morbidity and optimal healing process, and the first and second mandibular molars were preserved with pulp vitality. In conclusion, this treatment protocol was an effective and conservative approach for the management of the KCOT, enabling the reduction of the initial lesion, the preservation of anatomical structures and teeth, allowing quicker return to function. No signs of recurrence after 5 years were observed. PMID:25821360

  14. Aeromonas hydrophilia infections after penetrating foot trauma.

    PubMed

    Larka, Ulla-Britt; Ulett, Dane; Garrison, Thomas; Rockett, Matthew S

    2003-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus commonly found in natural bodies of water and can cause infection in patients who suffer water-associated trauma or in immunocompromised hosts. The authors present 5 cases of penetrating wound trauma that did not involve any aquatic environment and developed rapidly forming infections. All patients presented with severe pain, cellulitis, ascending lymphangitis, fever, and pain on range of motion of the joint near the traumatic site. Presentation of clinical symptoms mimicked that of a septic joint or of severe streptococcal infection. All patients required surgical incision and drainage, intravenous and oral antibiotics using levofloxacin or bactrim, and local wound care. Results from cultures taken intraoperatively showed only A hydrophilia in every case. Resolution of symptoms occurred rapidly after surgery, and clinical resolution was seen within 72 hours. Each patient healed uneventfully and returned to preinjury status. PMID:14566724

  15. Campylobacter infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Food poisoning - campylobacter enteritis; Infectious diarrhea - campylobacter enteritis; Bacterial diarrhea; Campy ... also one of the many causes of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning . People most often get infected ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Common Infections > Urinary Tract Infections ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  17. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

  18. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  19. Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; Suárez, Jose M.; McBride, Shonna M.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile cultivation. PMID:24084491

  20. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume 

    E-print Network

    Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

    2002-01-01

    , and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane ?13C values increased from about...

  1. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF IN-SITU RETORT WATER

    E-print Network

    Ossio, Edmundo

    2012-01-01

    liters) of fermentation gas at standard temperature VL &enhance anaerobic fermentation. A temperature of 36°C ± 1°Cfermentation gases P v Atmospheric pressure, mm Hg = Vapor pressure (mm Hg) of water over the container liquid at temperature

  2. Economic implications of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Randy Scott, Jr.

    2007-09-17

    are forcing dairies and policymakers to balance environmental concerns with farm profitability. Dairies are entering a realm filled with technologies to combat waste concerns. Anaerobic digester technology may play a role in helping dairies balance profit...

  3. INCREASE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS FOLLOWING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled “Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges”. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bac...

  4. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...

  5. Design of an anaerobic digester in Quebec, Canada

    E-print Network

    Bouaziz, Alexandre N. (Alexandre Nathanel)

    2014-01-01

    .In response to the future Quebec, Canada regulations prohibiting landfilling of organic matter by 2020, EBI, a waste management company located near Montreal is considering constructing an anaerobic digester. This thesis ...

  6. Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of 1-Chloro-1-fluoroethene To Track

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of 1-Chloro-1-fluoroethene To Track the Transformation of Vinyl carcinogen and has the lowest drinking water standard (2 µg/L) (3). VC transformation to ethene is generally

  7. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  8. Metagenomic analysis for the microbial consortium of anaerobic CO oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Li, Xiekun; Zhou, Weizheng; Xu, Huijuan; Liang, Cuiyi; Zhang, Yu; Zhuang, Xinshu

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics analysis has been applied to identify the dominant anaerobic microbial consortium of the carbon monoxide (CO) oxidizers in anaerobic sludge. Reads from the hypervariable V6 region in the bacterial 16s rDNA were aligned and finally clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs from different stages in anaerobic CO condition were classified. Alphaproteobacteria, clostridia, betaproteobacteria and actinobacteria were the most abundant groups, while alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria and actinobacteria were variable groups. CO consumption and production efficiency of the microbial consortium were studied. Semi-continuous trials showed that these anaerobic CO oxidizers formed a stable microbial community, and the CO conversion rate was at over 84%, with the highest CO consumption activity of 28.9?mmol CO/g VSS?day and methane production activity at 7.6?mmol CH? /g VSS?day during six cycles. PMID:25874504

  9. Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

  10. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  11. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  12. Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C

    1993-01-01

    Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

  13. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. They are common throughout the world, and they can infect people and animals. Several different coronaviruses can infect people and make them sick. They usually cause mild to moderate ...

  14. Salmonella Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for both acute and chronic poultry diseases. These diseases cause economically significant losses for poultry producers in many nations and absorb large investments of public and private resources in testing and control efforts. Infect...

  15. Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R.

    1999-06-01

    The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

  16. Innovative wastewater treatment using reversing anaerobic upflow system (RAUS)

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic processes are widely popular in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters since the development of such high rate treatment processes like upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic filter, and the fluidized-bed process. In order to devise a low cost/high technology system so that it would provide an economical solution to environmentally sound pollution control, the Reversing Anaerobic Upflow System (RAUS) was developed. The system consists of two anaerobic reactors connected to each other. At the beginning, one reactor is fed upwards with wastewater while the other acts as a settling tank. After a set interval of time, the flow is reversed such that the second reactor is fed with wastewater and the first one acts as the settler. This particular feeding pattern had shown improved settling characteristics and granulation of methanogenic biomass from research carried out at the Hannover University with different wastewaters. The biological reaction vessels to which wastewater is introduced intermittently functions basically as a sludge blanket type reactor although the costly integrated settling devices present in a typical UASB system are avoided. The RAUS combines three principle reactor configurations: (1) conventional with sludge recycling; (2) fill and draw or sequential batch, inflow maintained constant during feeding; (3) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. A pilot scale RAUS was operated for 400 days using distillery wastewater consisting of molasses slop and bottle washing water mixed in the ratio 1:1. This paper discusses the results of pilot scale experiments.

