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Sample records for anaerobic sludge blanket

  1. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reduces COD 75-85%, produces methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, W.; Biedron, M.; Thornton, B.; Swientek, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The wastewater from a brewery at 3 million gallons/day is treated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process with a COD removal efficiency of 75% and the CH/sub 4/ gas content of the 400 cubic metres/day biogas produced 74%.

  2. Biosorption and biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fen-Xia; Li, Ying

    2007-10-01

    In order to understand the fate of PCP in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) more completely, the sorption and biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by anaerobic sludge granules were investigated. The anaerobic granular sludge degrading PCP was formed in UASB reactor, which was seeded with anaerobic sludge acclimated by chlorophenols. At the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20-22 h, and PCP loading rate of 200-220 mg l(-1) d(-1), UASB reactor exhibited good performance in treating wastewater which containing 170-180 mg l(-1) PCP and the PCP removal rate of 99.5% was achieved. Sequential appearance of tetra-, tri-, di-, and mono-chlorophenol was observed in the reactor effluent after 20 mg l(-1) PCP introduction. Sorption and desorption of PCP on the anaerobic sludge granules were all fitted to the Freundlich isotherm equation. Sorption of PCP was partly irreversible. The Freundlich equation could describe the behavior of PCP amount sorbed by granular sludge in anaerobic reactor reasonably well. The results demonstrated that the main mechanism leading to removal of PCP on anaerobic granular sludge was biodegradation, not sorption or volatization. PMID:17146612

  3. Modeling the liquid flow in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolle, W.L.; Van Breugel, J.; Van Eybergen, G.C.; Kossen, N.W.F.; Zoetemeyer, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    By means of stimulus-response experiments and Li+ tracer, models for the fluid flow in a 30-cubic m UASB reactor, used for the anaerobic treatment of wastewater, were tested. From the model with the best fit it could be derived that both the sludge bed and the sludge blanket can be described as perfectly mixed tank reactors with short-circuiting flows; the settler volume acts like a plug-flow region. Apart from the volumes of the different flow regions, two parameters are necessary and sufficient to describe the fluid flow in a well functioning UASB reactor, i.e., the short-circuiting flow over the sludge bed and the short-circuiting flow over the sludge blanket. The volumes could be measured accurately. The short-circuiting flow over the sludge bed is a linear function of the sludge bed height. When the optimal height of the sludge bed is defined as the height for which the short-ciruiting flows are as small as possible, a bed-height of 3.5-4 m is sufficient (for superficial gas velocities between 1 and 1.5 m/h). This is in contradiction to the results of other authors. The short-circuiting flows over the sludge bed and the sludge blanket were also influenced by the superficial gas velocity. 7 references.

  4. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    PubMed

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    Biological treatment of wastewater basically reduces the pollutant concentration through microbial coagulation and removal of non-settleable organic colloidal solids. Organic matter is biologically stabilized so that no further oxygen demand is exerted by it. The biological treatment requires contact of the biomass with the substrate. Various advances and improvements in anaerobic reactors to achieve variations in contact time and method of contact have resulted in development of in suspended growth systems, attached growth or fixed film systems or combinations thereof. Although anaerobic systems for waste treatment have been used since late 19th century, they were considered to have limited treatment efficiencies and were too slow to serve the needs of a quickly expanding wastewater volume, especially in industrialized and densely populated areas. At present aerobic treatment is the most commonly used process to reduce the organic pollution level of both domestic and industrial wastewaters. Aerobic techniques, such as activated sludge process, trickling filters, oxidation ponds and aerated lagoons, with more or less intense mixing devices, have been successfully installed for domestic wastewater as well as industrial wastewater treatment. Anaerobic digestion systems have undergone modifications in the last two decades, mainly as a result of the energy crisis. Major developments have been made with regard to anaerobic metabolism, physiological interactions among different microbial species, effects of toxic compounds and biomass accumulation. Recent developments however, have demonstrated that anaerobic processes might be an economically attractive alternative for the treatment of different types of industrial wastewaters and in (semi-) tropical areas also for domestic wastewaters. The anaerobic degradation of complex, particulate organic matter has been described as a multistep process of series and parallel reactions. It involves the decomposition of organic and

  5. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    PubMed

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume. PMID:20390881

  6. Biomethane production from vinasse in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors inoculated with granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Barros, Valciney Gomes de; Duda, Rose Maria; Oliveira, Roberto Alves de

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic conversion of vinasse into biomethane with gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, R1 and R2, with volumes of 40.5 and 21.5L in the mesophilic temperature range. The UASB reactors were operated for 230 days with a hydraulic detection time (HDT) of 2.8d (R1) and 2.8-1.8d (R2). The OLR values applied in the reactors were 0.2-7.5gtotalCOD (Ld)(-1) in R1 and 0.2-11.5gtotalCOD (Ld)(-1) in R2. The average total chemical oxygen demand (totalCOD) removal efficiencies ranged from 49% to 82% and the average conversion efficiencies of the removed totalCOD into methane were 48-58% in R1 and 39-65% in R2. The effluent recirculation was used for an OLR above 6gtotalCOD (Ld)(-1) in R1 and 8gtotalCOD (Ld)(-1) in R2 and was able to maintain the pH of the influent in R1 and R2 in the range from 6.5 to 6.8. However, this caused a decrease for 53-39% in the conversion efficiency of the removed totalCOD into methane in R2 because of the increase in the recalcitrant COD in the influent. The largest methane yield values were 0.181 and 0.185 (L) CH4 (gtotalCOD removed)(-1) in R1 and R2, respectively. These values were attained after 140 days of operation with an OLR of 5.0-7.5gtotalCOD (Ld)(-1) and totalCOD removal efficiencies around 70 and 80%. PMID:27289246

  7. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  8. Innovative anaerobic/upflow sludge blanket filtration bioreactor for phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, H; Movahedyan, H; Bina, B; Farrokhzadeh, H

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus is the key element to remove from aquatic environments to limit the growth of aquatic plants and algae and, thus, to control eutrophication. Because the upflow sludge blanket filtratio' (USBF) process, without addition of metal salts, entails low efficiency for phosphorus removal, we added an anaerobic reactor to the USBF bioreactor in order to promote the simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater. The results revealed that the anaerobic/USBF bioreactor had a phosphorus removal efficiency up to 86%, with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 10 days, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours and an optimum COD/N/P ratio of 100/5/1. This ratio also improved the compaction quality of the sludge blanket in the USBF clarifier. The average specific phosphate uptake rate in the aerobic zone and the average specific phosphate release rate in the anaerobic reactor were 0.014 mg PO4-P removed/(g VSS x min) and 0.0525 mg PO4-P released/(g VSS x min), respectively. Secondary phosphorus release in the USBF clarifier was heightened with increasing HRT. Hence, the optimum total HRT can be selected between 16 and 24 hours based on effluent quality. Effluent phosphorus of about 1 mg/L was provided for wastewater with the COD/N/P ratio of 100/5/1 at the sludge age of 10 days and total HRT of 16 hours. This study illustrated that the anaerobic/USBF bioreactor at the optimum operational conditions can be an effective process for phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater. PMID:21877530

  9. Development of Sulfidogenic Sludge from Marine Sediments and Trichloroethylene Reduction in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Ordaz, Alberto; García-Solares, Selene Montserrat; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; Bastida-González, Fernando; Zárate-Segura, Paola Berenice

    2015-01-01

    The importance of microbial sulfate reduction relies on the various applications that it offers in environmental biotechnology. Engineered sulfate reduction is used in industrial wastewater treatment to remove large concentrations of sulfate along with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals. The most common approach to the process is with anaerobic bioreactors in which sulfidogenic sludge is obtained through adaptation of predominantly methanogenic granular sludge to sulfidogenesis. This process may take a long time and does not always eliminate the competition for substrate due to the presence of methanogens in the sludge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to obtain sulfidogenic sludge in which hydrothermal vents sediments are the original source of microorganisms. The microbial community developed in the presence of sulfate and volatile fatty acids is wide enough to sustain sulfate reduction over a long period of time without exhibiting inhibition due to sulfide. This protocol describes the procedure to generate the sludge from the sediments in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) type of reactor. Furthermore, the protocol presents the procedure to demonstrate the capability of the sludge to remove by reductive dechlorination a model of a highly toxic organic pollutant such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The protocol is divided in three stages: (1) the formation of the sludge and the determination of its sulfate reducing activity in the UASB, (2) the experiment to remove the TCE by the sludge, and (3) the identification of microorganisms in the sludge after the TCE reduction. Although in this case the sediments were taken from a site located in Mexico, the generation of a sulfidogenic sludge by using this procedure may work if a different source of sediments is taken since marine sediments are a natural pool of microorganisms that may be enriched in sulfate reducing bacteria. PMID:26555802

  10. Improved nitrogen removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors by incorporation of Anammox bacteria into the granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J E; Batstone, D J; Angelidaki, I

    2004-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors may offer a number of advantages over conventional mixed-tank, SBR, and biofilm reactors, including high space-loading, low footprint, and resistance to shocks and toxins. In this study, we assessed the use of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor technology as applied to anaerobic ammonia removal, or Anammox. Four 200 ml UASB reactors were inoculated with 50% (by volume) anaerobic granular sludge and 50% flocular sludge from different sources (all with the potential for containing Anammox organisms). Tools used to assess the reactors included basic analyses, fluorescent in-situ hybridisation, and mathematical modelling, with statistical non-linear parameter estimation. Two of the reactors showed statistically identical Anammox activity (i.e., identical kinetic parameters), with good ammonia and nitrite removal (0.14 kgNHx m(-3) reactor day(-1), with 99% ammonia removal). The third reactor also demonstrated significant Anammox activity, but with poor identifiability of parameters. The fourth reactor had no statistical Anammox activity. Modelling indicated that poor identifiability and performance in the third and fourth reactors were related to an excess of reduced carbon, probably originating in the inoculum. Accumulation of Anammox organisms was confirmed both by a volume loading much lower than the growth rate, and response to a probe specific for organisms previously reported to mediate Anammox processes. Overall, the UASB reactors were effective as Anammox systems, and identifiability of the systems was good, and repeatable (even compared to a previous study in a rotating biological contactor). This indicates that operation, design, and analysis of Anammox UASB reactors specifically, and Anammox systems in general, are reliable and portable, and that UASB systems are an appropriate technology for this process. PMID:15303725

  11. The inhibitory effects and removal of dieldrin in continuous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Ergüder, Tuba H; Güven, Engin; Demirer, Göksel N

    2003-09-01

    The inhibitory effects and removal efficiency of dieldrin (DLD) in anaerobic reactors were investigated. Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) experiments conducted in batch reactors revealed that 30 mg/l DLD had inhibitory effects on the unacclimated mixed anaerobic cultures. Continuous reactor experiments performed in a lab-scale two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system which was fed with ethanol as the sole carbon source, indicated that anaerobic granular cultures could be successfully acclimated to DLD. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were 88-92% for the two-stage system. The influent DLD concentration of 10 mg/l was removed by 44-86% and 86-94% in the second stage and overall UASB system, respectively. Biosorption of DLD on granular anaerobic biomass was found to be a significant mechanism for DLD removal in the UASB system. The maximum DLD loading rate and minimum HRT achievable for the first stage UASB reactor were 0.5 mg/lday (76 microg DLD/g VSS.day) and 10 h, respectively, which resulted in the overall COD removal efficiency of 85%. PMID:12699940

  12. Enhancing syntrophic metabolism in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors with conductive carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Woodard, T L; Nevin, K P; Lovley, D R

    2015-09-01

    Syntrophic metabolism of alcohols and fatty acids is a critical step in anaerobic digestion, which if enhanced can better stabilize the process and enable shorter retention times. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has recently been recognized as an alternative route to hydrogen interspecies transfer as a mechanism for interspecies syntrophic electron exchange. Therefore, the possibility of accelerating syntrophic metabolism of ethanol in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors by incorporating conductive materials in reactor design was investigated. Graphite, biochar, and carbon cloth all immediately enhanced methane production and COD removal. As the hydraulic retention time was decreased the increased effectiveness of treatment in reactors with conductive materials increased versus the control reactor. When these conductive materials were removed from the reactors rates of syntrophic metabolism declined to rates comparable to the control reactor. These results suggest that incorporating conductive materials in the design of UASB reactors may enhance digester effectiveness. PMID:25989089

  13. Microbial and Physicochemical Characteristics of Compact Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Granules in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Hu, Bao-Lan; Fang, Fang; Xie, Wen-Ming; Kartal, Boran; Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Jetten, Mike; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Due to the low growth rate of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, efficient biomass retention is essential for reactor operation. Therefore, we studied the settling ability and community composition of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules, which were cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor seeded with aerobic granules. With this seed, the start-up period was less than 160 days at a NH4+-N removal efficiency of 94% and a loading rate of 0.064 kg N per kg volatile suspended solids per day. The formed granules were bright red and had a high settling velocity (41 to 79 m h−1). Cells and extracellular polymeric substances were evenly distributed over the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules. The high percentage of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules could be visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules were determined to be 4.6 × 108 copies ml−1. The results of this study could be used for a better design, shorter start-up time, and more stable operation of anammox systems for the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewaters. PMID:20190088

  14. Continuous detoxification, transformation, and degradation of nitrophenols in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, B.A.; Razo-Flores, E.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    1996-08-20

    The anaerobic transformation and degradation of nitrophenols by granular sludge was investigated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors continuously fed with a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture as the primary substrate. During the start-up, subtoxic concentrations of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (2, 4-DNP) were utilized. 4-NP and 2, 4-DNP were readily converted to the corresponding aromatic amine; whereas 2-NP was converted to nonaromatic products via intermediate formation of 2-aminophenol (2-AP). These conversions led to a dramatic detoxification of the mononitrophenols because the reactors treated the nitrophenolics at the concentrations which were over 25 times higher than those that caused severe inhibition. VFA removal efficiencies greater than 99% were achieved in both reactors at loading rates greater than 11.4 g COD per liter of reactor volume per day even at volumetric loading of mononitrophenols up to 910 mg/L {center_dot} d. The sludges obtained from each of the reactors at the end of the continuous experiments were assayed for their specific nitrophenol reducing activity in the presence of different primary substrates. Reduction rates of 45 and 26 mg/g volatile suspended solids per day were observed for 2-NP and 4-NP, respectively, when utilizing the VFA mixture as primary substrate.

  15. Membrane installation for enhanced up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Zhang, Kaisong; Bakke, Rune; Li, Chunming; Liu, Haining

    2013-09-01

    It is postulated that up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor efficiency can be enhanced by a membrane immersed in the reactor to operate it as an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. This postulate was tested by comparing the performance with and without a hollow fiber microfiltration membrane module immersed in UASB reactors operated at two specific organic loading rates (SOLR). Results showed that membrane filtration enhanced process performance and stability, with over 90% total organic carbon (TOC) removal consistently achieved. More than 91% of the TOC removal was achieved by suspended biomass, while less than 6% was removed by membrane filtration and digestion in the membrane attached biofilm during stable AnMBRs operation. Although the membrane and its biofilm played an important role in initial stage of the high SOLR test, linear increased TOC removal by bulk sludge mainly accounted for the enhanced process performance, implying that membrane led to enhanced biological activity of the suspended sludge. The high retention of active fine sludge particles in suspension was the main reason for this significant improvement of performance and biological activity, which led to decreased SOLR with time to a theoretical optimal level around 2  g COD/g MLVSS·d and the establishment of a microbial community dominated by Methanothrix-like microbes. It was concluded that UASB process performance can be enhanced by transforming such to AnMBR operation when the loading rate is too high for sufficient sludge retention, and/or when the effluent water quality demands are especially stringent. PMID:23578587

  16. Hydraulics of laboratory and full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    PubMed

    Batstone, D J; Hernandez, J L A; Schmidt, J E

    2005-08-01

    Laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are often used as test platforms to evaluate full-scale applications. However, for a given volume specific hydraulic loading rate and geometry, the gas and liquid flows increase proportionally with the cube root of volume. In this communication, we demonstrate that a laboratory-scale reactor had plug-flow hydraulics, while a full-scale reactor had mixed flow hydraulics. The laboratory-scale reactor could be modeled using an existing biochemical model, and parameters identified, but because of computational speed with plug-flow hydraulics, mixed systems are instead recommended for parameter identification studies. Because of the scaling issues identified, operational data should not be directly projected from laboratory-scale results to the full-scale design. PMID:15977253

  17. Mathematical modeling of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has been widely applied for domestic wastewater treatment in many developing countries, there is no sufficient mathematical model for proper design and operation of the reactor. An empirical model based on non-linear regression was developed to represent the physical and chemical removal of suspended solids (SS) in the reactor. Moreover, a simplified dynamic model based on ADM1 and the empirical model for SS removal was developed for anaerobic digestion of the entrapped SS and dissolved matter in the wastewater. The empirical model showed that effluent suspended chemical oxygen demand (COD(ss)) concentration is directly proportional to the influent COD(ss) concentration and inversely proportional to both the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the reactor and wastewater temperature. For obtaining sufficient COD(ss) removal, the HRT of the UASB reactor must be higher than 4 h, and higher HRT than 12 h slightly improved COD(ss) removal. The dynamic model results showed that the required time for filling the reactor with sludge mainly depends on influent total chemical oxygen demand (COD(t)) concentration and HRT. The influent COD(t) concentration, HRT and temperature play a crucial role on the performance of the reactor. The results indicated that shorter HRT is needed for optimization of COD(t) removal, as compared with optimization of COD(t) conversion to methane. Based on the model results, the design HRT of the UASB reactor should be selected based on the optimization of wastewater conversion and minimization of biodegradable SS accumulation in the sludge bed, not only based on COD removal, to guarantee a stable reactor performance. PMID:23128617

  18. Comparison of sulfate-reducing and conventional Anammox upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Vabamäe, Priit; Kroon, Kristel; Saluste, Alar; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Rubin, Sergio S C dC; Tenno, Toomas

    2014-10-01

    Autotrophic NH4(+) removal has been extensively researched, but few studies have investigated alternative electron acceptors (for example, SO4(2-)) in NH4(+) oxidation. In this study, sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (SRAO) and conventional Anammox were started up in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBRs) at 36 (±0.5)°C and 20 (±0.5)°C respectively, using reject water as a source of NH4(+). SO4(2-) or NO2(-), respectively, were applied as electron acceptors. It was assumed that higher temperature could promote the SRAO, partly compensating its thermodynamic disadvantage comparing with the conventional Anammox to achieve comparable total nitrogen (TN) removal rate. Average volumetric NH4(+)-N removal rate in the sulfate-reducing UASBR1 was however 5-6 times less (0.03 kg-N/(m(3) day)) than in the UASBR2 performing conventional nitrite-dependent autotrophic nitrogen removal (0.17 kg-N/(m(3) day)). However, the stoichiometric ratio of NH4(+) removal in UASBR1 was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO4(2-) reduction, possibly due to interactions between the N- and S-compounds and organic matter of the reject water. Injections of N2H4 and NH2OH accelerated the SRAO. Similar effect was observed in batch tests with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). For detection of key microorganisms PCR-DGGE was used. From both UASBRs, uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 belonging to the order Verrucomicrobiales, Anammox bacteria (uncultured Planctomycete clone Pla_PO55-9) and aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (uncultured sludge bacterium clone ASB08 "Nitrosomonas") were detected. Nevertheless the SRAO process was shown to be less effective for the treatment of reject water, compared to the conventional Anammox. PMID:24863179

  19. Performance evaluation of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, C; Sekar, A S S

    2015-11-01

    Investigation on dairy wastewater treatment was undertaken at ambient temperature in 11 l effective volume of laboratory--scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor receiving an average influent chemical oxygen demand of 2100 mg 1(-1) for 3 months of 24 hours, hydraulic retention time. The feeds of the synthetic dairy wastewater operated with HRT of 12 hrs, 16 hrs, 20 hrs and 24 hrs was equivalent to organic loading rates of 1.20 kg COD m(-3) d-7.20 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.9 kg COD m(-3) d-5.40 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.72 kg COD m(-3) d--4.32 kg COD m(-3) d and 0.60 kg COD m(-3) d-3.60 kg COD m(-3) d respectively. After steady state condition was reached, which took about 2 months, the effluent quality parameter were sampled and analysed to quantify treatment efficiencies. The following removal efficiency observed were 73-94.33% COD; 50.04- 56.66% total solids; 45.55-70.63% total dissolved solids; 66-86.67% total nitrogen and 72-94% total phosphorous. Maximum biogas production rate was 383 l kg(-1) COD removed with 260 l of methane gas. Estimation of biogas production was analysed using artificial neural network software model, and the results predicted coincided well with the experimental results. PMID:26688965

  20. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of 'fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10-17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids - SS, BOD, nitrogen - N and phosphorus - P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  1. Grey water treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of grey water in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and temperatures, was investigated. The first reactor (UASB-A) was operated at ambient temperature (14-25 degrees C) and HRT of 20, 12 and 8 h, while the second reactor (UASB-30) was operated at controlled temperature of 30 degrees C and HRT of 16, 10 and 6 h. The two reactors were fed with grey water from 'Flintenbreite' settlement in Luebeck, Germany. When the grey water was treated in the UASB reactor at 30 degrees C, total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) removal of 52-64% was achieved at HRT between 6 and 16 h, while at lower temperature lower removal (31-41%) was obtained at HRT between 8 and 20 h. Total nitrogen and phosphorous removal in the UASB reactors were limited (22-36 and 10-24%, respectively) at all operational conditions. The results showed that at increasing temperature or decreasing HRT of the reactors, maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge in the reactors improved. As the UASB reactor showed a significantly higher COD removal (31-64%) than the septic tank (11-14%) even at low temperature, it is recommended to use UASB reactor instead of septic tank (the most common system) for grey water pre-treatment. Based on the achieved results and due to high peak flow factor, a HRT between 8 and 12 h can be considered the suitable HRT for the UASB reactor treating grey water at temperature 20-30 degrees C, while a HRT of 12-24 h can be applied at temperature lower than 20 degrees C. PMID:22097038

  2. Performance evaluation of a novel anaerobic-anoxic sludge blanket reactor for biological nutrient removal treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Díez-Montero, Rubén; De Florio, Loredana; González-Viar, Marta; Herrero, María; Tejero, Iñaki

    2016-06-01

    A novel anaerobic-anoxic sludge blanket reactor, AnoxAn, unifies the non-aerated zones of the biological nutrient removal treatment train in a single upflow reactor, aimed at achieving high compactness and efficiency. The environmental conditions are vertically divided up inside the reactor with the anaerobic zone at the bottom and the anoxic zone above. This contribution presents the performance evaluation of the novel reactor in the removal of organic matter and nutrients from municipal wastewater, coupled with an aerobic hybrid MBR. The overall system achieved total nitrogen and phosphorus removal with average efficiencies of 75% and 89%, respectively. Separate anoxic and anaerobic conditions were maintained in AnoxAn, allowing anaerobic phosphate release and nearly complete anoxic denitrification in the single reactor operating with an HRT of 4.2h. Biomass was retained in the reactor achieving TSS concentration up to 10gL(-1) and partial hydrolysis of influent particulate organic matter. PMID:26970922

  3. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8 mg L(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB. PMID:26151852

  4. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thi Tham

    2002-11-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity was improved by almost two-fold during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. Predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium specific organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5 g COD/g VSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73 g COD/g VSS/d). Acclimation to ADF resulted in an initial reduction in the biomass settling velocity. The fate of ADF additives was also investigated. There was minimal sorption of benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (MeBT), and 5,6-dimethyl-1 H-benzotriazole (DiMeBT) to anaerobic granules. A higher sorption capacity was measured for NP. Active transport may be one of the mechanisms for NP sorption. Ethylene glycol degradation experiments indicated that BT, MeBT, DiMeBT, and the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-4 had no significant

  5. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.

    PubMed

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l⁻¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l⁻¹ day⁻¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH₄ g⁻¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ∼6.5 mg K g⁻¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters. PMID:23109593

  6. Impact of aluminum chloride on process performance and microbial community structure of granular sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Watari, Takahiro; Thao, Tran Phuong; Hatamoto, Masashi; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Anh, To Kim; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, granular sludge formation was carried out using an aluminum chloride supplement in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating natural rubber processing wastewater. Results show that during the first 75 days after the start-up of the UASB reactor with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.65 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1), it performed stably with a removal of 90% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sludge still remained in small dispersed flocs. However, after aluminum chloride was added at a concentration of 300 mg·L(-1) and the OLR range was increased up to 5.32 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1), the total COD removal efficiency rose to 96.5 ± 2.6%, with a methane recovery rate of 84.9 ± 13.4%, and the flocs began to form granules. Massively parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the sludge retained in the UASB reactor showed that total sequence reads of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp., reported to be the key organisms for granulation, increased after 311 days of operation. This indicates that the microbial community structure of the retained sludge in the UASB reactor at the end of the experiment gave a good account of itself in not only COD removal, but also granule formation. PMID:27438256

  7. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of tomato, cucumber, common reed and grass silage in leach-bed reactors and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Jagadabhi, Padma Shanthi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka

    2011-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of tomato, cucumber, common reed and grass silage was studied in four separate two-stage reactor configuration consisting of leach bed reactor (LBR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). LBR studies showed that COD solubilization for cucumber and grass silage was higher (50%) than tomato (35%) and common reed (15%). Results also showed that 31-39% of initial TKN present in tomato and cucumber was solubilized in the leachates and 47-54% of the solubilized TKN was converted to NH(4)-N. The corresponding values for common reed and grass silage were 38-50% and 18-36%, respectively. Biomethanation of the leachates in UASB reactors resulted in methane yields of 0.03-0.14 m(3) CH(4) kg(-1)VS(fed) for the studied crop materials. Thus, high COD solubilization, high nitrogen mineralization and solubilization rates were feasible during anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials in a two-stage LBR-UASB reactor system. PMID:21316953

  8. Utilization of high-strength wastewater for the production of biogas as a renewable energy source using hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shivayogimath, C.B.; Ramanujam, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of distillery spentwash, a high-strength wastewater, was studied using a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor for 240 days under ambient conditions. The HUASB reactor combined an open volume in the bottom two-thirds of the reactor for sludge blanket and polypropylene pall rings packing in the upper one-third of the reactor. The aim of the study was to achieve optimum biogas production and waste treatment. Using non-granular anaerobic sewage sludge as seed, the start-up of the HUASB reactor was successfully completed, with the production of active bacterial granules of 1--2 mm size, within 90 days. Examination of the bacterial granules under scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that Methanothrix like microorganisms were the dominant species besides Methanosarcina. An organic loading of 24 kg COD/m{sup 3}d at a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours was achieved with 82% reduction in COD. Biogas with high methane content (80%) was produced at these loadings. The specific biogas yield was 0.36 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD. Packing in the upper third of the reactor was very efficient as a gas-solid separator (GSS); and in addition it retained the biomass.

  9. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  10. A downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent.

    PubMed

    Yaya Beas, Rosa Elena; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; van Lier, Jules B; Zeeman, Grietje

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous laboratory-scale DHS reactors, i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculation, a similar one with recirculation and a reactor with curtain type sponges, were studied. The porosities of the applied medium were 91%, 87% and 47% respectively. The organic loading rates were 0.86 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), 0.53 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) and 0.24 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) correspondingly at hydraulic loading rates of 1.92 m3 m(-2) d(-1), 2.97 m3 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.32 m3 m(-2) d(-1), respectively (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The corresponding averages for faecal coliform removal were 99.997%, 99.919% and 92.121% respectively. The 1989 WHO guidelines standards, in terms of faecal coliform content for unrestricted irrigation (category A), was achieved with the effluent of the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation. Restricted irrigation, category B and C, is assigned to the effluent of the cube type with recirculation and the curtain type, respectively. Particularly for organic compounds, the effluent of evaluated DHS reactors complies with USEPA standards for irrigation of so called non-food crops like pasture for milking animals, fodder, fibre, and seed crops. PMID:26606098

  11. Continuous treatment of the insensitive munitions compound N-methyl-p-nitro aniline (MNA) in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Christopher I; Wang, Junqin; Luna, Carlos D Silva; Field, Jim A; Abrell, Leif; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-02-01

    N-methyl-p-nitroaniline (MNA) is an ingredient of insensitive munitions (IM) compounds that serves as a plasticizer and helps reduce unwanted detonations. As its use becomes widespread, MNA waste streams will be generated, necessitating viable treatment options. We studied MNA biodegradation and its inhibition potential to a representative anaerobic microbial population in wastewater treatment, methanogens. Anaerobic biodegradation and toxicity assays were performed and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was operated to test continuous degradation of MNA. MNA was transformed almost stoichiometrically to N-methyl-p-phenylenediamine (MPD). MPD was not mineralized; however, it was readily autoxidized and polymerized extensively upon aeration at pH = 9. In the UASB reactor, MNA was fully degraded up to a loading rate of 297.5 μM MNA d(-1). Regarding toxicity, MNA was very inhibitory to acetoclastic methanogens (IC50 = 103 μM) whereas MPD was much less toxic, causing only 13.9% inhibition at the highest concentration tested (1025 μM). The results taken as a whole indicate that anaerobic sludge can transform MNA to MPD continuously, and that the transformation decreases the cytotoxicity of the parent pollutant. MPD can be removed through extensive polymerization. These insights could help define efficient treatment options for waste streams polluted with MNA. PMID:26454121

  12. A novel application of red mud-iron on granulation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that used red mud-iron (RM-Fe) for methane production for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) was determined. POME was used as the substrate carbon source. The biogas production rate was 1.7 l biogas/h with a methane yield of 0.78 l CH4/g CODremoved and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85% at POME concentration of 30 g COD/l at HRT 16 h. The reactor R2 showed average methane content of biogas and COD reduction of 78% and 85% at 400 mg/l RM-Fe. Significant increase in the granule diameter (up to 2900 μm) in R2 was compared to control R1 (up to 86 μm) at end of the experiment. PMID:25176306

  13. Potential enhancement of direct interspecies electron transfer for syntrophic metabolism of propionate and butyrate with biochar in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Holmes, Dawn E; Dang, Yan; Woodard, Trevor L; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-06-01

    Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) to enhance syntrophic metabolism may be a strategy for accelerating the conversion of organic wastes to methane, but microorganisms capable of metabolizing propionate and butyrate via DIET under methanogenic conditions have yet to be identified. In an attempt to establish methanogenic communities metabolizing propionate or butyrate with DIET, enrichments were initiated with up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), similar to those that were previously reported to support communities that metabolized ethanol with DIET that relied on direct biological electrical connections. In the absence of any amendments, microbial communities enriched were dominated by microorganisms closely related to pure cultures that are known to metabolize propionate or butyrate to acetate with production of H2. When biochar was added to the reactors there was a substantial enrichment on the biochar surface of 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to Geobacter and Methanosaeta species known to participate in DIET. PMID:26967338

  14. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems. PMID:25600011

  15. Reductive Transformation of p-chloronitrobenzene in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor coupled with microbial electrolysis cell: performance and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangyang; Shao, Junjie; Li, Mengyan; Gao, Kaituo; Jin, Jie; Zhu, Liang

    2016-10-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) combined with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated to degrade p-chloronitrobenzenes (p-ClNB) effectively. The results indicated that p-ClNB was transformed to p-chloroaniline (p-ClAn) and then reduced via dechlorination pathways. In the MEC-UASB coupled system, p-ClNB, p-ClAn removal efficiency and dechlorination efficiency reached 99.63±0.37%, 40.39±9.26% and 32.16±8.12%, respectively, which was significantly improved in comparison with the control UASB system. In addition, the coupled system could maintain appropriate pH and promote anaerobic sludge granulation to exert a positive effect on reductive transformation of p-ClNB. PCR-DGGE experiment and 454 pyrophosphate sequencing analysis indicated that applied voltage would significantly influence the succession of microbial community and promote oriented enrichment of the functional bacteria, which could be the underlying reasons for the improved performance. This study demonstrated that MEC-UASB coupled system had a promising application prospect to remove the recalcitrant pollutants effectively. PMID:27455127

  16. Treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater using a combination system of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge system.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, D; Syutsubo, K; Hatamoto, M; Fukuda, M; Takahashi, M; Choeisai, P K; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of natural rubber processing wastewater treatment was conducted using a combination system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for more than 10 months. The system achieved a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 95.7% ± 1.3% at an organic loading rate of 0.8 kg COD/(m(3).d). Bacterial activity measurement of retained sludge from the UASB showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), especially hydrogen-utilizing SRB, possessed high activity compared with methane-producing bacteria (MPB). Conversely, the acetate-utilizing activity of MPB was superior to SRB in the second stage of the reactor. The two-stage UASB-DHS system can reduce power consumption by 95% and excess sludge by 98%. In addition, it is possible to prevent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as methane, using this system. Furthermore, recovered methane from the two-stage UASB can completely cover the electricity needs for the operation of the two-stage UASB-DHS system, accounting for approximately 15% of the electricity used in the natural rubber manufacturing process. PMID:27120630

  17. Performance evaluation of the sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor system for municipal sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Ohtsuki, Kota; Maharjan, Namita; Ono, Shinya; Dehama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system, combined with an anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2SBR), has been used for municipal sewage treatment for over 2 years. The present system achieved a removal rate of 95±14% for BOD, 74±22% for total nitrogen, and 78±25% for total phosphorus, including low water temperature conditions. Sludge conversion rates during the operational period were 0.016 and 0.218 g-VSS g-COD-removed(-1) for the UASB, and DHS, respectively, which are similar to a conventional UASB-DHS system, which is not used of sulfur-redox-reaction, for sewage treatment. Using the sulfur-redox reaction made advanced treatment of municipal wastewater with minimal sludge generation possible, even in winter. Furthermore, the occurrence of a unique phenomenon, known as the anaerobic sulfur oxidation reaction, was confirmed in the UASB reactor under the winter season. PMID:26773951

  18. Impact of temperature on feed-flow characteristics and filtration performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket coupled ultrafiltration membrane treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Hale; Tao, Yu; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Zhou, Zhongbo; Gimenez, Juan B; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the operational feasibility of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor coupled to an ultrafiltration membrane unit, at two operational temperatures (25°C and 15°C) for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The results showed that membrane fouling at 15°C was more severe than that at 25°C. Higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble microbial products (SMP) concentrations, lower mean particle diameter, and higher turbidity in the UASB effluent at lower temperature aggravated membrane fouling compared to the 25°C operation. However, the overall AnMBR treatment performance was not significantly affected by temperature, which was attributed to the physical membrane barrier. Cake resistance was found responsible for over 40% of the total fouling in both cases. However, an increase was observed in the contribution of pore blocking resistance at 15°C related to the larger amount of fine particles in the UASB effluent compared to 25°C. Based on the overall results, it is concluded that an AnMBR, consisting of a UASB coupled membrane unit, is not found technically feasible for the treatment of municipal wastewater at 15°C, considering the rapid deterioration of the filtration performance. PMID:26141423

  19. Kinetic of carbonaceous substrate in an upflow anaerobic sludge sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4 dichlorophenol (2,4 DCP).

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Uluköy, Ayşen

    2008-01-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4 dichlorophenol (2,4 DCP) was evaluated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) using synthetic wastewater in order to obtain the growth substrate (glucose-COD) and 2,4 DCP removal kinetics. Treatment efficiencies of the UASB reactor were investigated at different hydraulic retention times (2-20 h) corresponding to a food to mass (F/M) ratio of 1.2-1.92 g-COD g(-1) VSS day(-1). A total of 65-83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained at HRTs of 2-20 h. In all, 83% and 99% 2,4 DCP removals were achieved at the same HRTs in the UASB reactor. Conventional Monod, Grau Second-order and Modified Stover-Kincannon models were applied to determine the substrate removal kinetics of the UASB reactor. The experimental data obtained from the kinetic models showed that the Monod kinetic model is more appropriate for correlating the substrate removals compared to the other models for the UASB reactor. The maximum specific substrate utilization rate (k) (mg-COD mg(-1) SS day(-1)), half-velocity concentration (K(s)) (mg COD l(-1)), growth yield coefficient (Y) (mg mg(-1)) and bacterial decay coefficient (b) (day(-1)) were 0.954 mg-COD mg(-1) SS day(-1), 560.29 mg-COD l(-1), 0.78 mg-SS g(-1)-COD, 0.093 day(-1) in the Conventional Monod kinetic model. The second-order kinetic coefficient (k(2)) was calculated as 0.26 day(-1) in the Grau reaction kinetic model. The maximum COD removal rate constant (U(max)) and saturation value (K(B)) were calculated as 7.502 mg CODl(-1)day(-1) and 34.56 mg l(-1)day(-1) in the Modified Stover-Kincannon Model. The (k)(mg-2,4 DCP mg(-1) SS day(-1)), (K(s)) (mg 2,4 DCPl(-1)), (Y) (mg SS mg(-1) 2,4 DCP) and (k(d)) (day(-1)) were 0.0041 mg-2,4 DCP mg(-1) SS day(-1), 2.06 mg-COD l(-1), 0.0017 mg-SS mg(-1) 2,4 DCP and 3.1 x 10(-5) day(-1) in the Conventional Monod kinetic model for 2,4 DCP degradation. The second-order kinetic coefficient (k(2)) was calculated as 0.30 day

  20. Transcriptomic and Physiological Insights into the Robustness of Long Filamentous Cells of Methanosaeta harundinacea, Prevalent in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Granules

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liguang; Yu, Haiying; Ai, Guomin; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Songnian

    2014-01-01

    Methanosaeta spp. are widely distributed in natural environments, and their filamentous cells contribute significantly to sludge granulation and the good performance of anaerobic reactors. A previous study indicated that Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac displays a quorum sensing-regulated morphological transition from short to long filaments, and more acetate is channeled into methane production in long filaments, whereas more is channeled into biomass synthesis in short filaments. Here, we performed transcriptomic and physiological analysis to gain insights into active methanogenesis in long filaments of M. harundinacea 6Ac. Both RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR indicated that transcription of the genes involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and energy metabolism was upregulated 1.2- to 10.3-fold in long filaments, while transcription of the genes for the methyl oxidative shunt was upregulated in short filaments. [2-13C]acetate trace experiments demonstrated that a relatively higher portion of the acetate methyl group was oxidized to CO2 in short filaments than in long filaments. The long filaments exhibited higher catalase activity and oxygen tolerance than the short ones, which is consistent with increased transcription of the oxidant-scavenging genes. Moreover, transcription of genes for cell surface structures was upregulated in the long filaments, and transmission electron microscopy revealed a thicker cell envelope in the filaments. RNA-seq determined a >2-fold upregulation of a variety of antistress genes in short filaments, like those encoding chaperones and DNA repair systems, which implies that the short filaments can be stressed. This study reveals the genetic basis for the prevalence of the long filamentous morphology of M. harundinacea cells in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket granules. PMID:25398869

  1. Optimization of separate hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater using two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) system under thermophilic operation.

    PubMed

    Intanoo, Patcharee; Rangsanvigit, Pramoch; Malakul, Pomthong; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the separate hydrogen and methane productions from cassava wastewater by using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under thermophilic operation. Recycle ratio of the effluent from methane bioreactor-to-feed flow rate was fixed at 1:1 and pH of hydrogen UASB unit was maintained at 5.5. At optimum COD loading rate of 90 kg/m3 d based on the feed COD load and hydrogen UASB volume, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit mainly contained H2 and CO2 which provided the maximum hydrogen yield (54.22 ml H2/g COD applied) and specific hydrogen production rate (197.17 ml/g MLVSSd). At the same optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained CH4 and CO2 without H2 which were also consistent with the maximum methane yield (164.87 ml CH4/g COD applied) and specific methane production rate (356.31 ml CH4/g MLVSSd). The recycling operation minimized the use of NaOH for pH control in hydrogen UASB unit. PMID:25306229

  2. A case study of coupling upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and ANITA™ Mox process to treat high-strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; George, Biju; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to study the treatability of high-strength landfill leachate by a combined process including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), carbon removal (C-stage) moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and ANITA™ Mox process. The major innovation on this pilot study is the patent-pending process invented by Veolia that integrates the above three unit processes with an effluent recycle stream, which not only maintains the low hydraulic retention time to enhance the treatment performance but also reduces inhibiting effect from chemicals present in the high-strength leachate. This pilot study has demonstrated that the combined process was capable of treating high-strength leachate with efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removals. The COD removal efficiency by the UASB was 93% (from 45,000 to 3,000 mg/L) at a loading rate of 10 kg/(m(3)·d). The C-stage MBBR removed an additional 500 to 1,000 mg/L of COD at a surface removal rate (SRR) of 5 g/(m(2)·d) and precipitated 400 mg/L of calcium. The total inorganic nitrogen removal efficiency by the ANITA Mox reactor was about 70% at SRR of 1.0 g/(m(2)·d). PMID:26877051

  3. Impact of ozone pre-treatment on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treating pre-treated grain distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Britz, T J; Sigge, G O

    2014-01-01

    Two 2 L laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were operated for 277 days. The substrate of the control reactor (Rc) contained grain distillery wastewater (GDWW) that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment, and the substrate of the second UASB reactor consisted of GDWW that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment and ozone pre-treatment (Ro). Both reactors treated pre-treated GDWW successfully at ca. 9 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions of ca. 96% for Rc and 93% for Ro were achieved. Fats, oils and grease (FOG) reductions (%) showed variations throughout the study, and reductions of ca. 88 and 92% were achieved for Rc and Ro, respectively. Rc produced more biogas, and the methane percentage was similar in both reactors. UASB granule washout in Rc suggested possible toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids present in non-ozonated substrate. The feasibility of FOG removal was demonstrated as both reactors successfully treated pre-treated GDWW. Better results were obtained for Ro effluent during post-ozonation. The ozone pre-treatment possibly led to easier degradable wastewater, and better results could potentially be obtained when other post-treatment steps are applied. Ozone pre-treatment did not, however, show an added benefit in the reactor performance results. PMID:25429461

  4. Back propagation neural network modelling of biodegradation and fermentative biohydrogen production using distillery wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, K; Sivaraman, E; Mullai, P

    2014-08-01

    In a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor, biodegradation in association with biohydrogen production was studied using distillery wastewater as substrate. The experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (34±1°C) and acidophilic pH of 6.5 with constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24h at various organic loading rates (OLRs) (1-10.2kgCODm(-3)d(-1)) in continuous mode. A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1300mLd(-1) was achieved. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) model with network topology of 4-20-1 using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was developed and validated. A total of 231 data points were studied to examine the performance of the HUASB reactor in acclimatisation and operation phase. The statistical qualities of BPNN models were significant due to the high correlation coefficient, R(2), and lower mean absolute error (MAE) between experimental and simulated data. From the results, it was concluded that BPNN modelling could be applied in HUASB reactor for predicting the biodegradation and biohydrogen production using distillery wastewater. PMID:24746339

  5. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on biodegradation behaviors of starch wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Ni, Jialing; Hojo, Toshimasa; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2016-08-01

    A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) has been run for 250days to investigate the influence of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on the biodegradation behavior of starch wastewater and process performance. Stepwise decreasing COD/SO4(2-) ratio enhanced sulfidogenesis, complicating starch degradation routes and improving process stability. The reactor exhibited satisfactory performance at a wide COD/SO4(2-) range ⩾2, attaining stable biogas production of 1.15-1.17LL(-1)d(-1) with efficient simultaneous removal of total COD (73.5-80.3%) and sulfate (82.6±6.4%). Adding sulfate favored sulfidogenesis process and diversified microbial community, invoking hydrolysis-acidification of starch and propionate degradation and subsequent acetoclastic methanogenesis; whereas excessively enhanced sulfidogenesis (COD/SO4(2-) ratios <2) would suppress methanogenesis through electrons competition and sulfide inhibition, deteriorating methane conversion. This research in-depth elucidated the role of sulfidogenesis in bioenergy recovery and sulfate removal, advancing the applications of UASB technology in water industry from basic science. PMID:27132225

  6. Novel method for sludge blanket measurements.

    PubMed

    Schewerda, J; Förster, G; Heinrichmeier, J

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used methods for sludge blanket measurements are based on acoustic or optic principles. In operation, both methods are expensive and often maintenance-intensive. Therefore a novel, reliable and simple method for sludge blanket measurement is proposed. It is based on the differential pressure measurement in the sludge zone compared with the differential pressure in the clear water zone, so that it is possible to measure the upper and the lower sludge level in a tank. Full-scale tests of this method were done in the secondary clarifier at the waste water treatment plant in Hecklingen, Germany. The result shows a good approximation of the manually measured sludge level. PMID:24569276

  7. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    PubMed

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer. PMID:24647181

  8. Effects of shock 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and cod loading rates on the removal of 2,4-DCP in a sequential upflow anaerobic sludge blanket/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor system.

    PubMed

    Uluköy, A; Sponza, D T

    2008-04-01

    The treatability of 2,4-dwichlorophenol (DCP) was studied in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system. Laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor/completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were operated at constant 2,4-DCP concentrations, and increasing chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates. The effect of shock organic loading rates on 2,4-DCP, COD removal efficiencies and methane gas production were investigated in the UASB reactor. When the organic loading rate was increased from 3.6 g l(-1) d(-1) to 30.16 g l(-1) d(-1), the COD and 2,4-DCP removal efficiencies decreased from 80 to 25% and from 99 to 60% in the UASB reactor. The optimum organic loading rates for maximum 2,4-DCP (E=99-100%) and COD (E=65-85%) removal efficiencies were 25-30 and 8-20 g-COD l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The percentage of methane of the total gas varied between 70 and 80 while the organic loadings were 18 g-COD l(-1) d(-1) and 20.36 g-COD l(-1) d(-1), respectively. During 80 days of operation, 2,4-DCP concentration was found to be below 0.5 and 0.1 mg l(-1) in aerobic reactor effluent resulting in 78 and 100% removal efficiencies. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 18.72 h, the 2,4-DCP removal efficiency was 97% in the aerobic reactor. The optimum COD removal efficiency was 78.83% in anaerobic reactor effluent at an influent COD loading rate of 7.238 g-COD l(-1) d(-1) while 83.6% maximum COD removal efficiency was obtained in the aerobic reactor, resulting in a total COD removal efficiency of 96.83% in the whole system. The 2,4-DCP removal efficiency was 99% in the sequential anaerobic (UASB)/aerobic (CSTR) reactor system at COD loading rates varying between 11.46 and 30.16 g-COD l(-1) d(-1). PMID:18619146

  9. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

  10. Operation performance and granule characterization of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating wastewater with starch as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Estrada, Adriana Ledezma; Chen, Mo; Ni, Jialing; Hojo, Toshimasa; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-03-01

    Long-term performance of a lab-scale UASB reactor treating starch wastewater was investigated under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). Successful start-up could be achieved after 15days' operation. The optimal HRT was 6h with organic loading rate (OLR) 4g COD/Ld at COD concentration 1000mg/L, attaining 81.1-98.7% total COD removal with methane production rate of 0.33L CH4/g CODremoved. Specific methane activity tests demonstrated that methane formation via H2-CO2 and acetate were the principal degradation pathways. Vertical characterizations revealed that main reactions including starch hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis occurred at the lower part of reactor ("main reaction zone"); comparatively, at the up converting acetate into methane predominated ("substrate-shortage zone"). Further reducing HRT to 3h caused volatile fatty acids accumulation, sludge floating and performance deterioration. Sludge floating was ascribed to the excess polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). More efforts are required to overcome sludge floating-related issues. PMID:25617619

  11. Evaluation of a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with partial recirculation of effluent used to treat wastewaters from pulp and paper plants.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Pires, E C

    2007-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a UASB reactor treating diluted black liquor from a Kraft pulp mill, which simulates an unbleached Kraft plant wastewater, under different operational conditions, including partial recycling of the effluent. The reactor's performance was evaluated from the standpoint of COD, pH, volatile acid concentration, alkalinity, concentration of methane in the biogas, and microbiological examinations of the sludge. Without recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 36 to 30h did not significantly affect the average COD removal efficiency. The parameter displaying the greatest variation was the average concentration of effluent volatile acids, which increased by 16%. With recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 30 to 24h increased the average COD removal efficiency from 75% to 78%. In this case, the average effluent alkalinity also showed an increase. The use of partial recirculation of the effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal under the operational conditions tested in this work, but it was possible to operate the reactor with lower hydraulic retention time without disintegration of the granules. PMID:17008096

  12. Anaerobic treatment of sludge from a nitrification-denitrification landfill leachate plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maranon, E. . E-mail: emara@uniovi.es; Castrillon, L.; Fernandez, Y.; Fernandez, E.

    2006-07-01

    The viability of anaerobic digestion of sludge from a MSW landfill leachate treatment plant, with COD values ranging between 15,000 and 19,400 mg O{sub 2} dm{sup -3}, in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was studied. The reactor employed had a useful capacity of 9 l, operating at mesophilic temperature. Start-up of the reactor was carried out in different steps, beginning with diluted sludge and progressively increasing the amount of sludge fed into the reactor. The study was carried out over a period of 7 months. Different amounts of methanol were added to the feed, ranging between 6.75 and 1 cm{sup 3} dm{sup -3} of feed in order to favour the growth of methanogenic flora. The achieved biodegradation of the sludge using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket Reactor was very high for an HRT of 9 days, obtaining decreases in COD of 84-87% by the end of the process. Purging of the digested sludge represented {approx}16% of the volume of the treated sludge.

