These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Treatment options in odontogenic infection.  

PubMed

Most infections of the oral cavity are primary, odontogenic infections, with dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis the most common. Treating these infections will encompass odontologic, antimicrobial, surgical or combined treatment. Antimicrobial treatment includes the use of betalactams, macrolydes, tetracyclins, metronidazole, clindamycin, or combined treatment. The most commonly used ones are administered orally. PK/ PD parameters predict THE clinical and microbiological efficacy of the antibiotic. The three indices that are generally used to measure clinical efficacy are: T >MIC (time during which the concentration is above the minimum inhibitory concentration), Cmax/ MIC (ratio between peak concentration and the minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC/ MIC (ratio between the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration). Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid is one of the antibiotics recommended for the treatment of odontogenic infections due to its wide spectrum, low incidence of resistance, pharmacokinetic profile, tolerance and dosage. PMID:15580134

Maestre-Vera, Juan Ramón

2004-01-01

2

Review article: Maxillofacial emergencies: oral pain and odontogenic infections.  

PubMed

Oral pain and odontogenic infections are common reasons for patients to present to EDs and general medical practice in Australia. Although most odontogenic infections can be managed on an outpatient basis, because of their proximity to the airway, infections in this region can be life threatening, requiring urgent surgical intervention and ICU management. This article focuses on the emergency assessment, triage and non-specialist management of oral pain and odontogenic infections. PMID:25065769

DeAngelis, Adrian F; Barrowman, Roland A; Harrod, Richard; Nastri, Alf L

2014-08-01

3

Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic and capnophilic bacteria isolated from odontogenic abscesses and rapidly progressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

In dentistry antimicrobials are used in the treatment of progressive periodontitis and odontogenic abscesses, therefore the susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics of capnophilic and anaerobic species causing these diseases should be investigated. The activity of penicillin, amoxycillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, doxycycline, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin was investigated. One hundred and sixty four isolates from subgingival plaque samples of 66 patients with progressive periodontitis and 192 bacterial strains from pus of 74 patients with odontogenic abscesses were included in this study. The majority of species tested were gram-negative anaerobes (Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp.), and were highly susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole. Nearly 6% of the periodontal isolates and 22% of the bacteria obtained from pus samples produced beta-lactamases. With the exception of the periodontopathogenic species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens, clindamycin seemed to be a useful antibiotic and could be recommended for empirical antimicrobial treatment. PMID:10389646

Eick, S; Pfister, W; Straube, E

1999-06-01

4

Odontogenic deep neck space infection as life-threatening condition in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Odontogenic deep neck space infections represent a severe disease with possible life-threatening complications. Despite knowledge of these infectious diseases, treatment remains a challenge for every maxillofacial surgeon. Therapy of severe neck infections is even more crucial during pregnancy because of the possible life-threatening situation for both the mother and the foetus. The possible compromise of oral health during pregnancy is well known, however severe odontogenic infections are rarely considered in the literature. The following case report describes the dramatic course of a deep neck space infection in a pregnant patient, commencing with typical symptoms of localized odontogenic infection and ending in a critical, life-threatening condition for the patient and a lethal condition for the foetus. The case represents the first description of intrauterine, foetal death caused by a deep neck space infection. Implications for dental and medical treatment during pregnancy, especially regarding odontogenic infections, are presented and discussed with findings in the international literature. PMID:24819888

Dalla Torre, D; Burtscher, D; Höfer, D; Kloss, F R

2014-09-01

5

Anaerobic oral and dental infection.  

PubMed

Anaerobes make up a significant part of the oral and dental indigenous and pathogenic flora. Their role in periodontal disease, root canal infections, infections of the hard and soft oral tissue, as well as their importance as foci for disseminated infectious disease is well established. Despite the ubiquitous involvement of bacteria, significant progress in our understanding of specific microbial etiologies has occurred only in the past decade. Estimates of the number of species recovered from samples of subgingival plaque range from 250 to 400, a large portion made up by anaerobes. Common anaerobic isolates include Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Selenomonas, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, and Treponema. Recently, several significant advances in our knowledge have set the stage for future research. First, circulating levels of hormones in pregnant women were shown to be stimulatory to Bacteroides species, which were associated with increased levels of gingival infection. Second, bacterial invasion of the soft and hard periodontal tissues has been documented in gingivitis, advanced periodontitis, and localized juvenile periodontitis. The frequency and identity of invading bacteria will determine the implications for diagnosis and treatment. Third, antibacterial "probes" aimed at anaerobic (and capnophilic) bacteria have had promising results in controlling and arresting oral, dental, and peridontal anaerobic infections. PMID:6372018

Newman, M G

1984-01-01

6

Posterior auricular approach for decompression and drainage of superficial temporal space infections of odontogenic origin.  

PubMed

Involvement of superficial temporal space secondary to odontogenic infections of the maxillary and mandibular teeth is not uncommon. Usually, infections of the temporal space are drained via temporal approach. Authors propose a new approach for decompression and drainage of superficial temporal space which offers an advantage of dependent drainage and hidden scar. PMID:25729236

Thakur, Gagan; Bhargava, Darpan; Thomas, Shaji; Arora, Punitpal Singh

2015-03-01

7

A Case of Odontogenic Infection by Streptococcus constellatus Leading to Systemic Infection in a Cogan's Syndrome Patient  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic infection in immunocompromised patients tends to extend systemically beyond the oral cavity. Our case report presents a patient with sepsis due to a Streptococcus constellatus (S. constellatus) odontogenic infection in a 64-year-old-immunocompromised woman with Cogan's syndrome. She had been suffering from chronic mandibular osteomyelitis which was thought to have been caused by dental caries and/or chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement of the left mandibular first molar. We suspect that the acute symptoms of the chronic osteomyelitis due to S. constellatus led to the systemic infection. This infection could be accelerated by the use of a corticosteroid and an alendronate. This is the first report which represents the potential association between odontogenic infection and Cogan's syndrome. PMID:25506439

Mori, Yoshiyuki; Ohata, Yae; Saijo, Hideto; Ohkubo, Kazumi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi

2014-01-01

8

Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

Brook, Itzhak

1995-01-01

9

Antibiotic prescription in the treatment of odontogenic infection by health professionals: A factor to consensus  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the attitude of dentists and family doctors in prescribing antibiotics for the treatment of dental infections. Study Design: A poll was performed to determine the differences in the prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of odontogenic infection by dentists and family doctors of the primary care department of the Catalan Health Care Service. Results: A hundred polls were distributed among family doctors, and another 100 ones among primary care dentists assigned to the Catalan Health Care Service of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Of the total of questionnaires distributed, 63 were retuned and answered from dentists and 71 from family doctors. Eighty-one percent of dentists included in the opinion poll considered amoxicillin as the first antibiotic choice for the treatment of odontogenic infections, while 73.2% of family doctors preferred the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. With regard to antibiotics of choice in patients allergic to penicillin, 67.7% of family doctors preferred macrolides (25.4% opted for clarithromycin, 25.4% for erythromycin and 16.9% for spiramycin). However, clindamycin was the antibiotic most frequently prescribed by dentists (66.7%), followed by erythromycin (28.6%). Conclusions: The results of this study show a large discrepancy in the criteria for the treatment of odontogenic infections on the part of leading professionals involved in the management of this condition. Although the most common prescription involved beta-lactam antibiotics in both groups, several significant differences have been detected with regard to the second antibiotic choice. Key words:Odontogenic infections, antibiotics, antimicrobials. PMID:22143715

González-Martínez, Raquel; Cortell-Ballester, Isidoro; Herráez-Vilas, José M.; Arnau-de Bolós, José M.

2012-01-01

10

Facial paralysis and mediastinitis due to odontogenic infection and poor prognosis.  

PubMed

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is a rare, rapidly advancing infection that involves the skin, the subcutaneous fibrofatty tissue, as well as the superficial and deep fascia and can cause life-threatening complications. The most frequent initiating factors in the head and neck region are a primary odontogenic infection, a peritonsillar infection, as well as posttraumatic or iatrogenic skin and mucosal injuries. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) can expand within hours, and the reported mortality rate is up to 75% with delay interference. If the patients have any risk factors, poor prognosis can be seen. In this study, 1 patient with CNF with a history of peritonsillar infection and 2 patients with CNF who had a history of odontogenic infection with spreading to the temporal region and the mediastinum were described, with information of the literature and a clinical experience that was gained from 5 patients with NF who were seen at our clinic in the recent year, despite the fact that CNF was not seen up to last year. None of the patients had any risk factors. One of them had a worse clinical state with ascending infection to the temporal region, cranial nerve paralysis, and descending necrotizing mediastinitis, but he recovered from NF. After the oral intake began, dyspnea due to aspiration was seen and he died because of sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction. We aimed to attract attention to the importance of dental pathologies and increased mortality in a healthy patient. PMID:24220381

Bucak, Abdulkadir; Ulu, Sahin; Kokulu, Serdar; Oz, Gürhan; Solak, Okan; Kahveci, Orhan Kemal; Ayçiçek, Abdullah

2013-11-01

11

Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.  

PubMed

The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date. PMID:20083328

Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

2011-01-01

12

Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis (sans thrombosis) secondary to odontogenic fascial space infection: an uncommon complication with unusual presentation.  

PubMed

We discuss an unusual presentation of non-thrombotic cavernous sinus involvement in a patient who was treated for odontogenic fascial space infection arising from a maxillary molar. The highlights were ipsilateral abducens sparing, contralateral abducens involvement and lack of significant orbital congestion. The patient recovered with conservative treatment. PMID:25838693

Prabhu, Sundararaman; Jain, Sachin Kumar; Dal Singh, Vankudoth

2015-03-01

13

Do temperature and atmospheric pressure affect the incidence of serious odontogenic infection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the popular belief that the incidence of odontogenic cellulitis is weather-related. Two meteorologic parameters were examined: temperature and atmospheric pressure.Study Design. To test the hypothesis being studied, a retrospective cohort study design was used. Medical reports of all patients with serious odontogenic cellulitis who were treated at the Salpêtrière University Hospital

Jean-Paul Meningaud; Françoise Roudot-Thoraval; Jacques-Charles Bertrand; Francis Guilbert

1998-01-01

14

Odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare, benign, locally aggressive and non metastasizing neoplasm which is believed to arise from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme and bears a close microscopic resemblance to mesenchymal portion of a tooth germ. This is a case report of odontogenic myxoma in a 32 year old female patient and the treatment rendered to her. PMID:24822019

Kumar, Naresh; Kohli, Munish; Pandey, Saumya; Agarwal, Poonam

2014-06-01

15

Clinical medicine—Mini review Animal models simulating anaerobic infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models simulating human disease have played an important role in our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of infections caused by obligately anaerobic bacteria. These models helped document the primary source of such infections as the host's own normal microflora. In addition, the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic infections was documented by using animal models for intraabdominal sepsis. Subsequent studies

Andrew B. Onderdonk

16

Tinidazole--microbiology, pharmacology and efficacy in anaerobic infections.  

PubMed

Tinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole with selective activity against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is bactericidal at low concentrations and its spectrum covers most anaerobic bacteria and some capnophilic microorganisms. Anaerobic bacteria known to be resistant to tinidazole include anaerobic streptococci, actinomyces and propionibacteria. Tinidazole is one of the most active antibacterial agents against Bacteroides fragilis which is one of the most resistant species of anaerobic bacteria. Only a few strains have been reported to be resistant. Tinidazole has been shown to be efficacious in protozoal infections such as trichomonal vaginitis, amoebiasis and giardiasis. Clinical studies have also shown that tinidazole is efficacious in the treatment of anaerobic infections including respiratory tract infections, intra-abdominal sepsis and obstetrical and gynecological infections. Since tinidazole has no activity against aerobic bacteria, it must be combined with other antibacterial agents in the treatment of mixed infections involving aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Tinidazole has also been used successfully alone or in combination with other antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective colonic and abdominal surgery, emergency appendectomy and gynecological surgery. PMID:6341253

Nord, C E; Kager, L

1983-01-01

17

Odontogenic myxoma.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare intraosseous neoplasm, which is benign but locally aggressive. It rarely appears in any bone other than the jaws. It is considered to be derived from the mesenchymal portion of the tooth germ. Clinically, it is a slow-growing, expansile, painless, non-metastasizing, central tumor of jaws, chiefly the mandible. Here we report the case of a typical odontogenic myxoma in a 26-year-old female patient, which had acquired large dimensions and involved the entire left half of the mandible including the ramus, resulting in a gross facial deformity, within a span of one and a half years. PMID:24163558

Gupta, Suchitra; Grover, Neeraj; Kadam, Ajit; Gupta, Shally; Sah, Kunal; Sunitha, J D

2013-01-01

18

Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infection after trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and laboratory data from 1973 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed to study the microbiology of infection following trauma. A total of 368 specimens obtained from 340 trauma patients showed bacterial growth. The traumas included lacerations (163), blunt trauma (76), penetrating trauma (65), bites (20), and open fractures (10). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 119 (32%) specimens, aerobic bacteria

Itzhak Brook; Edith H Frazier

1998-01-01

19

Differences in distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobes isolated from complicated intra-abdominal infections versus diabetic foot infections.  

PubMed

Few labs isolate and perform susceptibility tests on anaerobes; therefore, we studied the differences between 1185 anaerobes isolated from complicated intra-abdominal infections and 470 isolated from moderate to severe diabetic foot infections. They differed markedly in the distribution of species, including Bacteroides fragilis and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, as well as in resistance patterns, especially to fluoroquinolones. PMID:23727512

Claros, Marina; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2013-08-01

20

Cerebral Abscess Potentially of Odontogenic Origin  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic origins are rarely implicated in the formation of brain abscesses. The relative paucity of this kind of infection and the difficulty in matching the causative microorganisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source can explain the late management of patients. We herein describe a case of a 46-year-old man with a cerebellar abscess that was probably due to an odontogenic infection. The diagnosis supported by imaging and microscopic identification, mini craniectomy for abscess drainage followed by eradication of all potential dental infectious foci, and an antibiotic regimen based on cephalosporins, metronidazole, and vancomycine contributed to a successful outcome. PMID:25705523

Ben Hadj Hassine, Marouene; Oualha, Lamia; Derbel, Amine; Douki, Nabiha

2015-01-01

21

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour and dentinogenic ghost cell tumour. This is the case of a middle-aged male who presented with a slow-growing maxillary tumour. He was asymptomatic until pain symptoms developed prior to initial presentation. The excised tumour was diagnosed as a ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma. More case reports are

S. P. Nazaretian; M. E. Schenberg; I. Simpson; P. J. Slootweg

2007-01-01

22

Microbiological Analysis of a Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Moxifloxacin and Clindamycin in the Treatment of Odontogenic Infiltrates and Abscesses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify the oral pathogens found in odontogenic infections, to determine their susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), clindamycin (CLI), doxycycline (DOX), levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MXF), and penicillin (PEN), and to search for associations between specific pathogens and types of infection. Swabs from patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind phase II trial comparing MXF with CLI for the treatment of odontogenic abscesses or inflammatory infiltrates were cultured on media for aerobes and anaerobes. All bacterial isolates were identified at the species level. Overall, 205 isolates were cultured from 71 patients: 77 viridans group streptococci, 56 Prevotella spp., 19 Neisseria spp., 17 Streptococcus anginosus group isolates and hemolytic streptococci, 15 other anaerobes, and 21 other bacteria. Ninety-eight percent of pathogens were susceptible to MXF, 96% to AMC, 85% to LVX, 67% to PEN, 60% to CLI, and 50% to DOX. S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.04) in patients with abscesses (12/95) than in patients with infiltrates (5/110). In four patients with infiltrates who failed to respond to CLI therapy, three isolates of the Streptococcus mitis group and four Neisseria spp. resistant to CLI were found. In this study, S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were clearly associated with odontogenic abscesses. Our analysis suggests that viridans group streptococci and Neisseria spp. play a decisive role in the etiology of odontogenic infiltrates. The high in vitro activity of MXF against odontogenic bacteria corresponds well to its clinical results in the treatment of odontogenic abscesses and infiltrates. PMID:22354306

Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Balzer, Ludwig; Böger, Rainer H.; Hallier, Olaf; Giersdorf, Ina; Streichert, Thomas; Haddad, Munif; Platzer, Ursula

2012-01-01

23

When is bacterial vaginosis not bacterial vaginosis?--a case of cervical carcinoma presenting as recurrent vaginal anaerobic infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal anaerobic infection is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women. We present a case of recurrent vaginal anaerobic infection and cervical carcinoma and discuss the association of the two conditions. More frequent cytology\\/colposcopy may be indicated in women who give a history of recurrent or persistent vaginal anaerobic infection.

M M Hudson; J A Tidy; T A McCulloch; K E Rogstad

1997-01-01

24

Metronidazole: in vitro activity, pharmacology and efficacy in anaerobic bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Metronidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole that has selective activity against anaerobic microorganisms, including bacteria and protozoa. Intravenous metronidazole has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of serious anaerobic bacterial infections. It is usually bactericidal at low concentrations, and its spectrum of activity encompasses almost all anaerobic bacteria and some capnophilic organisms. Anaerobic bacteria known to be resistant to metronidazole include occasional anaerobic cocci, some nonsporulating gram-positive bacilli and propionibacterium. Metronidazole is the most active antimicrobial agent against Bacteroides fragilis, the most resistant of anaerobic bacteria. Kill-curve studies demonstrate that there is a 2 to 5 log decrease in the number of colony forming units of B. fragilis and Clostridium perfringens within one hour. The only well documented metronidazole-resistant strain is a B. fragilis isolated from the normal flora of a patient on long-term metronidazole therapy for Crohn's Disease. Metronidazole resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis has recently been described in a few strains that are able to survive at increased oxygen tensions. Metronidazole has been shown to be efficacious in certain protozoal infections including trichomonal vaginitis, extraintestinal amebiasis, and giardiasis. Clinical studies have shown metronidazole to be efficacious in the therapy of a variety of anaerobic infections, including non-traumatic brain abscesses, intraabdominal sepsis, pelvic suppuration and necrotizing soft tissue infections. There have been disappointing results in the therapy of anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections with a number of superinfections caused by aerobic bacteria. Since metronidazole lacks any activity against aerobic bacteria, it must be combined with other agents, usually aminoglycosides, in the treatment of mixed infections involving anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. PMID:6927601

Tally, F P; Sullivan, C E

1981-01-01

25

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma arising in calcifying odontogenic cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of exceptionally rare odontogenic malignant tumor, called ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma, is described. The tumor was considered to be derived from calcifying odontogenic cyst, which had been resected 5 years before. In the present resected specimen, cellular atypia, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, and p53 positivity were all increased in comparison with the initially resected specimen. This is

Utaroh Motosugi; Ikuko Ogawa; Tetsuya Yoda; Takahiro Abe; Masashi Sugasawa; Shin-ichi Murata; Masanori Yasuda; Takaki Sakurai; Yoshihiko Shimizu; Michio Shimizu

2009-01-01

26

The role of anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and other head and neck infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobes are common pathogens in chronic upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections. They can be recovered in chronic\\u000a otitis media and sinusitis, play a role in tonsillitis, and predominate in complications of these infections, causing deep\\u000a oral and neck infections and abscesses. In addition to their direct pathogenicity, they play an indirect role through the\\u000a production of the

Itzhak Brook

2007-01-01

27

Susceptibility of strict and facultative anaerobes Isolated from endodontic infections to metronidazole and beta-lactams.  

PubMed

Endodontic infections are mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections and several microbial groups associated to these pathologies are also involved in orofacial infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from endodontic infections to beta-lactams and metronidazole and verify the production of beta-lactamases. Clinical specimens were collected from 58 endodontic infections of 52 patients. The microorganisms were isolated in selective and non-selective culture media, under anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, and identified using biochemical methods. In the susceptibility tests, it was used an agar dilution method, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar enriched with blood, hemin and menadione for the anaerobes, while Mueller-Hinton agar was employed for the facultative anaerobes. The production of beta-lactamases was evaluated through the biological and chromogenic cephalosporin methods. All tested isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 99.3% to amoxicillin/clavulanate association, while 16.1% showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin G, and 4.89% to cefoxitin. Resistance to metronidazole was just found in facultative anaerobes. Production of beta-lactamases was detected in 18.2% of the isolates and presented a correlation with resistance to beta-lactams. PMID:19089195

Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Lins, Samira Ambar; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; de Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo

2007-12-01

28

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STRICT AND FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES ISOLATED FROM ENDODONTIC INFECTIONS TO METRONIDAZOLE AND ?-LACTAMS  

PubMed Central

Endodontic infections are mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections and several microbial groups associated to these pathologies are also involved in orofacial infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from endodontic infections to ?-lactams and metronidazole and verify the production of ?-lactamases. Clinical specimens were collected from 58 endodontic infections of 52 patients. The microorganisms were isolated in selective and non-selective culture media, under anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, and identified using biochemical methods. In the susceptibility tests, it was used an agar dilution method, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar enriched with blood, hemin and menadione for the anaerobes, while Mueller- Hinton agar was employed for the facultative anaerobes. The production of ?-lactamases was evaluated through the biological and chromogenic cephalosporin methods. All tested isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 99.3% to amoxicillin/clavulanate association, while 16.1% showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin G, and 4.89% to cefoxitin. Resistance to metronidazole was just found in facultative anaerobes. Production of ?-lactamases was detected in 18.2% of the isolates and presented a correlation with resistance to ?-lactams. PMID:19089195

Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Lins, Samira Âmbar; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; de Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo

2007-01-01

29

Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

2000-11-01

30

B-Cell Deficiency Predisposes Mice to Disseminating Anaerobic Infections: Protection by Passive Antibody Transfer  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that a high proportion of RAG-2 SCID knockout mice, which lack T and B cells, develop orofacial abscesses and disseminated infections following pulpal infection, whereas immunocompetent control mice do not. In the present study, we sought to identify the components of the adaptive immune response which contribute to protection against disseminating anaerobic infections and sepsis. For this purpose, various genetically engineered immunodeficient mice were employed, including RAG-2 SCID, Igh-6 (B-cell deficient), Tcrb Tcrd (T-cell deficient) and Hc0 (C5 deficient). For abscess induction, the mandibular first molars were subjected to pulp exposure on day 0. Teeth were infected with a mixture of four anaerobic pathogens, including Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus intermedius, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus micros, and teeth were sealed to prevent communication with the oral cavity. The findings demonstrate that both RAG-2 SCID and B-cell-deficient mice, but not T-cell- or C5-deficient mice, have increased susceptibility to the development of disseminating anaerobic infections. Abscess-susceptible RAG-2 SCID and B-cell-deficient mice also showed a significant loss of body weight, splenomegaly, and absent antibacterial antibody production. Furthermore, dissemination was significantly reduced, from 74 to 25%, in susceptible RAG-2 mice by passively transferred antibody, predominantly immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) and IgM, against the infecting bacterial innoculum. Fractionated IgG-enriched preparations were more efficient in transferring protection than IgM preparations. We conclude that an antibody-mediated mechanism(s), most likely bacterial opsonization, is of importance in localizing anaerobic root canal infections and in preventing their systemic spread. PMID:10992465

Hou, Linda; Sasakj, Hajime; Stashenko, Philip

2000-01-01

31

Hybrid odontogenic tumor of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic tumors composed of 2 distinct types of lesions are unusual. We report an odontogenic tumor that was composed of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma that occurred in the right posterior maxilla of a 22-year-old Korean woman. The tumor had a cystic component with an ameloblastic epithelial lining and conglomerates of so-called ghost cells, and there were deposits of

Jung Hoon Yoon; Hyung Jun Kim; Jong In Yook; In Ho Cha; Gary L Ellis; Jin Kim

2004-01-01

32

In Vitro Activity of Ceftobiprole against Aerobic and Anaerobic Strains Isolated from Diabetic Foot Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against 443 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from diabetic foot infections, ceftobiprole MICs (g\\/ml) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were as follows: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 1; methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 0.5; Anaerococcus prevotii, 0.125; Finegoldia magna, 0.5; Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus ,1 ;Peptostreptococcus anaerobius ,4 ;Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species, 0.125; Klebsiella species, 2; and Pseudomonas

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2006-01-01

33

Treatment of mandibular odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with surgical treatment of 31 mandibular odontogenic keratocysts, with special reference to their recurrence, and to review the literature on this subject.Study design. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all odontogenic cysts treated in the Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine at Jordan University of Science and Technology

Anwar B Bataineh; Mansour A Al Qudah

1998-01-01

34

Odontogenic myxoma of the mandible.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms found almost exclusively in the jaws and arise only occasionally in other bones. We present a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the mandible of a 19-year-old male patient with a brief review of clinical and radiological features, and diagnostic and operative dilemmas in managing the same. PMID:22830060

Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Venkata Suneel; Venkata Sarath, P; Anumula, Lavanya; Mundlapudi, Sridhar; Tanikonda, Rambabu

2012-01-01

35

Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.  

PubMed

Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. PMID:24915886

LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

2014-01-01

36

Clinical application of povidone-iodine oral antiseptic 1% (Betadine mouthwash) and povidone-iodine skin antiseptic 10% (Betadine solution) for the management of odontogenic and deep fascial space infection.  

PubMed

Treatment of infections largely encompasses the field of dental medicine. Prevention and management of infection in the oral and maxillofacial region involve every facet of dental care that may be necessary due to caries, periodontal disease, pulpal pathology, trauma, reconstructive and surgical implants. One of the first surgical procedures in the treatment of localized infection commenced with the opening of bulbous abscesses with sharp stones and pointed sticks. The principles for the management of infection basically remain the same although the surgical technique has remarkably improved. It takes a qualitative and quantitative amount of bacterial insult to produce a certain degree of infection that may eventually lead to facial swelling, asymmetry, discomfort and loss of function. In the oral cavity and its surrounding structures, the predominant organisms such as the staphylococci and streptococci release enzymes responsible for the breakdown of fibrin (connective tissue ground substances) and lyse cellular debris, which facilitates a rapid spread of infection. At the University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital Medical Center, where I have served for 18 years, 90% of dental consultations from the outpatient department and emergency room complex concern infection, and 85% of facial swelling is dental in origin. A typical odontogenic infection is a dentoalveolar abscess that spreads deeply into the soft tissue rather than exiting superficially through the oral and cutaneous route, consequently involving the fascial spaces. Following the path of least resistance through connective tissue and along fascial planes, infection may diffuse quite distantly from its dental source, causing damage to the surrounding structures. Appreciation not only of the anatomy of the face and neck is necessary to predict sufficiently the pathway of spread of these infections, but also knowledge of how to drain these spaces adequately. PMID:16490987

Valderrama, Lucia Sarmiento

2006-01-01

37

Bone and joint infections due to anaerobic bacteria: an analysis of 61 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaerobic bone and joint infections (BJI) were underestimated before the advent of molecular identification and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We report 61 cases of anaerobic infections based on our 4-year experience with the management of BJI. A total of 75% of cases were post-surgical infections, associated with osteosynthesis devices (65%). Early infections occurred in 27% of cases, delayed infections in 17.5% of cases, and late infections in 55% of cases. We recorded 36 species of 93 anaerobic strains using MALDI-TOF MS (91) and molecular methods (2). We identified 20 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 13 of Finegoldia magna, six of Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, and six of P. harei. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 50 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in 93.5% of cases. The antibiotic treatments included amoxicillin (30%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), metronidazole (30%), and clindamycin (26%). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in 17 cases (28%). The relapse rate (27%) was associated with lower limbs localization (p?=?0.001). P. acnes BJI was associated with shoulder (p?=?0.019), vertebra (p?=?0.021), and head flap localization (p?=?0.011), and none of these cases relapsed (p?=?0.007). F. magna BJI was associated with ankle localization (p?=?0.014). Anaerobic BJI is typically considered as a post-surgical polymicrobial infection, and the management of this infection combines surgical and medical treatments. MALDI-TOF MS and molecular identification have improved diagnosis. Thus, physicians should be aware of the polymicrobial nature of anaerobic BJI to establish immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the post-surgical period until accurate microbiological results have been obtained. PMID:24577953

Walter, G; Vernier, M; Pinelli, P O; Million, M; Coulange, M; Seng, P; Stein, A

2014-08-01

38

A simple procedure to determine the infectivity and host range of viruses infecting anaerobic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plaque assay is the method traditionally used to isolate and purify lytic viruses, to determine the viral titer and host range. Whereas most bacterioviruses are either temperate or lytic, the majority of known archeoviruses are not lytic (i.e. they are temperate or chronic). In view of the widespread occurrence of such viruses in extreme environments, we designed an original method, called the inverted spot test, to determine the host range and infectivity of viruses isolated from anaerobic hyperthermophilic and sulfur-reducing microorganisms. Here, we used this approach to prove for the first time the infectivity of Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1) and to confirm the host range of Thermococcus prieurii virus 1 (TPV1), the only two viruses isolated so far from any of the described marine hyperthermophilic archaea (Euryarchaeota phylum, Thermococcales order). PMID:23340763

Gorlas, Aurore; Geslin, Claire

2013-03-01

39

Anaerobic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, followed by ... In most cases, the bacteria are resistant to penicillin drugs. If an abscess has formed, it may ...

40

In Vitro Activity of Moxifloxacin against 923 Anaerobes Isolated from Human Intra-Abdominal Infections  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 recent anaerobic isolates obtained from pretreatment cultures in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections was studied using the CLSI M11-A-6 agar dilution method. Moxifloxacin was active against 87% (96 of 110) Bacteroides fragilis strains at ?1 ?g/ml and 87% (79 of 90) B. thetaiotaomicron strains at ?2 ?g/ml. Species variation was seen, with B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, Clostridium clostridioforme, and C. symbiosum being least susceptible and accounting for most of the resistant isolates; excluding the aforementioned four resistant species, 86% (303 of 363) of Bacteroides species isolates and 94% (417 of 450) of all other genera and species were susceptible to ?2 ?g/ml of moxifloxacin. Overall, moxifloxacin was active against 763 of 923 (83%) of strains at ?2 ?g/ml, supporting its use as a monotherapy for some community-acquired intra-abdominal infections. PMID:16377680

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Fernandez, Helen

2006-01-01

41

Dominant obligate anaerobes revealed in lower respiratory tract infection in horses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.  

PubMed

Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152

Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

2014-04-01

42

Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

2014-01-01

43

Extensive cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon infection, but potentially lethal, especially when associated with systemic disorders such as diabetes. The authors report a case of necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic origin in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The initial diagnosis was based on clinical information, in which multiple necrosis areas in cervical and thoracic regions were observed. Wide antibiotic therapy was applied, followed by surgical drain age and debridement. Culture was positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although the treatment is established, the patient dies after sepsis and failure of vital organs. Clearly, the morbidity associated to this infection, even in diabetic patients, can be minimized if an early diagnosis and effective debridement are done. PMID:24220476

Antunes, Antonio Azoubel; Avelar, Rafael Linard; de Melo, Willian Morais; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Frota, Riedel

2013-11-01

44

Immunohistochemical study of the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A comparison with the odontogenic keratocyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst that occurs in the maxilla and the mandible and is defined by the World Health Organization as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). However, studies have shown that OOC has peculiar clinicopathologic aspects and biologic behavior when compared with other developmental odontogenic cysts, especially OKCs. Therefore, in this study,

Mario James A. da Silva; Suzana Orsini Machado de Sousa; Luciana Corrêa; Artur Aburad Carvalhosa; Vera Cavalcanti de Araâaujo

2002-01-01

45

Central Odontogenic Fibroma of Simple Type  

PubMed Central

Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an extremely rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth resembling dentigerous cyst. In this report, a 10-year-old male patient is presented, who was diagnosed with central odontogenic fibroma of simple type from clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. PMID:25506436

Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha V.; Amudala, Rajesh; Yanadi, Prashanthi; Rahamthullah, S. A. K. Uroof; Botu, Meeramma

2014-01-01

46

Comparative In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem (MK-0826) against 1,001 Anaerobes Isolated from Human Intra-Abdominal Infections  

PubMed Central

By using an agar dilution method, the comparative in vitro activities of ertapenem (MK-0826) were studied against 1,001 anaerobes isolated from human intra-abdominal infections in 17 countries worldwide. MK-0826 was uniformly active against all isolates, including all Bacteroides fragilis group species isolates, with the exception of 12 of 61 (20%) strains of Bilophila wadsworthia, 3 strains of lactobacilli, and 1 isolate of Acidaminococcus fermentans. Geographical variation in activity was not observed. PMID:10952584

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Vreni Merriam, C.; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

2000-01-01

47

[Use of a composite organic biosilicone sorption preparation imosdinit in the treatment of anaerobic infections in surgery].  

PubMed

New application sorbent on the base of hydrogel and xerogel of methylsilicone acid with immobilized nitazole in connection with dimexide- imosdynit was investigated in experiment. High efficacy of imosdynit in the treatment of clostridial and non-clostridial anaerobic infection, caused by Klebsiella, was established. Proteus and blue pus bacillus are nonsensitive to imosdynit. Preparation was applied in 56 patients with purulent peritonitis. The frequency of wounds suppuration reduced by 2.4 times. PMID:10077942

Bieliaieva, O O; Shevchenko, Iu M

1998-01-01

48

A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find.  

PubMed

Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of proteins that may be formed due to infections or genetic disorders. Asteroid body is one such inclusion that is eosinophilic and spider like that are usually found in infections like sarcoidosis and sporotrichosis. Inclusions are usually pathognomonic of certain diseases and conditions, navigating the pathologist to arrive at a diagnosis. But, here we report an unusual finding of an asteroid body encountered in an inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Amrutha N. A Spider like body in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor - A Paradoxical find. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):131-3 . PMID:24453458

Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Amrutha, N

2013-12-01

49

Bilateral odontogenic keratocyst of the mandible.  

PubMed

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a cyst of dental origin with an aggressive clinical behavior, having high recurrence rate. Multiple cysts are associated with bifid-rib basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). We present a case of bilateral odontogenic keratocyst in a cleft lip patient. PMID:25018611

Ram, Hari; Mohammad, Shadab; Husain, Nuzhat; Gupta, Shalini; Kumar, Ajay

2014-09-01

50

Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst  

PubMed Central

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction. PMID:25013415

Kim, Yeon Sook

2014-01-01

51

Specific character of anaerobic bacterial infections in patients treated in transplantation wards at one of the clinical hospitals in Warsaw.  