  17. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  18. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation. PMID:25397976

  19. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Borglin, Sharon E; Hazen, Terry C; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Zawislanski, Peter T

    2004-07-01

    To increase the operating lifetime of landfills and to lower leachate treatment costs, an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are being managed as either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Landfill gas composition, respiration rates, and subsidence were measured for 400 days in 200-L tanks filled with fresh waste materials to compare the relative effectiveness of the two treatments. Tanks were prepared to provide the following conditions: (1) air injection and leachate recirculation (aerobic), (2) leachate recirculation (anaerobic), and (3) no treatment (anaerobic). Respiration tests on the aerobic wet tank showed a steady decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 400 days. Aerobic wet tanks produced, on average, 6 mol of carbon dioxide (CO2)/kg of MSW as compared with anaerobic wet tanks, which produced 2.2 mol methane/kg of MSW and 2.0 mol CO2/kg methane. Over the test period, the aerobic tanks settled on average 35%, anaerobic tanks settled 21.7%, and the no-treatment tank settled 7.5%, equivalent to overall mass loss in the corresponding reactors. Aerobic tanks reduced stabilization time and produced negligible odor compared with anaerobic tanks, possibly because of the 2 orders of magnitude lower leachate ammonia levels in the aerobic tank. Both treatment regimes provide the opportunity for disposal and remediation of liquid waste. PMID:15303294

  20. Carbon balance of anaerobic granulation process: carbon credit.

    PubMed

    Wong, Biing-Teo; Show, K Y; Lee, D J; Lai, J Y

    2009-03-01

    The concept of carbon credit arose out of increasing awareness of the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to combat global warming which was formalized in the Kyoto protocol. In addition to contribution to sustainable development with energy recovery in the form of methane, carbon credits can be claimed by application of advanced anaerobic processes in wastewater treatment for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. As anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they could render much more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. This study investigated the potential carbon credit derived from laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors based on a carbon balance analysis. Methane emission reduction could be calculated by calculating the difference of UASB reactors and open lagoon treatment systems. Based on the 2.5l bench-scale reactor, the total CH(4) emissions reduction was calculated as 29 kg CO(2)/year. On scaling up to a typical full-scale anaerobic digester, the total CH(4) emissions reduction could achieve 46,420 tons CO(2) reduction/year. The estimated carbon credits would amount to 278,500 US$ per year by assuming a carbon price of 6 US$ per metric ton CO(2) reduction. The analysis postulated that it is financially viable to invest in advanced anaerobic granular treatment system from the revenue generated from carbon credits. PMID:18990565

  1. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for describing anaerobic digestion of grass, maize, green weed silage, and industrial glycerine.

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Piotr; Steinigeweg, Sven; Borchert, Axel; Uhlenhut, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste plays an important role for the development of sustainable energy supply based on renewable resources. For further process optimization of anaerobic digestion, biogas production with the commonly used substrates, grass, maize, and green weed silage, together with industrial glycerine, were analyzed by the Weender analysis/van Soest method, and a simulation study was performed, based on the International Water Association's (IWA) Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). The simplex algorithm was applied to optimize kinetic constants for disintegration and hydrolysis steps for all examined substrates. Consequently, new parameters were determined for each evaluated substrate, tested against experimental cumulative biogas production results, and assessed against ADM1 default values for disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic constants, where the ADM1 values for mesophilic high rate and ADM1 values for solids were used. Results of the optimization lead to a precise prediction of the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of complex substrates. PMID:23131640

  2. Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure culture studies. Our recent work has extended the study of hydrogen to cyanobacterial mat communities. The large amounts of reducing power generated during photosynthetic activity carry the potential to contribute a swamping term to the H2 economy of the anaerobic microbial populations within the mat - and thereby to alter the population structure and biogeochemical function of the mat as a whole. In hypersaline microbial mats, we observe a distinct diel cycle in H2 production and a substantial corresponding flux. On an early Earth dominated by microbial mats, this transmission of photosynthetic reducing power may have carried important implications for both biospheric and atmospheric evolution.

  3. Clostridium difficile infection: molecular pathogenesis and novel therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rineh, Ardeshir; Kelso, Michael J; Vatansever, Fatma; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile produces toxins A and B, which can cause a spectrum of diseases from pseudomembranous colitis to C. difficile-associated diarrhea. A limited number of C. difficile strains also produce a binary toxin that exhibits ADP ribosyltransferase activity. Here, the structure and the mechanism of action of these toxins as well as their role in disease are reviewed. Nosocomial C. difficile infection is often contracted in hospital when patients treated with antibiotics suffer a disturbance in normal gut microflora. C. difficile spores can persist on dry, inanimate surface for months. Metronidazole and oral vancomycin are clinically used for treatment of C. difficile infection but clinical failure and concern about promotion of resistance are motivating the search for novel non-antibiotic therapeutics. Methods for controlling both toxins and spores, replacing gut microflora by probiotics or fecal transplant, and killing bacteria in the anaerobic gut by photodynamic therapy are discussed. PMID:24410618

  4. Parasite ova in anaerobically digested sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Arther, R.G.; Fitzgerald, P.R.; Fox, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago produces anaerobically digested wastewater sludge from a 14-day continuous-flow process maintained at 35 degrees Celcius. Some of the sludge is ultimately applied to strip-mined lands in Central Illinois (Fulton County) as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. Parasitic nematode ova were isolated from freshly processed samples, as well as from samples collected from storage lagoons, using a system of continuous sucrose solution gradients. The mean number of ova per 100 g of dry sludge was 203 Ascaris spp., 173 Toxocara spp., 48 Toxascaris leonina, and 36 Trichuris spp. An assessment of the viability of these ova was determined by subjecting the ova to conditions favorable for embryonation. Recovered ova were placed in 1.5% formalin and aerated at 22 degrees Celcius for 21 to 28 days. Development of ova isolated from freshly digested sludge occurred in 64% of the Ascaris spp., 53% of the Toxocara, 63% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 20% of the Trichuris spp. Viability was also demonstrated in ova recovered from sludge samples held in storage lagoons for a period of up to 5 years; embryonation occurred in 24% of the Ascaris spp., 10% of the Toxocara spp., 43% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 6% of the Trichuris spp. (Refs. 24).