  13. Nitrogen availability of anaerobic swine lagoon sludge: sludge source effects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Amber D; Israel, Daniel W; Mikkelsen, Robert L

    2005-02-01

    Increased numbers of swine producers will be removing sludge from their anaerobic waste treatment lagoons in the next few years, due to sludge exceeding designed storage capacity. Information on availability of nitrogen (N) in the sludge is needed to improve application recommendations for crops. The objective of this study was to investigate possible effects of different companies and types of swine operations on the availability of N in sludge from their associated lagoons. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to quantify the availability of N (i.e. initial inorganic N plus the potentially mineralizable organic N) in the sludge. Nine sludge sources from lagoons of sow, nursery and finishing operations of three different swine companies were mixed with a loamy sand soil (200 mg total Kjeldahl N kg(-1) soil) and incubated at a water content of 0.19 g. water g(-1) dry soil and 25+/-2 degrees C for 12 weeks. Samples were taken at eight times over the 12-week period and analyzed for inorganic N (i.e. NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) to determine mineralization of organic N in the sludge. Company and type of swine operation had no significant effects (P < 0.05) on the pattern of inorganic N accumulation over time. Thus, inorganic N accumulation from all sludge sources was fit to a first order equation [Nt = Ni + No (1-e(-kt)]. This relationship indicated that of the 200 mg of total sludge N added per kg soil, 23.5% was in the form of potentially mineralizable organic N (No) and 17.5% was in the form of inorganic N (Ni). The sum of these two pools (41%) represents an estimate of the proportion of total N in the applied sludge in plant available form after the 12 week incubation. While plant N availability coefficients were not measured in this study, the lack of significant company or type of swine operation effects on sludge N mineralization suggests that use of the same plant N availability coefficient for sludge from different types of lagoons is justifiable. The validity

  14. Biological nutrient removal by internal circulation upflow sludge blanket reactor after landfill leachate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Abudi, Zaidun N

    2013-10-01

    The removal of biological nutrient from mature landfill leachate with a high nitrogen load by an internal circulation upflow sludge blanket (ICUSB) reactor was studied. The reactor is a set of anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A2/O) bioreactors, developed on the basis of an expended granular sludge blanket (EGSB), granular sequencing batch reactor (GSBR) and intermittent cycle extended aeration system (ICEAS). Leachate was subjected to stripping by agitation process and poly ferric sulfate coagulation as a pretreatment process, in order to reduce both ammonia toxicity to microorganisms and the organic contents. The reactor was operated under three different operating systems, consisting of recycling sludge with air (A2/O), recycling sludge without air (low oxygen) and a combination of both (A2/O and low oxygen). The lowest effluent nutrient levels were realised by the combined system of A2/O and low oxygen, which resulted in effluent of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) concentrations of 98.20, 13.50 and 22.50 mg/L. The optimal operating conditions for the efficient removal of biological nutrient using the ICUSB reactor were examined to evaluate the influence of the parameters on its performance. The results showed that average removal efficiencies of COD and NH3-N of 96.49% and 99.39%, respectively were achieved under the condition of a hydraulic retention time of 12 hr, including 4 hr of pumping air into the reactor, with dissolved oxygen at an rate of 4 mg/L and an upflow velocity 2 m/hr. These combined processes were successfully employed and effectively decreased pollutant loading. PMID:24494501

  15. Biodegradability of activated sludge organics under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A; Sötemann, S W; Wentzel, M C

    2007-01-01

    From an experimental and theoretical investigation of the continuity of activated sludge organic (COD) compounds along the link between the fully aerobic or N removal activated sludge and anaerobic digestion unit operations, it was found that the unbiodegradable particulate organics (i) originating from the influent wastewater and (ii) generated by the activated sludge endogenous process, as determined from response of the activated sludge system, are also unbiodegradable under anaerobic digestion conditions. This means that the activated sludge biodegradable organics that can be anaerobically digested can be calculated from the active fraction of the waste activated sludge based on the widely accepted ordinary heterotrophic organism (OHO) endogenous respiration/death regeneration rates and unbiodegradable fraction. This research shows that the mass balances based steady state and dynamic simulation activated sludge, aerobic digestion and anaerobic digestion models provide internally consistent and externally compatible elements that can be coupled to produce plant wide steady state and dynamic simulation WWTP models. PMID:17045327

  16. Improving products of anaerobic sludge digestion by microaeration.

    PubMed

    Jenicek, P; Celis, C A; Krayzelova, L; Anferova, N; Pokorna, D

    2014-01-01

    Biogas, digested sludge and sludge liquor are the main products of anaerobic sludge digestion. Each of the products is influenced significantly by specific conditions of the digestion process. Therefore, any upgrade of the digestion technology must be considered with regard to quality changes in all products. Microaeration is one of the methods used for the improvement of biogas quality. Recently, microaeration has been proved to be a relatively simple and highly efficient biological method of sulfide removal in the anaerobic digestion of biosolids, but little attention has been paid to comparing the quality of digested sludge and sludge liquor in the anaerobic and microaerobic digestion and that is why this paper primarily deals with this area of research. The results of the long-term monitoring of digested sludge quality and sludge liquor quality in the anaerobic and microaerobic digesters suggest that products of both technologies are comparable. However, there are several parameters in which the 'microaerobic' products have a significantly better quality such as: sulfide (68% lower) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (33% lower) concentrations in the sludge liquor and the lower foaming potential of the digested sludge. PMID:24569280

  17. Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-05-01

    Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange (MO) by anaerobic sludge in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were investigated. The anaerobic sludge was found to have a saturated adsorption capacity of 36 ± 1 mg g MLSS(-1) to MO. UV/visible spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical results indicated that the MO adsorption and decolorization occurred simultaneously in this system. This process at various substrate concentrations could be well simulated using a modified two-stage model with apparent pseudo first-order kinetics. Furthermore, a noncompetitive inhibition kinetic model was also developed to describe the MO decolorization process at high NaCl concentrations, and an inhibition constant of 3.67 g NaCl l(-1) was estimated. This study offers an insight into the adsorption and decolorization processes of azo dyes by anaerobic sludge and provides a better understanding of the anaerobic dye decolorization mechanisms. PMID:21279343

  18. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank.

  19. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank. PMID:26350761

  20. Ultrasonic cell disruption of stabilised sludge with subsequent anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Onyeche, T I; Schläfer, O; Bormann, H; Schröder, C; Sievers, M

    2002-05-01

    The world-wide increasing environmental awareness and its subsequent regulations have led to the application of improved technologies in wastewater purification plants. This has resulted in higher wastewater and sludge productions. Sludge is the by-product of such plants and it is not only rich in organic carbon and pathogens but also in heavy metals and other environmental pollutants. In Europe, agricultural application of dried sludge (bio-solids) is confronted with negative reactions from the citizens, governmental organisations, farmers and the food industry. Ultrasonic disruption of sludge is a popular mechanical disruption process in sludge treatment. During ultrasonic treatment, high frequency acoustic signals are used to initiate the cavitation process. The applied ultrasonic field leads to a breakdown of cohesive forces of the liquid molecules resulting in the generation of cavitation bubbles. A shock wave is released by the collapse of the cavitation bubbles and propagates in the surrounding medium forming jet streams that cause the disruption of cells in sludge. Disruption of sludge cells enables the release of light organic substances into the sludge water thereby exposing them for further anaerobic digestion. This paper presents results on the disruption of conventionally stabilised sludge through the application of the ultrasonic field. In order to reduce the specific energy input (i.e. ratio of the consumed energy during ultrasonic disruption to the input sludge mass) and improve biogas production, the total solids content of the stabilised sludge was increased before disruption. The anaerobic digestion of sludge samples was carried out in a set of specially constructed laboratory anaerobic digesters. Results showed that subsequent anaerobic digestion of the ultrasonically disrupted sludge could improve biogas production with reduced sludge quantity that is vital to the economic consideration of the wastewater treatment plants. This process

  1. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tiehm, A; Nickel, K; Zellhorn, M; Neis, U

    2001-06-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217 kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate powerful jet streams exerting strong shear forces in the liquid. The decreasing sludge disintegration efficiency observed at higher frequencies was attributed to smaller cavitation bubbles which do not allow the initiation of such strong shear forces. Short sonication times resulted in sludge floc deagglomeration without the destruction of bacteria cells. Longer sonication brought about the break-up of cell walls, the sludge solids were distintegrated and dissolved organic compounds were released. The anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge following ultrasonic pretreatment causing microbial cell lysis was significantly improved. There was an increase in the volatile solids degradation as well as an increase in the biogas production. The increase in digestion efficiency was proportional to the degree of sludge disintegration. To a lesser degree the deagglomeration of sludge flocs also augmented the anaerobic volatile solids degradation. PMID:11337847

  2. Effects of total solids content on waste activated sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion and its sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfeng; Chen, Jie; Shen, Honglang; An, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The role of total solids content on sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated in batch reactors. A range of total solids content from 2% to 10% was evaluated with two replicates. The lowest inhibitory concentration for free ammonia and total ammonia of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was 110.9-171.4mg/L and 1313.1-1806.7mg/L, respectively. The volumetric biogas production rate increased with increasing of total solids content, but the corresponding biogas yield per gram volatile solid decreased. The result of normalized capillary suction time indicated that the dewaterability of digested sludge at high total solids content was poor, while solid content of sediment obtained by centrifuging sludge at 2000g for 10min increased with increasing of total solids content of sludge. The results suggest that thickened sludge mixed with dewatered sludge at an appropriate ratio could get high organic loading rate, high biogas yield and adequate dewatering effort. PMID:26897469

  3. Rheology evolution of sludge through high-solid anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Gai, Xin; Dong, Bin

    2014-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rheology evolution of sludge through high-solid anaerobic digestion (AD) and its dependency on sludge retention time (SRT) and temperature of AD reactor. The operation performance of high-solid AD reactors were also studied. The results showed that sludge became much more flowable after high-solid AD. It was found that the sludge from reactors with long SRT exhibited low levels of shear stress, viscosity, yield stress, consistency index, and high value of flow behaviour index. While the flowability of sludge from thermophilic AD reactors were better than that of sludge from mesophilic AD reactors though the solid content of the formers were higher than that of the latters, which could be attributed to the fact that the formers had more amount of free and interstitial moisture. It might be feasible to use sludge rheology as an AD process controlling parameter. PMID:25463776

  4. [Influence of nitrate on the simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification reaction of anaerobic biofilm and granular sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chen-Yu; Ye, Jie-Xu; Li, Ruo-Yu; Chen, Sheng; Sun, De-Zhi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study are to further investigate the impact mechanism of nitrate on the simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification (SMD) process of anaerobic biofilm, and to extend the application of the biofilm process in the treatment of high nitrogen and COD concentration organic wastewater. The SMD reactions were successfully carried out in a hybrid anaerobic biofilm and sludge reactor (HABSR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), and the influence of nitrate on the performance of simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in biofilm and granular sludge were investigated using batch tests. The results showed that the nitrate concentration could obviously affect the carbon and nitrogen removal in both biofilm and granular sludge, and the increase of nitrate concentration had more serious impact on the granular sludge, and the biofilm presented higher COD and nitrogen removal efficiency and stronger resistance to toxic materials than the granular sludge. As the nitrate concentration was increased from 75 to 600 mg x L(-1), the COD removal rates were reduced from 273.26 to 0.1 mg x (h x g)(-1) in granular sludge and reduced from 95 to 1.7 mg x (h x g)(-1) in biofilm. At the same time, the denitrification rate of biofilm and granular sludge were increased form 21.43 and 22.31 mg x (h x g)(-1) to 83.72 and 61.06 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. The biofilm recovered the COD degradation rate more quickly and easily than the granular sludge, and the maximum COD removal rate reached 712.44 mg x (h x g)(-1). The nitrite accumulation was observed to be the major cause that affected the simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal of biofilm and granular sludge. It's found that the maximum nitrite accumulation in biofilm was only one tenth of that of the granular sludge at the same nitrate concentration. The HABSR was proved to be an important alternative for SMD reaction employed in the treatment of high nitrogen and COD concentration organic wastewater. PMID

  5. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates—ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems—on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885–3,190 and 2,387–2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function. PMID:27431197

  6. Inhibitory effect of heavy metals on methane-producing anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Altaş, Levent

    2009-03-15

    Heavy metals could potentially have a negative impact on methane-producing anaerobic granular sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of zinc(II), chromium(VI), nickel(II), and cadmium(II) on the methane-producing activity of granular sludge sampled from the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that treats the wastewaters of a yeast factory, for a range of concentrations between 0 and 128 mg L(-1). The modified Gompertz, Logistic, and Richards equations were applied to describe the inactivation of anaerobic culture by heavy metals. According to these models, the values of methane production potential (mL) for a heavy metal concentration of 128 mg L(-1) were in the following order: Ni (44.82+/-0.67)>Cd (28.73+/-0.11)>Cr (15.52+/-1.63)>Zn (0.65+/-0.00). The IC(50) values, the metal concentrations that cause a 50% reduction in the cumulative methane production over a fixed period of exposure time (24h), for the individual heavy metals were found to be in the following order: Zn (most toxic; 7.5 mg L(-1))>Cr (27 mg L(-1))>Ni (35 mg L(-1)) approximately Cd (least toxic; 36 mg L(-1)). PMID:18640779

  7. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  8. Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Mañas, A; Spérandio, M; Decker, F; Biscans, B

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on combined scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) applied to granular sludge used for biological treatment of high-strength wastewater effluents. Mineral precipitation is shown to occur in the core of microbial granules under different operating conditions. Three dairy wastewater effluents, from three different upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and two aerobic granular sequenced batch reactors (GSBR) were evaluated. The relationship between the solid phase precipitation and the chemical composition of the wastewater was investigated with PHREEQC software (calculation of saturation indexes). Results showed that pH, Ca:P ratios and biological reactions played a major role in controlling the biomineralization phenomena. Thermodynamics calculations can be used to foresee the nature of bio-precipitates, but the location of the mineral concretions will need further investigation as it is certainly due to local microbial activity. PMID:23393959

  9. Characteristics of granular sludge developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge fixed-film bioreactor treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Zinatizadeh, A A L; Mohamed, A R; Mashitah, M D; Abdullah, A Z; Hasnain Isa, M

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, characteristics of the granular sludge (including physical characteristics under stable conditions and process shocks arising from suspended solid overload, soluble organic overload, and high temperature; biological activity; and sludge kinetic evaluation in a batch experiment) developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed-film reactor for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was investigated. The main aim of this work was to provide suitable understanding of POME anaerobic digestion using such a granular sludge reactor, particularly with respect to granule structure at various operating conditions. The morphological changes in granular sludge resulting from various operational conditions was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. It was shown that the developed granules consisted of densely packed rod- (Methanosaeta-like microorganism; predominant) and cocci- (Methanosarsina) shaped microorganisms. Methanosaeta aggregates functioned as nucleation centers that initiated granule development of POME-degrading granules. Under the suspended solid overload condition, most of the granules were covered with a thin layer of fiberlike suspended solids, so that the granule color changed to brown and the sludge volume index also increased to 24.5 from 12 to 15 mL/g, which caused a large amount of sludge washout. Some of the granules were disintegrated because of an acidified environment, which originated from acidogenesis of high influent organic load (29 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L d). At 60 degrees C, the rate of biomass washout increased, as a result of disintegration of the outer layer of the granules. In the biological activity test, approximately 95% COD removal was achieved within 72 hours, with an initial COD removal rate of 3.5 g COD/L d. During POME digestion, 275 mg calcium carbonate/L bicarbonate alkalinity was produced per 1000 mg COD(removed)/ L. A consecutive reaction kinetic

  10. Improve bio-activity of anaerobic sludge by low energy ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yichun; Li, Xin; Du, Maoan; Liu, Zuwen; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on ultrasound-enhanced bio-activity of anaerobic sludge. Low energy ultrasound irradiation can increase the bio-activity of anaerobic sludge. Ultrasonic parameter, characteristics of anaerobic sludge and experimental conditions are important parameters which affect the enhancement effect on anaerobic sludge. In order to assess the effects of characteristics of anaerobic sludge and experimental conditions on ultrasonic irradiation of anaerobic sludge, experiments with different characteristics of anaerobic sludge were carried out and analyzed with the content of coenzyme F420 and dehydrogenase activity (DHA). The results showed that anaerobic sludge bio-activity was impacted by the initial temperature, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD), sludge concentration, and stirring during the ultrasonic process. Optimal performance was achieved when sound frequency, power density, and ultrasonic irradiation period was 20 kHz, 0.1 W/mL, and 10 min, respectively, under which the wastewater COD removal efficiency was increased by 12.9 percentage points. The results indicated that low temperature could affect the anaerobic sludge irradiation effect, while intermittent stirring could enhance the bio-activity of anaerobic sludge irradiation effect and low substrate concentration improved anaerobic sludge activity by ultrasound. PMID:26676010

  11. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (≈ 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ≈ 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed. PMID:20719427

  12. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yang-hsin; Chou, Hsi-Ling; Peng, Yu-Huei

    2012-04-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H(2) gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment. PMID:22370205

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of chlorophenols in fresh and acclimated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, S.A.; Shelton, D.R.

    1984-02-01

    An investigation was made of the anaerobic biodegradation of mono- and dichlorophenol isomers by fresh (unacclimated) sludge and by sludge acclimated to either 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or 4-chlorophenol. Biodegradation was evaluated by monitoring substrate disappearance and, in selected cases, production of /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ from labeled substrates. In unacclimated sludge, each of the monochlorophenol isomers was degraded. The relative rates of disappearance were in this order: ortho > meta > para. For the dichlorophenols in unacclimated sludge, reductive dechlorination of the Cl group ortho to phenolic OH was observed, and the monochlorophenol compounds released were subsequently degraded. 3,4-Dichlorophenol and 3,5-dichlorophenol were persistent. Sludge acclimated to 2-chlorophenol cross-acclimated to 4-chlorophenol but did not utilize 3-chlorophenol. This sludge also degraded 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sludge acclimated to 3-chlorophenol cross-acclimated to 4-chlorophenol but not to 2-chlorophenol. This sludge degraded 3,4- and 3,5-dichlorophenol but not 2,3- or 2,5-dichlorophenol. The specific cross-acclimation patterns observed for monochlorophenol degradation demonstrated the existence of two unique microbial activities that were in turn different from fresh sludge. The sludge acclimated to 4-chlorophenol could degrade all three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4- and 3,4-dichlorophenol. The active microbial population in this sludge appeared to be a mixture of populations present in the 2-chlorophenol- and 3-chlorophenol-acclimated sludges, both of which could utilize 4-chlorophenol. Experiments with /sup 14/C-radiolabeled p-chlorophenol, o-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol demonstrated that these compounds were converted to /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. 10 references.

  14. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  15. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    sludge) and primary sludge is still in its infancy. Current research is mainly focused on developing efficient pretreatment methods that enable fast hydrolysis of complex organic matter, shorter sludge residence times and as a consequence, smaller sludge digesters. Previous experimental studies indicate that the anaerobic digestibility of non-pretreated biosludge from pulp and paper mills varies widely, with volatile solids (VS) removal rates of 21-55% and specific methane yields ranging between 40 and 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Pretreatment can increase the digestibility to some extent, however in almost all reported cases, the specific methane yield of pretreated biosludge did not exceed 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Increases in specific methane yield mostly range between 0 and 90% compared to non-pretreated biosludge, whereas larger improvements were usually achieved with more difficult-to-digest biosludge. Thermal treatment and microwave treatment are two of the more effective methods. The heat required for the elevated temperatures applied in both methods may be provided from surplus heat that is often available at pulp and paper mills. Given the large variability in specific methane yield of non-pretreated biosludge, future research should focus on the links between anaerobic digestibility and sludge properties. Research should also involve mill-derived primary sludge. Although biosludge has been the main target in previous studies, primary sludge often constitutes the bulk of mill-generated sludge, and co-digestion of a mixture between both types of sludge may become practical. The few laboratory studies that have included mill primary sludge indicate that, similar to biosludge, the digestibility can range widely. Long-term studies should be conducted to explore the potential of microbial adaptation to lignocellulosic material which can constitute more than half of the organic matter in pulp and paper mill sludge. PMID:25150519

  16. CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.

    PubMed

    Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

    2013-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly. PMID:23764598

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Meghanath S; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic matter improves digester operating characteristics and its performance. In the present work, food waste was collected from the institute cafeteria. Two types of sludge (before centrifuge and after centrifuge) were collected from the fluidised bed reactor of the institute treating sewage wastewater. Food waste and sludge were studied for their physico-chemical characteristics, such as pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, volatile solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, and total nitrogen. A biomethane potential assay was carried out to find out the optimum mixing ratio of food waste and sludge for anaerobic co-digestion. Results indicated that food waste mixed with sludge in the ratio of 1:2 produced the maximum biogas of 823 ml gVS(-1)(21 days) with an average methane content of 60%. Batch studies were conducted in 5 L lab-glass reactors at a mesophilic temperature. The effect of different substrate loading rates on biogas production was investigated. The mixing ratio of food waste and sludge was 1:2. A loading rate of 1 gVS L d(-1)gave the maximum biogas production of 742 ml g(-1)VS L d(-1)with a methane content of 50%, followed by 2 gVS L d(-1)with biogas of 539 ml g(-1)VS L d(-1) Microbial diversity of the reactor during fed batch studies was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. A pilot-scale co-digestion of food waste and sludge (before centrifuge) indicated the process stability of anaerobic digestion. PMID:26879909

  18. Efficient COD removal and nitrification in an upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor for domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shaokui; Cui, Cancan

    2012-03-01

    The treatment performance of an upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UMSB) for synthetic domestic wastewater was investigated at two dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, 0.3-0.5 and 0.7-0.9 mg l(-1), focusing on nitrification performance. The higher DO level induced complete nitrification of ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), achieving chemical oxygen demand and NH(3)-N removals of 97 and 92%, respectively. There were consistently significantly higher nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO(2)-N) levels in the effluent, with ~66% of newly-produced oxidised nitrogen as NO(2)-N. Despite the high nitrification efficiency, only about 23% of the removed NH(3)-N amount from the influent was ultimately transformed into oxidised nitrogen due to the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. Sludge blanket development and granulation occurred simultaneously in the UMSB. PMID:22105554

  19. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Carlos Esquerre, Karla Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  20. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge. PMID:27065225

  1. Microbial examination of anaerobic sludge adaptation to animal slurry.

    PubMed

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Ferrer, P; Jimenez, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra-López, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the microbial population of anaerobic sludge digesters during the adaptation to pig slurry (PS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the relationship between microbial parameters and sludge physicochemical composition and methane yield was examined. Results showed that the addition of PS to an unadapted thermophilic anaerobic digester caused an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, a decrease in removal efficiency and CH4 yield. Additionally, increases in total bacteria and total archaea were observed using qPCR. Scanning electron micrographs provided a general overview of the sludge's cell morphology, morphological diversity and degree of organic matter degradation. A change in microbial morphotypes from homogeneous cell morphologies to a higher morphological diversity, similar to that observed in PS, was observed with the addition of PS by SEM. Therefore, the combination of qPCR and SEM allowed expanding the knowledge about the microbial adaptation to animal slurry in thermophilic anaerobic digesters. PMID:24645456

  2. Biodegradability of wastewater and activated sludge organics in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ikumi, D S; Harding, T H; Ekama, G A

    2014-06-01

    The investigation provides experimental evidence that the unbiodegradable particulate organics fractions of primary sludge and waste activated sludge calculated from activated sludge models remain essentially unbiodegradable in anaerobic digestion. This was tested by feeding the waste activated sludge (WAS) from three different laboratory activated sludge (AS) systems to three separate anaerobic digesters (AD). Two of the AS systems were Modified Ludzack - Ettinger (MLE) nitrification-denitrification (ND) systems and the third was a membrane University of Cape Town (UCT) ND and enhanced biological P removal system. One of the MLE systems and the UCT system were fed the same real settled wastewater. The other MLE system was fed raw wastewater which was made by adding a measured constant flux (gCOD/d) of macerated primary sludge (PS) to the real settled wastewater. This PS was also fed to a fourth AD and a blend of PS and WAS from settled wastewater MLE system was fed to a fifth AD. The five ADs were each operated at five different sludge ages (10-60d). From the measured performance results of the AS systems, the unbiodegradable particulate organic (UPO) COD fractions of the raw and settled wastewaters, the PS and the WAS from the three AS systems were calculated with AS models. These AS model based UPO fractions of the PS and WAS were compared with the UPO fractions calculated from the performance results of the ADs fed these sludges. For the PS, the UPO fraction calculated from the AS and AD models matched closely, i.e. 0.30 and 0.31. Provided the UPO of heterotrophic (OHO, fE_OHO) and phosphorus accumulating (PAO, fE_PAO) biomass were accepted to be those associated with the death regeneration model of organism "decay", the UPO of the WAS calculated from the AS and AD models also matched well - if the steady state AS model fE_OHO = 0.20 and fE_PAO = 0.25 values were used, then the UPO fraction of the WAS calculated from the AS models deviated significantly

  3. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  4. Influence of preservation temperature on the characteristics of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bao-Shan; Guo, Qiong; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qian-Qian; Li, Peng; Ni, Wei-Min; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2016-05-01

    Preserving active anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) biomass is a potential method for securing sufficient seeding biomass for the rapid start-up of full-scale anammox processes. In this study, anammox granules were cultured in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (R0), and then the enriched anammox granules were preserved at 35, 20, 4, and -30 °C. The subsequent reactivation characteristics of the granules were evaluated in four UASB reactors (denoted R1, R2, R3, and R4, respectively) to investigate the effect of preservation temperature on the characteristics of anammox granules and their reactivation performance. The results demonstrated that 4 °C was the optimal preservation temperature for maintaining the biomass, activity, settleability, and integrity of the anammox granules and their cellular structures. During the preservation period, a first-order exponential decay model may be used to simulate the decay of anammox biomass and activity. The protein-to-polysaccharide ratio in the extracellular polymeric substances and the heme c content could not effectively indicate the changes in settleability and activity of the anammox granules, respectively, and a loss of bioactivity was positively associated with the degree of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria cell lysis. After 42 days of storage, the anammox granules preserved at 4 °C (R3) exhibited a better recovery performance than those preserved at 20 °C (R2), -30 °C (R4), and 35 °C (R1). The comprehensive comparison indicated that 4 °C is the optimal storage temperature for anammox granular sludge because it promotes improved maintenance and recovery performance properties. PMID:26780355

  5. Succession of microbial community and enhanced mechanism of a ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge process treating chloronitrobenzenes wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Jin, Jie; Lin, Haizhuan; Gao, Kaituo; Xu, Xiangyang

    2015-03-21

    The combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process is established for the treatment of chloronitrobenzenes (ClNBs) wastewater, and the succession of microbial community and its enhanced mechanism are investigated in the study. Results showed that compared with the control UASB (R1), the stable COD removal, ClNBs transformation, and dechlorination occurred in the combined system (R2) when operated at influent COD and 3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DClNB) loading rates of 4200-7700 g m(-3) d(-1) and 6.0-70.0 g m(-3) d(-1), and R2 had the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for the anaerobic acidification. The dechlorination for the intermediate products of p-chloroanaline (p-ClAn) to analine (AN) occurred in R2 reactor after 45 days, whereas it did not occur in R1 after a long-term operation. The novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI-AGS) was successfully developed in the combined system, and higher microbial activities including ClNB transformation and H2/CH4 production were achieved simultaneously. The dominant bacteria were closely related to the groups of Megasphaera, Chloroflexi, and Clostridium, and the majority of archaea were correlated with the groups of Methanosarcinalesarchaeon, Methanosaetaconcilii, and Methanothrixsoehngenii, which are capable of reductively dechlorinating PCB, HCB, and TCE in anaerobic niche and EPS secretion. PMID:25497029

  6. Two-stage upflow anaerobic digestion of concentrated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.; Bleakney, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of an innovative fermentation mode and the application of novel upflow reactors for biogasification of high-solids-content sludges are described; anaerobic digestion is conducted at higher loading rates and lower hydraulic residence times (HRT's) to obtain higher methane yields and production rates and better effluent qualities than those of conventional single-stage continuously stirred tank reactor digesters. Digestion of primary sludge in a two-phase upflow system at a 5.6-day HRT (1.2 days for stage 1 and 4.4 days for stage 2) exhibited a methane yield of 6.8 supercritical fluid/lb volatile solids added, which was significantly higher than those from conventional digestion at much higher HRT's. 27 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Alkaline treatment of high-solids sludge and its application to anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenchen; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao

    2015-01-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion is a promising new process for sludge reduction and bioenergy recovery, requiring smaller digestion tanks and less energy for heating, but a longer digestion time, than traditional low-solids anaerobic digestion. To accelerate this process, alkaline sludge disintegration was tested as a pretreatment method for anaerobic digestion of high-solids sludge. The results showed that alkaline treatment effectively disintegrated both low-solids sludge and high-solids sludge, and treatment duration of 30 min was the most efficient. The relation between sludge disintegration degree and NaOH dose can be described by a transmutative power function model. At NaOH dose lower than 0.2 mol/L, sludge disintegration degree remained virtually unchanged when sludge total solids (TS) content increased from 2.0 to 11.0%, and decreased only slightly when sludge TS increased to 14.2%. Although high-solids sludge required a slightly higher molarity of NaOH to reach the same disintegration level of low-solids sludge, the required mass of NaOH actually decreased due to sludge thickening. From the view of NaOH consumption, sludge TS of 8-12% and a NaOH dose of 0.05 mol/L were optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatment, which resulted in a slight increase in accumulative biogas yield, but a decrease by 24-29% in digestion time during the subsequent anaerobic digestion. PMID:25607671

  8. [Enhancement for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge pretreated by microwave and its combined processes ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Ni, Xiao-tang; Wei, Yuan-song; Tong, Juan; Wang, Ya-wei

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion and dewatering of sludge, impacts of sludge pretreated by microwave (MW) and its combined processes on sludge anaerobic digestion and dewatering were investigated. The results showed that microwave and its combined processes could effectively enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. Not only the cumulative methane production in the test of the MW-H2O2-alkaline (0. 2) was increased by 13. 34% compared with the control, but also its methane production rate was much higher than that of the control. Compared with the single MW process, the addition of both H2O2 and alkaline enhanced the solubilization of particle COD( >0. 45 micron) , indicating that synergistically generated soluble organics were faster to biodegrade which resulted in the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The MW-acid process was effective in improving sludge dewaterability, e. g. , Capillary Suction Time (CST) at only 9. 85 s. The improvement of sludge dewatering was significantly correlated with sludge physical properties such as zeta potential, surface charge density and particle size. Under different sludge pretreatment conditions, the sludge dewatering after anaerobic digestion was similar, though the difference of sludge dewatering to some degrees was observed for pretreated sludge. PMID:25518665

  9. Predicting the apparent viscosity and yield stress of mixtures of primary, secondary and anaerobically digested sewage sludge: Simulating anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Markis, Flora; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Parthasarathy, Rajarathinam; Slatter, Paul; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2016-09-01

    Predicting the flow behaviour, most notably, the apparent viscosity and yield stress of sludge mixtures inside the anaerobic digester is essential because it helps optimize the mixing system in digesters. This paper investigates the rheology of sludge mixtures as a function of digested sludge volume fraction. Sludge mixtures exhibited non-Newtonian, shear thinning, yield stress behaviour. The apparent viscosity and yield stress of sludge mixtures prepared at the same total solids concentration was influenced by the interactions within the digested sludge and increased with the volume fraction of digested sludge - highlighted using shear compliance and shear modulus of sludge mixtures. However, when a thickened primary - secondary sludge mixture was mixed with dilute digested sludge, the apparent viscosity and yield stress decreased with increasing the volume fraction of digested sludge. This was caused by the dilution effect leading to a reduction in the hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic interactions when dilute digested sludge was added. Correlations were developed to predict the apparent viscosity and yield stress of the mixtures as a function of the digested sludge volume fraction and total solids concentration of the mixtures. The parameters of correlations can be estimated using pH of sludge. The shear and complex modulus were also modelled and they followed an exponential relationship with increasing digested sludge volume fraction. PMID:27243386

  10. Degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate during sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Anqi

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of protein and carbohydrate is vital for sludge anaerobic digestion performance. However, few studies focused on degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate. This study investigated detailed degradation properties of sludge protein and carbohydrate in order to gain insight into organics removal during anaerobic digestion. Results showed that carbohydrate was more efficiently degraded than protein and was degraded prior to protein. The final removal efficiencies of carbohydrate and protein were 49.7% and 32.2%, respectively. The first 3 days were a lag phase for protein degradation since rapid carbohydrate degradation in this phase led to repression of protease formation. Kinetics results showed that, after initial lag phase, protein degradation followed the first-order kinetic with rate constants of 0.0197 and 0.0018 d(-1) during later rapid degradation phase and slow degradation phase, respectively. Carbohydrate degradation also followed the first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.007 d(-1) after initial quick degradation phase. PMID:26025350

  11. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion for enhanced sludge stabilization: comparison of the process performance for mixed and waste sludge [corrected].

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Carozza, Nicola Antonello

    2015-05-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated as a promising alternative for enhanced sludge stabilization. In this paper, a feasibility study of the sequential digestion applied to real waste activated sludge (WAS) and mixed sludge is presented. Process performance is evaluated in terms of total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) removal, biogas production, and dewaterability trend in the anaerobic and double-stage digested sludge. In the proposed digestion lay out, the aerobic stage was operated with intermittent aeration to reduce the nitrogen load recycled to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Experimental results showed a very good performance of the sequential digestion process for both waste and mixed sludge, even if, given its better digestibility, higher efficiencies are observed for mixed sludge. VS removal efficiencies in the anaerobic stage were 48 and 50% for waste and mixed sludge, respectively, while a significant additional improvement of the VS removal of 25% for WAS and 45% for mixed sludge has been obtained in the aerobic stage. The post-aerobic stage, operated with intermittent aeration, was also efficient in nitrogen removal, providing a significant decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant: nitrification efficiencies of 90 and 97% and denitrification efficiencies of 62 and 70% have been obtained for secondary and mixed sludges, respectively. A positive effect due to the aerobic stage was also observed on the sludge dewaterability in both cases. Biogas production, expressed as Nm(3)/(kgVSdestroyed), was 0.54 for waste and 0.82 for mixed sludge and is in the range of values reported in the literature in spite of the low anaerobic sludge retention time of 15 days. PMID:25028317

  12. Rheological behaviors of anaerobic granular sludge in a spiral symmetry stream anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Dai, Ruobin; Xiang, Xinyi; Ma, Chengyu; Li, Gang; Hu, Tao; Xu, Zhengqi; Abdelgadir, Awad

    2015-01-01

    The rheological behaviors of the anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) in a spiral symmetry stream anaerobic bioreactor (SSSAB) were investigated. Shear-thinning behavior, thixotropic behavior, concentration-viscosity behavior and temperature-viscosity behavior were evaluated based on the constitutive equation of the AGS. The results indicated that the Herschel-Bulkley model was able to adequately describe the constitutive relation of AGS in the SSSAB. The AGS also showed shear-thinning behavior as well as thixotropic behavior. The critical shear rate and network strength of the AGS were 61.8 s(-1) and 497.0 W m(-3), respectively. The relationship between the apparent viscosity and the sludge concentration was illustrated and explained by the Woodcock formula. The relationship between apparent viscosity of the AGS and temperature could be modeled using the Arrhenius equation. The AGS was significantly thermo-sensitive and its mean energy of activation was 14.640 kJ mol(-1). Notably, it was necessary to consider such behaviors in the hydrodynamic modeling of SSSAB in which shear condition, sludge concentration and temperature were in non-uniform distribution. PMID:26247766

  13. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen. PMID:25192669

  14. Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.

    PubMed

    Cukjati, N; Zupančič, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V

    2012-09-15

    An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas. PMID:22562011

  15. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  16. Plant available nitrogen from anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge applied to crops grown in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Sripanomtanakorn, S; Polprasert, C

    2002-04-01

    Agricultural land is an attractive alternative for the disposal of biosolids since it utilises the recyclable nutrients in the production of crops. In Thailand and other tropical regions, limited field-study information exists on the effect of biosolids management strategies on crop N utilisation and plant available N (PAN) of biosolids. A field study was conducted to quantify the PAN of the applied biosolids, and to evaluate the N uptake rates of some tropical crops. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were chosen in this study. Two types of biosolids used were: anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge. The soil is acid sulfate and is classified as Sulfic Tropaquepts with heavy clay in texture. The anaerobically digested sludge applied rates were: 0, 156 and 312 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 586, and 1172 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots. The septic tank sludge applied rates were: 0, 95 and 190 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 354 and 708 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots, respectively. The results indicated the feasibility of applying biosolids to grow tropical crops. The applications of the anaerobically digested sludge and the septic tank sludge resulted in the yields of sunflower seeds and tomato fruits and the plant N uptakes comparable or better than that applied with only the chemical fertiliser. The estimated PAN of the anaerobically digested sludge was about 27-42% of the sludge organic N during the growing season. For the septic tank sludge, the PAN was about 15-58% of the sludge organic N. It is interesting to observe that an increase of the rate of septic tank sludge incorporated into this heavy clay soil under the cropping system resulted in the decrease of N mineralisation rate. This situation could cause the reduction of yield and N uptake of crops. PMID:12058820

  17. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  18. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W C; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  19. Use of anaerobic hydrolysis pretreatment to enhance ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianjin; Zhu, Tong; Shen, Yang; Chai, Tianyu; Xie, Yuanhua; You, Meiyan; Wang, Youzhao

    2016-01-01

    To improve the excess sludge disintegration efficiency, reduce the sludge disintegration cost, and increase sludge biodegradability, a combined pretreatment of anaerobic hydrolysis (AH) and ultrasonic treatment (UT) was proposed for excess sludge. Results showed that AH had an advantage in dissolving flocs, modifying sludge characteristics, and reducing the difficulty of sludge disintegration, whereas UT was advantageous in damaging cell walls, releasing intracellular substances, and decomposing macromolecular material. The combined AH-UT process was an efficient method for excess sludge pretreatment. The optimized solution involved AH for 3 days, followed by UT for 10 min. After treatment, chemical oxygen demand, protein, and peptidoglycan concentrations reached 3,949.5 mg O2/L, 752.5 mg/L and 619.1 mg/L, respectively. This work has great significance for further engineering applications, namely, reducing energy consumption, increasing the sludge disintegration rate, and improving the biochemical properties of sludge. PMID:26942542

  20. [Detection of anaerobic processes and microorganisms in immobilized activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant with intense aeration].

    PubMed

    Litti, Iu V; Nekrasova, V K; Kulikov, N I; Siman'kova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2013-01-01

    Attached activated sludge from the Krasnaya Polyana (Sochi) wastewater treatment plant was studied after the reconstruction by increased aeration and water recycle, as well as by the installation of a bristle carrier for activated sludge immobilization. The activated sludge biofilms developing under conditions of intense aeration were shown to contain both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Activity of a strictly anaerobic methanogenic community was revealed, which degraded organic compounds to methane, further oxidized by aerobic methanotrophs. Volatile fatty acids, the intermediates of anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds, were used by both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) and the presence of obligate anammox bacteria were revealed in attached activated sludge biofilms. Simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organic contaminants by attached activated sludge provides for high rates of water treatment, stability of the activated sludge under variable environmental conditions, and decreased excess sludge formation. PMID:25509405

  1. Anaerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds in digested sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, S A; Shelton, D R; Berry, D; Tiedje, J M

    1983-01-01

    We examined the anaerobic degradation of phenol and the ortho, meta, and para isomers of chlorophenol, methoxyphenol, methylphenol (cresol), and nitrophenol in anaerobic sewage sludge diluted to 10% in a mineral salts medium. Of the 12 monosubstituted phenols studied, only p-chlorophenol and o-cresol were not significantly degraded during an 8-week incubation period. The phenol compounds degraded and the time required for complete substrate disappearance (in weeks) were: phenol (2), o-chlorophenol (3), m-chlorophenol (7), o-methoxyphenol (2), m- and p-methoxyphenol (1), m-cresol (7), p-cresol (3), and o-, m-, and p-nitrophenol (1). Complete mineralization of phenol, o-chlorophenol, m-cresol, p-cresol, o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, and o-, m-, and p-methoxyphenol was observed. In general, the presence of Cl and NO2 groups on phenols inhibited methane production. Elimination or transformation of these substituents was accompanied by increased methane production, o-Chlorophenol was metabolized to phenol, which indicated that dechlorination was the initial degradation step. The methoxyphenols were transformed to the corresponding dihydroxybenzene compounds, which were subsequently mineralized. PMID:6614908

  2. Evidence for Anaerobic Dechlorination of Dechlorane Plus in Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Sverko, Ed; McCarry, Brian; McCrindle, Robert; Brazeau, Allison; Pena-Abaurrea, Miren; Reiner, Eric; Anne Smyth, Shirley; Gill, Biban; Tomy, Gregg T

    2015-12-01

    The environmental occurrence of dechlorination moieties from the high production volume flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus (DP), has largely been documented; however, the sources have yet to be well understood. In addition, few laboratory-based studies exist which identify the cause for the occurrence of these chemicals in the environment or humans. Anaerobic dechlorination of the two DP isomers was investigated using a laboratory-simulated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) environment where anaerobic digestion is used as part of the treatment regime. Known amounts of each isomer were added separately to sewage sludge which provided the electron-donating substrate and at prescribed time points in the incubation, a portion of the media was removed and analyzed for DP and any dechlorination metabolites. After 7 days, monohydrodechlorinated products were observed for both the syn- and anti-DP which were continued throughout the duration of our study (49 days) in an increasing manner giving a calculated formation rate of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.12 pmols/day for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. Furthermore, we observed a second monohydrodechlorinated product only in the anti-DP isomer incubation medium. This strongly suggests that anti-DP is more susceptible to anaerobic degradation than the syn isomer. We also provide compelling evidence to the location of chlorine loss in the dechlorination DP analogues. Finally, the dechlorination DP moieties formed in our study matched the retention times and identification of those observed in surficial sediment located downstream of the WWTP. PMID:26572321

  3. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  4. Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2013-04-01

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

  5. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed and trickling biofilter process for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jiangzheng; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Le Bihan, Yann

    2016-05-01

    A combined upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-trickling biofilter (TBF) process was constructed to treat swine wastewater, a typical high-strength organic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio and ammonia toxicity. The results showed that the UASB-TBF system can remarkably enhance the removal of pollutants in the swine wastewater. At an organic loading rate of 2.29 kg/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 48 h in the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), Suspended Solids and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen removals of the combined process reached 83.6%, 84.1% and 41.2%, respectively. In the combined system the UASB served as a pretreatment process for COD removal while nitrification and denitrification occurred only in the TBF process. The TBF performed reasonably well at a surface hydraulic load as high as 0.12 m(3)/m(2) d. Since the ratio of influent COD to total mineral nitrogen was less than 3.23, it is reasonable to suggest that the wood chips in TBF can serve as a new carbon source for denitrification. PMID:26588487

  6. Effect of humic acid in leachate on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengfei; Xian, Ping; Yang, Longhui; Liu, Xi; Zhan, Longhui; Bu, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of humic acid (HA) in anaerobic-treated landfill leachate on granular sludge, the anaerobic biodegradability of HA as well as the influences of HA on the total cumulative methane production, the anaerobic methanization process and the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of granular sludge are studied in this paper. Experimental results show that as a non-biodegradable organic pollutant, HA is also difficult to be decomposed by microbes in the anaerobic reaction process. Presence of HA and changes in the concentration have no significant influences on the total cumulative methane production and the anaerobic methanization process of granular sludge. Besides, the total cumulative methane production cannot reflect the inhibition of toxics on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge on the premise of sufficient reaction time. Results also show that HA plays a promoting role on SMA of granular sludge. Without buffering agent the SMA value increased by 19.2% on average due to the buffering and regulating ability of HA, while with buffering agent the SMA value increased by 5.4% on average due to the retaining effect of HA on the morphology of the sludge particles. However, in the presence of leachate the SMA value decreased by 27.6% on average, because the toxic effect of the toxics in the leachate on granular sludge is much larger than the promoting effect of HA. PMID:25915186

  7. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%. PMID:17251012

  8. The investigation of the sludge reduction efficiency and mechanisms in oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process.

    PubMed

    Demir, Özlem; Filibeli, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a full understanding of the sludge reduction mechanisms in the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process and presents an evaluation of the sludge reduction efficiencies and sludge characteristics in this process compared to the conventional activated sludge process. Fifty-eight percent reduction in observed yield in the OSA process was achieved compared to the control system at the end of the operational period with no deterioration of effluent quality. The settleability of sludge in the OSA process was also found to be better than that of the control system in terms of sludge volume index. In long-term operation, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration values confirmed that the OSA process showed good filterability characteristics. The results of batch experiments showed that higher endogenous respiration in the systems might lead to lower sludge production and that energy uncoupling had only a limited impact on sludge reduction. PMID:27191551

  9. ENZYME ADDITION TO THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER PRIMARY SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates the effects of enzyme augmentation on municipal wastewater (MWW) sludge anaerobic digestion. The primary objective was to examine the impact of using enzymes to enhance the degradation of the cellulosic and the oil- and grease-rich sludge fractions. The additi...

  10. Reversibility of the structure and dewaterability of anaerobic digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yiqi; Wang, Yili; Hu, Wei; Qian, Xu; Zheng, Huaili; Lun, Xiaoxiu

    2016-04-01

    The reversibility of the structure and dewaterability of broken anaerobic digested sludge (ADS) is important to ensure the efficiency of sludge treatment or management processes. This study investigated the effect of continuous strong shear (CSS) and multipulse shear (MPS) on the zeta potential, size (median size, d50), mass fractal dimension (DF), and capillary suction time (CST) of ADS aggregates. Moreover, the self-regrowth (SR) of broken ADS aggregates during slow mixing was also analyzed. The results show that raw ADS with d50 of 56.5μm was insensitive to CSS-SR or MPS-SR, though the size slightly decreased after the breakage phase. For conditioned ADS with d50 larger than 600μm, the breakage in small-scale surface erosion changed to large-scale fragmentation as the CSS strength increased. In most cases, after CSS or MPS, the broken ADS had a relatively more compact structure than before and d50 is at least 200μm. The CST of the broken fragments from optimally dosed ADS increased, whereas that corresponding to overdosed ADS decreased. MPS treatment resulted in larger and more compact broken ADS fragments with a lower CST value than CSS. During the subsequent slow mixing, the broken ADS aggregates did not recover their charge, size, and dewaterability to the initial values before breakage. In addition, less than 15% self-regrowth in terms of percentage of the regrowth factor was observed in broken ADS after CSS at average velocity gradient no less than 1905.6sec(-1). PMID:27090709

  11. Aeration of anaerobically digested sewage sludge for COD and nitrogen removal: optimization at large-scale.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Hornek, R; Kroiss, H

    2008-01-01

    The paper will report about the experiences at an Austrian large wastewater treatment plant of 720,000 population equivalents, where anaerobically digested sewage sludge is further stabilised under aerobic conditions. Enhanced stabilisation of the anaerobically digested sludge was required at the plant in order to get a permit for landfill disposal of the dewatered stabilized sludge. By implementing a post-aeration treatment (SRT approximately 6d; 36 degrees C) after anaerobic digestion the organic content of the anaerobically well digested sludge can be decreased by 16%. Investigations on site showed that during digested sludge post-aeration anoxic phases for denitrification are needed to provide stable process conditions. In this way the pH value can be kept in a more favourable range for micro-organisms and concrete structures. Additionally, inhibition of the biological process due to nitrite accumulation can be avoided. By optimising the aeration/pause ratio approximately 45% of total nitrogen in digested sludge can be removed. This significantly improves nitrogen removal efficiency at the wastewater treatment plant. NH(4)-removal occurs mainly through nitritation and denitritation with an efficiency of 98%. The costs/benefit analysis shows that post-aeration of digested sludge results in an increase of total annual costs for wastewater treatment of only 0.84%, corresponding to 0.19 Euro/pe/a. Result of molecular biological analyses (DGGE) indicate that all four ammonium-oxidizing bacteria species present in activated sludge can survive anaerobic digestion, but only two of them can adapt in the digested sludge post-aeration tanks. Additionally, in the post-aerated digested sludge a further ammonium-oxidizing bacteria species was identified. PMID:18235180

  12. Performance of sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion applied to municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Rita, Sara; Mininni, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    A promising alternative to conventional single phase processing, the use of sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion, was extensively investigated on municipal sewage sludge from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate sequential digestion performance by testing the characteristics of the digested sludge in terms of volatile solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and nitrogen reduction, biogas production, dewaterability and the content of proteins and polysaccharides. VS removal efficiencies of 32% in the anaerobic phase and 17% in the aerobic one were obtained, and similar COD removal efficiencies (29% anaerobic and 21% aerobic) were also observed. The aerobic stage was also efficient in nitrogen removal providing a decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant attributable to nitrification and simultaneous denitrification. Moreover, in the aerobic phase an additional marked removal of proteins and polysaccharides produced in the anaerobic phase was achieved. The sludge dewaterability was evaluated by determining the Optimal Polymer Dose (OPD) and the Capillary Suction Time (CST) and a significant positive effect due to the aerobic stage was observed. Biogas production was close to the upper limit of the range of values reported in the literature in spite of the low anaerobic sludge retention time of 15 days. From a preliminary analysis it was found that the energy demand of the aerobic phase was significantly lower than the recovered energy in the anaerobic phase and the associated additional cost was negligible in comparison to the saving derived from the reduced amount of sludge to be disposed. PMID:21477916

  13. Determination of greenhouse gas emission reductions from sewage sludge anaerobic digestion in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-T; Kong, X-J; Zheng, G-D; Chen, C-C

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a considerable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the field of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from sludge anaerobic digestion, including direct and indirect emissions as well as replaceable emission reduction due to biogas being reused instead of natural gas, were quantified respectively. The results indicated that no GHG generation needed to be considered during the anaerobic digestion process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption on-site and sludge transportation. Overall, the total GHG emission owing to relative subtraction from anaerobic digestion rather than landfill, and replaceable GHG reduction caused by reuse of its product of biogas, were quantified to be 0.7214 (northern China) or 0.7384 (southern China) MgCO2 MgWS(-1) (wet sludge). PMID:26744944

  14. Anaerobic digestion of thermo-oxidized excess municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Cacho Rivero, Jesús A; Suidan, Makram T

    2006-05-01

    The effect of a thermo-oxidative co-treatment placed between the two reactors of two-stage anaerobic digestion of excess municipal sludge was studied. The oxidant used was hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and moderate temperatures below the boiling point of water were considered. The first experiment was to elucidate the effect of two different temperatures (65 and 90 degrees C) of oxidation using a constant oxidant dose of 1.0 g H2O2/g influent volatile suspended solids (VSSinfluent). The use of thermo-oxidative co-treatment increased overall solids destruction by 24.9 and 33.5%, respectively, when operating at 65 and 90 degrees C, respectively. Because of this significant effect of temperature on the performance of the process, a second experiment was conducted using the higher temperature of 90 degrees C while decreasing the hydrogen peroxide dosage to 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1 g H2O2/g VSSinfluent. An increase in solids destruction of 13.9, 18.9, and 25.6% was observed when the thermo-oxidative co-treatment was used using oxidant dosages of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 g H2O2/g VSSinfluent, respectively. PMID:16752612

  15. Toxicity and biogas production potential of refinery waste sludge for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Haak, Laura; Roy, Ratul; Pagilla, Krishna

    2016-02-01

    Two waste streams from an oil refinery wastewater treatment system, float from a dissolved air flotation unit (DAF sludge) and waste activated sludge (WAS), were investigated to determine toxicity and biogas production potential for anaerobic digestion through batch testing methods. Ozonation as a pretreatment was investigated to observe the impacts of waste solubilization on both toxicity and biodegradability. Anaerobic toxicity assays resulted in no detectible inhibition from WAS, neither with nor without ozonation. Untreated DAF sludge exhibited inhibition that amplified with the increases in DAF sludge inclusion. Ozone treatment effectively reduces this inhibition. The biodegradability of WAS, measured by biochemical methane potential tests, doubled with low dose ozonation. DAF sludge biodegradability was negligible prior to treatment and was successfully enhanced through ozonation. PMID:26461442

  16. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them. PMID:27166174

  17. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them.