PubMed

Immunocompromised patients and patients undergoing invasive procedures are predisposed to bacterial infections, due to the possibility of micro-organism translocation from their physiological habitat. Infectious complications may occur both in the early and late post-transplantation periods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion as well as susceptibility profiles of obligatory anaerobes in the etiology of infections in patients hospitalized at transplantation wards of a large clinical hospital in Warsaw. A total of 104 strains of obligatory anaerobes derived from patients hospitalized in two transplantation clinics at a clinical hospital in Warsaw were evaluated. The strains were isolated from 87 clinical samples collected from 84 patients of two transplantation wards between 2007 and 2012. A total of 104 obligatory anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated and identified, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria constituting 60.6% and 39.4% of the isolates, respectively. Almost exclusively non-spore-forming anaerobes were detected in evaluated samples. The present study showed all isolated Gram-positive bacteria to be susceptible to ß-lactam antibiotics. Metronidazole-resistant bacteria were found among the genera Propionibacterium and Actinomyces. All Gram-negative rods were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. Among them, Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis showed resistance to penicillin G (100%). Because of their pathogenicity and altered antibiotic susceptibility profiles, the bacteria of the genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides are of greatest clinical importance. Approximately 25% of isolates exhibit also resistance to clindamycin. Because of the growing rates of clindamycin resistance, the role of metronidazole in the treatment of Bacteroides spp. is of increasing importance. PMID:25380872

Kierzkowska, M; Majewska, A; Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Mlynarczyk, A; Chmura, A; Durlik, M; Deborska-Materkowska, D; Paczek, L; Mlynarczyk, G

2014-10-01

52

Magnetic resonance imaging: a useful tool to distinguish between keratocystic odontogenic tumours and odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

In contrast to odontogenic cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumours often recur and require more aggressive surgical treatment, so we tried to find features that distinguished between them on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Without knowing the diagnosis, two radiologists reviewed intensity (low, intermediate, or high) and homogeneity (homogeneous or heterogeneous) of signals in short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR), T1- and T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed, contrast-enhanced MRI in 20 consecutive patients with oval, radiolucent lesions of the mandible on panoramic radiography, and who were subsequently confirmed histopathologically to have either an odontogenic cyst or a keratocystic odontogenic tumour (n=10 in each group). Fisher's exact test was statistically significant at p<0.05. Delineation of a contrast-enhanced wall of a cyst with high signal intensity distinguished odontogenic cysts (9/10 and 8/10, respectively) from keratocystic odontogenic tumours (3/10, p=0.02, and 1/10, p=0.01, respectively). One radiologist found odontogenic cysts were more likely to be homogeneous on unenhanced T1-weighted images (odontogenic cysts 9/10, keratocystic odontogenic tumours 3/10, p=0.02) and one on contrast-enhanced MRI, when the cyst wall was enhanced (odontogenic cysts 7/9, keratocystic odontogenic tumours 0/3, p=0.01). There were no other significant distinguishing features on MRI. In conclusion, the signal intensity of the enhanced wall seems to be a feature on contrast-enhanced MRI that differentiates odontogenic cysts from keratocystic odontogenic tumours. PMID:25554593

Probst, F A; Probst, M; Pautke, Ch; Kaltsi, E; Otto, S; Schiel, S; Troeltzsch, M; Ehrenfeld, M; Cornelius, C P; Müller-Lisse, U G

2015-03-01

53

The role of PIN1 on odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

Recently, the involvement of PIN1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, has been reported in age-related bone homeostasis and adipogenesis. However, the role of PIN1 during odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation remains to be fully understood, particularly regarding human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs). Thus, in the present study, we have investigated the role of PIN1 in odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and signaling pathways possibly involved. PIN1 mRNA and protein level were upregulated in a time-dependent manner during adipogenic differentiation, increasing until 1 day of odontogenic induction and then steadily declined during odontogenic differentiation. Treatment of a known PIN1 inhibitor, juglone, significantly increased odontogenic differentiation as confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and mRNAs induction of odontogenic markers [ALP, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1)]. On the contrary, adipogenic differentiation was dramatically reduced upon juglone treatment, with concomitant downregulation of lipid droplet accumulation and adipogenic marker genes [peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AP2)]. In contrast to PIN1 inhibition, the overexpression of PIN1 via adenoviral infection (Ad-PIN1) in HDPSCs inhibited odontogenic differentiation but increased adipogenic differentiation, in which stem cell property markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) and STRO-1 were upregulated during odontogenic differentiation but downregulated in adiopogenic differentiation. Consistently, juglone-mediated inhibition of PIN1 augmented the osteogenic medium (OM)-induced activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt/?-catenin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway, which response was reversed by Ad-PIN1. Moreover, juglone blocked the adipogenic induction medium-induced activation of PPAR?, C/EBP?, C/EBP?, ERK, and NF-?B pathways, which was rescued by Ad-PIN1 infection. In summary, the present study shows for the first time that PIN1 acts as an important modulator of odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and may have clinical implications for regenerative dentistry. PMID:24219242

Lee, Young-Man; Shin, Seung-Yun; Jue, Seong-Suk; Kwon, Il-Keun; Cho, Eun-Hee; Cho, Eui-Sic; Park, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2014-03-15

54

The Role of PIN1 on Odontogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Recently, the involvement of PIN1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, has been reported in age-related bone homeostasis and adipogenesis. However, the role of PIN1 during odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation remains to be fully understood, particularly regarding human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs). Thus, in the present study, we have investigated the role of PIN1 in odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and signaling pathways possibly involved. PIN1 mRNA and protein level were upregulated in a time-dependent manner during adipogenic differentiation, increasing until 1 day of odontogenic induction and then steadily declined during odontogenic differentiation. Treatment of a known PIN1 inhibitor, juglone, significantly increased odontogenic differentiation as confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and mRNAs induction of odontogenic markers [ALP, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1)]. On the contrary, adipogenic differentiation was dramatically reduced upon juglone treatment, with concomitant downregulation of lipid droplet accumulation and adipogenic marker genes [peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AP2)]. In contrast to PIN1 inhibition, the overexpression of PIN1 via adenoviral infection (Ad-PIN1) in HDPSCs inhibited odontogenic differentiation but increased adipogenic differentiation, in which stem cell property markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) and STRO-1 were upregulated during odontogenic differentiation but downregulated in adiopogenic differentiation. Consistently, juglone-mediated inhibition of PIN1 augmented the osteogenic medium (OM)-induced activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt/?-catenin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway, which response was reversed by Ad-PIN1. Moreover, juglone blocked the adipogenic induction medium-induced activation of PPAR?, C/EBP?, C/EBP?, ERK, and NF-?B pathways, which was rescued by Ad-PIN1 infection. In summary, the present study shows for the first time that PIN1 acts as an important modulator of odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and may have clinical implications for regenerative dentistry. PMID:24219242

Lee, Young-Man; Shin, Seung-Yun; Jue, Seong-Suk; Kwon, Il-Keun; Cho, Eun-Hee; Cho, Eui-Sic

2014-01-01

55

Controlled Clinical Laboratory Comparison of Two Supplemented Aerobic and Anaerobic Media Used in Automated Blood Culture Systems To Detect Bloodstream Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 20-ml blood sample was collected from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections and distrib- uted equally into the four volume-controlled bottles of a blood culture set consisting of aerobic and anaerobic BACTEC Plus\\/F bottles and aerobic and anaerobic BacT\\/Alert FAN bottles. All bottles were incubated in their respective instruments for a standard 5-day protocol or until the instruments signalled

R. ZIEGLER; I. JOHNSCHER; P. MARTUS; D. LENHARDT; H.-M. JUST; Klinikum Nurnberg

1998-01-01

56

In Vitro Activities of Dalbavancin and 12 Other Agents against 329 Aerobic and Anaerobic Gram-Positive Isolates Recovered from Diabetic Foot Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of dalbavancin's in vitro activity against 209 aerobic and 120 anaerobic isolates from pretreatment diabetic foot infections showed an MIC90 of <0.125 g\\/ml against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 120 anaerobes (Clostridium perfringens, other clostridia, Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, Finegoldia magna, and Anaerococcus prevotii), compared to respective MIC90s for MSSA and MRSA of 0.5 and 1 g\\/ml

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; Yumi A. Warren; Kerin L. Tyrrell; C. Vreni Merriam; Helen T. Fernandez

2006-01-01

57

An immunohistochemical study of odontogenic mixed tumours.  

PubMed

Five cases of odontogenic mixed tumour comprising of an ameloblastic fibroma, an adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, an odonto-ameloblastoma and two ameloblastic fibro-odontomas were immunohistochemically investigated. Odontogenic epithelial cells were fully positive for cytokeratin detected by antibody KL-1, although there were some differences in its intensity. In contrast, for tenascin, only immature dental papilla-like mesenchymal tissue, especially around the dental lamina-like odontogenic epithelium, was positive, while the myxomatous area and connective tissue were negative. Positive vimentin staining was observed in some areas of immature dental papilla-like cells as well as the basement membrane of odontogenic epithelium in the ameloblastic fibroma, suggesting that this tumour had developed at the early stage of tooth formation. Proliferating nuclear cell antigen-positive cells were generally rarely seen, but were frequently observed in epithelial cells of the ameloblastic fibroma and odonto-ameloblastoma. These observations suggest that tumour cells in each odontogenic mixed tumour possess characteristic proteins associated with proliferation potential and that ameloblastic fibroma and odonto-ameloblastoma have higher proliferation potential among the tumours examined. PMID:7543314

Yamamoto, K; Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Ueta, E; Osaki, T

1995-03-01

58

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: Reclassification of the Odontogenic Keratocyst from Cyst to Tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the features and behaviour of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), now officially known as the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT); to analyze a series of histologically confirmed KCOT cases; and to review and discuss the redesignation of KCOT and the implications for treatment. Based on a literature review, more aggressive treatment — either resection

Jonathan Madras; Henry Lapointe

2008-01-01

59

Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

2014-01-01

60

Simultaneous adenomatoid odontogenic and keratocystic odontogenic tumours in a patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.  

PubMed

Gorlin and Goltz described a syndrome in which multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts and bifid ribs occurred in combination. The jaw keratocysts are a consistent feature of 'Gorlin-Goltz' or naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Central nervous system and ocular involvement occurred together with the fairly typical facial features of frontal bossing and hypertelorism. This case report documents the pathology associated with an impacted maxillary canine tooth in a boy with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. The patient presented for investigation of the failure of eruption of the right permanent maxillary canine tooth. Radiographic investigation showed the presence of a well circumscribed radiolucency located around the crown of an impacted right maxillary canine tooth. The patient's medical history revealed a medulloblastoma that was treated 13 years ago. The right maxillary canine tooth and associated peri-coronal tissue were removed under general anaesthetic. A diagnosis of a keratocystic odontogenic tumour with an associated adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The common differential diagnoses for a peri-coronal radiolucency in the maxilla that need to be considered by dentists include a dentigerous cyst, follicular keratocystic odontogenic tumour and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. A rare case of both keratocystic odontogenic tumour and associated follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is described in a patient with naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. PMID:24588311

Shephard, M; Shepard, M; Coleman, H

2014-03-01

61

Dental follicular tissue: misinterpretation as odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

The dental follicle is radiographically and histologically observed in association with unerupted or impacted teeth. However, this normal tissue structure is often confused with odontogenic tumors by pathologists with limited experience in evaluating jaw lesions. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence and possible reasons for incorrect interpretation of dental follicles. From 1970 to 1988, 847 dental follicles and/or dental papillas from 663 patients were submitted to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) by medical pathologists seeking diagnostic consultation. Nearly 84% of patients were in the second and third decades of life. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1.0. Over 70% of specimens were obtained from around impacted third molar teeth. Fifty-three percent of specimens were correctly interpreted by the contributing pathologists. Only a descriptive interpretation was given for 17%, no diagnosis was made in 10%, and 20% were incorrectly diagnosed. In descending order, the most frequent incorrect diagnoses were odontogenic cyst, odontogenic myxoma, odontogenic fibroma, ameloblastic fibroma, odontoma, and ameloblastoma. Dental papillas were most frequently misdiagnosed as odontogenic myxomas. The histologic features and diagnostic pitfalls are discussed, as well as the need to consider the clinical, radiographic, and microscopic features in arriving at a final diagnosis. PMID:8509916

Kim, J; Ellis, G L

1993-07-01

62

Periostin and Osterix Expression in Odontogenic and Non-Odontogenic Bone Lesions  

E-print Network

of debate among pathologists (Neville)(4). Other odontogenic tissues that arise from odontogenic mesenchyme are the dental papilla, follicle, and periodontal ligament. The evidence for odontogenic origin arises from its almost exclusive location..., Wang YH, Wu YM, Chuang HH, Chen L, et al. Runx2, osx, and dspp in tooth development. Journal of Dental Research. 2009 Oct;88(10):904-9. PubMed PMID: 19783797. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3045537. Epub 2009/09/29. eng. 36. Hiraga T, Ninomiya T, Hosoya A...

Trump, Bryan Glen

2014-04-24

63

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2011-01-01

64

Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence. PMID:24701462

Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

2014-01-01

65

An aggressive odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a relatively rare benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin. OM is more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. It is an asymptomatic lesion that shows an infiltrative growth pattern. When the maxillary sinus is involved, it often fills the entire antrum. Odontogenic tumors are uncommon in the maxillary molar area, which often leads to diagnostic dilemma as this region of the maxilla is in the vicinity of vital structures, and radiographic overlapping of structures is always present. We present a similar case of a 17-year-old male patient who reported with a swelling in the left maxilla that infiltrated the maxillary sinus in a short duration of time. PMID:25565756

Kiresur, Mohammad Asif; Hemavathy, Sathyavanthan

2014-01-01

66

An aggressive odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a relatively rare benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin. OM is more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. It is an asymptomatic lesion that shows an infiltrative growth pattern. When the maxillary sinus is involved, it often fills the entire antrum. Odontogenic tumors are uncommon in the maxillary molar area, which often leads to diagnostic dilemma as this region of the maxilla is in the vicinity of vital structures, and radiographic overlapping of structures is always present. We present a similar case of a 17-year-old male patient who reported with a swelling in the left maxilla that infiltrated the maxillary sinus in a short duration of time. PMID:25565756

Kiresur, Mohammad Asif; Hemavathy, Sathyavanthan

2014-10-01

67

Ossifying odontogenic fibroma: A rare case report.  

PubMed

Odontogenic fibroma (OF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm that is most commonly found in the mandibular/premolar region of female patients in the second to fourth decades of life. Well-defined radiolucent lesions that may induce root resorption are normally observed. Rare variants of OF have been described in the prior literature, including references to: 1) giant cell lesions, 2) amyloid-like protein deposition, and 3) ossifying variants. Immunohistochemistry can contribute to understanding the biological behavior and the pathogenesis of OF. Therefore, this case report aimed to describe a new case of ossifying OF and discuss the histopathology and immunohistochemical features. Key words:Odontogenic fibroma, jaw tumors, ossifying variant. PMID:25674331

Amaral, Márcio-Bruno-Figueiredo; Souto, Giovanna-Ribeiro; Horta, Martinho-Campolina-Rebello; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Mesquita, Ricardo-Alves

2014-12-01

68

Myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies to facilitate communication between medical and dental staff: lessons from two cases experienced odontogenic septicemia  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic diseases can be a risk factor for life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy that induces myelosuppression of variable severity. Previous studies noted the necessity of the elimination of all odontogenic foci before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To enable planning for the adequate dental intervention, the oral medicine team must understand the general status of patient and the intensity of the chemotherapy, which is sometimes difficult to be fully appreciated by dental staff. Therefore, a simplified grading would facilitate the sharing of information between hematologists, dentists and oral hygienists. This study aimed to introduce our myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies and analyze the timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection. Methods 37 patients having received various chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimens were classified into four grades based on the persistency of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy. Mild myelosuppressive chemotherapies were classified as grade A, moderate ones as grade B, severe ones as grade C, and chemotherapies that caused severe myelosuppression and persistent immunodeficiency (known as conditioning regimens for transplant) as grade D. The timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection was retrospectively investigated. Results Two patients (5.4%) had severe odontogenic infections after grade B or C chemotherapy. One occurred after extraction of non-salvageable teeth; the other resulted from advanced periodontitis in a tooth that could not be extracted because of thrombocytopenia. Both were de novo hematologic malignancy patients. During grade D chemotherapy, no patients had severe odontogenic infections. Conclusions The simplified grading introduced in this study is considered a useful tool for understanding the myelosuppressive state caused by chemotherapy and facilitating communication between medical and dental staff. During the period around the primary chemotherapy, especially for de novo hematologic malignancy patients who often received grade B to C myelosuppression chemotherapy, caution should be exercised for severe odontogenic infection by the oral medicine team, irrespective of whether invasive treatment is to be performed. PMID:23957921

2013-01-01

69

p53 and PCNA Expression in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Compared with Selected Odontogenic Cysts.  

PubMed

p53 and PCNA expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors compared with selected odontogenic cysts Summary: The aim of this study was to evaluate p53 and PCNA expression in different odontogenic lesions regarding their different clinical behaviors. Slices prepared from 94 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (25 radicular cysts (RC), 23 dentigerous cysts (DC), 23 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and 23 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT)) were stained with p53 and PCNA antibodies using immunohistochemistry procedure. The highest level of p53 expression was in the basal layer of RC, and the highest level of PCNA expression was in the suprabasal layer of KCOT. The differences of p53 expression in basal and suprabasal layers as well as PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer were significant but there was no significant difference in PCNA expression in the basal layer of these lesions. The expression of p53 in the basal layer of RC was higher than in other cysts. This may be due to intensive inflammatory infiltration. Also, the high level of PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer of KCOT may justify its neoplastic nature and tendency to recurrence. KCOT and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors did not show similar expression of studied biomarkers. PMID:24551811

Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Siadati, Sepideh; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Keshmiri, Nazanin

2013-01-01

70

Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes of Head and Neck in Computed Tomography Examinations  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Infections of odontogenic origin are the most common cause of inflammatory disease of head and neck region. Computed tomography allows for defining localization and extent of inflammatory lesions, visualizes soft tissue involvement, presence of an abscess or an osteolytic lesion around causative tooth. The aim of this study was to assess pathways, by which odontogenic infections spread into respective deep head and neck structures in computed tomography examination, taking into account the following criteria: frequency of involvement of respective deep cervical spaces, possibility to determine a probable causative tooth and concordance with the results of clinical examination. Material/Methods Thirty-eight patients cervicofacial inflammatory disease had undergone CT examination of head and neck region with a 64-slice CT scanner after intravenous contrast administration. Results Abscess was reported in 30 (79%) cases, while inflammatory infiltration was diagnosed in remaining 8 (21%) patients. There was full concordance between radiological report and intraoperative report In 33 cases (87%). The most commonly involved cervical space was masticator space – 31 patients (82%), followed by submandibular space – 27 patients (71%). Dental examination was impossible in 29 patient because of trismus. During analysis of CT studies we evaluated maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes for presence of osteolytic bone lesions around causative teeth roots and we found them in 30 cases (79%). In 32 cases (84%) cervicofacial infection were of mandibular odontogenic origin. Conclusions In most cases CT study in patients suspected of odontogenic craniofacial infection revealed presence of an abscess, needing urgent surgery. Inflammatory infiltration of dental origin most frequently involves masticator space, followed by submandibular space. In most cases CT scanning allows for identification of causative teeth, especially when trismus makes detailed clinical examination impossible. PMID:25436021

Wabik, Aleksandra; Hendrich, Barbara K.; Nienartowicz, Jan; Guzi?ski, Maciej; S?siadek, Marek J.

2014-01-01

71

PTCH Gene Mutations in Odontogenic Keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign cystic lesion of the jaws that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Recently, the gene for NBCCS was cloned and shown to be the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Patched (PTCH), a tumor suppressor gene. The PTCH gene encodes a transmembrane protein that acts

D. C. Barreto; R. S. Gomez; A. E. Bale; W. L. Boson; L. De Marco

2000-01-01

72

Head and Neck Pathology: SC13-1 UPDATE OF ODONTOGENIC TUMORS.  

PubMed

The latest WHO classification of odontogenic tumours was published in 2005. The classification has been used as a global standard for last 10 years but our knowledge of odontogenic tumors continues to evolve. At biennial meetings of International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial pathologists (IAOP), we have started discussions on classification of odontogenic tumors toward the next WHO Classification. I would like to introduce some subjects of discussion including cyst-tumor interface (odontogenic keratocyst vs keratocystic odontogenic tumor, glandular odontogenic cyst vs central mucoepidermoid carcinoma, calcifying odontogenic cyst vs ghost cell lesions); placement of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (hamartoma vs neoplasia, epithelial tumor vs mixed tumor with dentin formation), clear cell odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid formation; primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma vs sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma; classification based on inductive phenomenon of odontogenesis vs clinical behavior and others. Recent advances in molecular analyses of odontogenic tumors will be presented. I expect to exchange opinions on the new classification of odontogenic tumors. PMID:25188080

Takata, Takashi

2014-10-01

73

CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors.  

PubMed

Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions. PMID:25587387

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

2014-01-01

74

CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions. PMID:25587387

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

2014-01-01

75

Capacity of anaerobic bacteria from necrotic dental pulps to induce purulent infections.  

PubMed Central

Combinations of bacteria isolated from the root canals of teeth with necrotic pulps and periapical bone destruction were tested for their capacity to induce abscess formation and transmissible infections when inoculated subcutaneously into guinea pigs. Transmissible infections could be induced with combinations obtained from teeth with purulent apical inflammation, but not with combinations from symptomless teeth with chronic apical inflammation. All combinations which gave transmissible infections contained strains of Bacteroides melaninogenicus or B. asaccharolyticus (formerly B. melaninogenicus subsp. asaccharolyticus). The results suggest that purulent inflammation in the apical region in certain cases may be induced by specific combinations of bacteria in the root canal and that the presence of B. melaninogenicus or B. asaccharolyticus in such combinations is essential. However, with one exception, the strains needed the support of additional microorganisms to achieve pathogenicity. The results indicate that Peptostreptococcus micros was also essential. Histological sections of the lesions in the guinea pigs showed that all bacterial combinations induced acute inflammation with an accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the formation of an abscess. However, the presence of B. melaninogenicus or B. asaccharolyticus in the combinations resulted in a failure of abscess resolution, with a gradually increaseing accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Images PMID:489126

Sundqvist, G K; Eckerbom, M I; Larsson, A P; Sjögren, U T

1979-01-01

76

Evaluation of bacterial spectrum of orofacial infections and their antibiotic susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The inappropriate use of antibiotics has contributed to a worldwide problem of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of present study is to assess the most common microorganisms causing orofacial infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility to routinely used antibiotics in this part of India. Materials and Methods: Sixty eight patients with orofacial infection were selected on the basis of a series of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples were collected under aseptic conditions and subjected to culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Descriptive statistics were provided. Results: A total of 64 aerobic and 87 anaerobic strains were isolated. The predominant bacteria were Streptococci viridans (64%), Prevotella (43%), Peptostreptococcus (26%), Porphyromonas (7%), and Fusobacterium (14%). The isolated strains seemed to be highly sensitive to the routinely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin – clavulanate and amoxicillin alone, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. In contrast, more resistance to erythromycin was observed. Conclusion: Amoxicillin still possesses powerful antimicrobial activity against major pathogens in orofacial odontogenic infections. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and clindamycin would also be advocated as being useful alternatives for the management of severe orofacial infections. However, the findings of this study indicate that erythromycin is of questionable benefit in the treatment of severe orofacial odontogenic infections. PMID:23482901

Chunduri, Nagendra S.; Madasu, Krishnaveni; Goteki, Venkateswara R.; Karpe, Tanveer; Reddy, Haranadha

2012-01-01

77

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-09-01

78

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla  

PubMed Central

The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position. PMID:24396609

Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

2013-01-01

79

Peripheral odontogenic myxoma of maxillary gingiva: A rare clinical entity  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma comprises 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxomas are relatively rare benign mesenchymal tumors found exclusively in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaw and are usually located centrally in the mandible. Soft-tissue localization is rarely seen and is classified as peripheral myxoma. Peripheral myxoma is slow growing and less aggressive, as compared to the central myxoma. It has a low recurrence rate. Till date, only few cases of maxillary gingival myxomas are reported in the literature. Here, we present an unusual case of primary peripheral odontogenic myxoma occurring in the gingiva of anterior maxilla in a 41-year-old female patient. PMID:24174762

Jain, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Soundarya Narayana

2013-01-01

80

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.  

PubMed

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

2013-01-01

81

Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of the Anterior Mandible  

PubMed Central

Context: Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare cyst occurring in the middle-age people with mandibular anterior as the common site of occurrence. Case Report: We report a case of massive GOC in a 65-year-old female with an emphasis on its clinical course, histological features, and treatment modalities. Conclusion: The aggressiveness and recurrences of GOC warrants clinicians for the careful examination, treatment, and long-term follow-up. PMID:25789251

Raju, Srinivasa Pathapati; Reddy, Sridhar Padala; Ananthnag, Jakkula

2015-01-01

82

Comparative in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftaroline-avibactam, and other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultured from infected diabetic foot wounds.  

PubMed

Foot infections are the most common infectious complication of diabetes. Moderate to severe diabetic foot infections (DFI) are typically polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The role of MRSA in these wounds has become an increasing concern. To determine if the addition of avibactam, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, to ceftaroline would be more active than ceftaroline alone, we tested 316 aerobic pathogens and 154 anaerobic recovered from patients with moderate to severe DFI, and compared ceftaroline with and without avibactam to other agents. Testing on aerobes was done by broth microdilution and by agar dilution for anaerobes, according to CLSI M11-A8, and M7-A8 standards. Ceftaroline-avibactam MIC90 for all Staphylococcus spp. including MRSA was 0.5 ?g/mL, and for enterococci was 1 ?g/mL. The MIC90s for enteric Gram-negative rods was 0.125 ?g/mL. The addition of avibactam to ceftaroline reduced the ceftaroline MICs for 2 strains of resistant Enterobacter spp. and for 1 strain of Morganella. Against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci ceftaroline-avibactam had an MIC90 0.125 ?g/mL and for clostridia 1 ?g/mL. Avibactam improved ceftaroline's MIC90s for Bacteroides fragilis from >32 to 2 ?g/mL and for Prevotella spp. from >32 to 1 ?g/mL. Ceftaroline alone demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against most of the aerobes found in moderate to severe DFI. The addition of avibactam provides an increased spectrum of activity including the beta-lactamase producing Prevotella, Bacteroides fragilis and ceftaroline resistant gram-negative enteric organisms. PMID:23623385

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

2013-07-01

83

Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla: A report of a rare case and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma represents an uncommon benign neoplasm comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors. This article presents a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla of a 7-year-old male patient with a brief review of the pathogenesis, clinical, radiological, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of odontogenic myxoma. PMID:21180454

Singaraju, Sasidhar; Wanjari, Sangeetha P; Parwani, Rajkumar N

2010-01-01

84

Odontogenic tumors, WHO 2005: where do we go from here?  

PubMed

As our knowledge of disease improves, its classification continually evolves. The last WHO classification of odontogenic tumors was 9 years ago and it is time for revision. We offer the following critique as a constructive, thought provoking challenge to those chosen to provide contemporary insight into the next WHO classification of odontogenic cysts, tumors, and allied conditions. PMID:25409849

Wright, John M; Odell, Edward W; Speight, Paul M; Takata, Takashi

2014-12-01

85

Epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour of the mandibular gingiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour (EOGCT) is considered as a solid `neoplastic' variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst and is an uncommon lesion for which various names have been proposed over the years. We describe here an extraosseous case occurring on the edentulous mandibular gingiva in the right bicuspid area of a 70-year-old woman. The lesion was a painless

T Lombardi; R Küffer; R Di Felice; J Samson

1999-01-01

86

Non-Syndromic Multiple Odontogenic Keratocyst: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a common developmental odontogenic cyst affecting the maxillofacial region. Multiple OKCs are usually seen in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) but approximately 5% of patients with OKC have multiple cysts without concomitant syndromic presentation. This report represents a case of multiple OKCs in a non-syndromic patient PMID:24724137

Kargahi, N; Kalantari, M

2013-01-01

87

Non-syndromic multiple odontogenic keratocyst: a case report.  

PubMed

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a common developmental odontogenic cyst affecting the maxillofacial region. Multiple OKCs are usually seen in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) but approximately 5% of patients with OKC have multiple cysts without concomitant syndromic presentation. This report represents a case of multiple OKCs in a non-syndromic patient. PMID:24724137

Kargahi, N; Kalantari, M

2013-09-01

88

Multiple non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts in three siblings  

PubMed Central

Occurrence of multiple cysts (MC) involving the jaw is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of MC without syndromic association is extremely rare. Multiple odontogenic cysts mostly could be odontogenic keratocysts or dentigerous cysts. Odontogenic keratocyst shows involvement of mandible over maxilla, with peak incidence in second and third decade and it is exceedingly rare before 10?years of age. However multiple odontogenic keratocysts found in children are often reflective of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Here is a case report which documents multiple jaw cysts involving both the jaws, in three siblings of ages 10, 13 and 17?years with negative parental history. All three reported cases were free of any systemic involvement. As odontogenic keratocyst spreads through bone marrow, destruction is more before any clinical manifestation. Therefore, early detection and intervention are essential in preventing extensive destruction. PMID:23505078

Nirwan, Amit; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Saikhedkar, Rashmi; Karun, Vinayak

2013-01-01

89

p53 protein in odontogenic cysts: increased expression in some odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To assess p53 protein expression in a range of odontogenic cysts arising in the mouth, including those of developmental and inflammatory origin. METHODS: p53 protein was identified using the polyclonal antibody CM-1, together with a standard immunoperoxidase technique. A total of 36 cystic lesions were examined, all of which were histologically benign. RESULTS: Expression of p53 protein was identified

G R Ogden; D M Chisholm; R A Kiddie

1992-01-01

90

Clinical Application of PovidoneIodine Oral Antiseptic 1% (Betadine® Mouthwash) and PovidoneIodine Skin Antiseptic 10% (Betadine® Solution) for the Management of Odontogenic and Deep Fascial Space Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of infections largely encompasses the field of dental medicine. Prevention and management of infection in the oral and maxillofacial region involve every facet of dental care that may be necessary due to caries, periodontal disease, pulpal pathology, trauma, reconstructive and surgical implants. One of the first surgical procedures in the treatment of localized infection commenced with the opening of

Lucia Sarmiento Valderrama

2006-01-01

91

An approach to oral infections and their management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral infections can be odontogenic or nonodontogenic in origin. Odontogenic infections are most prevalent and include dental\\u000a caries, periodontal disease, and suppurative deep space infections. Nonodontogenic infections include sialadenitis and parotitis,\\u000a vesiculobullous gingivostomatitis, aphthous ulcers, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and severe oral mucositis in the immunocompromised\\u000a host. Clinical presentations can be variable. An understanding of the underlying anatomic structures, the oral microflora,

Mark W. Hull; Anthony W. Chow

2005-01-01

92

Immunocytochemical expression of growth factors by odontogenic jaw cysts.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the immunocytochemical pattern of expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and TGF beta in the three most common types of odontogenic jaw cyst. METHODS: Growth factor expression was detected in paraffin wax sections of odontogenic cysts (27 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, and 10 radicular cysts) using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase technique with monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF alpha (clone 213-4.4) and TGF beta (clone TB21) and a polyclonal antibody directed against EGF (Z-12). RESULTS: The epithelial linings of all cysts showed reactivity for TGF alpha which was mainly localised to basal and suprabasal layers. Odontogenic keratocyst linings expressed higher levels of TGF alpha than those of dentigerous and radicular cysts, with 89% (24/27) of odontogenic keratocysts exhibiting a strong positive reaction compared with 50% (five of 10) of dentigerous and radicular cysts, respectively. EGF reactivity was similar in all cyst groups, weaker than that for TGF alpha and predominantly suprabasal. TGF alpha and EGF were also detected in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells within the cyst walls. The most intense TGF beta staining in odontogenic cysts was extracellular within the fibrous tissue capsules, irrespective of cyst type. CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with previous studies of EGF receptor, indicate differential expression of TGF alpha, EGF and their common receptor between the different types of odontogenic cyst, suggesting that these growth factors (via autocrine or paracrine, or both, pathways) may be involved in their pathogenesis. Images PMID:9208810

Li, T.; Browne, R. M.; Matthews, J. B.

1997-01-01

93

Peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growth potential and exceptionally low recurrence rate. The tumor is predominantly found in females in the second decade of life, involving the maxilla more frequently than the mandible. The tumor presents in three variants–intrafollicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The peripheral variant is very rare and only few reports have been published. We present a rare case of peripheral adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a 10-year-old male child in the anterior region of the mandible.

Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ramesh K; Mohammad, Shadab

2012-01-01

94

Non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocysts are very well documented in the literature. Multiple odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most frequent features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). It is linked with mutation in the PTCH gene (human homolog of the drosophila segment polarity gene, “patched”,). Partial expression of the gene may result in occurrence of only multiple recurring OKC without any associated systemic findings. A rare case of multiple odontogenic keratocysts unassociated with any syndrome is reported, so as to add to the growing number of such cases in the literature. The possibility of this case being a partial expression of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is discussed. PMID:24163561

Kurdekar, Raghavendra S.; Prakash, Jeevan; Rana, A. S.; Kalra, Puneet

2013-01-01

95

Non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts: A rare case report.  

PubMed

Odontogenic keratocysts are very well documented in the literature. Multiple odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most frequent features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). It is linked with mutation in the PTCH gene (human homolog of the drosophila segment polarity gene, "patched",). Partial expression of the gene may result in occurrence of only multiple recurring OKC without any associated systemic findings. A rare case of multiple odontogenic keratocysts unassociated with any syndrome is reported, so as to add to the growing number of such cases in the literature. The possibility of this case being a partial expression of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is discussed. PMID:24163561

Kurdekar, Raghavendra S; Prakash, Jeevan; Rana, A S; Kalra, Puneet

2013-01-01

96

The expression of cytokeratin in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst and dermoid cyst.  

PubMed

The epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts exhibits either parakeratosis or orthokeratosis. In 2005, the WHO classified odontogenic keratocysts with parakeratosis as keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). Odontogenic keratocysts with orthokeratosis were not classified as odontogenic tumors, but instead referred to as orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). To clarify the difference between these two lesions, we investigated their biological characteristics using immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins (CK) in KCOT and OOC as well as in dentigerous cysts (DC), radicular cysts (RC) and dermoid cysts (DMC). We examined twenty-five cases of KCOT, fifteen cases each of OOC, DC and RC, and ten cases of DMC. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of CK10, 13, 17 and 19. To evaluate the immunohistochemical staining pattern, we divided the epithelial lining of the lesions into three layers (surface layer: su, spinous layer: sp, basal layer: ba). For CK10, most OOC and DMC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK13 and 19, most KCOT, DC and RC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK17, most KCOT specimens of su and sp were positive. The percentages of total CK expression of su and sp, and ba of CK19 differed significantly between the lesions (P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that OOC originate from not the odontogenic apparatus, but the oral epithelial component. PMID:24092058

Tsuji, Kaname; Wato, Masahiro; Hayashi, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Norihiro; Matsushita, Takumi; Ito, Tomohiko; Gamoh, Shoko; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akio; Morita, Shosuke

2014-09-01

97

Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

2014-01-01

98

Oncologic profile of maxillary odontogenic myxoma: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchyme derived neoplasm, almost exclusively found in jaws. This article presents a maxillary OM with a brief review of the molecular and proteomic antecedents of OMs, capturing its histopathogenesis. PMID:24124309

Sarkar, Reena Radhikaprasad

2013-01-01

99

Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

Kim, Yeon Sook

2013-01-01

100

Conservative management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour.  

PubMed

Since the term odontogenic keratocyst first appeared in the literature, controversy has surrounded its terminology and surgical management. Recent articles would suggest that surgical opinion is still divided between aggressive radical resection and a more conservative approach. We present an interesting case of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour shown to have eroded through bony cortices and present within soft tissues that was satisfactorily managed conservatively by decompression and secondary enucleation. PMID:25210136

Padaki, Pavan; Laverick, Sean; Bounds, Graham

2014-01-01

101

Conservative management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour  

PubMed Central

Since the term odontogenic keratocyst first appeared in the literature, controversy has surrounded its terminology and surgical management. Recent articles would suggest that surgical opinion is still divided between aggressive radical resection and a more conservative approach. We present an interesting case of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour shown to have eroded through bony cortices and present within soft tissues that was satisfactorily managed conservatively by decompression and secondary enucleation. PMID:25210136

Padaki, Pavan; Laverick, Sean; Bounds, Graham

2014-01-01

102

Multiple odontogenic keratocysts associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.  