  5. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  6. Antibody-catalyzed anaerobic destruction of methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Hixon, Mark S.; Yamamoto, Noboru; McAllister, Laura A.; Wentworth, Anita D.; Wentworth, Paul; Janda, Kim D.

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine [(+)-2] abuse has emerged as a fast-rising global epidemic, with immunopharmacotherapeutic approaches being sought for its treatment. Herein, we report the generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody, YX1-40H10, that catalyzes the photooxidation of (+)-2 into the nonpsychoactive compound benzaldehyde (14) under anaerobic conditions in the presence of riboflavin (6). Studies have revealed that the antibody facilitates the conversion of (+)-2 into 14 by binding the triplet photoexcited state of 6 in proximity to (+)-2. The antibody binds riboflavin (Kd = 180 ?M), although this was not programmed into hapten design, and the YX1-40H10-catalyzed reaction is inhibited by molecular oxygen via the presumed quenching of the photoexcited triplet state of 6. Given that this reaction is another highlight in the processing of reactive intermediates by antibodies, we speculate that this process may have future significance in vivo with programmed immunoglobulins that use flavins as cofactors to destroy selectable molecular targets under hypoxic or even anoxic conditions. PMID:17360412

  7. Evaluation of PCB dechlorination pathways in anaerobic sediment microcosms using an anaerobic dechlorination model.

    PubMed

    Demirtepe, Hale; Kjellerup, Birthe; Sowers, Kevin R; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2015-10-15

    A detailed quantitative analysis of anaerobic dechlorination (AD) pathways of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment microcosms was performed by applying an anaerobic dechlorination model (ADM). The purpose of ADM is to systematically analyze changes in a contaminant profile that result from microbial reductive dechlorination according to empirically determined dechlorination pathways. In contrast to prior studies that utilized modeling tools to predict dechlorination pathways, ADM also provides quantification of individual pathways. As only microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs occurred in the modeled laboratory microcosms, extensive analysis of AD pathways was possible without the complicating effect of concurrent physico-chemical or other weathering mechanisms. The results from this study showed: (1) ninety three AD pathways are active; (2) tetra- to hepta-chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners were common intermediates in several AD pathways, penta-CBs being the most frequently observed; (3) the highest rates of dechlorination were for penta-CB homologs during the initial 185 days; (4) the dominant terminal products of AD were PCB 32(26-4), 49(24-25), 51(24-26), 52(25-25), 72(25-35), 73(26-35) and 100(246-24), (5) potential toxicity of the sediment was reduced. ADM serves as a powerful tool not only for a thorough analysis of AD pathways, but also for providing necessary input for numerical fate models (as a degradation term) that investigate dechlorination products or outcome of natural attenuation, or bioremediation/bioaugmentation of PCB-impacted sediments. PMID:25913678

  8. Malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes inhibit glucose utilization in uninfected red cells

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes inhibit glucose utilization in uninfected red cells Monika Abstract The erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite de- pend on anaerobic glycolysis for energy. Using (>96%) of uninfected RBCs in an IRBC population may have physiological implications in malaria pa

  9. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  10. Hand Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spread to others. Necrotizing Fasciitis, or “Flesh-Eating Bacteria” Necrotizing fasciitis is a very rare but severe infection. Streptococcus pyogenes or other “flesh-eating bacteria” enter the body through a cut. Bacteria toxins ...

  11. Mycobacterial Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different kinds. The most common one causes tuberculosis. Another one causes leprosy. Still others cause infections ... aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. But they can still harm people, especially people ...

  12. Norovirus Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Noroviruses are a group of related viruses. Infection with these viruses causes an illness called gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It can spread from person to person, or ...

  13. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ... symptoms include coughing and shortness of breath. Controlling rodents in and around your house is the best ...

  14. Shigella Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC E. Coli Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature Cholera What ... Hands? Cholera Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea Shigellosis Salmonellosis E. Coli Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

  15. Neonatal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hospital. Back Continue E. Coli What is it? Escherichia coli (E. coli) is another bacterial culprit behind some ... at home. Most newborns who become ill from E. coli infection have particularly fragile immune systems that make them ...

  16. Breast infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breastfeeding. Breast infections that are not related to breastfeeding might be a rare form of breast cancer . ... may be cultured. In women who are not breastfeeding, tests may include: Breast biopsy Breast MRI Breast ultrasound Mammogram

  17. Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stolman, Lewis P.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses recognition and management of eight common primary infections of the mouth: thrush, perlèche, warts, necrotizing gingivitis, aphthous ulcers, herpes simplex, herpangina and syphilis. PMID:21308082

  18. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... household pets , most often puppies, cats, hamsters and birds. Infection can also spread by person-to-person ... with the feces of dogs, cats, hamsters, and birds. Wash your hands carefully after touching the underclothes ...

  19. Ear Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? The ear works by receiving sound waves and sending messages to the brain. The outer ear includes the part of the ear you can ...

  20. Patched homolog 1 gene mutation (p.G1093R) induces nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors: A case report

    PubMed Central

    PONTI, GIOVANNI; POLLIO, ANNAMARIA; PASTORINO, LORENZA; PELLACANI, GIOVANNI; MAGNONI, CRISTINA; NASTI, SABINA; FORTUNA, GIULIO; TOMASI, ALDO; SCARRÀ, GIOVANNA BIANCHI; SEIDENARI, STEFANIA

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) gene lead to an autosomal dominant disorder known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin syndrome (GS). Several PTCH1 mutations have been observed in NBCCS associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), including non-syndromic KCOTs. The missense mutation c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) in exon 19 of the PTCH1 gene has only been reported in non-syndromic KCOTs. The present study reports for the first time a familial case (father and daughter) of NBCCS and KCOTs, carrying the same c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) germline mutation. This observation suggests that this missense mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of NBCCS as well as in a subset of non-syndromic KCOTs. The identification of a missense mutation may lead to an earlier diagnosis of NBCCS. PMID:22844361