  18. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them. PMID:27166174

  19. Granulation and Sludge Bed Stability in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactors in Relation to Surface Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thaveesri, J.; Daffonchio, D.; Liessens, B.; Vandermeren, P.; Verstraete, W.

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria involved in anaerobic consortia was investigated in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors and was related to surface thermodynamics. The adhesion of hydrophilic cells appeared to be enhanced at a low liquid surface tension ((gamma)(infLV)), while the adhesion of hydrophobic cells was favored at a high (gamma)(infLV). Growth in protein-rich growth media resulted in low granular biomass yields; addition of polycations, such as poly-l-lysine and chitosan, increased the (gamma)(infLV) and the granular biomass yield. On the basis of the results of activity tests and microbial counts with wash-out cells, we identified two types of structured granules that were related to the influence of (gamma)(infLV). In one type of granules, hydrophilic acidogens surrounded a more hydrophobic methanogenic association. These granules were selected at a low (gamma)(infLV) provided that carbohydrates were available as substrates. The other type of granules was selected at a high (gamma)(infLV); hydrophobic cells (i.e., methanogens) were predominant throughout these granules. The granules which had acidogens as solid-phase emulsifiers around a methanogenic association appeared to allow more stable reactor performance. Decreasing the (gamma)(infLV) in the reactor by adding trace amounts of a surfactant also increased reactor stability. PMID:16535149

  20. Enhanced methane production from anaerobic digestion of disintegrated and deproteinized excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rong; Jahng, Deokjin

    2006-04-01

    To improve biogas yield and methane content in anaerobic digestion of excess sludge from the wastewater treatment plant, the sludge was disintegrated by using various methods (sonication, alkaline and thermal treatments). Since disintegrated sludge contains a high concentration of soluble proteins, the resulting metabolite, ammonia, may inhibit methane generation. Therefore, the effects of protein removal from disintegrated sludge on methane production were also studied. As a result, an obvious enhancement of biogas generation was observed by digesting disintegrated sludge (biogas yield increased from 15 to 36 ml/g COD(added).day for the raw excess sludge and the sonicated sludge, respectively). The quality of biogas was also improved by removing proteins from the disintegrated sludge. About 50% (w/w) of soluble proteins were removed from the suspension of disintegrated sludge by salting out using 35 g MgCl(2) x 6H(2)O/l and also by isoelectric point precipitation at pH 3.3. For deproteinized sludge, methane production increased by 19%, and its yield increased from 145 ml/g COD(removed) to 325 ml/g COD(removed). Therefore, the yield and quality of biogas produced from digestion of excess sludge can be enhanced by disintegrating the sludge and subsequent protein removal. PMID:16614889

  1. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production. PMID:26698921

  2. Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

  3. Enrichment of anodic biofilm inoculated with anaerobic or aerobic sludge in single chambered air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chongyang; Wang, Aijie; Wu, Wei-Min; Yin, Yalin; Zhao, Yang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Aerobic sludge after anaerobic pretreatment and anaerobic sludge were separately used as inoculum to start up air-cathode single-chamber MFCs. Aerobic sludge-inoculated MFCs arrived at 0.27 V with a maximum power density of 5.79 W m(-3), while anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFCs reached 0.21 V with 3.66 W m(-3). Microbial analysis with DGGE profiling and high-throughput sequencing indicated that aerobic sludge contained more diverse bacterial populations than anaerobic sludge. Nitrospira species dominated in aerobic sludge, while anaerobic sludge was dominated by Desulfurella and Acidithiobacillus species. Microbial community structure and composition in anodic biofilms enriched, respectively from aerobic and anaerobic sludges tended gradually to be similar. Potentially exoelectrogenic Geobacter and Anaeromusa species, biofilm-forming Zoogloea and Acinetobacter species were abundant in both anodic biofilms. This study indicated that aerobic sludge performed better for MFCs startup, and the enrichment of anodic microbial consortium with different inocula but same substrate resulted in uniformity of functional microbial communities. PMID:24973773

  4. Biodegradation of 14C-dicofol in wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jaime L da M; Silva, Denise P; Martins, Edir M; Langenbach, Tomaz; Dezotti, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Organic micropollutants are often found in domestic and industrial effluents. Thus, it is important to learn their fate, the metabolites generated and their sorption during biological treatment processes. This work investigated the biodegradation of 14C-dicofol organochloride during wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion. The performance of these processes was evaluated by physical-chemical parameters. Radioactivity levels were monitored in both treatments, and residues of dicofol (DCF) and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were quantified by HPLC/UV. The efficiency of the aerobic and anaerobic processes was slightly reduced in the presence of DCF and DBP. After aerobic treatment, only 0.1% of DCF was mineralized, and 57% of radioactivity remained sorbed on biological sludge as DBP. After 18 days of anaerobiosis, only 3% of DCF and 5% of DBP were detected in the sludge. However, 70% of radioactivity remained in the sludge, probably as other metabolites. Dicofol was biodegraded in the investigated process, but not mineralized. PMID:22629645

  5. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity. PMID:26942526

  6. Microaerobic DO-induced microbial mechanisms responsible for enormous energy saving in upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shaokui; Cui, Cancan; Quan, Ying; Sun, Jian

    2013-07-01

    This study experimentally examined the microaerobic dissolved oxygen (DO)-induced microbial mechanisms that are responsible for enormous energy savings in the upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UMSB) for domestic wastewater treatment. Phylogenetic and kinetic analyses (as determined by clone library analyses and sludge oxygen affinity analyses) showed that the microaerobic conditions in the UMSB led to the proliferation and dominance of microaerophilic bacteria that have higher oxygen affinities (i.e., lower sludge oxygen half-saturation constant values), which assured efficient COD and NH3-N removals and sludge granulation in the UMSB similar as those achieved in the aerobic control. However, the microaerobic DO level in the UMSB achieved significant short-cut nitrification, a 50-90% reduction in air supply, and an 18-28% reduction in alkali consumption. Furthermore, the disappearance of sludge bulking in the UMSB when it was dominated by "bulking-induced" filamentous bacteria should be attributed to its upflow column-type configuration. PMID:23693146

  7. [Study on biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Ling; Ji, Jun-Ping; Xia, Si-Qing

    2007-06-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the treatability of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by anaerobic granular sludge which was acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP). The characteristic of degradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols was investigated through shake flask study and performance of continuous flow anaerobic bioreactors. The difference of degradation of 2,4-DCP by acclimated and unacclimated sludge was also compared. 2,4-DCP was degraded at 50 h and 180 h respectively for acclimated and unacclimated sludge, which testified that acclimated sludge could more effectively degrade 2,4-DCP. Although the intermediate product 4-MCP was present in both reaction system, 4-MCP could be degraded completely after 400 h in the acclimated sludge but accumulated in the unacclimated sludge. Therefore, acclimation by the mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP) could enhance the ability of para- and meta-dechlorination for anaerobic sludge and increase the treatability of 2,4-DCP. The results of continuous anaerobic sludge-suspended carrier bioreactor (ASSCB) indicate that inoculation of the acclimated sludge by mixed mono-chlorphenols can degrade two mono-chlorphenols simultaneously, shorten the setup period, and increase the efficiency of degrading 2,4-DCP. 2-CP was easily degraded with removal rate of over 80% . While the removal rate of 4-MCP was fluctuating within 30% - 80% with changes of its influent concentration. PMID:17674731

  8. Effect of Calcium Ions on Dewaterability of Enzymatic-Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion Sludge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Ying; Pang, Ya; Li, Xue; Liao, Xing-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Waste-activated sludge (WAS) solubilized remarkably after enzymatic-enhanced anaerobic digestion, but its dewaterability was deteriorated. In this study, a novel method was performed to improve the dewaterability of enzymatic-enhanced anaerobic digestion sludge by adding CaCl2 (0.01~1.00 g/g total sludge). The capillary suction time (CST), moisture content, and filtrate turbidity were employed to characterize the dewaterability of WAS, and the possible mechanisms involved were clarified. The results showed the dewaterability did not worsen when CaCl2 was added before sludge digestion, and the CST, moisture content, and filtrate turbidity were notably reduced with the increase of CaCl2 dosage. It also shown that calcium ions played an important role in the bioflocculation of digested sludge by neutralizing negative charges on the surface of sludge. In addition, soluble protein initially lowered a little and then observably improved with the addition of CaCl2, while soluble carbohydrate was reduced sharply first and then bounced back afterwards. The interactions between calcium ions and the biopolymer further enhanced the dewatering of sludge through bridging of colloidal particles together. PMID:26129703

  9. Anaerobic digestion with partial ozonation minimises greenhouse gas emission from sludge treatment and disposal.

    PubMed

    Yasui, H; Matsuhashi, R; Noike, T; Harada, H

    2006-01-01

    A novel anaerobic digestion process combined with partial ozonation on digested sludge was demonstrated for improving sludge digestion and biogas recovery by full-scale testing for 2 years and its performance was compared with a simultaneously operated conventional anaerobic digestion process. The novel process requires two essential modifications, which are ozonation for enhancing the biological degradability of sludge organics and concentrating of solids in the digester through a solid/liquid separation for extension of SRT. These modifications resulted in high VSS degradation efficiency of ca. 88%, as much as 1.3 times of methane production and more than 70% reduction in dewatered sludge cake production. Based on the performance, its energy demands and contribution for minimisation of greenhouse gas emission was evaluated throughout an entire study of sludge treatment and disposal schemes in a municipality for 130,000 p.e. The analysis indicated that the novel process with power generation from biogas would lead to minimal greenhouse gas emission because the extra energy production from the scheme was expected to cover all of the energy demand for the plant operation, and the remarkable reduction in dewatered sludge cake volumes makes it possible to reduce N2O discharge and consumption of fossil fuel in the subsequent sludge incineration processes. PMID:16605039

  10. Activity, life time and effect of hydrolytic enzymes for enhanced biogas production from sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Odnell, Anna; Recktenwald, Michael; Stensén, Katarina; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Karlsson, Martin

    2016-10-15

    As an alternative to energy intensive physical methods, enzymatic treatment of sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants for increased hydrolysis and biogas production was investigated. Several hydrolytic enzymes were assessed with a focus on how enzyme activity and life time was influenced by sludge environments. It could be concluded that the activity life time of added enzymes was limited (<24 h) in both waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester sludge environments and that this was, for the majority of enzymes, due to endogenous protease activity. In biogas in situ experiments, subtilisin at a 1% mixture on basis of volatile solids, was the only enzyme providing a significantly increased biomethane production of 37%. However, even at this high concentration, subtilisin could not hydrolyze all available substrate within the life time of the enzyme. Thus, for large scale implementation, enzymes better suited to the sludge environments are needed. PMID:27498254

  11. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  12. Sanitation ability of anaerobic digestion performed at different temperature on sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Garuti, Gilberto; Negri, Marco; Adani, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    A small amount of ammonia is used in full-scale plants to partially sanitize sewage sludge, thereby allowing successive biological processes to enable the high biological stability of the organic matter. Nevertheless, ammonia and methane are both produced during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sludge. This paper describes the evaluation of a lab-scale study on the ability of anaerobic process to sanitize sewage sludge and produce biogas, thus avoiding the addition of ammonia to sanitize sludge. According to both previous work and a state of the art full-scale plant, ammonia was added to a mixture of sewage sludge at a rate so that the pH values after stirring were 8.5, 9 and 9.5. This procedure determined an ammonia addition lower than that generally indicated in the literature. The same sludge was also subjected to an AD process for 60 days under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The levels of fecal coliform, Salmonella spp. helmints ova, pH, total N, ammonia fractions and biogas production were measured at different times during each process. The results obtained suggested that sludge sanitation can be achieved using an AD process; however, the addition of a small amount of ammonia was not effective in sludge sanitation because the buffer ability of the sludge reduced the pH and thus caused ammonia toxicity. Mesophilic and thermophilic AD sanitized better than psychrophilic AD did, but the total free ammonia concentration under the thermophilic condition inhibited biogas production. The mesophilic condition, however, allowed for both sludge sanitation and significant biogas production. PMID:23973551

  13. Adsorption removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution by anaerobic granular sludge: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Ji, Feng; Liu, Yuanlu; Tong, Zilin; Zhan, Xinmin; Hu, Zhenhu

    2013-01-01

    High concentration animal wastewater is often contaminated by tetracycline and an upflow anaerobic sludge bioreactor (UASB) with granular sludge is often used to treat the wastewater. The investigation of the adsorption process of tetracycline on anaerobic granular sludge during anaerobic digestion of animal wastewater will increase the understanding of antibiotics behavior in the UASB reactor. In this study, the effects of initial pH, humic acid concentration, and temperature on the removal of tetracycline by anaerobic granular sludge from aqueous solution were investigated using the batch adsorption technique in 100 mL flasks with 75 mL of work volume. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 93.0% was achieved around pH 3.0 and the removal efficiency at the neutral pH range (pH 6.0-8.0) is about 91.5%. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorption isotherms analysis indicates that the Langmuir model is better than the Freundlich model for the description of the adsorption process and confirms the result of thermodynamics analysis. The maximum adsorption capacities were 2.984, 4.108 and 4.618 mg/g at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. These results provide useful information for understanding the fate and transformation of tetracycline in a UASB digestion system and improving the management of tetracycline contaminated animal wastewater. PMID:23552236

  14. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  15. Anaerobic digestion and gasification coupling for wastewater sludge treatment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Nicolas; Rousse, Daniel R; Hausler, Robert

    2014-06-27

    Sewage sludge management is an energy intensive process. Anaerobic digestion contributes to energy efficiency improvement but is limited by the biological process. A review has been conducted prior to experimentation in order to evaluate the mass and energy balances on anaerobic digestion followed by gasification of digested sludge. The purpose was to improve energy recovery and reuse. Calculations were based on design parameters and tests that are conducted with the anaerobic digester of a local wastewater treatment plant and a small commercial gasification system. Results showed a very significant potential of energy recovery. More than 90% of the energy content from sludge was extracted. Also, approximately the same amount of energy would be transferred in both directions between the digester (biogas) and the gasifier (thermal energy). This extraction resulted in the same use of biogas as the reference scenario but final product was a totally dry biochar, which represented a fraction of the initial mass. Phosphorus was concentrated and significantly preserved. This analysis suggests that anaerobic digestion followed by dehydration, drying and gasification could be a promising and viable option for energy and nutrient recovery from municipal sludge in replacement of conventional paths. PMID:24972600

  16. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  17. Full-scale application of anaerobic digestion process with partial ozonation of digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Yasui, H; Komatsu, K; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

    2005-01-01

    For improving sludge digestion and biogas recovery, a new anaerobic digestion process combined with ozonation was tested at a full-scale unit for 2 years and its performance was compared with a simultaneously operated conventional anaerobic digestion process. The new process requires two essential modifications, which includes ozonation for enhancing the biological degradability of sludge organics and concentrating of solids in the digester through a solid/liquid separation for extension of SRT. These modifications resulted in high VSS degradation efficiency of ca. 88%, as much as 1.3 times of methane production and more than 70% reduction in dewatered sludge cake production. Owing to accumulation of inorganic solids in the digested sludge, water content of the dewatered sludge cake also reduced from 80% to 68%. An energy analysis suggested that no supplemental fuel was necessary for the subsequent incineration of the cake from the new process scheme. The process is suitable to apply to a low-loaded anaerobic digestion tank, where power production is used. PMID:16180435

  18. Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Narumiya, Masanori; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2013-09-15

    The fate and removal of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in four full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs). We measured concentrations in both the liquid and solid phases of the sludge to compare the distribution ratios (Kd) between phases before and after digestion. The results showed changes in Kd values of PPCPs with carboxyl or amino functional groups, probably due to a shift of dissociation equilibrium with the increase in pH. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost completely degraded (>90%); triclosan, triclocarban, and ofloxacin were moderately degraded (around 30-50%); but carbamazepine was not eliminated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows (i) the occurrence and removal of several tens of PPCPs by anaerobic sludge digestion in full-scale municipal STPs and (ii) the change of distribution between the liquid and solid phases during digestion. PMID:23774781

  19. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. PMID:24703958

  20. [Start-up Performance of ANAMMOX Enrichment with Different Inoculated Sludge in Anaerobic Baffled Reactor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-qin; Wang, Fan-fan; Li, Yue-han; Chen, Chong-jun; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-06-01

    Two anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR) were compared for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) enrichment using synthetic wastewater with different inoculated sludge, the mixed anaerobic flocculent sludge/granular sludge (R1) and anaerobic activated sludge (R2). The research showed the ANAMMOX activity occurred in both reactors allowing continuous removal of ammonium and nitrite, in which the ammonia and nitrite nitrogen loading was about 54.5-68.0 g (m3 x d)(-1), when maintaining the temperature at 30-35 degrees C, pH at 7.5 +/- 0.5 and HRT at 26 h. However, the ANAMMOX reaction was successfully started after 120 d and 125 d, respectively. The removal rules of the two reactors were basically similar, and the enrichment processes occurred in both reactors could be divided into 4 phases, which were sluggish phase, expressive phase, enhanced phase and steady phase. In the steady phase, the average removal rates of NH4+ -N, NO2- -N were higher than 90%, and the average removal load achieved 57.3-67.9 g x (m3 x d)(-1). Moreover, the ammonium removal load in R1 was slightly higher than that in R2. Additionally, more than 90% of nitrogen was dramatically removed in the first compartment of ABR. Meanwhile, the color of sludge gradually changed from brown, litter bed brown to black along with the flow direction, which was similar to the removal rule of nitrogen. In a word, the results showed the different inoculated sludge did not cause obvious differences in the starting rule and the removal characteristics of ANAMMOX reactor. PMID:26387328

  1. Comparative performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion for high-solid sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Togari, Taketo; Uchida, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In local cities, many small sewage and waste treatment facilities are operated independently. To encourage processing by anaerobic digestion at a centralized sewage treatment plant (STP), high-solid sewage sludge is helpful because it reduces the energy and cost required for transporting the sludge from other STPs. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at total solids concentrations (TS) of 7.5% and 10% were evaluated using laboratory-scale continuous reactors. Under the mesophilic condition, sewage sludge of 10% TS was successfully treated. Under the thermophilic condition, sewage sludge of 7.5% TS was not successfully treated when the total ammonia concentration was over 2000 mg N/L. Batch experiments showed that it takes a few weeks for the methane fermentation activity to recover after being inhibited. The effectiveness of adding easily biodegradable organic matter was confirmed. These results show that high-solid sewage sludge is suitable for small facilities by controlling the operating conditions. PMID:24096284

  2. Environmental assessment of anaerobically digested sludge reuse in agriculture: potential impacts of emerging micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hospido, Almudena; Carballa, Marta; Moreira, Maite; Omil, Francisco; Lema, Juan M; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural application of sewage sludge has been emotionally discussed in the last decades, because the latter contains organic micropollutants with unknown fate and risk potential. In this work, the reuse of anaerobically digested sludge in agriculture is evaluated from an environmental point of view by using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. More specifically, the potential impacts of emerging micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, present in the sludge have been quantified. Four scenarios were considered according to the temperature of the anaerobic digestion (mesophilic or thermophilic) and the sludge retention time (20 or 10d), and they have been compared with the non-treated sludge. From an environmental point of view, the disposal of undigested sludge is not the most suitable alternative, except for global warming due to the dominance (65-85%) of the indirect emissions associated to the electricity use. Nutrient-related direct emissions dominate the eutrophication category impact in all the scenarios (>71.4%), although a beneficial impact related to the avoidance of industrial fertilisers production is also quantified (up to 6.7%). In terms of human and terrestrial toxicity, the direct emissions of heavy metals to soil dominate these two impact categories (>70%), and the contribution of other micropollutants is minimal. Moreover, only six (Galaxolide, Tonalide, Diazepam, Ibuprofen, Sulfamethoxazole and 17alpha-ethinyloestradiol) out of the 13 substances considered are really significant since they account for more than 95% of the overall micropollutants impact. PMID:20347114

  3. Biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in anaerobic digester sludge, soils, and freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Drew C; Pittinger, Charles A; Willis, Alison M

    2016-09-01

    The biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was evaluated in anaerobic digester sludge, soils, and freshwater sediments. In anaerobic digester sludge, TBBPA biotransformed rapidly with a 50% disappearance time (DT50) of 19 days, though little mineralization (1.1%) was observed. In aerobic soils, mineralization of TBBPA ranged from 17.5% to 21.6% with 55.3-83.6% of the TBBPA incorporated into the soils as a non-extractable bound residue. The DT50 for TBBPA in aerobic soils ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 days. In anaerobic soils, 48.3-100% of the TBBPA was incorporated into the soils as non-extractable bound residue with <4% mineralized. The soil fate studies demonstrated extensive incorporation of TBBPA into the solid matrix and this association was related to the amount of organic carbon in the soils (i.e., greater association of TBBPA with soil at higher organic carbon content). In anaerobic sediments the DT50 for TBBPA ranged from 28 to 42 days, whereas in aerobic sediments the DT50 for TBBPA ranged from 48 to 84 days and depended on the initial dose concentration. Most of the TBBPA in the sediment studies was incorporated as a non-extractable bound residue with little mineralization observed. Sediment extracts revealed three unknown biotransformation products and bisphenol A (BPA). These results were consistent with previously published studies where TBBPA biotransformed in anaerobic environments (digester sludge and sediments) by debromination and slowly mineralized in the test environments (anaerobic digester sludge, soils, and freshwater sediments). PMID:26212340

  4. Study of the sludge reduction in an oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process based on UNITANK.

    PubMed

    Sun, L P; Chen, J F; Guo, W Z; Fu, X P; Tan, J X; Wang, T J

    2015-01-01

    An oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) can effectively reduce sludge production, but most of the research studies on the OSA process have been either under laboratory test conditions or based on synthetic wastewater, which cannot fully reflect the performance and sludge reduction efficiency in existing OSA process. Thus, aiming at examining the sludge reduction efficiency and the stability of the OSA process, UNITANK and UNITANK-OSA processes were performed in a 120 m(3)/d pilot-scale system using actual sewage. The results indicate that UNITANK-OSA achieved a 48% reduction of the sludge compared to the reduction due to UNITANK, not considering the accumulation of the effluent-suspended solids. The effluent quality was not found to change significantly, except that the total phosphorus concentration increased slightly. The extracellular polymeric substances metal floc theory may, to some extent, explain this reduction in this study. The OSA process could be used to reform the classic wastewater treatment process to get lower sludge mass. PMID:25607677

  5. Fate of extracellular polymeric substances of anaerobically digested sewage sludge during pre-dewatering conditioning with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Ravindran, Balasubramani; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kurade, Mayur B; Yu, Shuk-Man; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the fate of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of anaerobically digested saline sewage sludge during its preconditioning. Sludge was conditioned with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (AF) culture for 24h in the presence and absence of Fe(2+) as an energy substrate. pH decreased from 7.24 to 3.12 during sludge conditioning process. The capillary suction time (CST) of conditioned sludge significantly decreased to <10s, and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) was reduced by >94% as compared with control within 4h of conditioning with or without Fe(2+), indicating a significant (P<0.001) improvement in sludge dewaterability. A noticeable decrease in extractable EPS was observed in conditioned sludge. The EPS contents showed a significant negative correlation with dewaterability of sludge (P<0.05). The results suggest that bioacidification treatment using A. ferrooxidans effectively improved sludge dewaterability through modification of sludge EPS. PMID:27040507

  6. Bacterial community structure in treated sewage sludge with mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Wolfram, Jan; Demnerova, Katerina; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2015-11-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge is applied to agricultural fields and farmland due to its high organic matter content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of sludge stabilization, mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), on bacterial communities in sludge, including the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial community structure and phylogenetic diversity were analyzed in four sewage sludge samples from the Czech Republic. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes showed that investigated sludge samples harbor diverse bacterial populations with only a few taxa present across all samples. Bacterial diversity was higher in sludge samples after MAD versus TAD treatment, and communities in MAD-treated sludge shared the highest genetic similarities. In all samples, the bacterial community was dominated by reads affiliated with Proteobacteria. The sludge after TAD treatment had considerably higher number of reads of thermotolerant/thermophilic taxa, such as the phyla Deinococcus-Thermus and Thermotogae or the genus Coprothermobacter. Only one operational taxonomic unit (OTU), which clustered with Rhodanobacter, was detected in all communities at a relative abundance >1 %. All of the communities were screened for the presence of 16S rRNA gene sequences of pathogenic bacteria using a database of 122 pathogenic species and ≥98 % identity threshold. The abundance of such sequences ranged between 0.23 and 1.57 % of the total community, with lower numbers present after the TAD treatment, indicating its higher hygienization efficiency. Sequences clustering with nontuberculous mycobacteria were present in all samples. Other detected sequences of pathogenic bacteria included Streptomyces somaliensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Gordonia spp., Legionella anisa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Enterobacter aerogenes, Brucella melitensis, and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25921720

  7. Residual cadmium forms in acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, R.E.; Logan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus and lime additions after acid extraction on residual Cd solubility and chemical forms in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. High Cd content anaerobically digested sewage sludge was aerated and then acidified to pH 2 to solubilize Cd. After 18 h of acidification, the sludge was dewatered and the supernatant and solids separated. Seventy or more percent of the Cd was removed from the solids. Similar amounts of Ni, Mn and Zn were also removed, but Cu removal was only 26% and that of Pb was < 5%. Before liming the sludge was amended with rock phosphate (RP) or monocalcium phosphate (MCP). The RP was insoluble while MCP dissolved, providing a high level of phosphate ligand for Cd precipitation or coprecipitation. Estimated sludge solution solubility products for major Fe, Al and Ca phosphates showed that several of these minerals could have precipitated with P addition, especially with MCP, and Cd may have coprecipitated with these solid phases. Cadmium phosphate may also have been formed in the MCP sludge. Chemical fractionation indicated that 50% of the Cd in the aerated unextracted sludge existed as inorganic precipitates with another 40% Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ extractable. Acidification solubilized 98% of the inorganic Cd and 86% of the organically bound Cd. Seventy-nine percent of the Cd remaining in the dewatered acidified sludge was in the KNO/sub 3/ extractable (exchangeable) fraction. Liming redistributed the Cd with 13 to 19% as inorganic precipitates, 70 to 85% organically bound and < 3% in the exchangeable fraction. Phosphate addition had no significant effect on Cd fractionation.

  8. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions following anaerobic digestion of sludge in Japanese sewage treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Okumura, Takuya; Takaoka, Masaki; Fujimori, Takashi; Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf

    2014-11-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials (expressed in terms of CO2-equivalents) of 28 and 265, respectively. When emitted to the atmosphere, they significantly contribute to climate change. It was previously suggested that in wastewater treatment facilities that apply anaerobic sludge digestion, CH4 continues to be emitted from digested sludge after leaving the anaerobic digester. This paper studies the CH4 and N2O emissions from anaerobically digested sludge in the subsequent sludge treatment steps. Two full-scale treatment plants were monitored over a 1-year period. Average emissions of CH4 and N2O were 509±72 mg/m(3)-influent (wastewater) and 7.1±2.6 mg/m(3)-influent, respectively. These values accounted for 22.4±3.8% of the indirect reduction in CO2-emissions when electricity was generated using biogas. They are considered to be significant. PMID:25194911

  9. Novel anaerobic digestion process with sludge ozonation for economically feasible power production from biogas.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, K; Yasui, H; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

    2011-01-01

    A novel process scheme was developed to achieve economically feasible energy recovery from anaerobic digestion. The new process scheme employs a hybrid configuration of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge ozonation: the ozonated sludge is first degraded in a thermophilic digester and then further degraded in a mesophilic digester. In small-scale pilot experiments of the new process scheme, degradation of VSS improved by 3.5% over the control (mesophilic-only configuration) with 20% less ozone consumption. Moreover, biogas conversion also improved by 7.1% over the control. Selective enrichment of inorganic compounds during centrifugation produced a dewatered sludge cake with very low water content (59.4%). This low water content in the sludge cake improved its auto-thermal combustion potential during incineration and added to the overall energy savings. We conducted a case study to evaluate power generation from biogas for a municipal wastewater treatment plant with an average dry weather flow of 43,000 m3/d. Electricity production cost was 5.2 ¢/kWh for the advanced process with power generation, which is lower than the current market price of 7.2 ¢/kWh. The new anaerobic digestion scheme with power generation may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 1,000 t-CO(2)/year compared with the conventional process without power generation. PMID:21508552

  10. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology. PMID:26830464

  11. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  12. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology. PMID:26830464

  13. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity. PMID:27344252

  14. Impact of sludge thickening on energy recovery from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Puchajda, B; Oleszkiewicz, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents energy balances for various digestion systems, which include single mesophilic digestion, single thermophilic digestion, two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic digestion system and systems at elevated solids content in sludge. On the basis of a sludge flow containing 30 tons TS/day (equivalent to a 100 ML/d WWTP plant) it was shown that a two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic digestion system generated more available energy than single mesophilic digestion and single thermophilic digestion systems. Sludge thickening offered the greatest amount of available energy; however that energy surplus was offset by the cost of thickening. After the cost of thickening was converted into equivalent energy units it was shown that the price of energy is important in calculation of equivalent energy units related to operation of the thickening plant. Sludge thickening may be beneficial from energy view point compared to conventional mesophilic digestion when price of energy exceeds dollars 0.08 CAN kW-hr. PMID:18309218

  15. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  16. Ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion of dehydrated waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nakashimada, Yutaka; Ohshima, Yasutaka; Minami, Hisao; Yabu, Hironori; Namba, Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi

    2008-07-01

    The study investigated methane production from dehydrated waste-activated sludge (DWAS) with approximately 80% water content under thermophilic conditions. The repeated batch-wise treatment of DWAS using methanogenic sludge unacclimated to high concentrations of ammonia, increased the ammonia production up to 7,600 mg N per kilogram total wet sludge of total ammonia concentration, and stopped the methane production. Investigation revealed that the loading ratio of DWAS for methanogenic sludge influences anaerobic digestion. Methane production significantly decreased and ammonia concentration increased with the increase in loading ratio of DWAS. Since the semicontinuous culture revealed that approximately 50% of organic nitrogen in DWAS converted to ammonia at sludge retention time (SRT) after 4 days at 37 degrees C and 1.33 days at 55 degrees C, the previous stripping of the ammonia produced from DWAS was carried out. The stripping of ammonia increased methane production significantly. This ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion demonstrated a successful methane production at SRT 20 days in the semicontinuous operation using a laboratory-scale reactor system. PMID:18491038

  17. Mitigation of micropollutants for black water application in agriculture via composting of anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Butkovskyi, A; Ni, G; Hernandez Leal, L; Rijnaarts, H H M; Zeeman, G

    2016-02-13

    The excess sludge from Up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated on source separated toilet wastewater is a potential source of nutrients and organic matter. It can be further stabilized and dried by composting and applied as a soil amendment. Presence of pathogens, heavy metals and micropollutants in the compost derived from anaerobic sludge is thus undesirable. This paper focuses on removal of micropollutants, typically present in domestic wastewater, via composting of UASB sludge with waste wood. Estrone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol, carbamazepine, galaxolide and triclosan were spiked to a mixture of UASB sludge and waste wood. Their concentrations were monitored during 92 days of composting at controlled temperature conditions. All studied micropollutants were removed at various rates with overall removal ranging from 99.9% for ibuprofen, diclofenac and estrone to 87.8% for carbamazepine. Accumulation of methyltriclosan as by-product of triclosan degradation was observed. The prospects and limitations of the integration of a composting process into Source Separated Sanitation concepts are discussed. PMID:26513562

  18. [Analysis of carbon balance and study on mechanism in anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic sludge reduction process].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiao-Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Man-Man; Jia, Li; Guo, Jin-Song

    2012-07-01

    In order to deeply explore the mechanism of sludge reduction in OSA system, carbon balance was performed in an anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic (A + OSA) system and a reference AO system to investigate effects of inserting a sludge holding tank in sludge cycle line on the sludge reduction process. Meanwhile, carbon mass change in each reaction unit was identified in terms of solid, liquid and gas phases. The causes of excess sludge reduction in A + OSA system were deduced. The carbon balance results show that when the hydraulic retention time in the sludge holding tank is 7.14 h, carbon percent in solid phase of the sludge reduction system is nearly 50% higher than that of the reference system, supporting the consequence that sludge reduction rate of 49.98% had been achieved. The insertion of a sludge holding tank in the sludge return circuit can be effective in sludge reduction. Carbon changes in each unit reveal that the amount of carbon consumed for biosynthesis in the anoxic and oxic tanks (main reaction zone) of the sludge reduction system is higher than in that of the reference system. Sludge decay is observed in the sludge holding tank. Furthermore, CH4 released from the sludge holding tank is significantly higher than that from the main reaction zone. The DGGE profiles show that there are hydrolytic-fermentative bacteria in the sludge holding tank related to sludge decay. The excess sludge reduction in the A + OSA system could be a result of the combination of sludge decay in the sludge holding tank and sludge compensatory growth in the main reaction cell. PMID:23002625

  19. Algaculture integration in conventional wastewater treatment plants: anaerobic digestion comparison of primary and secondary sludge with microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Ahmed; Mendez, Lara; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using microalgae biomass as feedstock for anaerobic digestion together with other biomasses (primary and secondary sludge) normally generated in WWTP. Raw microalgae biomass anaerobic biodegradability (33%) was higher than that of secondary sludge (23%). Thermal pretreatment enhanced 62% and 16% methane yield for Chlorellavulgaris and secondary sludge, respectively. When both substrates were codigested, methane yields remained low. On the other hand, primary sludge supported the highest anaerobic biodegradability (97%) and when combined with thermally pretreated C. vulgaris, methane yields were higher (13-17%) than the ones expected theoretically. Despite the high protein content of those substrates and the high nitrogen mineralization, no ammonia inhibition was detected. Thereby, this study showed that algae biomass is a potential cosubstrate for biogas production together with municipal wastewater sludge. PMID:25451781

  20. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge through microwave pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Estévez-Pastor, F S; Toro-Baptista, E

    2016-07-15

    Sewage sludge generated in the activated sludge process is a polluting waste that must be treated adequately to avoid important environmental impacts. Traditional management methods, such as landfill disposal or incineration, are being ruled out due to the high content in heavy metal, pathogens, micropolluting compounds of the sewage sludge and the lack of use of resources. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A microwave pre-treatment at pilot scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. The operational variables of microwave pre-treatment (power and specific energy applied) were optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) under different pre-treatment conditions. According to the variation in the sCOD and TN concentration, the optimal operation variables of the pre-treatment were fixed at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. A subsequent anaerobic digestion test was carried out with raw and pre-treated sewage sludge under different conditions (20,000 J/g TS and 700 W; 20,000 J/g TS and 400 W; and 30,000 J/g TS and 400 W). Although stability was maintained throughout the process, the enhancement in the total methane yield was not high (up to 17%). Nevertheless, very promising improvements were determined for the kinetics of the process, where the rG and the OLR increased by 43% and 39%, respectively, after carrying out a pre-treatment at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. PMID:27107391

  1. Comparison of two different anaerobic feeding strategies to establish a stable aerobic granulated sludge bed.

    PubMed

    Rocktäschel, T; Klarmann, C; Helmreich, B; Ochoa, J; Boisson, P; Sørensen, K H; Horn, H

    2013-11-01

    Two different anaerobic feeding strategies were compared to optimize the development and performance of aerobic granules. A stable aerobic granulation of activated sludge was achieved with an anaerobic plug flow operation (PI) and a fast influent step followed by an anaerobic mixing phase (PII). Two lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to test the different operation modes. PI with plug flow and a reactor H/D (height/diameter) ratio of 9 achieved a biomass concentration of 20 g(TSS)/L and an effluent TSS concentration of 0.10 g(TSS)/L. PII with the mixed anaerobic phase directly after feeding and a reactor H/D ratio of 2 achieved a biomass concentration of 9 g(TSS)/L and an effluent quality of 0.05 g(TSS)/L. Furthermore, it is shown that the plug flow regime during anaerobic feeding together with the lower H/D ratio of 2 led to channeling effects, which resulted in lower storage of organic carbon and a general destabilization of the granulation process. Compared to the plug flow regime (PI), the anaerobic mixing (PII) provided lower substrate gradients within the biofilm. However, these disadvantages could be compensated by higher mass transfer coefficients in PII (k(L) = 0.3 m/d for PI; k(L) = 86 m/d for PII) during the anaerobic phase. PMID:24103394

  2. Immobilization of metal-humic acid complexes in anaerobic granular sludge for their application as solid-phase redox mediators in the biotransformation of iopromide in UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zavala, Aracely S; Pat-Espadas, Aurora M; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis F; Ascacio-Valdes, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    Metal-humic acid complexes were synthesized and immobilized by a granulation process in anaerobic sludge for their application as solid-phase redox mediators (RM) in the biotransformation of iopromide. Characterization of Ca- and Fe-humic acid complexes revealed electron accepting capacities of 0.472 and 0.556milli-equivalentsg(-1), respectively. Once immobilized, metal-humic acid complexes significantly increased the biotransformation of iopromide in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Control UASB reactor (without humic material) achieved 31.6% of iopromide removal, while 80% was removed in UASB reactors supplied with each metal-humic acid complex. Further analyses indicated multiple transformation reactions taking place in iopromide including deiodination, N-dealkylation, decarboxylation and deacetylation. This is the first successful application of immobilized RM, which does not require a supporting material to maintain the solid-phase RM in long term operation of bioreactors. The proposed redox catalyst could be suitable for enhancing the redox conversion of different recalcitrant pollutants present in industrial effluents. PMID:26868154

  3. Rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Min; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Tong, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The rheological behavior of sludge is of serious concern in anaerobic digestion. This study investigated the rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment (MW-H2O2). The results showed that MW-H2O2 pretreatment resulted in the improvement of sludge flowability and weakening of its viscoelastic properties. Further positive effects on the rheological properties of digested sludge during anaerobic digestion were observed. The flowability was improved with a low level of apparent viscosity. The decrease of the consistency index and increase of the flow behavior index indicated that the strength of the inner structures and non-Newtonian flow characteristics of digested sludge weakened. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) decreased, indicating that the viscoelastic behavior became weak. These effects were possibly attributed to the changes of the digested sludge micro-structures, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study concluded that anaerobic digestion for treating sewage sludge combined with pretreatment is a more favorable option than single anaerobic digestion from the perspective of rheology. PMID:27085155

  4. Evaluation of continuous mesophilic, thermophilic and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of microwaved activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Nuno Miguel Gabriel; Droste, Ronald L; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2011-04-01

    The effects of microwave (MW) pretreatment, staging and digestion temperature on anaerobic digestion were investigated in a setup of ten reactors. A mesophilic reactor was used as a control. Its performance was compared to single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic reactors treating pretreated and non-pretreated sludge, temperature-phased (TPAD) thermophilic-mesophilic reactors treating pretreated and non-pretreated sludge and thermophilic-thermophilic reactors also treating pretreated and non-pretreated sludge. Four different sludge retention times (SRTs) (20, 15, 10 and 5 d) were tested for all reactors. Two-stage thermo-thermo reactors treating pretreated sludge produced more biogas than all other reactors and removed more volatile solids. Maximum volatile solids (VS) removal was 53.1% at an SRT of 15 d and maximum biogas increase relative to control was 106% at the shortest SRT tested. Both the maximum VS removal and biogas relative increase were measured for a system with thermophilic acidogenic reactor and thermophilic methanogenic reactor. All the two-stage systems treating microwaved sludge produced sludge free of pathogen indicator bacteria, at all tested conditions even at a total system SRT of only 5 d. MW pretreatment and staging reactors allowed the application of very short SRT (5 d) with no significant decrease in performance in terms of VS removal in comparison with the control reactor. MW pretreatment caused the solubilization of organic material in sludge but also allowed more extensive hydrolysis of organic material in downstream reactors. The association of MW pretreatment and thermophilic operation improves dewaterability of digested sludge. PMID:21470653

  5. Two-stage upflow anaerobic digestion of concentrated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.; Bleakney, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of an innovative fermentation mode, two-stage digestion, and the application of a novel upflow reactor design to permit biogasification of high-solids-content wastewater sludges at higher loading rates and lower-than-normal hydraulic residence times (HRT) to obtain higher gas and methane yields and production rates and better effluent qualities than those achieved with conventional single-stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) digesters are presented. A bench-scale two-stage upflow system operated with primary sludge at a 5.6-day HRT (1.2 days for Stage 1 and 4.4 days for Stage 2) exhibited a methane yield of 6.8 SCF/lb VS added, which was about 350% higher than that from conventional digestion at the same HRT.

  6. Effect of feed/inoculum ratio on anaerobic digestion of sonicated sludge.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Mininni, G; Tomei, M C; Rolle, E

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, relevant interest has been devoted to activated sludge disintegration and solubilisation techniques in order to cope with the biological limitations related to particulate degradation. Mechanical disintegration with ultrasound can efficiently transform insoluble organics into a soluble form: the solubilised organic matter is released from the cells to the bulk phase, thus accelerating the hydrolysis step in the digestion process. Experiments were carried out on bench scale anaerobic reactors fed with either untreated or disintegrated excess sludge, added with a biomass inoculum taken from a full scale anaerobic digester. Digestion tests have been carried out at different feed/inoculum ratios (F/I) in the range of 0.1-2, kinetics of VS reduction has been investigated and a beneficial effect of sonication is observed for all the experimental conditions. Similar beneficial results have also been found for biogas production with a maximum gain of 25% at 0.5 F/I ratio. PMID:17087372

  7. Evaluation of EPS extraction protocols from anaerobic sludge for gel-based proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Zorel, J A; Aquino, S F; Sanson, A L; Castro-Borges, W; Silva, S Q

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of anaerobic sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), their characterization is limited to information regarding their chemical classes and molecular size. This work explores the possibility of using proteomic techniques to study the proteins present in this matrix. Thus, this paper compares eight EPS extraction methods regarding extraction yield, protein/carbohydrate ratio, size distribution profile and suitability to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses. Despite the differences found in quantification and size exclusion chromatography assays, the band profile found for all methods was very similar. Considering the band pattern, extraction time and background level, heating method followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation proved to be the most appropriate method for gel-based analyses of anaerobic sludge EPS proteins. PMID:26247751

  8. Survey of the Anaerobic Biodegradation Potential of Organic Chemicals in Digesting Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, Nigel S.; Wilson, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The degradation potential of 77 organic chemicals under methanogenic conditions was examined with an anaerobic digesting sludge from the United Kingdom. Degradation was assessed in terms of net total gas (CH4 plus CO2) produced, expressed as a percentage of the theoretical production (ThGP). The compounds tested were selected from various chemical groups and included substituted phenols and benzoates, pesticides, phthalic acid esters, homocyclic and heterocyclic ring compounds, glycols, and monosubstituted benzenes. The results obtained were in good agreement with published surveys of biodegradability in U.S. digesting sludges and other methanogenic environments. In general, the presence of chloro or nitro groups inhibited anaerobic gas production, while carboxyl and hydroxyl groups facilitated biodegradation. The relationship between substituent position and susceptibility to methanogenic degradation was compound dependent. The following chemicals were completely degraded (≥80% ThGP) at a concentration of 50 mg of carbon per liter: phenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-cresol, catechol, sodium benzoate, 4-aminobenzoic acid, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, phthalic acid, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, sodium stearate, and quinoline. 3-Cresol, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, dimethyl phthalate, and pyridine were partially degraded. Although the remaining chemicals tested were either persistent or toxic, their behavior may differ at more environmentally realistic chemical-to-biomass ratios. Our findings suggest that biodegradability assessments made with sludge from one source can be extrapolated to sludge from another source with a reasonable degree of confidence and should help in predicting the fate of an organic chemical during the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. PMID:16347851

  9. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. PMID:25595391

  10. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. PMID:26115526

  11. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Jimin; Cao, Yali

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to enhance anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pretreatment. The results reveal that highly active lignocellulolytic microorganisms (Clostridium stercorarium and Bacteroides cellulosolvens) could be enriched from anaerobic sludge in ordinarily operated anaerobic digester (AD). Inoculating these microorganisms into AD could substantially enhance the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. However, this effect of bioaugmentation was shielded for raw excess sludge due to lignin incrustation in native biosolids. For this problem, pretreatments including acid, alkali, thermal and ultrasonic methods were effectively used to deconstruct the lignin incrustation, in which thermal pretreatment was demonstrated to be the most effective one. Then, pretreatment associated with bioaugmentation was successfully used to enhance the energy conversion of lignocellulosic materials, which resulted in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin to 68.8-78.2%, 77.4-89% and 15.4-33.7% respectively and thus increased the CH4 production by 210-246%, compared with ordinary AD. PMID:26712660

  12. Occurrence of trace organic contaminants in wastewater sludge and their removals by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shufan; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the occurrence of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in wastewater sludge and their removal during anaerobic digestion. The significant occurrence of 18 TrOCs in primary sludge was observed. These TrOCs occurred predominantly in the solid phase. Some of these TrOCs (e.g. paracetamol, caffeine, ibuprofen and triclosan) were also found at high concentrations (>10,000ng/L) in the aqueous phase. The overall removal of TrOCs (from both the aqueous and solid phase) by anaerobic digestion was governed by their molecular structure (e.g. the presence/absence of electron withdrawing/donating functional groups). While an increase in sludge retention time (SRT) of the digester resulted in a small but clearly discernible increase in basic biological performance (e.g. volatile solids removal and biogas production), the impact of SRT on TrOC removal was negligible. The lack of SRT influence on TrOC removal suggests that TrOCs were not the main substrate for anaerobic digestion. PMID:26795886

  13. Comparison of biogas sludge and raw crop material as source of hydrolytic cultures for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Stefan; Somitsch, Walter; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Trajanoski, Slave; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    Mixed fermentative/hydrolytic bacteria were enriched on lignocellulose substrates in minimal medium under semi-anaerobic mesophilic conditions in the presence or absence of natural zeolite as growth supporter to ultimately bioaugment non-adapted sludge and thereby enhance the overall anaerobic digestion (AD) of recalcitrant plant material. Desired enzyme activities, i.e. xylanases and cellulase were monitored during subsequent cultivation cycles. Furthermore, enriched microbial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA-based 454-Pyrosequencing, revealing Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes to be the predominant bacterial groups in cultures derived from anaerobic sludge and raw crop material, i.e. maple green cut and wheat straw as well. Enriched populations relevant for biopolymer hydrolysis were then compared in biological methane potential tests to demonstrate positive effects on the biogasification of renewable plant substrate material. A significant impact on methane productivity was observed with adapted mixed cultures when used in combination with clinoptilolite to augment and supplement non-adapted bioreactor sludge. PMID:26894564

  14. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, S; Karimi-Jashni, A; Sartaj, M

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD(rem) for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%. PMID:20194009

  15. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  16. Influence of adsorption and anaerobic granular sludge characteristics on long chain fatty acids inhibition process.