PubMed

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with a predisposition to cancer. Features like basal cell carcinoma, odontogenic keratocysts, calcification of falx cerebri, bifid ribs, pits on palms and soles and hypertelorism are evident. A case of this rare disease seen on a 13 year old female patient is presented here, where multiple odontogenic keratocysts were causing disfigurement of the lower jaw as well as displacement and malocclusion of the lower teeth. PMID:20502085

Dixit, S; Acharya, S; Dixit, P B

2009-01-01

103

Smoothened gene alterations in keratocystic odontogenic tumors  

PubMed Central

Background It has been widely demonstrated that the hedgehog pathway is strongly associated with basal cell carcinoma of the skin (NBCCS). To assess potential DNA alterations related to keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), we sequenced smoothened (SMO) genes in 12 sporadic KCOTs. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), capillary electrophoresis and dideoxy chain-termination sequencing were used to examine potential DNA alterations in sporadic KCOTs. Results Five alterations in SMO genes were detected. Four of these mutations consisted of two synonymous and three missense mutations; two of which have not been reported to date (c.T776A, c.T1281G). Conclusions SMO genes may play an important role in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway and could also be responsible for generating KCOTs and NBCCS. However, their influence on SHH signaling remains to be elucidated. PMID:25189937

2014-01-01

104

Botryoid Odontogenic Cyst: A Diagnostic Chaos  

PubMed Central

Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics. PMID:25654045

U, Urmila; Srinivas G, Vijay; Deviramisetty, Sabitha; HK, Puneeth

2014-01-01

105

Botryoid odontogenic cyst: a diagnostic chaos.  

PubMed

Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics. PMID:25654045

A, Anuradha; U, Urmila; Srinivas G, Vijay; Deviramisetty, Sabitha; Hk, Puneeth

2014-12-01

106

Cervical facial necrotizing fasciitis with medistinic spread from odontogenic origin. Two case reports.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon soft tissue infection, usually caused by toxin-producing virulent bacteria especially in mediastinum. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis primarily caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus characterized by necrosis of skin, subcutaneous tissues, fasciae, and muscles. It usually occurs in adults and is most often localized to the abdominal wall, the extremities, the perineum, the pelvis, and the thoracic region. Localization to the head and neck area is rarely encountered. Descending necrotising mediastinitis is a form of mediastinitis caused by odontogenic infection or deep cervical infections, which spreads to the mediastinum from the cervical fascial planes. Early diagnosis, prompt surgical drainage, monitoring of disease process, appropriate medical management in an intensive care unit and a multi-disciplinary approach can significantly reduces the mortality in this otherwise fatal condition. PMID:23417148

Cristofaro, Maria Giulia; Giudice, Amerigo; Colangeli, Walter; Novembre, Daniela; Giudice, Mario

2014-01-01

107

Infratemporal Space Infection Following Maxillary Third Molar Extraction in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient  

PubMed Central

Infratemporal space infection is a rare but serious sequel of odontogenic infection. The diagnosis is difficult due to non spe-cific signs and symptoms. Diabetes mellitus as a definitive risk factor for odontogenic infections needs more consideration during clinical procedures. We report a case of an undiagnosed diabetic patient with isolated infratemporal space infection after tooth extraction with presentation of similar signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint and muscle problem. PMID:22991649

Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Gok, Gul?en; Zarghami, Afsaneh

2012-01-01

108

Ghost Cells in Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst Express Enamel-related Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called ghost cell is a unique cell type occurring in a variety of odontogenic and non-odontogenic lesions. However, the true nature of ghost cells has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the immunoreactivity of ghost cells in calcifying odontogenic cysts and dermal calcifying epitheliomas, with antibodies against amelogenin, enamelin, sheath protein (sheathlin) and enamelysin, in an

T. Takata; M. Zhao; H. Nikai; T. Uchida; T. Wang

2000-01-01

109

Metastasising clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary odontogenic carcinomas are rare and examples which have metastasised are even more uncommon. We describe the first reported case of a clear cell odontogenic carcinoma which metastasised to distant bones, namely the 5th lumbar vertebra and hip, 3 years after initial diagnosis. The initial incisional biopsy was thought to represent a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, but in the subsequent

Mahesh Kumar; Adekunmi Fasanmade; A. William Barrett; Gavin Mack; Lawrence Newman; Nicholas C. Hyde

2003-01-01

110

Presentation of a keratocystic odontogenic tumor with agenesis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We analyzed the etiopathogenetic, clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, particularly in association with dental anomalies of number, with the aim of providing useful information for their correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. Case presentation A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented for observation of bilateral agenesis of the upper incisors, which was diagnosed by orthopantomography. Approximately one year after starting orthodontic treatment, the patient went to the emergency department because of a phlegmonous tumefaction of the lateroposterior upper left maxillary region. Diagnostic orthopantomography and axial computed tomography scan results of the facial skeleton revealed a large lesion occupying the left maxillary sinus, rhizolysis of dental elements 26 and 27, and dislocation of dental element 28. The lesion and infected sinus mucosa were removed through surgical antral-cystectomy with the Caldwell-Luc approach. Histological examination of the lesion confirmed the suspected diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The 12-month follow-up orthopantomography and computed tomography scan results showed good trabecular bone formation in the lesion area. The 24-month follow-up results showed optimal healing in the area of the lesion, positive pulp vitality tests for teeth 26 and 27, and good periodontal tissue healing, as verified through periodontal probing. Conclusions Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. More likely, they are caused by related environmental factors. Management of this case required the multidisciplinary collaboration of different specializations and careful planning to devise a correct therapeutic protocol and reach a favorable prognosis. PMID:24716509

2014-01-01

111

Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma: A case report with reference to the relation between apoptosis and ghost cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neoplastic variant of calcifying odontogenic cyst has various designations, and its malignant counterpart has been reported as aggressive epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumor or odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma. We present a case of odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma with reference to the relation between the ghost cells and apoptosis. A 33-year-old man complained of a mandibular mass. The mass occupied

Jin Kim; Eun H Lee; Jong I Yook; Jee Y Han; Jung H Yoon; Gary L Ellis

2000-01-01

112

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla possibly arising from an infected residual cyst: A case report.  

PubMed

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare type of odontogenic carcinoma arising from the jawbone. Odontogenic cysts are true cysts that arise from the dental epithelium, which is associated with tooth formation. The epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts has the potential to transform into various types of odontogenic tumor; however, this transformation from an odontogenic cyst to a malignant tumor is rare. The definitive diagnosis for PIOSCC generally requires the observation of either features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within the jawbone that are distinct from direct invasion from the surface oral epithelium, or evidence of SCC arising from odontogenic epithelium and from tumors that have metastasized to the jawbone from distant sites. In the present study, a case of PIOSCC of the maxilla is presented, which, based on the results of computed tomography and the clinical course, was hypothesized to have originated from an infected residual cyst. PMID:25435946

Sukegawa, Shintaro; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Katase, Naoki; Kanno, Takahiro; Mandai, Toshiko; Takahashi, Yuka; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Furuki, Yoshihiko

2015-01-01

113

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla possibly arising from an infected residual cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare type of odontogenic carcinoma arising from the jawbone. Odontogenic cysts are true cysts that arise from the dental epithelium, which is associated with tooth formation. The epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts has the potential to transform into various types of odontogenic tumor; however, this transformation from an odontogenic cyst to a malignant tumor is rare. The definitive diagnosis for PIOSCC generally requires the observation of either features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within the jawbone that are distinct from direct invasion from the surface oral epithelium, or evidence of SCC arising from odontogenic epithelium and from tumors that have metastasized to the jawbone from distant sites. In the present study, a case of PIOSCC of the maxilla is presented, which, based on the results of computed tomography and the clinical course, was hypothesized to have originated from an infected residual cyst. PMID:25435946

SUKEGAWA, SHINTARO; MATSUZAKI, HIDENOBU; KATASE, NAOKI; KANNO, TAKAHIRO; MANDAI, TOSHIKO; TAKAHASHI, YUKA; ASAUMI, JUN-ICHI; FURUKI, YOSHIHIKO

2015-01-01

114

Odontogenic Myxoma of Maxilla in an Atypical Location: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in jaws. It presents local invasiveness and tendency to recurrence. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the odontogenic myxoma is classified as an odontogenic tumor of ectomesenchymal origin. The odontogenic myxoma is a rare entity found in both jaws while the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. We present a kind of odontogenic myxoma in a 24-year old male that was found in an unusual location. PMID:24724116

Ghalayani, P; Jahanshahi, GR; Mohagheghiyan, HR

2013-01-01

115

Are All Odontogenic Keratocysts Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors? Correlation between Imaging Features and Epithelial Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

This study was to correlate and analyze the imaging features and epithelial cell proliferation pattern in different cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and study the role of inflammation using proliferative markers and different radiographic patterns of KCOT to determine its biological behavior. One hundred and eighty-six cases of KCOT were taken together and grouped based on radiographic patterns. Forty cases were randomly selected and stained using a proliferating cellular nuclear antigen marker. The correlation between imaging and epithelial proliferation with and without inflammation was determined. Unilocular variety is the most common type of KCOT, showing least epithelial proliferation of all the patterns. More than 50% of the multilocular KCOTs were associated with inflammation, showing an enhanced rate of epithelial proliferation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Different rates of epithelial proliferation of the different patterns suggested that all odontogenic keratocysts do not behave like tumors and that aggressive treatment should be reserved for selective cases only depending on radiographic and other histopathological parameters such as inflammation. PMID:23607070

Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Nayar, Amit; Raj, Asha; Kumar, Prince

2013-01-01

116

Analysis of silver stained nucleolar organizing regions in odontogenic cysts and tumors  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the probable differences in cell proliferation index of odontogenic cysts and tumors by means of a comparative silver stained nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) quantification. Study Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on archival paraffin blocks (n = 62), consisting of 10 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, 10 radicular cysts, 10 conventional ameloblastomas, 10 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, 10 calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors and 2 ameloblasic carcinomas. Results: The mean AgNOR count of odontogenic cysts was 1.709 and the benign odontogenic tumors was 1.862. Highest AgNOR count was recorded in odontogenic keratocyst and lowest was seen in radicular cyst. Statistically significant difference in AgNOR counts of ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, amelobalastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, benign odontogenic tumors and ameloblastic carcinoma were seen. AgNORs in ameloblastic carcinoma were more in number and more widely spread. Conclusion: AgNOR technique may be considered a good indicator of cell proliferation in odontogenic cysts and tumors. PMID:25364178

Prasanna, MD; Charan, CR; Reddy Ealla, Kranti Kiran; Surekha, V; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Gokavarapu, Sandhya

2014-01-01

117

Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst of the Maxilla: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is a relatively rare developmental odontogenic cyst of the jaws that occurs predominantly in males between the third and fourth decades. According to the 2005 World Health Organization's classification, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is not a part of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor spectrum. We present a case of a 41-year-old male with a history of remarkable lingual expansion in the anterior part of the maxilla since last year with rapid growth in the last three months as a unilocular well-defined radiolucent lesion extending from maxillary left central incisor to the right second premolar. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is a specific type of keratinized odontogenic cysts which is completely different from keratocystic odontogenic tumor from the viewpoint of the clinical and pathological features. PMID:25110243

Mahdavi, Nazanin; Taghavi, Nasim

2014-08-11

118

Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

2013-01-01

119

Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. Case Report The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Conclusions Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision. PMID:25566331

Kornafel, Olga; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Pakulski, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

120

Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.  

PubMed

Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

2015-02-01

121

Dedifferentiation of odontogenic keratocyst epithelium after cyst decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Cytokeratin-10 expression by cystic epithelium has been shown in the suprabasilar layers of odontogenic keratocyts (OKCs) but not in dentigerous cysts. Cyst decompression and irrigation result in the loss of keratinization. In this study, we used cytokeratin-10 antibody staining to evaluate changes in OKC epithelium to determine if decompression\\/irrigation treatment results in an epithelial modulation that may be associated

Meredith August; William C. Faquin; Maria J. Troulis; Leonard B. Kaban

2003-01-01

122

Automated classification of four types of developmental odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

Odontogenic cysts originate from remnants of the tooth forming epithelium in the jaws and gingiva. There are various kinds of such cysts with different biological behaviours that carry different patient risks and require different treatment plans. Types of odontogenic cysts can be distinguished by the properties of their epithelial layers in H&E stained samples. Herein we detail a set of image features for automatically distinguishing between four types of odontogenic cyst in digital micrographs and evaluate their effectiveness using two statistical classifiers - a support vector machine (SVM) and bagging with logistic regression as the base learner (BLR). Cyst type was correctly predicted from among four classes of odontogenic cysts between 83.8% and 92.3% of the time with an SVM and between 90 ± 0.92% and 95.4 ± 1.94% with a BLR. One particular cyst type was associated with the majority of misclassifications. Omission of this cyst type from the data set improved the classification rate for the remaining three cyst types to 96.2% for both SVM and BLR. PMID:24411103

Frydenlund, A; Eramian, M; Daley, T

2014-04-01

123

A rare case of odontogenic myxoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A case of odontogenic myxoma in an old Doberman bitch involving the periodontal region of the mandible was recorded. Grossly, the tumour mass was soft and slimy, having brownish-black foci on cut surface. Histopathologically, the tumour predominantly consisted of mesenchyme-like cells with prominent nuclei and nucleoli. The tumour had abundant ground substance, rich in acid mucopolysaccharides. PMID:16176569

Gupta, K; Singh, A; Sood, N; Mohindroo, J; Sood, N K

2005-10-01

124

Non-Syndromic Recurrent Multiple Odontogenic Keratocysts: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most frequent features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBS). It is linked with mutation in the PTCH gene. Partial expression of the gene may result in occurrence of only multiple recurring OKC. Our patient presented with nine cysts with multiple recurrences over a period of 11 years without any other manifestation of the syndrome. PMID:21998815

Bartake, AR.; Shreekanth, NG.; Prabhu, S.; Gopalkrishnan, K.

2011-01-01

125

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a report of three clinical cases.  

PubMed

The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Surgery is the usual treatment, and recurrence or association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been described. In this report, we presented three cases of this pathology, and we review the principal clinical, histological, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Case 1. A 73-year-old female presents with a slight swelling on the right mandible, associated with an unilocular well-defined radiolucent lesion. Case 2. A 27-year-old female presents with a painful mandibular swelling associated with an unilocular radiolucent lesion posterior to the 4.8. Case 3. A 61-year-old male was casually detected presents with an unilocular radiolucent lesion distal to the 4.8. Conclusion. The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a completely different biological behaviour. PMID:24191203

González Galván, María Del Carmen; García-García, Abel; Anitua-Aldecoa, Eduardo; Martinez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel

2013-01-01

126

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumours are known for their peculiar behaviour, varied origin, debated development, unique tendency to recur and disputed treatment modalities. Thus, it has been the subject of much research over the last 40?years. It was formerly known as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). OKC received its new title as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by the WHO (2005) in order to suggest its aggressive and recurrent nature. KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of an 11-year-old child with extensive KCOT and an impacted canine in the right maxillary sinus. The cyst was initially misdiagnosed to be a dentigerous cyst based on the clinical and radiographic features though a differential diagnosis of KCOT and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The histological examination of the specimen finally confirmed it to be a KCOT. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour along with its surgical management have been discussed. PMID:23429028

Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish; Barua, Pranamee; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

127

Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst: A Report of Three Clinical Cases  

PubMed Central

The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Surgery is the usual treatment, and recurrence or association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been described. In this report, we presented three cases of this pathology, and we review the principal clinical, histological, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Case 1. A 73-year-old female presents with a slight swelling on the right mandible, associated with an unilocular well-defined radiolucent lesion. Case 2. A 27-year-old female presents with a painful mandibular swelling associated with an unilocular radiolucent lesion posterior to the 4.8. Case 3. A 61-year-old male was casually detected presents with an unilocular radiolucent lesion distal to the 4.8. Conclusion. The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a completely different biological behaviour. PMID:24191203

González Galván, María del Carmen; García-García, Abel; Anitua-Aldecoa, Eduardo; Martinez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel

2013-01-01

128

A Clinicopathological Study of Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors in Hamadan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Statement of the Problem: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most frequent osseous destructive lesions of the jaws; however, there is little information regarding the relative frequency of these lesions among the Iranian population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of clinically and histologically- diagnosed odontogenic cysts and tumors during a period of 13 years in Hamadan, and also its correlation with age, gender, and the site of the lesion. Materials and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 413 oral and maxillofacial specimens during 1996 to 2008.The age and the gender of patients, as well as the site of lesion were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Totally, 70 specimens were recorded as odontogenic cysts and 11 specimens were diagnosed as odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cysts (27.2%), followed by radicular cysts (18.6%) and odontogenic keratocysts (18.6%). In addition, cysts were more frequent in male than female individuals. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (64%). Conclusion: Odontogenic cysts were in correlation with age, gender and location. These results showed that dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst were more frequent than other studies. More investigations should be performed to determine the frequency of odontogenic tumors in Iran. PMID:25469355

Baghaei, Fahimeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Najmi, Hamidreza; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2014-01-01

129

Cytokeratin 19 Expression Patterns of Dentigerous Cysts and Odontogenic Keratocysts  

PubMed Central

Background: Although numerous investigators have studied the pattern of keratin expression in different odontogenic cysts, the results have been variable. Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK 19) in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts. Materials and Methods: The epithelial layers showing expression of the epithelial marker CK 19 was determined by immunohistochemical methods in 15 tissue specimens each of histopathologically confirmed cases of dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts. Statistical analysis was done to compare the CK 19 expression between dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst using the Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: All specimens of dentigerous cysts were positive for CK 19 with 20% (3/15) of the specimens showing expression only in a single layer of the epithelium, 40% (6/15) of the specimens showing expression in more than one layer but not the entire thickness of the epithelium, and the remaining 40% (6/15) showing expression throughout the entire thickness of the epithelium. In the case of odontogenic keratocysts, 40% (6/15) of the specimens were negative for CK 19, 40% (6/15) of the specimens showed expression only in a single layer of the epithelium, and 20% (3/15) of the specimens showed expression in more than one layer, but not the entire thickness of the epithelium. The observed differences in CK 19 expression by the two lesions were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The differences in CK 19 expression by these cysts may be utilized as a diagnostic tool in differentiating between these two lesions.

Kamath, KP; Vidya, M

2015-01-01

130

Squamous cell carcinoma in a maxillary odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic cysts in the maxilla are common but a malignant change in an odontogenic cyst is a comparatively a rare occurrence; however, these entities present with clinical and radiographic features similar to benign, expansible, central, odontogenic tumor, or cyst of the jaws. A patient reporting with squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst of right maxilla has been worked up clinically, radiographically, and pathologically. The case was surgically managed and followed up. A 54-year-old male patient with a compressible, rapidly growing swelling of right maxilla was clinically diagnosed to be a case of odontogenic cyst. On radiologic examination it appeared similar to a cystic lesion. An incisional biopsy obtained from the cyst wall showed it to be odontogenic keratocyst with histologic evidence of malignant transformation. The pathogenesis of the tumor, the biologic progression, and prognosis and overall clinical and histopathogical features of this rare malignancy is reported and discussed. PMID:22639518

Maria, Anisha; Sharma, Yogesh; Chhabria, Amit

2011-01-01

131

Surgical management of peripheral variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A rare case report with review  

PubMed Central

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion constituting around 3% of all odontogenic tumours and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It manifests as a beningn growth which affects young individuals, with a female predeliction usually in the second decade of life, exhibiting more often in the anterior region of maxilla. The current article enumerates the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of a rare case of extraosseous AOT with its therapeutic consideration PMID:25684929

Jindwani, Karuna; Paharia, Y. K.; Kushwah, Atul Pratap Singh

2015-01-01

132

Odontogenic keratocysts—a retrospective clinical and histologic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Including 25 recurrences, the material comprised 87 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) from 57 patients, who had been treated in 1974–93. The study included an analysis of clinical and histologic data from the patients' records and from pathologic reports. The men:women ratio was 1.5:1. Most of the patients belonged to the age groups 10–19, 20–29, 40–49, and 60–69 years. Almost 75% of

G. El-Hajj; G. Anneroth

1996-01-01

133

Twist expression in dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.  

PubMed

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process which is associated with a loss of intercellular adhesion, acquired mesenchymal shape, and increased motility by epithelial cells. Twist is one of the key regulators of EMT.In view of the distinct clinical behavior of odontogenic lesions, the objective of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Twist in these lesions. In this study, 70 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion consisting of 16 unicystic ameloblastomas (UA), 17 solid ameloblastomas (SA), 18 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DC) were reviewed using immunohistochemistry for Twist staining. In this study, Twist immunostaining was evident in all groups of the specimens except the dentigerous cyst group. Twist expression was seen in 58.8 % (10/17) of SA, 50 % (8/16) of UA, and 44.4 % (8/18) of OKCs. 23.5 % of SA, 18.8 % of UA, and 16.7 % of OKCs showed Twist expression in more than 50 % of cells. Statistical analysis showed that Twist expression levels were significantly higher in ameloblastomas (SA and UA) and OKCs than dentigerous cysts (P?=?0.002). There were no significant differences between Twist expression in SAs, UAs, and OKCs (P?>?0.05). The results of this study propose that the high expression rate of Twist plays a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas and OKCs and might be one of the reasons for the aggressive behavior of ameloblastomas and high recurrence of OKCs and could reinforce the classification of OKC as an odontogenic tumor. PMID:25088731

Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Pardis, Soheil; Ranjbaran, Pegah

2015-03-01

134

Odontogenic myxoma of the face: mimicry of cherubism.  

PubMed

The present study is a case report of a 3-year-old girl who was referred to our clinic with the clinical features of cherubism. A locally aggressive tumor was diffusely infiltrating the maxilla and mandible. At 4 years after resection, our patient has not demonstrated any signs of recurrence, which might point to a role for adjunctive chemotherapy, in this case imatinib (Gleevec), for odontogenic myxoma. PMID:25200927

Kleiber, Grant M; Skapek, Stephen X; Lingen, Mark; Reid, Russell R

2014-11-01

135

Targeting the sonic hedgehog pathway in keratocystic odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) may occur sporadically or associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is a benign aggressive tumor of odontogenic epithelial origin with a high rate of recurrence. A primary human keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell population, KCOT-1, has been established from a tumor explant culture. The KCOT-1 cells were characterized by growth rate, gene expression profiles of major tooth enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), ameloblastin (AMBN), amelotin (AMTN), tumor-related proteins enamelysin (MMP-20), kallikrein-4 (KLK-4), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, expression of the members of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH, patched (PTCH-1), smoothened (SMO), GLI-1, and GLI-2 and of the NOTCH signaling pathway, NOTCH-1, NOTCH-2, NOTCH-3, JAG-2 (Jagged-2), and Delta-like-1 (DLL-1) were evaluated. KCOT-1 cells were treated with SMO antagonist cyclopamine. We found that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and that the effects of cyclopamine were abolished by adding SHH protein. The protein expression of the SHH pathway was down-regulated by cyclopamine, further confirming that cyclopamine inhibits the SHH signaling pathway; SHH down-regulation correlated with the down-regulation of the NOTCH signaling pathway as well. In conclusion, using an established KCOT-1 cell population, we characterized the gene expression profiles related to the EMPs, SHH, and NOTCH signaling pathway and confirmed that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells and may be a viable agent as a novel therapeutic. PMID:22679015

Ren, Changchun; Amm, Hope M; DeVilliers, Patricia; Wu, Yixin; Deatherage, Joseph R; Liu, Zhongyu; MacDougall, Mary

2012-08-01

136

Targeting the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor*  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) may occur sporadically or associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is a benign aggressive tumor of odontogenic epithelial origin with a high rate of recurrence. A primary human keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell population, KCOT-1, has been established from a tumor explant culture. The KCOT-1 cells were characterized by growth rate, gene expression profiles of major tooth enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), ameloblastin (AMBN), amelotin (AMTN), tumor-related proteins enamelysin (MMP-20), kallikrein-4 (KLK-4), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, expression of the members of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH, patched (PTCH-1), smoothened (SMO), GLI-1, and GLI-2 and of the NOTCH signaling pathway, NOTCH-1, NOTCH-2, NOTCH-3, JAG-2 (Jagged-2), and Delta-like-1 (DLL-1) were evaluated. KCOT-1 cells were treated with SMO antagonist cyclopamine. We found that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and that the effects of cyclopamine were abolished by adding SHH protein. The protein expression of the SHH pathway was down-regulated by cyclopamine, further confirming that cyclopamine inhibits the SHH signaling pathway; SHH down-regulation correlated with the down-regulation of the NOTCH signaling pathway as well. In conclusion, using an established KCOT-1 cell population, we characterized the gene expression profiles related to the EMPs, SHH, and NOTCH signaling pathway and confirmed that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells and may be a viable agent as a novel therapeutic. PMID:22679015

Ren, Changchun; Amm, Hope M.; DeVilliers, Patricia; Wu, Yixin; Deatherage, Joseph R.; Liu, Zhongyu; MacDougall, Mary

2012-01-01

137

[Endoscopic treatment of odontogenic cyst with intra-sinusal extension].  

PubMed

Odontogenic cyst is a common lesion that can happen after inflammation of the dental pulp. The therapeutic approach of these cysts is made at dentist's offices, and depending on their extension, they may develop oroantral fistula and chronic sinusitis. The objective of this study is to propose the videoendoscopic treatment of the odontogenic cyst with expression in the maxillary sinus. We made a retrospective study of four cases of cysts of dental origin, with intra-sinusal extension, complicated with oroantral fistula and chronic sinusitis of maxillary sinus after curettage in a dentist's office. We used the videoendoscopic technique through transmaxillary approach to access the intra-sinusal cyst. All the four patients presented resolution of the infectious manifestation and healing of the oroantral fistula, without recurrence within two years of follow-up. Videoendoscopic surgery is a safe and effective method for the management of odontogenic cysts with extension to maxillary sinus, and it may prevent oroantral fistula formation and chronic sinusitis. PMID:16446949

Cedin, Antonio C; de Paula, Fausto A; Landim, Emanuel R; da Silva, Flávio L P; de Oliveira, Luis F; Sotter, Ana C

2005-01-01

138

Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

More, Chandramani B; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

2013-07-01

139

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst associated with complex odontome of maxilla.  

PubMed

The term calcifying odontogenic cyst was first introduced by Gorlin in 1962 (Eshghyar et al., Acta Med Iran 44(1):59-62, 2006). The lesion is unusual in that it has some features of a cyst but also has many characteristics of a solid neoplasm (Cysts and tumors of odontogenic origin: textbook of oral pathology, 2006). It is classified into two types-Type I-the cystic variant, Type II-solid tumor variant. This case report present Type I B-odontome producing intraosseous calcifying odontogenic cyst and Type I C-with ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 19 years old male patient in the right maxillary quadrant. The lesion involved an unerupted permanent maxillary central incisor, which was displaced to the infraorbital ridge of right side and the radiograph revealed a calcified mass in the periapical region of right incisor that was later recognized histopathologically as complex composite odontoma. The lesion was removed surgically. This case report emphasizes on the presence of this Type I B and C lesion and the need to keep them in follow up. PMID:24431819

Rastogi, Vikalp; Pandilwar, Prashant K

2013-03-01

140

The syndromic multiple odontogenic keratocyst in siblings: A familial study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Our aim is to demonstrate the importance of postoperative assessment and highlight the need for a lifetime follow-up of the patient and the siblings in cases of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). Materials and Methods: Three siblings out of which two were of syndromic multiple odontogenic keratocysts, with multiple basal cell nevae were followed-up for manifestations of NBCCS from year 2001 till date. Two of the patients were treated for multiple bilateral odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). Familial occurrence of the syndromic multiple odontogenic keratocysts was studied. Result: Although NBCCS is associated with multiple OKCs, it does not imply that a patient should have more than one cyst at a given point in time, rather it refers to the lifetime history of the patient. Early diagnosis will often make it possible to use conservative therapies rather than complex treatments. Conclusion: Recognition of the syndrome permits early treatment in other but possibly asymptomatic relatives. Close attention of the family and past medical history and physical examination will alert the clinician to its presence, allowing for appropriate genetic counseling and serial screening for the development of malignancies and other complications besides OKCs. PMID:23483828

Kalia, Vimal; Kaushal, Nitin; Kalra, Geeta

2011-01-01

141

Expression of cytokeratin in the epithelium of dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts: an aid to diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sections of tissue embedded in paraffin wax from 18 selected odontogenic cysts were studied both histologically and immunohistochemically with antibodies to cytokeratins using the indirect peroxidase technique. The cysts were divided on a clinical and histological basis into two equal groups comprising dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts. It was possible to differentiate the two cyst types in every case by

A W MacDonald; A Fletcher

1989-01-01

142

Treatment of odontogenic keratocysts: A follow-up of 255 Chinese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the surgical treatment of 484 Chinese patients with follow-up in 255 cases. Methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all odontogenic keratocysts that were surgically treated and histopathologically diagnosed between 1962 and 1998. The odontogenic keratocysts were surgically treated with enucleation, marsupialization followed by secondary enucleation, and resection

Yi-Fang Zhao; Jin-Xiong Wei; Shi-Ping Wang

2002-01-01

143

Immediate implants after enucleation of an odontogenic keratocyst: an early return to function.  

PubMed

An odontogenic keratocyst is a unique cyst because of its locally aggressive behavior, high recurrence rate, and characteristic histologic appearance. In this article we present the case of a 22-year-old male patient with a large odontogenic keratocyst and describe his treatment with immediate dental implants. PMID:21073299

Isler, Sabri C; Demircan, Sabit; Can, Taylan; Cebi, Zerrin; Baca, Emrah

2012-09-01

144

Calcifying Ghost Cell Odontogenic Cyst: Report of a Case and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

The calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) was first described by Gorlin et al. in 1962. Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst is comparatively rare in occurrence, constituting about 0.37% to 2.1% of all odontogenic tumors. The most notable features of this pathologic entity are histopathological features which include a cystic lining demonstrating characteristic “Ghost” epithelial cells with a propensity to calcify. In addition, the CGCOC may be associated with other recognized odontogenic tumors, most commonly odontomas. There are variants of CGCOC according to clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics. Therefore a proper categorization of the cases is needed for better understanding of the pathogenesis of each variant. Here, we report a classical case of calcifying odontogenic cyst along with a brief review of literature. PMID:22567434

Sonone, Archana; Sabane, V. S.; Desai, Rajeev

2011-01-01

145

Anaerobic thermophiles.  

PubMed

The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

146

Anaerobic Thermophiles  

PubMed Central

The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed. PMID:25370030

Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

2014-01-01

147

Frequency of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinus and response to surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Odontogenic sinusitis usually affects the maxillary sinus but may extend to the anterior ethmoid sinuses. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinuses and determine also the surgical resolution differences between odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and odontogenic maxillary associated to anterior ethmoidal sinusitis. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study performed on 55 patients diagnosed of odontogenic sinusitis and treated surgically by functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Results: This study showed that 52.7% of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis spreads to anterior ethmoid, causing added anterior ethmoid sinusitis. We found that 92.3% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (who underwent middle meatal antrostomy) and 96.5% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid (treated with middle meatal antrostomy and anterior ethmoidectomy) were cured. Conclusions: Ethmoid involvement is frequent in maxillary odontogenic sinusitis. The ethmoid involvement does not worsen the results of “functional endoscopic sinus surgery” applied to the odontogenic sinusitis. Key words:Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, ethmoiditis, functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24608208

Crovetto-Martínez, Rafael; Martin-Arregui, Francisco J.; Zabala-López-de-Maturana, Aitor; Tudela-Cabello, Kiara

2014-01-01

148

Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.  

PubMed

A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

2015-03-01

149

Serum Antibodies to Oral Anaerobic Bacteria in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Abstract and Introduction Abstract Background This study was conducted to determine the component that causes the disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which shows great resemblance to periodontitis in a pathologic context. Materials and Methods Within this study, the pathogen-specific IgG levels formed against Porphyromonas gingivalis FDC 381, Prevotella melaninogenica ATCC 25845, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4, Bacteroides forsythus ATCC 43047, and Prevotella intermedia 25611 oral bacteria were researched from the blood serum samples of 30 RA patients and 20 healthy controls with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results The IgG levels of P gingivalis, P intermedia, P melaninogenica, and B forsythus were found to be significantly higher in RA patients when compared with those of the controls. Of the other bacteria antibodies, A actinomycetemcomitans was not found at greater levels in RA serum samples in comparison with the healthy samples. Conclusion The antibodies formed against P gingivalis, P intermedia, P melaninogenica, and B forsythus could be important to the etiopathogenesis of RA. Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polyarticular, chronic, inflammatory, and systemic disease.[1] In many previous studies, this rheumatic disease was found at high ratios for individuals with periodontitis and RA shows resemblance to periodontitis in many aspects pathologically.[2,3] HLA-DR4 tissue antigens are found at high frequencies in both patients with periodontitis and with RA. HLA-DR4 tissue antigens and their subtypes are directly associated with each disease.[4,5] Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Bacteroides forsythus are gram-negative small basil quality obligate anaerobic bacteria and are held directly responsible for the formation of periodontitis (Periodontopathic bacteria). These bacteria usually secrete brown-black pigments and form colonies when they reproduce in blood agar plates used for their cultivation.[6] These bacteria were classified in the Bacteroides genus until 1988 and 1990, when they were reclassified to the Porphyromonas and Prevotella genera, respectively, in accordance with new classification strategies made by Shah and Collins.[7,8] These bacteria are members of the normal human mouth flora, where they cause endodontitis, odontogenic inflammation, gingivitis, and mainly periodontitis. They are also found commensally in the body flora, where they cause chronic sinusitis, chronic recurrent tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic otitis media, parotitis, intra-abdominal infection, genitourinary infection, and wound infections in immune-suppressed individuals as well as when in conjunction with facultative anaerobic bacteria (ie, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli).[9] A significant point here is that, although these bacteria are obligate anaerobic bacteria, when in conjunction with the facultative anaerobic bacteria mentioned above, they lead to mixed types of infections. In this study, we investigated the oral Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella bacteria antibodies usually found in periodontitis etiopathogenesis but from serum samples of RA patients. PMID:16369381

Ogrendik, Mesut; Kokino, Siranus; Ozdemir, Ferda; Bird, Philip S.; Hamlet, Stephen

2005-01-01

150

Odontogenic myxoma in a 52-year-old woman.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumour of the jaws. It is usually seen in the second to third decade of life. Women are more frequently affected than men and it has more predilections for the mandible rather than the maxilla. OM presents as an asymptomatic swelling in most of the cases. Owing to the non-capsulated and aggressive nature of OM, a high rate of recurrence has been reported. Here we present a case of OM in a 52-year-old woman managed by segmental mandibulectomy. Sign of recurrence was seen after 18?months of follow-up. PMID:24859552

Ram, Hari; Mehta, Gagan; Kumar, Manoj; Lone, Parveen

2014-01-01

151

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: treatment modalities: study of 3 cases.  