  1. Distinctive non-methanogen archaeal populations in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; He, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens define the archaeal communities involved in anaerobic digestion. Recently, non-methanogen archaeal populations have been unexpectedly identified in anaerobic digestion processes. To gain insight into the ecophysiology of these uncharacterized archaeal populations, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis was performed on a collection of non-methanogen archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from anaerobic digesters of broad geographic distribution, revealing a distinct clade formed by these sequences in subgroup 6 of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group in the newly proposed archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota. This exclusive phylogenetic assemblage enabled the development of a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay specifically targeting these non-methanogen archaeal populations in anaerobic digestion. Application of the qPCR assay in continuous anaerobic digesters indicated that these archaeal populations were minor constituents of the archaeal communities, and the abundance of these populations remained relatively constant irrespective of process perturbations. Analysis of the archaeal populations in methanogenic communities further revealed the co-occurrence of these non-methanogen archaea with acetoclastic methanogens. Nevertheless, the low abundance of non-methanogen archaea as compared with acetoclastic methanogens suggests that the non-methanogen archaeal populations were not major players in animal waste-fed methanogenic processes investigated in this study and the functions of these archaeal populations remain to be identified. PMID:26373725

  2. Electrochemical mineralization of anaerobically digested olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M R; Marques, I P; Correia, J P

    2012-09-01

    A novel approach was developed for the energetic valorisation and treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW), combining anaerobic digestion and electrochemical oxidation. The electrochemical treatment was proposed as the final step to mineralize the remaining OMW fraction from the anaerobic reactor. The electrooxidation of anaerobically digested OMW was investigated over dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs). RuO(2) based anode was significantly more efficient than IrO(2)-type DSA, mainly for the COD removal. IrO(2) based anode promoted a selective oxidation of phenols and colour removal. For instance, after an electrolysis charge of 10.4 × 10(4) C L(-1), COD removals of 14 and 99%, phenols removals of 91 and 100% and colour removals of 85 and 100% were obtained for IrO(2) and RuO(2) DSAs-type, respectively. The electrochemical post-treatment was effectively performed without using a supporting electrolyte and in the presence of the solids that remained from the anaerobic process. The achievement of the required effluent quality for sewer systems disposal depends on the operating conditions of the anaerobic process. Consequently, special care must be taken with the chloride and nitrogen levels that may surpass the legal discharge limits. The electrochemical oxidation over RuO(2) based DSA is an appropriate second-step treatment for OMW disposal, after the recovery of its energetic potential. PMID:22687524

  3. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  4. Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: myth, magic, or method?

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M

    1991-01-01

    The demand for susceptibility testing of anaerobes has increased, yet consensus as to procedure and interpretation in this area has not been achieved. While routine testing of anaerobic isolates is not needed, certain isolates in specific clinical settings should be tested. Also, laboratories may monitor their local antibiograms by doing periodic surveillance batch testing. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has published a protocol of methods approved for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Both agar and broth microdilution are included; however, the broth disk elution method is no longer approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards because of method-related interpretive errors. A number of newer methods are undergoing evaluation and seem promising. Clinicians and microbiologists reviewing susceptibility reports should be aware of sources of variability in the test results. Variables in susceptibility testing of anaerobes include the media and methods used, organisms chosen for testing, breakpoints chosen for interpretation, antibiotic, and determination of endpoint. Clustering of MICs around the breakpoint may lead to significant variability in test results. Adherence of testing laboratories to approved methods and careful descriptions of the method and the breakpoints used for interpretation would facilitate interlaboratory comparisons and allow problems of emerging resistance to be noted. A variety of resistance mechanisms occurs in anaerobic bacteria, including the production of beta-lactamase and other drug-inactivating enzymes, alteration of target proteins, and inability of the drug to penetrate the bacterial wall. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States and abroad are described. PMID:1747863

  5. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 ?g g(-1) of copper, 487 ?g g(-1) of lead, 793 ?g g(-1) of zinc, 27 ?g g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 ?g g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  6. Anaerobic Fungi and Their Potential for Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie; Callaghan, Tony Martin; Griffith, Gareth Wyn; Fliegerová, Kate?ina

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass is the largest reservoir of environmentally friendly renewable energy on earth. However, the complex and recalcitrant structure of these lignocellulose-rich substrates is a severe limitation for biogas production. Microbial pro-ventricular anaerobic digestion of ruminants can serve as a model for improvement of converting lignocellulosic biomass into energy. Anaerobic fungi are key players in the digestive system of various animals, they produce a plethora of plant carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes. Combined with the invasive growth of their rhizoid system their contribution to cell wall polysaccharide decomposition may greatly exceed that of bacteria. The cellulolytic arsenal of anaerobic fungi consists of both secreted enzymes, as well as extracellular multi-enzyme complexes called cellulosomes. These complexes are extremely active, can degrade both amorphous and crystalline cellulose and are probably the main reason of cellulolytic efficiency of anaerobic fungi. The synergistic use of mechanical and enzymatic degradation makes anaerobic fungi promising candidates to improve biogas production from recalcitrant biomass. This chapter presents an overview about their biology and their potential for implementation in the biogas process. PMID:26337843

  7. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Amrita B; Han, Andrew W; Mehta, Angad P; Mok, Kenny C; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P; Taga, Michiko E

    2015-08-25

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  8. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  9. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob; Chun, Hong Sung; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3?-untranslated region (3?UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling through accumulation of ?-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  10. MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide ? a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization ? derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23451077

  11. Expression of Bcl-2 and epithelial growth factor receptor proteins in keratocystic odontogenic tumor in comparison with dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Torabinia, Nakisa; Mohajeri, Mohammad Reza; Shahriyary, Shahriyar; Ghalegolab, Shirin; Nouri, Samin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a developmental odontogenic cyst on which various investigations have been focused due to its biological activities, high tendency to recur and different growth mechanisms in comparison with other cystic lesions. Previous studies have shown different biological and proliferative activities for the lining epithelium of KCOT. The aim of this study was immunohistochemical evaluation of Bcl-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in KCOT compared with dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 16 cases of KCOT, 16 cases of dentigerous cyst and 16 cases of ameloblastoma were immunohistochemically analyzed to determine Bcl-2 and EGFR proteins’ expression. Biotin-Stereotavidin method was used. It was observed by two oral pathologists separately, and the data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney and Kruskul–Wallis. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Regardless of staining intensity, all cases of ameloblastoma and KCOT except dentigerous cases were positively stained for Bcl-2. Expression of Bcl-2 was higher in the peripheral layer of ameloblastoma and basal layer of KCOT. Furthermore, all cases of ameloblastoma and dentigerous cysts except KCOT samples were positively stained for EGFR. Expression of EGFR was higher in the peripheral layer of ameloblastoma and basal layer of dentigerous cysts. Conclusion: According to the expression of — Bcl-2 in ameloblastoma and KCOT, and no expression of EGFR in KCOT, it can be concluded that the biological activity and growth mechanisms of KCOT are different compared with other cystic lesions. However, the aggressive potential of KCOT is not as severe as that of a neoplasm such as ameloblastoma. PMID:26288624