    PubMed

    Palatsi, J; Affes, R; Fernandez, B; Pereira, M A; Alves, M M; Flotats, X

    2012-10-15

    The impact of LCFA adsorption on the methanogenic activity was evaluated in batch assays for two anaerobic granular sludges in the presence and absence of bentonite as synthetic adsorbent. A clear inhibitory effect at an oleate (C18:1) concentration of 0.5 g(C18:1) L(-1) was observed for both sludges. Palmitate (C16:0) was confirmed to be the main intermediate of C18:1 degradation in not adapted sludge and its accumulation was further evidenced by fluorescence staining and microscopy techniques. LCFA inhibition could be decreased by the addition of bentonite, reducing the lag-phase and accelerating the kinetics of LCFA degradation, concluding in the importance of the adsorptive nature of the LCFA inhibitory process. Granule morphology and molecular profiling of predominant microorganisms revealed that biomass adaptation to LCFA could modify the intermediates accumulation profiles and process rates. PMID:22841596

  17. Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

    2013-11-01

    Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

  18. Sequential extraction of anaerobic digestate sludge for the determination of partitioning of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Neng-min; Qiang-Li; Guo, Xu-jing; Hui-Zhang; Yu-Deng

    2014-04-01

    In China, agricultural use of anaerobic digestate sludge is considered a concern due to high heavy metal content of the sludge. In this study, sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was conducted to determine metal speciation which affects release and mobility of metal significantly. The results of SEP showed that each heavy metal possessed different distribution characteristics. Cu mainly reacted with carboxyl functional group to form the fraction bound to organic matter. Zn and Mn were dominated in the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides and carbonates, respectively. Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd and As were present as the residual fraction. Examination of mobility factors (MFs) indicated that Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn and Cd were more mobile whereas Cr and As were immobilized in anaerobic digestate. Based on the results, it can be stated that Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni and Cd may be grouped as toxic and active components in sludge and should be regarded as the priority pollutants for elimination. Pb should be monitored in terms of its high mobility factors (MF). Cr and As, nevertheless, were the most stable components in sludge. PMID:24580817

  19. Pharmaceutical residues in sewage sludge: effect of sanitization and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Malmborg, Jonas; Magnér, Jörgen

    2015-04-15

    The fate of pharmaceutical residues in treatment of WWTP sludge was evaluated during mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) and six sanitization technologies (pasteurization, thermal hydrolysis, advanced oxidation processes using Fenton's reaction, ammonia treatment, thermophilic dry digestion, and thermophilic anaerobic digestion). Sludge spiked with a selection of 13 substances was used and in total 23 substances were detected. A correlation between substance lipophilicity and sludge partitioning was found after sample centrifugation, with e.g., SSRI drugs (90-99%) and estrogens (96-98%) mainly found in the solid phase. A correlation between lipophilicity and persistence of pharmaceutical residues during AD was also detected, indicating that hydrophobic substances are less available to degrading microorganisms. Overall, AD was found to be the most effective technology in reducing a wide spectrum of organic substances (in average ca 30% reduction). Similar effects were obtained for both AD treatments, suggesting that temperature (mesophilic or thermophilic) is less important for micropollutant reduction. Advanced oxidation processes using Fenton's reaction also affected several compounds, including substances showing general stability over the range of treatments such as carbamazepine, propranolol, and sertraline. Pasteurization, ammonia treatment, and thermophilic dry digestion exhibited relatively modest reductions. Interestingly, only thermal hydrolysis efficiently removed the ecotoxicologically potent estrogenic compounds from the sludge. PMID:25645950

  20. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  1. Bacterial stress enrichment enhances anaerobic hydrogen production in cattle manure sludge.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L

    2006-10-01

    Methodology was evaluated to selectively enrich hydrogen-producing species present in biological sludge produced during organic wastewater treatment. The influence of bacterial stress enrichment on anaerobic hydrogen-producing microorganisms was investigated in batch tests using serum bottles. Enrichment conditions investigated included application of acute physical and chemical stresses: wet heat, dry heat and desiccation, use of a methanogen inhibitor, freezing and thawing, and chemical acidification with and without preacidification of the sludge at pH 3. For each enrichment sample, cultivation pH value was set at an initial value of 7. After application of selective enrichment (by bacterial stress), hydrogen production was significantly higher than that of untreated original sludge. Hydrogen production from the inocula with bacterial stress enrichment was 1.9-9.8 times greater when compared with control sludge. Chemical acidification using perchloric acid showed the best hydrogen production potential, irrespective of preacidification. Enhancement is due to the selective capture of hydrogen-producing sporeformers, which induces altered anaerobic fermentative metabolism. PMID:16525779

  2. A hybrid anaerobic membrane bioreactor coupled with online ultrasonic equipment for digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meilan; Wen, Xianghua; Yu, Zhiyong; Li, Yushan; Huang, Xia

    2011-05-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactor and online ultrasonic equipment used to enhance membrane filtration were coupled to form a hybrid system (US-AnMBR) designed for long-term digestion of waste activated sludge. The US-AnMBR was operated under volatile solids loading rates of 1.1-3.7 gVS/L·d. After comprehensive studies on digestion performance and membrane fouling control in the US-AnMBR, the final loading rate was determined to be 2.7 gVS/L·d with 51.3% volatile solids destruction. In the US-AnMBR, the improved digestion was due to enhanced sludge disintegration, as indicated by soluble matter comparison in the supernatant and particle size distribution in the digested sludge. Maximum specific methanogenic activity revealed that ultrasound application had no negative effect on anaerobic microorganisms. Furthermore, implementing ultrasound effectively controlled membrane fouling and successfully facilitated membrane bioreactor operation. This lab-scale study demonstrates the potential feasibility and effectiveness of setting up a US-AnMBR system for sludge digestion. PMID:21421308

  3. Evaluation of the improvement of sonication pre-treatment in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Ángeles; González, Inmaculada; Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a polluting and hazardous waste generated in wastewater treatment plants with severe management problems. The high content in heavy metal, pathogens and micropolluting compounds limit the implementation of the available management methods. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment method, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A sonication pre-treatment at lab scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. Sonication time was optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) at different pre-treatment times. The pre-treatment time was fixed at 45 min under the study conditions given that the solubilisation of organic matter did not increase significantly at lower sonication times, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen increased markedly at higher times. The volatile fatty acids generation rate was also evaluated for the pre-treatment conditions. The anaerobic digestion of untreated and pre-treated sewage sludge was subsequently compared and promising results were obtained for loads of 1.0 g VS/L (VS, total volatile solids). The methane yield coefficient increased from 88 to 172 mLSTP/g VS (STP, 0 °C, 1 atm) after the pre-treatment, while biodegradability was found to be around 81% (in VS). Moreover, the allowed organic loading rate and methane production rate observed for the sewage sludge reached values of up to 4.1 kg VS/m(3)·d and 1270 LSTP/m(3)·d, respectively. PMID:25284801

  4. Batch anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and microalgae (Chlorella sorokiniana) at mesophilic temperature.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Carolina; Jeison, David; Fermoso, Fernando G; Borja, Rafael

    2016-08-23

    The microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana are used as co-substrate for waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion. The specific objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of improving methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS in co-digestion with this microalga, based on an optimized mixture percentage. Thus, the anaerobic co-digestion of both substrates aims to overcome the drawbacks of the anaerobic digestion of single WAS, simultaneously improving its management. Different co-digestion mixtures (0% WAS-100% microalgae; 25% WAS-75% microalgae; 50% WAS-50% microalgae; 75% WAS-25% microalgae; 100% WAS-0% microalgae) were studied. The highest methane yield (442 mL CH4/g VS) was obtained for the mixture with 75% WAS and 25% microalgae. This value was 22% and 39% higher than that obtained in the anaerobic digestion of the sole substrates WAS and microalgae, respectively, as well as 16% and 25% higher than those obtained for the co-digestion mixtures with 25% WAS and 75% microalgae and 50% WAS and 50% microalgae, respectively. The kinetic constant of the process increased 42%, 42% and 12%, respectively, for the mixtures with 25%, 50% and 75% of WAS compared to the substrate without WAS. Anaerobic digestion of WAS, together with C. sorokiniana, has been clearly improved by ensuring its viability, suitability and efficiency. PMID:27230742

  5. Biological pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin Yunqin; Wang Dehan; Wang Lishang

    2010-09-01

    High efficient resource recovery from pulp and paper sludge (PPS) has been the focus of attention. The objective of this research was to develop a bio-pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion of PPS to improve the methane productivity. Active and inactive mushroom compost extracts (MCE) were used for pretreating PPS, followed by anaerobic digestion with monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1-L capacity with 700 ml useful capacity. Optimal amount of active MCE for organics' solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 250 A.U./gVS( sludge). Under this condition, the PPS floc structure was well disrupted, resulting in void rate and fibre size diminishment after pretreatment. In addition, SCOD and VS removal were found to be 56% and 43.6%, respectively, after anaerobic digestion, being the peak value of VFA concentration determined as 1198 mg acetic acid L(-1). The anaerobic digestion efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment conditions was 0.23 m(3) CH4/kgVS(add), being 134.2% of the control. The results indicated that MCE bio-pretreatment could be a cost-effective and environmentally sound method for producing methane from PPS. PMID:20147578

  6. Occurrence and Fate of Trace Contaminants during Aerobic and Anaerobic Sludge Digestion and Dewatering.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Paula; Kleywegt, Sonya; Payne, Michael; Svoboda, M Lewina; Lee, Hing-Biu; Reiner, Eric; Kolic, Terry; Metcalfe, Chris; Smyth, Shirley Anne

    2015-07-01

    Digestion of municipal wastewater biosolids is a necessary prerequisite to their beneficial use in land application, in order to protect public health and the receiving environment. In this study, 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), 11 musks, and 17 polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed in 84 samples including primary sludge, waste activated sludge, digested biosolids, dewatered biosolids, and dewatering centrate or filtrate collected from five wastewater treatment plants with aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Aerobic digestion processes were sampled during both warm and cold temperatures to analyze seasonal differences. Among the studied compounds, triclosan, triclocarban, galaxolide, and BDE-209 were the substances most frequently detected under different treatment processes at levels up to 30,000 ng/g dry weight. Comparing aerobic and anaerobic digestion, it was observed that the levels of certain PPCPs and musks were significantly higher in anaerobically digested biosolids, relative to the residues from aerobic digestion. Therefore, aerobic digestion has the potential advantage of reducing levels of PPCPs and musks. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion has the advantage of recovering energy from the biosolids in the form of combustible gases while retaining the nutrient and soil conditioning value of this resource. PMID:26437100

  7. Comparison of sludge digestion under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with a focus on the degradation of proteins at mesophilic temperature.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liming; Wang, Tianfeng; Li, Tianshui; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are popular methods for the treatment of waste activated sludge. However, the differences in degradation of sludge during aerobic and anaerobic digestion remain unclear. In this study, the sludge degradation during aerobic and anaerobic digestion was investigated at mesophilic temperature, focused on protein based on the degradation efficiency and degree of humification. The duration of aerobic and anaerobic digestion was about 90 days. The final degradation efficiency of volatile solid was 66.1 ± 1.6% and 66.4 ± 2.4% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The final degradation efficiency of protein was 67.5 ± 1.4% and 65.1 ± 2.6% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The degradation models of volatile solids were consistent with those of protein under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The solubility of protein under aerobic digestion was greater than that under anaerobic digestion. Moreover, the humification index of dissolved organic matter of aerobic digestion was greater than that during anaerobic digestion. PMID:23685650

  8. Mixing characteristics of sludge simulant in a model anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Low, Siew Cheng; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Slatter, Paul; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Parthasarathy, Rajarathinam

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the mixing characteristics of a transparent sludge simulant in a mechanically agitated model digester using flow visualisation technique. Video images of the flow patterns were obtained by recording the progress of an acid-base reaction and analysed to determine the active and inactive volumes as a function of time. The doughnut-shaped inactive region formed above and below the impeller in low concentration simulant decreases in size with time and disappears finally. The 'cavern' shaped active mixing region formed around the impeller in simulant solutions with higher concentrations increases with increasing agitation time and reaches a steady state equilibrium size, which is a function of specific power input. These results indicate that the active volume is jointly determined by simulant rheology and specific power input. A mathematical correlation is proposed to estimate the active volume as a function of simulant concentration in terms of yield Reynolds number. PMID:26739143

  9. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile in sewage sludge by anaerobic thermophilic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changyun; Salsali, Hamidreza; Weese, Scott; Warriner, Keith

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in community-associated Clostridium difficile infections with biosolids derived from wastewater treatment being identified as one potential source. The current study evaluated the efficacy of thermophilic digestion in decreasing levels of C. difficile ribotype 078 associated with sewage sludge. Five isolates of C. difficile 078 were introduced (final density of 5 log CFU/g) into digested sludge and subjected to anaerobic digestion at mesophilic (36 or 42 °C) or thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures for up to 60 days. It was found that mesophilic digestion at 36 °C did not result in a significant reduction in C. difficile spore levels. In contrast, thermophilic sludge digestion reduced endospore levels at a rate of 0.19-2.68 log CFU/day, depending on the strain tested. The mechanism of lethality was indirect - by stimulating germination then inactivating the resultant vegetative cells. Acidification of sludge by adding acetic acid (6 g/L) inhibited the germination of spores regardless of the sludge digestion temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic digestion can be applied to reduce C. difficile in biosolids, thereby reducing the environmental burden of the enteric pathogen. PMID:26564276

  10. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ► MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ► Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ► In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ► Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively.

  11. Correlation between Organic Matter Degradation and the Rheological Performance of Waste Sludge During Anaerobic Digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Evangelina S.; Hernández-Hernándes, José A.; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M.; Cantú-Lozano, Denis

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has demonstrated to be a good possibility to reduce the organic matter contents in waste activated sludge resulting in the effluents treatment. An anaerobic digestion was carried out in a 3.5 L reactor at 35 °C for a period of 20 days. An electronic thermostat controlled the temperature. The reactor was agitated at a rate of 200 rpm. The study of the rheological behavior of the waste activated sludge was done with an Anton Paar™ rheometer model MCR301 with a peltier plate for temperature control. Four-blade vane geometry was used with samples of 37 mL for determining rheological properties. Sampling (two samples) was taken every four days of anaerobic digestion through a peristaltic pump. The samples behavior was characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with R2>0.99 for most cases. In all samples were found an apparent viscosity (ηap) and yield stress (τo) decrement when organic matter content diminishes. This demonstrates a relationship between rheological properties and organic matter concentration (% volatile solids). Also the flow activation energy (Ea) was calculated using the Ahrrenius correlation and samples of waste activated sludge before anaerobic digestion. In this case, samples were run in the rheometer at 200 rpm and a temperature range of 25 to 75 °C with an increment rate of 2 °C per minute. The yield stress observed was in a range of 0.93-0.18 Pa, the apparent viscosity was in a range of 0.0358-0.0010 Pa.s, the reduction of organic matter was in a range of 62.57-58.43% volatile solids and the average flow activation energy was 1.71 Calṡg-mol-1.

  12. Sludge Retention Time as a Suitable Operational Parameter to Remove Both Estrogen and Nutrients in an Anaerobic-Anoxic-Aerobic Activated Sludge System.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingling; Li, Yongmei; Yang, Shijia

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen in wastewater are responsible for a significant part of the endocrine-disrupting effects observed in the aquatic environment. The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal and fate of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic activated sludge system designed for nutrient removal was investigated by laboratory-scale experiments using synthetic wastewater. With a hydraulic retention time of 8 h, when SRT ranged 10-25 days, E2 was almost completely removed from water, and EE2 removal efficiency was 65%-81%. Both estrogens were easily sorbed onto activated sludge. Distribution coefficients (K d) of estrogens on anaerobic sludge were greater than those on anoxic and aerobic sludges. Mass balance calculation indicated that 99% of influent E2 was degraded by the activated sludge process, and 1% remained in excess sludge; of influent EE2, 62.0%-80.1% was biodegraded; 18.9%-34.7% was released in effluent; and 0.88%-3.31% remained in excess sludge. Optimal SRT was 20 days for both estrogen and nutrient removal. E2 was almost completely degraded, and EE2 was only partly degraded in the activated sludge process. Residual estrogen on excess sludge must be considered in the sludge treatment and disposal processes. The originality of the work is that removal of nutrients and estrogens were linked, and optimal SRT for both estrogen and nutrient removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system was determined. This has an important implication for the design and operation of full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:23633892

  13. Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on sludge dewaterability and extracellular polymeric substances distribution in mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liming; Wang, Guanzhao; Xu, Huacheng; Yu, Guanghui; He, Pinjing

    2010-01-01

    Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on sludge dewaterability was determined and the fate of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix in mesophilic anaerobic digestion after ultrasonic pretreatment was studied. Characteristics of proteins (PN), polysaccharides (PS), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution of dissolved organic matters (DOM) in different EPS fractions were evaluated. The results showed that after ultrasonic pretreatment, the normalized capillary suction time (CST) decreased from 44.4 to 11.1 (sec x L)/g total suspended solids (TSS) during anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved. The normalized CST was significantly correlated with PN concentration (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.01) and the PN/PS ratio (R2 = 0.84, p < 0.01) in the loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) fraction. Meanwhile, the average MW of DOM in the LB-EPS and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) fractions also had a good correlation with the normalized CST (R2 > 0.66, p < 0.01). According to EEM fluorescence spectroscopy, tryptophan-like substances intensities in the slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS fractions were correlated with the normalized CST. The organic matters in the EPS matrix played an important role in influencing sludge dewaterability. PMID:20614793

  14. Metal concentrations in lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Fenton, O; Forrestal, P J; Danaher, M; Brennan, R B; Morrison, L

    2016-02-01

    Cognisant of the negative debate and public sentiment about the land application of treated sewage sludges ('biosolids'), it is important to characterise such wastes beyond current regulated parameters. Concerns may be warranted, as many priority metal pollutants may be present in biosolids. This study represents the first time that extensive use was made of a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser to characterise metals in sludges, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, lime stabilisation, or anaerobic digestion, in 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ireland. The concentrations of metals, expressed as mgkg(-1) dry solids (DS), which are currently regulated in the European Union, ranged from 11 (cadmium, anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids) to 1273mgkg(-1) (zinc, AD biosolids), and with the exception of lead in one WWTP (which had a concentration of 3696mgkg(-1)), all metals were within EU regulatory limits. Two potentially hazardous metals, antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), for which no legislation currently exists, were much higher than their baseline concentrations in soils (17-20mgSbkg(-1) and 23-55mgSnkg(-1)), meaning that potentially large amounts of these elements may be applied to the soil without regulation. This study recommends that the regulations governing the values for metal concentrations in sludges for reuse in agriculture are extended to include Sb and Sn. PMID:26611400

  15. Comparative evaluation of anaerobic digestion for sewage sludge and various organic wastes with simple modeling.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Tsumori, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes, such as kitchen garbage, food waste, and agricultural waste, at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. Substrate characteristics and the anaerobic digestion performance of sewage sludge and various organic wastes were compared using experiments and modeling. Co-digestion improved the value of digested sewage sludge as a fertilizer. The relationship between total and soluble elemental concentrations was correlated with the periodic table: most Na and K (alkali metals) were soluble, and around 20-40% of Mg and around 10-20% of Ca (alkaline earth metals) were soluble. The ratio of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand of organic wastes was 65-90%. The methane conversion ratio and methane production rate under mesophilic conditions were evaluated using a simplified mathematical model. There was reasonably close agreement between the model simulations and the experimental results in terms of methane production and nitrogen concentration. These results provide valuable information and indicate that the model can be used as a pre-evaluation tool to facilitate the introduction of co-digestion at WWTPs. PMID:26031329

  16. Effect of chemo-mechanical disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; Pray, S Saji; Yogalakshmi, K N; Kumar, S Adish; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    The effect of combined surfactant-dispersion pretreatment on dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction in anaerobic digesters was investigated. The experiments were performed with surfactant, Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 g/g suspended solids (SS) and disperser with rpm of 5000-25,000. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) solubilization, suspended solids reduction, and biogas generation increased for an energy input of 7377 kJ/kg total solids (TS) (12,000 rpm, 0.04 g/g SS, and 30 min) and were found to be 38, 32, and 75 %, higher than that of control. The pretreated sludge improved the performance of semicontinuous anaerobic digesters of 4 L working volume operated at four different SRTs (sludge retention time). SRT of 15 days was found to be appropriate showing 49 and 51 % reduction in SS and volatile solids (VS), respectively. The methane yield of the pretreated sample was observed to be 50 mL/g VS removed which was observed to be comparatively higher than the control (12 mL/g VS removed) at optimal SRT of 15 days. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to be reported and not yet been documented in literature. PMID:26416122

  17. Effect of temperature on removal of antibiotic resistance genes by anaerobic digestion of activated sludge revealed by metagenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Yang, Ying; Pruden, Amy

    2015-09-01

    As antibiotic resistance continues to spread globally, there is growing interest in the potential to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from wastewater sources. In particular, operational conditions during sludge digestion may serve to discourage selection of resistant bacteria, reduce horizontal transfer of ARGs, and aid in hydrolysis of DNA. This study applied metagenomic analysis to examine the removal efficiency of ARGs through thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion using bench-scale reactors. Although the relative abundance of various ARGs shifted from influent to effluent sludge, there was no measureable change in the abundance of total ARGs or their diversity in either the thermophilic or mesophilic treatment. Among the 35 major ARG subtypes detected in feed sludge, substantial reductions (removal efficiency >90%) of 8 and 13 ARGs were achieved by thermophilic and mesophilic digestion, respectively. However, resistance genes of aadA, macB, and sul1 were enriched during the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, while resistance genes of erythromycin esterase type I, sul1, and tetM were enriched during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Efflux pump remained to be the major antibiotic resistance mechanism in sludge samples, but the portion of ARGs encoding resistance via target modification increased in the anaerobically digested sludge relative to the feed. Metagenomic analysis provided insight into the potential for anaerobic digestion to mitigate a broad array of ARGs. PMID:25994259

  18. A laboratory-scale test of anaerobic digestion and methane production after phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Kishino, Machiko; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2004-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes, activated sludge microorganisms accumulate large quantities of polyphosphate (polyP) intracellularly. We previously discovered that nearly all of polyP could be released from waste activated sludge simply by heating it at 70 degrees C for about 1 h. We also demonstrated that this simple method was applicable to phosphorus (P) recovery from waste activated sludge in a pilot plant-scale EBPR process. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of this sludge processing (heat treatment followed by calcium phosphate precipitation) on anaerobic digestion in laboratory-scale experiments. The results suggested that the sludge processing for P recovery could improve digestive efficiency and methane productivity at both mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (53 degrees C) temperatures. In addition, heat-treated waste sludge released far less P into the digested sludge liquor than did untreated waste sludge. It is likely that the P recovery step prior to anaerobic digestion has a potential advantage for controlling struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) deposit problems in sludge handling processes. PMID:16233643

  19. Anaerobic digestion of ultrasonicated sludge at different solids concentrations - Computation of mass-energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Sridhar; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2016-01-15

    Two cases of anaerobic digestion (AD) of sludge, namely (i) with pre-treatment and (ii) without pre-treatment, were assessed using mass-energy balance and the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For a digestion period of 30 days, volatile solids degradation of the control sludge and the ultrasonicated secondary sludge was 51.4% and 60.1%, respectively. Mass balance revealed that the quantity of digestate required for dewatering, transport and land application was the lowest (20.2 × 10(6) g dry sludge/day) for ultrasonicated secondary sludge at 31.4 g TS/L. Furthermore, for ultrasonicated secondary sludge at 31.4 g TS/L, the maximum net energy (energy output - energy input) of total dry solids (TDS) was 7.89 × 10(-6) kWh/g and the energy ratio (output/input) was 1.0. GHG emissions were also reduced with an increase in the sludge solids concentration (i.e., 40.0 g TS/L < 30.0 g TS/L < 20.0 g TS/L). Ultrasonication pre-treatment proved to be efficient and beneficial for enhancing anaerobic digestion efficiency of the secondary sludge when compared to the primary and mixed sludge. PMID:26546884

  20. Predictive functional profiling using marker gene sequences and community diversity analyses of microbes in full-scale anaerobic sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Liu, Guoji; Li, Hongping; Xu, Li; Du, Lili; Yang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used in treating the sewage sludge, as it can reduce the amount of sludge, eliminate pathogens and produce biofuel. To enhance the operational performance and stability of anaerobic bioreactors, operational and conventional chemical data from full-scale sludge anaerobic digesters were collected over a 2-year period and summarized, and the microbial community diversity of the sludge sample was investigated at various stages of the AD process. For the purpose of distinguishing between the functional and community diversity of the microbes, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) software was used to impute the prevalence of 16S rDNA marker gene sequences in the difference in various sludge samples. Meanwhile, a taxa analysis was also carried out to investigate the different sludge samples. The microbial community diversity analysis of one AD sludge sample showed that the most dominant bacterial genera were Saccharicrinis, Syntrophus, Anaerotruncus and Thermanaerothrix. Among archaea, acetoclastic Methanosaeta represented 56.0 %, and hydrogenotrophic Methanospirillum, Methanoculleus, Methanothermus and Methanolinea accounted for 41.3 % of all methanogens. The taxa, genetic and functional prediction analyses of the feedstock and AD sludge samples suggested great community diversity differences between them. The taxa of bacteria in two AD sludge samples were considerably different, but the abundances of the functional KEGG pathways took on similar levels. The numbers of identified pathogens were significantly lower in the digested sludge than in the feedstock, but the PICRUSt results showed the difference in "human diseases" abundances in the level-1 pathway between the two sludge samples was small. PMID:27016946

  1. Enhanced Versus Conventional Sludge Anaerobic Processes: Performances and Techno-Economic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gianico, Andrea; Bertanza, Giorgio; Braguglia, Camilla M; Canato, Matteo; Gallipoli, Agata; Laera, Giuseppe; Levantesi, Caterina; Mininni, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Sewage sludge processing is a key issue in water resource recovery facilities due to the inefficacy of conventional treatments to produce high quality biosolids to be safely used in agriculture. Under this framework, the performances of several enhanced stabilization processes, namely ultrasound-pretreated Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (US+MAD), thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), thermal-pretreated TAD (TH+TAD) and ultrasound-pretreated inverse Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (US+iTPAD) have been investigated. Such enhanced processes resulted in higher biogas yields and higher destruction of pathogens with respect to conventional MAD process, thus suggesting their feasibility in full-scale implementation perspectives. A procedure for technical-economic comparison of new sludge processing lines against conventional ones (benchmarking) was developed, based on the definition of technical issues (e.g. reliability, complexity, etc.) which are rated for each situation. Moreover, capital and operating costs were estimated. The enhanced processes analyzed in this work showed some potentially critical items, mainly related to energy balance and reagent consumption. PMID:27131310

  2. Simplified mechanistic model for the two-stage anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andrés; Pérez-Elvira, Sara; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Two-phase anaerobic systems are being increasingly implemented for the treatment of both sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Despite the good amount of mathematical models in anaerobic digestion, few have been applied in two-phase systems. In this study, a three-reaction mechanistic model has been developed, implemented and validated by using experimental data from a long-term anaerobic two-phase (TPAD) digester treating sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most influential parameters of the model are the ones related to the hydrolysis reaction and the activity of methanogens in the thermophilic reactor. The calibration procedure highlights a noticeable growth rate of the thermophilic methanogens throughout the evaluation period. Overall, all the measured variables are properly predicted by the model during both the calibration and the cross-validation periods. The model's representation of the organic matter behaviour is quite good. The most important disagreements are observed for the biogas production especially during the validation period. The whole application procedure underlines the ability of the model to properly predict the behaviour of this bioprocess. PMID:25400016

  3. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures to describe metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludges.

    PubMed

    Hullebusch, Eric D van; Utomo, Sudarno; Zandvoort, Marcel H; L Lens, Piet N

    2005-01-30

    In the last few decades, several sequential extraction procedures have been developed to quantify the chemical status of metals in the solid phase. In this study, three extraction techniques (modified [A. Tessier, P.G.C. Campbell, M. Bisson, Anal. Chem. 51 (1979) 844]; [R.C. Stover, L.E. Sommers, D.J. Silvera, J. Water Pollut. Con. F. 48 (1976) 2165]; and the Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR) [K.F. Mossop, C.M. Davidson, Anal. Chim. Acta 478 (2003) 111]) were applied to study the distribution of trace (Co, Ni, Zn and Cu) and major (Mn and Fe) elements in two different anaerobic granular sludges from full-scale methanogenic wastewater treatment plants. The Stover scheme displayed a higher number of fractions that induces a poor recovery compared to the other schemes. The sequential extraction scheme recommended by BCR and the modified Tessier scheme gave similar trends and are sufficiently repeatable and reproducible for application in fractionation studies. However, the BCR scheme seems to be of limited utilisation to study anaerobic matrixes because the extraction stage for its reducible fraction may release substantial amounts of trace elements bound to the organic/sulfides fraction, and consequently, the recovery of trace elements in the oxide fraction may be overestimated at the expense of the oxidisable fraction. As a final conclusion, the modified Tessier scheme seems to be the most suitable scheme to study the metal partitioning in anaerobic granular sludges. PMID:18969834

  4. Identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors (Blrs) with anaerobic granular sludge and residual activated sludge for brewery wastewater treatment and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu; Huang, Zhenxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-10-01

    Two identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors treating brewery wastewater were inoculated with different types of sludge to compare their operational conditions, sludge characteristics, and kinetic models at a mesophilic temperature. One reactor (R1) started up with anaerobic granular sludge in 12 weeks and obtained a continuously average organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.4 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 80%, and effluent COD of 450 mg/L. The other reactor (R2) started up with residual activated sludge in 30 weeks and granulation accomplished when the reactor reached an average OLR of 8.3 kg COD/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 90%, and effluent COD of 240 mg/L. Differences in sludge characteristics, biogas compositions, and biogas-lift processes may be accounted for the superior efficiency of the treatment performance of R2 over R1. Grau second-order and modified StoverKincannon models based on influent and effluent concentrations as well as hydraulic retention time were successfully used to develop kinetic parameters of the experimental data with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.95), which further showed that R2 had higher treatment performance than R1. These results demonstrated that residual activated sludge could be used effectively instead of anaerobic granular sludge despite the need for a longer time. PMID:24494489

  5. Comparison of endogenous metabolism during long-term anaerobic starvation of nitrite/nitrate cultivated denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Wang, Hong; Ye, Liu; Qin, Jian; Lin, Ximao

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) by denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) is a promising approach for reducing energy and carbon usage. However, influent fluctuations or interruptions frequently expose the DPAOs biomass to starvation conditions, reducing biomass activity and amount, and ultimately degrading the performance of DPR. Therefore, a better understanding of the endogenous metabolism and recovery ability of DPAOs is urgently required. In the present study, anaerobic starvation (12 days) and recovery were investigated in nitrite- and nitrate-cultivated DPAOs at 20 ± 1 °C. The cell decay rates in nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were 0.008 day⁻¹ and 0.007 day⁻¹, respectively, being 64% and 68% lower than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Nitrite-DPAOs sludges also recovered more rapidly than nitrate-DPAOs sludge after 12 days of starvation. The maintenance energy of nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were approximately 31% and 34% lower, respectively, than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Glycogen and polyphosphate (poly-P) sequentially served as the main maintenance energy sources in both nitrite-and nitrate-DPAOs sludges. However, the transformation pathway of the intracellular polymers during starvation differed between them. Nitrate-DPAOs sludge used extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (mainly polysaccharides) as an additional maintenance energy source during the first 3 days of starvation. During this phase, EPS appeared to contribute to 19-27% of the ATP production in nitrate-DPAOs, but considerably less to the cell maintenance of nitrite-DPAOs. The high resistance of nitrite-DPAOs to starvation might be attributable to frequent short-term starvation and exposure to toxic substances such as nitrite/free nitrous acids in the parent nitrite-fed reactor. The strong resistance of nitrite-DPAOs sludge to anaerobic starvation may be exploited in P removal

  6. Effects of oxidation reduction potential in the bypass micro-aerobic sludge zone on sludge reduction for a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexun; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongpin; Liu, Dongfang

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on sludge reduction in a bypass micro-aerobic sludge reduction system. The system was composed of a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process with a sludge holding tank in the sludge recycle loop. The ORPs in the micro-aerobic tanks were set at approximately +350, -90, -150, -200 and -250 mV, by varying the length of aeration time for the tanks. The results show that lower ORP result in greater sludge volume reduction, and the sludge production was reduced by 60% at the lowest ORP. In addition, low ORP caused extracellular polymer substances dissociation and slightly reduced sludge activity. Comparing the sludge backflow characteristics of the micro-aerobic tank's ORP controlled at -250 mV with that of +350 mV, the average soluble chemical oxygen (SCOD), TN and TP increased by 7, 0.4 and 2 times, median particle diameter decreased by 8.5 μm and the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased by 0.0043 milligram O2 per gram suspended solids per minute. For the effluent, SCOD and TN and TP fluctuated around 30, 8.7 and 0.66 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the effective assignment of ORP in the micro-aerobic tank can remarkably reduce sludge volume and does not affect final effluent quality. PMID:24845332

  7. Upgrading of the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by combining temperature-phased anaerobic digestion and intermediate ozonation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Li, Y Y; Harada, H; Yasui, H; Noike, T

    2009-01-01

    Upgrading of the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) by the combination of temperature-phased two-stage digestion and intermediate ozonation was investigated by a continuous experiment with two processes, TM and TOM. The TM process is a temperature-phased two-stage system, which consists of a thermophilic digester and a mesophilic digester in series. The TOM process is a temperature-phased two-stage process with the intermediate ozonation. Two processes were operated at hydraulic retention times of 30 days for over 123 days. Waste activated sludge taken from wastewater treatment plant was fed as a substrate. Microbial community structure in each digester was analysed with molecular tools. Despite of less amount of ozone dose in TOM than ozone pre-treatment process, better effect of ozonation on performance improvement was obtained in TOM. TOM had the highest methane yield and COD(Cr) reduction among comparative processes. Furthermore, flocculation efficiency of TOM followed that of mesophilic digestion. Quality of dewatered supernatant is comparable to mesophilic digestion. PMID:19151501

  8. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling. PMID:24284260

  9. Continuous thermal hydrolysis and energy integration in sludge anaerobic digestion plants.

    PubMed

    Fdz-Polanco, F; Velazquez, R; Perez-Elvira, S I; Casas, C; del Barrio, D; Cantero, F J; Fdz-Polanco, M; Rodriguez, P; Panizo, L; Serrat, J; Rouge, P

    2008-01-01

    A thermal hydrolysis pilot plant with direct steam injection heating was designed and constructed. In a first period the equipment was operated in batch to verify the effect of sludge type, pressure and temperature, residence time and solids concentration. Optimal operation conditions were reached for secondary sludge at 170 degrees C, 7 bar and 30 minutes residence time, obtaining a disintegration factor higher than 10, methane production increase by 50% and easy centrifugation In a second period the pilot plant was operated working with continuous feed, testing the efficiency by using two continuous anaerobic digester operating in the mesophilic and thermophilic range. Working at 12 days residence time, biogas production increases by 40-50%. Integrating the energy transfer it is possible to design a self-sufficient system that takes advantage of this methane increase to produce 40% more electric energy. PMID:18469393

  10. Fractionation of heavy metals in sludge from anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds in southern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, E.

    2006-07-01

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to assess the potential environmental and health risk associated with the sludge coming from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, it is necessary to apply sequential extraction techniques to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability or toxicity. In this paper, a sequential extraction scheme according to the Standard, Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission was applied to sludge samples collected from ten anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) located in southern Spain. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn were determined in the sludge extracts by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In relation to current international legislation for the use of sludge for agricultural purposes, none of the metal concentrations exceeded maximum permitted levels. Overall, heavy metals were mainly associated with the two less-available fractions (34% oxidizable metal and 55% residual metal). Only Mn and Zn showed the highest share of the available (exchangeable and reducible) fractions (25-48%)

  11. Enhancing post aerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Zhou, Xu; Peng, Lai; Wang, Dongbo; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    Post aerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been extensively applied to the wastewater treatment plants to enhance sludge reduction. However, the degradation of ADS in the post aerobic digester itself is still limited. In this work, an innovative free nitrous acid (HNO2 or FNA)-based pretreatment approach is proposed to improve full-scale ADS degradation in post aerobic digester. The post aerobic digestion was conducted by using an activated sludge to aerobically digest ADS for 4 days. Degradations of the FNA-treated (treated at 1.0 and 2.0 mg N/L for 24 h) and untreated ADSs were then determined and compared. The ADS was degraded by 26% and 32%, respectively, in the 4-day post aerobic digestion period while being pretreated at 1.0 and 2.0 mg HNO2-N/L. In comparison, only 20% of the untreated ADS was degraded. Economic analysis demonstrated that the implementation of FNA pretreatment can be economically favourable or not depending on the sludge transport and disposal cost. PMID:26901471

  12. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system. PMID:24494492

  13. Anaerobic treatability of liquid residue from wet oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Galessi, Raniero; Menoni, Laura; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Salvetti, Roberta; Zanaboni, Sabrina

    2015-05-01

    Wet Oxidation (WO) of sewage sludge is a chemical oxidation of sludge at high temperatures and pressures by means of an oxygen-containing gas. The liquid stream originated by WO is easily biodegradable, and therefore, the recirculation to the biological Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) may be a feasible solution. However, the WO effluent has a residual organic and nitrogen content so that its treatment may be required when the receiving WWTP has no surplus treatment capacity left. The aim of this research was the assessment of the anaerobic treatability of the WO liquid residue, in order to reduce the organic load to be recirculated to the WWTP, simultaneously promoting energy recovery. For this purpose, the liquid residue obtained during full scale WO tests on two different types of sludge was submitted to anaerobic digestion in a continuous flow pilot reactor (V = 5 L). Furthermore, batch tests were carried out in order to evaluate possible inhibition factors. Experimental results showed that, after the start-up/acclimation period (~130 days), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was stably around 60% for about 120 days, despite the change in operating conditions. In the last phase of the experimental activity, COD removal reached 70% under the following treatment conditions: Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) = 20 days, Volumetric Organic Loading Rate (VOLR) = 0.868 kg COD/m(3)/day, Organic Loading Rate per Volatile Suspended Solids (OLRvss) = 0.078 kg COD/kg VSS/day, temperature (T) = 36.5 °C, pH = 8. Energy balance calculation demonstrated anaerobic treatment sustainability. PMID:25035054

  14. Simple method for the measurement of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity of anaerobic sludges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Coughlan, M.F.; Colleran, E.

    1996-01-01

    The specific hydrogenotrophic activity of anaerobic sludges is usually assayed by gas chromatographic analysis for methane in the headspace of sealed test vials. Gas is sampled with a pressure lock syringe which allows quantification independent of the pressure prevailing in the vials. An alternative method was developed using pressure transducer monitoring of the decrease in headspace gas pressure as the H2/CO2 substrate is converted to CH4. Application of a simple formula related the decrease at each sample point to millilitres of CH4 produced and gave values for the specific hydrogenotrophic activity of granular anaerobic sludge which were in good agreement with the values obtained by the more labor-intensive gas chromatographic method. The simplicity of the method facilitates multiple replicate analyses and allows more accurate determination of initial rates than is achievable by the gas chromatographic method which is prone to analytical error at the very low concentrations of CH4 present in the headspace during the early stages of the assay. Mass transfer of H2 from headspace to liquid was found to be rate-limiting and to result in significant under-estimation of the specific hydrogenotrophic activity of the granular sludge. A test protocol, which used a vial volatile suspended solids concentration between 1.7 and 8 g l-1; a 1:5 ratio between liquid and headspace; incubation of the vials horizontally with vigorous shaking (180 rev./min) and an initial H2/CO2 (80/20) gas pressure of 100-150 kPa was found to give reproducible and maximal values for the specific hydrogenotrophic activity of the test sludge.

  15. Enhancement of anaerobic biohydrogen/methane production from cellulose using heat-treated activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Lay, C H; Chang, F Y; Chu, C Y; Chen, C C; Chi, Y C; Hsieh, T T; Huang, H H; Lin, C Y

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective technology to convert cellulosic wastes to methane and hydrogen. Heat-treatment is a well known method to inhibit hydrogen-consuming bacteria in using anaerobic mixed cultures for seeding. This study aims to investigate the effects of heat-treatment temperature and time on activated sludge for fermentative hydrogen production from alpha-cellulose by response surface methodology. Hydrogen and methane production was evaluated based on the production rate and yield (the ability of converting cellulose into hydrogen and methane) with heat-treated sludge as the seed at various temperatures (60-97 degrees C) and times (20-60 min). Batch experiments were conducted at 55 degrees C and initial pH of 8.0. The results indicate that hydrogen and methane production yields peaked at 4.3 mmol H2/g cellulose and 11.6 mmol CH4/g cellulose using the seed activated sludge that was thermally treated at 60 degrees C for 40 min. These parameter values are higher than those of no-treatment seed (HY 3.6 mmol H2/g cellulose and MY 10.4 mmol CH4/g cellulose). The maximum hydrogen production rate of 26.0 mmol H2/L/d and methane production rate of 23.2 mmol CH4/L/d were obtained for the seed activated sludge that was thermally treated at 70 degrees C for 50 min and 60 degrees C for 40 min, respectively. PMID:21902022

  16. Segregation of biomass in cyclic anaerobic/aerobic granular sludge allows the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mari K H; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Kuenen, J Gijs; Yang, Jingjing; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2011-09-01

    A cyclic anaerobic/aerobic bubble column reactor was run for 420 days to study the competition for nitrite between nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Anammox) at low temperatures. An anaerobic feeding period with nitrite and ammonium in the influent followed by an aerated period was applied resulting in a biomass specific conversion rate of 0.18 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1)· day(-1)] when the dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 1.0 mgO(2) · L(-1). An increase in white granules was observed in the reactor which were mainly located at the top of the settled sludge bed, whereas red granules were located at the bottom. FISH, activity tests, and qPCR techniques revealed that red biomass was dominated by Anammox bacteria and white granules by NOB. Granules from the top of the sludge bed were smaller and therefore had a higher aerobic volume fraction, a lower density, and consequently a slower settling rate. Sludge was manually removed from the top of the settled sludge bed to selectively remove NOB which resulted in an increased overall biomass specific N-conversion rate of 0.32 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1) · day(-1)]. Biomass segregation in granular sludge reactors gives an extra opportunity to select for specific microbial groups by applying a different SRT for different microbial groups. PMID:21744798

  17. Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

  18. Identification and Detection of Prokaryotic Symbionts in the Ciliate Metopus from Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prokaryotic community structure of the anaerobic ciliate, Metopus sp. using rRNA sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Metopus sp. was physically separated from anaerobic granular sludge in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and anoxically cultivated for 7 d. 16S rRNA gene sequences from the prokaryotes Methanoregula boonei and Clostridium aminobutyricum were abundantly detected in Metopus ciliates. The FISH analysis using the oligonucleotide probes Mg1200b and Cla568 demonstrated that these prokaryotes were localized within Metopus cells. These results identify M. boonei- and C. aminobutyricum-like prokaryotes as novel endosymbionts of Metopus ciliates. PMID:26639580

  19. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher's Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E J; Gil, M V; Fernandez, C; Rosas, J G; Gómez, X

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  20. High-Rate Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR) Processes to Minimize the Production of Excess Sludge.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Chon, Dong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    High-rate anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) processes were developed to minimize excess sludge production during wastewater treatment. New ASSRs were operated in 2.5-day solids retention time (SRT), much shorter than 10-day SRT used by the commercial sludge reduction process. The 2.5-day was selected based on literature review and preliminary studies, showing that maximum solublization of key floc components, such as divalent cations, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and protease, occur within 2 to 3 days of anaerobic digestion. The laboratory reactor study showed that 2.5-day ASSR systems produced approximately 60 and 20% less sludge than the control (no ASSR) and the 10-day ASSR, respectively. The experimental systems showed acceptable effluent quality, despite minimal sludge wastage. This was possible because sludge EPS were continuously released/degraded and regenerated as sludge underwent recirculation between ASSR and the aerobic basin. The results supported that the activated sludge process incorporating small ASSRs significantly decrease the production of excess sludge during wastewater treatment. PMID:26652121

  1. Characterization and Adaptation of Anaerobic Sludge Microbial Communities Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Emilie; Cooper, Ellen; Stapleton, Heather M; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2016-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in the environment is raising questions about its potential ecological and human health impacts. TBBPA is microbially transformed under anaerobic conditions to bisphenol A (BPA). However, little is known about which taxa degrade TBBPA and the adaptation of microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of TBBPA on microbial community structure during the start-up phase of a bench-scale anaerobic sludge reactor, and identify taxa that may be associated with TBBPA degradation. TBBPA degradation was monitored using LC/MS-MS, and the microbial community was characterized using Ion Torrent sequencing and qPCR. TBBPA was nearly completely transformed to BPA via reductive debromination in 55 days. Anaerobic reactor performance was not negatively affected by the presence of TBBPA and the bulk of the microbial community did not experience significant shifts. Several taxa showed a positive response to TBBPA, suggesting they may be associated with TBBPA degradation. Some of these taxa had been previously identified as dehalogenating bacteria including Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Propionibacterium, and Methylosinus species, but most had not previously been identified as having dehalogenating capacities. This study is the first to provide in-depth information on the microbial dynamics of anaerobic microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. PMID:27463972

  2. Characterization and Adaptation of Anaerobic Sludge Microbial Communities Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Emilie; Cooper, Ellen; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in the environment is raising questions about its potential ecological and human health impacts. TBBPA is microbially transformed under anaerobic conditions to bisphenol A (BPA). However, little is known about which taxa degrade TBBPA and the adaptation of microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of TBBPA on microbial community structure during the start-up phase of a bench-scale anaerobic sludge reactor, and identify taxa that may be associated with TBBPA degradation. TBBPA degradation was monitored using LC/MS-MS, and the microbial community was characterized using Ion Torrent sequencing and qPCR. TBBPA was nearly completely transformed to BPA via reductive debromination in 55 days. Anaerobic reactor performance was not negatively affected by the presence of TBBPA and the bulk of the microbial community did not experience significant shifts. Several taxa showed a positive response to TBBPA, suggesting they may be associated with TBBPA degradation. Some of these taxa had been previously identified as dehalogenating bacteria including Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Propionibacterium, and Methylosinus species, but most had not previously been identified as having dehalogenating capacities. This study is the first to provide in-depth information on the microbial dynamics of anaerobic microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. PMID:27463972

  3. Poultry slaughter wastewater treatment with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Chávez P, C; Castillo L, R; Dendooven, L; Escamilla-Silva, E M

    2005-10-01

    Removal of organic material from poultry slaughter wastewater as determined by changes in biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was investigated by adding three different types of inoculum combining cow manure, yeast extract or hydraulic residence time as variables with response vector of reduction of BOD5. In a 3-l reactors, a 95% removal of BOD5 from poultry slaughter wastewater was obtained with organic loading rates up to 31 kg BOD5 m(-3) d(-1) without loss of stability. This 95% removal was obtained between 25 and 39 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time between 3.5 and 4.5 h. The growth of the consortium of micro-organisms in the reactor followed a first-order kinetic with a constant specific growth rate of 0.054 h(-1). It was concluded that an inoculum from cow manure added with nutrients and yeast extract allowed a 95% removal of BOD5 from poultry slaughter wastewater at ambient temperatures within a hydraulic residence time of 4 h, sharply reducing possible environmental hazards. PMID:15936942

  4. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e

    2014-09-01

    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique. PMID:25518666

  5. Biodegradation of Phenol in Synthetic Wastewater Using a Fixed Bed Reactor With up Flow Sludge Blanket Filtration (FUSBF)

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadzadeh, Mohammad-Javad; Jonidi-Jafari, Ahmad; Rezaee, Abbas; Soltani, Reza Darvishi Cheshmeh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the removal of phenol from synthetic wastewater was evaluated in a fixed bed reactor with up flow sludge blanket filtration (FUSBF) in comparison with a typical USBF system. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours and solid retention time (SRT) of 20 day, the effect of initial concentration of phenol (260-1020 mg/L) on phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (%) was investigated in both systems. The effect of the presence of fixed bed was determined throughout the operational period. The results showed that the FUSBF system had a better ability than the typical USBF system in terms of phenol and COD removal. The average phenol and COD removal at phenol concentration of 312 mg/L was 97.52% and 92.82% for the FUSBF system and 92.80% and 82.18% for the typical USBF system, respectively. At HRT of 24 h and organic loading rate (OLR) of 30 g/m-3.h-1, the amount of phenol removal was 82.1%. At OLR of 30 g/m-3.h-1, role of fixed bed in phenol and COD removal was 25.01% and 29.3%, respectively, overall, the FUSBF system has a higher efficiency and ability than that of typical USBF and can be used for the purification of industrial wastewater containing refractory organic compounds such as phenol. PMID:26153212

  6. Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-07-01

    Impact of ultrasonication (ULS) and ultrasonication-ozonation (ULS-Ozone) pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge was investigated with semi-continuous anaerobic reactors at solid retention time (SRT) of 10 and 20 days. The control, ULS and ULS-Ozone reactors produced 256, 309 and 348 mL biogas/g CODfed and the volatile solid (VS) removals were 35.6%, 38.3% and 42.1%, respectively at SRT of 10 days. At SRT of 20 days, the biogas yields reached 313, 337 and 393 mL biogas/g CODfed and the VS removal rates were 37.3%, 40.9% and 45.3% in the control, ULS and ULS-Ozone reactors, respectively. ULS-Ozone pre-treatment increased the residual organic amount in the digested sludge. These soluble residual organics were found to contain macromolecules with molecular weights (MW) larger than 500 kDa and smaller polymeric products with MW around 19.4 and 7.7 kDa. These compounds were further characterized to be humic acid-like substances with fluorescent spectroscopy analysis. PMID:26141875