PubMed

Management of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor has been one of the most controversial entities of the maxillofacial surgery. It can become quite large because of its ability for significant expansion, extension into adjacent tissues and rapid growth and also has high reccurence rate as it shows a thin, friable wall, which is often difficult to enucleate from the bone in toto, and have small satellite cysts within the fibrous wall. There are various treatment modalities suggested from conservative to radical approach, but studies have shown even with conservative approach good results are achieved. In this paper we are presenting various treatment modalities and 3 cases have been discussed. PMID:24714022

Roopak, B; Singh, M; Shah, A; Patel, G

2014-01-01

152

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with dentigerous cyst: Report of a rare case with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion derived from the complex system of dental lamina or its remnant. It is categorized into three variants (follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral). We present a rare case of AOT arising from a dentigerous cyst around the unerupted canine in a 28-year-old female. We believe that this case z an odontogenic cyst with neoplastic development, containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components. As more cases accumulate, we will be able to study these rare lesions further whether the AOTs derived from an odontogenic cyst could represent a distinct “hybrid” variant separate to the three variants described thus far. PMID:23230373

Singh, Vikramjeet; Goyal, Sunder; Sheikh, Soheyl; Shambulingappa, P.; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ravinder

2012-01-01

153

Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with oro-nasal fistula: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim of the study The odontogenic sinusitis has an incidence between 38 and 40.6%. Increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with the presence of periapical abscesses, periodontal disease, dental trauma, tooth extraction and implant placement when the sinusal membrane is perforated. Materials and methods A patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with oro-nasal fistula was treated. Results The follow-up at six months showed the complete resolution of maxillary sinusitis, palatal fistula got closed and pain symptoms disappeared. Conclusion This case report describes a rare complication of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: the oro-nasal fistula. PMID:25678949

Carini, Fabrizio; Longoni, Salvatore; Amosso, Ernesto; Carini, Stefania; Garavello, Werner; Porcaro, Gianluca

2014-01-01

154

Activity of spectinomycin against anaerobes.  

PubMed

The in vitro inhibitory activity of spectinomycin was tested against various anaerobic bacteria. Different results were obtained with different media and with different initial pH's of the media. The highest minimum inhibitory concentrations for Bacteroides fragilis ([Formula: see text] 128 mug/ml) were obtained with the use of Wilkins-Chalgren agar (pH 7.2) and Brucella blood agar (pH 7.0). Brucella blood agar at higher pH's (7.4 and 8.0) and Mueller-Hinton and Diagnostic Sensitivity Test agars produced lower minimum inhibitory concentrations (32 and 64 mug/ml). This same relationship between spectinomycin activity and pH of the medium was, in general, observed with these media and other anaerobes, including isolates of B. melaninogenicus, Fusobacterium, gram-positive cocci, Clostridium perfringens, and C. ramosum. The variable results observed in this study and in two others make it difficult to predict the clinical usefulness of spectinomycin in the treatment of anaerobic infections. It is probably most appropriate to be guided by results obtained with Wilkins-Chalgren agar and the method proposed as a reference to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. These results indicate that spectinomycin is not a potent inhibitor of B. fragilis or other clinically significant anaerobes. PMID:18985

Rosenblatt, J E; Gerdts, A M

1977-07-01

155

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation motivated by being able to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither

156

Ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma in a patient with suspected Gardner syndrome.  

PubMed

Ameloblastic carcinoma and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma are rare malignancies arising in odontogenic epithelium within the jaws. Gardner syndrome is a multifaceted autosomal dominant condition, which results in multiple dentofacial anomalies along with premalignant colon polyp formation and tumor formation in the skin and other organs. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and extensive clear cell change and melanin pigmentation in a patient with clinical features of Gardner syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, odontogenic carcinoma arising in a patient with features of Gardner syndrome has not been reported previously. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the case are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25434693

Fitzpatrick, S G; Hirsch, S A; Listinsky, C M; Lyu, D J-H; Baur, D A

2015-04-01

157

Multiple, multifocal odontogenic keratocysts in non-syndrome patient: a case-report.  

PubMed

Occurrence of multiple odontogenic keratocyst involving the jaws is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of multiple odontogenic keratocyst without syndromic association is extremely rare. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome which is also known as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. Multiple Odontogenic Keratocysts (OKCs) are principle features of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome). However, a case of multiple odontogenic keratocysts unassociated with any syndrome is reported here so as to add to the growing number of such cases in the literature. The possibility of this case being a partial expression of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is discussed. PMID:24984621

Hammannavar, Reshma; Holikatti, Kiran; Bassappa, Sharan; Shinde, Nagesh; Reddy, Manjunath; Chidambaram, Y S

2014-06-01

158

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections ... Scarlet Fever Sinusitis Strep Throat Tuberculosis Walking Pneumonia Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Medical Tests A Directory of Medical Tests ...

159

Two Cases of Diskitis Attributable to Anaerobic Bacteria in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diskitis, an inflammation of the interver- tebral disk, is generally attributable to Staphylococcus aureus and rarely Staphylococcus epidermidis, Kingella kingae, Enterobacteriaciae, and Streptococcus pneu- moniae. In many cases, no bacterial growth is obtained from infected intervertebral discs. Although anaerobic bacteria were recovered from adults with spondylodisci- tis, these organisms were not reported before from chil- dren. The recovery of anaerobic

Itzhak Brook

160

Surgical management of odontogenic myxoma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic myxoma is a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior, and is relatively rare in the oral cavity. There are currently no clear surgical management guidelines for odontogenic myxoma, and a variety of approaches may be used. This study evaluated the literature concerning the surgical management of odontogenic myxoma, and reports the long-term outcome of a case managed by using a more conservative surgical approach. Case presentation We managed a 40-year-old Japanese man with odontogenic myxoma in the right mandible by enucleation and curettage, a relatively conservative approach that has proved to have been justified by a lack of recurrence over 10 years. Our strategy was compared with others reported in the literature, which was identified by a PubMed search using the term “odontogenic myxoma”. Articles without full text or with missing data were excluded. The age and sex of patients, the tumor location (maxilla/mandible), treatment (conservative/radical), recurrence, and follow-up period were compared in the reported cases that we evaluated. From the initial 211 studies identified, 20 studies qualified as mandibular cases of odontogenic myxoma. Recurrence was reported in three cases that had been treated with a more conservative surgical approach. Conclusions Enucleation and curettage has proved an effective approach in several cases in ours there has been no recurrence more than 10 years after surgery but the risk of recurrence appears to be higher. We discuss the important factors that must be considered when determining the correct management approach to odontogenic myxoma. PMID:24708884

2014-01-01

161

Differential expression of Cyclin D1 in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts  

PubMed Central

Objetives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression levels of Cyclin D1 (CCD1), a nuclear protein that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts. Study Design: A total of 58 keratin-producing odontogenic cysts, diagnosed over ten years and classified according to the WHO 2005 criteria, were immunohistochemically analyzed in terms of CCD1 expression, which was quantified in the basal, suprabasal and intermediate/superficial epithelial compartments. The extent of immunostaining was measured as a proportion of total epithelial thickness. Quantified immunohistochemical data were correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical recurrence. Results: Keratin-producing odontogenic cysts were classified as 6 syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (S-KCOT), 40 sporadic or non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOT) and 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). Immunohistochemically, CCD1 staining was evident predominantly in the parabasal region of all cystic lesions, but among-lesion differences were apparent, showing a clear expansion of parabasal compartment especially in the S-KCOT, followed to a lesser extent in the NS-KCOT, and being much more reduced in the OOC, which had the greatest average epithelial thickness. Conclusions: The differential expression of CCD1 noted in the present study suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to the S phase contributes to the different aggressiveness of these lesions. However, CCD1 expression levels did not predict NS-KCOT recurrence, which is likely influenced by factors unrelated to lesion biology. Key words:Keratin-producing odontogenic cyst, keratocyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, cyclin D1, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25475773

Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo

2015-01-01

162

Rare and massive odontogenic parakeratotic cyst treated by endoscopic sinus surgery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Keratocystic odontogenic tumors are benign neoplasms of odontogenic origin with a potential for aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Many different treatments for this type of lesion have been reported. However, no common consensus has emerged to date regarding the most effective therapeutic approach. Cases of maxillary sinus giant keratocystic odontogenic tumors completely excised by enucleation or marsupialization via endoscopic sinus surgery are extremely rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been described in the literature since 2005. Case presentation We report a case of a 24-year-old Italian man who came to our department with maxillary sinus region swelling, pain and left nasal obstruction. A massive keratocystic odontogenic tumor involving the right maxillary sinus and causing focal erosions of the bony walls was diagnosed. The keratocystic odontogenic tumor was removed as much as possible by a transnasal approach using endoscopic sinus surgery, which produced optimal surgical and prognostic outcomes. Follow-up is reported for an 8-year period. Conclusion Conservative management in this case demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy with a low risk of recurrence. For injuries involving the maxillary sinus, the possibility of decompression or marsupialization by endoscopic sinus surgery should always be considered because it demonstrated the potential to lead to excellent results even after 8 years of follow-up in our patient. To our knowledge, no case report has described follow-up longer than 8 years for a maxillary sinus keratocystic odontogenic tumor treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:25193270

2014-01-01

163

Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts – An immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. Materials & Methods: The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. Results: No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Conclusion: Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D’Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts – An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 . PMID:24453443

D’Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

2013-01-01

164

Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

2010-01-01

165

A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a relatively uncommon distinct odontogenic neoplasm. It is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin with varying number of ductlike structures and inductive changes in the stroma. It is a benign and slow growing epithelial tumor and represents 3% of all odontogenic tumors. Its occurrence is more common in anterior region of the maxilla than mandible. Most of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors occur intra-osseously but few peripheral variant have been reported which are attached to the gingival structures. The intra-osseous Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor may be related to unerrupted tooth (follicular varient) or may not (extrafollicular varient) be related to unerrupted tooth. This paper is to present a rare case of an extrafollicular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor occurring in the body of the mandible in a male patient which is distinct and secondly it was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as residual cyst. The diagnosis of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was confirmed by Histopathological investigation. How to cite this article: Shivali V, Khanna VD, Khanna P, Singh A, Pandey A, Ahuja T. A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):124-8. PMID:24324316

Shivali, Vaid; Pandey, Anil; Khanna, Vidhi D; Khanna, Prateek; Singh, Ashish; Ahuja, Tarun

2013-01-01

166

Evidence for the presence of lactoferrin in odontogenic keratocyst fluids.  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the possibility that X (an antigen consistently present in aspirated odontogenic keratocysts, but not in most fluids from other cyst types), represented a keratinocyte component failed to identify the antigen as a keratin, involucrin, or one of the blood group substances. Antigen X was detected in human mixed and parotid saliva and in colostrum, as well as in a commercially obtained preparation of colostral IgA. The antigen was similar biochemically to both secretory component and lactoferrin but proved to be identical antigenically with lactoferrin. The origin of lactoferrin in keratocyst fluids remains uncertain, though the lining epithelium seems a more likely source than does the very variable, and often negligible, inflammatory infiltrate found in these lesions. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:3654992

Douglas, C W; Craig, G T

1987-01-01

167

Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Gingiva: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a case of an uncommon and slow-growing tumor known as a central odontogenic fibroma (COF). The patient in question is a 53-year-old African-American man who was referred for periodontal evaluation of asymptomatic space formation between the mandibular central incisors. Clinical and radiological evaluations disclosed tumor-like tissue expanding the alveolar ridge in the buccolingual dimension, along with thinning of the cortical plates. Surgical excision was performed, and the specimen was sent for histopathology, which later confirmed that the lesion was a COF. Periodontal regenerative therapy was performed to rebuild the hard and soft tissue that had been compromised as a result of tumor expansion. The site was grafted, with excellent results. PMID:25646136

Soolari, Ahmad; Khan, Asghar

2015-01-01

168

Central giant cell granuloma mimicking an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Central giant cell granulomas are non-neoplastic lesions of unknown etiology. They affect females more than males with the mandibular anterior region being the most common site of occurrence. Clinically central giant cell granulomas present as asymptomatic, expansile swellings causing deviation of associated teeth. Radiologically they usually presents as multilocular lesions causing expansion or perforation of cortical bone. Central giant cell granulomas are usually confused as other lesions both clinically and radiologically, and a definitive diagnosis can be made only histologically. We report here a rare case of central giant cell granuloma in association with congenitally missing tooth which was misdiagnosed to be an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor both clinically and radiologically. This case report also highlights yet another unique presentation of central giant cell granulomas that is in association with a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor. PMID:22090775

Daryani, Deepak; Gopakumar, R

2011-07-01

169

An unusual case of a brain abscess arising from an odontgenic infection.  

PubMed

A brain abscess that originates from an odontogenic infection, although rare, can, at times, be difficult to diagnose, especially in the context of pain and trismus.(7) This case reports a rare incidence of an odontogenic infection as a result of an infected maxillary third molar, causing an infratemporal and temporalis collection, resulting in a brain abscess with concurrent cerebritis. This is a clinical case review documenting an uncommon but potentially fatal complication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25484130

Greenstein, Anthony; Witherspoon, Robert; Leinkram, David; Malandreni, Maria

2014-12-01

170

Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum ?-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

Murdoch, D. A.

1998-01-01

171

KDM6B epigenetically regulates odontogenic differentiation of dental mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified and isolated from dental tissues, including stem cells from apical papilla, which demonstrated the ability to differentiate into dentin-forming odontoblasts. The histone demethylase KDM6B (also known as JMJD3) was shown to play a key role in promoting osteogenic commitment by removing epigenetic marks H3K27me3 from the promoters of osteogenic genes. Whether KDM6B is involved in odontogenic differentiation of dental MSCs, however, is not known. Here, we explored the role of KDM6B in dental MSC fate determination into the odontogenic lineage. Using shRNA-expressing lentivirus, we performed KDM6B knockdown in dental MSCs and observed that KDM6B depletion leads to a significant reduction in alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and in formation of mineralized nodules assessed by Alizarin Red staining. Additionally, mRNA expression of odontogenic marker gene SP7 (osterix, OSX), as well as extracellular matrix genes BGLAP (osteoclacin, OCN) and SPP1 (osteopontin, OPN), was suppressed by KDM6B depletion. When KDM6B was overexpressed in KDM6B-knockdown MSCs, odontogenic differentiation was restored, further confirming the facilitating role of KDM6B in odontogenic commitment. Mechanistically, KDM6B was recruited to bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) promoters and the subsequent removal of silencing H3K27me3 marks led to the activation of this odontogenic master transcription gene. Taken together, our results demonstrated the critical role of a histone demethylase in the epigenetic regulation of odontogenic differentiation of dental MSCs. KDM6B may present as a potential therapeutic target in the regeneration of tooth structures and the repair of craniofacial defects. PMID:24158144

Xu, Juan; Yu, Bo; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu

2013-12-01

172

Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a Turkish Population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the relative frequency and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a large Turkish population. Study Design A retrospective survey of jaw cysts was undertaken at the Oral Diagnosis and Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Ondokuz May?s University Dental School, Samsun, Turkey. Data were retrieved from clinical files, imaging, and histopathology reports from 2000 to 2008; a total of 12,350 patients were included. In each case, we analyzed age, gender, type and number of cysts, and cyst location. Imaging patterns and pathologies associated with cystic lesions were also determined. Results: The prevalence of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts was 3.51%; males were affected more frequently than females. There were 452 odontogenic cysts (98.5%) and seven nonodontogenic cysts (1.5%). The most frequent odontogenic cyst was radicular (54.7%), followed by dentigerous (26.6%), residual (13.7%), odontogenic keratocyst (3.3%), and lateral periodontal cyst (0.2%). Nasopalatine duct cyst (1.5%) was the only nonodontogenic cyst. By age, cysts peaked in the third decade (24.2%). Concerning location, no statistically significant difference was found between the maxilla and mandible (p>0.05). The most frequent radiological feature of these lesions was unilocular cyst (93.7%). Pathologies associated with cystic lesions occurred in 14.7%. Conclusion: The prevalence of both odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts were lower than that reported in many other studies. In our study population, cysts were mainly inflammatory in origin. Key words: Prevalence, odontogenic, nonodontogenic, cysts. PMID:21743428

Uzun-Bulut, Emel; Özden, Bora; Gündüz, Kaan

2012-01-01

173

Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis-related Proteins in Sporadic Odontogenic Keratocysts and Odontogenic Keratocysts Associated with the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocysts are occasionally (4-5%) associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a pleiotropic, autosomal disorder presenting a spectrum of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition for the development of different neoplasms. The aim of this study was to establish whether keratocysts showing clinically aggressive behavior associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome reflect differences in cellular proliferation rate and\\/or

L. Lo Muzio; S. Staibano; G. Pannone; P. Bucci; P. F. Nocini; E. Bucci; G. De Rosa

1999-01-01

174

Differentiation of odontogenic keratocysts from nonkeratinizing cysts by use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and cytokeratin-10 staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In this study, the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and cytokeratin 10 immunocytochemical staining to differentiate odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) from dentigerous and other nonkeratinizing cysts was evaluated. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of 18 FNABs of odontogenic cystic lesions performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1995 and 1998. A consistent and standardized technique was

Meredith August; William C. Faquin; Maria Troulis; Leonard B. Kaban

2000-01-01

175

p53 Immunohistochemistry of odontogenic keratocysts in relation to recurrence, basal-cell budding and basal-cell naevus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutation of the p53 tumour suppressor gene can produce a more stable protein that does not inhibit mitosis, accumulates in the nucleus and can then be detected immunohistochemically in many human tumours using antibody CM-1. The protein has also been detected in odontogenic keratocysts. Routinely processed material from 30 odontogenic keratocysts was immunostained with antibody CM-1. Ten were recurrences and

T. Lombardi; E. W. Odell; P. R. Morgan

1995-01-01

176

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare condition characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinitation in the form of Ghost cell with varying amounts of dysplastic dentina. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 70 year-old woman with a rapid onset of painful swelling right maxillary tumor. Magnetic resonance showed a huge tumor dependent on the right half of the right hard palate with invasion of the pterygoid process and focally to the second branch of the trigeminal. Radiological stage was T4N0. The patient underwent a right subtotal maxillectomy with clear margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given. The patient was free of residual or recurrent disease 12 months after surgery. Results: The tumor was 3,9cm in diameter. It was spongy and whitish gray. Microscopically the tumor was arranged in nets and trabeculae, occasionally forming palisade. Tumoral cells had clear cytoplasm with vesicular nuclei. There was atipia and mitosi with vascular and perineural invasion. The excised tumor was diagnosed as a GCOC. Conclusions: Ghost cell carcinoma is a rare odontogenic carcinoma. Its course is unpredictable, ranging from locally invasive tumors of slow growth to highly aggressive and infiltrative ones. Wide surgical excision with clean margins is the treatment of choice although its combination with postoperative radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, remains controversial. Key words:Ameloblastic carcinoma, calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell carcinoma, keratinizing epithelial odontogenic cyst, maxillary tumor, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:25674335

Alberola-Ferranti, Margarita; Hueto-Madrid, Juan Antonio; Bescós-Atín, Coro

2014-01-01

177

Odontogenic myxofibroma: A concise review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a review of the literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and radiographic features as well as treatment of odontogenic myxofibroma (MF). Methods: The PubMed database was searched using the following keywords: “odontogenic myxofibroma”, “odontogenic fibromyxoma”, “myxofibroma of the jaw” and “fibromyxoma of the jaw”. Results: Fifteen articles reporting the experience with 24 patients were identified. Male/female ratio was 1:1.4 and the average age was 29.5 years. The most frequent location was the mandible. In 66.7% of the cases the radiographic appearance was a multilocular radiolucency. Swelling was observed in 13 patients (92.86%), varying degrees of pain in 5 (35.71%) and paresthesia in only one patient (7.14%). Six out of 24 patients (26.09%) were treated with radical surgery and 17 (73.91%) with a conservative approach. In two out of 21 cases (9.52%) a recurrence was reported. Conclusions: MF is an extremely rare tumor and no agreement exists on the causes of its development. According to the present review, the choice of treatment should depend on variables such as localization, presence of a primary or of a recurrent lesion, age, general medical conditions and aesthetic needs of the patient. Key words:Odontogenic myxofibroma, myxofibroma of the jaw, odontogenic tumors, oral surgery, oral pathology. PMID:25129249

Giovannacci, Ilaria; Corradi, Domenico; Manfredi, Maddalena; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Vescovi, Paolo

2015-01-01

178

Deep-neck space infections - a diagnostic dilemma!  

PubMed

Deep Neck Space Infections (DNI) are a potentially life threatening condition. This paper highlights the importance of their early diagnosis and early intervention. The deep-neck space infections may be odontogenic in origin. The severe airway compromise caused by them may make diagnosis difficult. Suspicion of simultaneous occurrence of tetanus and retropharyngeal space infection in a child can further increase the dilemma. PMID:23120579

Jain, Shraddha; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Nishant; Puttewar, M P; Nagpure, P S

2008-12-01

179

Anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews the present understanding of bacterial populations involved in anaerobic degradation of organic material into methane and CO2 (biogas); furthermore some recent process developments for anaerobic wastewater treatment are described. It could be demonstrated that at least three groups of bacteria are involved in methanogenesis. Hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria first decompose the organic material into various organic acids,

H. Sahm

180

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither of these factors was a motivator

181

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

182

Radiological and clinical features of peripheral keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Peripheral Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (PKCOT) is rare and has not been reported with imaging findings. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore CT and MR imaging characteristics of two PKCOTs in lateral facial deep region (LFDR), and to present a review of the literature regarding their anatomic locations and characteristics of epidemiology and Radiology. Methods and material: Eighteen PKCOTs, sixteen from the previous literatures and two new cases of the authors, were reviewed. Fifteen of them had original sites in the gingival, one in buccal space and two in LFDR. CT imaging features were based on one PKCOT in the buccal space and two in LFDR. MR imaging features on one PKCOT in LFDR, and conventional radiographic characteristics on eight PKCOTs were analyzed. Results: The subjects’ ages ranged from 37 to 81 years, with a mean of 54.7 years. The male and female ratio was 1:1.14, with no predilection for either gender. Buccal space (6%) and LFDR (11%) were relatively rare original sites to PKCOTs, compared to gingival (83%). PKCOTs were clearly depicted on CT and MR imaging as they had cystic changes. Contents of the cysts were further analyzed by using different series of MRI. No radiological features were found on radiographs except one subject with minimal bone resorption in the alveolar crest. Conclusions: LFDR is rare original site for PKCOT. PKCOT should be included as one of differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion found in LFDR on CT and MR imaging. PMID:24482721

Zhu, Ling; Yang, Jie; Zheng, Jia-Wei

2014-01-01

183

Evaluation and Comparison of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression between Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with an aggressive clinical behavior suggesting a change in its terminology from a cyst to a tumor and has now been renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The purpose of this study was to assess and compare angiogenesis in ameloblastoma and OKC. Materials and Methods: Angiogenesis was assessed by studying the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The study samples included 15 ameloblastomas and 15 KCOTs. The immunoreactivity was statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: VEGF expression was higher in ameloblastoma than KCOTs. However, a non-significant difference of VEGF expression was noted between ameloblastoma and KCOTs (P = 0.345). Conclusion: The results suggest that tumor angiogenesis may play a significant role in aggressive biologic behavior of KCOT. Thus, angiogenesis could be a potent target for developing anatiangiogenic therapeutic strategies. PMID:25709368

Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Priyadharsini, Nataraj; Gnanaselvi, U Punitha; Sathishkumar, Srinivasan; Srikanth, R P; Nagarathinam, A E

2015-01-01

184

Using the condylar prosthesis after resection of a large odontogenic myxoma tumor in the mandible.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxomas are considered to be a benign odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior. Because these neoplasms are rare in the oral cavity, the possible surgical management can be quite variable. Literature recommendation can vary from simple curettage and peripheral ostectomy to segmental resection. The authors report a case of a 20-year-old patient with an odontogenic myxoma tumor located in the left mandibular angle, ascending ramus, and mandibular symphysis. It was treated by radical resection followed by titanium reconstruction with condylar prosthesis, which allowed rapid return of function with improvement in quality of life and restoration of cosmetic and functional deficits. The lesion did not recur after surgical procedure. PMID:22976683

De Melo, Willian Morais; Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; Brêda, Marcus Antônio; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Serra e Silva, Fabrício Moreira

2012-09-01

185

Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25810830

Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; de Andrade, Bruno-Augusto-Benevenuto; Romañach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

2015-02-01

186

A case of glandular odontogenic cyst in the mandible treated with the dredging method.  

PubMed

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare odontogenic cyst derived from the odontogenic epithelium. GOC shows unpredictable and potentially aggressive behavior. Although enucleation and curettage are applied in most cases, the recurrence rate remains relatively high. Because a standard care procedure for GOC has not been established, we propose a new treatment procedure for GOC. In this case report, we describe a 62-year-old Japanese woman who suffered from GOC arising at the anterior region of her mandible and who was treated using the dredging method. She underwent enucleation and curettage twice using the dredging method with preservation of the teeth, which were involved with the lesion, but the lesion recurred 2 years later. In addition to enucleation and curettage, apicoectomy of the teeth was performed with a third dredging method procedure, and prognosis has been good with no recurrence for 18 months since the last treatment. PMID:24374982

Motooka, Naomi; Ohba, Seigo; Uehara, Masataka; Fujita, Syuichi; Asahina, Izumi

2015-01-01

187

A case of odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness by severe tension orbit.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness by severe tension orbit. A 41-yr old male patient had visited the hospital due to severe periorbital swelling and nasal stuffiness while he was treated for a periodontal abscess. He was diagnosed with odontogenic sinusitis and orbital cellulitis, and treated with antibiotics. The symptoms were aggravated and emergency sinus drainage was performed. On the next day, a sudden decrease in vision occurred with findings of ischemic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion. Deformation of the eyeball posterior pole into a cone shape was found from the orbital CT. A high-dose steroid was administered immediately resulting in improvements of periorbital swelling, but the patient's vision had not recovered. Odontogenic orbital cellulitis is relatively rare, but can cause blindness via rapidly progressing tension orbit. Therefore even the simplest of dental problems requires careful attention. PMID:23400303

Park, Chang Hyun; Jee, Dong Hyun; La, Tae Yoon

2013-02-01

188

Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings  

PubMed Central

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry.

Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; Romañach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

2015-01-01

189

Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the maxillary sinus and zygoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), formally known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign developmental tumors that are found primarily in the mandibular molar region and ascending ramus. The disease is characterized by aggressive growth and a high recurrence rate following surgical treatment. The present study reports the rare case of a 25-year-old male with a giant KCOT involving the right zygoma, maxillary bone and maxillary sinus. The tumor was removed using a modified treatment of enucleation, grinding and cryotherapy. Recurrence has not been observed within the eight-month follow-up period. The present study discusses the clinical features and surgical management of this case. PMID:25364448

ZHOU, JIANHUA; WANG, LILI; CHEN, ZHENGGANG; QIU, JIANZHONG; DONG, QUANJIANG

2014-01-01

190

Central Granular Cell Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case with CBCT Features  

PubMed Central

Central granular cell odontogenic tumor) CGCOT) of the jaw is an exceedingly rare benign odontogenic neoplasm with 35 reported cases in the literature. Among these, very few studies have focused on the cone-beam CT features of CGCOT. Here, we report a case of an asymptomatic CGCOT in a 16-year-old girl and focus on the cone-beam CT features. Only 36 cases of this lesion, including this one, have been reported so far. The case presented is of special importance due to the young age of the patient, the posterior location of the lesion and the multilocular pattern in the cone beam CT images PMID:25628673

Anbiaee, Najmeh; Saghafi, Shadi; Mohammadzadeh Rezaei, Maryam

2014-01-01

191

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in the maxillary antrum: A rare case entity  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign tumor of odontogenic origin. It occurs in the second decade of life. Females are more commonly affected than males. AOT has a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla; however, very few cases have been reported to occur in the maxillary antrum. This is a case report of a 17-year-old male presented with a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the right maxillary antrum, which was clinically diagnosed as dentigerous cyst. The histopathological examination revealed the presence of AOT. PMID:25210372

Krishnamurthy, Kavitha; Balaji, Ranjith Singh; Devadiga, Sumana; Prasad, Rame Gowda Rajendra

2014-01-01

192

Odontogenic tumors: A collaborative study of 218 cases diagnosed over 12 years and comprehensive review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, and to compare the findings with those reported in the literature. Study Design: The records of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology Departments at Erciyes University, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization classification, 2005), over a 12-year period, were analyzed. The relative frequency of different types of tumors was also analyzed and compared with the literature. Results: OTs in the present study constituted 2.74% of all the 7,942 registered biopsies. A total of 218 cases of OTs were collected and reviewed. Of these, (94.04%) were benign and (5.96%) were malignant. The mandible was the most commonly affected anatomic location, with 170 cases (77.9%). Ameloblastoma with a predilection for the posterior mandible was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (30.28%), followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (19.5%), odontoma (13.4%), and odontogenic myxoma (8.5%). Conclusions: OTs are rare neoplasms and appear to show geographic variations in the world. In Cappadocia, Turkey, they are more common in the mandible, with ameloblastoma followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumors with the incidences observed in the present study being similar to those of previous studies from Asia and Africa, and in contrast to those reported from American countries. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, WHO classification, prevalence, jaws. PMID:25481228

Nazl?m, Sinan; Etoz, Meryem; Den?z, Kemal; Yasa, Yasin

2015-01-01

193

Clostridium difficile: the anaerobe that made the grade.  

PubMed

Unlike other anaerobic bacteria of clinical importance, Clostridium difficile has managed to enter into the realm of public awareness. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous "superbug" responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This report picks out key moments, particularly in the UK, which tracked the rise in both the public and political awareness of this organism. PMID:22293217

Brazier, Jon S

2012-04-01

194

The use of enucleation and liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in the management of odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study evaluated the use of enucleation and cryosurgery in the management of odontogenic keratocysts. Patients and Methods: This study involved a retrospective review of 26 patients. All of the patients received a combination of enucleation and cryosurgery. Postoperative follow-up consisted of clinical and radiographic examinations. Results: Before enucleation and cryotherapy, 22 of the 26 patients had received previous

Brian L Schmidt; M. A Pogrel

2001-01-01

195

Systematic review of the treatment and prognosis of the odontogenic keratocyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To clarify the natural history of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and to evaluate treatments with respect to the likelihood of recurrence. Study Design: A systematic review of the literature was completed pertaining to the treatment and prognosis of the OKC. Each investigation was evaluated based on 4 inclusion criteria. Each study that met the 4 inclusion criteria was then

Nick Blanas; Brian Freund; Marvin Schwartz; Ian M Furst

2000-01-01

196

PTCH Mutations in Sporadic and Gorlin-syndrome-related Odontogenic Keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocysts are relatively common lesions that may occur in isolation or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (or Gorlin syndrome). The PTCH gene has been reported to be associated with Gorlin syndrome. We investigated 10 cases of non-syndromic keratocysts and two other cases associated with Gorlin syndrome, looking for PTCH mutations. Four novel and 1 known PTCH

X.-M. Gu; H.-S. Zhao; L.-S. Sun; T.-J. Li

2006-01-01

197

Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment of ameloblastomas and odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present decision trees on the treatment of cystic lesions of the jaws based on their location. We give special consideration to the treatment of potentially aggressive lesions such as odontogenic keratocysts and cystic ameloblastomas. The treatment plan is based on a retrospective study of 19 ameloblastomas and similar published studies combined with a prospective study of keratocysts.

Karen A. O. M. Chapelle; Paul J. W. Stoelinga; Peter C. M. de Wilde; John J. A. Brouns; Ralph A. C. A. Voorsmit

2004-01-01

198

Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade.  

PubMed

Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy's solution. PMID:25136427

Sánchez-Burgos, Rocío; González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

2014-07-01

199

PTC gene mutations and expression of SHH, PTC, SMO, and GLI-1 in odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patched (PTC) gene is responsible for basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) accompanied by multiple odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), and its product plays a role in the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway involving smoothened (SMO) and GLI-1. To clarify the role of SHH signaling in OKCs, the expression of SHH, PTC, SMO, and GLI-1 and mutations of PTC were examined in

K Ohki; H Kumamoto; R Ichinohasama; T Sato; N Takahashi; K Ooya

2004-01-01

200

The orosomucoid 1 protein (?1 acid glycoprotein) is overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma  

PubMed Central

Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, but locally invasive, neoplasm occurring in the jaws. However, the molecules implicated in its development are unknown. OM as well as Dental Follicle (DF), an odontogenic tissue surrounding the enamel organ, is derived from ectomesenchymal/mesencyhmal elements. To identify some protein that could participate in the development of this neoplasm, total proteins from OM were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the profiles were compared with those obtained from DF, used as a control. Results We identified eight proteins with differential expression; two of them were downregulated and six upregulated in OM. A spot consistently overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma, with a molecular weight of 44-kDa and a pI of 3.5 was identified as the orosomucoid 1 protein. Western blot experiments confirmed the overexpression of this protein in odontogenic myxoma and immunohistochemical assays showed that this protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of stellate and spindle-shaped cells of this neoplasm. Conclusion Orosomucoid 1, which belongs to a group of acute-phase proteins, may play a role in the modulation of the immune system and possibly it influences the development of OM. PMID:22888844

2012-01-01

201

Calcifying odontogenic cyst immunohistochemical detection of keratin and involucrin in cyst wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) were immunohistochemically described using different keratin proteins and involucrin as well as histopathology. The cystic lining epithelium was composed of calcifying, keratinizing, squamous, and columnar epithelial cells, and included calcified masses of irregular shape and various size as well as ghost cells. Calcifying epithelium gave negative or only trace staining for keratins detected with low molecular

Yoshiro Yamamoto; Yasuhiko Hiranuma; Mitsuyoshi Eba; Mitsuhisa Okitsu; Nobuo Utsumi; Yoshifumi Tajima; Yukihiro Tatemoto; Masahiko Mori

1988-01-01

202

A recurrent case of odontogenic ghost cell tumour of the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic ghost cell tumour (OGCT), also referred to as dentinogenic ghost cell tumour, is an extremely rare tumour classified as a neoplastic variant of calcifying ondontogenic cyst (COC). To date, only 13 cases of OGCT arising in the maxilla or mandible have been reported. We describe an OGCT that recurred after segmental resection of the mandible in a 59-year-old man.

K. Kasahara; T. Iizuka; I. Kobayashi; Y. Totsuka; T. Kohgo

2002-01-01

203

Odontogenic keratocyst: Review of 256 cases for recurrence and clinicopathologic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is of particular interest because of its high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. Two hundred fifty-six cases of OKC were reviewed for the age of the patient at diagnosis, sex of the patient, OKC location, and radiographic findings, and 132 patients with OKC were observed to estimate recurrence, which was analyzed for age, sex, location, and several

Hoon Myoung; Sam-Pyo Hong; Seong-Doo Hong; Jae-Il Lee; Chang-Yun Lim; Pill-Hoon Choung; Jong-Ho Lee; Jin-Young Choi; Byoung-Moo Seo; Myung-Jin Kim

2001-01-01

204

Nuclear Factor I-C Is Essential for Odontogenic Cell Proliferation and Odontoblast Differentiation during Tooth  

E-print Network

Nuclear Factor I-C Is Essential for Odontogenic Cell Proliferation and Odontoblast Differentiation developed short molar roots that contain aberrant odontoblasts and abnormal dentin formation. Based on these findings, we performed studies to elucidate the func- tion of NFI-C in odontoblasts. Initial studies

Gronostajski, Richard M.