  12. Ultrasound markers of fetal infection, Part 2: Bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Luiz Antonio; Osborne, Newton G; Rizzi, Maria Christina S; Bonilla-Musoles, Fernando; Duarte, Geraldo; Bailão, Teresa Christina R Sicchieri

    2006-06-01

    Up to 1% of all pregnancies have clinically overt intra-amniotic bacterial infections, and an even larger percentage of pregnant women may be affected by silent infections. Although most pregnant women with overt intra-amniotic bacterial infection have experienced prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM), symptomatic and most silent nonviral intra-amniotic infections may occur with intact membranes. The etiology of intra-amniotic infection after PROM is almost always polymicrobial and consists of genital tract pathogens, such as group B streptococci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, mycoplasmas, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, such as the coliforms, and facultative and anaerobic endogenous organisms, such as peptococci, peptostreptococci, and Bacteroides species. These organisms gain access to the uterine cavity by the ascending route. Organisms such as Treponema pallidum, Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, trypanosomes, and plasmodia are capable of gaining access to the amniotic cavity by transplacental hematogenous spread, and cause devastating fetal infections. Symptomatic intra-amniotic infection is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. Diagnostic criteria based on both clinical and laboratory findings lack sensitivity and are nonspecific. It is difficult to obtain uncontaminated intra-amniotic samples, especially when there is PROM. The problem is even greater with silent infections. In most cases, fetal infection is suspected after an unexplained and unexpected adverse outcome. Maternal morbidity is increased with intra-amniotic infection; although maternal mortality is extremely rare in developed countries, this is not the case in societies where pregnant women have limited or no access to medical care. Although infected women who are treated early and aggressively with wide-spectrum antibiotics do well, more than 10% of these women develop bacteremia and up to half of them will require cesarean delivery because of poor uterine contractions and arrest of labor. The overwhelming majority of term neonates exposed to intrauterine infection after PROM do well, but up to 30% of these neonates require treatment of neonatal pneumonia or bacteremia. Outcomes for preterm neonates or for neonates who experienced silent fetal infections are more severe. Morbidity and mortality rates in these cases are high, and survivors may have long-term devastating sequelae. The ability to identify ultrasound markers of fetal infection will help clinicians identify etiologic agents with greater accuracy and correlate these infections with specific antepartum and postpartum syndromes. The recognition of markers of intrauterine infection will also reduce unexpected adverse outcomes that result from undiagnosed fetal infections. PMID:16783243

  13. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry

    E-print Network

    Scampini, Amanda C

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

  14. Cerebral infections.

    PubMed

    Karampekios, Spyros; Hesselink, John

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. PMID:15627191

  15. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass after ultrasound pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Astals, Sergi; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    High rate algal ponds are an economic and sustainable alternative for wastewater treatment, where microalgae and bacteria grow in symbiosis removing organic matter and nutrients. Microalgal biomass produced in these systems can be valorised through anaerobic digestion. However, microalgae anaerobic biodegradability is limited by the complex cell wall structure and therefore a pretreatment step may be required to improve the methane yield. In this study, ultrasound pretreatment at a range of applied specific energy (16-67 MJ/kg TS) was investigated prior to microalgae anaerobic digestion. Experiments showed how organic matter solubilisation (16-100%), hydrolysis rate (25-56%) and methane yield (6-33%) were improved as the pretreatment intensity increased. Mathematical modelling revealed that ultrasonication had a higher effect on the methane yield than on the hydrolysis rate. A preliminary energy assessment indicated that the methane yield increase was not high enough as to compensate the electricity requirement of ultrasonication without biomass dewatering (8% VS). PMID:25002372

  16. Defining Anaerobic Digestion Stability-Full Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demitry, M. E., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and a volatile solids, VS, mass balance was conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters monitored included: pH, alkalinity, VFA, and propionic acid. The values of these parameters showed that steady state had occurred. Finally, at mesophilic temperature and at steady state performance, the anaerobic digester stability was defined as a constant ratio of methane produced per substrate of ?VS (average ratio=0.404 l/g). This ratio can be used as universal metric to determine the anaerobic digester stability in an easy and inexpensive way.

  17. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  18. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  19. Bioremediation of wastewaters with decabromodiphenyl ether by anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Wang, Zhibin; Lv, Lu; Liang, Xueyou; Ren, Longfei; Zhou, Qingxin

    2015-04-01

    Facilities adopting anaerobic granular sludge are widely used for the treatment of high strength wastewater, and hence collect many polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). We initiated a detailed investigation to gain insight into the bioremoval of BDE-209 by anaerobic granules. Influenced by solution pH, ionic strength and temperature, the equilibrium time was ?6 h and the biosorption amount increased from 0.099 to 1.25 mg/g suspended sludge with the increase of BDE-209 concentrations. Kinetic studies indicate that BDE-209 biosorption on anaerobic granules follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Isotherm analysis exhibits that the Langmuir model fits the data at low temperature, while the Freundlich model is appropriate at room temperature. Thermodynamic analysis shows that biosorption followed an endothermic path and was nonspontaneous with negative value of ?G0. XPS and FTIR spectra confirmed that oxygen and nitrogen atoms notably contributed to BDE-209 binding. PMID:25784301