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers from anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial PLFA and archaeal PLEL was simultaneously performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of pressure, temperature, and modifier concentration on the total amounts of RQ, PLFA, and PLEL were investigated by 23 experiments with five settings chosen for each variable. The optimal extraction conditions that were obtained through a multiple-response optimization included a pressure of 23.6 MPa, temperature of 77.6 °C, and 10.6% (v/v) of methanol as the modifier. Thirty nine components of microbial lipid biomarkers were identified in the anaerobically digested sludge. Overall, the SFE method proved to be more effective, rapid, and quantitative for simultaneously extracting bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers, compared to conventional organic solvent extraction. This work shows the potential application of SFE as a routine method for the comprehensive analysis of microbial community structures in environmental assessments using the lipid biomarkers profile. PMID:22489140

  8. Shotgun metaproteomic profiling of biomimetic anaerobic digestion processes treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bize, Ariane; Cardona, Laëtitia; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Battimelli, Audrey; Badalato, Nelly; Bureau, Chrystelle; Madigou, Céline; Chevret, Didier; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bouchez, Théodore

    2015-10-01

    Two parallel anaerobic digestion lines were designed to match a "bovid-like" digestive structure. Each of the lines consisted of two continuous stirred tank reactors placed in series and separated by an acidic treatment step. The first line was inoculated with industrial inocula whereas the second was seeded with cow digestive tract contents. After 3 months of continuous sewage sludge feeding, samples were recovered for shotgun metaproteomic and DNA-based analysis. Strikingly, protein-inferred and 16S ribosomal DNA tags based taxonomic community profiles were not consistent. PCA however revealed a similar clustering pattern of the samples, suggesting that reproducible methodological and/or biological factors underlie this observation. The performances of the two digestion lines did not differ significantly and the cow-derived inocula did not establish in the reactors. A low throughput metagenomic dataset (3.4 × 10(6) reads, 1.1 Gb) was also generated for one of the samples. It allowed a substantial increase of the analysis depth (11 vs. 4% of spectral identification rate for the combined samples). Surprisingly, a high proportion of proteins from members of the "Candidatus Competibacter" group, a key microbial player usually found in activated sludge plants, was retrieved in our anaerobic digester samples. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002420 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002420). PMID:26260998

  9. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy modelling of anaerobic digestion of primary sedimentation sludge.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Mehmet

    2007-09-01

    Modelling of anaerobic digestion systems is difficult because their performance is complex and varies significantly with influent characteristics and operational conditions. In this study, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) were used for modelling of anaerobic digestion system of primary sludge of Kayseri municipal WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Effluent Volatile Solid (VS) and methane yield were predicted by the ANFIS. Two stage models were performed. In the first stage, effluent VS concentration was predicted using pH, VS concentration, flowrate of pre-thickened sludge and temperature of the influent as input parameters. In the second stage, effluent VS concentration in addition to first stage input parameters were used as input parameters to predict methane yield. The low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and high Index of agreement (IA) values were obtained with subtractive clustering method of a first order Sugeno type inference. The model performance was evaluated with statistical parameters. According to statistical evaluations, the models satisfactorily predict effluent VS concentration and methane yield. PMID:17593401

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of aircraft deicing fluid and municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Zitomer, D; Ferguson, N; McGrady, K; Schilling, J

    2001-01-01

    At many airports, aircraft deicing fluid and precipitation mix, becoming aircraft deicing runoff having a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 10(2) to 10(6) mg/L. Publicly owned treatment works can be used for aerobic biological treatment; however, it may be more economical to use anaerobic digesters to codigest a mixture of aircraft deicing fluid and sludge. The objectives of this investigation were to determine benefits and appropriate propylene glycol aircraft deicing fluid loadings to anaerobic codigesters. Results demonstrate aircraft deicing fluid can be successfully codigested to produce methane; supernatant BOD5 and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration were not higher in codigesters compared to a conventional digester. Aircraft deicing fluid loadings as high as 1.6 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L x d were sustainable in codigesters, whereas system fed only aircraft deicing fluid with nutrients and alkalinity achieved a loading of 0.65 g COD/L x d. The sludge used increased digester alkalinity and provided nitrogen, iron, nickel, cobalt, and biomass required for methanogenesis. The deicer provides organics for increased methane production. PMID:11833757

  11. Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion to Treat Saline Sludge from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guo-zhi; Ma, Niannian; Li, Ping; Tan, Hong-xin; Liu, Wenchang

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrate addition and the use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of saline aquacultural sludge was assessed. Analyses were conducted using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), which included stopped gas production attributed to the saline inhibition. After increasing the C : N ratio, gas production was observed, and the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency increased from 75% to 80%. The TCOD removal efficiency of the sonication period was approximately 85%, compared to 75% for the untreated waste. Ultrasonication of aquaculture sludge was also found to enhance the gas production rate and the TCOD removal efficiency. The average volatile fatty acid (VFA) to alkalinity ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.05, confirming the stability of the digesters. Furthermore, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), VFA, and PO43− concentrations increased in the effluents. There was a 114% greater gas generation during the ultrasonication period, with an average production of 0.08 g COD/L·day−1. PMID:26301258

  12. Pilot plant experience on anaerobic codigestion of source selected OFMSW and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cabbai, Valentina; De Bortoli, Nicola; Goi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic codigestion of source selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) and sewage sludge may be one of the most viable solutions to optimize oversized digesters efficiency in wastewater treatment plants. Based on results of BMP tests obtained for sewage sludge and SS-OFMSW, pilot plant tests were carried out by 3.4 m(3) CSTR reactor at mesophilic temperature. A mix of fruit and vegetable waste from wholesale market and canteen waste was used as SS-OFMSW substrate. Tests were conducted applying an OLR (organic loading rate) ramp with 6 different phases until a value of 3.2 kgVS/m(3) d. Feedstock and digestate characteristics, efficiency and process parameters were monitored. The anaerobic codigestion development was stable in each phase: early indicators like VFA (volatile fatty acids) and FOS/TAC ratio were always below instability threshold values. The maximum OLR tested determined a GPR (gas production rate) of 0.95 N m(3)/m(3) d and SGP (specific gas production) of 0.49 N m(3)/kgVS with a VS abatement of 67.3%. PMID:26739455

  13. Identification and quantification of microbial populations in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Borrás, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    Eight different phenotypes were studied in an activated sludge process (AeR) and anaerobic digester (AnD) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated FISH quantification software. The phenotypes were ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanotrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Some findings were unexpected: (a) Presence of PAO, GAO and denitrifiers in the AeR possibly due to unexpected environmental conditions caused by oxygen deficiencies or its ability to survive aerobically; (b) presence of SRB in the AeR due to high sulphate content of wastewater intake and possibly also due to digested sludge being recycled back into the primary clarifier; (c) presence of methanogenic archaea in the AeR, which can be explained by the recirculation of digested sludge and its ability to survive periods of high oxygen levels; (d) presence of denitrifying bacteria in the AnD which cannot be fully explained because the nitrate level in the AnD was not measured. However, other authors reported the existence of denitrifiers in environments where nitrate or oxygen was not present suggesting that denitrifiers can survive in nitrate-free anaerobic environments by carrying out low-level fermentation; (e) the results of this paper are relevant because of the focus on the identification of nearly all the significant bacterial and archaeal groups of microorganisms with a known phenotype involved in the biological wastewater treatment. PMID:25409582

  14. Response surface optimization of substrates for thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and food waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Shin, Hang-Sik; Han, Sun-Kee; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of food waste constituents on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and food waste by using statistical techniques based on biochemical methane potential tests. Various combinations of grain, vegetable, and meat as cosubstrate were tested, and then the data of methane potential (MP), methane production rate (MPR), and first-order kinetic constant of hydrolysis (kH) were collected for further analyses. Response surface methodology by the Box-Behnken design can verify the effects and their interactions of three variables on responses efficiently. MP was mainly affected by grain, whereas MPR and kH were affected by both vegetable and meat. Estimated polynomial regression models can properly explain the variability of experimental data with a high-adjusted R2 of 0.727, 0.836, and 0.915, respectively. By applying a series of optimization techniques, it was possible to find the proper criteria of cosubstrate. The optimal cosubstrate region was suggested based on overlay contours of overall mean responses. With the desirability contour plots, it was found that optimal conditions of cosubstrate for the maximum MPR (56.6 mL of CH4/g of chemical oxygen demand [COD]/day) were 0.71 g of COD/L of grain, 0.18 g of COD/L of vegetable, and 0.38 g of COD/L of meat by the simultaneous consideration of MP, MPR, and kH. Within the range of each factor examined, the corresponding optimal ratio of sewage sludge to cosubstrate was 71:29 as the COD basis. Elaborate discussions could yield practical operational strategies for the enhanced thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and food waste. PMID:17385597

  15. Effect of fillers on key characteristics of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liming; Xu, Yuanshun; Wang, Tianfeng; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion (AD) of sludge, AD efficiency and digested sludge (DS) dewaterability are critical factors. In this study, polyester non-woven fabric fillers were integrated into a sludge digester. The effect of such fillers on digestion was investigated in thermophilic temperature range in semi-continuous mode. Methane production of filler system and control reactor were significantly different (P < 0.05, paired t-test). At hydraulic retention times of 18 days and 12 days, the corresponding methane yields from filler system were 140% and 161%, respectively, of the yields from control digester without filler. Improvement of DS dewaterability was uncertain during 110 days of operation. While after a longer period of digestion, filler system resulted in a lower normalized capillary suction time of DS (76.5 ± 21.6 s L/g total suspended solids) than control reactor (118.7 ± 32.9 s L/g total suspended solids). The results showed that the filler could improve thermophilic AD performance, except at too short hydraulic retention times. PMID:26151853

  16. Fate of selected pharmaceuticals and synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during wastewater treatment and sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Vasilios G; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Mamais, Daniel; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2013-01-15

    The concentrations of nine emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (ibuprofen, IBF; naproxen, NPX; diclofenac, DCF; ketoprofen, KFN) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (triclosan, TCS; bisphenol, BPA; nonylphenol, NP; nonylphenol monoethoxylate, NP1EO; nonylphenol diethoxylate, NP2EO), were determined in wastewater and sludge samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Greece. Average concentrations in raw and treated wastewater ranged from 0.39 (KFN) to 12.52 μg L(-1) (NP) and from sludge was a significant removal mechanism for NPs and TCS, while biodegradation/biotransformation was the major mechanism for the other compounds. Sampling of raw and digested sludge demonstrated that IBF and NPX are significantly removed (>80%) during anaerobic digestion, whereas removal of EDCs was lower, ranging up to 55% for NP1EO. PMID:23257325

  17. Comparative studies on heavy metal uptake by plants from anaerobically and aerobically digested sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, K.T.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to compare and contrast the effects of cropland application of varying quantities of anaerobically and aerobically digested sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, on the uptake of certain heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb by six different types of plants (bean, tomato, carrot, cucumber, cantaloupe and sweet corn) grown on the sludge-applied soil and the accumulation of these metals in the sludge-amended soil. The main aspects of the study were the evaluation of 1) the extent of bioconcentration of heavy metals by the different kinds of plants, and 2) the availability of the metals from soil to plants, following sludge application. Field investigations involving plot-scale gardening were conducted using the two types of sludge, at application rates of 0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.6 and 70.4 tons/acre. At application rates of 17.6 and 70.4 tons/acre, delays in germination of seeds were observed in some instances, with no apparent adverse effects on the plant's later stages of life and the yield produced. The uptake of heavy metals from sludge-amended soil by plants did not increase in direct proportion to the increase in rate of sludge application and plant species differ considerably in their uptake of heavy metals from soil which received the same amount of sludge. In general, plants grown on anaerobically digested sludge-applied soil showed higher uptake of heavy metals than those grown on aerobically digested sludge. Among the plants investigated, sweet corn was identified to be the low accumulator of heavy metals in the edible part of the plant.

  18. Biokinetics and bacterial communities of propionate oxidizing bacteria in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-03-15

    Phased anaerobic digestion is a promising technology and may be a potential source of bio-energy production. Anaerobic digesters are widely used for sewage sludge stabilization and thus a better understanding of the microbial process and kinetics may allow increased volatile solids reduction and methane production through robust process operation. In this study, we analyzed the impact of phase separation and operational conditions on the bio-kinetic characteristics and communities of bacteria associated with four phased anaerobic digestion systems. In addition to significant differences between bacterial communities associated with different digester operating temperatures, our results also revealed that bacterial communities in the phased anaerobic digestion systems differed between the 1st and 2nd phase digesters and we identified strong community composition correlations with several measured physicochemical parameters. The maximum specific growth rates of propionate oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11 and 23.7 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively, while those of the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters were 6.7 and 18.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively. Hence, the biokinetic characteristics of the POB population were dependent on the digester loading. In addition, we observed that the temperature dependency factor (θ) values were higher for the less heavily loaded digesters as compared to the values obtained for the 1st-phase digesters. Our results suggested the appropriate application of two sets of POB bio-kinetic that reflect the differing growth responses as a function of propionate concentration (and/or organic loading rates). Also, modeling acetogenesis in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems will be improved considering a population shift in separate phases. On the basis of the bio-kinetic values estimated in various digesters, high levels of propionate in the thermophilic digesters may be

  19. Enhancement of the conventional anaerobic digestion of sludge: comparison of four different strategies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Elvira, S I; Fdz-Polanco, M; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the preferred option to stabilize sludge. However, the rate limiting step of solids hydrolysis makes it worth modifing the conventional mesophilic AD in order to increase the performance of the digester. The main strategies are to introduce a hydrolysis pre-treatment, or to modify the digestion temperature. Among the different pre-treatment alternatives, the thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 170 degrees C for 30 min, and the ultrasounds pre-treatment (US) at 30 kJ/kg TS were selected for the research, while for the non-conventional anaerobic digestion, the thermophilic (TAD) and the two-stage temperature phased AD (TPAD) were considered. Four pilot plants were operated, with the same configuration and size of anaerobic digester (200 L, continuously fed). The biogas results show a general increase compared to the conventional digestion, being the highest production per unit of digester for the process combining the thermal pre-treatment and AD (1.4 L biogas/L digester day compared to the value of 0.26 obtained in conventional digesters). The dewaterability of the digestate became enhanced for processes TH + AD and TPAD when compared with the conventional digestate, while it became worse for processes US + AD and TAD. In all the research lines, the viscosity in the digester was smaller compared to the conventional (which is a key factor for process performance and economics), and both thermal pre-treatment and thermophilic digestion (TAD and TPAD) assure a pathogen free digestate. PMID:22097010

  20. Methane Production from Rice Straw Hydrolysate Treated with Dilute Acid by Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The traditional anaerobic digestion process of straw to biogas faces bottlenecks of long anaerobic digestion time, low digestion rate, less gas production, etc., while straw hydrolysate has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. In this study, the dilute sulphuric acid-treated hydrolysate of rice straw (DSARSH) containing high sulfate was firstly proved to be a feasible substrate for methane production under mesophilic digestion by granular sludge within a short digestion time. Batch anaerobic digestion process was operated under different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) values at temperature of 37 °C with the pH of 8.5. Among the initial COD values ranging from 3000 to 11,000 mg/L, 5000 mg/L was proved to be the most appropriate considering high COD removal efficiency (94.17 ± 1.67 %), CH4 content (65.52 ± 3.12 %), and CH4 yield (0.346 ± 0.008 LCH4/g COD removed) within 120 h. Furthermore, when the studied system operated at the initial COD of 5000 mg/L, the sulfate removal ratio could reach 56.28 %. PMID:26378012

  1. Sulfide-induced nitrate reduction in the sludge of an anaerobic digester of a zero-discharge recirculating mariculture system.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yonatan; Schneider, Kenneth; Schwermer, Carsten U; van Rijn, Jaap

    2008-10-01

    The anaerobic digester is a vital component in a zero-discharge mariculture system as therein most of the organic matter is mineralized and nitrogen-containing compounds are converted to gaseous N(2). Although denitrification is a major respiratory process in this nitrate-rich treatment stage, also sulfate respiration takes place and may cause undesirable high sulfide concentrations in the effluent water. To examine the effect of sulfide on nitrate reduction, in situ depth profiles of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur compounds were determined. Additionally, nitrate reduction was examined as a function of ambient sulfide concentrations in sludge collected from different locations in the anaerobic reactor. Depth profiles showed high concentrations of nitrate and low concentrations of sulfide and ammonia in the aqueous layer of the reactor. A sharp decrease of nitrate and an increase in sulfide and ammonia concentrations was measured at the water-sludge interface. Nitrate reduction was highest in this interface zone with rates of up to 8.05+/-0.57 micromol NO(3)(-)h(-1)g((sludge))(-1). Addition of sulfide increased the nitrate reduction rate at all sludge depths, pointing to the important role of autotrophic denitrification in the anaerobic reactor. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) was found to be low in all sludge layers but was enhanced when sludge was incubated at high sulfide concentrations. Although nitrate reduction rates increased as a result of sulfide addition to sludge samples, no differences in nitrate reduction rates were observed between the samples incubated with different initial sulfide concentrations. This as opposed to sulfide oxidation rates, which followed Michaelis-Menten enzymatic kinetics. Partial oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur instead of a complete oxidation to sulfate, could explain the observed patterns of nitrate reduction and sulfide oxidation in sludge incubated with different initial sulfide concentrations. PMID

  2. Anaerobic phosphate release from activated sludge with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A possible mechanism of intracellular pH control

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, P.L.; Keller, J.; Blackall, L.L.

    1999-06-05

    The biochemical mechanisms of the wastewater treatment process known as enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) are presently described in a metabolic model. The authors investigated details of the EBPR model to determine the nature of the anaerobic phosphate release and how this may be metabolically associated with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) formation. Iodoacetate, an inhibitor of glycolysis, was found to inhibit the anaerobic formation of PHA and phosphate release, supporting the pathways proposed in the EBPR metabolic model. In the metabolic model, it is proposed that polyphosphate degradation provides energy for the microorganisms in anaerobic regions of these treatment systems. Other investigations have shown that anaerobic phosphate release depends on the extracellular pH. The authors observed that when the intracellular pH of EBPR sludge was raised, substantial anaerobic phosphate release was caused without volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake. Acidification of the sludge inhibited anaerobic phosphate release even in the presence of VFA. from these observations, the authors postulate that an additional possible role of anaerobic polyphosphate degradation in EBPR is for intracellular pH control. Intracellular pH control may be a metabolic feature of EBPR, not previously considered, that could have some use in the control and optimization of EBPR.

  3. Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in an electric-anaerobic system to increase methane production from sludge digestion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Wang, Liying; Quan, Xie

    2015-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species is an alternative to interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) in anaerobic digester, which however has not been established in anaerobic sludge digestion as well as in bioelectrochemical systems yet. In this study, it was found that over 50% of methane production of an electric-anaerobic sludge digester was resulted from unknown pathway. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Geobacter species were significantly enriched with electrodes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further confirmed that the dominant Geobacter species enriched belonged to Geobacter metallireducens. Together with Methanosaeta species prevailing in the microbial communities, the direct electron exchange between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species might be an important reason for the “unknown” increase of methane production. Conductivity of the sludge in this electric-anaerobic digester was about 30% higher than that of the sludge in a control digester without electrodes. This study not only revealed for the first time that DIET might be the important mechanism on the methanogenesis of bioelectrochemical system, but also provided a new method to enhance DIET by means of bioelectric enrichment of Geobacter species. PMID:26057581

  4. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE APPLICATION OF ANAEROBIC SLUDGE DIGESTION AT THE BLUE PLAINS WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mesophilic-thermophilic digestion process is a new two-step concept for treating municipal wasterwater sludges. The first step operates under mesophilic process conditions (digestion with anaerobic microorganisms that thrive at 90 to 100F). The second step operates under ther...

  5. Sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as a tool for understanding sulfur chemical state in anaerobic granular sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hullebusch, E.; Rossano, S.; Farges, F.; Lenz, M.; Labanowski, J.; Lagarde, P.; Flank, A.-M.; Lens, P.

    2009-11-01

    Sulfur is an essential biological element, yet its biochemistry in anaerobic biofilm is poorly understood because there are few tools for studying this element in biological systems. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides a unique approach to determining the chemical speciation of sulfur in intact biological samples. When treating sulfate containing wastewaters in full scale up-flow anaerobic sludge bed bioreactors, microbial activity forms biofilms, consisting of a complex mixture of cells and associated extracellular substances as well as undefined inorganic precipitates. In addition to the anaerobic sludges, a large variety of model compounds of S (esp. sulfides) were investigated to find consistencies in the XANES that were used to model each "valence state" of S. The results confirmed that attributing a specific valence to most sulfides is impossible as we measured a continuum of edge shifts from sulfur "-2" to "-1", depending on the electronic structure of S in the probed sulfides. In the sludges, various sulfur hot spots were probed for speciation, despite photo-reduction was sometimes a problem. First, we index the main features of complex K-edge XANES spectra for S2--type units and sulfate units. Organic sulfur compounds were also shown to contribute significantly to the sulfur species present in some anaerobic granular sludge.

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Nakamura, K; Rossetti, S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions. PMID:25462756

  7. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  8. Continuous thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion of sludge. Energy integration study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Elvira, S I; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data obtained from the operation in a pilot plant are used to perform mass and energy balances to a global process combining units of thermal hydrolysis (TH) of secondary sludge, anaerobic digestion (AD) of hydrolysed secondary sludge together with fresh primary sludge, and cogeneration from biogas by using a gas engine in which the biogas produces electricity and heat from the exhaust gases. Three scenarios were compared, corresponding to the three digesters operated: C (conventional AD, 17 days residence time), B (combined TH + AD, same time), and A (TH + AD at half residence time). The biogas production of digesters B and A was 33 and 24% better, respectively when compared with C. In the case of the combined TH + AD process (scenarios A and B), the key factors in the energy balance were the recovery of heat from hot streams, and the concentration of sludge. The results of the balances showed that for 8% DS concentration of the secondary sludge tested in the pilot plant, the process can be energetically self-sufficient, but a fraction of the biogas must by-pass the gas engine to be directly burned. From an economic point of view, scenario B is more profitable in terms of green energy and higher waste removal, while scenario A reduces the digester volume required by a half. Considering a population of 100,000 inhabitants, the economic benefit is 87,600 €/yr for scenario A and 132,373 €/yr for B. This value can be increased to 223,867 €/yr by increasing the sludge concentration of the feeding to the TH unit to a minimum value that allows use of all the biogas to produce green energy. This concentration is 13% DS, which is still possible from a practical point of view. Additional benefits gained with the combined TH + AD process are the enhancement of the digesters rheology and the possibility of getting Class A biosolids. The integration study presented here set the basis for the scale-up to a demonstration plant. PMID:22546800

  9. Aminiphilus circumscriptus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic amino-acid-degrading bacterium from an upflow anaerobic sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Díaz, C; Baena, S; Fardeau, M-L; Patel, B K C

    2007-08-01

    Strain ILE-2(T) was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating brewery wastewater. The motile, non-sporulating, slightly curved cells (2-4 x 0.1 microm) stained Gram-negative and grew optimally at 42 degrees C and pH 7.1 with 0.5 % NaCl. The strain required yeast extract for growth and fermented Casamino acids, peptone, isoleucine, arginine, lysine, alanine, valine, glutamate, histidine, glutamine, methionine, malate, fumarate, glycerol and pyruvate to acetate, propionate and minor amounts of branched-chain fatty acids. Carbohydrates, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, butanol, lactate, succinate, starch, casein, gelatin, xylan and a number of other amino acids were not utilized. The DNA G+C content of strain ILE-2(T) was 52.7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that ILE-2(T) was distantly related to members of the genera Aminobacterium (83 % similarity) and Aminomonas (85 % similarity) in the family Syntrophomonadaceae, order Clostridiales, phylum Firmicutes. On the basis of the results of our polyphasic analysis, strain ILE-2(T) represents a novel species and genus within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, for which the name Aminiphilus circumscriptus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aminiphilus circumscriptus is ILE-2(T) (=DSM 16581(T) =JCM 14039(T)). PMID:17684281

  10. Layered structure of bacterial aggregates produced in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed and filter reactor

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, F.A.; Guiot, S.R.; Costerton, J.W. )

    1990-06-01

    The ultrastructure of bacterial granules that were maintained in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed and filter reactor was examined. The reactor was fed a sucrose medium, and it was operated at 35{degrees}C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the granular aggregates were three-layered structures. The exterior layer of the granule contained a very heterogeneous population that included rods, cocci, and filaments of various sizes. The middle layer consisted of a slightly less heterogeneous population than the exterior layer. A more ordered arrangement, made up predominantly of bacterial rods, was evident in this second layer. The third layer formed the internal core of the granules. It consisted of large numbers of Methanothrix-like cells. Large cavities, indicative of vigorous gas production, were evident in the third layer. On the basis of these ultrastructural results, a model that presents a possible explanation of granule development is offered.

  11. Effect of Ce(3+) on soluble microbial products production in anaerobic granular sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Liang, Rui; Xia, Qing; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke; Ren, Hongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors fed on glucose were used to investigate the effects of Ce(3+) on soluble microbial products (SMP) production, which is the majority of the residual chemical oxygen demand present in the effluent. It was found that Ce(3+) concentration of 0.05 mg/L had no significant effect on the amount of SMP production, whereas that of 1 mg/L led to the increase in SMP production. The molecular-weight distribution and carbohydrate analysis indicated that an increase in SMP production may be partly attributed to the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) into the bulk solution resulted from cerium toxicity, and the nucleic acids analysis suggested that increased cell lysis also contributed to SMP accumulation in the presence of Ce(3+). The increase in SMP production in the presence of Ce(3+) is possibly a consequence of the release of EPS and increased cell lysis due to cerium toxicity. PMID:22179643

  12. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion efficiency of wastewater sludge and olive waste: Synergistic effect of co-digestion and ultrasonic/microwave sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, B Aylin; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatment on biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of olive pomace and wastewater sludges. It was found that co-digestion of wastewater sludge with olive pomace yielded around 0.21 L CH4/g VS added, whereas the maximum methane yields from the mono-digestion of olive pomace and un-pretreated wastewater sludges were 0.18 and 0.16L CH4/g VS added. In the same way, compared to mono-digestion of these substrates, co-digestion increased methane production by 17-31%. The microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatments applied to sludge samples prior to co-digestion process led to further increase in the methane production by 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to co-digestion with un-pretreated wastewater sludge. The highest biogas and methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of 30 min microwave pre-treated wastewater sludges and olive pomace to be 0.46 L/g VS added and 0.32 L CH4/g VS added, respectively. PMID:26320815

  13. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of partially acidified sewage sludge: a pilot plant study for safe sludge disposal in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Passio, Luca; Rizzoa, Luigi; Fuchs, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    The unsafe disposal of wastewater and sludge in different areas of developing countries results in significant environmental pollution, particularly for groundwater, thus increasing the risk of waterborne diseases spreading. In this work, a two-phase anaerobic digestion process for post-treatment of partially acidified sewage sludge was investigated to evaluate its feasibility as a safe sludge disposal system. Pilot tests showed that an effective sludge stabilization can be achieved (total volatile solids content <65%, organic acid concentration <200 mg/L at flow rate = 50 L/d and hydraulic residence time = 18 d) as well as a relative low faecal coliform density (<1000 most probable number per g total solids), showing that land application of the sludge without restrictions is possible according to US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for safe sludge disposal. A biogas production as high as 390 L/d with a 60% methane content by volume was achieved, showing that energy production from biogas may be achieved as well. PMID:23240203

  14. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency. PMID:26970692

  15. Winery waste recycling through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Pavan, P; Bolzonella, D

    2014-11-01

    In this study biogas and high quality digestate were recovered from winery waste (wine lees) through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The two conditions studied showed similar yields (0.40 m(3)/kgCODfed) but different biological process stability: in fact the mesophilic process was clearly more stable than the thermophilic one in terms of bioprocess parameters. The resulting digestates showed good characteristics for both the tested conditions: heavy metals, dioxins (PCDD/F), and dioxin like bi-phenyls (PCBs) were concentred in the effluent if compared with the influent because of the important reduction of the solid dry matter, but remained at levels acceptable for agricultural reuse. Pathogens in digestate decreased. Best reductions were observed in thermophilic condition, while at 37°C the concentration of Escherichia coli was at concentrations level as high as 1000 UFC/g. Dewatering properties of digestates were evaluated by means of the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) tests and it was found that a good dewatering level was achievable only when high doses of polymer (more than 25 g per kg dry solids) were added to sludge. PMID:25151445

  16. Oxidative and thermo-oxidative co-treatment with anaerobic digestion of excess municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Cacho Rivero, J A; Madhavan, N; Suidan, M T; Ginestet, P; Audic, J M

    2005-01-01

    The effect of oxidative and thermo-oxidative co-treatment of excess municipal sludge was investigated. A mixture of primary and waste activated sludge was anaerobically treated using two different configurations: i) two stages and ii) a single stage with recycling. Oxidative or thermo-oxidative co-treatment placed in between the reactor or in the recycle line was studied. A two-stage configuration with no co-treatment served as a control and resulted in 50.1% overall solids removal. Compared to the control, an increase in solids removal of 10.8 and 2.7% was observed when oxidative co-treatment was placed between reactors and in the recycle line respectively. When thermo-oxidative co-treatment was placed between the two stages or in the recycle line an increase in solids removal of 25.1 and 26.9% respectively was observed. The performances of the different configurations were also evaluated with parameters such as COD, TKN, ammonia, and fecal coliform concentration. PMID:16180434

  17. Alkali pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Wu, Shaoquan; Wang, Chunmin

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an alkali pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) to improve the methane productivity. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution were used to pretreat PPS, and then followed by AD of PPS and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1L capacity with 700 mL worked. Optimal amount of sodium hydroxide for organics solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 8 g NaOH/100g TS(sludge). Under this condition, the PPS flocs structure was well disrupted resulting in the void rate and fiber size decreased after pretreatment, and SCOD increased up to 83% as well as the peak value of VFA concentration attained 1040 mg acetic acid/L during AD. The AD efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment condition was 0.32 m(3) CH(4)/kg VS(removal), 183.5% of the control. The results indicated that alkali/NaOH pretreatment could be an effective method for improving methane yield with PPS. PMID:19464792

  18. Performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactor during digestion and thickening of aerobic membrane bioreactor excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Hafuka, Akira; Mimura, Kazuhisa; Ding, Qing; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor in terms of digestion and thickening of excess sludge from an aerobic membrane bioreactor. A digestion reactor equipped with an external polytetrafluoroethylene tubular microfiltration membrane module was operated in semi-batch mode. Solids were concentrated by repeated membrane filtration and sludge feeding, and their concentration reached 25,400mg/L after 92d. A high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, i.e., 98%, was achieved during operation. A hydraulic retention time of 34d and a pulse organic loading rate of 2200mg-COD/(L-reactor) gave a biogas production rate and biogas yield of 1.33L/(reactor d) and 0.08L/g-CODinput, respectively. The external membrane unit worked well without membrane cleaning for 90d. The transmembrane pressure reached 25kPa and the filtration flux decreased by 80% because of membrane fouling after operation for 90d. PMID:27394993

  19. [Effect of trace NO2 and kinetic characteristics for anaerobic ammonium oxidation of granular sludge].

    PubMed

    Zu, Bo; Zhang, Dai-Jun; Yan, Qing

    2008-03-01

    The effect of trace NO2 and kinetic characteristics for anaerobic ammonium oxidation of granular sludge was investigated by batch experiment. The sludge anammox rates could be described by the Haldane model. The kinetic parameters were determined, where the maximum anammox rate was 6.65 x 10(-3) mg (mg h)(-1). The half saturate coefficient and inhibition coefficient for ammonium nitrogen were 87.1 mg L(-1) and 1,123 mg L(-1) respectively, and the half saturate coefficient and inhibition coefficient for nitrite nitrogen were 15.39 mg L(-1) and 159.5 mg L(-1) respectively. Trace NO2 apparently enhanced anammox under trace NO2 atmosphere conditions. The function for NO2 to enhance anammox was suggested by the Haldane based model. The parameters in the function were estimated, where the maximum enhancing anammox coefficient was 48.79, and the half saturate coefficient and inhibition coefficient for NO2 were 2480 mg m(-3) and 4.22 mg m(-3) respectively, and the basic rate coefficient was 0.0182. The most of NOx in the experiment was lost. PMID:18649528

  20. Start-up and inhibition analysis of the Anammox process seeded with anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chong-jian; Zheng, Ping; Mahmood, Qaisar; Chen, Jian-wei

    2009-08-01

    The longer start-up period of the Anammox process is due to the very low cellular yield and growth rates of Anammox bacteria. Nitrite inhibition is considered to be the key factor in the instability of the Anammox process during the operation. However, little attention was paid to the inhibitory effect of pH and free ammonia. This paper presents start-up and inhibition analysis of an Anammox biofilm reactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge. Results showed that the start-up period could be divided into the sludge lysis phase, lag phase, propagation phase, stationary phase and inhibition phase. Optimization control could be implemented correspondingly to accelerate the start-up of Anammox bioreactors. Effluent pH increased to 8.7-9.1 when the nitrogen removal rate was higher than 1,200 mg l(-1) day(-1). The free ammonia concentration was accompanied with a higher level of 64-73 mg l(-1). Inhibitory effects of high pH and free ammonia on Anammox bacteria contributed to the destabilization of the Anammox bioreactor during the first 125 days with influent KHCO(3) of 0.5 g l(-1). Increasing the suffering capacity in the inlet by dosing 1.25 g KHCO(3) l(-1) effectively reduced the pH variation, and the nitrogen removal performance of the reactor was further developed. PMID:19479290

  1. Effect of heavy metal co-contaminants on selenite bioreduction by anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Mal, J; Nancharaiah, Y V; van Hullebusch, E D; Lens, P N L

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated bioreduction of selenite by anaerobic granular sludge in the presence of heavy metals and analyzed the fate of the bioreduced selenium and the heavy metals. Selenite bioreduction was not significantly inhibited in the presence of Pb(II) and Zn(II). More than 92% of 79 mg/L selenite was removed by bioreduction even in the presence of 150 mg/L of Pb(II) or 400mg/L of Zn(II). In contrast, only 65-48% selenite was bioreduced in the presence of 150-400 mg/L Cd(II). Formation of elemental selenium or selenide varied with heavy metal type and concentration. Notably, the majority of the bioreduced selenium (70-90% in the presence of Pb and Zn, 50-70% in the presence of Cd) and heavy metals (80-90% of Pb and Zn, 60-80% of Cd) were associated with the granular sludge. The results have implications in the treatment of selenium wastewaters and biogenesis of metal selenides. PMID:26836844

  2. Innovative two-stage mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic degradation of sonicated sludge: performances and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Gallipoli, A; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates for the first time, on laboratory scale, the possible application of an innovative enhanced stabilization process based on sequential mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge, with low-energy sonication pretreatment. The first mesophilic digestion step was conducted at short hydraulic retention time (3-5 days), in order to favor volatile fatty acid production, followed by a longer thermophilic step of 10 days to enhance the bioconversion kinetics, assuring a complete pathogen removal. The high volatile solid removals, up to 55%, noticeably higher compared to the performances of a single-stage process carried out in same conditions, can guarantee the stability of the final digestate for land application. The ultrasonic pretreatment influenced significantly the fatty acid formation and composition during the first mesophilic step, improving consequently the thermophilic conversion of these compounds into methane. Methane yield from sonicated sludge digestion reached values up to 0.2 Nm(3)/kgVSfed. Positive energy balances highlighted the possible exploitation of this innovative two-stage digestion in place of conventional single-stage processes. PMID:24906832

  3. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  4. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  5. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste activated sludge enhances anaerobic methane production through improving biochemical methane potential instead of hydrolysis rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qilin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Xu; Qian, Jin; Yang, Guojing; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic sludge digestion is the main technology for sludge reduction and stabilization prior to sludge disposal. Nevertheless, methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often restricted by the poor biochemical methane potential and slow hydrolysis rate of WAS. This work systematically investigated the effect of PHA levels of WAS on anaerobic methane production, using both experimental and mathematical modeling approaches. Biochemical methane potential tests showed that methane production increased with increased PHA levels in WAS. Model-based analysis suggested that the PHA-based method enhanced methane production by improving biochemical methane potential of WAS, with the highest enhancement being around 40% (from 192 to 274 L CH4/kg VS added; VS: volatile solid) when the PHA levels increased from 21 to 143 mg/g VS. In contrast, the hydrolysis rate (approximately 0.10 d-1) was not significantly affected by the PHA levels. Economic analysis suggested that the PHA-based method could save $1.2/PE/y (PE: population equivalent) in a typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The PHA-based method can be easily integrated into the current WWTP to enhance methane production, thereby providing a strong support to the on-going paradigm shift in wastewater management from pollutant removal to resource recovery.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste activated sludge enhances anaerobic methane production through improving biochemical methane potential instead of hydrolysis rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Xu; Qian, Jin; Yang, Guojing; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic sludge digestion is the main technology for sludge reduction and stabilization prior to sludge disposal. Nevertheless, methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often restricted by the poor biochemical methane potential and slow hydrolysis rate of WAS. This work systematically investigated the effect of PHA levels of WAS on anaerobic methane production, using both experimental and mathematical modeling approaches. Biochemical methane potential tests showed that methane production increased with increased PHA levels in WAS. Model-based analysis suggested that the PHA-based method enhanced methane production by improving biochemical methane potential of WAS, with the highest enhancement being around 40% (from 192 to 274 L CH4/kg VS added; VS: volatile solid) when the PHA levels increased from 21 to 143 mg/g VS. In contrast, the hydrolysis rate (approximately 0.10 d(-1)) was not significantly affected by the PHA levels. Economic analysis suggested that the PHA-based method could save $1.2/PE/y (PE: population equivalent) in a typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The PHA-based method can be easily integrated into the current WWTP to enhance methane production, thereby providing a strong support to the on-going paradigm shift in wastewater management from pollutant removal to resource recovery. PMID:26791952

  7. Optimized matching modes of bioelectrochemical module and anaerobic sludge in the integrated system for azo dye treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanying; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Hong-Yu

    2015-09-01

    In this work, three matching modes (relative positions, catholyte flow sequences, and flow regimes) of bioelectrochemical module and anaerobic sludge were evaluated and optimized for azo dye treatment in the integrated system with embedding modular bioelectrochemical system into anaerobic sludge reactor. Results showed that it was favorable to operate this integrated system under the condition of 1/4 cathode soaking into sludge with spiral distributor in down-flow direction. Current, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and pH clearly demonstrated the important role of 1/4 soaking in electron/proton transfer. The down-flow direction flowed through electrode zone and then sludge zone could benefit to the efficient use of cathode and improve AO7 treatment. Furthermore, the positive effect of spiral catholyte distributor might be due to its promoting role in mixing and creating a spiral flow channel around the cathode electrode-microbes-solution interface. These results exhibited great potential for matching modular bioelectrochemical system with anaerobic treatment process. PMID:26080106

  8. Modelling the rheological properties of sludge during anaerobic digestion in a batch reactor by using electrical measurements.

    PubMed

    Dieudé-Fauvel, E; Héritier, P; Chanet, M; Girault, R; Pastorelli, D; Guibelin, E; Baudez, J C

    2014-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion is a significant process leading to biogas production and waste management. Despite this double interest, professionals still face a lack of efficient tools to monitor and manage the whole procedure. This is especially true for rheological properties of the material inside the reactor, which are of major importance for anaerobic digestion management. However, rheological properties can hardly be determined in-situ and it would be very helpful to determine indicators of their evolution. To solve this problem, this paper investigates the evolution of sewage sludge rheological and electrical properties during the anaerobic digestion in a batch reactor. We especially focus on apparent viscosity and complex impedance, measured by electrical impedance spectroscopy. Both of them can be modelled by a linear combination of raw sludge and inoculum properties, weighted by time-dependent coefficients. Thus, by determining digested sludge electrical signature, it is possible to obtain those coefficients and model sludge apparent viscosity. This work offers many theoretical and practical prospects. PMID:24419207

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste activated sludge enhances anaerobic methane production through improving biochemical methane potential instead of hydrolysis rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qilin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Xu; Qian, Jin; Yang, Guojing; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic sludge digestion is the main technology for sludge reduction and stabilization prior to sludge disposal. Nevertheless, methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often restricted by the poor biochemical methane potential and slow hydrolysis rate of WAS. This work systematically investigated the effect of PHA levels of WAS on anaerobic methane production, using both experimental and mathematical modeling approaches. Biochemical methane potential tests showed that methane production increased with increased PHA levels in WAS. Model-based analysis suggested that the PHA-based method enhanced methane production by improving biochemical methane potential of WAS, with the highest enhancement being around 40% (from 192 to 274 L CH4/kg VS added; VS: volatile solid) when the PHA levels increased from 21 to 143 mg/g VS. In contrast, the hydrolysis rate (approximately 0.10 d−1) was not significantly affected by the PHA levels. Economic analysis suggested that the PHA-based method could save $1.2/PE/y (PE: population equivalent) in a typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The PHA-based method can be easily integrated into the current WWTP to enhance methane production, thereby providing a strong support to the on-going paradigm shift in wastewater management from pollutant removal to resource recovery. PMID:26791952

  10. Improvement of methane production from waste activated sludge by on-site photocatalytic pretreatment in a photocatalytic anaerobic fermenter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunguang; Shi, Wansheng; Li, Huifang; Lei, Zhongfang; He, Leilei; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports a new technology that using on-site TiO2-photocatalytic pretreatment in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) can enhance WAS degradation and methane production in a novel photocatalytic anaerobic fermenter. The fermenter consists of a photocatalytic unit and a digestion unit. The photocatalytic unit can constantly supply soluble organics and has less negative effect on the activity of methanogens at the optimal photocatalytic time of 4h per day. After anaerobic digestion for 35days, 1266.7ml/l-sludge of methane, 67.4% of volatile solid (VS) reduction and 60.5% of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal were achieved in the photocatalytic anaerobic fermenter, compared with 923.2ml/l-sludge of methane, 48.9% of VS reduction and 43.5% TCOD removal in the control fermenter. The results indicate that timely utilization of solubilized organics by methanogens could avoid further mineralization by TiO2-photocatalysis, which not only improves methane production but also enhances WAS degradation. PMID:24462880

  11. Influence of low temperature thermal pre-treatment on sludge solubilisation, heavy metal release and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Appels, Lise; Degrève, Jan; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2010-08-01

    In this work, the influence of a low temperature (70-90 degrees C) thermal treatment on anaerobic digestion is studied. Not only the increase in biogas production is investigated, but attention is also paid to the solubilisation of the main organic (proteins, carbohydrates and volatile fatty acids) and inorganic (heavy metals, S and P) sludge constituents during thermal treatment and the breakdown of the organic components during the subsequent anaerobic digestion. Taking into account the effects of the treatment on the sludge composition is of prime importance to evaluate its influence on the subsequent anaerobic digestion and biogas production using predictive models. It was seen that organic and inorganic compounds are efficiently solubilised during thermal treatment. In general, a higher temperature and a longer treatment time are beneficial for the release. The efficiency of the subsequent anaerobic digestion slightly decreased for sludge pre-treated at 70 degrees C. At higher pre-treatment temperatures, the biogas production increased significantly, up to a factor 11 for the 60 min treatment at 90 degrees C. PMID:20335023

  12. Biodegradation and speciation of roxarsone in an anaerobic granular sludge system and its impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Shou-Jun; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2014-08-30

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsenic acid) is an organoarsenic feed additive and has been widely used in the poultry industry to prevent coccidiosis and improve feed efficiency. The presence of roxarsone and its degradation products results in the instability of the anaerobic methanogenic process. This study investigated the degradation and speciation of roxarsone in an anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) system and the impacts of roxarsone and its degradation products on the structure of AGS. Roxarsone inhibited methane production, and the added roxarsone was rapidly degraded into 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (HAPA). After 240 days of incubation, the distribution of arsenic differed between the aqueous solution and the AGS in the assays of 20 and 350mg/L roxarsone. Species analysis indicated that HAPA was completely degraded in all of the assays with roxarsone addition after 240 days of incubation. Species distribution was affected by the phases and the initial concentration of roxarsone added. The concentration of As(III) was higher than that of As(V) in both the aqueous solution and the AGS in all assays with roxarsone addition. The toxicity of roxarsone and its degradation products resulted in changes in the structure and the microorganism species in the AGS. PMID:25108830

  13. A review: factors affecting excess sludge anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiaoshuai; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Zhao, Jianfu; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods that improve the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from excess sludge during the anaerobic digestion process. These methods are mainly divided into two approaches. The first approach is located in the pre-treatment methods, which change the properties of the substrates, such as thermal pre-treatment, alkaline pre-treatment, microwave pre-treatment and ultrasonic pre-treatment. The other approach is found in the fermentation process control methods, which influence the environment of anaerobic digestion for the production of VFA, such as pH, temperature, mixing, additives and solids retention time control. In the text recent research studies of each method are listed and analyzed in detail. Comparably, microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatment methods are considered emerging and promising technologies due to their efficiency and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, the microwave pre-treatment has high electricity demand, which might make the process economically unfeasible. In order to calculate optimal operation, further studies still need to be done. PMID:26287825

  14. Kinetic characterization of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion for coffee grounds and waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu-You

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the kinetics of an anaerobic process (hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis) under thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) conditions with coffee grounds and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrates. Special focus was given to the kinetics of propionic acid degradation to elucidate the accumulation of VFAs. Under the thermophilic condition, the methane production rate of all substrates (WAS, ground coffee and raw coffee) was about 1.5 times higher than that under the mesophilic condition. However, the effects on methane production of each substrate under the thermophilic condition differed: WAS increased by 35.8-48.2%, raw coffee decreased by 76.3-64.5% and ground coffee decreased by 74.0-57.9%. Based on the maximum reaction rate (Rmax) of each anaerobic stage obtained from the modified Gompertz model, acetogenesis was found to be the rate-limiting step for coffee grounds and WAS. This can be explained by the kinetics of propionate degradation under thermophilic condition in which a long lag-phase (more than 18 days) was observed, although the propionate concentration was only 500 mg/L. Under the mesophilic condition, acidogenesis and hydrolysis were found to be the rate-limiting step for coffee grounds and WAS, respectively. Even though reducing the particle size accelerated the methane production rate of coffee grounds, but did not change the rate-limiting step: acetogenesis in thermophilic and acidogenesis in mesophilic. PMID:25534040

  15. Microbial diversity in innovative mesophilic/thermophilic temperature-phased anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Rossetti, S

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the few sustainable technologies that both produce energy and treat waste streams. Driven by a complex and diverse community of microbes, AD may be affected by different factors, many of which also influence the composition and activity of the microbial community. In this study, the biodiversity of microbial populations in innovative mesophilic/thermophilic temperature-phased AD of sludge was evaluated by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The increase of digestion temperature drastically affected the microbial composition and selected specialized biomass. Hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales and the protein fermentative bacterium Coprothermobacter spp. were identified in the thermophilic anaerobic biomass. Shannon-Weaver diversity (H') and evenness (E) indices were calculated using FISH data. Species richness was lower under thermophilic conditions compared with the values estimated in mesophilic samples, and it was flanked by similar trend of the evenness indicating that thermophilic communities may be therefore more susceptible to sudden changes and less prompt to adapting to operative variations. PMID:24875310

  16. Oxidative co-treatment using hydrogen peroxide with anaerobic digestion of excess municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Cacho Rivero, Jesus A; Madhavan, Narain; Suidan, Makram T; Ginestet, Philippe; Audic, Jean-Marc

    2006-07-01

    The effect of an oxidative co-treatment on anaerobic digestion of a mixture of primary and waste activated sludge was investigated. The oxidant used in this study was hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A maximum improvement in solid destruction of 15.2% was achieved in the overall process, with a dosage of 2.0 g H2O2/g influent volatile suspended solids (VSS(influent)). All configurations operated at this dosage also showed statistically significant increases in solids removal. A statistically significant enhancement in overall solids destruction was observed for the lower oxidant dosage (0.5 H2O2/g VSS(influent)). Surprisingly, for 1.0 g H2O2/g VSS(influent), only one of the three configurations involving oxidative co-treatment showed significant increases in solids destruction. Special attention was paid to the performance of this process relative to fecal coliforms destruction. Class A biosolids were obtained for all the different hydrogen peroxide dosages used when oxidative co-treatment is combined with a two-stage anaerobic digestion process. PMID:16929639

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and primary clarifier skimmings for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Alanya, S; Yilmazel, Y D; Park, C; Willis, J L; Keaney, J; Kohl, P M; Hunt, J A; Duran, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the impact of co-digesting clarifier skimmings on the overall methane generation from the treatment plant and additional energy value of the increased methane production. Biogas production from co-digesting clarifier skimmings and sewage sludge in pilot-scale fed-batch mesophilic anaerobic digesters has been evaluated. The digester was fed with increasing quantities of clarifier skimmings loads: 1.5, 2.6, 3.5 and 7.0 g COD equivalent/(L·d) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). Average volatile solids reduction of 65% was achieved in the scum-fed digester, compared with 51% in the control digester. Average 69% COD removal was achieved at highest scum loading (7 g COD eq/(L·d)) with approximate methane yield of 250 L CH(4)/kg COD fed (4 ft(3)/lb COD fed). The results show that scum as co-substrate in anaerobic digestion systems improves biogas yields while a 29% increase in specific CH(4) yield could be achieved when scum load is 7 g COD eq/(L·d). Based on the pilot-scale study results and full-scale data from South East Water Pollution Control Plant and Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant the expected annual energy recovery would be approximately 1.7 billion BTUs or nearly 0.5 million kWh. PMID:23128636

  18. [2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol Mineralization Promoted by Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of Acclimated Sludge and Extracellular Respiration Dechlorination Pathway].