205

Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy’s solution. PMID:25136427

González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

2014-01-01

206

An Immunohistochemical Survey to Evaluate the Expression of CD105 and CD34 in Ameloblastoma and Odontogenic Keratocyst  

PubMed Central

Statement of the Problem: Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor which is slow-growing, locally invasive and exhibit specific biologic behavior and high recurrence rate. Likewise, odontogenic keratocyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst that has a high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. There are limited studies considering the relationship between the angiogenesis factors and the biologic behavior of these lesions. Purpose: the aim of this study was to evaluate the mean density of vessels in odontogenic keratocysts and ameloblastoma and investigate its possible relationship with biological behavior of these lesions. Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 40 cases, comprising 10 odontogenic keratocysts and 30 ameloblastomas (10 plexiform, 10 follicular, and 10 unicystic type) were selected and were stained immuno-histochemically with CD34 and CD105. The micro vessel density was assessed and compared in all groups. T- test for the independent samples’ One- way Anova, Wilcoxon test and Tukey tests were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in mean vascular density (MVD) between the odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma groups concerning the CD105 and CD34 markers (p= 0.005, p= 0.000, respectively). The MVD was significantly higher in ameloblastomas than odontogenic keratocyst. MVD with CD34 was significantly higher than MVD with CD105 in ameloblastomas (p= 0.00). Conclusion: It can be suggested that angiogenesis might be one of the mechanisms that is more possible to contribute the aggressive biological behaviors in ameloblastoma rather than odontogenic keratocyst. PMID:25469359

Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Baghaei, Fahime; Shojaei, Setareh; Zare Mahmoodabadi, Reza; Dehghan, Arash; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2014-01-01

207

Analysis of 153 cases of odontogenic cysts in a South Indian sample population: a retrospective study over a decade.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts and to identify their clinico-pathological features among patients by studying biopsy specimens obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, during the past 10 years. Data for the study were retrieved from the case records of patients fitting the histological classification of the World Health Organization (1992). Analyzed clinical variables included age, gender, anatomical location, and histological diagnosis. Of the 2275 biopsy reports analyzed, 194 cases (8.5%) were jaw cysts, including odontogenic (6.7%) and nonodontogenic cysts (0.25%). Odontogenic cysts included 69.3% radicular, 20.3% dentigerous, 5.2% keratinizing odontogenic, 3.3% residual, and 1.9% other cysts, such as lateral periodontal, botryoid odontogenic, and gingival cysts. The most frequent clinical manifestation was swelling, followed by a combination of pain and swelling. Age, gender, and location were related to the etiopathologic characteristics of the cyst type. A definitive diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical, radiological, and histological findings, which makes a good interdepartmental relationship between the clinicians and pathologists essential. Knowledge of the biological and histological behavior of the odontogenic cysts is required for their early detection and treatment. PMID:22714930

Selvamani, Manickam; Donoghue, Mandana; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa

2012-01-01

208

Brain abscess of odontogenic origin: report of case.  

PubMed

Advanced dental infection rarely causes brain abscess resulting in death. Good dental hygiene and removing abscessed teeth are advised for prevention of any such occurrence. An intercranial infection is described in a 29-year-old male who also had a dental phobia. PMID:3320150

Aldous, J A; Powell, G L; Stensaas, S S

1987-12-01

209

THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

210

Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to

Vincent M Isabella; Virginia L Clark

2011-01-01

211

A large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae: A case report.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxomas (OMs) are benign mesenchymal locally aggressive neoplasms of the jaw bone. Although OMs predominantly involve the mandible, maxillary tumors are usually more aggressive than mandibular tumors. The present study describes the case of a 37-year-old male with a large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae, which caused a defect in the right skull base bone. The tumor was successfully removed through radical resection of the hard tissue and local resection around the envelope of the soft tissue. The tumor exhibited no recurrence. However, the current methods for bilateral maxillary reconstruction to restore the maxillary buttress and achieve an optimal aesthetic appearance are complicated due to the lack of suitable conditions for oral rehabilitation with good dentition. PMID:25120718

Liu, Ying; Han, Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Longjiang

2014-09-01

212

Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

2015-01-01

213

Infiltrative odontogenic myxoma of the posterior maxilla: Report of a case.  

PubMed

Myxomas of the head and neck are rare tumors of uncertain histogenesis. Odontogenic myxomas in maxilla are less common but behave more aggressively, as it spreads through maxillary antrum. It therefore reaches considerable size before being detected. The current case arouses particular interest due to the rapid growth and infiltrating nature of the lesion in a 25-year-old female patient, who denied any leading symptoms, even with the lesion involving extensively. Radiographic and microscopic similarities to a number of entities make diagnostic interpretation of odontogenic myxoma challenging. Therefore sound knowledge of clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features is important to establish an appropriate treatment aimed at a good clinical course and patient cure. PMID:24082760

Arul, A Sri Kennath J; Verma, Sonika; Arul, A Sri Sennath J; Verma, Rashmika

2013-07-01

214

A large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae: A case report  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxomas (OMs) are benign mesenchymal locally aggressive neoplasms of the jaw bone. Although OMs predominantly involve the mandible, maxillary tumors are usually more aggressive than mandibular tumors. The present study describes the case of a 37-year-old male with a large odontogenic myxoma of the bilateral maxillae, which caused a defect in the right skull base bone. The tumor was successfully removed through radical resection of the hard tissue and local resection around the envelope of the soft tissue. The tumor exhibited no recurrence. However, the current methods for bilateral maxillary reconstruction to restore the maxillary buttress and achieve an optimal aesthetic appearance are complicated due to the lack of suitable conditions for oral rehabilitation with good dentition. PMID:25120718

LIU, YING; HAN, BO; YU, TAO; LI, LONGJIANG

2014-01-01

215

The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.  

PubMed

The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

2014-01-01

216

The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth  

PubMed Central

The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

2014-01-01

217

Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumors: a review.  

PubMed

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are benign but locally aggressive lesions of the gnathic skeleton with high propensity to recur following surgical treatment. High proliferative activity of KCOTs epithelial cells is considered as one of the factors contributing to their aggressive clinical behavior. Aggressive growth within the jaws, tendency to invade surrounding anatomical structures and occasional malignant alteration are the features that distinguish KCOTs from other types of odontogenic tumors. Due to their unique clinical and biological features, KCOTs still present an important problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This is especially true when a choice of the most appropriate treatment modality should be made. Establishing balance between effective reduction of recurrence risk and selection of a less aggressive surgical procedure is an issue that should be carefully considered for each individual patient. PMID:22740199

Jurisic, M; Andric, M; dos Santos, J N; Jurisic, V

2012-01-01

218

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

2013-01-01

219

Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

2015-01-01

220

Malignant Transformation of an Odontogenic Cyst in a Period of 10 Years  

PubMed Central

Primary intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (PIOSCC) might arise from odontogenic epithelium, more commonly from a previous odontogenic cyst. The aim of this case is to illustrate that the clinician should consider that an apparent benign dentigerous cyst can suffer malignant transformation and that all material removed from a patient must be evaluated histologically. A 44-year-old man presented in a routine periapical X-ray an impacted lower left third molar with radiolucency over its crown. Ten years later, the patient complained of pain in the same region and the tooth was extracted. After one month, the patient still complained of pain and suffered a fracture of the mandible. A biopsy was performed and carcinoma was diagnosed. The patient was treated surgically with adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy and after 8 years, he is well without signs of recurrences. This report describes a central mandibular carcinoma probably developed from a previous dentigerous cyst. PMID:24804126

Araújo, Juliane Pirágine; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Rodrigues, Mônica Lúcia; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Lopes Pinto, Clovis Antonio; Alves, Fabio Abreu

2014-01-01

221

Malignant transformation of an odontogenic cyst in a period of 10 years.  

PubMed

Primary intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (PIOSCC) might arise from odontogenic epithelium, more commonly from a previous odontogenic cyst. The aim of this case is to illustrate that the clinician should consider that an apparent benign dentigerous cyst can suffer malignant transformation and that all material removed from a patient must be evaluated histologically. A 44-year-old man presented in a routine periapical X-ray an impacted lower left third molar with radiolucency over its crown. Ten years later, the patient complained of pain in the same region and the tooth was extracted. After one month, the patient still complained of pain and suffered a fracture of the mandible. A biopsy was performed and carcinoma was diagnosed. The patient was treated surgically with adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy and after 8 years, he is well without signs of recurrences. This report describes a central mandibular carcinoma probably developed from a previous dentigerous cyst. PMID:24804126

Araújo, Juliane Pirágine; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Rodrigues, Mônica Lúcia; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Lopes Pinto, Clovis Antonio; Alves, Fabio Abreu

2014-01-01

222

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

223

Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens.  

PubMed

Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 microg L-1 day-1), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-alpha-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-alpha-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments. PMID:16616321

Czajka, Cynthia P; Londry, Kathleen L

2006-08-31

224

Investigation of chromosome 9q22.3-q31 DNA marker loss in odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple basal cell carcinomas and odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws are a feature of the inherited naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), although both occur more commonly as single, sporadic cases. The NBCCS gene has been mapped to chromosome 9q22.3-q31 and loss of heterozygosity for DNA markers from this region has been observed in familial and sporadic basal cell carcinomas.

N. J. Lench; A. S. High; A. F. Markham; W. J. Hume; P. A. Robinson

1996-01-01

225

Dentinogenic Ghost Cell Tumor — A Neoplastic Variety of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: Case Presentation and Review  

PubMed Central

Context: The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC), also referred to as calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a heterogeneous lesion existing either as cystic or solid variant. Due to the fact that all CGCOC lesions are not cystic, and the biological behavior is often not consistent with a cyst, there has always been a controversy as to whether COC is a cyst or a tumor. The dentinogenic ghost-cell tumor (DGCT), a solid variant of the COC, is an uncommon odontogenic neoplasm occurring predominantly in later life. Case report is followed by a concise review and disambiguation of controversial terminologies regarding nomenclature of COC. Case Report: We report a case of 33-year-old female patient who presented with an insidious, steadily increasing swelling on the left side of her face since 8 months. Patient reported slight difficulty in eating because of reduced intraoral space and an obvious concern with facial disfigurement. There was no contributory dental or medical history. Intraorally, a hard, well defined, bicortical swelling was noted in left maxillary region with slight mobility of the associated teeth and normal appearing overlying mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was made, and orthopantomogram, paranasal sinus radiograph and computed tomograpy scan of the face were acquired. A radiographic diagnosis of COC was made, which was subsequently confirmed on histopathology postenucleation of the tumor mass. COC has been seen to be of extensive diversity in its clinical and histopathological features as well as in its biological behavior. Conclusion: The present case of 33-year-old female was diagnosed as DGCT, a tumorous form of COC, due to its characteristic histological features; numerous ghost cells and dentinoid material. PMID:25709974

Rai, Shalu; Prabhat, Mukul; Goel, Sumit; Bhalla, Kanika; Panjwani, Sapna; Misra, Deepankar; Agarwal, Ankur; Bhatnagar, Gunjan

2015-01-01

226

Camphorquinone Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Cells and Triggers Release of Inflammatory Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Camphorquinone (CQ) is a photoinitiator that triggers polymerization of light-curing materials such as dental adhesives and composites. CQ does not become a part of the polymer network, suggesting that CQ can be leached out into surrounding environment including dental pulp and exert adversary effects on tissues. In order to understand the mechanisms of CQ-induced side effects, we investigated the effect of CQ on cell viability, cytokine secretion, and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro. Methods Cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after CQ exposure. Western blotting was performed for p16INK4A, p21WAF1, and p53. Secretory cytokines were evaluated using the membrane–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as conventional and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effects of CQ on odontogenic differentiation were evaluated using alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red S staining methods. Results CQ treatment suppressed the proliferation of DPSCs and induced the expression of p16INK4A, p21WAF1, and p53. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 [MMP3]) were increased by CQ treatment. CQ also inhibited odontogenic differentiation and mineralization capacities of DPSC and MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Our study showed that CQ may trigger pulpal inflammation by inducing proinflammatory cytokine production from the pulpal cells and may impair odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells, resulting in pulpal irritation and inflammation. PMID:23228258

Kim, Reuben H; Williams, Drake W.; Bae, Susan; Lee, Rachel S; Oh, Ju-Eun; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Kim, Tony; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.

2013-01-01

227

Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Stimulated by the Calcium Phosphate Porous Granules  

PubMed Central

Effects of three-dimensional (3D) calcium phosphate (CaP) porous granules on the growth and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined for dental tissue engineering. hDPSCs isolated from adult human dental pulps were cultured for 3-4 passages, and populated on porous granules. Cell growth on the culture dish showed an ongoing increase for up to 21 days, whereas the growth on the 3D granules decreased after 14 days. This reduction in proliferative potential on the 3D granules was more conspicuous under the osteogenic medium conditions, indicating that the 3D granules may induce the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Differentiation behavior on the 3D granules was confirmed by the increased alkaline phosphatase activity, up-regulation of odontoblast-specific genes, including dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and greater level of dentin sialoprotein synthesis by western blot. Moreover, the cellular mineralization, as assessed by Alizarin red S and calcium quantification, was significantly higher in the 3D CaP granules than in the culture dish. Taken all, the 3D CaP porous granules should be useful for dental tissue engineering in combination with hDPSCs by providing favorable 3D substrate conditions for cell growth and odontogenic development. PMID:21772958

Nam, Sunyoung; Won, Jong-Eun; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won

2011-01-01

228

A 44-year analysis of ghost cell odontogenic tumour subtypes in an Iranian population.  

PubMed

The objectives of our study were to evaluate the relative frequency of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumours (CCOTs), dentinogenic ghost cell tumours (DGCTs) and ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas (GCOCs), collectively known as ghost cell odontogenic tumours (GCOTs), in an Iranian population and to classify these lesions according to the 2005 WHO guidelines. Clinical/demographic data were recorded for all COCs referred to our Department from 1966 to 2010. H&E-stained slides were re-evaluated by two observers and all cases were reclassified according to the 2005 WHO guidelines. The male to female ratio of 37 retrieved COCs was 1.6 with most cases occurring intraosseously and in the second decade of life. Involvement of the mandible was significantly higher than the maxilla (P = 0.033). Histopathologically, most lesions demonstrated a cystic morphology and there were no GCOCs among our cases. Eight cases were followed for 4-20 years and 3 of them showed a total of 5 recurrences. Considering the variations among clinicopathologic reports of COC from different countries, presentation of epidemiologic data based on a universally accepted classification system would be extremely helpful in providing a better understanding of this lesion and comparing results between studies. PMID:24556524

Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Baghaee, Fereshteh; Dadafarid, Zahra; Alaeddini, Mojgan

2014-10-01

229

The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from thoma to gorlin.  

PubMed

To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago. PMID:24972654

Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

2015-03-01

230

Comparison of Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Follicle Cells and Human Dental Papilla Cells  

PubMed Central

Classical tooth development theory suggests that dental papilla cells (DPCs) are the precursor cells of odontoblasts, which are responsible for dentin development. However, our previous studies have indicated that dental follicle cells (DFCs) can differentiate into odontoblasts. To further our understanding of tooth development, and the differences in dentinogenesis between DFCs and DPCs, the odontogenic differentiation of DFCs and DPCs was characterized in vitro and in vivo. DFCs and DPCs were individually combined with treated dentin matrix (TDM) before they were subcutaneously implanted into the dorsum of mice for 8 weeks. Results showed that 12 proteins were significantly differential, and phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), Isoform 2 of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A) and Isoform 1 of annexin A2 (ANXA2), were the most significantly differential proteins. These proteins are related to regulation of bone balance, angiogenesis and cell survival in an anoxic environment. Both DFCs and DPCs express odontogenic, neurogenic and peridontogenic markers. Histological examination of the harvested grafts showed that both DFCs and DPCs form pulp-dentin/cementum-periodentium-like tissues in vivo. Hence, DFCs and DPCs have similar odontogenic differentiation potential in the presence of TDM. However, differences in glucose and amino acid metabolism signal transduction and protein synthesis were observed for the two cell types. This study expands our understanding on tooth development, and provides direct evidence for the use of alternative cell sources in tooth regeneration. PMID:23620822

Qiao, Xiangchen; Yu, Mei; Tang, Wei; Wang, Hang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

2013-01-01

231

The place of molecular genetic methods in the diagnostics of human pathogenic anaerobic bacteria. A minireview.  

PubMed

Anaerobic infections are common and can cause diseases associated with severe morbidity, but are easily overlooked in clinical settings. Both the relatively small number of infections due to exogenous anaerobes and the much larger number of infections involving anaerobic species that are originally members of the normal flora, may lead to a life-threatening situation unless appropriate treatment is instituted. Special laboratory procedures are needed for the isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of this diverse group of bacteria. Since many anaerobes grow more slowly than the facultative or aerobic bacteria, and particularly since clinical specimens yielding anaerobic bacteria commonly contain several organisms and often very complex mixtures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, considerable time may elapse before the laboratory is able to provide a final report. Species definition based on phenotypic features is often time-consuming and is not always easy to carry out. Molecular genetic methods may help in the everyday clinical microbiological practice in laboratories dealing with the diagnostics of anaerobic infections. Methods have been introduced for species diagnostics, such as 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP profile determination, which can help to distinguish species of Bacteroides, Prevotella, Actinomyces, etc. that are otherwise difficult to differentiate. The use of DNA-DNA hybridization and the sequencing of special regions of the 16S rRNA have revealed fundamental taxonomic changes among anaerobic bacteria. Some anaerobic bacteria are extremely slow growing or not cultivatable at all. To detect them in special infections involving flora changes due to oral malignancy or periodontitis, for instance, a PCR-based hybridization technique is used. Molecular methods have demonstrated the spread of specific resistance genes among the most important anaerobic bacteria, the members of the Bacteroides genus. Their detection and investigation of the IS elements involved in their expression may facilitate following of the spread of antibiotic resistance among anaerobic bacteria involved in infections and in the normal flora members. Molecular methods (a search for toxin genes and ribotyping) may promote a better understanding of the pathogenic features of some anaerobic infections, such as the nosocomial diarrhoea caused by C. difficile and its spread in the hospital environment and the community. The investigation of toxin production at a molecular level helps in the detection of new toxin types. This mini-review surveys some of the results obtained by our group and others using molecular genetic methods in anaerobic diagnostics. PMID:16956128

Nagy, Elisabeth; Urbán, Edit; Sóki, J; Terhes, Gabriella; Nagy, Katalin

2006-06-01

232

Capnophilic and anaerobic bacteremia in neutropenic patients: an oral source.  

PubMed

The currently accepted empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections in neutropenic patients may not cover the possibility of capnophilic and anaerobic bacteremia. Many of these infections develop in patients with severe mucositis or periodontitis, and the type of organisms recovered also suggests an oral source of infection. We present two cases of bacteremia in neutropenic patients who had been empirically treated with ceftazidime and piperacillin plus amikacin. In the first case a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea was isolated; in the second case bacteremia was due to a mixture of Leptotrichia buccalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. These observations emphasize the necessity for a reevaluation of the possible use of antimicrobial agents active against beta-lactamase-producing capnophilic organisms and anaerobic bacteria during empiric therapy in neutropenic patients with an oral source of infection. PMID:2305182

Baquero, F; Fernández, J; Dronda, F; Erice, A; Pérez de Oteiza, J; Reguera, J A; Reig, M

1990-01-01

233

The aggressive nature of the odontogenic keratocyst: is it a benign cystic neoplasm? Part 3. Immunocytochemistry of cytokeratin and other epithelial cell markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies of keratin expression by the more common odontogenic cysts were done to determine whether patterns of cytokeratin staining could provide accurate diagnostic markers for the different varieties; to see whether comparative studies with oral mucosa and developing odontogenic epithelium could explain the pathogenesis of the cysts; and whether cytokeratin patterns could provide clues in elucidating the aggressive nature

Mervyn Shear

2002-01-01

234

An infected dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted permanent maxillary canine, inverted mesiodens and impacted supernumerary teeth  

PubMed Central

A dentigerous cyst is an odontogenic cyst associated with the crown of the impacted or unerupted teeth. Such cyst remain initially completely asymptomatic unless when infected and can be discovered only on routine radiographic examination. Here, such a case of dentigerous cyst, which was discovered on routine radiographic examination, is discussed here. PMID:23956591

Mohan, Karthik Rajaram; Natarajan, Balan; Mani, Sudhaamani; Sahuthullah, Yasmeen ahmed; Kannan, Arivukkadal Vijaya; Doraiswamy, Haritha

2013-01-01

235

AN IMPROVED ANAEROBE JAR.  

PubMed

There has been described a modification of the anaerobe jars of McIntosh and Fildes and of Smillie in which the oxygen is consumed by combustion with hydrogen under the catalytic action of platinized or palladinized asbestos. The special advantages of the apparatus described reside in its greater safety and in the fact that the catalyzer is heated electrically after the jar is closed and may be reheated at any time during incubation without opening the jar. PMID:19868528

Brown, J H

1921-05-31

236

Early anaerobic metabolisms  

PubMed Central

Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8?Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

2006-01-01

237

Involvement of periodontopathic anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has linked the anaerobic bacteria forming periodontopathic biofilms with aspiration pneumonia in elderly persons. In experiments designed to eliminate the potent respiratory pathogens forming biofilms in the oral cavity, we have shown that the mechanical and chemical oral cleansing using povidone-iodine effectively reduced the detection rates and numbers of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae in patients scheduled to undergo oral surgery requiring endotracheal intubation. We confirmed the pathogenicity of periodontopathic anaerobic bacteria for aspiration pneumonia in an experimental mouse model. Based upon the finding of the coexistence of Porphyromonas gingivalis with Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis lesions, we innoculated a mixed culture of P. gingivalis and T. denticola into the mouse trachea; the resulting infection induced inflammatory cytokine production and caused pneumonia. In another series of investigations, professional oral health care (POHC), mainly cleansing administered by dental hygienists once a week for 24 months to elderly persons requiring daily care, resulted in the reduction of the number of total anaerobes, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus species and in the number of cases of fatal aspiration pneumonia. We also found that the POHC treatment of elderly persons for 6 months in the winter season reduced the salivary levels of protease, trypsin-like activity, and neuraminidase and also decreased the frequency of influenza cases. PMID:16277588

Okuda, Katsuji; Kimizuka, Ryuta; Abe, Shu; Kato, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

2005-11-01

238

Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography for diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumours; evaluation of four cases.  

PubMed

The keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT), formerly known as the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign intraosseous lesion that derives from remnants of the dental lamina. Due to its characteristics, clinical and histopathological features and various treatment approaches, this pathology is different comparing with other odontogenic cysts. Radiographically the KCOT appears as well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with thin radiopaque borders. In most cases, conventional radiographic imaging, such as panoramic views and intraoral periapical films, are adequate to determine the location and estimate the size of an KCOT. However, the clinical use for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in oral and maxillofacial surgery increases and provides additional information about the contents and borders of the large lesions. In the present cases, the diagnostic performances of CBCT versus panoramic radiograph for four KCOTs were evaluated. It was concluded that appearance of lesions in the maxillofacial region could be better documented in the correct dimensions by CBCT versus panoramic radiograph. PMID:22549670

Koçak-Berbero?lu, Hülya; Çakarer, S?rmahan; Brki?, Amila; Gürkan-Koseoglu, Banu; Altu?-Aydil, Bar??; Keskin, Cengizhan

2012-11-01

239

Novel PTCH1 Mutations in Patients with Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Screened for Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are cystic tumors that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, KCOTs of the jaws and a variety of other tumors. PTCH1 mutation can be found both in sporadic or NBCCS associated KCOTs. The aim of the current study was to assess whether a combined clinical and bio-molecular approach could be suitable for the detection of NBCCS among patients with a diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). The authors collected keratocystic odontogenic tumors recorded in the database of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia during the period 1991–2011. Through interviews and examinations, family pedigrees were drawn for all patients affected by these odontogenic lesions. We found out that 18 of the 70 patients with KCOTs and/or multiple basal cell carcinomas actually met the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of NBCCS. A wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was evident in the families. Ameloblastomas (AMLs) were reported in two probands that are also carriers of the PCTH1 germline mutations. Nine germline mutations in the PTCH1 gene, 5 of them novel, were evident in 14 tested probands. The clinical evaluation of the keratocystic odontogenic tumors can be used as screening for the detection of families at risk of NBCCS. Keratocystic odontogenic lesions are uncommon, and their discovery deserves the search for associated cutaneous basal cell carcinomas and other benign and malignant tumors related to NBCCS. PMID:22952776

Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Guarneri, Carmelo; Ghiorzo, Paola; Longo, Caterina; Bruno, William; Giusti, Francesca; Bassoli, Sara; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Ruini, Cristel; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Ponti, Giovanni

2012-01-01

240

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Chaperones, Bip/GRP78 and Calnexin are Overexpressed in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts that have been reclassified according World Health Organization (WHO), to keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), a term that better reflects their neoplastic nature. The aim of present study is to evaluate the induction of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and execution of the resulting unfolded protein response in keratinocystic odontogenic tumours. Material and Methods We analyzed by immunohistochemistry the expression of the chaperones BiP/GRP78 and calnexin in 24 cases of KCOTs. As controls, we have used 9 cases of periapical or radicular cysts (PACs) and 5 cases of Fibromas (FBs). The PACs and the FBs were included in the analysis, as PACs are the most common type of inflammatory odontogenic cysts of and FBs, as lesions of the connective tissue with unaffected epithelium. Results Analysis revealed a strong association between both BiP/GRP78 and calnexin expression and KCOTs: 18 out of 24 (75%) KCOTs expressed BiP/GRP78 as opposed to 1 out of 9 (13%) PACs, and none of 5 FBs evaluated (P < 0.001, x2-test). Calnexin was expressed in 11 out of 24 KCOTs (46%) but only one out of 9 (13%) PACs, and none of the 5 FBs analyzed (P < 0.001, x2-test). Conclusions Study results imply that induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress maybe of diagnostic value in keratocystic odontogenic tumours characterization. In addition to recent findings suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a causative role in keratinization of epithelia, pharmacological interference with the execution of the unfolded protein response should be considered for the management of keratocystic odontogenic tumours. PMID:24800053

Pavli, Maria; Farmaki, Elena; Merkourea, Stavroula; Vastardis, Helen; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Tzerbos, Fotios

2014-01-01

241

Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla: A report of a rare case and review on histogenetic and diagnostic concepts  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm (comprising of 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors) found exclusively in the jaws. OM commonly occurs in the second and third decades, and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 37-year-old female patient with a brief review of the pathogenesis, clinical, radiological, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of OM. PMID:22639512

Shah, Ajaz; Lone, Parveen; Latoo, Suhail; Ahmed, Irshad; Malik, Altaf; Hassan, Shahid; Naik, Aijaz; Rashid, Rizwan Ur

2011-01-01

242

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

2013-09-01

243

Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from an odontogenic cyst: A case report  

PubMed Central

Cyst-like lesions in the mandible rarely develop into malignancies, and the reported incidence is between 0.3 and 2%. The present study describes a rare case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible arising from an odontogenic cyst. A 59-year-old female was referred to Asahi University Murakami Memorial Hospital (Gifu, Japan), with acute pain in the right molars. An initial examination revealed buccal swelling and paresthesia of the mental nerve. Following an intraoral examination, the oral mucosa was confirmed to be normal, however, percussion pain was experienced between the lower right first premolar and second molar. Panoramic radiography revealed a retained lower right wisdom tooth and an irregular radiolucent area between the lower right molar and a mandibular angle with unclear margins. Computed tomography revealed diffuse bone resorption and an extensive loss of cortical bone on the buccal and lingual sides. A biopsy was performed and the pathological diagnosis was of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from the epithelial lining of the odontogenic cyst. Radical dissection was subsequently performed, however, histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed neither invasion into the surrounding tissues penetrating the periosteum nor lymph node metastasis at the right submandibular lesion. Following the pathological diagnosis of primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC), the patient received 6,000 Gy radiation as post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with oral administration of tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil potassium. The patient is currently undergoing follow-up examinations. Although PIOC arising from an odontogenic cyst is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for radiolucency of the jaw bone, particularly in older patients exhibiting a history of cystic lesions. PMID:25120703

ADACHI, MAKOTO; INAGAKI, TOSHIHIRO; EHARA, YUICHI; AZUMA, MUNEHIRO; KURENUMA, AYUMI; MOTOHASHI, MASAYUKI; MURAMATSU, YASUNORI

2014-01-01

244

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2014-04-01

245

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2011-04-01

246

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2012-04-01

247

21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a...

2013-04-01

248

[Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla in a three-year-old boy.  

PubMed

A three-year-old boy presented with a painless mass in the nasolabial fold and ipsilateral increased tearing. A diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma (OM) was established by biopsy, and the tumour was excised using a combined oral and transconjuctival approach. In small children OM occurs almost exclusively in the maxilla. Orbital involvement is very rare, and to our knowledge reconstruction with a Medpore sheet has not previously been reported. At post-operative follow-up normal eye function and an excellent cosmetic result was observed. OM should be considered in a midfacial mass. PMID:25349936

Danielsson, Lina Isabella; Jakobsen, John; Thygesen, Torben H; Fast, Søren

2014-03-24

249

Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case  

PubMed Central

The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants. PMID:25580309

de Souza, João Gustavo Oliveira; Claus, Jonathas Daniel Paggi; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Gil, José Nazareno; Cardoso, Antonio Carlos

2014-01-01

250

Surgical treatment of odontogenic myxoma and facial deformity in the same procedure.  

PubMed

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor with aggressive and invasive behavior. Predominant symptoms are usually slow and painless swelling, sometimes resulting in perforation of the cortical borders of the affected bone. In this paper, a case report of a patient with an OM on the right maxillary sinus and a vertical excess of maxilla will be presented. The treatment chosen was tumor resection in association with orthognathic surgery with biomodels assessment for surgical planning. A 3-year follow-up showed disease free and stability of the new position of maxilla. The international literature is evaluated to discuss this case report. PMID:24124313

Mayrink, Gabriela; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa; Olate, Sergio; Asprino, Luciana; De Moraes, Marcio

2013-07-01

251

Report of a Rare Case of an Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a mesenchymal tissue benign neoplasia, being relatively rare which is almost exclusively seen in tooth-bearing areas. OM commonly occurs in the 2nd and 3rd decade and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. Radiographically, the myxoma appears as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 28-year-old female patient with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25031907

Manjunath, SM; Gupta, AA; Swetha, P; Moon, NJ; Singh, S; Singh, A

2014-01-01

252

Treatment of odontogenic myxoma: a multidisciplinary approach-6-year follow-up case.  

PubMed

The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants. PMID:25580309

de Souza, João Gustavo Oliveira; Claus, Jonathas Daniel Paggi; Ouriques, Felipe Damerau; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Gil, José Nazareno; Cardoso, Antonio Carlos; Bianchini, Marco Aurélio

2014-01-01

253

Odontogenic keratocysts in Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple odontogenic keratocysts. Considering the rarity of this syndrome, we present a 12-year-old boy affected by this syndrome. He had multiple okcs, calcification of falx cerebri, bifid ribs, frontal bossing and hypertelorism. Characteristic cutaneous manifestation (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) was not present in this patient. The jaw cysts were treated with marsupialization then enucleation. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cystlike radiolucencies are discovered on panoramic view. PMID:20111613

2009-01-01

254

ANALYSIS OF ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS METABOLITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overwiew of anaerobic bacterias metabolites and their effects on Microbially Improved oil recovery (MIOR). Chemical analysis methods for coexisting gas-, water-, and oil phases of MIOR field tests or laboratory experiments are described for mixtures of potential metabolites of anaerobic microorganisms. The obtained data are compared with literature values. The metabolites in the gas- and oil

G. Jacobs; D. Severin

1997-01-01

255

Economic viability of anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

256

Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

2003-01-01

257

Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect to the variety of substrates used, the types of dissimilatory metabolism, and the diversity of potential electron acceptors has important implications for the potential for life in hostile environments lacking oxygen and high in salt, implications that may also be relevant to astrobiology.

Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

2000-12-01

258

Adaptation and Antibiotic Tolerance of Anaerobic Burkholderia pseudomallei ? †  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and is remarkably resistant to most classes of antibacterials. Even after months of treatment with antibacterials that are relatively effective in vitro, there is a high rate of treatment failure, indicating that this pathogen alters its patterns of antibacterial susceptibility in response to cues encountered in the host. The pathology of melioidosis indicates that B. pseudomallei encounters host microenvironments that limit aerobic respiration, including the lack of oxygen found in abscesses and in the presence of nitric oxide produced by macrophages. We investigated whether B. pseudomallei could survive in a nonreplicating, oxygen-deprived state and determined if this physiological state was tolerant of conventional antibacterials. B. pseudomallei survived initial anaerobiosis, especially under moderately acidic conditions similar to those found in abscesses. Microarray expression profiling indicated a major shift in the physiological state of hypoxic B. pseudomallei, including induction of a variety of typical anaerobic-environment-responsive genes and genes that appear specific to anaerobic B. pseudomallei. Interestingly, anaerobic B. pseudomallei was unaffected by antibacterials typically used in therapy. However, it was exquisitely sensitive to drugs used against anaerobic pathogens. After several weeks of anaerobic culture, a significant loss of viability was observed. However, a stable subpopulation that maintained complete viability for at least 1 year was established. Thus, during the course of human infection, if a minor subpopulation of bacteria inhabited an oxygen-restricted environment, it might be indifferent to traditional therapy but susceptible to antibiotics frequently used to treat anaerobic infections. PMID:21537012

Hamad, Mohamad A.; Austin, Chad R.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Higgins, Mike; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Voskuil, Martin I.

2011-01-01

259

Marsupialization for odontogenic keratocysts: Long-term follow-up analysis of the effects and changes in growth characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study evaluated the effects of marsupialization on odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and its role in conjunction with enucleation and curettage. Study Design. Twenty-eight primary OKCs, treated by marsupialization before enucleation and curettage, were examined in this study. The effect of marsupialization and recurrence data after a follow-up period of at least 3 years were evaluated. The changes of growth

Norifumi Nakamura; Takeshi Mitsuyasu; Yoshiko Mitsuyasu; Takaharu Taketomi; Yoshinori Higuchi; Masamichi Ohishi

2002-01-01

260

Cystic Lesions of the Maxillomandibular Region: MR Imaging Distinction of Odontogenic Keratocysts and Ameloblastomas from Other Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

biopsy are limited for differential diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to review the MR findings in patients with odontogenic keratocysts, ameloblastomas, and other maxillomandibular cysts to determine the value of MR imaging in the differential diag- nosis of these lesions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. MR images were obtained in 38 patients with 43 cystic lesions of the maxillomandibular region.