  20. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass: Challenges, opportunities and research needs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sialve, Bruno; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) with microalgae processes has become a key topic to support economic and environmental development of this resource. Compared with other substrates, microalgae can be produced close to the plant without the need for arable lands and be fully integrated within a biorefinery. As a limiting step, anaerobic hydrolysis appears to be one of the most challenging steps to reach a positive economic balance and to completely exploit the potential of microalgae for biogas and fertilizers production. This review covers recent investigations dealing with microalgae AD and highlights research opportunities and needs to support the development of this resource. Novel approaches to increase hydrolysis rate, the importance of the reactor design and the noteworthiness of the microbial anaerobic community are addressed. Finally, the integration of AD with microalgae processes and the potential of the carboxylate platform for chemicals and biofuels production are reviewed. PMID:26454349

  1. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  3. My Lifelong Passion for Biochemistry and Anaerobic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Thauer, Rudolf Kurt

    2015-10-15

    Early parental influence led me first to medical school, but after developing a passion for biochemistry and sensing the need for a deeper foundation, I changed to chemistry. During breaks between semesters, I worked in various biochemistry labs to acquire a feeling for the different areas of investigation. The scientific puzzle that fascinated me most was the metabolism of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri, which I took on in 1965 in Karl Decker's lab in Freiburg, Germany. I quickly realized that little was known about the biochemistry of strict anaerobes such as clostridia, methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate-reducing bacteria and that these were ideal model organisms to study fundamental questions of energy conservation, CO2 fixation, and the evolution of metabolic pathways. My passion for anaerobes was born then and is unabated even after 50 years of study. PMID:26488272

  4. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  5. Model selection, identification and validation in anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Mailier, Johan; Martin, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jorge; Aceves-Lara, César Arturo; Vande Wouwer, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion enables waste (water) treatment and energy production in the form of biogas. The successful implementation of this process has lead to an increasing interest worldwide. However, anaerobic digestion is a complex biological process, where hundreds of microbial populations are involved, and whose start-up and operation are delicate issues. In order to better understand the process dynamics and to optimize the operating conditions, the availability of dynamic models is of paramount importance. Such models have to be inferred from prior knowledge and experimental data collected from real plants. Modeling and parameter identification are vast subjects, offering a realm of approaches and methods, which can be difficult to fully understand by scientists and engineers dedicated to the plant operation and improvements. This review article discusses existing modeling frameworks and methodologies for parameter estimation and model validation in the field of anaerobic digestion processes. The point of view is pragmatic, intentionally focusing on simple but efficient methods. PMID:21920578

  6. Management of Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Saper, David; Capiro, Nina; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning

    2015-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus commonly isolated from the flora of the face, chest, and axilla region. It has emerged as a major pathogen responsible for postoperative shoulder infections after both arthroscopy and arthroplasty procedures. Patients with P. acnes shoulder infection typically present with normal laboratory values (white blood cells (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) making diagnosis difficult. Several intraoperative tissue cultures should be obtained and cultured in both agar plate and broth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions for a minimum of 13 days to optimize the sensitivity and specificity to detect P. acnes. The utilization of intraoperative frozen sections to detect P. acnes infection is not reliable. Risk factors include male, cloudy synovial fluid, lucencies around the implant, and periprosthetic membrane formation. Managements include irrigation and debridement, single or two-staged revision, and intravenous antibiotics. Open biopsy prior to the final implantation (two-staged revision) may help detect persistent P. acnes infection. Penicillin and cephalosporins are effective against clinical P. acnes infection and biofilm in vitro. Combination antibiotic therapy with rifampin and daptomycin may further increase the clinical efficacy of treatment. PMID:25596729

  7. Anaerobic Oxidation of Benzene by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ferroglobus placidus?†

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dawn E.; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]benzene to [14C]carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism, and [14C]benzoate was produced from [14C]benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not upregulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- than in benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. placidus. This is the first demonstration of a microorganism in pure culture that can grow on benzene under strict anaerobic conditions and for which there is strong evidence for degradation of benzene via clearly defined anaerobic metabolic pathways. Thus, F. placidus provides a much-needed pure culture model for further studies on the anaerobic activation of benzene in microorganisms. PMID:21742914

  8. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and discuss the potential implications for alternative energy sources.

  9. Microbial degradation of lignin-derived compounds under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant form of organic carbon in the biosphere. Recent laboratory studies indicate that a large fraction of polymeric lignin is incompletely degraded by aerobic lignolytic microorganisms and is subsequently released as lignin fragments of reduced molecular size. If such lignin-derived compounds become available in the anaerobic environment, they may serve as potential sources of organic carbon for organisms which release methane precursors. The methanogenic bacteria, in turn, serve as terminal members of the anaerobic food chain, and thus, limit the accumulation of organic carbon in anaerobic sinks. This thesis presents evidence to suggest that lignin-derived compounds which have molecular sizes greater than those of single-ring aromatic compounds (MW > 200) are anaerobically biodegradable to methane. This research involved development of selective enrichment cultures capable of utilizing oligolignols as sole carbon sources. Radiolabeled water-soluble catabolites, released during aerobic lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were subjected to anaerobic degradation. The second phase of work involved capillary gas chromatographic analyses of enrichment cultures fed a /sup 14/C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate of average molecular weight 600. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid was used to inhibit methane formation and enhance buildup of metabolic intermediates, resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids, phenylacetate, benzoate, catechol, 3-phenyl-propionate, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A conceptual model for the anaerobic degradation of two- and three-ring lignin fragments is proposed which overlaps both the ferulate and benzoate degradation pathways at the level of single-ring aromatic compounds.

  10. A Disposable Anaerobic System Designed for Field and Laboratory Use

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, John H.; Allgeier, Daniel L.