    PubMed

    Song, Jia-xiu; Li, Ling; Sheng, Fan-fan; Guo, Cui-xiang; Zhang, Yong-ming; Li, Zu-yuan; Wang, Tian-li

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic conditions, the acclimation of activated sludge was studied with sodium lactate as the electron donor and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as the electron acceptor. Metabolic characteristics of dechlorination were the focus of this study. The result showed highly efficient dechlorination on 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol that the conversion rate reached to 100% in 9 - 24 h when initial concentrations of sodium lactate and 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol were 20 mmol x L(-1) and 40 - 80 μmol x L(-1), respectively. The intermediate product 2,4-dichlorophenol was found in low concentration (< 4.22 μmol x L(-1)). And 4-chlorophenol and phenol were the main products. Ortho chlorophenol (2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol, 2, 4-dichlorophenol) can be converted rapidly by acclimated sludge, while the further conversion of 4-chlorophenol and phenol was limited. The residues of anaerobic metabolism were degraded by aerobic sludge, among which 4-chlorophenol (initial concentration of 33 mol x L(-1)) removal rate was up to 100% under aerobic conditions. The acclimated bacteria can rapidly transfer Fe(III) and humus (AQDS) into reductive Fe(II) and AQH2DS which indicated that the dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria was enriched in the acclimated sludge. The electron mediator [Fe(III) and AQDS] significantly accelerated the dechlorination rate. The acclimated sludge could perform extracellular respiration dechlorination with electron mediators. PMID:26841610

  19. A field study of lignite as a drying aid in the superheated steam drying of anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, A F A; Qi, Y; Nguyen, T; Hapgood, K; Desai, D; Pinches, D

    2015-10-01

    Dried sludge is preferred when the sludge is either to be incinerated or used as a soil amendment. This paper focuses on superheated steam drying which has many benefits, because the system is totally enclosed, thereby minimising odours and particulate emissions. This work reports on field trials at a wastewater treatment plant where anaerobically digested sludge is dried immediately after being dewatered by belt press. The trials showed that unlike previous off-site tests, the sludge could be dried without the addition of a filter aid at a low production rate. However, the trials also confirmed that the addition of the lignite (brown coal) into the anaerobically digested sludge led to a more productive drying process, improved product quality and a greater fraction of the product being in the desired product size range. It is concluded that these results were achieved because the lignite helped to control the granule size in the dryer. Furthermore neither Salmonella spp or E coli were detected in the dried samples. Tests on spontaneous combustion show that this risk is increased in proportion to the amount of lignite used as a drying aid. PMID:25976020

  20. Enhancement of sludge anaerobic biodegradability by combined microwave-H2O2 pretreatment in acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Eswari, Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sludge disintegration and reduce the cost of microwave (MW) pretreatment. Thermodynamic analysis of MW hydrolysis revealed the best fit with a first-order kinetic model at a specific energy of 18,600 kJ/kg total solids (TS). Combining H2O2 with MW resulted in a significant increment in solubilization from 30 to 50 % at 18,600 kJ/kg TS. The pH of H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge (MW + H2O2) was in the alkaline range (pH 9-10), and it made the sludge unfavorable for subsequent anaerobic digestion and inhibits methane production. In order to nullify the alkaline effect caused by the MW + H2O2 combination, the addition of acid was considered for pH adjustment. H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge in acidic conditions (MW + H2O2 + acid) showed a maximum methane production of 323 mL/g volatile solids (VS) than others during anaerobic biodegradability. A cost analysis of this study reveals that MW + H2O2 + acid was the most economical method with a net profit of 59.90 €/t of sludge. PMID:27026550

  1. The integration of methanogenesis with denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zang, Dai-Jun

    2003-05-01

    The integration of methanogenesis with denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) was studied in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor in this work. Experimental results from the continuous treatment of wastewater with nitrite and ammonium, which lasted for 107 days, demonstrated that wastewater with high nitrite and ammonium could be anaerobically treated in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor. More than 91% to 97% of COD were removed at up to about 3.9 g COD/(L x d) of COD volumetric loading rate. More than 97% to 100% of nitrite was denitrified at up to about 0.8 g NO2(-) -N/(L x d), which is 16 times higher than that in a conventional activated sludge system with nitrification/denitrification (0.05 gN/(L x d)). No dissimilatory reduction of nitrite to ammonium occurred in the process. However, maximum of about 40% ammonium was found to be lost. Batch tests of 15 days with sludge from the reactor showed that 100% of nitrite was denitrified completely, and about 3% of ammonium was removed when only ammonium (34.3 mg/L) and nitrite (34.3 mg/ L) were added into the sludge suspension medium. Furthermore, about 15% of ammonium amounts were lost with organic COD addition. It suggested that the methanogenesis in the system could enhance ANAMMOX because of intermediate hydrogen produced during methanogenesis. PMID:12938997

  2. Start-Up Characteristics of a Granule-Based Anammox UASB Reactor Seeded with Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Yan; Tang, Chong-Jian; Chai, Li-Yuan; Xu, Kang-Que; Song, Yu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    The granulation of anammox sludge plays an important role in the high nitrogen removal performance of the anammox reactor. In this study, anaerobic granular sludge was selected as the seeding sludge to start up anammox reactor in order to directly obtain anammox granules. Results showed that the anammox UASB reactor was successfully started up by inoculating anaerobic granular sludge, with substrate capacity of 4435.2 mg/(L·d) and average ammonium and nitrite removal efficiency of 90.36% and 93.29%, respectively. During the start-up course, the granular sludge initially disintegrated and then reaggregated and turned red, suggesting the high anammox performance. Zn-Fe precipitation was observed on the surface of granules during the operation by SEM-EDS, which would impose inhibition to the anammox activity of the granules. Accordingly, it is suggested to relatively reduce the trace metals concentrations, of Fe and Zn in the conventional medium. The findings of this study are expected to be used for a shorter start-up and more stable operation of anammox system. PMID:24455691

  3. Start-up characteristics of a granule-based anammox UASB reactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Tang, Chong-Jian; Chai, Li-Yuan; Xu, Kang-Que; Song, Yu-Xia; Ali, Mohammad; Zheng, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The granulation of anammox sludge plays an important role in the high nitrogen removal performance of the anammox reactor. In this study, anaerobic granular sludge was selected as the seeding sludge to start up anammox reactor in order to directly obtain anammox granules. Results showed that the anammox UASB reactor was successfully started up by inoculating anaerobic granular sludge, with substrate capacity of 4435.2 mg/(L · d) and average ammonium and nitrite removal efficiency of 90.36% and 93.29%, respectively. During the start-up course, the granular sludge initially disintegrated and then reaggregated and turned red, suggesting the high anammox performance. Zn-Fe precipitation was observed on the surface of granules during the operation by SEM-EDS, which would impose inhibition to the anammox activity of the granules. Accordingly, it is suggested to relatively reduce the trace metals concentrations, of Fe and Zn in the conventional medium. The findings of this study are expected to be used for a shorter start-up and more stable operation of anammox system. PMID:24455691

  4. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  5. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Claudia Johanna Sandoval; Mendoza, Marisol Vergara; de Arango, Mariela Carreño; Monroy, Edgar Fernando Castillo

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH(4) and CO(2)) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Río Frío Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L(-1) and a concentration of CO(2) of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10(5)-10(6)MPN mL(-1)). The acetogenic population was (10(5)MPN mL(-1)) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10(4)-10(5)MPN mL(-1)). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH(4) (70%) were higher than CO(2) (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L(-1). Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10(4)-10(5)MPN mL(-1)) and methanogenic bacteria (10(5)MPN mL(-1)) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH(4)g(-1)VSS(-1)day(-1)) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH(4)g(-1)VSS(-1)day(-1)) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified. PMID:18707861

  6. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  7. Performance of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for online monitoring in an integrated system combining microbial fuel cell and upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hui; Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid system integrating a microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was investigated for real-time online monitoring of the internal operation of the UASB reactor. The features concerned were its rapidity and steadiness with a constant operation condition. In addition, the signal feedback mechanism was examined by the relationship between voltage and time point of changed COD concentration. The sensitivity of different concentrations was explored by comparing the signal feedback time point between the voltage and pH. Results showed that the electrical signal feedback was more sensitive than pH and the thresholds of sensitivity were S=3×10(-5)V/(mg/L) and S=8×10(-5)V/(mg/L) in different concentration ranges, respectively. Although only 0.94% of the influent COD was translated into electricity and applied for biosensing, this integrated system indicated great potential without additional COD consumption for real-time monitoring. PMID:27372008

  8. Kinetics of para-nitrophenol and chemical oxygen demand removal from synthetic wastewater in an anaerobic migrating blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Kuşçu, Ozlem Selçuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2009-01-30

    A laboratory scale anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was operated at different HRTs (1-10.38 days) in order to determine the para-nitrophenol (p-NP) and COD removal kinetic constants. The reactor was fed with 40 mg L(-1)p-NP and 3000 mg L(-1) glucose-COD. Modified Stover-Kincannon and Grau second-order kinetic models were applied to the experimental data. The predicted p-NP and COD concentrations were calculated using the kinetic constants. It was found that these data were in better agreement with the observed ones in the modified Stover-Kincannon compared to Grau second-order model. The kinetic constants calculated according to Stover-Kincannon model are as follows: the saturation value constant (K(B)) and maximum utilization rate constants (R(max)) were found as 31.55 g CODL(-1)day(-1), 29.49 g CODL(-1)day(-1) for COD removal and 0.428 g p-NPL(-1)day(-1), 0.407 g p-NPL(-1)day(-1) for p-NP removal, respectively (R(2)=1). The values of (a) and (b) were found to be 0.096 day and 1.071 (dimensionless) with high correlation coefficients of R(2)=0.85 for COD removal. Kinetic constants for specific gas production rate were evaluated using modified Stover-Kincannon, Van der Meer and Heerrtjes and Chen and Hasminoto models. It was shown that Stover-Kincannon model is more appropriate for calculating the effluent COD, p-NP concentrations in AMBR compared to the other models. The maximum specific biogas production rate, G(max), and proportionality constant, G(B), were found to be 1666.7 mL L(-1) day(-1) and 2.83 (dimensionless), respectively in modified Stover-Kincannon gas model. The bacteria had low Haldane inhibition constants (K(ID)=14 and 23 mg L(-1)) for p-NP concentrations higher than 40 mg L(-1) while the half velocity constant (K(s)) increased from 10 to 60 and 118 mg L(-1) with increasing p-NP concentrations from 40 to 85 and 125 mg L(-1). PMID:18515004

  9. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  10. Fate of organic matter during moderate heat treatment of sludge: kinetics of biopolymer and hydrolytic activity release and impact on sludge reduction by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, D; Dossat-Létisse, V; Lefebvre, X; Girbal-Neuhauser, E

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion with a 50-70 °C pre-treatment is widely proposed for sludge. Here, such a sludge pre-treatment (65 °C) was studied against the physical, enzymatic and biodegradation processes. The soluble and particulate fractions were analysed in terms of biochemical composition and hydrolytic enzymatic activities. Two kinetics of organic matter solubilisation were observed: a rapid transfer of the weak-linked biopolymers to the water phase, including sugars, proteins or humic acid-like substances, to the water phase, followed by a slow and long-term solubilisation of proteins and humic acid-like substances. In addition, during the heat treatment a significant pool of thermostable hydrolytic enzymes including proteases, lipases and glucosidases remains active. Consequently, a global impact on organic matter was the transfer of the biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the particulate to the soluble fraction as evaluated by the biological methane potential test. However, the total biodegradable COD content of the treated sludge remained constant. The heat process improves the bio-accessibility of the biodegradable molecules but doesn't increase the inherent sludge biodegradability, suggesting that the chemistry of the refractory proteins and humic acids seems to be the real limit to sludge digestion. PMID:24804656

  11. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

  12. Assessment of microbial viability in municipal sludge following ultrasound and microwave pretreatments and resulting impacts on the efficiency of anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Cella, Monica Angela; Akgul, Deniz; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2016-03-01

    A range of ultrasonication (US) and microwave irradiation (MW) sludge pretreatments were compared to determine the extent of cellular destruction in micro-organisms within secondary sludge and how this cellular destruction translated to anaerobic digestion (AD). Cellular lysis/inactivation was measured using two microbial viability assays, (1) Syto 16® Green and Sytox® Orange counter-assay to discern the integrity of cellular membranes and (2) a fluorescein diacetate assay to understand relative enzymatic activity. A range of MW intensities (2.17-6.48 kJ/g total solids or TS, coinciding temperatures of 60-160 °C) were selected for comparison via viability assays; a range of corresponding US intensities (2.37-27.71 kJ/g TS, coinciding sonication times of 10-60 min at different amplitudes) were also compared to this MW range. The MW pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (tWAS) caused fourfold to fivefold greater cell death than non-pretreated and US-pretreated tWAS. The greatest microbial destruction occurred at MW intensities greater than 2.62 kJ/g TS of sludge, after which increased energy input via MW did not appear to cause greater microbial death. In addition, the optimal MW pretreatment (80 °C, 2.62 kJ/g TS) and corresponding US pretreatment (10 min, 60 % amplitude, 2.37 kJ/g TS) were administered to the tWAS of a mixed sludge and fed to anaerobic digesters over sludge retention times (SRTs) of 20, 14, and 7 days to compare effects of feed pretreatment on AD efficiency. The digester utilizing MW-pretreated tWAS (80 °C, 2.62 kJ/g TS) had the greatest fecal coliform removal (73.4 and 69.8 % reduction, respectively), greatest solids removal (44.2 % TS reduction), and highest overall methane production (248.2 L CH4/kg volatile solids) at 14- and 7-day SRTs. However, despite the fourfold to fivefold increases in cell death upon pretreatment, improvements from the digester fed MW-pretreated sludge were marginal (i.e., increases in efficiency of less

  13. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Arapoglou, Dimitris; Panagiotis, Karlis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal content of the original sludge. Composting of sewage sludge with natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) can enhance its quality and suitability for agricultural use. However, the dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) contained a low concentration of humic substances (almost 2%), and the addition of the waste paper was necessary in order to produce a good soil conditioner with high concentrations of humics. The final results showed that the compost produced from DASPSS and 40-50% w/w of waste paper was a good soil fertilizer. Finally, in order to estimate the metal leachability of the final compost product, the generalized acid neutralization Capacity (GANC) procedure was used, and it was found that by increasing the leachate pH, the heavy metal concentration decreased. The application of the sequential chemical extraction indicated that metals were bound to the residual fraction characterized as a stabilize fractions. PMID:12623099

  14. Sorption and Release of Organics by Primary, Anaerobic, and Aerobic Activated Sludge Mixed with Raw Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215–230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

  15. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

  16. Anaerobic side-stream reactor for excess sludge reduction: 5-year management of a full-scale plant.

    PubMed

    Velho, V F; Foladori, P; Andreottola, G; Costa, R H R

    2016-07-15

    The long-term performances of a full-scale anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) aimed at sludge reduction have been monitored for the first time, in comparison with a conventional activated sludge process (CAS). The plant was integrated with an ASSR treatment of 2293-3293 m(3). Operational parameters in the ASSR were: ORP -250 mV, interchange ratio of 7-10%, hydraulic retention time of 7 d. No worsening of effluent quality was observed in the ASSR configuration and removal efficiency of COD and NH4 was above 95%. A slight increase in the Sludge Volume Index did not cause worsening in effluent solids concentration. The observed sludge yield (Yobs) passed from 0.44 kgTSS/kgCOD in the CAS to 0.35 in the ASSR configuration. The reduction of Yobs by 20% is lower than expected from the literature where sythetic wastewater is used, indicating that sludge reduction efficiency is largely affected by inert mass fed with influent real wastewater. An increase by 45% of the ASSR volume did not promote a further reduction of Yobs, because sludge reduction is affected not solely by endogenous decay but also by other factors such as interchange ratio and aerobiosis/anaerobiosis alternation. PMID:27107390

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain DL-VIII, a Novel Solventogenic Clostridium Species Isolated from Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Izquierdo, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Clostridium sp. strain DL-VIII, a novel Gram-positive, endospore-forming, solventogenic bacterium isolated from activated anaerobic sludge of a wastewater treatment plant. Aside from a complete sol operon, the 6,477,357-bp genome of DL-VIII reveals genes for several unique enzymes with applications in lignocellulose degradation, including two phenolic acid decarboxylases. PMID:23929491

  18. Influence of feeding mixture composition in batch anaerobic co-digestion of stabilized municipal sludge and waste from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Trulli, Ettore; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Waste anaerobic co-digestion applications are particularly useful in Southern Mediterranean areas where large quantities of agricultural waste materials and waste from agro-industries are produced. This waste can be added to urban waste together with the sludge produced by wastewater treatment processes, which, when combined, guarantee the supply of organic matrixes for treatment throughout the year. The implementation of facilities to service vast areas of the agricultural economy and which are heterogeneous in terms of production can provide a good solution. We present an experimental investigation into the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and bio-waste produced in the Mediterranean area. We conducted anaerobic treatability tests, with measures of biogas production and pH of the mixture in digestion. Our main aims were to identify an optimal mix of substrates for the production of biogas, and to analyse the influence on the composition of biogas and the variation in pH values of the substrates. This analysis was conducted considering the variation of the input, in particular due to the addition of waste acids, such as biological sewage sludge. PMID:25442095

  19. Chemically coupled microwave and ultrasonic pre-hydrolysis of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge: effect on sludge solubilisation and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Lo, Shang-Lien; Rajpal, Ankur

    2014-05-01

    The effects of alkali-enhanced microwave (MW; 50-175 °C) and ultrasonic (US) (0.75 W/mL, 15-60 min) pretreatments, on solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion efficiency of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge, were investigated. Improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilisation were limited to 33 and 39 % in MW pretreatment only (175 °C). It reached 78 and 66 % in combined MW-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 175 °C), respectively. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand and VSS solubilisation were 58 and 37 % in US pretreatment alone (60 min) and it improved by 66 and 49 % after US-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 60 min), respectively. The biogas yield for US 60 min-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was significantly improved by 47 and 20 % over the control and US 60 reactors, respectively. The biogas generation for MW (150 °C)-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was only 6.3 % higher than control; however, it was 8.3 % lower than the MW (150 °C) reactor, which was due to the inhibition of anaerobic activity under harsh thermal-alkali treatment condition. PMID:24488518

  20. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols.

    PubMed

    D'Abzac, Paul; Bordas, François; Van Hullebusch, Eric; Lens, Piet N L; Guibaud, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with sonication) and four chemical (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethanol, formaldehyde combined with heating, or NaOH) EPS extraction methods was compared to a control extraction protocols (i.e., centrifugation). The nucleic acid content and the protein/polysaccharide ratio of the EPS extracted show that the extraction does not induce abnormal cellular lysis. Chemical extraction protocols give the highest EPS extraction yields (calculated by the mass ratio between sludges and EPS dry weight (DW)). Infrared analyses as well as an extraction yield over 100% or organic carbon content over 1 g g(-1) of DW revealed, nevertheless, a carry-over of the chemical extractants into the EPS extracts. The EPS of the anaerobic granular sludges investigated are predominantly composed of humic-like substances, proteins, and polysaccharides. The EPS content in each biochemical compound varies depending on the sludge type and extraction technique used. Some extraction techniques lead to a slightly preferential extraction of some EPS compounds, e.g., CER gives a higher protein yield. PMID:19862516

  1. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  2. Biodegradation and chemical precipitation of dissolved nutrients in anaerobically digested sludge dewatering centrate.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, G; Eskicioglu, C; Abel-Denee, M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to assess specific side-stream treatment processes for biodegradation and precipitation of dissolved nutrients in dewatering centrate. In this study, characterization was made of a conventional suspended growth deammonification treatment process for transforming dissolved polyphosphate (poly-P), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in two types of dewatering centrate. The deammonification process was configured as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), combining partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) in a single tank. The first centrate feed studied was from the full-scale Annacis Island wastewater treatment plant (AIWWTP) located in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The second centrate feed was from a lab-scale anaerobic digester (AD) fed waste sludge from the existing City of Kelowna Wastewater Treatment Facility (KWTF), located in the Okanagan Valley, Canada. In addition, poly aluminum chloride (PACL) dosing was assessed for final polishing of dissolved nutrients. The deammonification SBR (DeSBR) process showed similar treatment characteristics for both the KWTF and AIWWTP centrates with excellent DON removal and poor non-reactive dissolved phosphorus (NRDP) removal. A statistical comparison of the DOP and poly-P through the DeSBR process suggests that DOP has a higher biodegradation potential. Future research focused on understanding the variables associated with degradation of DOP could lead to better NRDP removal through deammonification processes. Utilization of a post-anammox PACL chemical dosing stage can achieve the objective of precipitating any residual DON and NRDP and producing an effluent that has lower dissolved nutrients than the pre-digestion KWTF dewatering centrate scenario. PMID:27023924

  3. Anaerobic granular sludge as a biocatalyst for 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol in continuous bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, R; Faria, C; Rodrigues, L R; Pereira, M A; Alves, M M

    2014-03-01

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) was produced from glycerol in three parallel Expanded Granular Sludge Blanket (EGSB) reactors inoculated with granular sludge (control reactor-R1), heat-treated granular sludge (R2) and disrupted granular sludge (R3) at hydraulic retention times (HRT) between 3 and 24h. Maximum 1,3-PDO yield (0.52molmol(-1)) and productivity (57gL(-1)d(-1)) were achieved in R1 at HRTs of 12 and 3h, respectively. DGGE profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that variations in the HRT had a critical impact in the dominant community of microorganisms. However, no appreciable differences in the bacterial population were observed between R2 and R3 at low HRTs. Production of H2 was observed at the beginning of the operation, but no methane production was observed. This study proves the feasibility of 1,3-PDO production in EGSB reactors and represents a novel strategy to valorise glycerol generated in the biodiesel industry. PMID:24413479

  4. A comprehensive study into fouling properties of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from bulk sludge and cake sludge in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This study focused on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to obtain the relations of EPS specific constituents with membrane fouling. It was found that for the EPS extracted from bulk sludge, the LB-EPS induced the largest flux decline; however, for EPS extracted from cake sludge, the S-EPS caused the highest flux decline. The preferential rejection fraction by membrane further confirmed that the greater flux decline was exhibited with the higher percent rejection of EPS fractions. The adhesion and cohesion interactions of EPS fractions and membranes could explain the different rejection rates of the EPS components. The structural characteristics analysis indicated that the fouling layers of different EPS fractions with the greater loss of filterability had the smaller porosity. Further investigations demonstrated that these changes could be attributed to the different content of HPO-N in EPS fractions. PMID:26022972

  5. Methane production from rice straw with acclimated anaerobic sludge: effect of phosphate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhongfang; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio

    2010-06-01

    Rice straw particles were directly used as substrate for anaerobic digestion with acclimated sludge under room temperature and different levels of phosphate. Two obvious biogas production peaks were observed for all reactors, with biogas or methane yields of (0.33-0.35)m(3)/kg-VS loaded or (0.27-0.29)m(3) CH(4)/kg-VS loaded and average methane contents of 75.9-78.2%. A separated two-stage first-order kinetic model was developed in this study and showed a good fit to the experimental data when this complicated process was divided into two stages. The average biogas and methane production rate constants were (0.027-0.031)d(-1) and (0.028-0.033)d(-1), respectively, increased by 2-3 times in the second stages than those in the first. The results indicated that an adequate level of phosphate addition (465 mg-P/L) could accelerate the biogasification process: 7-13 days earlier appearance of the two peaks and shorter time needed for complete biogasification of rice straw. PMID:20153179

  6. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. PMID:23954716

  7. Size effect of anaerobic granular sludge on biogas production: A micro scale study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Afridi, Zohaib Ur Rehman; Cao, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Zhong Liang; Poncin, Souhila; Li, Huai Zhi; Zuo, Jian E; Wang, Kai Jun

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of anaerobic granular sludge size on its bioactivity at COD concentration of 1000, 3000 and 6000 mg/L. Based on size, granules were categorized as large (3-3.5 mm), medium (1.5-2 mm) and small (0.5-1 mm). A positive relationship was obtained between granule size and biogas production rate. For instance, at COD 6000 mg/L, large granules had highest biogas production rate of 0.031 m(3)/kgVSS/d while medium and small granules had 0.016 and 0.006 m(3)/kgVSS/d respectively. The results were reaffirmed by applying modified Fick's law of diffusion. Diffusion rates of substrate for large, medium and small granules were 1.67×10(-3), 6.1×10(-4)and 1.8×10(-4) mg/s respectively at that COD. Large granules were highly bio-active due to their internal structure, i.e. big pore size, high porosity and short diffusion distance as compared to medium and small granules, thus large granules could improve the performance of reactor. PMID:26708484

  8. Metal binding properties of extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic granular sludges.

    PubMed

    d'Abzac, Paul; Bordas, François; Joussein, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Guibaud, Gilles

    2013-07-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted from four anaerobic granular sludges with different procedures to study their involvement in biosorption of metallic elements. EPS extracts are composed of closely associated organic and mineral fractions. The EPS macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, humic-like substances, nucleic, and uronic acids) have functional groups potentially available for the binding of metallic elements. The acidic constants of these ionizable groups are: pKa1 (4-5) corresponding to the carboxyl groups; pKa2 (6-7) corresponding to the phosphoric groups; pKa3 (8-10) and pKa4 (≈10) corresponding to the phenolic, hydroxyl, and amino groups. The polarographic study confirms the higher affinity of the EPS to bind to lead than to cadmium. Moreover, the binding of these metallic compounds with the EPS is a mix of several sorption mechanisms including surface complexation, ion exchange, and flocculation. Inorganic elements were found as ions linked to organic molecules or as solid particles. The mineral fraction affects the binding properties of the EPS, as the presence of salts decreases the EPS binding ability. Calcite and apatite particles observed on SEM images of EPS extracts can also sorb metallic elements through ion exchange or surface complexation. PMID:23250729

  9. Low pH anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge for enhanced phosphorous release.

    PubMed

    Latif, Muhammad A; Mehta, Chirag M; Batstone, Damien J

    2015-09-15

    This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) at low pH to enhance phosphorous solubility. Batch biochemical methane potential tests were conducted at a pH range of 5 to 7.2 in two separate sets (two different WAS samples collected from municipal WWTP). Low pH (<5.7) caused a significant (p = 0.004) decrease in methane potential (B0) up to 33% and 3.6 times increase in phosphorus release compared to neutral pH (7-7.7), but with no major change in methane production rate coefficient (khyd). The loss in methane yield was mainly due to decrease in hydrolytic capability rather than inhibition of methanogenesis with volatile fatty acids being <300 mgCOD L(-1) and soluble COD <1300 mgCOD L(-1) even at low pH. While pH did not influence the acetoclastic community (Methanosaeta dominated), it was the primary driver for the remaining community (p = 0.004), and caused a loss of diversity and shift to Clostridia. PMID:26081435

  10. Performance of novel sludge-bed anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SB-AnMBR) treating prehydrolysis liquor.

    PubMed

    Kale, Mayur M; Singh, Kripa S

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel sludge-bed anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SB-AnMBR) configuration for treating a waste stream from a dissolving pulp production industry was evaluated. The waste stream, called prehydrolysis liquor (PHL), is generated after the wood chips are subjected to high temperature steam to remove unwanted hemicelluloses. The PHL with total chemical oxygen demand (COD) of approximately 100 g/L contained mainly sugars, furfural, lignin, and acetic acid. The SB-AnMBR was fed with the PHL at organic loading rates in a range of 0.8 to10 kg-COD/(m(3)·d). The COD removal efficiency of more than 85% and an average rate of methane production of 0.35 m(3)/(kg-COD·d) were observed at each loading rate. No detectable sugars or furfural were present in the treated effluent from SB-AnMBR. Lignin removal varied from 60 to 90%. Flat-sheet membranes performed well with one fouling event during first 400 days of operation. PMID:24569279

  11. Analysis of submerged membrane for a sludge-bed anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating prehydrolysis liquor.

    PubMed

    Kale, Mayur Milan; Singh, Kripa Shankar

    2016-08-01

    An analysis of foulants and the performance of membranes in innovative sludge-bed anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SB-AnMBRs) were evaluated at mesophilic (35°C for approx. 400 days) followed by thermophilic (55°C for approx. 400 days) temperatures while treating the prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) waste stream from a dissolving pulp production plant. The membrane fouling of SB-AnMBR was analyzed for 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 m(3)/m(2)/d flux conditions. Physico-chemical analyses of the membrane showed that the combination of 5% citric acid, 0.5% NaOCl and 2% NaOH solutions was effective in achieving more than 80% recovery of membrane flux. Chemical characterization of foulants showed that proteins were more predominant in membrane fouling than carbohydrates. Sugars and lignin contribution were negligible as compared to proteins in the total organic carbon content of the foulant. Membrane fouling occurred through a biofilm-dominated process and organic fouling. Combination of cleaning chemicals which included 0.5% NaClO and 2% NaOH solutions was most effective in the removal of the organic foulants. SEM analysis showed the pictorial evolution of the impact of fouling on the pore openings and the effect of cleaning on the membrane surface. PMID:26708166

  12. Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation in outdoors using the diluted anaerobically digested activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhao, Fang-Chao; Chu, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A freshwater green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) was cultured in outdoors using the diluted anaerobically digested activated sludge (ADAS). The outdoors batch culture in every season showed that C. pyrenoidosa can grow normally under natural conditions in the diluted ADAS (STE/ADAS=1.5/1, 3/1 and 5/1, v/v). Seasonal changes of environmental conditions significantly affected biomass growth and nutrient removal. Optimal biomass growth and nutrient removal was achieved at STE/ADAS=1.5/1 during summer culture, harvesting a maximum biomass concentration of 1.97 ± 0.21 g/L, average biomass productivity of 291.52 ± 33.74 g/m(3)/day (maximum value of 573.10 ± 41.82) and average lipids productivity of 37.49 ± 5.26 g/m(3)/day (maximum value of 73.70 ± 9.75); simultaneously, the microalgae growth effectively removed nutrients from the wastewater, including 105.6 ± 17.1 mg CODCr/L/day, 36.8 ± 6.1mg N/L/day and 6.1 ± 1.1 mg P/L/day. PMID:26407348

  13. Comparison of ozone and thermal hydrolysis combined with anaerobic digestion for municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge with tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Ren, Jia; Yu, Xiaohua

    2016-08-01

    Biosolids from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which attract great concerns on their efficient treatments. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used for sewage sludge treatment but its effectiveness is limited due to the slow hydrolysis. Ozone and thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment were employed to improve AD efficiency and reduce antibiotic-resistant genes in municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge (MWS and PWS, respectively) in this study. Sludge solubilization achieved 15.75-25.09% and 14.85-33.92% after ozone and thermal hydrolysis, respectively. Both pre-treatments improved cumulative methane production and the enhancements were greater on PWS than MWS. Five tetracycline-resistant genes (tet(A), tet(G), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(X)) and one mobile element (intI1) were qPCR to assess pre-treatments. AD of pre-treated sludge reduced more tet genes than raw sludge for both ozonation and thermal hydrolysis in PWS and MWS. Thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment was more efficient than ozone for reduction after AD. Results of this study help support management options for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance from biosolids. PMID:27151286

  14. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD. PMID:27332832

  15. High-rate iron-rich activated sludge as stabilizing agent for the anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; De Lathouwer, Lars; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a key technology in the bio-based economy and can be applied to convert a wide range of organic substrates into CH4 and CO2. Kitchen waste is a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion, since it is an abundant source of organic matter. Yet, digestion of single kitchen waste often results in process failure. High-rate activated sludge or A-sludge is produced during the highly loaded first stage of the two-phase 'Adsorptions-Belebungsverfahren' or A/B activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment. In this specific case, the A-sludge was amended with FeSO4 to enhance phosphorous removal and coagulation during the water treatment step. This study therefore evaluated whether this Fe-rich A-sludge could be used to obtain stable methanation and higher methane production values during co-digestion with kitchen waste. It was revealed that Fe-rich A-sludge can be a suitable co-substrate for kitchen waste; i.e. methane production rate values of 1.15 ± 0.22 and 1.12 ± 0.28 L L(-1) d(-1) were obtained during mesophilic and thermophilic co-digestion respectively of a feed-mixture consisting of 15% KW and 85% A-sludge. The thermophilic process led to higher residual VFA concentrations, up to 2070 mg COD L(-1), and can therefore be considered less stable. Addition of micro- and macronutrients provided a more stable digestion of single kitchen waste, i.e. a methane production of 0.45 L L(-1) d(-1) was obtained in the micronutrient treatment compared to 0.30 L L(-1) d(-1) in the control treatment on day 61. Yet, methane production during single kitchen waste digestion still decreased toward the end of the experiment, despite the addition of micronutrients. Methane production rates were clearly influenced by the total numbers of archaea in the different reactors. This study showed that Fe-rich A-sludge and kitchen waste are suitable for co-digestion. PMID:23726710

  16. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-05

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

  17. Effects of sludge inoculum and organic feedstock on active microbial communities and methane yield during anaerobic digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, David; Rao, Subramanya; Lu, Xiaoying; Lee, Patrick K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane (“biogas”). While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions. PMID:26528262

  18. New insights into the key microbial phylotypes of anaerobic sludge digesters under different operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liping; Bize, Ariane; Conteau, Delphine; Chapleur, Olivier; Courtois, Sophie; Kroff, Pablo; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Bouchez, Théodore; Mazéas, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Analyses on bacterial, archaeal communities at family level and methane-production metabolism were conducted in thirteen full-scale and pilot-scale anaerobic sludge digesters. These digesters were operated at different conditions regarding solids concentration, sludge retention time, organic loading rate and feedstock composition, seeking to optimize digester capacity. Correlations between process parameters and identified microbial phylotypes were evaluated based on relative abundance of these phylotypes determined by Quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Results showed that, Total Solids concentration (TS), among the evaluated operational parameters, demonstrated the most positive correlation with chemical parameters (including NH3 and VFAs) and significant impact on the abundance of key microbial phylotypes regardless of other factors. Digesters were grouped into 'Higher-TS' with higher stress (TS > 44 g/L, NH3 > 90 mg/L, VFAs > 300 mg/L) and 'Lower-TS' under easier status (TS ≤ 44 g/L, NH3 < 120 mg/L, VFAs < 525 mg/L) in this study. We identified the key microbial phylotypes, i.e. the most abundant and discriminating populations, in 'Higher-TS' digesters with high biogas production rate, which were the class Clostridia, the family Methanosarcinaceae and the order Methanobacteriales. Thermoanaerobacteraceae and Syntrophomonadaceae were identified as key families of Clostridia. Methane was produced both from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. By contrast, in 'Higher-TS' digesters with low biogas production rate, the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria were detected in higher percentages, of which Rhodobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were the most abundant families respectively, and Methanomicrobiales was the prevailing methanogen order. Consistently, hydrogenotrophic pathway was predominant for methanogenesis, indicating existence of syntrophic acetate oxidation in such 'high-stress', low

  19. Elucidating the removal mechanism of N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Lin

    2014-03-01

    N,N-Dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) is a typical precursor of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Based on separate hydrolysis, sorption and biodegradation studies of DMDTC, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) system was established to investigate the removal mechanism of DMDTC in this nutrient removal biological treatment system. DMDTC hydrolyzed easily in water solution under either acidic conditions or strong alkaline conditions, and dimethylamine (DMA) was the main hydrolysate. Under anaerobic, anoxic or oxic conditions, DMDTC was biodegraded and completely mineralized. Furthermore, DMA was the main intermediate in DMDTC biodegradation. In the AAO system, the optimal conditions for both nutrient and DMDTC removal were hydraulic retention time 8 hr, sludge retention time 20 day, mixed-liquor return ratio 3:1 and sludge return ratio 1:1. Under these conditions, the removal efficiency of DMDTC reached 99.5%; the removal efficiencies of chemical organic demand, ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 90%, 98%, 81% and 93%, respectively. Biodegradation is the dominant mechanism for DMDTC removal in the AAO system, which was elucidated as consisting of two steps: first, DMDTC is transformed to DMA in the anaerobic and anoxic units, and then DMA is mineralized to CO2 and NH3 in the anoxic and oxic units. The mineralization of DMDTC in the biological treatment system can effectively avoid the formation of NDMA during subsequent disinfection processes. PMID:25079269

  20. From mesophilic to thermophilic digestion: the transitions of anaerobic bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in sludge and manure samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Yu, Guangwei; Louie, Tiffany; Liu, Tong; Zhu, Chengsheng; Xue, Gang; Gao, Pin

    2015-12-01

    The shift of microbial communities during a transition from mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) was characterized in two treatments. One treatment was inoculated with sludge and the other was inoculated with manure. In this study, methane was produced both in MAD and TAD, but TAD has slightly more methane produced than MAD. A broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal taxa at thermophilic conditions was detected. Coprothermobacter, Bacillus, Haloplasma, Clostridiisalibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter, Saccharomycetales, Candida, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium were found almost exclusively in TAD, suggesting their adaptation to thermophilic conditions and ecological roles in digesting the organic compounds. The characterization of the lesser-known fungal community revealed that fungi probably constituted an important portion of the overall community within TAD and contributed to this process by degrading complex organic compounds. The shift of the microbial communities between MAD and TAD implied that temperature drastically affected the microbial diversity in anaerobic digestion. In addition, the difference in microbial communities between sludge and manure indicated that different source of inoculum also affected the microbial diversity and community. PMID:26245681

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, W.M.; Claassen, J.A.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-09-01

    Investigations on the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of high-strength wastewaters (14-65 kg COD/mT) are presented. Vinasse, the wastewater of alcohol distilleries, was used as an example of such wastewaters. Semicontinuously fed digestion experiments at high retention times revealed that the effluent quality of digestion at 55C is comparable with that at 30C at similar loading rates. The amount of methane formed per kilogram of vinasse drops almost linearly with increasing vinasse concentrations. The treatment of vinasse was also investigated using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Anders S; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-04-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12 LAS), which show that C12 LAS was biodegradable under methanogenic conditions. Sorption of C12 LAS on sewage sludge was described with a Freundlich isotherm. The C12 LAS sorption was determined with different concentrations of total solids (TS). In the semi-continuously stirred tank reactor, 18% of the added C12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation. PMID:12685701

  3. An 'omics' approach towards the characterisation of laboratory scale anaerobic digesters treating municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Beale, D J; Karpe, A V; McLeod, J D; Gondalia, S V; Muster, T H; Othman, M Z; Palombo, E A; Joshi, D

    2016-01-01

    In this study, laboratory scale digesters were operated to simulate potential shocks to the Anaerobic Digestion (AD) process at a 350 ML/day wastewater treatment plant. The shocks included high (42 °C) and low (32 °C) temperature (either side of mesophilic 37 °C) and a 20% loading of fats, oil and grease (FOG; 20% w:v). These variables were explored at two sludge retention times (12 and 20 days) and two organic loading rates (2.0 and 2.5 kgTS/m(3)day OLR). Metagenomic and metabolomic approaches were then used to characterise the impact of operational shocks in regard to temperature and FOG addition, as determined through monitoring of biogas production, the microbial profile and their metabolism. Results showed that AD performance was not greatly affected by temperature shocks, with the biggest impact being a reduction in biogas production at 42 °C that persisted for 32 ± 1 days. The average biogas production across all digesters at the completion of the experiment was 264.1 ± 76.5 mL/day, with FOG addition observed to significantly promote biogas production (+87.8 mL/day). Metagenomic and metabolomic analyses of the digesters indicated that methanogens and methane oxidising bacteria (MOB) were low in relative abundance, and that the ratio of oxidising bacteria (methane, sulphide and sulphate) with respect to sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) had a noticeable influence on biogas production. Furthermore, increased biogas production correlated with an increase in short chain fatty acids, a product of the addition of 20% FOG. This work demonstrates the application of metagenomics and metabolomics to characterise the microbiota and their metabolism in AD digesters, providing insight to the resilience of crucial microbial populations when exposed to operational shocks. PMID:26512813

  4. Effects of extraction procedures on metal binding properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges.

    PubMed

    d'Abzac, Paul; Bordas, François; van Hullebusch, Eric; Lens, Piet N L; Guibaud, Gilles

    2010-10-15

    The effects of the extraction procedure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on their proton/metal binding properties were studied. Nine extraction procedures (one control, four physical and four chemical procedures) were applied to four types of anaerobic granular sludges. The binding capacities between the EPS and lead or cadmium were investigated at pH 7 by a polarographic method. The composition of the EPS extracts varied according to the extraction technique and the origin of the sludge. This induced differences in the pK(a)s and the binding sites density of the EPS extracts. The carry-over of the extractant in the samples strongly affects the properties of the EPS from chemical extraction protocols. Lead and cadmium seem to be bound differently with the EPS, a higher binding capacity was observed for Pb(2+) than for Cd(2+). PMID:20580210

  5. Composting of bio-waste, aerobic and anaerobic sludges--effect of feedstock on the process and quality of compost.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Marina; Hänninen, Kari

    2011-02-01

    In-vessel composting of three stocks with originally different degree of organic matter degradation was conducted for: (1) kitchen source-separated bio-waste (BW), (2) aerobic (AS) as well as (3) anaerobic sludges (AnS) from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Composting experiment lasted over a year. The highest activity of the process was in the BW compost. It was implied by the highest temperature, CO(2) release, ammonification and nitrification, intensive accumulation and removal of low-weight carboxylic acids (water- and NaOH-extractable). Between the sludges higher mineralization and CO2 release was in AnS, while ammonification and nitrification were higher in AS compost; no significant difference between sludge composts was noticed for dynamics of pH, conductivity, concentrations of LWCA, and some nutrient compounds and heavy metals. Nitrogen content of the final compost increased in BW, but decreased in AS and AnS. Phytotoxicity of Lepidium sativum was eliminated faster in sludge composts compared to BW compost. PMID:21095117

  6. Effects of solution conditions on the physicochemical properties of stratification components of extracellular polymeric substances in anaerobic digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongqin; Wang, Yili

    2013-01-01

    The composition and effects of solution conditions on the physicochemical properties of the stratification components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in anaerobic digested sludge were determined. The total EPS in anaerobic digested sludge were extracted by the cation exchange resin method. Another EPS extraction method, the centrifugation and sonication technique was employed to stratify the EPS into three fractions: slime, loosely bound (LB)-EPS, and tightly bound (TB)-EPS from the outside to the inside of the anaerobic digested sludge. Proteins and polysaccharides were dispersed uniformly across the different EPS fractions, and humic-like substances were mainly partitioned in the slime, with TB-EPS second. Protein was the major constituent of the LB-EPS and TB-EPS, and the corresponding ratios ranged from 54.0% to 65.6%. The hydrophobic part in the EPS chemical components was primarily comprised of protein and DNA, while the hydrophilic part was mainly composed of polysaccharide. In the slime, the hydrophobic values of several EPS chemical components (protein, polysaccharide, humic-like substances and DNA) were all below 50%. The protein/polysaccharide ratio had a significant influence on the Zeta potentials and isoelectric point values of the EPS: the greater the protein/polysaccharide ratio of the EPS was, the greater the Zeta potential and the higher the isoelectric point value were. All Zeta potentials of the EPS showed a decreasing trend with increasing pH. The corresponding isoelectric point values (pH) were 2.8 for total EPS, 2.2 for slime, 2.7 for LB-EPS, and 2.6 for TB-EPS. As the ionic strength increased, the Zeta potentials sharply increased and then gradually became constant without charge reversal. In addition, as the temperature increased (< 40 degrees C), the apparent viscosity of the EPS decreased monotonically and then gradually became stable between 40 and 60 degrees C. PMID:23586310

  7. Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1992-01-01

    Cites a recycling success story involving sludge production from wastewater and transformation into an effective plant fertilizer. Discusses related concerns such as dealing with pollutants like heavy metals and PCBs often found in sludge. Provides an example of an application of sludge produced in Chicago to an area reclamation site. (MCO)

  8. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge by using H₂O₂ oxidation, electrolysis, electro-oxidation and thermo-alkaline pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Feki, Emna; Khoufi, Sonia; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration of municipal waste-activated sludge (WAS) is regarded as a prerequisite of the anaerobic digestion process to reduce sludge volume and improve biogas yield. Pretreatment of WAS using thermo-alkaline (TA), H2O2 oxidation, electrolysis and electro-oxidation (EO) processes were investigated and compared in term of COD solubilization and biogas production. For each pretreatment, the influences of different operational variables were studied in detail. At optimum conditions, EO gave the maximum COD solubilization (28 %). The effects of pretreatments under the optimum conditions on anaerobic digestion were experienced with biochemical methane potential assay. Significant increases in biogas yield up to 78 and 40 % were observed respectively in the EO and TA pretreated samples compared to raw sludge. Results clearly revealed that the application of EO is a significant alternative method for the improvement of WAS anaerobic digestion. PMID:25982985

  9. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher’s Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, E. J.; Gil, M. V.; Fernandez, C.; Rosas, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  10. Production of Volatile Derivatives of Metal(loid)s by Microflora Involved in Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Michalke, K.; Wickenheiser, E. B.; Mehring, M.; Hirner, A. V.; Hensel, R.

    2000-01-01

    Gases released from anaerobic wastewater treatment facilities contain considerable amounts of volatile methyl and hydride derivatives of metals and metalloids, such as arsine (AsH3), monomethylarsine, dimethylarsine, trimethylarsine, trimethylbismuth (TMBi), elemental mercury (Hg0), trimethylstibine, dimethyltellurium, and tetramethyltin. Most of these compounds could be shown to be produced by pure cultures of microorganisms which are representatives of the anaerobic sewage sludge microflora, i.e., methanogenic archaea (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum), sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio vulgaris, D. gigas), and a peptolytic bacterium (Clostridium collagenovorans). Additionally, dimethylselenium and dimethyldiselenium could be detected in the headspace of most of the pure cultures. This is the first report of the production of TMBi, stibine, monomethylstibine, and dimethylstibine by a pure culture of M. formicicum. PMID:10877769

  11. Production of volatile derivatives of metal(loid)s by microflora involved in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Michalke, K; Wickenheiser, E B; Mehring, M; Hirner, A V; Hensel, R

    2000-07-01

    Gases released from anaerobic wastewater treatment facilities contain considerable amounts of volatile methyl and hydride derivatives of metals and metalloids, such as arsine (AsH(3)), monomethylarsine, dimethylarsine, trimethylarsine, trimethylbismuth (TMBi), elemental mercury (Hg(0)), trimethylstibine, dimethyltellurium, and tetramethyltin. Most of these compounds could be shown to be produced by pure cultures of microorganisms which are representatives of the anaerobic sewage sludge microflora, i.e., methanogenic archaea (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum), sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio vulgaris, D. gigas), and a peptolytic bacterium (Clostridium collagenovorans). Additionally, dimethylselenium and dimethyldiselenium could be detected in the headspace of most of the pure cultures. This is the first report of the production of TMBi, stibine, monomethylstibine, and dimethylstibine by a pure culture of M. formicicum. PMID:10877769

  12. Evolution of microbial community along with increasing solid concentration during high-solids anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Si, Dandan; Chen, Qingwu

    2016-09-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD), a promising method with smaller reactor and less heating energy consumption, showed relatively lower digestion efficiency sometimes and higher tolerance to some inhibitors. To investigate the phenomena, the archaeal and bacterial communities in four anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge with total solids (TS) of 10-19% were investigated. Although acetoclastic methanogenesis conducted mainly by genus Methanosarcina was still the main pathway producing methane, the total ratio of acetoclastic methanogens decreased along with the increased TS. In contrary, the relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens increased from 6.8% at TS 10% to 22.3% at TS 19%, and methylotrophic methanogens from 10.4% to 20.9%. The bacterial community was dominated by five phyla. Acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria affiliated to Firmicutes decreased following the increase of TS; while the proteolysis phylum Bacteroidetes increased, with a tolerant family ST-12K33 notably existing in the digesters at TS 17% and 19%. PMID:27235970

  13. Optimization of the hydrolytic-acidogenic anaerobic digestion stage (55 degrees C) of sewage sludge: influence of pH and solid content.

    PubMed

    Ponsá, Sergio; Ferrer, Ivet; Vázquez, Felícitas; Font, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    In conventional single-stage anaerobic digestion processes, hydrolysis is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as sewage sludge. Two-stage systems have been proposed to enhance this process. However, so far it is not clear which are the best conditions for a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge, in terms of temperature and hydraulic retention time of each stage. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage treating real sludge with a high concentration of total solids (40-50gL(-1)) and volatile solids (25-30gL(-1)), named high concentration sludge. The variables considered for this first stage were: hydraulic retention time (1-4 days) and temperature (55 and 65 degrees C). Maximum volatile fatty acids generation was obtained at 4 days and 3 days hydraulic retention time for 55 degrees C and 65 degrees C, respectively. Consequently, 4 days hydraulic retention time and temperature of 55 degrees C were set as the working conditions for the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage treating high concentration sludge. The results obtained when operating with high concentration sludge were compared with a low concentration sludge consisting of 17-28gL(-1) total solids and 13-21gL(-1) volatile solids. The effect of decreasing the influent sludge pH, when working at the optimal conditions established, was also evaluated. PMID:18687452

  14. Attempts at inducing anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs in a municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District maintained sludge storage lagoons in which PCBs have been detected. PCB concentrations in the sludge ranged from 0 to 150 {mu}g/g dry weight. The site is currently on the National Priorities List and the potential for bioremediation is being investigated. Preliminary experiments were conducted to determine if sludge borne PCBs could be dechlorinated by stimulating the indigenous bacteria or by adding an inoculum of Hudson River (HR) sediment, Silver Lake sediment or primary digester sludge. Each inoculum was also evaluated for its dechlorinating ability of Aroclor 1242 in the absence of sludge. Although HR sediment significantly dechlorinated Aroclor 1242, none of the treatments containing sludge demonstrated dechlorination. Follow-up experiments were conducted to determine whether bioavailability or competition from the bacteria in the sludge were factors affecting dechlorination. The treatments included adding surfactants, adding Aroclor 1242 in acetone and sterilizing the sludge prior to adding the inoculum. As in the preliminary experiments, dechlorination was observed in the spiked HR sediment but not in the treatments containing sludge. The results will be discussed as well as characteristics of the sludge which may be inhibiting the dechlorination.