Manabu Minami; TakaShi Kaneda; Kaoru Ozawa; HimotSugu Yamamoto; Mitsuhisa Ozawa; Kohki Yoshikawa; Yasuhito Sasaki

261

Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour and Variants of Ameloblastoma – A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a histopathologiocally and behaviourally unique and specific entity. It is the most aggressive and recurrent of all the cysts and shows characteristics resembling both cyst and a tumour. The unique nature of OKC and the recent shift of OKC as a tumour made us evaluate yet another factor, Inducible nitric oxide synthase an (iNos) enzyme which has been implicated in the tumourigenesis of various neoplasms. Aims and Objects: The objective of the study was to analyse and compare the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC’s) in variants of ameloblastoma affecting the oral cavity, to determine the neoplastic potential of OKC and to reinforce the classification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Materials and Methods: Thirty two specimens, eight specimens each in OKC, follicular ameloblastoma, plexiform ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma, taken from the Oral Pathology Department were randomly selected for this study and were evaluated for epithelial expression of iNOS by immunohistochemistry Results: Epithelial immunoreactivity to iNOS was strongly positive in 93.5% of follicular ameloblastomas, 68.7% of plexiform ameloblastomas, 66.9% of odontogenic keratocysts and 66.2% of unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusion: iNOS may be an important marker involved in the biological behaviour of OKC. Furthermore the presence of increased expression of iNOS in Follicular ameloblastomas followed by Plexiform ameloblastomas, OKCs and Unicystic ameloblastomas is yet another evidence to support that OKC could be considered as a neoplasm. PMID:25584300

R, Maya; B, Sekar; S, Murali; K, Ramesh

2014-01-01

262

Wnt\\/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical tissue recombination studies demonstrated that initiation of tooth development depends on activation of odontogenic potential in the mesenchyme by signals from the presumptive dental epithelium. Although several members of the Wnt family of signaling molecules are expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium at the beginning of tooth initiation, whether Wnt signaling is directly involved in the activation of the

Jianquan Chen; Yu Lan; Jin-A Baek; Yang Gao; Rulang Jiang

2009-01-01

263

A comparative immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression in solid ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Background: Solid ameloblastoma (SAB) is an invasive tumor which infiltrates adjacent normal tissues. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a noninvasive tumor and never infiltrates surrounding normal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the biological behavior of these two epithelial odontogenic neoplasm by detecting Ki-67 and Bcl-2, which are mitotic and anti apoptotic markers respectively. Materials and Methods: In this analytical retrospective study, 16 samples of SAB and 16 samples of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor were selected. The samples were deparafinized and antigens were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry technique was applied for evaluation of these two markers. Monoclonal antibodies MIB1 and Bcl-2 were used to detect Ki-67 and Bcl-2 protein respectively, then the labeling index (LI) was calculated for both markers according to cellular staining. Data were analyzed by “t” test, (P<0.05). Results: The mean values of LI for Ki-67 in SAB and Adenomatiod odontogenic tumor (AOT) were 4 and 1% respectively and for Bcl-2 in SAB and AOT were 63 and 26% respectively. The indices of both markers were higher in SAB compared to AOT (P <0.05). Conclusions: Higher percentage of these two markers in SAB compared to AOT confirms the aggressive behavior of SAB and the hamartomatosis behavior of AOT. PMID:22623937

Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Sayed Hosein; Hoseini, Ali Tavakoli; Hoseini, Ehsan Tavakoli; Khabazian, Arezu

2012-01-01

264

Correlation Between Collagen Fibers and Radiographic Patterns of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour  

PubMed Central

Background: WHO has recently renamed odontogenic keratocyst as keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) depending on its tumour like behaviour. Aim: To quantitate and qualitate different types of collagen fibers in KCOT using picrosirius red stain under polarising microscopy and to correlate with different radiographic patterns of KCOT to elucidate its biological behaviour in order to determine whether all KCOTs behave like a tumour. Materials and Methods: Sixty histopathologically confirmed cases of KCOT were selected and stained histochemically using picrosirius red and examined under polarising microscope to evaluate colour of collagen fibers in the wall. Radiographic analysis of all the cases were also carried out and correlated with type of collagen of fibers. Results: Greenish yellow collagen fibers were present statistically significantly more in multilocular KCOT and KCOT with multiple radiolucencies (both syndromic and non-syndromic) as compare to unilocular whereas orange red were significantly more in unilocular variety. Syndromic variety showed significantly higher number of greenish yellow collagen fibers than non-syndromic variety. Conclusion: Quality, organization and packing of collagen fibers of unilocular type is different than other radiographic patterns which accounts for difference in biological behaviour of these lesion, so we conclude that aggressive treatment should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:25302259

Shetty, Sujan; Patil, Prashant; Sethi, Neerja; Singh, Abhayjeet; Raghunandan, BN

2014-01-01

265

Odontogenic fibroma WHO-type simulating periodontal disease: Report of a case  

PubMed Central

Central odontogenic fibroma World Health Organization (WHO)-type (OFWT) is a rare lesion that has differential diagnosis with other radiolucent periapical lesions. It has a slow growth and is usually an asymptomatic lesion found in routine examinations. We report a case of a central OFWT occurring in the maxilla, for which the first symptom was teeth mobility, simulating a periodontal condition. A 54-year-old woman, with superior premolar mobility, was referred to our clinic. An oral examination showed teeth vitality and advanced periodontal disease. Radiography showed a unilocular radiolucent area between the left superior lateral incisor and first left molar, with bone reabsorption. The granulomatous tissue was removed and microscopic examination revealed cellular connective tissue with multiple islands of odontogenic epithelium, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, confirming the OFWT diagnosis. The central OFWT is a non-aggressive lesion, with rare recidivism. Biopsy is an important procedure for correct diagnosis and treatment, as some radiolucent lesions can lead to misdiagnosis. PMID:24744552

Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique

2014-01-01

266

Utility of cell block in the cytological preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

In most cases involving jaw lesions, a biopsy and a histopathological analysis are necessary to establish the final diagnosis. However, biopsy may be a complex procedure at some maxillomandibular sites, and some systemic conditions could contraindicate the procedure. Thus, a search for new, less invasive techniques, which could eventually replace biopsy and simplify the diagnostic process, would benefit both professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell block technique, prepared from the aspiration of luminal contents, in the preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). From 135 cases of lesions aspirated and processed by the cell block technique, we selected those containing keratin. In all cases selected, histological diagnosis was based on surgical biopsy. From 20 cases containing keratin in the cytological analyses, 19 were KCOTs and one was an orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC). In all KCOT cases, we observed the presence of parakeratin, even in those with intense inflammation. In the cytological analysis of the OOC, parakeratin was not observed. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that KCOT can be confidently diagnosed preoperatively by cytological analyses of lesions punctured and processed by the cell block technique. PMID:24433974

Rivero, Elena Riet Correa; Grando, Liliane Janete; de Oliveira Ramos, Grasieli; da Silva Belatto, Maria Fernanda; Daniel, Filipe Ivan

2014-04-01

267

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et al. 2007. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 514 - 512. Hoeft, S.E, et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2741 - 2747. Oremland, R.S., et al. 2005. Science 308: 1305 - 1308. Kulp, T.R. et al. 2008. Science 321: 967 - 970.

Oremland, R. S.

2008-12-01

268

Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic release of another CoA thioester. We propose a scheme of an anaerobic IAA metabolic pathway that ultimately leads to 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA or benzoyl-CoA. PMID:22447903

Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

2012-01-01

269

The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immobilization on mobile support materials: in the latter case, combined with settling of the anaerobic sludge aggregates.This dissertation focuses

L. W. Hulshoff Pol

1989-01-01

270

Frequency of odontogenic periradicular lesions in diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetic patients are more prone to oral infections and periradicular lesions due to changes in their immune system and qualitative and quantitative changes in normal flora of their mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of periradicular lesions in diabetic patients in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: From October 2011 to March 2012, 135 diabetic patients who referred to the Iranian Diabetes Society - Babol Branch and Endocrinology Clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences were studied. The demographic features as well as the duration of the diagnosis of diabetes (> 48 months was called long term and < 48 months short term) is the quality of control of their diabetes. For all the patients, panoramic and periapical radiography were performed for the presence of any radicular radiolucent lesions. Vitality test has been done for the recorded teeth except for the root treated ones and periodontal involvement necrotic teeth. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: Periradicular lesions were seen on 90.37% of the patients. The frequency of periradicular lesions in long term patients was 85 (94.4%) and in short term was 37 (82.2%) (p=0.023). The mean of teeth with periradicular lesions in long and short term diabetic patients was 2.63±2.23 and 2.11±1.79, respectively (p=0.174). Conclusion: The results show that the frequency of periradicular lesions in diabetic patients is higher in long-term diabetic patients than the short-term diabetic patients. PMID:24490009

Mesgarani, Abbas; Haghanifar, Sina; Eshkevari, Narges; Ehsani, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya; Nafarzade, Shima; Damankesh, Zahra

2014-01-01

271

Chronic conjunctivitis caused by oral anaerobes and effectively treated with systemic metronidazole plus amoxicillin.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on a case of refractory, unilateral anaerobic conjunctivitis. The predominant anaerobic flora consisted of Prevotella intermedia (formerly Bacteroides intermedius) and Peptostreptococcus micros. By using the technique of restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of genomic DNA, it was shown that the P. intermedia likely originated from the oral cavity. Topically applied antibiotics had failed to suppress the infection in the past. Successful treatment was achieved after systemic administration of metronidazole plus amoxicillin. Images PMID:1890173

van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F; Pavicic, M J; de Graaff, J

1991-01-01

272

Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

Cohen, Arlette

1984-01-01

273

Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic soft tissue infections are still life-threatening infections. Even if uncommon nowadays, they remain severe conditions\\u000a because often associated with major systemic effects leading to patient death if not promptly recognized and aggressively\\u000a treated. Their origins are often traumatic or surgical but they can also develop from an ulcer or a small wound in patients\\u000a at risk (i.e. diabetics, patients

Daniel Mathieu; Raphaël Favory; Jean-François Cesari; Francis Wattel

274

BIOREMEDIATION: Anaerobes to the Rescue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Polluted groundwater systems are very difficult to clean up. In his Perspective, Lovley charts recent advances towards in situ bioremediation of such systems using anaerobic organisms. Such organisms, which naturally exist in soils, may assist in cleaning up hydrocarbons, chlorinated pollutants, and metals. The author concludes that anaerobic strategies are promising but that substantial research remains to be done before any of them can be adopted for routine application.

Derek R. Lovley (University of Massachusetts; Department of Microbiology)

2001-08-24

275

Pathological changes in the maxillary sinus mucosae of patients with recurrent odontogenic maxillary sinusitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the structural and functional changes of maxillary sinus mucosae of patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, and to improve the therapeutic effects. Methods: Ten mucosal biopsy samples collected during the surgeries of patients with recurrent odontogenic maxillary sinusitis were selected as Group A. Another ten mucosal biopsy sample were collected during retention cyst-removing surgeries and referred to as Group B. The mucosae were put in 10% neutral formalin solution for 1 day and prepared into 5-7 µm thick paraffin sections which were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin staining. The reactions included: (1) Reaction with T-lymphocyte (CD-3); (2) reaction with T-helper cell (CD-4); (3) reaction with T-suppressing cell (CD-8); (4) reaction with B-lymphocyte (CD-20). Polymeric horseradish peroxidase visualized detection system was used. The contents of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20 in the stained cells of the maxillary sinus mucosal layer were calculated. The responses of receptors to muramidase were classified as mild, moderate and strong. All data were analyzed by Statistica 6.0 package for Windows based on Mann-Whitney non-parametric standards. Results: The epithelial tissues in the maxillary sinus mucosa of Group B were covered with multiple rows of cilia. The epithelial cells of Group A suffered from degeneration, shrinkage and desquamation. Different cells were distributed in the autologous mucosal layer, of which macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes and neutrophils were dominant. The average contents of macrophages and lymphocytes accounted for 42.8%. Lymphocyte subset analysis showed that the number of CD3 cells exceeded that of CD20 ones and there were more CD4+ cells than CD8+ ones. T-helper and T-suppressing cells were distributed remarkably differently. CD8+ cells were mainly located inside and under the epithelium, while CD4+ cells were scattered in the autologous matrix. Conclusion: For patients with recurrent odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, the maxillary sinus mucosa mainly suffered from regeneration of epithelial tissues and inhibition of cell proliferation, which were accompanied by damages to the protective and shielding effects of the mucociliary transport system. Macrophages and lymphocytes dominated in the infiltration of autologous mucosal layer, and the coexisting copious fibroblasts indicated the onset of inflammation. PMID:25225509

Feng, Lin; Li, Hua; E, Ling-Ling; Li, Chuan-Jie; Ding, Yan

2014-01-01

276

[Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].  

PubMed

In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species. PMID:23648369

García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

2015-02-01

277

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: a rare neoplasm of the maxillary bone.  

PubMed

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with only 74 cases in the English-language literature. It displays a propensity for the mandible, most commonly presenting in the fifth to seventh decades. Histopathologically, CCOC is characterized by sheets and islands of vacuolated and clear cells. The aggressive nature of CCOC was noted in its first description in 1985, although it was not formally classified as malignant by the World Health Organization until 2005. This report describes a case of CCOC presenting atypically in a young patient and at an uncommon site. The authors review the details of this case, outlining management strategies referencing their experience and that described in the other limited cases in the literature. PMID:24359996

Kalsi, Amardip S; Williams, Stephen P; Shah, Ketan A; Fasanmade, Adekunmi

2014-05-01

278

A clinicopathologic study on calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: with special reference to Langerhans cell variant  

PubMed Central

Background Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic tumour, and its Langerhans cell variant is even rarer. Due to the limited number of recorded cases, the biological behaviour and histogenesis of the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT are not yet fully understood. Thus, the correlation between conventional CEOT and the Langerhans cell variant remains to be clarified. Material (cases) Eight cases of CEOT including 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant were clinicopathologically studied and the English language literature was reviewed. Langerhans cells were detected in 2 cases of conventional CEOT and in 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant by immunohistochemistry. Results and findings In the 6 cases of conventional CEOT, 5 tumours involved the premolar and molar region and the anterior portion of the mandible was affected in 1 case. Four patients were followed for 2–7 years and did not show any sign of recurrence. A review of the English language literature revealed 5 cases; combined with the present 2 new cases, a total of 7 cases of Langerhans cell variant of CEOT were collected. The patients were all Asian. Six tumours occurred in the maxilla and 1 in mandible; all mainly involved the anterior region of the jaws. Five patients were followed for 2-10 years and did not show any evidence of recurrence. Langerhans cells can be seen in both the conventional and the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT; however, increased numbers of Langerhans cells are seen in the latter. Conclusions Although the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT is a rare entity and behaves similarly to the conventional type, it could show unique clinical and histologic features that may pose problems for differential diagnosis. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1979090740113894 PMID:24555881

2014-01-01

279

PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

280

[Identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic susceptibilities].  

PubMed

Routine isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria present several difficulties leading to defects in the determination of local susceptibility patterns which will guide empirical treatment protocols. This study was carried out to identify the anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical materials obtained from the suspected patients with anaerobic infection and to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities against several antibiotics. One hundred clinical specimens (36 blood, 31 abscess, 12 peritoneal fluid, 7 joint fluid, 7 pleural fluid, 3 biopsies, 3 cerebrospinal fluids and 1 surgical wound) that were examined in our laboratory during March 20-October 30 2007, were included in the study. The specimens were collected and transported under anaerobic conditions and inoculated to conventional aerobic media and to Wilkins Chalgren agar, Schaedler agar and chopped-meat broth for anaerobic isolation. Isolated anaerobic bacteria were identified with API 20A panels (Bio-Merieux, France) via conventional methods and by the help of AN-IDENT Discs (Oxoid, England). Penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem susceptibility tests were performed with E- test method. Twenty two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 14 clinical specimens; 7 of the specimens yielding the growth of more than one type of anaerobic bacteria and 8 specimens yielding both anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial (4 Escherichia coli and 4 Enterococcus spp.) growth. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 89 abscess and in 6 peritoneal fluid specimens. The distribution of the anaerobic bacteria identified among these specimens were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis (n = 6), Bacteroides spp. other than B.fragilis (n = 4), Clostridium spp. (n = 2), Fusobacterium necrophorum/nucleatum (n = 1), Prevotella intermedia/disiens (n = 1), Peptococcus niger (n = 2), Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 5), and Lactobacillus acidophilus/lenseii (n = 1). Beta-lactamase activity was detected only in 2 of the 6 B. fragilis isolates. All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. The highest rate of resistance was detected against penicillin G (9/22; 41%). While anaerobic gram-positive cocci (n = 7) were found to be sensitive to all antibiotics, the rate of resistance among anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were 75% (9/12) to penicillin, 33.3% (4/12) to clindamycin, 8.3% (1/12) to metronidazole. Among anaerobic gram-positive bacilli (n = 3), 2 were resistant to metronidazole, one to clindamycin and one to cefoxitin. The results of this first anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing study performed at Konya area in Turkey revealed that penicillin was not appropriate in empirical treatment of anaerobic infections, clindamycin susceptibility should be tested before use, metronidazole and cefoxitin could be used in empirical treatment and imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam should be saved for the treatment of complicated infections and infections caused by resistant bacteria. PMID:20549955

Do?an, Metin; Baysal, Bülent

2010-04-01

281

Sensing and Adapting to Anaerobic Conditions by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

A highly adaptive commensal organism, Staphylococcus aureus, possesses an array of genes that allow the bacterium to survive and grow in a wide variety of niches. Several of these niches are known to be or become anaerobic during the course of an infection; additionally, biofilms that develop, commonly on implanted medical devices, become anaerobic. The metabolic capability of S. aureus provides the organism with the essential nutrients needed to continue to grow, divide, and thwart the host immune system in the presence or absence of oxygen. In order to utilize the ATP-producing pathways and maintain cellular health S. aureus has evolved a series of regulatory systems that regulate these ATP-producing pathways. In this review, we discuss the protein signaling systems that sense, indirectly and directly, anaerobic conditions, their sensory mechanisms and signals, and outline the genes that are altered due to the absence of oxygen and the subsequent response by the bacterial cell. The switch from aerobic to anaerobic growth in S. aureus is complex and highly regulated, with some metabolic pathways regulated by multiple regulatory systems to ensure maximal utilization of each pathway and substrate. PMID:23763757

Hall, Jeffrey W; Ji, Yinduo

2013-01-01

282

Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

2013-12-01

283

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent  

E-print Network

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

284

Hydrogen production from inhibited anaerobic composters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated hydrogen production from a model lignocellulosic waste in inhibited solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Acetylene at 1% vv in the headspace was as effective as bromoethanesulfonate in inhibiting methanogenic activity in batch anaerobic composters containing 25% (wv) total organic solids inoculated with an undefined cellulotytic consortium derived from anaerobic digesters. Acetylene also had no effect on the rate

R. Sparling; D. Risbey; H. M. Poggi-Varaldo

1997-01-01

285

Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes: Identi®ability and Parameter the population dynamics of two main bacterial groups in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process. In addition INTRODUCTION Anaerobic wastewater puri®cation processes have been increasingly used in the last few decades

Timmer, Jens

286

Module 12: Biogas/Anaerobic Digesters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students anaerobic digester basics, the benefits of anaerobic digesters, the anaerobic digester process, and a variety of related topics. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 55 slide PowerPoint presentation.

287

Anaerobic Fitness Tests: What Are We Measuring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic fitness, during growth and development, has not received the same attention from researchers as aerobic fitness. This is surprising given the level of anaerobic energy used daily during childhood and adolescence. During physical activity and sport, the child is spontaneously more attracted to short-burst movements than to long-term activities. It is, however, well known that in anaerobic activities such

E. Praagh

2007-01-01

288

Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Background Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to anaerobiosis. Here we performed deep sequencing to compare the gonococcal transcriptomes of aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. Using the information derived from this sequencing, we discuss the implications of the robust transcriptional response to anaerobic growth. Results We determined that 198 chromosomal genes were differentially expressed (~10% of the genome) in response to anaerobic conditions. We also observed a large induction of genes encoded within the cryptic plasmid, pJD1. Validation of RNA-seq data using translational-lacZ fusions or RT-PCR demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be very reproducible. Surprisingly, many genes of prophage origin were induced anaerobically, as well as several transcriptional regulators previously unknown to be involved in anaerobic growth. We also confirmed expression and regulation of a small RNA, likely a functional equivalent of fnrS in the Enterobacteriaceae family. We also determined that many genes found to be responsive to anaerobiosis have also been shown to be responsive to iron and/or oxidative stress. Conclusions Gonococci will be subject to many forms of environmental stress, including oxygen-limitation, during the course of infection. Here we determined that the anaerobic stimulon in gonococci was larger than previous studies would suggest. Many new targets for future research have been uncovered, and the results derived from this study may have helped to elucidate factors or mechanisms of virulence that may have otherwise been overlooked. PMID:21251255

2011-01-01

289

Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-10-01

290

The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic  

E-print Network

occurs naturally in landfills that contain organic waste, such as food scraps, paper products, and yardThe Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California, these energy alternatives could provide a number of benefits, including reducing the United States' dependence

Iglesia, Enrique

291

Anaerobic bacteria as producers of antibiotics.  

PubMed

Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential. PMID:22854892

Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

2012-10-01

292

Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases  

PubMed Central

Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

2015-01-01

293

Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78-year-old female: A case report.  

PubMed

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features. PMID:25279347

Lee, Byung-Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Moon-Ki; Choi, Eun-Joo; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

2014-09-01

294

Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78-year-old female: A case report  

PubMed Central

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features. PMID:25279347

Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Moon-Ki; Choi, Eun-Joo; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

2014-01-01

295

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Possible Role in Locally Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to clarify whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the pathogenesis and development of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The expression levels of EMT-related proteins and genes in normal oral mucosa (OM), radicular cyst (RC), and KCOT were determined and compared by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that the expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Pan-cytokeratin was significantly downregulated in KCOT with upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin compared to OM and RC. Importantly, TGF-?, a potent EMT inducer, and Slug, a master transcription factor, were also found highly expressed in KCOT. In addition, the results from Spearman rank correlation test and clustering analysis revealed the close relationship between Slug and MMP-9, which was further evidenced by double-labeling immunofluorescence that revealed a synchronous distribution for Slug with MMP-9 in KCOT samples. All the data suggested EMT might be involved in the locally aggressive behavior of KCOT.

Zhong, Wen-Qun; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Jian-Gang; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

2015-01-01

296

Expression of collagen XVIII and MMP-20 in developing teeth and odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Collagen XVIII is a basement membrane (BM) component, whereas MMP-20 (enamelysin) is a matrix metalloproteinase predominantly expressed in teeth. Since MMP-20 was found to degrade collagen XVIII, we studied the co-expression of these proteins in dental tissues. Collagen XVIII surrounded the developing tooth during early and late bell stages and was also present in developing enamel. Western blotting indicated that developing enamel contains collagen XVIII N-terminal fragments of the frizzled variant. Enamelysin was co-localized with collagen XVIII in the developing enamel matrix and stratum intermedium. Electron microscope analysis showed that total mineral, calcium and phosphorus contents of enamel were slightly increased in collagen XVIII null mice but the analysis revealed no visible defects in the enamel or dentin structures. In odontogenic tumors MMP-20 and collagen XVIII were co-localized in the enamel-like tumor matrix. Our results show that collagen XVIII is present in developing teeth, but its absence seems not to be critical for the development of the teeth. PMID:15296943

Väänänen, Anu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Eklund, Lauri; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Herva, Riitta; Ding, Yanli; Bartlett, John D; Salo, Tuula

2004-06-01

297

FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing ?-catenin signaling  

PubMed Central

Odontoblasts and osteoblasts develop from multipotent craniofacial neural crest cells during tooth and jawbone development, but the mechanisms that specify and sustain their respective fates remain largely unknown. In this study we used early mouse molar and incisor tooth germs that possess distinct tooth-forming capability after dissociation and reaggregation in vitro to investigate the mechanism that sustains odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme during tooth development. We found that after dissociation and reaggregation, incisor, but not molar, mesenchyme exhibits a strong osteogenic potency associated with robustly elevated ?-catenin signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to failed tooth formation in the reaggregates. Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits ?-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation. The lack of FGF retention on the cell surface of incisor mesenchyme appears to account for the differential osteogenic potency between incisor and molar, which can be further attributed to the differential expression of syndecan 1 and NDST genes. We further demonstrate that FGF signaling inhibits intracellular ?-catenin signaling by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate the subcellular localization of active GSK3? in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results reveal a novel function for FGF signaling in ensuring the proper fate of dental mesenchyme by regulating ?-catenin signaling activity during tooth development. PMID:24067353

Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Zhongchen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing

2013-01-01

298

The relationship between radiological features and clinical manifestation and dental expenses of keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to identify correlations between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) data from CT sections, and data on the KCOT clinical manifestation and resulting dental expenses. Materials and Methods Following local Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a seven-years of retrospective study was performed regarding patients with KCOTs treated at the Seoul National University Dental Hospital. A total of 180 KCOT were included in this study. The following information was collected: age, gender, location and size of the lesion, radiological features, surgical treatment provided and dental expenses. Results There was no significant association between the size of the KCOT and age, gender, and presenting preoperative symptoms. In both jaws, it was unusual to find KCOTs under 10 mm. The correlation between the number of teeth removed and the size of the KCOT in the tooth bearing area was statistically significant in the mandible, whereas in the maxilla, no significant relationship was found. Dental expenses compared with the size of the KCOT were found to be significant in both jaws. Conclusion The size of KCOT was associated with a significant increase in dental expenses for both jaws and the number of teeth removed from the mandible. These findings emphasize the importance of routine examinations and early detection of lesions, which in turn helps preserving anatomical structures and reducing dental expenses. PMID:23807932

Min, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yi, Won-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Choi, Jin-Woo

2013-01-01

299

Keratinizing odontogenic cyst with verrucous pattern featuring negative human papillomavirus status by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Verrucous odontogenic cysts (OCs) are extremely rare. Here, we report the clinicopathologic features of this unusual entity and investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) by p16INK4A immunohistochemistry and HPV-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 32-year-old male presented with a 8.3 × 4.0 cm, multilocular radiolucency of the left ascending ramus of the mandible. Microscopically, the cystic cavity was lined by hyperplastic stratified squamous epithelium demonstrating marked verrucous morphology with multiple sharp or blunt projections. Mild dysplastic features were also identified. A final diagnosis of keratinizing OC with verrucous hyperplasia and epithelial dysplasia was rendered. Immunohistochemically, the verrucous OC showed foci of moderate-to-intense and diffuse, nuclear, and cytoplasmic p16INK4A positivity as well as weak or absent p53 immunopositivity in the p16INK4A labeled areas. The Ki-67 expression was increased. Interestingly, HPV-DNA PCR failed to reveal transcriptionally active HPV genotypes. Complete surgical excision was performed, with no recurrences seen during a 66-month follow-up. PMID:25442248

Argyris, Prokopios P; Nelson, Andrew C; Koutlas, Ioannis G

2015-04-01

300

Parietal subdural empyema as complication of acute odontogenic sinusitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction To date intracranial complication caused by tooth extractions are extremely rare. In particular parietal subdural empyema of odontogenic origin has not been described. A literature review is presented here to emphasize the extreme rarity of this clinical entity. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man with a history of dental extraction developed dysarthria, lethargy, purulent rhinorrhea, and fever. A computed tomography scan demonstrated extensive sinusitis involving maxillary sinus, anterior ethmoid and frontal sinus on the left side and a subdural fluid collection in the temporal-parietal site on the same side. He underwent vancomycin, metronidazole and meropenem therapy, and subsequently left maxillary antrostomy, and frontal and maxillary sinuses toilette by an open approach. The last clinical control done after 3 months showed a regression of all symptoms. Conclusions The occurrence of subdural empyema is an uncommon but possible sequela of a complicated tooth extraction. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologist, neurosurgeons, clinical microbiologist, and neuroradiologist is essential. Antibiotic therapy with surgical approach is the gold standard treatment. PMID:25146384

2014-01-01

301

A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

2013-01-01

302

Correlation between imaging features and epithelial cell proliferation in keratocystic odontogenic tumour  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between radiographic appearance and epithelial cell proliferations in keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Methods A retrospective radiographic analysis was performed on 284 cases of KCOT to gain insight into the radiographic characteristics. Expression of Ki-67 in 30 of the 284 cases was detected by the labelled streptavidin–biotin (LSAB) method and evaluated by an image analysis system. Results The radiographic presentation of KCOT was divided into four types: unilocular, multilocular, multiple and naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). The expression of Ki-67 in NBCCS was significantly different from the solitary and multiple KCOTs (P = 0.018, 0.002). In multilocular KCOTs it was also significantly different from the unilocular and syndrome-associated lesions (P = 0.000). In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the solitary and multiple lesions (P = 0.220). Conclusions A high correlation exists in KCOT between its biological behaviour and imaging features. The solitary KCOT seems less biologically aggressive and it should be classified as a cyst rather than a tumour. This means that more than half of KCOTs manifest themselves as ordinary cysts. PMID:20729187

K; Li, X; Wang, H; Liu, Y; Zheng, G; Yang, Z; Li, M; Shimizutani, K; Koseki, T

2010-01-01

303

Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 gene?transfected stem cells from human tooth apical papilla: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) have odontogenic potential, which plays a pivotal role in the root dentin development of permanent teeth. Human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a well-known gene that participates in regulating the odontogenic differentiation of dental tissue?derived stem cells. However, little is known regarding the effects of the BMP2 gene on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. This study aimed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation potential of lentiviral?mediated BMP2 gene?transfected human SCAP (SCAP/BMP2) in vitro. SCAP were isolated by enzymatic dissociation of human teeth apical papillae. The multipotential of SCAP was verified by their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation characteristics. The phenotype of SCAP was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The proliferation status of the blank vector?transfected SCAP (SCAP/Vector) and SCAP/BMP2 was analyzed by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK?8). Odontogenic genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) of the two groups of cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). ALP staining and alizarin red (AR) staining of the cells was performed on the 16th day after transfection. In vitro results of CCK-8, qPCR, ALP and AR staining demonstrated that: ?) SCAP/BMP2 had a comparable proliferation rate to SCAP/Vector; ?) SCAP/BMP2 presented significantly better potential to differentiate into odontoblasts compared to SCAP/Vector by upregulating ALP, OCN, DSPP and DMP1 genes; ?) more ALP granules and mineralized deposits were formed by SCAP/BMP2 as compared to SCAP/Vector. The results suggested that lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene transfection enhances the odontogenic differentiation capacity of human SCAP in vitro. PMID:25070743

Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xinchun; Ma, Jinglei; Zheng, Jianmao

2014-10-01

304

[Infective endocarditis].  

PubMed

Colonization of native cardiac valves or polymer implants, e.g. valves, conduits, rings, electrode leads and polymer-associated endocarditis (PIE), by microorganisms, primarily gram-positive bacteria (infective endocarditis), constitutes a severe, prognostically unfavorable disease. Fever and in the majority of cases development of a valve regurgitant murmur are clinical landmark findings. The white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are regularly elevated. With a normal CRP level, infective endocarditis is extremely unlikely. Irrespective of body temperature, at least three blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) should be taken and if initiation of antimicrobial therapy is urgent, 1 h apart before therapy is initiated. Identification of the pathogen to the species level and testing antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics by a quantitative hemodilution test, not with agar diffusion tests, are obligatory. A minimum inhibitory concentration should be administered for antibiotics and usual combinations of antibiotics with an expected synergistic potential. Streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci are the most frequent causative organisms. Immediate initiation of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is mandatory followed by transesophageal echocardiography if imaging quality is poor, involvement of intracardiac implants is possible or TTE is insufficient to establish the diagnosis. An insufficiently long antimicrobial therapy promotes recurrent infections, thus a 4-week treatment is standard, while in special cases (e.g. PIE) treatment for 6 weeks should be the rule. If typical complications of infective endocarditis, such as uncontrolled local infection, systemic thromboembolism, central nervous involvement, development of a severe valve incompetence or mitral kissing vegetation in primary aortic valve endocarditis occur, urgent surgical intervention should be considered. If cardiac implants are involved, early surgical removal followed by a 6-week antimicrobial treatment is the rule. Adequate and timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to improve the overall prognosis. PMID:25822422

Horstkotte, D; Piper, C

2015-04-01

305

Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of wastewater dilution, GAC (granular activated carbon) replacement rate, GAC particle size, operating temperature, and reactor configuration on the treatment of coal gasification wastewater with the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic bioreactor. Coal gasification wastewater used was generated in a low BTU, elevated pressure, stirred fixed-bed, gasifier operated by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The treatability of another wastewater generated in a full-scale, slagging fixed-bed modification of a conventional dry-ash, pressurized gasifier located at the Great Plains gasification Association (GPGA) facility in North Dakota was also evaluated. Full-strength METC wastewater was found to be effectively treated at chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates as high as 19.4 g/kg GAC-day. At this rate, an excess of 50% of the applied COD was converted to methane, and a carbon utilization rate of 10 g GAC per liter of wastewater treated was employed. At these operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies across the treatment system exceeded 95%. Good COD removal and efficient COD conversion to methane were attainable at loading rates exceeding 70 g COD/kg GAC-day. Wastewater generated at the GPGA facility was found to be treatable at full-strength in the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor at COD loading rates as high as 48 g COD/kg GAC-day. COD removal efficiencies at this loading rate exceeded 90%. Coal gasification wastewater was found to resist treatment under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. The thermophilic expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor affected very poor conversion efficiencies of phenol, even when fed a synthetically prepared phenol bearing wastewater. 29 refs., 77 figs., 16 tabs.

Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Fraser, J.; Klepp, B.E.; Mueller, P.A.

1987-11-01

306

Anaerobic digestion of brewery byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy recovery in the brewery industry by mesophilic anaerobic digesion of process by-products is technically feasible. The maximum achievable loading rate is 6g dry substrate\\/L-day. CH4 gas production declines as the loading rate increases in the range 2-6 g\\/L day. CH4 production increases in the range 8-15 days; optimal design criteria are a 10-day detention time with a loading rate

J. D. Keenan; I. Kormi

1981-01-01

307

Anaerobic digestion of brewery byproducts  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery in the brewery industry by mesophilic anaerobic digesion of process by-products is technically feasible. The maximum achievable loading rate is 6g dry substrate/L-day. CH4 gas production declines as the loading rate increases in the range 2-6 g/L day. CH4 production increases in the range 8-15 days; optimal design criteria are a 10-day detention time with a loading rate of 6 g dry substrate/L day.

Keenan, J.D.; Kormi, I.

1981-01-01

308

Epigenetic Marks Define the Lineage and Differentiation Potential of Two Distinct Neural Crest-Derived Intermediate Odontogenic Progenitor Populations  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, play an active role in the differentiation and lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, epigenetic states and differentiation profiles of two odontogenic neural crest-derived intermediate progenitor populations were compared: dental pulp (DP) and dental follicle (DF). ChIP on chip assays revealed substantial H3K27me3-mediated repression of odontoblast lineage genes DSPP and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in DF cells, but not in DP cells. Mineralization inductive conditions caused steep increases of mineralization and patterning gene expression levels in DP cells when compared to DF cells. In contrast, mineralization induction resulted in a highly dynamic histone modification response in DF cells, while there was only a subdued effect in DP cells. Both DF and DP progenitors featured H3K4me3-active marks on the promoters of early mineralization genes RUNX2, MSX2, and DLX5, while OSX, IBSP, and BGLAP promoters were enriched for H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Compared to DF cells, DP cells expressed higher levels of three pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Finally, gene ontology comparison of bivalent marks unique for DP and DF cells highlighted cell–cell attachment genes in DP cells and neurogenesis genes in DF cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the DF intermediate odontogenic neural crest lineage is distinguished from its DP counterpart by epigenetic repression of DSPP and DMP1 genes and through dynamic histone enrichment responses to mineralization induction. Findings presented here highlight the crucial role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the terminal differentiation of odontogenic neural crest lineages. PMID:23379639

Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia

2013-01-01

309

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: 1. ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED. 2. ANFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses two developing technologies for the treatment of municipal wastewaters. These technologies are anaerobic fluidized bed systems and an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor (ANFLOW). The report discusses: available laboratory data on system performance; fluidized b...

310

Application of radiographic images in diagnosis and treatment of deep neck infections with necrotizing fasciitis: a case report.  

PubMed

The advent and wide use of antibiotics have decreased the incidence of deep neck infection. When a deep neck infection does occur, however, it can be the cause of significant morbidity and death, resulting in airway obstruction, mediastinitis, pericarditis, epidural abscesses, and major vessel erosion. In our clinic, a patient with diffuse chronic osteomyelitis of mandible and fascial space abscess and necrotic fasciitis due to odontogenic infection at the time of first visit came. We successfully treated the patient by early diagnosis using contrast-enhanced CT and follow up dressing through the appropriate use of radiographic images. PMID:22232730

Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Ju-Dong; Ryu, Hye-In; Cho, Yeon-Hee; Kong, Jun-Ha; Ohe, Joo-Young; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Joon; Kim, Gyu-Tae

2011-12-01

311

Fourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicrobial agents using Etest methodology. Results According to EUCAST breakpoints, >90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were susceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993–94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011–12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24008826

Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche, Dorien; Soetens, Oriane; Vekens, Evilien; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Claeys, Geert; Glupczynski, Youri; Ieven, Margareta; Melin, Pierrette; Nonhoff, Claire; Rodriguez-Villalobos, Hector; Verhaegen, Jan; Piérard, Denis

2014-01-01

312

Odontogenic bacteria in periodontal disease and resistance patterns to common antibiotics used as treatment and prophylaxis in odontology in Spain.  