    1968-01-01

    A disposable anaerobic system which is characterized by its light weight and its compactness is described. The system consists of a multilayer plastic bag with a unique sealing device. A collapsible impregnated cardboard container is fitted with a catalyst and holders for a disposable hydrogen generator and an anaerobic indicator. The catalyst is active at room temperature and requires no heat activation. This system, which lends itself readily to compact storage, quick assembly, and ease of operation, is disposable after use. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:4874452

  11. Comparative analysis of anaerobically digested wastes flow properties.

    PubMed

    Mbaye, S; Dieudé-Fauvel, E; Baudez, J C

    2014-11-01

    The flow curve of anaerobically digested wastes from different origins was determined through rheological measurements. Regardless of their origin, samples can be divided into two families: simple non-Newtonian liquids well modelled by basic power law below 10%DC and viscoelastic liquids with a yield stress, well modelled by a Herschel-Bulkley model above. In all the cases, the rheological behaviour is driven by both the organic content and the volatile fraction (organic content/solid content), indicating that anaerobic digestion tends to smooth the rheological characteristics of organic wastes, whichever their origins. PMID:25052338

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of an anaerobic, trichlorobenzene-transforming microbial consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Wintzingerode, F. von; Goebel, U.B.; Selent, B.; Hegemann, W.

    1999-01-01

    A culture-independent phylogenetic survey for an anaerobic trichlorobenzene-transforming microbial community was carried out. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR amplified from community DNA by using primers specific for Bacteria or Euryarchaeota and were subsequently cloned. Application of a new hybridization-based screening approach revealed 51 bacterial clone families, one of which was closely related to dechlorinating Dehalobacter species. Several clone sequences clustered to rDNA sequences obtained from a molecular study of an anaerobic aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  13. Degradation of dehydrodivanillin by anaerobic bacteria from cow rumen fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S; Kawakami, H

    1985-01-01

    Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37 degrees C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-performance liquid chromatographies and by mass spectrometry. PMID:16346698

  14. Degradation of Dehydrodivanillin by Anaerobic Bacteria from Cow Rumen Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi; Kawakami, Hidekuni

    1985-01-01

    Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-performance liquid chromatographies and by mass spectrometry. PMID:16346698

  15. A simple apparatus for measuring the Eh of anaerobic media.

    PubMed

    Patel, G B; Agnew, B J

    1981-08-01

    A 22-mm outside diameter screw cap test tube was modified for measuring the redox potential (Eh) of samples of anaerobic media. The screw cap was fitted with a grey butyl rubber septum with a hole through which a platinum-calomel combination electrode was inserted. The tube was shortened in length and a small side arm that could be sealed with a serum stopper and an aluminium seal was attached. This device enabled the measurement of Eh of anaerobic media without the need for continuous flushing of the vessel headspace to maintain anaerobiosis. PMID:7028232

  16. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  17. An adaptive strategy to control anaerobic digesters for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, O.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Cuervo, F.; Femat, R.

    1996-10-01

    The design and implementation of a new adaptive controller for anaerobic digesters is presented using a general nonlinear model and an uncertainties estimation scheme. The primary advantage of this controller over standard adaptive controllers is that biogas flow rate measurements are not required. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard adaptive controllers and can be tuned analogously. The adaptive control strategy has been implemented in a pilot-scale anaerobic digester showing good performance and robustness against changes in the feed load.

  18. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Buelter, Thomas; Meinhold, Peter; Feldman, Reid M. Renny; Hawkins, Andrew C.; Urano, Jun; Bastian, Sabine; Arnold, Frances

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  19. [Legionella infections].

    PubMed

    Fleurette, J

    1983-01-01

    The authors review the bacteriological features of Legionella infections, their clinical symptoms and the methods of diagnosis. They stress the unusual ecological features of Legionella which generally lives in natural water reservoirs or in artificial reservoirs (drinking water piping, air conditioning). In the clinical situation, current emphasis is on the extrapulmonary infections whose pathogenesis has not yet been fully explained. The incidence and prevalence of Legionella in pneumonia still needs to be defined. The methods of bacteriological and serological diagnosis are described as well as the ways of interpreting the results. PMID:6666882

  20. Management of human and animal bite wound infection: an overview.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2009-09-01

    Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, Neisseria canis, Staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxidizer-1, and eugonic oxidizer-2 in dog, Flavobacterium group in pig, and Actinobacillus spp in horse and sheep bites. Vibrio spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas spp can cause infections in bites associated with marine settings. In addition to local wound infection, complications include lymphangitis, local abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and osteomyelitis. Uncommon complications include endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, and sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation especially in immunocompromised individuals. Wound management includes administering local care and using proper antimicrobial therapy when needed. PMID:19698283

  1. Modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 for dry and semi-dry anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; Chatellier, Patrice; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The role of total solids (TS) content in anaerobic digestion of selected complex organic matter, e.g. rice straw and food waste, was investigated. A range of TS from wet (4.5%) to dry (23%) was evaluated. A modified version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 for a complex organic substrate is proposed to take into account the effect of the TS content on anaerobic digestion. A linear function that correlates the kinetic constants of three specific processes (i.e. disintegration, acetate and propionate up-take) was included in the model. Results of biomethanation and volatile fatty acids production tests were used to calibrate the proposed model. Model simulations showed a good agreement between numerical and observed data. PMID:25311887

  2. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  3. The survival of anaerobic fungi in cattle faeces P. McGranaghan 1Ya

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Gareth

    The survival of anaerobic fungi in cattle faeces P. McGranaghan 1Ya , J.C. Davies b , G.W. Gri The survival of anaerobic fungi in cattle faeces was studied under a range of environmental conditions, in the laboratory, in cowpats, in slurry and in manure. Numbers of anaerobic fungi were enumerated as thallus

  4. Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion

    E-print Network

    Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

  5. Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System@cornell.edu URL: http://www.jove.com/video/3978/ DOI: 10.3791/3978 Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, J.G., Spirito, C.M., Angenent, L.T. Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic

  6. Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions on Chlorophenol Sorption in Wetland Soils

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions on Chlorophenol Sorption in Wetland Soils Elisa D- Much research on organic pollutant sorption has dem-bated under aerobic or anaerobic conditions a strong link between the distribution ratio of aerobic and anaerobic processes on sorption, and (ii

  7. Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Circular Mantle Muscle Fibers in Swimming Squid: Electromyography