  15. Strategies for the recovery of nutrients and metals from anaerobically digested dairy farm sludge using cross-flow microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, M L; Zacharof, M P; Lovitt, R W

    2013-09-15

    This work reports on the recovery of nutrients and metals from anaerobically digested manure sludge using a pilot scale microfiltration membrane system. Soluble nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and metals are valuable commodities which exist in high concentration in anaerobically digested manure sludge. The typical disposal of sludge on farmland can cause serious harm to the ecosystem due to eutrophication. The recovery of these materials in clarified solutions represents an added value product and a less contaminated sludge that is environmentally less hazardous. The objective of this study was to investigate the recovery of nutrients and metals using a pilot scale cross-flow membrane filtration system. A ceramic membrane of 0.22 m(2) and 0.2 μm pore size was used to perform solid-liquid separations and soluble materials were recovered in particle and bacteria free solutions. Strategies such as batch diafiltration (DF) and acid pre-treatment were investigated and the fractions collected compared against the initial permeate containing 686.2 mg NH3-N L(-1) and 41.51 mg PO4-P L(-1). Clarified fractions obtained through DF with no acid pre-treatment yielded N:P ratios of around 30 and relatively low levels of P (364.24 mg NH3-N L(-1) and 25.60 mg PO4-P L(-1)) and metals. Acid pre-treatment of the sludge resulted in a two-fold increase of P extracted (271.11 mg NH3-N L(-1) and 71.60 mg PO4-P L(-1)), altering N:P ratios to 8. Depending on the metal species, a 2-9 fold increase in concentration was also observed. Thus it has been demonstrated that different treatment strategies influence the removal and recovery of nutrients and metals from sludge. The best treatment conditions therefore depend on the targeted materials to be recovered. By careful manipulation of the treatment processes the production of specific nutrient compositions in terms of N:P ratios is possible. PMID:23871254

  16. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kato, M T; Field, J A; Versteeg, P; Lettinga, G

    1994-08-01

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30oC. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to12 g COD/L . d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGBS reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V(up)) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K(s) value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V(up) lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A. more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V(up) higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L. d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production. To achieve an equilibrium between the mixing intensity and the sludge hold-up, the operation should be limited to an organic loading rate of 7 g COD/L d. and to a liquid up-flow velocity between 2.5 and 5.5 m/h (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618781

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  18. Application of Novel Amino-Functionalized NZVI@SiO2 Nanoparticles to Enhance Anaerobic Granular Sludge Removal of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyu; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Shu, Yajie

    2015-01-01

    A novel amino-functionalized silica-coated nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI@SiO2-NH2) was successfully synthesized by using one-step liquid-phase method with the surface functionalization of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) to enhance degradation of chlorinated organic contaminants from anaerobic microbial system. NZVI@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticles were synthesized under optimal conditions with the uniform core-shell structure (80–100 nm), high loading of amino functionality (~0.9 wt%), and relatively large specific surface area (126.3 m2/g). The result demonstrated that well-dispersed NZVI@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle with nFe0-core and amino-functional silicon shell can effectively remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in the neutral condition, much higher than that of NZVI. Besides, the surface-modified nanoparticles (NZVI@SiO2-NH2) in anaerobic granule sludge system also showed a positive effect to promote anaerobic biodechlorination system. More than 94.6% of 2,4,6-TCP was removed from the combined NZVI@SiO2-NH2-anaerobic granular sludge system during the anaerobic dechlorination processes. Moreover, adding the appropriate concentration of NZVI@SiO2-NH2 in anaerobic granular sludge treatment system can decrease the toxicity of 2,4,6-TCP to anaerobic microorganisms and improved the cumulative amount of methane production and electron transport system activity. The results from this study clearly demonstrated that the NZVI@SiO2-NH2/anaerobic granular sludge system could become an effective and promising technology for the removal of chlorophenols in industrial wastewater. PMID:26060427

  19. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with 14C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with 13C6-glucose and 13C3-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with 13C-glucose and 13C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with 14C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high Km for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5–10 m). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta. PMID:21562600

  20. Conventional heating vs. microwave sludge pretreatment comparison under identical heating/cooling profiles for thermophilic advanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates whether there is any advantage of selecting one of the thermal methods of sludge pretreatment, conventional heating (CH) and microwave hydrolysis (MW), over another to enhance municipal sludge disintegration and performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD). For this purpose, a custom-built CH system simulating MW hydrolysis under identical heating and cooling profiles was used. The effects of three main pretreatment parameters including pretreatment method (CH and MW), heating ramp rate (3, 6 and 11°C/min) and final temperature (80, 120 and 160°C) on sludge solubilization and performance of thermophilic batch AD were evaluated. The effects of CH and MW hydrolysis were observed to be similar for sludge disintegration and digester performance (p-value>0.05), while the effects of final temperature and heating ramp rate were proven to be different (p-value<0.05). According to the results, it is essential to apply MW and CH pretreatments under identical experimental condition for an unbiased comparison which supports the findings of the author's earlier study under mesophilic condition. Failing to address this issue explains the significant inconsistency observed among the findings of the previous CH vs. MW comparison studies that were unable to implement identical thermal profiles (between CH and MW) during sludge pretreatment. In comparison with mesophilic AD, thermophilic AD revealed lower biodegradation rate constant at the highest pretreatment temperature tested (160°C), suggesting its higher sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of thermal pretreatment at the elevated temperatures. PMID:27160636

  1. How Does Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Affect Methane Production from the Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge?

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Bond, Philip L; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-10-20

    Recent studies demonstrate that, besides being used for production of biodegradable plastics, poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) that is accumulated in heterotrophic microorganisms during wastewater treatment has another novel application direction, i.e., being utilized for enhancing methane yield during the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge (WAS). To date, however, the underlying mechanism of how PHA affects methane production remains largely unknown, and this limits optimization and application of the strategy. This study therefore aims to fill this knowledge gap. Experimental results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA levels from 21 to 184 mg/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) the methane yield linearly increased from 168.0 to 246.1 mL/g of VSS (R(2) = 0.9834). Compared with protein and carbohydrate (the main components of a cell), PHA exhibited a higher biochemical methane potential on a unit VSS basis. It was also found that the increased PHA not only enhanced cell disruption of PHA cells but also benefited the soluble protein conversion of both PHA- and non-PHA cells. Moreover, the reactor fed with higher PHA sludge showed greater sludge hydrolysis and acidification than those fed with the lower PHA sludges. Further investigations using fluorescence in situ hybridization and enzyme analysis revealed that the increased PHA enhanced the abundance of methanogenic Archaea and increased the activities of protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420, which were consistent with the observed methane yield. This work provides insights into PHA-involved WAS digestion systems and may have important implications for future operation of wastewater treatment plants. PMID:26381110

  2. Anaerobic Biodegradation Tests of Poly(lactic acid) under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions Using a New Evaluation System for Methane Fermentation in Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hisaaki; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) powder were done at the thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic temperature (35 °C) under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 °C) and 2.24% (at 35 °C)] using a newly developed evaluation system. With this system, the evolved biogas is collected in a gas sampling bag at atmospheric pressure. This method is more convenient than using a pressure transducer or inverted graduated cylinder submerged in water. PLA was degraded about 60% in 30 days, about 80% in 40 days and about 90% in 60 days at 55 °C. On the other hand, the PLA degradation started in 55 days at 35 °C and degradation rate was much slower than at 55 °C. PMID:19865521

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using a new evaluation system for methane fermentation in anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisaaki; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-09-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) powder were done at the thermophilic (55 degrees C) and mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C) under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 degrees C) and 2.24% (at 35 degrees C)] using a newly developed evaluation system. With this system, the evolved biogas is collected in a gas sampling bag at atmospheric pressure. This method is more convenient than using a pressure transducer or inverted graduated cylinder submerged in water. PLA was degraded about 60% in 30 days, about 80% in 40 days and about 90% in 60 days at 55 degrees C. On the other hand, the PLA degradation started in 55 days at 35 degrees C and degradation rate was much slower than at 55 degrees C. PMID:19865521

  4. Innovative ammonia stripping with an electrolyzed water system as pretreatment of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge (THWS) with a high concentration of ammonia was carried out through combining with an ammonia stripping and an electrolyzed water system (EWS). The EWS produced acidic water (pH 2-3) at the anode and alkaline water (pH 11-12) at the cathode with an electro-diaphragm between the electrodes that could be applied to ammonia stripping. The ammonia stripping efficiency was strongly dependent on the pH and aeration rate, and the ammonium ion removal rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. From the BMP test, the methane yield of THWS after ammonia stripping using the EWS was 2.8 times higher than that of the control process (raw THWS without ammonia stripping). Furthermore, both methane yield and ammonium removal efficiency were higher in this study than in previous studies. Since ammonia stripping with the EWS does not require any chemicals for pH control, no precipitated sludge is produced and anaerobic microorganisms are not inhibited by cations. Therefore, ammonia stripping using the EWS could be an effective method for digestion of wastewater with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. PMID:25462764

  5. High pressure homogenization and two-phased anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas conversion from municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Wahidunnabi, Abdullahil K; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2014-12-01

    This study compared advanced anaerobic digestion combining two-phased anaerobic digestion (2PAD) with high pressure homogenization (HPH) pretreatment to conventional anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge at laboratory scale. The study began with examination of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) solubilization due to HPH pretreatment at different pressure (0-12,000 psi) and chemical dose (0.009-0.036 g NaOH/g total solids). Homogenizing pressure was found as the most significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biopolymers in TWAS. Based on the preliminary results, a pretreatment with chemical dose of 0.009 g NaOH/g total solids and pressure of 12,000 psi was selected for digester studies. Upon acclimation of anaerobic inocula to pretreatments, a total number of twelve lab-scale digesters were operated under scenarios including single-stage (control), 2PAD, and HPH coupled with 2PAD (HPH + 2PAD) at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 20, 14 and 7 days. Between mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, mesophilic digestion was found to benefit more from pretreatments. Relative (to control) improvements in methane yield and volatile solids (VS) removals increased noticeably as SRT was shortened from 20 to 14 and 7 days. HPH + 2PAD system was found to achieve the maximum methane production (0.61-1.32 L CH4/Ldigester-d) and VS removals (43-64%). Thermophilic control, 2PAD and HPH + 2PAD systems resulted in significant pathogen removals meeting Class A biosolids requirements according to Organic Matter Recycling Regulations (OMRR) of British Columbia (BC) at 20 d SRT. Energy analysis indicated that all the digestion scenarios attained positive energy balance with 2PAD system operated at 20 d SRT producing the maximum net energy of 4.76 GJ/tonne CODadded. PMID:25243656

  6. A pilot study of anaerobic membrane digesters for concurrent thickening and digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS).

    PubMed

    Dagnew, Martha; Parker, Wayne J; Seto, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The increased interest in biomass energy provides incentive for the development of efficient and high throughput digesters such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) to stabilize waste activated sludge (WAS). This paper presents the results of a pilot and short term filtration study that was conducted to assess the performance of AnMBRs when treating WAS at a 15 day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 30 day sludge retention time (SRT) in comparison to two conventional digesters running at 15 (BSR-15) and 30 days (BSR-30) HRT/SRT. At steady state, the AnMBR digester showed a slightly higher volatile solids (VS) destruction of 48% in comparison to 44% and 35.3% for BSR-30 and BSR-15, respectively. The corresponding values of specific methane production were 0.32, 0.28 and 0.21 m(3) CH(4)/kg of VS fed. Stable membrane operation at an average flux of 40+/-3.6 LM(-2 )H(-1) (LMH) was observed when the digester was fed with a polymer-dosed thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digester total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations were less than 15 gL(-1). Above this solids concentration a flux decline to 24.1+/-2.0 LM(-2) H(-1) was observed. Short term filtration tests conducted using sludge fractions of a 9.7 and 17.1 gL(-1) TSS sludge indicated 84 and 70% decline in filtration performance to be associated with the supernatant fraction of the sludge. At a higher sludge concentration, the introduction of unique fouling control strategy to tubular membranes, a relaxed mode of operation (i.e. 5 minutes permeation and 1 minute relaxation by) significantly increased the flux from 23.8+/-1.1 to 37.8+/-2.3 LMH for a neutral membrane and from 25.7+/-1.1 to 44.9+/-2.9 LMH for a negatively charged membrane. The study clearly indicates that it is technically feasible to employ AnMBRs to achieve a substantial reduction in digester volumes. PMID:20351424

  7. Effect of mild-temperature H2O2 oxidation on solubilization and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Junga, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Seungyong; Lee, Changsoo

    2014-08-01

    Efficient sludge management is among the most challenging issues in wastewater treatment today, and anaerobic digestion is regarded as a viable solution. Mild-temperature H202 oxidation was examined for enhanced solubilization and biogas production of waste activated sludge (WAS). The effects of pretreatment factors (i.e. temperature and H202 concentration) on the degree of WAS disintegration (DD) and biogas yield (BY) were assessed by response surface analysis within the design space of 60-90 degrees C and 0-200mM H202. Significant sludge disintegration (up to 23.0% DD) and visibly enhanced BY (up to 26.9%) were shown in the pretreatment trials. Two response surface models to describe how DD and BY respond to changes in the pretreatment conditions were successfully constructed (R2 > 0.95, p < 0.05). The models showed totally different response surface shapes, indicating the DD and BY were influenced by pretreatment conditions in very different ways. DD was dominantly affected by temperature and showed higher model responses at the high-temperature region, while the BY response peaked in the low-temperature and mid-level H2O2 region. This observation implies that the enhanced solubilization of WAS was not directly translated into an increase in biogas production. Our results showed that WAS can be efficiently disintegrated by H202 oxidation under mild-temperature conditions for enhanced anaerobic digestibility. Within the explored region of pretreatment conditions, the maximum BY was estimated to be 82.1 mL/gCODadded (32.8% greater than the untreated control) at (60.0 degrees C, 74.2 mM H2O2). PMID:24956761

  8. Biomethanation of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift in the Catabolic Routes with the CO Partial Pressure Increase.

    PubMed

    Sancho Navarro, Silvia; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Bruant, Guillaume; Guiot, Serge R

    2016-01-01

    Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2) can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming) methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35 ± 3°C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO) varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09-1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase) showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L), and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2, and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥1 atm). However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO) bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation of the

  9. Biomethanation of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift in the Catabolic Routes with the CO Partial Pressure Increase

    PubMed Central

    Sancho Navarro, Silvia; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Bruant, Guillaume; Guiot, Serge R.

    2016-01-01

    Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2) can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming) methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35 ± 3°C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO) varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09–1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase) showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L), and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2, and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥1 atm). However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO) bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation of the

  10. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of high-strength ammonium in anaerobically digested sludge by Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 which is capable of heterogeneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification, was used to remove high-strength ammonium (approximately 1 g NH4(+)-N/l) from digested sludge, the product of an anaerobic digestion reactor, in which methane was produced from excess municipal sewage sludge. Repeated batch operations were conducted at 20°C and 30°C for 550 h, using a jar fermentor. The removal ratios of high-strength ammonium reached 90-100% within 24 h, and the average ammonium removal rate was 2.9 kg-N/m(3)/day, more than 200 times higher than that in conventional nitrification-denitrification processes. During these operations, the cell density was maintained at 10(8)-10(9) cells of A. faecalis strain No. 4/ml. At 3% NaCl in the digested sludge, strain No. 4 exhibited an ammonium removal rate of 3 kg-N/m(3)/day. PMID:24411668

  11. Two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal plant.

    PubMed

    Watts, S; Hamilton, G; Keller, J

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic anaerobic digestion pilot-plant was operated solely on waste activated sludge (WAS) from a biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant. The first-stage thermophilic reactor (HRT 2 days) was operated at 47, 54 and 60 degrees C. The second-stage mesophilic digester (HRT 15 days) was held at a constant temperature of 36-37 degrees C. For comparison with a single-stage mesophilic process, the mesophilic digester was also operated separately with an HRT of 17 days and temperature of 36-37 degrees C. The results showed a truly thermophilic stage (60 degrees C) was essential to achieve good WAS degradation. The lower thermophilic temperatures examined did not offer advantages over single-stage mesophilic treatment in terms of COD and VS removal. At a thermophilic temperature of 60 degrees C, the plant achieved 35% VS reduction, representing a 46% increase compared to the single-stage mesophilic digester. This is a significant level of degradation which could make such a process viable in situations where there is no primary sludge generated. The fate of the biologically stored phosphorus in this BNR sludge was also investigated. Over 80% of the incoming phosphorus remained bound up with the solids and was not released into solution during the WAS digestion. Therefore only a small fraction of phosphorus would be recycled to the main treatment plant with the dewatering stream. PMID:16784199

  12. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    PubMed

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. PMID:24632434

  13. Correlations between bacterial populations and process parameters in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Gu; Koo, Taewoan; Lee, Joonyeob; Han, Gyuseong; Cho, Kyungjin; Kim, Woong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-08-01

    Process parameters and bacterial populations were investigated in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge. Although the four digesters were operated under similar conditions, digesters A and B had higher pH (7.2-7.4) and lipid removal efficiencies (>50%) than C and D (pH 6.1-6.4; average lipid removal <16%). Bacterial richness, diversity, and evenness were higher in digesters C and D. Among the top-populated genera, ten (group I) were more abundant in digesters A and/or B; they were putative syntrophic fatty acid or protein/amino acid-utilizers. In contrast, fifteen others (group II) were less abundant in A and/or B and included potentially dormant/dead cells originated from activated sludge. Despite the overall richness trend, the presence of the 25 genera in groups I/II was greater in digesters A and B (24) than in C and D (17); this observation suggests that group I bacteria might be essential in AD of sewage sludge. PMID:27209453

  14. Effective anaerobic treatment of fresh leachate from MSW incineration plant and dynamic characteristics of microbial community in granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yan; Ye, Jiexu; Mu, Yongjie; Qiu, Bin; Sun, Dezhi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the treatment of fresh leachate from municipal solid waste incineration plants with high-strength organics using a lab-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The reactor was operated at a mesophilic temperature (33 °C) for 118 days. The influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the leachate gradually increased to over 70,000 mg/L, and the organic loading rate increased to 18 kg COD/(m(3) day). An average COD removal efficiency of 86.7 % was achieved when the reactor was fed with raw leachate, which suggests the feasibility of the EGSB process for leachate treatment. The microbial communities in the sludge from the reactor during the trial operation were constructed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, clone libraries, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The dominant group for archaea was Methanosaeta, with 68.4 % proportion at the start of the operation, and then changed to Methanosarcina, with a proportion of 62.3 %, after 118 days of operation. The dominant group of eubacteria was confirmed to be Firmicutes throughout the operation process, with the proportion increasing from >50 to 81.2 %. Almost all the operational taxonomic units of Firmicutes belonged to the order Clostridiales, with characteristic spore formation. The microbial diversity of the population was low under raw leachate as feed in the reactor. The dynamics of the microbial community in the anaerobic granular sludge was discussed relating with the operating status of the EGSB reactor. PMID:23519733

  15. Enhanced methane production from rice straw co-digested with anaerobic sludge from pulp and paper mill treatment process.

    PubMed

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Spagni, Alessandro; Giordano, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Rice straw is a widely available lignocellulosic waste with potential for energy recovery through anaerobic digestion. Lignin slows the hydrolysis phase, resulting in low methane recovery and long digestion periods. Although pretreatment is effective, it often requires high energy inputs or chemicals that are not feasible for farm-scale systems. This study investigates a unique co-digestion strategy to improve methane yields and reduce digestion times for farm-scale systems. By adding both piggery wastewater and paper mill sludge, specific methane yields in laboratory-scale digesters reached the theoretical value for rice straw (i.e. 330LNCH4/kgVS) over the 92-day period. Accelerated hydrolysis of the straw was directly related to the quantity of sludge added. The most stable digester, with sufficient buffering capacity and nutrients, contained equal parts of straw, wastewater and sludge. This approach is feasible for farm-scale applications since it requires no additional energy inputs or changes to existing infrastructure for dry systems. PMID:24045200

  16. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion of dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge by co-digestion with swine manure.

    PubMed

    Creamer, K S; Chen, Y; Williams, C M; Cheng, J J

    2010-05-01

    Environmentally sound treatment of by-products in a value-adding process is an ongoing challenge in animal agriculture. The sludge produced as a result of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) wastewater treatment process in swine processing facilities is one such low-value residue. The objective of this study was to determine the fundamental performance parameters for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of DAF sludge. Testing in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor and in batch reactors was conducted to determine the kinetics of degradation and biogas yield. Stable operation could not be achieved using pure DAF sludge as a substrate, possibly due to inhibition by long-chain fatty acids or to nutrient deficiencies. However, in a 1:1 ratio (w/w, dry basis) with swine manure, operation was both stable and productive. In the semi-continuous stirred reactor at 54.5 degrees Celsius, a hydraulic residence time of 10 days, and an organic loading rate of 4.68 gVS/day/L, the methane production rate was 2.19 L/L/day and the specific methane production rate was 0.47 L/gVS (fed). Maximum specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in batch testing was 0.15 mmoles CH(4) h(-1) gVS(-1) at a substrate concentration of 6.9 gVS L(-1). Higher substrate concentrations cause an initial lag in methane production, possibly due to long-chain fatty acid or nitrogen inhibition. PMID:20060713

  17. Bioenergy production from diluted poultry manure and microbial consortium inside Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactor at sub-mesophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaxybayeva, Aigerim; Yangin-Gomec, Cigdem; Cetecioglu, Zeynep; Ozbayram, E Gozde; Yilmaz, Fatih; Ince, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, anaerobic treatability of diluted chicken manure (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 L of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with granular seed sludge. The ASB reactor was operated at ambient temperature (17-25°C) in order to avoid the need of external heating up to higher operating temperatures (e.g., up to 35°C for mesophilic digestion). Since heat requirement for raising the temperature of incoming feed for digestion is eliminated, energy recovery from anaerobic treatment of chicken manure could be realized with less operating costs. Average biogas production rates were calculated ca. 210 and 242 L per kg of organic matter removed from the ASB reactor at average hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 13 and 8.6 days, respectively. Moreover, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of ca. 89% was observed with suspended solids removal more than 97% from the effluent of the ASB reactor. Influent ammonia, on the other hand, did not indicate any free ammonia inhibition due to dilution of the raw manure while pH and alkalinity results showed stability during the study. Microbial quantification results indicated that as the number of bacterial community decreased, the amount of Archaea increased through the effective digestion volume of the ASB reactor. Moreover, the number of methanogens displayed an uptrend like archaeal community and a strong correlation (-0.645) was found between methanogenic community and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration especially acetate. PMID:25065830

  18. Landfill leachate treatment using a rotating biological contactor and an upward-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, E. Vergara, M.; Moreno, Y.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the feasibility of an aerobic system (rotating biological contactor, RBC) and a biological anaerobic system (upward-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor) at small scale for the treatment of a landfill leachate. In the first phase of the aerobic system study, a cyclic-batch RBC system was used to select perforated acetate discs among three different acetate disc configurations. These discs were chosen on the basis of high COD removal (65%) and biological stability. In the second phase, the RBC system (using four stages) was operated continuously at different hydraulic retention times (HRT), at different rotational speeds, and with varying organic concentrations of the influent leachate (2500-9000 mg L{sup -1}). Forty percent of the total surface area of each perforated disc was submerged in the leachate. A COD removal of about 52% was obtained at an HRT of 24 h and a rotational speed of 6 rpm. For the anaerobic system, the reactor was evaluated with a volumetric organic load of 3273 g-COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} at an HRT of 54, 44, 39, 24 and 17 h. At these conditions, the system reached COD removal efficiencies of 62%, 61%, 59%, 44% and 24%, respectively.

  19. Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

    2013-09-01

    The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of ultrasound and thermal pretreatments for enhanced anaerobic digestion of municipal waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Nakhla, George; Ray, Madhumita B

    2012-03-01

    To enhance the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste-activated sludge (WAS), ultrasound, thermal, and ultrasound+thermal (combined) pretreatments were conducted using three ultrasound specific energy inputs (1000, 5000, and 10,000 kJ/kg TSS) and three thermal pretreatment temperatures (50, 70 and 90°C). Prior to anaerobic digestion, combined pretreatments significantly improved volatile suspended solid (VSS) reduction by 29-38%. The largest increase in methane production (30%) was observed after 30 min of 90°C pretreatment followed by 10,000 kJ/kg TSS ultrasound pretreatment. Combined pretreatments improved the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) removal efficiency by 42-72% but did not show any further improvement in hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) removal when compared with ultrasound and thermal pretreatments alone. Economic analysis showed that combined pretreatments with 1000 kJ/kg TSS specific energy and differing thermal pretreatments (50-90°C) can reduce operating costs by $44-66/ton dry solid when compared to conventional anaerobic digestion without pretreatments. PMID:22088959

  1. Anaerobic Digestion I. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasmith, E. E.

    This lesson is the first of a two-part series on anaerobic digestion. Topics discussed include the five basic functions of an anaerobic digester, basic theory of the biological processes involved, basic equipment necessary for digestion, and the products of digestion. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's…

  2. Bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cell using natural microflora and isolated pure culture bacteria from anaerobic palm oil mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor, Muhamad Hanif Md; Mubarak, Mohd Fahmi Muhammad; Elmi, Hassan Sh Abdirahman; Ibrahim, Norahim; Wahab, Mohd Firdaus Abdul; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2015-08-01

    A double-chambered membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed to investigate the potential use of natural microflora anaerobic palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge and pure culture bacteria isolated from anaerobic POME sludge as inoculum for electricity generation. Sterilized final discharge POME was used as the substrate with no addition of nutrients. MFC operation using natural microflora anaerobic POME sludge showed a maximum power density and current density of 85.11mW/m(2) and 91.12mA/m(2) respectively. Bacterial identification using 16S rRNA analysis of the pure culture isolated from the biofilm on the anode MFC was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZH1. The electricity generated in MFC using P. aeruginosa strain ZH1 showed maximum power density and current density of 451.26mW/m(2) and 654.90mA/m(2) respectively which were five times higher in power density and seven times higher in current density compared to that of MFC using anaerobic POME sludge. PMID:25799955

  3. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  4. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03]. PMID:25682559

  5. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate.

    PubMed

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  6. Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, M. Fiorella; de los Reyes, Francis L.; Hernandez, Mark; Raskin, Lutgarde

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (mycolata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of G. amarae type strain SE-6. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the five strains used represent two lines of evolutionary descent; group 1 consists of strains NM23 and ASAC1, and group 2 contains strains SE-6, SE-102, and ASF3. The following three oligonucleotide probes were designed: a species-specific probe for G. amarae, a probe specific for group 1, and a probe targeting group 2. The probes were characterized by dissociation temperature and specificity studies, and the species-specific probe was evaluated for use in fluorescent in situ hybridizations. By using the group-specific probes, it was possible to place additional G. amarae isolates in their respective groups. The probes were used along with previously designed probes in membrane hybridizations to determine the abundance of G. amarae, group 1, group 2, bacterial, mycolata, and Gordona rRNAs in samples obtained from foaming activated sludge systems in California, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The target groups were present in significantly greater concentrations in activated sludge foam than in mixed liquor and persisted in anaerobic digesters. Hybridization results indicated that the presence of certain G. amarae strains may be regional or treatment plant specific and that previously uncharacterized G. amarae strains may be present in some systems. PMID:9647822

  7. Quantification of Gordona amarae strains in foaming activated sludge and anaerobic digester systems with oligonucleotide hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes, M F; de los Reyes, F L; Hernandez, M; Raskin, L

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (mycolata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of G. amarae type strain SE-6. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the five strains used represent two lines of evolutionary descent; group 1 consists of strains NM23 and ASAC1, and group 2 contains strains SE-6, SE-102, and ASF3. The following three oligonucleotide probes were designed: a species-specific probe for G. amarae, a probe specific for group 1, and a probe targeting group 2. The probes were characterized by dissociation temperature and specificity studies, and the species-specific probe was evaluated for use in fluorescent in situ hybridizations. By using the group-specific probes, it was possible to place additional G. amarae isolates in their respective groups. The probes were used along with previously designed probes in membrane hybridizations to determine the abundance of G. amarae, group 1, group 2, bacterial, mycolata, and Gordona rRNAs in samples obtained from foaming activated sludge systems in California, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The target groups were present in significantly greater concentrations in activated sludge foam than in mixed liquor and persisted in anaerobic digesters. Hybridization results indicated that the presence of certain G. amarae strains may be regional or treatment plant specific and that previously uncharacterized G. amarae strains may be present in some systems. PMID:9647822

  8. Comparison of methane production by co-digesting fruit and vegetable waste with first stage and second stage anaerobic digester sludge from a two stage digester.

    PubMed

    Park, Nathan D; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was co-digested with first stage (FSS) and second stage anaerobic digester sludge (SSS) separately, over the course of 10 days, in batch reactors. Addition of FVW significantly increased the methane production in both sludges. After 10 days of digestion FSS + FVW produced 514 ± 57 L CH(4) kg VS(-1)(added) compared with 392 ± 16 L CH(4) for the SSS + FVW. The increased methane yield was most likely due to the higher inoculum substrate ratio of the FSS. The final VS and COD contents of the sewer sludge and FVW mixtures were not significantly different from the control values suggesting that all of the FVW added was degraded within 10 days. It is recommended that FVW be added to the first stage of the anaerobic digester in order to maximize methane generation. PMID:22437023

  9. Treatment of high-strength ethylene glycol waste water in an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor: use of PVA-gel beads as a biocarrier.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Dunqiu; Zhang, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Industrial-scale use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads as biocarriers is still not being implemented due to the lack of understanding regarding the optimal operational parameters. In this study, the parameters for organic loading rate (OLR), alkalinity, recycle rate, and addition of trace elements were investigated in an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor (EGSB) treating high-strength ethylene glycol wastewater (EG) with PVA-gel beads as biocarrier. Stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 95 % or greater were achieved, and continuous treatment was demonstrated with appropriate parameters being an OLR of 15 kg COD/m(3)/day, NaHCO3 added at 400 mg/L, a recycle rate of 15 L/h, and no addition of trace elements addition. A biogas production yield rate of 0.24 m(3)/kg COD was achieved in this study. A large number of long rod-shaped bacteria (Methanosaeta), were found with low acetate concentration in the EGSB reactor. PMID:27386305

  10. Bioaccumulation of metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following the application of lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Ryan, P C; Fenton, O; Peyton, D P; Wall, D P; Morrison, L

    2016-08-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals in plants is a potential pathway for the transfer of environmental contaminants in the food chain, and poses potential health and environmental risks. In light of increased population growth and urbanisation, the safe disposal of sewage sludge, which can contain significant levels of toxic contaminants, remains an environmental challenge globally. The aims of this experiment were to apply municipal sludge, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, anaerobic digestion, and lime stabilisation, to permanent grassland in order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba, W, Pb, Fe, Cd) by perennial ryegrass over a period of up to 18 weeks after application. The legislation currently prohibits use of grassland for fodder or grazing for at least three weeks after application of treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Five treatments were used: thermally dried (TD), anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilised (LS) sludge all from one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), AD sludge from another WWTP, and a study control (grassland only, without application of biosolids). In general, there was no significant difference in metal content of the ryegrass between micro-plots that received treated municipal sludge and the control over the study duration. The metal content of the ryegrass was below the levels at which phytotoxicity occurs and below the maximum levels specified for animal feeds. PMID:27174047

  11. Enrichment of denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms in anaerobic/anoxic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2003-02-20

    Denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms (DGAO) were successfully enriched in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) running with anaerobic/anoxic cycles and acetate feeding during the anaerobic period. Acetate was completely taken up anaerobically, which was accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and the production of poly-beta-hydroxy-alkanoates (PHA). In the subsequent anoxic stage, nitrate or nitrite was utilized as electron acceptor for the oxidation of PHA, resulting in glycogen replenishment and cell growth. The above phenotype showed by the enrichment culture demonstrates the existence of DGAO. Further, it was found that the anaerobic behavior of DGAO could be predicted well by the anaerobic GAO model of Filipe et al. (2001) and Zeng et al. (2002a). The final product of denitrification during anoxic stage was mainly nitrous oxide (N(2)O) rather than N(2). The data strongly suggests that N(2)O production may be caused by the inhibition of nitrous oxide reductase by an elevated level of nitrite accumulated during denitrification. The existence of these organisms is a concern in biological nutrient removal systems that typically have an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic reactor sequence since they are potential competitors to the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. PMID:12491525

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp lixiviation in batch reactors: effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Montañés, Rocío; Solera, Rosario; Pérez, Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) and sugar beet pulp lixiviation (SBPL) was assessed. Mesophilic and thermophilic batch assays of five different SS/SBPL ratios were used to investigate the effect of temperature, providing basic data on methane yield and reduction in total volatiles. Microbe concentrations (Eubacteria and methanogenic Archaea) were linked to traditional parameters, namely biogas production and removal of total volatile solids (TVS). The relationship between Eubacteria and Archaea was analysed. Given equal masses of organic matter, net methane generation was higher in the mesophilic range on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. Methane yield, TVS removal data and high levels of volatile fatty acids provided further evidence of the best behaviour of the mesophilic range. At the end of testing the microbial population under of the reactors consisted of Eubacteria and Archaea, with Eubacteria predominant in all cases. PMID:25600010

  13. Start-Up of an Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Digester for Waste Activated Sludge Digestion: Temporal Variations in Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Qiaoying; Wang, Zhiwei; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Li, Yongli; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    An anaerobic dynamic membrane digester (ADMD) was developed to digest waste sludge, and pyrosequencing was used to analyze the variations of the bacterial and archaeal communities during the start-up. Results showed that bacterial community richness decreased and then increased over time, while bacterial diversity remained almost the same during the start-up. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major phyla. At the class level, Betaproteobacteria was the most abundant at the end of start-up, followed by Sphingobacteria. In the archaeal community, richness and diversity peaked at the end of the start-up stage. Principle component and cluster analyses demonstrated that archaeal consortia experienced a distinct shift and became stable after day 38. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales were the two predominant orders. Further investigations indicated that Methanolinea and Methanosaeta were responsible for methane production in the ADMD system. Hydrogenotrophic pathways might prevail over acetoclastic means for methanogenesis during the start-up, supported by specific methanogenic activity tests. PMID:24695488

  14. Heterotrophic denitrification plays an important role in N₂O production from nitritation reactors treating anaerobic sludge digestion liquor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from nitritation reactors receiving real anaerobic sludge digestion liquor have been reported to be substantially higher than those from reactors receiving synthetic digestion liquor. This study aims to identify the causes for the difference, and to develop strategies to reduce N2O emissions from reactors treating real digestion liquor. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) performing nitritation, fed with real (SBR-R) and synthetic (SBR-S) digestion liquors, respectively, were employed. The N2O emission factors for SBR-R and SBR-S were determined to be 3.12% and 0.80% of the NH4(+)-N oxidized, respectively. Heterotrophic denitrification supported by the organic carbon present in the real digestion liquor was found to be the key contributor to the higher N2O emission from SBR-R. Heterotrophic nitrite reduction likely stopped at N2O (rather than N2), with a hypothesised cause being free nitrous acid inhibition. This implies that all nitrite reduced by heterotrophic bacteria was converted to and emitted as N2O. Increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L, or above, decreased aerobic N2O production from 2.0% to 0.5% in SBR-R, whereas aerobic N2O production in SBR-S remained almost unchanged (at approximately 0.5%). We hypothesised that DO at 1 mg/L or above suppressed heterotrophic nitrite reduction thus reduced aerobic heterotrophic N2O production. We recommend that DO in a nitritation system receiving anaerobic sludge digestion liquor should be maintained at approximately 1 mg/L to minimise N2O emission. PMID:24956602

  15. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic seed sludge in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor by nutrient and vitamin supplementations.

    PubMed

    Saraphirom, P; Reungsang, A

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to enhance biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic seed sludge in a 1.3 L (1 L working volume) anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) by supplementation with nutrients and vitamins. Four treatments, i.e. nutrient and vitamin supplementation, only nutrient supplementation, no supplements and only vitamin supplementation, were conducted using 30 g/L sweet sorghum syrup as the substrate with 1.45 g/L FeSO4 in ASBR. The ASBR was operated at 24 hour hydraulic retention time at a controlled pH of 5.0. Results indicated that nutrient and vitamin supplementations could increase hydrogen production rate (HPR; 3.2 L H2/L-d) and hydrogen yield (HY; 1.6 mol H2/mol hexose) up to 5 fold in comparison to the control (0.6 L H2/L-d and 0.34 mol H2/mol hexose, respectively). The polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the predominant hydrogen producers were Clostridia species. The higher hydrogen production obtained from the treatments with nutrient supplementation might be due to the presence of Clostridia species together with Klebsiella sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. Lack of nutrients in treatments without the supplementation and in treatment where only vitamin solution was added could lead to the reduction of hydrogen production efficiency of Clostridia species. The presence of lactic acid bacteria, i.e. Enterococcus sp. and Lactobacillus sp., caused an adverse effect on hydrogen-producing bacteria, resulting in a low HPR and HY in these two treatments. PMID:24527611

  16. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). > Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. > FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. > Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS{sub added} when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  17. Microwave and ultrasound pre-treatments influence microbial community structure and digester performance in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Crauwels, Sam; Van Geel, Maarten; Dewil, Raf; Lievens, Bart; Appels, Lise

    2016-06-01

    Comparative analyses of bacterial and archaeal community structures and dynamics in three biogas digesters during start-up and subsequent operation using microwaved, ultrasonicated or untreated waste activated sludge were performed based on 454 pyrosequencing datasets of part of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences and quantitative PCR. The pre-treatment increased the solubility, and thus the availability of the substrate for microbial degradation and significantly affected the succession of the anaerobic community structure over the course of the digestion. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all digesters throughout operation. Proteobacteria decreased in relative abundance from 23-26 % to 11-13 % in association with enhanced substrate availability. Negative correlations between relative abundance of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the substrate availability and/or biogas production were disclosed in statistical analyses. Clostridiales was the dominant order in Firmicutes, and Clostridiales, Clostridia and Firmicutes relative abundance and richness were shown to positively correlate with substrate availability and biogas generation. Methanogenic communities had a fairly restricted structure, highly dominated by Methanosaeta and Methanobrevibacter phylotypes. A gradual decline in Methanobrevibacter and increased representation of Methanosaeta concilii over time were particularly apparent in the digester receiving untreated waste activated sludge, whereas more diversified archaeal communities were maintained in the pre-treatment digesters. The quantitative PCR analyses revealed a methanogenic community distribution that coincided with the 454 pyrosequencing data. PMID:26816092

  18. Life cycle assessment comparison of activated sludge, trickling filter, and high-rate anaerobic-aerobic digestion (HRAAD).

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Leonardo; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Furukawa, Dennis; Babcock, Roger W; Ciarapica, F E; Cooney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This paper conducts a comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of three methods of treating primary clarifier effluent in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through life cycle assessment methodology. The three technologies, activated sludge (AS), high rate anaerobic-aerobic digestion (HRAAD), and trickling filter (TF), were assessed for treatment of wastewater possessing average values of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids of 90 mg L(-1) and 70 mg L(-1), respectively. The operational requirements to process the municipal wastewater to effluent that meets USEPA regulations have been calculated. The data for the AS system were collected from the East Honolulu WWTP (Hawaii, USA) while data for the HRAAD system were collected from a demonstration-scale system at the same plant. The data for the TF system were estimated from published literature. Two different assessment methods have been used in this study: IMPACT 2002+ and TRACI 2. The results show that TF had the smallest environmental impacts and that AS had the largest, while HRAAD was in between the two but with much reduced impacts compared with AS. Additionally, the study shows that lower sludge production is the greatest advantage of HRAAD for reducing environmental impacts compared with AS. PMID:27191555

  19. Influence of four antimicrobials on methane-producing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingru; Hu, Yong; Qi, Weikang; Zhang, Yanlong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Norton, Michael; Li, Yu-You

    2015-12-01

    The influence of Cephalexin (CLX), Tetracycline (TC), Erythromycin (ERY) and Sulfathiazole (ST) on methane-producing archaea (MPA) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in anaerobic sludge was investigated using acetate or ethanol as substrate. With antimicrobial concentrations below 400mgL(-1), the relative specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was above 50%, so that the antimicrobials exerted slight effects on archaea. However ERY and ST at 400mgL(-1) caused a 74.5% and 57.6% inhibition to specific sulfidogenic activity (SSA) when the sludge granules were disrupted and ethanol used as substrate. After disruption, microbial tolerance to antimicrobials decreased, but the rate at which MPA utilized acetate and ethanol increased from 0.95gCOD·(gVSS⋅d)(-1) to 1.45gCOD·(gVSS⋅d)(-1) and 0.90gCOD·(gVSS⋅d)(-1) to 1.15gCOD·(gVSS⋅d)(-1) respectively. The ethanol utilization rate for SRB also increased after disruption from 0.35gCOD·(gVSS⋅d)(-1) to 0.46gCOD·(gVSS⋅d)(-1). Removal rates for CLX approaching 20.0% and 25.0% were obtained used acetate and ethanol respectively. The disintegration of granules improved the CLX removal rate to 65% and 78%, but ST was not removed during this process. PMID:25228232

  20. Metagenomic Reconstruction of Key Anaerobic Digestion Pathways in Municipal Sludge and Industrial Wastewater Biogas-Producing Systems.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingwei; Wilkins, David; Chen, Jiapeng; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Jia, Yangyang; Lee, Patrick K H

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbial process widely used to treat organic wastes. While the microbes involved in digestion of municipal sludge are increasingly well characterized, the taxonomic and functional compositions of AD digesters treating industrial wastewater have been understudied. This study examined metagenomes from a biogas-producing digester treating municipal sludge in Shek Wu Hui (SWH), Hong Kong and an industrial wastewater digester in Guangzhou (GZ), China, and compared their taxonomic composition and reconstructed biochemical pathways. Genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism and protein metabolism functions were overrepresented in GZ, while genes encoding functions related to fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids were overrepresented in SWH, reflecting the plants' feedstocks. Mapping of genera to functions in each community indicated that both digesters had a high level of functional redundancy, and a more even distribution of genera in GZ suggested that it was more functionally stable. While fermentation in both samples was dominated by Clostridia, SWH had an overrepresentation of Proteobacteria, including syntrophic acetogens, reflecting its more complex substrate. Considering the growing importance of biogas as an alternative fuel source, a detailed mechanistic understanding of AD is important and this report will be a basis for further study of industrial wastewater AD. PMID:27252693

  1. Synergetic pretreatment of sewage sludge by microwave irradiation in presence of H2O2 for enhanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Prorot, Audrey; Marin, Juan; Droste, Ronald L; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2008-11-01

    A microwave-enhanced advanced hydrogen peroxide oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was studied in order to investigate the synergetic effects of MW irradiation on H(2)O(2) treated waste activated sludges (WAS) in terms of mineralization (permanent stabilization), sludge disintegration/solubilization, and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation as well as dewaterability after digestion. Thickened WAS sample pretreated with 1gH(2)O(2)/g total solids (TS) lost 11-34% of its TS, total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total biopolymers (humic acids, proteins and sugars) via advanced oxidation. In a temperature range of 60-120 degrees C, elevated MW temperatures (>80 degrees C) further increased the decomposition of H(2)O(2) into OH* radicals and enhanced both oxidation of COD and solubilization of particulate COD (>0.45 micron) of WAS indicating that a synergetic effect was observed when both H(2)O(2) and MW treatments were combined. However, at all temperatures tested, MW/H(2)O(2) treated samples had lower first-order mesophilic (33+/-2 degrees C) biodegradation rate constants and ultimate (after 32 days of digestion) methane yields (mL per gram sample) compared to control and MW irradiated WAS samples, indicating that synergistically (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) generated soluble organics were slower to biodegrade or more refractory than those generated during MW irradiation. PMID:18783812

  2. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. PMID:27497086

  3. Interaction between phosphorus removal and hybrid granular sludge formation under low hydraulic selection pressure at alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lang, Longqi; Wan, Junfeng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid granular sludge (HGS) formation and its performances on phosphorus removal were investigated in a sequencing batch airlift reactor. Under conditions of low superficial air velocity (SAV = 0.68 cm s(-1)) and relatively long settling time (15-30 min), aerobic granules appeared and coexisted with bio-flocs after 120 days operation. At the stable phase, 54% of total suspended solid (m/m) was granular sludge with the two typical sizes (D(mean) = 1.77 ± 0.33 and 0.89 ± 0.11 mm) in the reactor, where the settling velocity was 98.7 ± 12.4 and 37.8 ± 0.9 m h(-1) for the big and small granules. With progressive extension of anaerobic time from 15 to 60 min before aerobic condition per cycle during the whole experiment, the HGS system can be maintained at a high total phosphorus removal efficiency (ca. 99%) since Day-270. The phosphorus content (wt %) in biomass was respectively 9.54 ± 0.29, 7.60 ± 0.48 and 6.15 ± 0.59 for the big granules, small granules and flocs. PMID:25921951

  4. Model-based operational guidelines of a bioprocess for biological nitrogen removal and complete stabilisation of anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Morras, M; Larrea, L; García-Heras, J L

    2014-07-01

    The concept of one-stage reactor system for biological nitrogen removal over nitrite of ammonium high loaded sidestreams is going to be applied to remove nitrogen from anaerobically digested sewage sludge and to achieve its complete stabilisation. Dealing with sludge, the organic matter needed to denitrify is present in the inflow as particulate substrate, which requires a hydrolysis step. The latter implies high anoxic hydraulic retention time (HRT). During both aerobic and anoxic phases, ammonium is released which implies the need to enlarge aerobic HRT. Both effects lead to a total HRT higher than those for nitrification-denitrification of wastewater with soluble substrate. The purpose of this paper is to define, by computer simulation, a set of theoretical criteria, which will be applied later to the operation of a pilot-scale post-aeration reactor to be located in a Spanish WWTP. These criteria will be defined by simulating the reactor performance under different operating conditions. As a conclusion, some operation guidelines have been established for the above-mentioned scenario in terms of aerobic and anoxic retention time, dissolved oxygen concentration and effluent requirements (NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-)). PMID:24374969

  5. Metagenomic Reconstruction of Key Anaerobic Digestion Pathways in Municipal Sludge and Industrial Wastewater Biogas-Producing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mingwei; Wilkins, David; Chen, Jiapeng; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Jia, Yangyang; Lee, Patrick K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbial process widely used to treat organic wastes. While the microbes involved in digestion of municipal sludge are increasingly well characterized, the taxonomic and functional compositions of AD digesters treating industrial wastewater have been understudied. This study examined metagenomes from a biogas-producing digester treating municipal sludge in Shek Wu Hui (SWH), Hong Kong and an industrial wastewater digester in Guangzhou (GZ), China, and compared their taxonomic composition and reconstructed biochemical pathways. Genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism and protein metabolism functions were overrepresented in GZ, while genes encoding functions related to fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids were overrepresented in SWH, reflecting the plants’ feedstocks. Mapping of genera to functions in each community indicated that both digesters had a high level of functional redundancy, and a more even distribution of genera in GZ suggested that it was more functionally stable. While fermentation in both samples was dominated by Clostridia, SWH had an overrepresentation of Proteobacteria, including syntrophic acetogens, reflecting its more complex substrate. Considering the growing importance of biogas as an alternative fuel source, a detailed mechanistic understanding of AD is important and this report will be a basis for further study of industrial wastewater AD. PMID:27252693

  6. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H. Jr.; Earley, J.P.; Shen, Yutao.