PubMed

Resistance in streptococci or Gram-negative bacteria is associated with antibiotic consumption. Scarce information exists on the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from patients with periodontitis in countries with high antibiotic consumption, as this is an area in which microbiological testing is not performed in daily practice. The present study was undertaken to explore the susceptibility of bacterial isolates in periodontitis to antibiotics prescribed in odontology in Spain as treatment for local infections or prophylaxis for distant focal infections. Periodontal samples were prospectively collected in 48 patients classified by pocket depth of <4 mm and >or=4 mm. Species were identified by culture, selecting the five most frequent morphotypes per sample, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility was determined by E-test. A total of 261 isolates were identified: 72.9% patients had Streptococcus oralis; 70.8% Streptococcus mitis; 60.4% Prevotella buccae; 39.6% Prevotella denticola; 37.5% Fusobacterium nucleatum; 35.4% Prevotella intermedia; 25% Capnocytophaga spp.; 23% Veillonella spp.; 22.9% Prevotella melaninogenica and Streptococcus sanguis; and <20% other species. Streptococcus viridans resistance rates were 0% for amoxicillin, approximately 10% for clindamycin, 9-22% for tetracycline, and for azithromycin ranged from 18.2% for S. sanguis to 47.7% for S. mitis. Prevotella isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, with amoxicillin resistance ranging from 17.1% in P. buccae to 26.3% in P. denticola. Metronidazole resistance was <6% in all Prevotella species, while clindamycin resistance ranged from 0 to 21.1%. beta-Lactamase production was positive in 54.1% Prevotella spp., 38.9% F. nucleatum, 30% Capnocytophaga spp., and 10% Veillonella spp. In this study, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most active antibiotic against all species tested, followed by metronidazole in the case of anaerobes. PMID:17530037

Maestre, J R; Bascones, A; Sánchez, P; Matesanz, P; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, M J; Pérez-Balcabao, I; Granizo, J J; Prieto, J

2007-03-01

313

Ki-67 and p53 expression in solitary sporadic, syndrome associated and recurrent keratocystic odontogenic tumor  

PubMed Central

Background: Ki-67 and p53 are markers expressed in actively proliferating cells, particularly in neoplasms. Objectives: (1) To study the proliferative potential of epithelia in Solitary Sporadic, Syndrome-associated and Recurrent Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) using Ki67 and p53 labeling indices (LI). (2) To derive a relationship if any between the expression of these proteins and the biologic behavior of Solitary Sporadic and Syndrome associated KCOTs. Study Design: Thirteen paraffin embedded blocks of KCOTs (Solitary Sporadic, n = 03; Recurrent, n = 03; Syndrome associated, n = 07) were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67 and p53 and labeling indices were calculated. Statistical Analysis: Z test with predetermined alpha set at 0.05 was used for the comparison of Ki-67 positivity between the three groups and p53 positivity between the three groups. Results: Ki-67 labeling indices were: 30% in solitary sporadic; 26% in recurrent; and 32% in syndrome associated KCOTs. p53 labeling indices were: 19% in solitary sporadic; 23% in recurrent; and 21% in syndrome-associated KCOTs. There was no difference seen in the rate of proliferation in the epithelial linings between the three groups. However, in our cases where Ki-67 positivity was seen there was expression of p53. Though not statistically significant a trend was seen, reflecting the loss of balance between the proliferative potential and apoptotic activity. Conclusion: On the basis of proliferative index alone it is not possible to comment on biological behavior of KCOTs associated with syndrome versus those of solitary and recurrent. There is probably a mesenchymal role which needs to be researched. PMID:25364174

Alur, Jyoti; Narayan, T V; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana; Jamadar, Saleha; Shetty, Shobith

2014-01-01

314

The effectiveness of decompression for patients with dentigerous cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, and unicystic ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the clinical effectiveness of decompression in decreasing the size of a cyst. In addition to the different types of cysts, we tried to reveal what effect host factors, such as the initial size of the lesion and the age of the patient, have on the velocity of cyst shrinkage. Materials and Methods With the aid of a panoramic view, we measured the size of the cysts before and after decompression in 13 dentigerous cysts (DCs), 14 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KTOCs), and 5 unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) cases. The velocity of shrinkage in the three cystic groups was calculated. Relationships between the age of the patient, the initial size of the cyst, and the shrinkage velocity were investigated. Results The three types of cysts showed no inter-type differences in their velocity of shrinkage. However, there was a statistically meaningful relationship between the initial size of the lesion and the absolute velocity of shrinkage in the DC group (P=0.02, R=0.65) and the KTOC group (P=0.02, R=0.56). There was also a significant relationship between the age of the patient and the absolute velocity of shrinkage in the KTOC group (P=0.04, R=0.45) and the UA group (P=0.04, R=0.46). Conclusion There was no difference in the decrease in size due to decompression among the different types of cysts. However, the age of the patient and the initial size of the lesion showed a significant relationship with the velocity of shrinkage. PMID:25551089

Park, Hyun-Soo; Song, In-Seok; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Lee, Jong-Ho

2014-01-01

315

The role of thymosin beta 4 on odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.  

PubMed

We recently reported that overexpression of thymosin beta-4 (T?4) in transgenic mice promotes abnormal hair growth and tooth development, but the role of T?4 in dental pulp regeneration was not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of T?4 on odontoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism regulating pulp regeneration in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Our results demonstrate that mRNA and protein expression of T?4 is upregulated during odontogenic differentiation in HDPCs. Transfection with T?4 siRNA decreases OM-induced odontoblastic differentiation by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of differentiation markers, and calcium nodule formation. In contrast, T?4 activation with a T?4 peptide promotes these processes by enhancing the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2, BMP4, phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3, and expression of transcriptional factors such as Runx2 and Osterix, which were blocked by the BMP inhibitor noggin. The expression of integrin receptors ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?1 and downstream signaling molecules including phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), p-paxillin, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) were increased by T?4 peptide in HDPCs. ILK siRNA blocked T?4-induced odontoblastic differentiation and activation of the BMP and MAPK transcription factor pathways in HDPCs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that T?4 plays a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs and activation of T?4 could provide a novel mechanism for regenerative endodontics. PMID:23613983

Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Duck-Su; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Cha, Hee-Jae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2013-01-01

316

In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against 623 Diverse Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of ceftaroline, a novel, parenteral, broad-spectrum cephalosporin, and four comparator antimicrobials were determined against anaerobic bacteria. Against Gram-positive strains, the activity of ceftaroline was similar to that of amoxicillin-clavulanate and four to eight times greater than that of ceftriaxone. Against Gram-negative organisms, ceftaroline showed good activity against ?-lactamase-negative strains but not against the members of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Ceftaroline showed potent activity against a broad spectrum of anaerobes encountered in respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. PMID:20100877

Citron, D. M.; Tyrrell, K. L.; Merriam, C. V.; Goldstein, E. J. C.

2010-01-01

317

The aggressive nature of the odontogenic keratocyst: is it a benign cystic neoplasm? Part 1. Clinical and early experimental evidence of aggressive behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this, the first of three articles on the aggressive nature of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), there is a review of clinical and histological observations which indicated that this was an aggressive lesion with a predilection for recurrence unlike the majority of other jaw cysts. This led to the tentative suggestion that the OKC might be a benign neoplasm. Subsequently

Mervyn Shear

2002-01-01

318

Three-dimens?onal cone-beam computed tomography for diagnos?s of keratocystic odontogenic tumours; Evaluation of four cases  

PubMed Central

The keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT), formerly known as the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign intraosseous lesion that derives from remnants of the dental lamina. Due to its characteristics, clinical and histopathological features and various treatment approaches, this pathology is different comparing with other odontogenic cysts. Radiographically the KCOT appears as well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with thin radiopaque borders. In most cases, conventional radiographic imaging, such as panoramic views and intraoral periapical films, are adequate to determine the location and estimate the size of an KCOT. However, the clinical use for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in oral and maxillofacial surgery increases and provides additional information about the contents and borders of the large lesions. In the present cases, the diagnostic performances of CBCT versus panoramic radiograph for four KCOTs were evaluated. It was concluded that appearance of lesions in the maxillofacial region could be better documented in the correct dimensions by CBCT versus panoramic radiograph. Key words:Odontogenic keratocyst, cone-beam computed tomography, three dimensional, panoramic radiograph. PMID:22549670

Çakarer, S?rmahan; Brki?, Amila; Gürkan-Koseoglu, Banu; Altu?-Aydil, Bar??; Keskin, Cengizhan

2012-01-01

319

The Role of Lysyl Oxidase-like 2 in the Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts. PMID:23677379

Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Park, Hye-jeong; Park, Eui-Kyun; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Je-Yoel

2013-01-01

320

Identification of the involvement of LOXL4 in generation of keratocystic odontogenic tumors by RNA-Seq analysis  

PubMed Central

Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) are benign, locally aggressive intraosseous tumors of odontogenic origin. KCOT have a higher stromal microvessel density (MVD) than dentigerous cysts (DC) and normal oral mucosa. To identify genes in the stroma of KCOT involved in tumor development and progression, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed using samples from KCOT and primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from gingival tissues. Seven candidate genes that possess a function potentially related to KCOT progression were selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), the only candidate gene that encodes a secreted protein, was enhanced at both the mRNA and protein levels in KCOT stromal tissues and primary KCOT stromal fibroblasts compared to control tissues and primary fibroblasts (P<0.05). In vitro, high expression of LOXL4 could enhance proliferation and migration of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). There was a significant, positive correlation between LOXL4 protein expression and MVD in stroma of KCOT and control tissues (r=0.882). These data suggest that abnormal expression of LOXL4 of KCOT may enhance angiogenesis in KCOT, which may help to promote the locally aggressive biological behavior of KCOT. PMID:24357854

Jiang, Wei-Peng; Sima, Zi-Han; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Sun, Li-Sha; Chen, Feng; Li, Tie-Jun

2014-01-01

321

The role of lysyl oxidase-like 2 in the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts. PMID:23677379

Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Eui-Kyun; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Je-Yoel

2013-06-01

322

Importance of Different Modalities of Treatment For the Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Five year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumors is a benign but one of most aggressive developmental cyst with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features and high recurrence rate. In the given study, authors have studied and presented their experience of managing Keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The aim of the study was to define an appropriate treatment protocol for the management of KCOT. Materials and Methods: Total 8 patients, whose histopathological reports confirmed Gorlin – Goltz syndrome and KCOT, with age between 10 – 50 years, were selected from cases being treated at Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, India. Enucleation and resection were the surgical techniques employed. Modality of treatment was based on parameters like age , size, aggressiveness and extent of the lesion. All the patients were operated under general anaesthesia. Cases were studied, reviewed and followed up for five years between 2007-2012. Results: The study included 8 cases in which three cases were opted for resection and five cases for enucleation followed by application of Carnoy’s solution. Conclusion: Treatment modality should be decided on age, extent, aggressiveness and nature of the tumour. PMID:24783143

Ebenezer, Vijay; Ramalingam, Balakrishnan

2014-01-01

323

40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes Anaerobic process type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Anaerobic sludge digester; anaerobic...

2014-07-01

324

40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes Anaerobic process type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Anaerobic sludge digester; anaerobic...

2013-07-01

325

UNCORRECTEDPROOF Assessment of anaerobic benzene degradation  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTEDPROOF Assessment of anaerobic benzene degradation potential using 16S rRNA gene Engineering, Rice University, MS 317, Houston, TX 77251-1892, USA. Summary Benzene is a common groundwater-contaminated aquifers. Thus, determining the potential for anaerobic benzene deg- radation is important to assess

Alvarez, Pedro J.

326

Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

Manning, James M.; And Others

327

Extended abstract Anaerobic chytrids from herbivores  

E-print Network

Extended abstract Anaerobic chytrids from herbivores AJP Trinci G Mennim1 JL Brookman1 MK Theodorou or the ancestral, free-living aerobic chytrid which invaded the digestive tract of herbivores). In either event of herbivores. Exploitation of anaerobic chytrids has focused on their potential for increasing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

329

Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities. PMID:21165797

Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

2011-03-01

330

Anaerobic treatment of liquidized organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kitchen garbage and dewatered sewage sludge were thermochemically liquidized at 175 °C and 4 MPa with 1 h of holding time. The liquidized garbage and sludge were separated into liquid and solid fractions, respectively. The diluted liquid fraction of the liquidized garbage and sewage sludge were continuously anaerobically digested using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket method. The digestion ratio of the

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoaki Minowa; Tomoko Ogi

1999-01-01

331

Gender differences in anaerobic power tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in anaerobic power between males and females could be accounted for by differences in body composition, strength, and neuromuscular function. A total of 82 untrained men and 99 women took part in the study. Body composition, somatotype, isometric strength, neuromuscular function were measured, and four anaerobic power tests performed.

J. L. Mayhew; Pamela C. Salm

1990-01-01

332

Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions.  

PubMed

Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2-4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

Mastroianni, Jennifer R; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E; Ouellette, André J

2014-01-01

333

Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell ?-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete ?-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse ?-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. Typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2–4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that ?-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension. PMID:25383215

Mastroianni, Jennifer R.; Lu, Wuyuan; Selsted, Michael E.; Ouellette, André J.

2014-01-01

334

Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal decarboxylation. The microbial consortia will be developed using a fermentor system first under batch and then in a continuous system. The main objectives for this quarter were to develop microbial consortia that would decarboxylate coal and isolate potential anaerobic microorganisms with decarboxylating, ability from these enriched microbial consortia, to continue to compare the known cultures with reward to their ability to decarboxylate coal, and to characterize the anaerobically biotreated coal using FTIR to confirm decarboxylation of coal. Significant achievements during the period include: coal decarboxylation was possible only under anaerobic conditions. microbial consortia that can anaerobically decarboxylate coal have been developed using anaerobic vials and batch fermentor system, and loss of carboxyl groups in biotreated coal has been confirmed by FT-IR.

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1991-01-01

335

A Discussion of Some Advancements and Some Persistent Difficulties in the Recognition and Understanding of the Histopathologic and Molecular Features of Selected Odontogenic Tumors and Tumor-like Malformations.  

PubMed

Overgrowths of epithelial, ectomesenchymal, and/or mesenchymal elements of the tooth-forming apparatus are quite variable with respect to their histopathologic characteristics and biological behaviors. Investigations of a variety of odontogenic lesions have led to an enhanced comprehension of many salient diagnostic features. This discussion provides an update with respect to the understanding of odontogenic tumors and tumor-like malformations and attempts to assist pathologists in the recognition and classification of these lesions. PMID:25844679

Cabay, Robert J

2015-05-01

336

EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE  

PubMed Central

For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

2013-01-01

337

The Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbiology of Pustular Acne Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens from 32 pustular acne lesions that were inoculated on media supportive for the growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria showed bacterial growth. Only aerobic or facultative bacteria were recovered in 15 (47%) specimens, only anaerobic bacteria in 11 (34%) specimens, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 6 (18%) specimens. A total of 57 isolates, 31 anaerobes (1.0 per

Itzhak Brook; Edith H. Frazier; Michael E. Cox; Josef K. Yeager

1995-01-01

338

Anaerobic Capacities of Leaf Litter  

PubMed Central

Leaf litter displayed a capacity to spontaneously form organic acids, alcohols, phenolic compounds, H(inf2), and CO(inf2) when incubated anaerobically at 20(deg)C either as buffered suspensions or in a moistened condition in microcosms. Acetate was the predominant organic product formed regardless of the degree of litter decomposition. Initial rates of acetate formation in litter suspensions and microcosms approximated 2.6 and 0.53 (mu)mol of acetate per g (dry weight) of litter per h, respectively. Supplemental H(inf2) was directed towards the apparent acetogenic synthesis of acetate. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was induced by partially decomposed litter after extended lag phases; freshly fallen litter did not display this capacity. PMID:16535448

Kusel, K.; Drake, H. L.

1996-01-01

339

Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-dioxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths. The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds. For complete degradation the side chains must be removed first and then the benzene ring is activated by carboxylation or hydroxylation or co-A thioester formation. In the next step the activated ring is converted to a form that can be collected in the central pool of metabolism. The third step is the channeling reaction in which the products of the catalysis are directed into central metabolite pool. The enzymes involved in these mechanisms are mostly benzyl co-A ligase, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Other enzymes involved in this path are yet to be purified though many of the reactions products that have been theoretically postulated have been identified. This is mainly due to the instability of intermediate compounds as well as the association of the enzyme substrate is femoral and experimental conditions need to be sophisticated further for isolation of these enzymes. The first structural genes of benzoate and hydroxy benzoate ligases were isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. This gene cluster of 30 kb size found in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coded for the Bad A protein. Similarly, some of the bph A,B,C and D cluster of genes coding for the degradation of pentachlorobenzenes were located in Pseudomonas pseudoalgaligenesKF 707. PMID:15242297

Jothimani, P; Kalaichelvan, G; Bhaskaran, A; Selvaseelan, D Augustine; Ramasamy, K

2003-09-01

340

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor invading the maxillary sinus: a case report of collaborative surgery between an oral surgeon and an otorhinolaryngologist.  

PubMed

We report a case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in a 21-year-old female patient. The patient was referred to our clinic from a dental clinic for the radical treatment of recurrent KCOT in the maxilla. She had undergone conservative drainage surgery twice at that clinic.The tumor was cystic and covered with a bony capsule, which extended high into the maxillary sinus. A pinhole fistula, which was created during a previous surgery, was identified in the gingivobuccal sulcus. The whole tumor was successfully removed using a bidirectional approach from the fistula and from the antrostomy in the middle meatus. This report shows that the intimate collaboration between an otorhinolaryngologist and an oral surgeon could provide a minimally invasive, and at the same time, radical surgical treatment for certain kinds of tumor in the head and neck region. We also recommend the introduction of endoscopic surgeries by the oral surgeon. PMID:25501756

Kunihiro, Takanobu; Kawana, Hiromasa; Kodaka, Rie; Oba, Toshihiko

2014-12-01

341

Infected cementoblastoma.  

PubMed

Cementoblastoma is a relatively uncommon, benign odontogenic neoplasm of jaws. Mandible is affected more than the maxilla. The lesions are generally diagnosed on a routine radiograph. The localized expansion of cortical plates is observed. Radiographically, it consists of well-defined radiopacity with a radiolucent band. Here is a case report of a female aged 55 years having swelling in the right mandibular angle with an extraoral draining sinus. A panoramic radiograph shows a dense radiopaque mass along the roots of the third molar surrounded by a radiolucent band. Surgical excision was carried out and a histopathological examination was carried out which was suggestive of cementoblastoma. PMID:22639514

Kumar, Sudesh; Prabhakar, Vikram; Angra, Raman

2011-07-01

342

Infected cementoblastoma  

PubMed Central

Cementoblastoma is a relatively uncommon, benign odontogenic neoplasm of jaws. Mandible is affected more than the maxilla. The lesions are generally diagnosed on a routine radiograph. The localized expansion of cortical plates is observed. Radiographically, it consists of well-defined radiopacity with a radiolucent band. Here is a case report of a female aged 55 years having swelling in the right mandibular angle with an extraoral draining sinus. A panoramic radiograph shows a dense radiopaque mass along the roots of the third molar surrounded by a radiolucent band. Surgical excision was carried out and a histopathological examination was carried out which was suggestive of cementoblastoma. PMID:22639514

Kumar, Sudesh; Prabhakar, Vikram; Angra, Raman

2011-01-01

343

Unusual anaerobic bacteria in keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: diagnosis using molecular biology methods.  

PubMed

Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was performed in the left eye of a 57-year-old man for residual ametropia after phacoemulsification. The patient was given topical tobramycin and a corticosteroid for 1 week postoperatively. Fifteen days later, he developed 3 corneal infiltrates beneath the flap with a gas bubble, suggesting an anaerobic infection. Tobramycin and ofloxacin were administered every 2 hours, but the condition worsened. Corneal scrapings were taken from beneath the flap for microbiological cultures and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The PCR amplification was negative for fungi and mycobacteria and positive for bacterial DNA. Sequence analysis showed Propionibacterium granulosum as the causal agent, but cultures were negative. Treatment with vancomycin and cefazolin led to clinical improvement, with resolution of corneal infiltrates. Anaerobic microorganisms can cause keratitis after LASIK. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA typing can help detect microorganisms involved in these ocular infections. PMID:15313309

Ferrer, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Prats, Jose L; Abad, José L; Alió, Jorge L

2004-08-01

344

Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion  

E-print Network

Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

2014-01-01

345

ANAEROBIC DEHALOGENATION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In an international conference, microbiologists from five countries presented results of research into the anaerobic dehalogenation of compounds of environmental interest being performed at selected universities, government agencies, and private companies. he conference, held fro...

346

Infections of the neck leading to descending necrotizing mediastinitis: Role of multi-detector row computed tomography.  

PubMed

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is an acute, polymicrobial infection of the mediastinum, originating from odontogenic, oropharyngeal and cervical infections. Anatomical continuity of the fascial spaces between the neck and the mediastinum leads to an occasional mediastinal extension of deep neck infection as a serious sequela. An understanding of the anatomy of the deep spaces of the neck and familiarity with the imaging findings in descending necrotizing mediastinitis may allow rapid diagnosis and treatment of this rare and life-threatening complication of deep neck space infection. In this article, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing descending necrotizing mediastinitis, in determining the level of infection and the pathways of spread of infections from the neck to the mediastinum and in planning a successful treatment. PMID:17961947

Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano; Scuderi, Maria Giuseppina; Tortora, Giovanni; Daniele, Stefania; Romano, Luigia

2008-03-01

347

Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure  

E-print Network

digestion of animal manure serves two general functions, (1) partial treatment and stabilization of the waste material, and (2) energy recovery from the biomass. Although anaerobic digestion has been studied for many years, the process has not been...BATCH LOAD ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF DAIRY MANURE A Thesis RICHARD PAUL EGG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject...

Egg, Richard P

1979-01-01

348

Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals  

SciTech Connect

significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1991-01-01

349

Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

G. Lettinga

1995-01-01

350

Anaerobic and aerobic power of top athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this study the alactic anaerobic and aerobic power of top level sprinters, long-distance runners, and untrained students\\u000a were compared. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a progressive test on a treadmill. The anaerobic power was estimated\\u000a according to a newly developed bicycle ergometer technique. As reported elsewhere, the maximal oxygen uptake is very high\\u000a in twelfe long-distance runners (77.6±2.7

J. M. Crielaard; F. Pirnay

1981-01-01

351

Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: the anaerobic pump stoichiometry.  

PubMed

This paper presents the stoichiometry section of a bioenergetics investigation into the biogas plasticization of wastewater sludge using the Anaerobic Pump (TAP). Three residue samples, an input substrate and two residual products, were collected from two side by side operated AD systems, a conventional continuous flow and stirred reactor, and TAP, and submitted for elemental and calorimetric analyses. The elemental compositions of the residues were fitted to a heterotrophic metabolism model [1] for both systems. To facilitate balanced stoichiometric models, a simple "cell" correction computation separates measured residual composites into "real" residual composition and cell growth (C5H7NO2) components. The elemental data and model results show that the TAP stage II residual composition (C1H0.065O0.0027N0.036) was nearly devoid of hydrogen and oxygen, leaving only fixed carbon and cells grown as the composition of the remaining mass. This quantitative evidence supports prior measurements of very high methane yields from TAP stage II reactor during steady-state experiments [2]. All performance parameters derived from the stoichiometric model(s) showed good agreement with measured steady-state averaged values. These findings are strong evidence that plasticization-disruption (TAP) cycle is the mechanism responsible for the observed increases in methane yield. The accuracy achieved by the stoichiometry models qualifies them for thermodynamic analysis to obtain potentials and bioconversion efficiencies. How applied pressure causes matrix conformation changes triggered by a functional consequence (plasticization and disruption) is this study's essential focus. PMID:24347158

Schimel, Keith A

2014-02-01

352

Anaerobic vibrio-like organisms cultured from blood: Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Succinivibrio species.  

PubMed Central

Two unusual anaerobic vibrio-like organisms were recovered from blood cultures of two patients. One isolate was identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. It appeared to be the cause of a 24-h episode of fever, chills, and profuse perspiration. This is apparently the first documented report of human infection due to this organism. The second isolate was a Succinivibrio species. It has rarely been described as a cause of bacteremia. The clinical significance of the organism remains unclear. Images PMID:858783

Porschen, R K; Chan, P

1977-01-01

353

Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions.  

PubMed

A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne's hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 overexpressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis. PMID:25141539

Maurya, Vineet K; Singh, Kavita; Sinha, Sudhir

2014-08-01

354

Multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars in a non-syndromic patient with associated orthokeratised odontogenic cyst- A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Multiple supernumerary teeth are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. They are commonly associated with syndromes like Gardner's syndrome and cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth have a predilection to occur in the mandibular premolar region. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising about 10% of the cases that had been previously implied as odontogenic keratocysts. More than half of the cases of OOC are associated with impacted tooth; but not a single case of OOC associated with supernumerary teeth is reported. Hence, the purpose of this article is to report the first case of multiple supernumerary mandibular premolars associated with OOC in a 35-year-old male and to review the literature associated with multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars. PMID:23230374

Kasat, Vikrant O.; Saluja, Harish; Kalburge, Jitendra V.; Kini, Yogesh; Nikam, Atul; Laddha, Ruchi

2012-01-01

355

Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

2012-01-01

356

Comparison of Lysis Filtration and an Automated Blood Culture System (BACTEC) for Detection, Quantification, and Identification of Odontogenic Bacteremia in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysis filtration (LyF) was compared with BACTEC PAEDS PLUS in estimating the prevalence of, and sensitivity for, detection of odontogenic bacteremia. Both real bacteremia and simulated bacteremia (seeded blood or saline samples) were assessed to determine the validity of LyF in estimating bacteremia. The simulated bacteremia was also used to assess the reliability of LyF to estimate intensity of bacteremia

Victoria S. Lucas; Vasiliki Lytra; Thoraya Hassan; Helen Tatham; M. Wilson; Graham J. Roberts

2002-01-01

357

Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

1984-01-01

358

Nutritional requirements of anaerobic coryneforms.  

PubMed

The nutritional requirements of three species of anaerobic coryneforms and their serotypes (Propionibacterium acnes types I and II, P. avidum types I and II, and P. granulosum) were determined. Strains of P. avidum would consistently grow to a transmittance of 1 to 3% at 560 nm in a basal salts medium supplemented with glucose, pantothenate, biotin, thiamine, and 12 amino acids (alanine, arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). Strains of P. acnes and P. granulosum, however, failed to grow in this medium unless six additional amino acids were present (asparagine, leucine, lysine, proline, threonine, and valine). All three species grew equally well whether the 18 amino acids were supplied in the form of a casein hydrolysate supplemented with tryptophan or were added separately. Nicotinamide enhanced growth of P. acnes but had no effect on growth of P. avidum and P. granulosum. Other nutrients which were not absolute requirements, but which significantly improved growth of these species, included the purines guanine and/or adenine, Tween 80, which served as a source of oleic acid, sodium L-lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and pyruvate. Strains (86) comprising all five groups grew well in the defined medium, except four strains of P. acnes type II (29 tested), which failed to grow unless heme and vitamin K were added to the medium. One strain of P. granulosum (22 tested) failed to grow in any defined medium, suggesting an additional growth factor requirement. PMID:151095

Ferguson, D A; Cummins, C S

1978-09-01

359

Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

Lewis, B. G.

2000-07-01

360

Nutritional requirements of anaerobic coryneforms.  

PubMed Central

The nutritional requirements of three species of anaerobic coryneforms and their serotypes (Propionibacterium acnes types I and II, P. avidum types I and II, and P. granulosum) were determined. Strains of P. avidum would consistently grow to a transmittance of 1 to 3% at 560 nm in a basal salts medium supplemented with glucose, pantothenate, biotin, thiamine, and 12 amino acids (alanine, arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). Strains of P. acnes and P. granulosum, however, failed to grow in this medium unless six additional amino acids were present (asparagine, leucine, lysine, proline, threonine, and valine). All three species grew equally well whether the 18 amino acids were supplied in the form of a casein hydrolysate supplemented with tryptophan or were added separately. Nicotinamide enhanced growth of P. acnes but had no effect on growth of P. avidum and P. granulosum. Other nutrients which were not absolute requirements, but which significantly improved growth of these species, included the purines guanine and/or adenine, Tween 80, which served as a source of oleic acid, sodium L-lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and pyruvate. Strains (86) comprising all five groups grew well in the defined medium, except four strains of P. acnes type II (29 tested), which failed to grow unless heme and vitamin K were added to the medium. One strain of P. granulosum (22 tested) failed to grow in any defined medium, suggesting an additional growth factor requirement. PMID:151095

Ferguson, D A; Cummins, C S

1978-01-01

361

Anaerobic digestion of extruded OFMSW.  

PubMed

Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was used to feed two pilot plants of 1000 l working in anaerobic conditions. The OFMSW had previously been treated using a system of extrusion which, due to exerted pressure, separates the undesired fractions of waste from organic waste and reduces the organic fraction in a kind of homogeneous jam. Pilot tests were performed in semi-continuous conditions with a stepwise progressive increase of the total solids content (TS) of the input material from 3% TS w/w (1.5 g VS l(-1) d(-1) organic loading rate) to 10% TS w/w (4.3 g VS l(-1) d(-1) organic loading rate) using activated sludge as diluting agent. The average specific biogas production obtained was 600 l kg(-1)VS. When the input TS content was increased to 10% w/w, the biogas average specific production went up to 800 l kg(-1)VS. The methane content in the biogas was always higher than 60% measured by volume. PMID:22074901

Novarino, Daniel; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

2012-01-01

362

Clindamycin plus gentamicin as expectant therapy for presumed mixed infections.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obligate anaerobes was studied prospectively in 60 patients with severe sepsis of intra-abdominal, soft tissue, female genital or oropulmonary origin. In addition, the efficacy of clindamycin (for anaerobes) plus gentamicin (for aerobic bacteria, especially coliforms) as initial empiric therapy in these patients was evaluated. Among 54 patients with cultural proof of infection, anaerobic pathogens were recovered from 52%. Nineteen patients had bacteremia; Bacteroides fragilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent pathogens, being isolated in five patients each. Infection was eradicated in 56 of the 60 patients (93%). Mortality related to sepsis was 7% in the entire group, 16% in patients with bacteremia and 2% in patients without bacteremia. Eighty-five percent of aerobic isolates tested were susceptible in vitro to either gentamicin or clindamycin; 97% of anaerobic isolates were inhibited by 5 mug/ml of clindamycin. PMID:1000457

Chow, A. W.; Ota, J. K.; Guze, L. B.

1976-01-01

363

A dispersion model of anaerobic wastewater treatment and feasibility study in anaerobic filter digester simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of anaerobic digestion include not only those of anaerobic biological reaction, but also those of the related operational?physical characteristics, such as dispersion, diffusion, cell accumulation and transportation. In this paper, we conduct a laboratory experiment to find out the relationship between design?operation parameters with dispersion, and combine this information with physical characteristics to set up the “dispersion model”.

1992-01-01

364

Abortion in sheep caused by a nonclassified, anaerobic, flagellated bacterium.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight pregnant ewes were inoculated IV with approximately 6 X 10(8) nonclassified, anaerobic, flagellated bacteria (NAFB) that had been isolated from an aborted lamb. Abortion occurred in 3 of the ewes and 1 ewe gave birth to a weak lamb. The remaining 24 ewes and 3 other ewes inoculated orally with NAFB did not develop clinical signs of illness. Suppuration and vasculitis were seen in the placentas of the 3 aborted lambs, 1 of which had necropurulent hepatitis indistinguishable from that usually attributed to Campylobacter fetus infection. The NAFB was isolated from fetal placenta, abomasal content, or internal organs of 2 aborted lambs and the weak lamb. A morphologically similar organism was seen in the abomasal content of the other aborted lamb, but the organism did not grow on bacteriologic culture medium. Therefore, in susceptible pregnant ewes, NAFB can cause fetal placentitis and hepatitis and subsequent birth of weak lambs or abortion. PMID:3954201

Kirkbride, C A; Gates, C E; Collins, J E

1986-02-01

365

Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22902601

Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

2013-02-01

366

General method for determining anaerobic biodegradation potential.  

PubMed Central

A simple, generalized method was refined and validated to test whether an organic chemical was susceptible to anaerobic degradation to CH4 + CO2. The method used digested sewage sludge diluted to 10% and incubated anaerobically in 160-ml serum bottles with 50 micrograms of C per ml of test chemical. Biodegradation was determined by the net increase in gas pressure in bottles with test chemicals over the pressure in nonamended sludge bottles. Gas production was measured by gas chromatography and by a pressure transducer. The latter method is recommended because of its speed, accuracy, and low cost. Sewage sludge from municipal digesters with 15- to 30-day retention times was found to be suitable. The sludge could be stored anaerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 4 weeks with satisfactory test results. p-Cresol, phthalic acid, and ethanol are suggested as reference chemicals to confirm sludge activity and method reliability. A revised anaerobic salts medium was developed which minimizes problems of a biological gas production (CO2), avoids precipitation, and meets the requirements of the anaerobic microbiota. When greater than 75% of the theoretical gas production was observed, the chemical was judged to be degradable, and when 30 to 75% of the expected gas was produced, it was termed partially degradable. This method has been tested on more than 100 chemicals of various physical properties and found to reproducibly determine anaerobic biodegradation potential. Of the chemicals tested, 46 were found to be anaerobically degraded. Sludges from nine different municipal treatment plants were surveyed for their ability to degrade nine chemicals which differed in susceptibility to degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:6721493

Shelton, D R; Tiedje, J M

1984-01-01

367

77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...variety of bacterial pathogens are responsible for cIAIs, including Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria, and there are also mixed infections. This draft guidance includes recommendations for...

2012-10-01

368

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

369

[Serious infection with Lactococcus garvieae].  

PubMed

Lactococcus garvieae are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe cocci. The bacterium is a known pathogen in fish, but is also described in mastitis among ruminants. In recent years it has been found in a Danish fish farm. Only 15 cases documenting infection in humans are found in English literature. We present an 83 year-old female in antihypertensive treatment admitted to hospital because of hypothermia and sepsis. In two of two blood cultures L. garvieae were found. No infection site was found. The patient received ampicillin and ciprofloxacin and was discharged to her home after 18 days. PMID:22510553

Fog-Møller, Tobias; Andersen, Jacob

2012-04-16

370

Improvement of anaerobic soil disinfestation.  

PubMed

With increasing worldwide restrictions for soil fumigants, growers loose an important tool to control soilborne pests and pathogens. Environmentally friendly alternatives are urgently needed and anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may be one of them. Traditional ASD with fresh grass is already applied in open field vegetables but the mode of action is unknown. Therefore, trials were performed under controlled conditions using soil-filled buckets, in which several processed defined organic materials were incorporated and compared with fresh grass. The effect of inundation was also studied. Target organisms were Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, Globodera pallida and Verticillium dahliae. Results showed that grass (traditional ASD) was less effective than the organic materials. All materials proved to be effective at 16 degrees C against all target organisms. However, exposure time, dosages, soil type and the temperature at which the experiments were performed influenced the effectiveness. P. penetrans was eliminated most easily whereas V. dahliae was most difficult to control. Efficacy was higher in sandy soil than in light marine clay. Inundation at 16 degrees C proved to be effective against P. penetrans and G. pallida in both soil types at sufficient exposure times. A soil temperature of 8 degrees C was sometimes too low for efficacy. Gas production of CO2, NH3, H2S, CH4 and N2O and gas consumption of O2 and production of fatty acids during ASD proved to depend on type of organic materials, soil type, temperature, dosage and exposure time. This first step in unravelling the mode of action has already shown several critical parameters for efficacy. Additional knowledge about the complete mechanisms of action may lead to a more reliable, effective and quicker soil disinfestation. PMID:23885444

Runia, W T; Molendirk, L P G; Ludeking, D J W; Schomaker, C H

2012-01-01

371

Long-term anaerobic survival of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa via pyruvate fermentation.  