    E-print Network

    Horth, Lisa

    Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Circular Mantle Muscle Fibers in Swimming Squid: Electromyography IAN muscle of squids and cuttle- fishes consists of distinct zones of aerobic and anaerobic muscle fibers recorded from electrodes intersecting both the central anaerobic and pe- ripheral aerobic circular mantle

  8. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Bailey, V.L.; Plymale, A.E.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2006-04-05

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by co-disposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Pu(IV)-EDTA is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds. Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) is likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions and the anaerobic biodegradation of Pu-EDTA. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV), the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA, how the Pu(III)-EDTA competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, soluble Pu(III)-EDTA under anaerobic conditions would require anaerobic degradation of the EDTA to limit Pu(III) transport. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have never been isolated. Recent results have shown that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium, can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(IV) was provided as insoluble PuO2. The highest rate of Pu(IV) reduction was with the addition of AQDS, an electron shuttle. Of the total amount of Pu solubilized (i.e., soluble through a 0.36 nm filter), approximately 70% was Pu(III). The amount of soluble Pu was between 4.8 and 3.2 micromolar at day 1 and 6, respectively, indicating rapid reduction. The micromolar Pu is significant since the drinking water limit for Pu is 10{sup -12} M. On-going experiments are investigating the influence of EDTA on the rate of Pu reduction and the stability of the formed Pu(III). We have also begun to enrich and isolate bacteria capable of aerobic and anaerobic degradation of EDTA. Environmental samples (e.g., sludges, river sediments) were incubated aerobically and anaerobically with EDTA or NTA as the sole carbon and energy source. Aerobic enrichment with EDTA has not resulted in any cultures, but NTA has provided several isolates. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and sequence comparison identified four separate strains closely related to Microbacterium oxydans, Aminobacter sp., Achromobacter sp., Aminobacter sp., respectively. Anaerobic enrichments with either EDTA or NTA are still in progress since metabolism and growth is relatively slow. In addition to the biotransformation experiments, studies are underway to determine/validate complexation constants of Pu(III) with EDTA and the influence of competing ions on Pu(III)-EDTA complexes. These data are being obtained through solubility studies of PuPO{sub 4}(s) and Pu(OH){sub 3}(s) as a function of time, pH, and EDTA and competing ion concentrations. These results have begun to fill-in knowledge gaps of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop Pu transport in groundwater at DOE sites.

  9. Odontoblasts in odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Milos, Nadine C; Peters, Edmund; Daley, Tom

    2013-09-01

    Odontoblasts are secretory cells displaying epithelial and mesenchymal features, which exist in a monolayer at the interface between the dentin and pulp of a tooth. During embryogenesis, these cells form a dentin shell and throughout life continue to produce dentin while, also acting as sensor cells helping to mediate tooth sensitivity. In this process, odontoblasts are forced to migrate inwards, resulting in an ongoing loss of pulp volume. Correspondingly, there is also a decrease in the surface area of the dentin which supports the odontoblast cell layer. As these events transpire, odontoblasts maintain a tightly controlled monolayer relationship to each other as well as to their dentin substrate. Stability is maintained laterally by epithelial attachment structures and transversely by complex cytoplasmic extensions into the supporting dentin. As a result, it is not possible for the layer to buckle to relieve the mechanical stresses, which develop during the inward migration. A theoretical consequence of this distinctive self-generated niche is the development of long term compressive stresses within the odontoblast population. We present a mechanobiology model, which causally relates the increase in cellular compressive stresses to contact inhibition of proliferation. We link this hypothesis to the observation that there are no reports of pulpal odontoblasts showing neoplasia or acquisition of changes suggestive of a pre-neoplastic phenotype. PMID:23786903

  10. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  11. Paratyphoid Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The numerous motile members of the bacterial genus Salmonella are collectively referred to as paratyphoid (PT) salmonellae. Found throughout the world, these organisms infect a wide variety of hosts (including invertebrate and vertebrate wildlife, domestic animals, and humans) to yield either asympt...

  12. Tinea Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Tinea is the name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus. Types of tinea include ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch. These infections are ... depend on the affected area of the body: Ringworm is a red skin rash that forms a ...

  13. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you take antibiotics, you increase the chances that bacteria in your body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  14. Giardia infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on surfaces that have come into contact with animal or human waste. You may become infected if you: Are exposed to a family member with giardiasis Drink water from lakes or streams where animals such as beavers and muskrats, or domestic animals ...

  15. Streptococcal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during pregnancy can tell if you have it. If you do, I.V. antibiotics during labor can save your baby's ... and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  16. Performance of BacT/Alert resin-based FN plus bottles compared with BacT/Alert charcoal-based FN bottles for the detection of anaerobes in experimentally seeded blood cultures.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Emmerechts, Kristof; Piérard, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Recently new resin-based BacT/Alert FAN Plus bottles containing antibiotic-binding polymeric beads, were introduced as an improvement of the charcoal-based FAN bottles for the recovery of bacteria and fungi. To assess the performance of the novel anaerobic FN plus bottles in the detection of anaerobic organisms, we compared the detection rate and the time to detection (TTD) in spiked resin-based FN Plus bottles and charcoal-based FN bottles. The bottles were experimentally seeded with reference strains or clinical strains collected from positive blood cultures. Five reference strains and fifty-five clinically significant anaerobic isolates were investigated, of which 91% (61/67) showed growth in both types of bottles within an incubation time of 5 days. A significant prolonged median TTD of 45 h for anaerobic microorganisms was observed in the resin-based bottles versus 29 h in the charcoal-based bottles (P < 0.0001). Bacteroides spp., associated with higher virulence and higher mortality rates in bloodstream infections, were detected faster in the charcoal-based bottles as compared to the resin-based bottles. In conclusion recently improved resin FN bottles showed a significantly increased median TTD for the recovery of anaerobic isolates. PMID:26254850

  17. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings. PMID:26575617

  18. A STUDY OF LAND APPLICATION OF ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale research project was conducted in 2004-2005 to evaluate land application of anaerobically digested biosolids at agronomic levels. Biosolids had not been applied to this land previously. For this study, biosolids wee applied in a 100-m diameter circle by a side dis...

  19. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  20. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...