PubMed

Denitrification and arginine fermentation are central metabolic processes performed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa during biofilm formation and infection of lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Genome-wide searches for additional components of the anaerobic metabolism identified potential genes for pyruvate-metabolizing NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA), phosphotransacetylase (pta), and acetate kinase (ackA). While pyruvate fermentation alone does not sustain significant anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa, it provides the bacterium with the metabolic capacity for long-term survival of up to 18 days. Detected conversion of pyruvate to lactate and acetate is dependent on the presence of intact ldhA and ackA-pta loci, respectively. DNA microarray studies in combination with reporter gene fusion analysis and enzyme activity measurements demonstrated the anr- and ihfA-dependent anaerobic induction of the ackA-pta promoter. Potential Anr and integration host factor binding sites were localized. Pyruvate-dependent anaerobic long-term survival was found to be significantly reduced in anr and ihfA mutants. No obvious ldhA regulation by oxygen tension was observed. Pyruvate fermentation is pH dependent. Nitrate respiration abolished pyruvate fermentation, while arginine fermentation occurs independently of pyruvate utilization. PMID:15231792

Eschbach, Martin; Schreiber, Kerstin; Trunk, Katharina; Buer, Jan; Jahn, Dieter; Schobert, Max

2004-07-01

372

ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LITERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the review is to evaluate and summarize available information about the role of microorganisms in the anaerobic transformation of xenobiotic compounds in natural environments. The review focuses on the anaerobic transformation of xenobiotic compounds and natural st...

373

ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

374

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18

375

Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection. PMID:23805543

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

2013-06-01

376

Time-of-day effects in maximal anaerobic leg exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time of day variations in maximal anaerobic leg exercise were studied in 23 men mean age 23 (SD 3) years. All the subjects\\u000a performed two anaerobic tests (force-velocity and multi-jump tests) and those familiar with sprinting ran an additional 50-m\\u000a dash (n=16). The maximal anaerobic powers for cycling and jumping (P\\u000a cycling and P\\u000a jump) and maximal anaerobic velocity (

T. Bernard; M. Giacomoni; O. Gavarry; M. Seymat; G. Falgairette

1997-01-01

377

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Investigations on the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of high-strength wastewaters (14-65 kg COD/mT) are presented. Vinasse, the wastewater of alcohol distilleries, was used as an example of such wastewaters. Semicontinuously fed digestion experiments at high retention times revealed that the effluent quality of digestion at 55C is comparable with that at 30C at similar loading rates. The amount of methane formed per kilogram of vinasse drops almost linearly with increasing vinasse concentrations. The treatment of vinasse was also investigated using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

Wiegant, W.M.; Claassen, J.A.; Lettinga, G.

1985-09-01

378

Anaerobic bioventing of unsaturated zone contaminated with DDT and DNT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial degradation of highly chlorinated compounds and nitroaromatic compounds found in munition waste streams is accelerated under anaerobic conditions followed by aerobic treatment of the degradation products. The establishment of anaerobic environment in a vadose zone can be accomplished by feeding appropriate anaerobic gas mixture, i.e., \\

J. K. Shah; G. D. Sayles; M. T. Suidan; P. Mihopoulos; S. Kaskassian

379

The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

2012-01-01

380

Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion  

E-print Network

Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion Sudeep C Thermophilic anaerobic digestion Pathogen inactivation Ascaris suum Helminth eggs Poliovirus Enteric viruses a b s t r a c t Thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion is a promising process to divert waste

381

Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation: an alternative to soil fumigation?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil disinfestation methods using anaerobic decomposition of organic matter were developed in the Netherlands and Japan as an ecological alternative to MeBr. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) works by creating a combination of anaerobic soil conditions and readily available carbon pools to stimula...

382

Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

Carnegie, John W., Ed.

383

Paraneoplastic Clostridium septicum infection of a total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a well-functioning total knee arthroplasty acutely infected with Clostridium septicum. This is the first reported infection of a prosthetic joint with this organism. A search for the source of this infection uncovered a colonic malignancy. This organism is highly associated with gastrointestinal malignancy, and appropriate investigation should be carried out when it is discovered. The importance of full anaerobic bacterial identification by the microbiology laboratory is underscored by this case. PMID:20870378

Burnell, Colin D C; Turgeon, Thomas R; Hedden, David R; Bohm, Eric R

2011-06-01

384

Cholera toxin production during anaerobic trimethylamine N-oxide respiration is mediated by stringent response in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ?relA ?spoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (?relA ?spoT ?relV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ?dksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ?relA ?spoT ?relV or ?dksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ?relA ?spoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae. PMID:24648517

Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

2014-05-01

385

Increased expression of autophagy-related proteins in keratocystic odontogenic tumours: its possible association with growth potential.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation status of autophagy in keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT), and to investigate its possible association with growth potential. We detected the expression of some key autophagy-related proteins in clinical samples of KCOT and radicular cysts and compared then by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. The correlation between the autophagy-related proteins tested, and with cell antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) or proliferative (Ki-67) markers in KCOT was explored using Spearman's rank correlation, followed by cluster analysis. The results showed that both the expression of mRNA and the immunoreactivity of the autophagy-related proteins tested were considerably increased in samples of KCOT compared with those in samples of radicular cysts. The correlation analyses showed that the immunostains of autophagy-related proteins in samples of KCOT correlated closely with each other. The immunostains of these autophagy-related proteins also correlated closely with the immunostains of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in KCOT. More importantly, double-labelling immunofluorescence analyses also showed that the distribution of autophagic and proliferative markers was partially synchronous in samples from KCOT. We have, to our knowledge for the first time, implicated the activation of autophagy in KCOT, and showed its possible association with growth potential. PMID:24703774

Li, Rui-Fang; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Yi; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Liu, Bing

2014-07-01

386

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor arising at the mandibular ramus with an impacted tooth: a case report and mimic lesions.  

PubMed

Objectives: To consider the biologic behaviors of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts. Methods: A 63-year-old Japanese man presented with swelling and discomfort in the left cheek during jaw movement. Examination revealed a multilocular lesion within the mandible extending from the left second premolar to the left mandibular ramus and coronoid process; the lesion contained a deviated impacted tooth. The tumor had expanded beyond the bone and was invading the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles. Marginal mandibulectomy with a free iliac bone graft was performed. Results: No recurrence was observed during a 7-year follow-up. Discussion: The histopathological diagnosis of the lesion showed it was a KCOT. These tumors usually grow within the bone, causing bone expansion. However, this tumor had expanded beyond the bone and invaded surrounding muscles. Thus, KCOTs can, in rare cases, manifest themselves as described here. Evaluating preoperative images and histopathological findings is important to determine the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25371100

Kimura, Takashi; Ohba, Seigo; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Shuichi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Sano, Kazuo

2014-11-01

387

A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

2014-01-01

388

PTCH1 Gene Mutations in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: A Study of 43 Chinese Patients and a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive cystic jaw lesion that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH1, the gene responsible for NBCCS, may play an important role in sporadic KCOTs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the distribution pattern of PTCH1 mutations in patients with sporadic and NBCCS-associated KCOTs. Methods We detected PTCH1 mutations in 14 patients with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 29 patients with sporadic KCOTs by direct sequencing. In addition, five electronic databases were searched for studies detecting PTCH1 mutations in individuals with NBCCS-associated or sporadic KCOTs, published between January 1996 and June 2013 in English language. Results We identified 15 mutations in 11 cases with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 19 mutations in 13 cases with sporadic KCOTs. In addition, a total of 204 PTCH1 mutations (187 mutations from 210 cases with NBCCS-associated and 17 mutations from 57 cases with sporadic KCOTs) were compiled from 78 published papers. Conclusions Our study indicates that mutations in transmembrane 2 (TM2) are closely related to the development of sporadic KCOTs. Moreover, for the early diagnosis of NBCCS, a genetic analysis of the PTCH1 gene should be included in the new diagnostic criteria. PMID:24204797

Guo, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Li, Xue-Fen; Luo, Hai-Yan; Chen, Feng; Li, Tie-Jun

2013-01-01

389

Predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in early positive anaerobic blood culture bottles in BacT/Alert system.  

PubMed

We collected and analyzed the time to detection (TTD) of blood cultures in the BacT/Alert automated system from 2002 to 2007. Among the 10,893 monomicrobial isolates from a total of 133,735 blood culture sets, the recoveries of aerobic bottles were compared with those of anaerobic bottles in this study. Significantly more Gram-positive cocci (except Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci), glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast were recovered from aerobic bottles than from anaerobic bottles. The average TTD was 19.0 hr and 20.1 hr for the aerobic and anaerobic bottles, respectively, and 96.8% of the microorganisms were detected within the first 72 hr. Of the 5,489 microorganisms recovered from both of the blood culture bottle pair, microbial growth was significantly more often detected first in the anaerobic bottles than the aerobic bottles for Enterobacteriaceae except Serratia marcescens, while S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more often detected first in the aerobic bottles. According to these data, we conclude that the earlier positivity of anaerobic bottles is a useful marker for rapid presumptive identification of Enterobacteriaceae infection. PMID:23349061

Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Lee, Shih-Yi; Tang, Sheng-Hui; Lu, Jang-Jih; Sun, Jun-Ren

2013-03-01

390

Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections. PMID:25371913

Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Corpus, Erika; Silva-Herzog, Daniel; Aragon-Piña, Antonio; Cohenca, Nestor

2014-01-01

391

Thermochemical liquidization of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge and anaerobic retreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment effect of thermochemical liquidization for the anaerobic retreatment of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge was studied. The digested sludge (dry matter; 15.7%) was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and 4 MPa with a holding time of 1 h. The liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to produce a supernatant of 44.7% (w\\/w) and precipitate of 52.3%. The liquidized sludge

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tomoko Ogi

1996-01-01

392

Pathogen survival during anaerobic digestion: Fatty acids inhibit anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fate of pathogens in anaerobic digesters has been studied in a laboratory model system in which glucose-nutrient broth cultures of genetically-defined strains ofEscherichia coli received additions of fatty acids at concentrations similar to those attained during anaerobic treatment of farm wastes. Marked concentration-dependent inhibition of growth was observed for both antibiotic resistant and sensitive strains, and the effects

Pirshing Abdul; David Lloyd

1985-01-01

393

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Batch and continuous anaerobic fermentation experiments were performed to study the hydrogen production from cheese whey permeate under mesophilic conditions (35-38 oC). The batch experiments resulted in H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed at food to microorganisms ratios (F/M) of 1.0 and 1.5, respe...

394

Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations,

David P Chynoweth; John M Owens; Robert Legrand

2001-01-01

395

Anaerobic Degradationof Benzenein DiverseAnoxic Environments  

E-print Network

01003 Benzene hasoften been observed to be resistant to microbial degradation under anoxic conditions. This study extends the previous reports of anaerobic benzene degradation to sediments that varied in methodology, microbial degradation of benzene was noted in slurries constructed with sediments from various

Lovley, Derek

396

An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolically quite different, just like mitochondria where large differences also exist. These differences have led to a continuing debate about the evolutionary

Brigitte Boxma; Rob M. de Graaf; Theo A. van Alen; Guenola Ricard; Toni Gabaldón; Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay; Werner J. H. Koopman; Jaap J. van Hellemond; Aloysius G. M. Tielens; Thorsten Friedrich; Marten Veenhuis; Martijn A. Huynen; Johannes H. P. Hackstein

2005-01-01

397

Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for California strawberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), a biological alternative to soil fumigation, can control soilborne pathogens and nematodes in numerous crop production systems. To optimize ASD for California strawberries, a series of field and pot experiments have been conducted since 2003. Overall, ASD treatme...

398

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

399

Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

400

A simple device for measuring anaerobic power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having no funds to purchase sophisticated equipment to measure human anaerobic power, a simple cheaply made device was constructed based on the principle of the method introduced by Margaria et al (1966). This improvised apparatus consists of two contact pads each having a make and break provision of an electrical circuit with the help of leaf springs and can be

D. K. Kansal; S. K. Verma; L. S. Sidhu

1981-01-01

401

Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

Wiegel, J.

1994-05-01

402

Anaerobic digestion: concepts, limits and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation processes are faced with limitations with respect to reaction energetics and reaction kinetics. The small amount of energy available in methanogenic degradation of complex organic compounds allows in most cases only the conservation of minimum amounts of energy in the lowest range of energy exploitable by biochemical reactions for ATP-synthesis. This limit has to be defined in the

B. Schink

2002-01-01

403

Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

404

Physical properties and biological/odontogenic effects of an experimentally developed fast-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate-based pulp capping material  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, fast-setting ?-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) cement was developed for use in the pulp capping process. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of ?-TCP cement in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods We measured the setting time, pH values, compressive strength, and solubility of the two materials. We evaluated biocompatibility on the basis of cell morphology and a viability test using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The expression of odontogenic-related genes was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The calcified nodule formation was measured by Alizarin red staining. We performed the pulp capping procedure on rat teeth for histological investigation. The data were analyzed by an independent t-test for physical properties, one-way ANOVA for biological effects, and the Mann-Whitney U test for tertiary dentin formation. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results The setting time, pH values, and compressive strength of ?-TCP was lower than that of MTA (P??0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that cells attached to both materials were flat and had cytoplasmic extensions. The expression of odontogenic-related markers and mineralized nodule formation were higher in the two experimental groups compared to the control group (P?odontogenicity comparable to MTA, whereas it had a quicker setting time. PMID:25015173

2014-01-01

405

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

PubMed Central

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

406

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

407

Evaluation of the Oxyrase OxyPlate Anaerobe Incubation System  

PubMed Central

The Oxyrase OxyPlate anaerobe incubation system was evaluated for its ability to support the growth of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria previously identified by the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results were compared with those obtained with conventional anaerobe blood agar plates incubated in an anaerobe chamber. We tested 251 anaerobic bacterial strains. Plates were read at 24, 48, and 72 h; growth was scored by a numerical coding system that combines the degree of growth and the colony size. Organisms (number of strains tested) used in this study were Actinomyces (32), Anaerobiospirillum (8), Bacteroides (39), Campylobacter (8), Clostridium (96), Fusobacterium (12), Leptotrichia (8), Mobiluncus (8), Peptostreptococcus (16), and Propionibacterium (24). At 24 h, 101 (40.2%) of the 251 strains tested showed better growth with the anaerobe chamber than with the OxyPlate system, 10 (4.1%) showed better growth with the OxyPlate system, and the remaining 140 (55.8%) showed equal growth with both systems. At 48 h, 173 (68.9%) showed equal growth with both systems, while 78 (31.1%) showed better growth with the anaerobe chamber. At 72 h, 176 (70.1%) showed equal growth with both systems, while 75 (29.9%) showed better growth with the anaerobe chamber. The OxyPlate system performed well for the most commonly isolated anaerobes but was inadequate for some strains. These results indicate that the Oxyrase OxyPlate system was effective in creating an anaerobic atmosphere and supporting the growth of anaerobic bacteria within 72 h. OxyPlates would be a useful addition to the clinical microbiology laboratory lacking resources for traditional anaerobic culturing techniques. PMID:10655335

Wiggs, Lois S.; Cavallaro, Joseph J.; Miller, J. Michael

2000-01-01

408

Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst  

PubMed Central

Introduction: p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and periapical cyst (PA). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 ?m were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. Results: The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%), whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1) OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60%) whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2) The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. Conclusion: OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA. PMID:25210385

Sajeevan, Thara Purath; Saraswathi, Tillai Rajasekaran; Ranganathan, Kannan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Uma Devi K.

2014-01-01

409

Staphylococcus epidermidis saeR is an effector of anaerobic growth and a mediator of acute inflammation.  

PubMed

The saeRS two-component regulatory system regulates transcription of multiple virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. In the present study, we demonstrated that the saePQRS region in Staphylococcus epidermidis is transcriptionally regulated in a temporal manner and is arranged in a manner similar to that previously described for S. aureus. Studies using a mouse foreign body infection model demonstrated that the virulence of strain 1457 and the virulence of a mutant, strain 1457 saeR, were statistically equivalent. However, histological analyses suggested that the polymorphonuclear neutrophil response at 2 days postinfection was significantly greater in 1457-infected mice than in 1457 saeR-infected mice, demonstrating that SaeR influences the early, acute phases of infection. Microarray analysis demonstrated that a saeR mutation affected the transcription of 65 genes (37 genes were upregulated and 28 genes were downregulated); in particular, 8 genes that facilitate growth under anaerobic conditions were downregulated in 1457 saeR. Analysis of growth under anaerobic conditions demonstrated that 1457 saeR had a decreased growth rate compared to 1457. Further metabolic experiments demonstrated that 1457 saeR had a reduced capacity to utilize nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor and exhibited increased production of lactic acid in comparison to 1457. These data suggest that in S. epidermidis SaeR functions to regulate the transition between aerobic growth and anaerobic growth. In addition, when grown anaerobically, 1457 saeR appeared to compensate for the redox imbalance created by the lack of electron transport-mediated oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by increasing lactate dehydrogenase activity and the subsequent oxidation of NADH. PMID:17954724

Handke, L D; Rogers, K L; Olson, M E; Somerville, G A; Jerrells, T J; Rupp, M E; Dunman, P M; Fey, P D

2008-01-01

410

Staphylococcus epidermidis saeR Is an Effector of Anaerobic Growth and a Mediator of Acute Inflammation?  

PubMed Central

The saeRS two-component regulatory system regulates transcription of multiple virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. In the present study, we demonstrated that the saePQRS region in Staphylococcus epidermidis is transcriptionally regulated in a temporal manner and is arranged in a manner similar to that previously described for S. aureus. Studies using a mouse foreign body infection model demonstrated that the virulence of strain 1457 and the virulence of a mutant, strain 1457 saeR, were statistically equivalent. However, histological analyses suggested that the polymorphonuclear neutrophil response at 2 days postinfection was significantly greater in 1457-infected mice than in 1457 saeR-infected mice, demonstrating that SaeR influences the early, acute phases of infection. Microarray analysis demonstrated that a saeR mutation affected the transcription of 65 genes (37 genes were upregulated and 28 genes were downregulated); in particular, 8 genes that facilitate growth under anaerobic conditions were downregulated in 1457 saeR. Analysis of growth under anaerobic conditions demonstrated that 1457 saeR had a decreased growth rate compared to 1457. Further metabolic experiments demonstrated that 1457 saeR had a reduced capacity to utilize nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor and exhibited increased production of lactic acid in comparison to 1457. These data suggest that in S. epidermidis SaeR functions to regulate the transition between aerobic growth and anaerobic growth. In addition, when grown anaerobically, 1457 saeR appeared to compensate for the redox imbalance created by the lack of electron transport-mediated oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by increasing lactate dehydrogenase activity and the subsequent oxidation of NADH. PMID:17954724

Handke, L. D.; Rogers, K. L.; Olson, M. E.; Somerville, G. A.; Jerrells, T. J.; Rupp, M. E.; Dunman, P. M.; Fey, P. D.

2008-01-01

411

Recent developments in anaerobic membrane reactors.  

PubMed

Anaerobic membrane reactors (AnMBRs) have recently evolved from aerobic MBRs, with the membrane either external or submerged within the reactor, and can achieve high COD removals (~98%) at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) as low as 3 h. Since membranes stop biomass being washed out, they can enhance performance with inhibitory substrates, at psychrophilic/thermophilic temperatures, and enable nitrogen removal via Anammox. Fouling is important, but addition of activated carbon or resins/precipitants can remove soluble microbial products (SMPs)/colloids and enhance flux. Due to their low energy use and solids production, and solids free effluent, they can enhance nutrient and water recycling. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: compare fouling between aerobic and anaerobic systems; determine how reactor operation influences fouling; evaluate the effect of different additives on membrane fouling; determine whether nitrogen removal can be incorporated into AnMBRs; recover methane solubility from low temperatures effluents; and, establish sound mass and energy balances. PMID:22749372

Stuckey, David C

2012-10-01

412

Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?  

PubMed Central

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-01-01

413

The role of anaerobic sludge recycle in improving anaerobic digester performance.  

PubMed

Solids retention time (SRT) is a critical parameter for the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD) in wastewater treatment plants. AD SRT should increase when active biomass is input to the AD by recycling anaerobic sludge via the wastewater-treatment tanks, creating a hybrid aerobic/anaerobic system. When 85% of the flow through the AD was recycled in pilot-scale hybrid systems, the AD SRT increased by as much as 9-fold, compared to a parallel system without anaerobic-sludge recycle. Longer AD SRTs resulted in increased hydrolysis and methanogenesis in the AD: net solids yield decreased by 39-96% for overall and 23-94% in the AD alone, and AD methane yield increased 1.5- to 5.5-fold. Microbial community assays demonstrated higher, more consistent Archaea concentrations in all tanks in the wastewater-treatment system with anaerobic-sludge recycle. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that AD-sludge recycle increased AD SRT, solids hydrolysis, and methane generation. PMID:23265819

Young, Michelle N; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Liu, Wenjun; Doyle, Michael L; Rittmann, Bruce E

2013-01-01

414

Iron-binding compounds impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, especially under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The success of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other chronic infections is largely attributed to its ability to grow in antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities. This study investigated the effects of limiting iron levels as a strategy for preventing/disrupting P. aeruginosa biofilms. A range of synthetic and naturally occurring iron-chelating agents were examined. Biofilm development by P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and CF sputum isolates from chronically infected individuals was significantly decreased by iron removal under aerobic atmospheres. CF strains formed poor biofilms under anaerobic conditions. Strain PAO1 was also tested under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation by this model strain was almost totally prevented by several of the chelators tested. The ability of synthetic chelators to impair biofilm formation could be reversed by iron addition to cultures, providing evidence that these effective chelating compounds functioned by directly reducing availability of iron to P. aeruginosa. In contrast, the biological chelator lactoferrin demonstrated enhanced anti-biofilm effects as iron supplementation increased. Hence biofilm inhibition by lactoferrin appeared to occur through more complex mechanisms to those of the synthetic chelators. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of iron availability to biofilms and that iron chelators have potential as adjunct therapies for preventing biofilm development, especially under low oxygen conditions such as encountered in the chronically infected CF lung. PMID:19429753

O'May, Che Y; Sanderson, Kevin; Roddam, Louise F; Kirov, Sylvia M; Reid, David W

2009-06-01

415

Anaerobic gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

An investigation of gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus after a switch from aerobic to anaerobic growth was initiated by using the proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. In the absence of external electron acceptors like oxygen or nitrate, an induction of glycolytic enzymes was observed. At the same time the amount of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes was very low. NAD is regenerated by mixed acid and butanediol fermentation, as indicated by an elevated synthesis level of fermentation enzymes like lactate dehydrogenases (Ldh1 and Ldh2), alcohol dehydrogenases (AdhE and Adh), alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (BudA1), acetolactate synthase (BudB), and acetoin reductase (SACOL0111) as well as an accumulation of fermentation products as lactate and acetate. Moreover, the transcription of genes possibly involved in secretion of lactate (SACOL2363) and formate (SACOL0301) was found to be induced. The formation of acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-phosphate might be catalyzed by pyruvate formate lyase, whose synthesis was found to be strongly induced as well. Although nitrate was not present, the expression of genes related to nitrate respiration (NarH, NarI, and NarJ) and nitrate reduction (NirD) was found to be upregulated. Of particular interest, oxygen concentration might affect the virulence properties of S. aureus by regulating the expression of some virulence-associated genes such as pls, hly, splC and splD, epiG, and isaB. To date, the mechanism of anaerobic gene expression in S. aureus has not been fully characterized. In addition to srrA the mRNA levels of several other regulatory genes with yet unknown functions (e.g., SACOL0201, SACOL2360, and SACOL2658) were found to be upregulated during anaerobic growth, indicating a role in the regulation of anaerobic gene expression. PMID:17384184

Fuchs, Stephan; Pané-Farré, Jan; Kohler, Christian; Hecker, Michael; Engelmann, Susanne

2007-06-01

416

Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55°C and for some experiments also at 37°C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619dm3kg?1 respectively,

Anette Hejnfelt; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

417

Anaerobic utilization of phenanthrene by Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenanthrene-utilizing bacterium was anaerobically isolated and identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris. It tolerated up to 100 mg phenanthrene l?1 and degraded 50% of 50 mg phenanthrene l?1 over 10 days. The presence of phenanthrene caused a prolonged lag phase (2–3 days) in cell growth and affected the photopigments\\u000a biosynthesis, while DMSO (the solvent for phenanthrene) had no impact on cell growth. The cell surface

Li Zhao; Chungui Zhao; Daxiong Han; Suping Yang; Shaohua Chen; Chang-Ping Yu

418

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines

M. Davila; G. Kassab; A. Klapwijk; Lier van J. B

2008-01-01

419

ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographers noticed already many years ago that far less ammonium accumulated in anoxic fjords and basins, than would be\\u000a expected from the stoichiometry of heterotrophic denitrification. It was suggested that this ‘missing’ ammonium was oxidized\\u000a with nitrate to freeN2. Since then several otherworkers have argued based on chemical profiles that ammonium is oxidized anaerobically in oxygen\\u000a deficient marine sediments and

Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Bo Thamdrup

420

Anaerobic pond treatment of wastewater containing sulphate.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ponds are usually used for treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes which contain high organic matter and sulphate. Competition for substrate between sulphate reducing bacteria and methane producing archaea, and the inhibitory effects of sulphide produced from microbial sulphate reduction reported in the literature varied considerably. In this research, a laboratory scale column-in-series anaerobic pond reactor, consisting of five cylindrical columns of acrylic tubes, was operated to evaluate the effect of COD and sulphate ratio on pond performance treating wastewater containing high organic matter and sulphate from a tapioca starch industry. The result depicted that no adverse effect of COD:SO4 ratios between 5 and 20 on overall COD removal performance of anaerobic pond operated with organic loading rate (OLR) of 150 to 600 g COD/m3d. Sulphate reducing bacteria could out-compete methane producing archaea for the same substrate at COD:SO4 ratio equal to or lower than 5 and OLR greater than 300 g COD/m3d. Sulphide inhibition was not observed on overall performance of pond up to an influent sulphate concentration of 650 mg/L. PMID:17591216

Rajbhandari, B K; Annachhatre, A P

2007-01-01

421

Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

2013-09-01

422

Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of nitrilotriacetate in subsurface soils.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to characterize mineralization of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) in subsurface soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Chemical (redox indicator, resazurin) and biological (dentrification) markers were used as indicators of anaerobic conditions in the test system. The indigenous microflora in subsurface soils previously exposed to septage containing NTA were able to rapidly mineralize NTA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The half-lives (t1/2) of mineralization for NTA in aerobic soils ranged from 87 to 160 hr. Biodegradation of NTA under anaerobic conditions where NO3- indicates that a mechanism exists for the anaerobic biodegradation of this substrate. NTA biodegradation can occur readily in the absence of molecular oxygen and the NTA-monooxygenase which are required for the aerobic mineralization of this substrate. These results provide the first evidence that the indigenous microflora in subsurface soils of septic tank tile fields can rapidly degrade NTA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:3956428

Ward, T E

1986-02-01

423

Five years follow-up of a keratocyst odontogenic tumor treated by marsupialization and enucleation: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic cysts are considered as nonneoplasic benign lesions. Among the cysts, keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is an intra-osseous tumor characterized by parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and a potential for aggressive, infiltrative behavior, and for the possibility to develop carcinomas in the lesion wall. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe a clinical case of KCOT in a young patient and discuss the treatment alternatives to solve this case. A 15-year-old male was referred for treatment of a giant lesion in his left side of the mandible. After the biopsy, a diagnostic of KCOT was made, and the following procedures were planned for KCOT treatment. Marsupialization was performed for lesion decompression and consequent lesion size reduction. Afterward, enucleation for complete KCOT removal was performed followed by third mandibular molar extraction. After 5 years, no signs of recurrence were observed. The treatment proposed was efficient in removing the KCOT with minimal surgical morbidity and optimal healing process, and the first and second mandibular molars were preserved with pulp vitality. In conclusion, this treatment protocol was an effective and conservative approach for the management of the KCOT, enabling the reduction of the initial lesion, the preservation of anatomical structures and teeth, allowing quicker return to function. No signs of recurrence after 5 years were observed.

de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Verzola, Mario H.; Pires, Luana C.; Mascarenhas, Vinicius I.; da Silva, Rodrigo B.; Cirelli, Joni A.; Barbeiro, Roberto H.

2015-01-01

424

Anaerobic metabolism occurs in the substratum of gonococcal biofilms and may be sustained in part by nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiologic agent of gonorrhea, which has been among the most frequently reported communicable diseases in the United States since 1960. Women frequently do not exhibit symptoms, which can lead to chronic infection. N. gonorrhoeae readily forms biofilms over abiotic surfaces, over primary and transformed cervical epithelial cells, and over cervical tissues in vivo. Biofilms are often associated with chronic infection, which suggests a link between biofilm formation and asymptomatic gonorrhea in women. Proteins involved in anaerobic metabolism and oxidative-stress tolerance are critical for normal biofilm formation of N. gonorrhoeae. Therefore, we examined the spatial profiles of anaerobic respiration in N. gonorrhoeae, using an aniA'-'gfp transcriptional fusion. Nitric oxide (NO) can elicit biofilm dispersal when present at sublethal concentrations in the surrounding medium. Some reports indicate that NO may also encourage biofilm formation at higher, potentially lethal concentrations. NO is produced by polymorphonuclear lymphocytes (PMNs) and cervical endothelial and epithelial cells. Thus, we also examined the effect of NO on N. gonorrhoeae biofilms. We found that anaerobic respiration occurs predominantly in the substratum of gonococcal biofilms and that expression of aniA is induced over time in biofilms. Treatment with high concentrations of a rapid-release NO donor prevents biofilm formation when supplied early in biofilm development but can also enhance biofilm formation once anaerobic respiration is initiated. NO treatment partially restores biofilm formation in an aniA::kan insertion mutant, which suggests that N. gonorrhoeae in biofilms may use NO as a substrate for anaerobic growth but prefer nitrite. PMID:20231417

Falsetta, Megan L; McEwan, Alastair G; Jennings, Michael P; Apicella, Michael A

2010-05-01

425

Effects of anaerobic stress on the proteome of citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of citrus fruit to anaerobic conditions results in induction of anaerobic respiration and accumulation of the off flavor volatiles ethanol and acetaldehyde. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anaerobic stress (exposure to N2 atmospheres for 24h) on the proteome of mandarins and grapefruit. With two-dimension polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), we detected more than 400 protein spots in

Jian Xin Shi; Songbi Chen; Natan Gollop; Raphael Goren; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt; Ron Porat

2008-01-01

426

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

427

[Microbiological investigation of diabetic foot infections].  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to determine the structure of infections agents in diabetic foot infections and their sensibility to antibiotics A total of 295 microbial isolates were obtained from 115 patients with confirmed diabetic foot infection, treated in 2005-2009 years. Of these aerobes were found in 92.88%, anaerobes - in 7.12%. Microbal associations, various aerbal bacteria were found in 58,49% of cases, associations of aerobes with anaerobes - in 17.92% of cases; from 21.70% of patients were isolated microbial monocultures. The most common gram positive infect in diabetic foot infection was S. aureus, gram negative - P. aeroginosa. Methicillinresistent S. aureus were - 57,52%. In 95.57% of cases S. aureus strains were sensitive to vancomicin. Strains of P.aeruginosa were highly resistant to all investigated antibiotics. Enterobactericeae shown high sensitivity to karbopenemes (95.96%). It is concluded, that success of antimicrobial therapy depends on correct choice of antibiotic, based on in time exposal of etiology of infection, determination of its sensitivity to antimicrobial remedy, considering of its pharmacocinetical features. PMID:20622271

Chikviladze, D; Gachechiladze, Kh; Mikeladze, M; Metreveli, D; Avazashvili, D

2010-06-01

428

Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic bacteria, is among the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of childbearing age. It is well known that BV has an influence in acquisition of certain genital infections. However, association between BV and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been

Evy Gillet; Joris FA Meys; Hans Verstraelen; Carolyne Bosire; Philippe De Sutter; Marleen Temmerman; Davy Vanden Broeck

2011-01-01

429

Staphylococcal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

430

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2013-07-01

431

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2011-07-01

432

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2014-07-01

433

40 CFR Table Jj-6 to Subpart Jj of... - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters Anaerobic digester type Cover type Methane collection efficiency Covered anaerobic lagoon (biogas capture) Bank to bank, impermeable 0.975 Modular, impermeable 0.70 Complete mix, fixed film, or plug...

2012-07-01

434

ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification – denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with

S. Suneethi; Kurian Joseph

2011-01-01

435

Comparative In Vitro Activities of XRP 2868, Pristinamycin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Clarithromycin, Telithromycin, Clindamycin, and Ampicillin against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species, Actinomycetes, and Lactobacilli  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the in vitro activities of XRP 2868, a new oral streptogramin, against 266 anaerobic gram-positive clinical isolates using the agar dilution method showed that the XRP 2868 MICs for 95% (254 of 266) of isolates were ?0.5 ?g/ml. XRP 2868 MICs for only two strains, one being Clostridium clostridioforme (MIC, 16 ?g/ml) and the other being Clostridium difficile (MIC, 32 ?g/ml), were >2 ?g/ml. Depending on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, XRP 2868 has potential for use against infections with gram-positive anaerobes and deserves further clinical evaluation. PMID:15616322

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.; Bryskier, Andre

2005-01-01

436

In Vitro Activities of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates showed that erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal strains were susceptible to ABT-773 (?0.125 ?g/ml); the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus spp. was 4 ?g/ml; and all Moraxella spp. and beta-lactamase-producing Prevotella species strains were inhibited by ?0.125 ?g/ml. Among the anaerobes tested, only fusobacteria (45%) required ?4 ?g of ABT-773/ml for inhibition. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections. PMID:11451698

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin

2001-01-01

437

Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.  

PubMed

Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. PMID:24942337

Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2014-12-01

438

Pneumococcal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... My Cart Healthy Children > Health Issues > Vaccine Preventable Diseases > Pneumococcal Infections Health Issues Listen Pneumococcal Infections Article Body Pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) is a type of bacteria that can ...

439

Anaerobic utilization of aromatic carboxylates by bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Very large quantities of compounds containing aromatic nuclei are produced annually from natural and industrial sources. A substantial portion of these materials accumulates in anaerobic environments, and since some of these are known or potential carcinogens, there has been growing interest in understanding how aromatics are degraded in the absence of molecular oxygen, an essential substrate in the aerobic catabolism of benzene rings. The microbiology and biochemistry involved in the degradation of natural products, mostly those derived from lignin, is considered in this chapter, with special emphasis on the role and contribution of studies with phototrophic bacteria to current understanding of these processes.

Gibson, J.; Harwood, C.S.

1996-03-25

440

Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.  

PubMed

It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In addition, transmural pressure created by the muscle contraction reduces blood flow, causing relative hypoxia. PMID:9889877

Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

1998-01-01

441

Improving thermophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic degradation of swine manure was found possible even at an ammonia content of 6g-N\\/l, with a low methane yield of only 67ml CH4\\/g-VS and a high concentration of volatile fatty acids (11.5g acetate\\/l). Several methods were tested in order to increase the methane yield. Addition of 1.5% (w\\/w) activated carbon, 10% (w\\/w) glauconite or 1.5% (w\\/w) activated

Kaare Hvid Hansen; Irini Angelidaki; Birgitte KiÆr Ahring

1999-01-01

442