    1989-09-01

    The work proposed is a laboratory investigation of the AnSBR (Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors) for treatment of a synthetic coal conversion wastewater. Two different strategies will be pursued. First, an AnSBR will be operated to simulate the Anaerobic Up-flow Sludge Blanket Reactor in an attempt to develop a readily settleable granular sludge. Second, operating strategies will be sought to optimize treatment, without attempting to develop settleable granular sludge. These systems will require development of more elaborate decanting mechanisms, probably including use of tube settler technology. We will use: (1) screening tests to identify compounds which are amenable to anaerobic degradation; (2) to determine those which are toxic or have an inhibitory effect; and (3) to identify the dilution required to achieve anaerobic degradation of the synthetic waste water; acclimation tests of organisms collected from different sources to the synthetic coal conversion wastewater; and Automatic Laboratory AnSBR studies. A 4-liter reactor will be operated to maintain a settleable granular anaerobic sludge when treating the synthetic coal conversion wastewater. 72 refs., 238 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Modelling simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium removal in a granular sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Ettwig, K F; Vannecke, T P W; Stultiens, K; Bogdan, A; Kartal, B; Volcke, E I P

    2015-04-15

    Anaerobic nitrogen removal technologies offer advantages in terms of energy and cost savings over conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. A mathematical model was constructed to evaluate the influence of process operation on the coexistence of nitrite dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (n-damo) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) in a single granule. The nitrite and methane affinity constants of n-damo bacteria were measured experimentally. The biomass yield of n-damo bacteria was derived from experimental data and a thermodynamic state analysis. Through simulations, it was found that the possible survival of n-damo besides anammox bacteria was sensitive to the nitrite/ammonium influent ratio. If ammonium was supplied in excess, n-damo bacteria were outcompeted. At low biomass concentration, n-damo bacteria lost the competition against anammox bacteria. When the biomass loading closely matched the biomass concentration needed for full nutrient removal, strong substrate competition occurred resulting in oscillating removal rates. The simulation results further reveal that smaller granules enabled higher simultaneous ammonium and methane removal efficiencies. The implementation of simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium removal will decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but an economic analysis showed that adding anaerobic methane removal to a partial nitritation/anammox process may increase the aeration costs with over 20%. Finally, some considerations were given regarding the practical implementation of the process. PMID:25697694

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes and waste activated sludge: dynamic model and material balances.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2013-10-01

    The organic matter degradation process during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste-activated sludge (WAS) under different organic loading rates (OLRs) was investigated in bench-scale and pilot-scale semi-continuous stirred tank reactors. To better understand the degradation process of MBW and WAS co-digestion and provide theoretical guidance for engineering application, anaerobic digestion model No.1 was revised for the co-digestion of MBW and WAS. The results showed that the degradation of organic matter could be characterized into three different fractions, including readily hydrolyzable organics, easily degradable particulate organics, and recalcitrant particle organics. Hydrolysis was the rate-limiting step under lower OLRs, and methanogenesisis was the rate-limiting step for an OLR of 8.0 kg volatile solid (VS)/(m3 x day). The hydrolytic parameters of carbohydrate, protein, and lipids were 0.104, 0.083, and 0.084 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(kg COD x hr), respectively, and the reaction rate parameters of lipid fermentation were 1 and 1.25 kg COD/(kg COD x hr) for OLRs of 4.0 and 6.0 kg VS/(m3 x day). A revised model was used to simulate methane yield, and the results fit well with the experimental data. Material balance data were acquired based on the revised model, which showed that 58.50% of total COD was converted to methane. PMID:24494499

  9. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. PMID:25249492

  10. Methane enhancement through oxidative cleavage and alkali solubilization pre-treatments for corn stover with anaerobic activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Bi, Jinhua; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Talha, Zahir Ahmed Ali; Huang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, thermo-chemical pre-treatment was adopted to evaluate methane production potential from corn stover by co-digesting it with anaerobic activated sludge. Three chemicals H2O2, Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected with two levels of concentration. All thermo-chemical pre-treatments were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance lignocellulosic digestibility and methane production. The results indicated that the methane yield by H2O2-1, H2O2-2, and NaOH-2 treated corn stover were 293.52, 310.50 and 279.42ml/g.VS which were 57.18%, 66.27% and 49.63% higher than the untreated corn stover respectively. In the previous studies pre-treatment time was reported in days but our method had reduced it to about one hour. H2O2-2 and NaOH-2 treatments remained prominent to increase lignocellulosic degradation vigorously up to 45% and 42% respectively. Process biochemistry during the anaerobic digestion process was taken into consideration to optimize the most feasible thermo-chemical pre-treatment for corn stover. PMID:26512865

  11. Anaerobic digestion of thermal pre-treated sludge at different solids concentrations--Computation of mass-energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Sridhar; More, Tanaji; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-07-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency was studied at different total solids (TS) concentrations (20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 g TS/L) and digestion times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days) for primary, secondary and mixed wastewater sludge. Moreover, sludge pre-treatment, AD and disposal processes were evaluated based on a mass-energy balance and corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Mass balance revealed that the least quantity of digestate was generated by thermal pre-treated secondary sludge at 30.0 g TS/L. The net energy (energy output-energy input) and energy ratio (energy output/energy input) for thermal pre-treated sludge was greater than control in all cases. The reduced GHG emissions of 73.8 × 10(-3) g CO2/g of total dry solids were observed for the thermal pre-treated secondary sludge at 30.0 g TS/L. Thermal pre-treatment of sludge is energetically beneficial and required less retention time compared to control. PMID:25913466

  12. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD. PMID:26428233

  13. Two-phased hyperthermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungyeol; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    For co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage, hyperthermophilic digester systems that consisted of an acidogenic reactor operated at hyperthermophilic (70 degrees C) and a methanogenic reactor operated at mesophilic (35 degrees C), thermophilic (55 degrees C) or hyperthermophilic (65 degrees C) conditions in series were studied by comparing with a thermophilic digester system that consisted of thermophilic (55 degrees C) acidogenic and methanogenic reactors. Laboratory scale reactors were operated continuously fed with a substrate blend composed of concentrated waste activated sludge and artificial kitchen garbage. At the acidogenic reactor, solubilization efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), carbohydrate and protein at 70 degrees C were about 39%, 42% and 54%, respectively, and they were higher than those at 55 degrees C by around 10%. The system of acidogenesis at 70 degrees C and methanogenesis at 55 degrees C was stable and well-functioned in terms of treatment performances and low ammonium nitrogen concentrations. Microbial community analysis was conducted using a molecular biological method. The key microbe determined at the hyperthermophilic acidogenesis step was Coprothermobacter sp., which was possibly concerned with the degradation of protein in waste activated sludge. The present study proved that the hyperthermophilic system was advantageous for treating substrate blends containing high concentrations of waste activated sludge. PMID:19804865

  14. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile

  15. Anaerobic bioprocessing of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W; de Beer, D; Pena, M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P

    1996-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of dissolved, suspended and solid organics has rapidly evolved in the last decades but nevertheless still faces several scientific unknowns. In this review, some fundamentals of bacterial conversions and adhesion are addressed initially. It is argued in the light of ΔG-values of reactions, and in view of the minimum energy quantum per mol, that anaerobic syntrophs must have special survival strategies in order to support their existence: redistributing the available energy between the partners, reduced end-product fermentation reactions and special cell-to-cell physiological interactions. In terms of kinetics, it appears that both reaction rates and residual substrate thresholds are strongly related to minimum ΔG-values. These new fundamental insights open perspectives for efficient design and operation of anaerobic bioprocesses. Subsequently, an overview is given of the current anaerobic biotechnology. For treating wastewaters, a novel and high performance new system has been introduced during the last decade; the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system (UASB). This reactor concept requires anaerobic consortia to grow in a dense and eco-physiologically well-organized way. The microbial principles of such granular sludge growth are presented. Using a thermodynamic approach, the formation of different types of aggregates is explained. The application of this bioprocess in worldwide wastewater treatment is indicated. Due to the long retention times of the active biomass, the UASB is also suitable for the development of bacterial consortia capable of degrading xenobiotics. Operating granular sludge reactors at high upflow velocities (5-6 m/h) in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) systems enlarges the application field to very low strength wastewaters (chemical oxygen demand < 1 g/l) and psychrophilic temperatures (10°C). For the treatment of organic suspensions, there is currently a tendency to evolve from the conventional mesophilic

  16. Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas emission reduction from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process.

    PubMed

    Show, K Y; Ng, C A; Faiza, A R; Wong, L P; Wong, L Y

    2011-01-01

    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined. PMID:22170839

  17. Anaerobic Digestion II. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasmith, E. E.

    This lesson is the second of a two-part series on anaerobic digestion. Topics discussed include classification of digester by function, roof design, and temperature range, mixing systems, gas system components, operational control basics, and general safety considerations. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The…

  18. Effects of Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions on Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Strous, M.; Van Gerven, E.; Kuenen, J. G.; Jetten, M.

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is a promising novel option for removing nitrogen from wastewater. In this study it was shown that the Anammox process was inhibited reversibly by the presence of oxygen. Furthermore, aerobic nitrifiers were shown not to play an important role in the Anammox process. PMID:16535633

  19. Kinetics of hydrogen consumption by rumen fluid, anaerobic digestor sludge, and sediment.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J A; Tiedje, J M

    1982-12-01

    Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for H(2) consumption by three methanogenic habitats were determined from progress curve and initial velocity experiments. The influences of mass transfer resistance, endogenous H(2) production, and growth on apparent parameter estimates were also investigated. Kinetic parameters could not be determined for undiluted rumen fluid and some digestor sludge from gas-phase measurements of H(2), since mass transfer of H(2) across the gas-liquid interface was rate limiting. However, accurate values were obtained once the samples were diluted. H(2) consumption by digestor sludge with a long retention time and by hypereutrophic lake sediment was not phase transfer limited. The K(m) values for H(2) uptake by these habitats were similar, with means of 5.8, 6.0, and 7.1 muM for rumen fluid, digestor sludge, and sediment, respectively. V(max) estimates suggested a ratio of activity of approximately 100 (rumen fluid):10 (sludge):1 (sediment); their ranges were as follows: rumen fluid, 14 to 28 mM h; Holt sludge, 0.7 to 4.3 mM h; and Wintergreen sediment, 0.13 to 0.49 mM h. The principles of phase transfer limitation, studied here for H(2), are the same for all gaseous substrates and products. The limitations and errors associated with gas phase determination of kinetic parameters were evaluated with a mathematical model that combined mass transport and Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Three criteria are described which can be used to evaluate the possibility that a phase transfer limitation exists. If it does not exist, (i) substrate consumption curves are Michaelis-Menten and not first order, (ii) the K(m) is independent of initial substrate concentration, and (iii) the K(m) is independent of biomass (V(max)) and remains constant with dilution of sample. Errors in the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters are caused by endogenously produced H(2), but they were <15% for rumen fluid and 10% for lake sediment and digestor sludge. Increases in V

  20. [Influence of extracellular polymeric substance on enzyme hydrolysis of sludge under anaerobic condition].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun

    2011-08-01

    The effect of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on the enzymatic solubilisation of sludge and the changes of chemical components was investigated. Sludge solubilization with and without EPS was studied in the enzymatic system, and in the normal system without enzyme addition, respectively. The result indicated that only EPS could be hydrolyzed when the enzyme addition less than 20 mg/g, while the cell lysis occurred significantly with the doses of enzymes increasing. Treatment with lysozyme for the original sludge was proved to have a higher hydrolysis efficiency, and the SCOD/TCOD rate reached up to 28.14%. And at the enzyme dosage of 60 mg/g, the VSS removal rate increased to 51.66% and the concentration of DNA attained 68.34 mg/g (calculated by VSS) after 48 h reaction, which were 29.01% and 59.63 mg/g higher than the control test, respectively, and were 24.86% and 53.39 mg/g higher than that with EPS removed in advance, respectively. Meanwhile, NH4+ -N, PO4(3-)-P and SCOD showed high dissolution efficiency, and the maximal concentrations achieved to 503 mg/L, 78.9 mg/L and 3171 mg/L, respectively. After removal of extracellular polymers, higher lysis efficiency was also observed by protease and cellulose, by which VSS reduction rate reached to 49.95% and 39.85%, respectively. The concentration of DNA showed a correlation coefficient of more than 0.9 with the concentrations of SCOD, NH4+ -N and PO4(3-)-P. And the highest hydrolysis rate obtained in 6 hours, which was about 3 hours earlier than the control test. Moreover, under those condition, sludge hydrolyzation could be well realized by only small amount of the enzyme addition. PMID:22619959

  1. Improving volatile fatty acid yield from sludge anaerobic fermentation through self-forming dynamic membrane separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yin, Bo; Zhu, Yanfang; Fu, Bo; Liu, He

    2016-10-01

    Self-forming dynamic membrane (SFDM) separation was applied to the conventional sludge fermenter for improving VFA yields. Results indicated SFDM presented good performance in transferring products, retaining substrates, and enriching useful bacteria. The retention ratios of suspended solids, soluble COD, proteins, and polysaccharides reached 99%, 30%, 70%, and 40%, respectively, and more than 90% of the VFAs and ammonia could be transferred in a timely manner. The structure of the microbial community was optimized, which led to enhanced releases of hydrolytic enzymes and accelerated enrichments of functional bacteria. Protease and β-glucosidase activities increased from 1.0 to 5.0U/mL and 15.0 to 23.0μmol/L·h, respectively. VFA yield and sludge conversion ratio increased by 233.3% and 227.9%, respectively. Moreover, SFDM had good operation stability, including a short formation time, a long operation period, and a low transmembrane pressure. These results show VFA yield from sludge fermentation can be greatly improved by SFDM separation. PMID:27347803

  2. Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges.

    PubMed

    Chamchoi, Nutchanat; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

    2007-02-01

    Three sets of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were used for Anammox enrichment from conventional sludges including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, activated sludge, and anaerobic digestion sludge. After four months of operation, the Anammox activity occurred in all reactors allowing continuous removal of ammonium and nitrite. The morphology of the cultivated Anammox sludge was observed using scanning electron microscope. The photographs showed that the obtained culture was mostly spherical in shape, presumably Anammox culture. There were also filamentous-like bacteria co-existing in the system. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 16S rRNA targeting oligonucleotide probes PLA46 and Amx820 showed that the dominant population developed in all SBRs was hybridized with both PLA46 and Amx820 gene probes. It means that the cultivated biomass in all SBRs was classified in the group of Planctomycetales bacteria with respect to the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Numerous time sequences were tested in this experiment. The shortest workable reaction time was found in the range from 5 to 7 h. Good quiescence of sludge was obtained at 30 min of settle period followed by a discharge period of 15 min. A long-term performance showed a near perfect removal of nitrite based on the influent NO2(-)-N concentration of 50-70 mg l(-1). The maximum ammonia removal efficiency was 80% with the influent NH4(+)-N concentration of 40-60 mg l(-1). It is, therefore, concluded that Anammox cultivation from conventional sludges was highly possible under control environment within four months. PMID:17207839

  3. Anaerobic Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste and Sludge for Energy Production and Recycling of Nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, S.

    This volume contains 18 papers presented at a Nordic workshop dealing with application of anaerobic decomposition processes on various types of organic wastes, held at the Siikasalmi Research and Experimental Station of the University of Joensuu on 1-2 Oct. 1992. Subject coverage of the presentations extends from the biochemical and microbiological principles of organic waste processing to descriptions and practical experiences of various types of treatment plants. The theoretical and experimental papers include studies on anaerobic and thermophilic degradation processes, methanogenesis, effects of hydrogen, treatment of chlorinated and phenolic compounds, and process modeling, while the practical examples range from treatment of various types of municipal, industrial, and mining wastes to agricultural and fish farm effluents. The papers provide technical descriptions of several biogas plants in operation. Geographically, the presentations span the Nordic and Baltic countries.

  4. Ammonia and pH inhibition in anaerobic treatment of wastewaters, Part I: Experimental.

    PubMed

    Eldem, Nursen Oz; Ozturk, Izzet; Soyer, Elif; Calli, Baris; Akgiray, Omer

    2004-01-01

    The influences of pH and ammonia on methane production in the anaerobic treatment of an acetic-propionic-butyric acid mixture in batch reactors operated at 37 degrees C were investigated. Two independent sets of experiments were carried out using seeds from two different full-scale industrial anaerobic treatment reactors. One of the seeds ("Sludge A") was obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge-blanket (UASB) reactor treating the waste from a potato chips production plant. The second sludge seed ("Sludge B") was from an expanded granular sludge-blanket (EGSB) reactor treating a corn processing waste. Experiments were carried out at four different pH values (6.8, 7.4, 7.8, 8.4) and with six different TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) values (262mg/L (control), 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000). Three vials (triple runs) were used for each pH and TAN value. The sludge seeds used in the inhibition tests were not exposed to high levels of ammonia at any stage before the tests. For each vial, cumulative methane production was monitored for a period long enough for the termination of biogas production. Although neither sludge was acclimated to ammonia, the lag-phase times were less than 2 days for Sludge A and essentially zero for Sludge B for all TAN and pH values. At certain high pH and high TAN values, however, methanogenic activity ceased within about 1-3 months; and then activity restarted and methane formation rate reached its maximum values after this period. If the experiments had not been continued following this period, this reactivation phenomenon would not have been detected. PMID:15478932

  5. Maximising biogas in anaerobic digestion by using engine waste heat for thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment of sludge.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, B; Adams, J; Panter, K; Solheim, O E

    2006-01-01

    Dublin's Ringsend WWTP was designed to serve a population of approximately 1.2 million p.e. with a sludge production of 37,000 dry tonnes per year after upgrading to full secondary treatment. Several technical solutions were put forward as part of a design, build, finance and operate (DBFO) competition, with the chosen solution being a proposal by Black and Veatch for a combination of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology and anaerobic digestion with Cambi thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment (THP). The THP plant was built by Cambi and handed over to B&V in 2002. The plant is now operated by Celtic Anglian Water. In September 2004 a test was carried out on the mass and energy balance of the plant following 2 years of operation and is detailed in this paper. The process enables digestion at very high dry solids feed and low hydraulic retention time. The plant was built with three digesters of 4250 m3 each and is fed with hydrolysed sludge at 11% DS. There are four no. 1 MW Jenbacher engines operating mainly on biogas. Each pair of engines is fitted with a waste heat boiler with a capacity of one tonne steam per hour. These boilers have sufficient capacity to provide 80% of the steam required for the THP, which in turn provides all the heat for the subsequent digestion in the form of hydrolysed feed. There are two main biogas boilers for top up steam and other uses of the biogas including thermal oxidation of concentrated odours. PMID:17087375

  6. In-situ formation and immobilization of biogenic nanopalladium into anaerobic granular sludge enhances azo dyes degradation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hengduo

    2015-07-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and recalcitrant wastewater pollutants. An innovative technology based on biogenic nanopalladium (Bio-Pd) supported anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was developed for azo dyes reduction. In-situ formation of Bio-Pd in the AGS was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The Pd associated AGS (Pd-AGS) showed enhanced decolorization rates to the three azo dyes of Congo Red, Evans Blue and Orange II, with the degradation kinetic constants increased by 2.3-10 fold compared to the control AGS in the presence of electron donor formate. Impacts of different electron donors on Orange II decolorization were further investigated. Results showed that formic acid, formate, acetate, glucose, ethanol and lactate could serve as electron and hydrogen donors to stimulate Orange II decolorization by the Pd-AGS, and their activities followed the order: formic acid > formate > ethanol > glucose > lactate > acetate. Most of the Bio-Pd was bound with microbes in the AGS with a small fraction in the extracellular polymer substances (EPS). Transmission Electronic Microscopy analysis revealed that the Bio-Pd formed in the periplasmic space, cytoplasm and on the cell walls of bacteria. This study provides a new concept for azo dye reduction, which couples sludge microbial degradation ability with Bio-Pd catalytic ability via in-situ formation and immobilization of Bio-Pd into AGS, and offers an alternative for the current azo dye treatment technology. PMID:25912251

  7. Methanosarcinaceae and Acetate-Oxidizing Pathways Dominate in High-Rate Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dang P.; Jensen, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the process of high-rate, high-temperature methanogenesis to enable very-high-volume loading during anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. Reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 15 to 20 days in mesophilic digestion down to 3 days was achievable at a thermophilic temperature (55°C) with stable digester performance and methanogenic activity. A volatile solids (VS) destruction efficiency of 33 to 35% was achieved on waste-activated sludge, comparable to that obtained via mesophilic processes with low organic acid levels (<200 mg/liter chemical oxygen demand [COD]). Methane yield (VS basis) was 150 to 180 liters of CH4/kg of VSadded. According to 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the methanogenic community was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinaceae, which have a high level of metabolic capability, including acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Loss of function at an HRT of 2 days was accompanied by a loss of the methanogens, according to pyrotag sequencing. The two acetate conversion pathways, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation, were quantified by stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results showed that the majority of methane was generated by nonacetoclastic pathways, both in the reactors and in off-line batch tests, confirming that syntrophic acetate oxidation is a key pathway at elevated temperatures. The proportion of methane due to acetate cleavage increased later in the batch, and it is likely that stable oxidation in the continuous reactor was maintained by application of the consistently low retention time. PMID:23956388

  8. Characterization and performance of carbonaceous materials obtained from exhausted sludges for the anaerobic biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Orange II.

    PubMed

    Athalathil, S; Stüber, F; Bengoa, C; Font, J; Fortuny, A; Fabregat, A

    2014-02-28

    This work presents the preliminary study of new carbonaceous materials (CMs) obtained from exhausted sludge, their use in the heterogeneous anaerobic process of biodecolorization of azo dyes and the comparison of their performance with one commercial active carbon. The preparation of carbonaceous materials was conducted through chemical activation and carbonization. Chemical activation was carried out through impregnation of sludge-exhausted materials with ZnCl2 and the activation by means of carbonization at different temperatures (400, 600 and 800°C). Their physicochemical and surface characteristics were also investigated. Sludge based carbonaceous (SBC) materials SBC400, SBC600 and SBC800 present values of 13.0, 111.3 and 202.0m(2)/g of surface area. Biodecolorization levels of 76% were achieved for SBC600 and 86% for SBC800 at space time (τ) of 1.0min, similar to that obtained with commercial activated carbons in the continuous anaerobic up-flow packed bed reactor (UPBR). The experimental data fit well to the first order kinetic model and equilibrium data are well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. Carbonaceous materials show high level of biodecolorization even at very short space times. Results indicate that carbonaceous materials prepared from sludge-exhausted materials have outstanding textural properties and significant degradation capacity for treating textile effluents. PMID:24413048

  9. Inoculation and alkali coeffect in volatile fatty acids production and microbial community shift in the anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Chen, Ben; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Jufang

    2014-02-01

    Batch fermentations of waste activated sludge (WAS) at alkaline pH with different inocula were performed. Paper mill anaerobic granular sludge (PAS) and dyeing mill anaerobic sludge (DAS) were used as inocula. At pH 10 the inoculation did not increase the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production compared to the non-inoculated samples fermented in the same conditions, and the maximal VFAs yield of non-inoculated WAS was higher than inoculated WAS. However, at pH 9 the inoculation with PAS increased the sludge hydrolysis and VFAs production was 1.7-fold higher than that in non-inoculated WAS (yield 52.40mg/g of volatile solid). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 3 bacterial species, identified as Proteocatella, Tepidibacter, and Clostridium, disappeared when inoculated with PAS at pH 9 or at pH⩾10. The results showed that the inoculation with PAS can be helpful to achieve a relatively high VFAs production from WAS in a moderate alkaline environment. PMID:24345567

  10. The first metagenome of activated sludge from full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) nitrogen and phosphorus removal reactor using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mei; Zhao, Fangqing; Shen, Xin; Chu, Kahou; Wang, Jinfeng; Chen, Shuai; Guo, Yan; Liu, Hanhu

    2015-09-01

    The anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) process is globally one of the widely used biological sewage treatment processes. This is the first report of a metagenomic analysis using Illumina sequencing of full-scale A2O sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant. With more than 530,000 clean reads from different taxa and metabolic categories, the metagenome results allow us to gain insight into the functioning of the biological community of the A2O sludge. There are 51 phyla and nearly 900 genera identified from the A2O activated sludge ecosystem. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Nitrospirae and Chloroflexi are predominant phyla in the activated sludge, suggesting that these organisms play key roles in the biodegradation processes in the A2O sewage treatment system. Nitrospira, Thauera, Dechloromonas and Ignavibacterium, which have abilities to metabolize nitrogen and aromatic compounds, are most prevalent genera. The percent of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in the A2O sludge is 2.72% and 1.48%, respectively. In the current A2O sludge, the proportion of Candidatus Accumulibacter is 1.37%, which is several times more than that reported in a recent study of A2O sludge. Among the four processes of nitrogen metabolism, denitrification related genes had the highest number of sequences (76.74%), followed by ammonification (15.77%), nitrogen fixation (3.88%) and nitrification (3.61%). In phylum Planctomycetes, four genera (Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata and Singulisphaera) are included in the top 30 abundant genera, suggesting the key role of ANAMMOX in nitrogen metabolism in the A2O sludge. PMID:26354707

  11. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge organic matter pools as a driving force of their fate during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Aemig, Quentin; Chéron, Claire; Delgenès, Nadine; Jimenez, Julie; Houot, Sabine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The fate of organic matter during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied in batch systems thanks to a sequential chemical fractionation of the particulate phase coupled to fluorescence spectroscopy. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution within the organic pools was characterized from their analysis in the residual fraction after each extraction. Both methods were combined to understand the link between PAHs presence in organic pools and their spectral characterization after extraction. Two batch systems (sludge and inoculum mixture) were set up to study the impact of PAHs spiking on their fate and distribution. The sequential fractionation allowed us to extract and characterize about 50% of total Chemical Oxygen Demand. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy helped us to understand the organic pools evolution: the most easily extracted pools composed of protein-like molecules were highly degraded meaning that chemical accessibility mimics the bioaccessibility to degrading microorganisms. PAHs were present in all pools of organic matter but native PAHs were mainly present in low accessible (hardly extractable) fractions and during anaerobic digestion, they accumulated in the non-accessible (non extractable) fraction. Spiked PAHs were more dissipated during anaerobic digestion since spiking made them present in more accessible fractions. During the anaerobic digestion, contrary to native PAHs, spiked ones relocated toward less accessible organic fractions confirming the ageing phenomenon. PCA analysis showed that, in spiked mixture, PAHs presence in organic pools is linked to both PAHs physical-chemical properties and quality/quantity of the associated organic pools. PMID:26690050

  12. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80 °C, 85 °C and 90 °C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume. PMID:26819145

  13. [Enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria by expanded-granular sludge bed reactor].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoli; Gao, Dawen; Cong, Yan; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    An expanded-granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was set-up with artificial water by seeding a 60 d stored ANAMMOX sludge. The nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX enrichment culture in the reactor was determined. In addition, the main microbial populations and the relative abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria were investigated by molecular approaches. Results show that the maximum nitrogen removal rate was 3.0 kg-N·m(-3)·d(-1) after 185 d, and the ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were all over 85%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene-cloning indicates that the main microbial population in the ANAMMOX enrichment culture was changed from Candidatus Brocadiafulgid and Candidatus Brocadia brasiliensis (0 day) to Candidatus Jettenia asiatica (185 day). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis shows that the relative abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria was increased from (57.69 ± 4.79)% to (83.32 ± 4.40)%. The results of qPCR further indicate that the gene copies of ANAMMOX bacteria in the granules were increased from 1.14 x 10(11) copies/g wet weight to 3.69 x 10(11) copies/g wet weight. PMID:26016374

  14. Model development and evaluation of methane potential from anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and un-dewatered grease trap waste.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Sedat; Malina, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    The performance of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with un-dewatered grease trap waste was assessed using modified biochemical methane potential tests under mesophilic conditions (35°C). Methane potentials, process inhibition and chemical behavior of the process were analyzed at different grease trap waste feed ratios on volatile solids basis. Nonlinear regression analyses of first order reaction and modified Gompertz equations were performed to assist in interpretation of the experimental results. Methane potential of un-dewatered grease trap waste was measured as 606 mL CH4/g VS(added), while methane potential of municipal wastewater sludge was only 223 mL CH4/g VS(added). The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of grease trap waste without dewatering yields less methane potential than concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste because of high wastewater content of un-dewatered grease trap waste. However, anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and grease trap waste still yields over two times more methane potential and approximately 10% more volatile solids reduction than digestion of municipal wastewater sludge alone. The anaerobic co-digestion process inhibitions were reported at 70% and greater concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste additions on volatile solids basis in previous studies; however, no inhibition was observed at 100% un-dewatered grease trap waste digestion in the present study. These results indicate that anaerobic co-digestion of un-dewatered grease trap waste may reduce the inhibition risk compared to anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste. In addition, a mathematical model was developed in this study for the first time to describe the relationship between grease trap waste feed ratio on volatile solids basis and resulting methane potential. Experimental data from the current study as well as previous biochemical methane potential studies were successfully fit to this

  15. The determination of fertilizer quality of the formed struvite from effluent of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ayla; Yilmazel, Y Dilsad; Demirer, Goksel N

    2010-09-15

    The formation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O) in wastewater treatment plants can lead to scaling and thus operational problems reducing the treatment efficiency. However, struvite has significant commercial value as an agricultural fertilizer. Therefore, controlled struvite formation in wastewater treatment plants not only presents an opportunity to recover nutrients but also corresponds to the valorization of wastes. NH(4)-N and PO(4)-P removal and recovery from the effluent of a full-scale sewage sludge anaerobic digester via controlled struvite precipitation were investigated in this study. The effect of the residual heavy metal and micropollutant content of the formed struvite on fertilizer quality was also evaluated. Removal efficiencies of NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P and COD were 89.35%, 95% and 39.78% when Mg:N:P molar ratio was 1.5:1:1 and pH was 9.0. Mercury, nickel, zinc and chrome concentrations derived from struvite precipitation were below the regulatory limit for fertilizer usage in Turkey. The precipitate did not contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis conducted on the precipitate indicated a struvite formation. PMID:20605682

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of steam-treated Quercus serrata chips and sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Sakurai, Kensuke; Tsumori, Jun

    2014-08-01

    The biodegradation of Quercus serrata chips was evaluated by anaerobic digestion under various steam explosion conditions. In continuous experiments, untreated chips (W₀) and chips steam-treated at less than 1.0 MPa (W₁) and 2.0 MPa (W₄) were co-digested with sewage sludge (S₁ and S₂) taken from two different wastewater treatment plants. The apparent methane yield of W₁ and W₄ co-digested with S₁ (thermophilic) was 261 dm(3)/kgVS (volatile solids) and 248 dm(3)/kgVS, respectively. The apparent methane yield of W₄ co-digested with S₂ was 258 dm(3)/kgVS (mesophilic) and 271 dm(3)/kgVS (thermophilic). Methane production was inhibited by W₀ due to components released during hydrolysis. The methane conversion ratio of pretreated chips obtained in batch experiments varied from 40.5% to 53.8% (mesophilic) and from 49.0% to 63.7% (thermophilic). The methane conversion ratio increased with decreasing acid-soluble lignin content in the chips. PMID:24926605

  17. Increased temperature in the thermophilic stage in temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) improves degradability of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Jensen, Paul D; Batstone, Damien J

    2011-03-15

    Two-stage temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is an increasingly popular method to improve stabilisation of sewage waste activated sludge, which normally has inherently poor and slow degradation. However, there has been limited systematic analysis of the impact of the initial thermophilic stage (temperature, pH and retention time) on performance in the main mesophilic stage. In this study, we demonstrate a novel two-stage batch test method for TPAD processes, and use it to optimize operating conditions of the thermophilic stage in terms of degradation extent and methane production. The method determines overall degradability and apparent hydrolysis coefficient in both stages. The overall process was more effective with short pre-treatment retention times (1-2 days) and neutral pH compared to longer retention time (4 days) and low pH (4-5). Degradabilities and apparent hydrolysis coefficients were 0.3-0.5 (fraction degradable) and 0.1-0.4d(-1), respectively, with a margin of error in each measurement of approximately 20% relative (95% confidence). Pre-treatment temperature had a strong impact on the whole process, increasing overall degradability from 0.3 to 0.5 as temperature increased from 50 to 65 °C, with apparent hydrolysis coefficient increasing from 0.1 to 0.4d(-1). PMID:21277081

  18. Microbial population dynamics during start-up and overload conditions of anaerobic digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Katherine D; Zheng, Dandan; Stams, Alfons J M; Mackie, Roderick I; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2004-09-30

    Microbial population dynamics were investigated during start-up and during periods of overload conditions in anaerobic co-digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Changes in community structure were monitored using ribosomal RNA-based oligonucleotide probe hybridization to measure the abundance of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (SPOB), saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs (SFAS), and methanogens. These changes were linked to traditional performance parameters such as biogas production and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Digesters with high levels of Archaea started up successfully. Methanosaeta concilii was the dominant aceticlastic methanogen in these systems. In contrast, digesters that experienced a difficult start-up period had lower levels of Archaea with proportionally more abundant Methanosarcina spp. Syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs were present at low levels in all digesters, and SPOB appeared to play a role in stabilizing propionate levels during start-up of one digester. Digesters with a history of poor performance tolerated a severe organic overload event better than digesters that had previously performed well. It is hypothesized that higher levels of SPOB and SFAS and their methanogenic partners in previously unstable digesters are responsible for this behavior. PMID:15334409

  19. Application of anaerobic granular sludge for competitive biosorption of methylene blue and Pb(II): Fluorescence and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Wei, Dong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the biosorption of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) and its capacity as a biosorbent to remove Pb(II) and methylene blue (MB) from multi-components aqueous solution. It emerged that the biosorption data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models in both single and binary systems. In competitive biosorption systems, Pb(II) and MB will suppress each other's biosorption capacity. Spectroscopic analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy were integrated to explain this interaction. Hydroxyl and amine groups in AGS were the key functional groups for sorption. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) implied that two main protein-like substances were identified and quenched when Pb(II) or MB were present. Response surface methodology (RSM) confirmed that the removal efficiency of Pb(II) and MB reached its peak when the concentration ratios of Pb(II) and MB achieved a constant value of 1. PMID:26210143

  20. Study of the recovery of phosphorus from struvite precipitation in supernatant line from anaerobic digesters of sludge.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Luciano Dias; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Yokoyama, Lídia; Volschan Junior, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the effective recovery of phosphorus from the supernatant of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by precipitation as struvite. The formation of struvite is envisioned as a promising process for nutrient removal and subsequent recovery, thus providing a strong incentive for its implementation, since the sewage is a renewable source of phosphorus. Struvite precipitation was obtained by controlled addition of Mg(OH)2 or MgCl2. We evaluated the removal of ammonia and phosphate under equimolar conditions of magnesium and magnesium stoichiometric excess of 100 to 200% relative to the limiting reagent, under a stirring speed of 300 rpm at pH 8, 9 and 10. The best condition was MgCl2 in 1:1 molar ratio to phosphate, considering the stoichiometric ratio [PO4(3-)]:[NH4(+)] of 0.13 (presented by raw sample). The results show the best cost-benefit ratio, removal of phosphate of 90.6% and ammonium removal of 29%, resulting in 23 mg l(-1) PO4(3-) and 265 mg l(-1) NH4(+) concentration in effluent. PMID:24718349

  1. The effect of organic loading rate on foam initiation during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ganidi, Nafsika; Tyrrel, Sean; Cartmell, Elise

    2011-06-01

    The impact of increasing organic load on anaerobic digestion foaming was studied at both full and bench scale. Organic loadings of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 kg VS m(-3) were applied to bench-scale digesters. Foaming was monitored at a full scale digester operated in a comparable organic loading range over 15 months. The bench scale batch studies identified 2.5 kg VS m(-3) as a critical threshold for foam initiation while 5 kg VS m(-3) resulted in persistent foaming. Investigation of a full scale foaming event corroborated the laboratory observation that foaming may be initiated at a loading rate of ≥ 2.5 kg VS m(-3). Experimental findings on foam composition and differences in the quality characteristics between foaming and non-foaming sludges indicated that foam initiation derived from the combined effect of the liquid and gas phases inside a digester and that the solids/biomass ultimately stabilized foaming. PMID:21507623

  2. Implications of changes in solids retention time on long term evolution of sludge filterability in anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating high strength industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dereli, Recep Kaan; Grelot, Aurelie; Heffernan, Barry; van der Zee, Frank P; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-08-01

    Long-term experiments were conducted to assess the impact of changing the solids retention time (SRT) on sludge filterability in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), treating corn-based bioethanol thin stillage. Well established parameters, such as capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), developed for sludge dewatering, were used to evaluate the SRT effect on sludge filterability. Our results clearly demonstrated that SRT is one of the most important factors influencing sludge filterability in AnMBRs. SRT effects the accumulation of fine particles and solutes, which were found to affect attainable flux and fouling, in reactor broth. A better filterability was observed at a SRT of 20 days compared to elevated SRTs, i.e. 50 days. A clear correlation between sludge filtration characteristics and membrane filtration resistance could not be established especially at short SRTs, whereas many parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), CST, soluble microbial products (SMP) and supernatant filterability were found to be mutually correlated. Net membrane fluxes between 9 and 13 L m(-2) h(-1) were obtained at 0.5 m s(-1) cross-flow velocity and the long term fouling was controlled by using frequent filtration and backwash cycles. PMID:24769102

  3. Moderate temperature increase leads to disintegration of floating sludge and lower abundance of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Lienen, T; Kleyböcker, A; Verstraete, W; Würdemann, H

    2014-11-15

    Filamentous bacteria such as Microthrix parvicella can cause serious foaming and floating sludge problems in anaerobic digesters fed with sewage sludge. The sewage sludge and oil co-fermenting laboratory-scale biogas digesters in this study were fed with substrates from a foaming-prone full-scale biogas plant containing the filamentous bacterium M. parvicella. At 37 °C, in both pneumatically mixed digesters a highly viscous and approximately 3 cm thick floating sludge was observed. A gradual increase of the temperature from 37 °C to 56 °C led to a significant decrease in the floating sludge thickness, which correlated with a strong decrease in the abundance of M. parvicella in the digestate. Furthermore, the stepwise temperature increase allowed for an adaption of the microbial community and prevented process failure. The study indicates that already a moderate temperature increase from 37 °C to 41 °C might help to control the M. parvicella abundance in full-scale biogas plants. PMID:25117937

  4. Anionic surfactants in treated sewage and sludges: risk assessment to aquatic and terrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2008-05-01

    Compared to low concentrations of anionic surfactants (AS) in activated sludge process effluents (ASP) (<0.2 mg/L), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-polishing pond (UASB-PP) effluents were found to contain very high concentrations of AS (>3.5 mg/L). AS (or linear alkylbenzen sulfonate, LAS) removals >99% have been found for ASP while in case of UASB-PP it was found to be < or = 30%. AS concentrations averaged 7347 and 1452 mg/kg dry wt. in wet UASB and dried sludges, respectively. Treated sewage from UASB based sewage treatment plants (STPs) when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to generate substantial risk. Post-treatment using 1-1.6d detention, anaerobic, non-algal polishing ponds was found ineffective. Need of utilizing an aerobic method of post-treatment of UASB effluent in place of an anaerobic one has been emphasized. Natural drying of UASB sludges on sludge drying beds (SDBs) under aerobic conditions results in reduction of adsorbed AS by around 80%. Application of UASB sludges on SDBs was found simple, economical and effective. While disposal of treated UASB effluent may cause risk to aquatic ecosystems, use of dried UASB sludges is not likely to cause risk to terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:17706412

  5. One- and two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge-bed reactor pretreatment of winery wastewater at 4-10 degreesC.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S V; Gladchenko, M A; Sklyar, V I; Kizimenko, Y S; Shcherbakov, S S

    2001-02-01

    The operating performance of a single and two (in series) laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge-bed (UASB) reactors (2.7-L working volume, recycle ratio varied from 1:1 to 1:18) treating diluted wine vinasse was investigated under psychrophilic conditions (4-10 degreesC). For a single UASB reactor seeded with granular sludge, the average organic loading rates (OLRs) applied were 4.7, 3.7, and 1.7 g of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(L.d) (hydraulic retention times [HRTs] were about 1 d) at 9-11, 6 to 7, and 4 to 5 degreesC, respectively. The average total COD removal for preacidified vinasse wastewater was about 60% for all the temperature regimes tested. For two UASB reactors in series, the average total COD removal for treatment of non-preacidified wastewater exceeded 70% (the average OLRs for a whole system were 2.2, 1.8, and 1.3 g of COD/[L.d] under HRTs of 2 d at 10, 7, and 4 degreesC, respectively). In situ determinations of kinetic sludge characteristics (apparent Vm and Km) revealed the existence of substantial mass transfer limitations for the soluble substrates inside the reactor sludge bed. Therefore, application of higher recycle ratios is essential for enhancement of UASB pretreatment under psychrophilic conditions. The produced anaerobic effluents were shown to be efficiently posttreated aerobically: final effluent COD concentrations were about 0.1 g/L. Successful operation of the UASB reactors at quite low temperatures (4-10 degreesC) opens some perspectives for application of high-rate anaerobic pretreatment at ambient temperatures. PMID:11297387

  6. Co-occurence of Crenarchaeota, Thermoplasmata and methanogens in anaerobic sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Chouari, Rakia; Guermazi, Sonda; Sghir, Abdelghani

    2015-05-01

    16S rRNA Crenarchaeota and Thermoplasmata sequences retrieved from 22 anaerobic digesters were analysed. 4.8 and 0.53 % of archaeal sequences were simultaneously affiliated to these lineages. A core of 2 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing 0.6 to -33.6 % of all archaeal sequences were defined for the Crenarchaeotes and identified to already known but not yet cultivable organisms in almost half of the digesters sampled. For the Thermoplasmata, apparently less abundant with 0.7 to -4.7 % of the archaeal sequences, 3 OTUs were identified. We showed here that Crenarchaeotes coexist with methanogens and are particularly abundant when Arch I lineage (also called WSA2 by Hugenholtz) is dominant in digesters. Moreover, Thermoplasmata were detected when Crenarchaeota were present. Interactions between methanogens, Crenarchaeotea and Thermoplamata were thus discussed. PMID:25739565

  7. Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Christopher; Peccia, Jordan

    2011-10-15

    The potential for anaerobic digester energy production must be balanced with the sustainability of reusing the resultant biosolids for land application. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temperature-phased, and high temperature (60 or 70 °C) batch pre-treatment digester configurations have been systematically evaluated for net energy production and pathogen inactivation potential. Energy input requirements and net energy production were modeled for each digester scheme. First-order inactivation rate coefficients for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and bacteriophage MS-2 were measured at each digester temperature and full-scale pathogen inactivation performance was estimated for each indicator organism and each digester configuration. Inactivation rates were found to increase dramatically at temperatures above 55 °C. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U.S. EPA time and temperature constraints predicts a 1-2 log inactivation in mesophilic treatment, and a 2-5 log inactivation in 50-55 °C thermophilic and temperature-phased treatments. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C batch pre-treatment phase resulted in dramatically higher potency, achieving MS-2 inactivation of 14 and 16 logs respectively, and complete inactivation (over 100 log reduction) of E. coli and E. faecalis. For temperatures less than 70 °C, viability staining of thermally-treated E. coli showed significantly reduced inactivation relative to standard culture enumeration. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy production for all digesters was similar (less than 20% difference) with the 60 or 70 °C batch treatment configurations producing the most net energy and the mesophilic treatment producing the least. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C pre-treatment phase can dramatically increase pathogen inactivation performance without decreasing net energy capture from anaerobic digestion. Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against

  8. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  9. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater. PMID:21322643

  10. Enhancement of sludge granulation in hydrolytic acidogenesis by denitrification.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Zhao, Zisheng; Sun, Songlan; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-04-01

    Acidogenesis is an important pretreatment process for various industrial wastewater treatments. Granular sludge is an efficient form of a microbial community in anaerobic methanogenic reactors, such as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), but it is hard to develop in the acidogenic process due to the short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of acidogenesis. In this study, nitrate was added into an acidogenic reactor as an electron acceptor to enhance electron exchange between acidogenic and denitrifying bacteria to accelerate sludge growth in the acidogenesis process. The results showed that it developed solid and mature granular sludge with a mean size of 410 ± 35 μm over 84 days of operation. Comparatively, the sludge in a no-nitrate acidogenic reactor showed a flocculent appearance with a mean size of 110 ± 18 μm. Analysis of the microbial community indicated that denitrifying bacteria interwoven with propionate-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in the outer granule layer, which provided an ideal shield for susceptible microorganisms inside the granules. This microbial structure was favorable for the development of granular sludge and made the system possible to respond well to shocks in the operation. PMID:26637420

  11. Molecular insight into activated sludge producing polyhydroxyalkanoates under aerobic-anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Slawomir; Pokoj, Tomasz; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2008-08-01

    One of the options enabling more economic production of polyhydroxyalkanoates compared to pure cultures is the application of mixed cultures. The use of a microbial community in a sequencing batch reactor has a few advantages: a simple process control, no necessity for sterile processing, and possibilities of using cheap substrates as a source of carbon. Nevertheless, while cultivation methods to achieve high PHAs biomass concentration and high productivity in wild and recombinant strains are defined, knowledge about the cultivation strategy for PHAs production by mixed culture and species composition of bacterial communities is still very limited. The main object of this study was to characterize on the molecular level the composition and activity of PHAs producing microorganism in activated sludge cultivated under oxygen limitation conditions. PHAs producers were detected using a PCR technique and the created PHA synthase gene library was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The obtained results indicate that PHAs-producers belonged to Pseudomonas sp., and possessed genes coding for mcl-PHA synthase. The kinetics of mcl-PHA synthase expression was relatively estimated using real-time PCR technology at several timepoints. Performed quantitative and qualitative analysis of total bacterial activity showed that there were differences in total activity during the process but differential expression of various groups of microorganisms examined by using DGGE was not observed. PMID:18418634

  12. Anaerobic biodegradability of mixtures of pesticides in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Monsalvo, V M; Garcia-Mancha, N; Puyol, D; Mohedano, A F; Rodriguez, J J

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability and toxicity of three commercial pesticides containing 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), imidacloprid and dimethoate were evaluated individually, and a complex mixture of these pesticides was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. MCPA was partially biodegraded, while imidacloprid and dimethoate remained almost unaltered during the individual biodegradability tests. Cyclohexanone was identified as the major solvent in the dimethoate-bearing insecticide, which was completely removed regardless of the presence of other pesticides. The analysis of the inhibition over the acetoclastic methanogenesis showed IC(50) (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 474 and 367 mg/L for imidacloprid and dimethoate, respectively. The effect on the methanogenesis was negligible in the case of MCPA and cyclohexanone. Pesticides caused a dramatic decrease of the EGSB reactor performance. After 30 d acclimation, the EGSB reactor achieved a stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and methane production of around 85% and 0.9 g CH(4)-COD/g COD, respectively, for MCPA, imidacloprid, dimethoate and cyclohexanone feed concentrations of 57, 20, 25 and 27 mg/L, respectively. The presence of complex pesticide mixtures led to synergistic/antagonistic responses, reducing the MCPA biodegradation and improving the removal of the insecticides' active ingredients, which were completely removed in the EGSB reactor. PMID:24552724

  13. The use of the core-shell structure of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) for long-term removal of sulphide in sludge during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Su, Lianghu; Zhen, Guangyin; Zhang, Longjiang; Zhao, Youcai; Niu, Dongjie; Chai, Xiaoli

    2015-12-01

    A core-shell structure results in zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) with manifold functional properties. In this study, the long-term effects of NZVI on hydrogen sulphide removal in an anaerobic sludge digester were investigated. Within 20 days, the average hydrogen sulphide content in the biogas was successfully reduced from 300 (or 3620 of sulphate-rich sludge) mg Nm(-3) to 6.1 (121), 0.9 (3.3) and 0.5 (1.3) mg Nm(-3) in the presence of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% (wt) NZVI, respectively. Methane yield was enhanced at the low NZVI dose (0.05-0.10%) but decreased at the elevated dose (0.20%). Methane production and volatile solid degradation analyses implied that doses of 0.5-0.10% NZVI could accelerate sludge stabilization during anaerobic digestion. The phosphorus fractionation profile suggested that methane production could be inhibited at the elevated NZVI dose, partly due to the limited availability of soluble phosphorus due to the immobilization of bioavailable-P through the formation of vivianite. An analysis of the reducible inorganic sulphur species revealed that the elimination of hydrogen sulphide occurred via the reaction between hydrogen sulphide and the oxide shell of NZVI, which mainly formed FeS and some FeS2 and S(0). PMID:26565792

  14. Prediction of anaerobic biodegradability and bioaccessibility of municipal sludge by coupling sequential extractions with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards ADM1 variables characterization.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Gonidec, Estelle; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés; Latrille, Eric; Vedrenne, Fabien; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Advanced dynamic anaerobic digestion models, such as ADM1, require both detailed organic matter characterisation and intimate knowledge of the involved metabolic pathways. In the current study, a methodology for municipal sludge characterization is investigated to describe two key parameters: biodegradability and bioaccessibility of organic matter. The methodology is based on coupling sequential chemical extractions with 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of increasingly strong solvents reveals different levels of organic matter accessibility and the spectroscopy measurement leads to a detailed characterisation of the organic matter. The results obtained from testing 52 municipal sludge samples (primary, secondary, digested and thermally treated) showed a successful correlation with sludge biodegradability and bioaccessibility. The two parameters, traditionally obtained through the biochemical methane potential (BMP) lab tests, are now obtain in only 5 days compared to the 30-60 days usually required. Experimental data, obtained from two different laboratory scale reactors, were used to validate the ADM1 model. The proposed approach showed a strong application potential for reactor design and advanced control of anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:24238878

  15. Anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment for phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge: Release of carbon source and phosphorus as well as hydrogen production potential.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    Releases of organic compounds and phosphorus from phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge (PGS) and phosphorus-accumulating flocculent sludge (PFS) during low-temperature thermal pretreatment and anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Meanwhile, biogas production potential and microbial community structures were explored. The results indicate that much more soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and phosphorus were released from PGS than from PFS via low-temperature thermal pretreatment because of the higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in PGS and higher ratio of phosphorus reserved in EPS. Furthermore, PGS contains more anaerobes and dead cells, resulting in much higher SCOD and volatile fatty acids release from PGS than those from PFS during fermentation. PGS fermentation facilitated the n-butyric acid production, and PGS exhibited the hydrogen production potential during fermentation due to the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria. Therefore, anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment can facilitate the recovery of carbon and phosphorus as well as producing hydrogen from PGS. PMID:27344244

  16. Effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time on performance of a prototype single-stage anaerobic digester for conversion of food wastes to biogas and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Saleart, Tawinan

    2016-04-01

    Food wastes have been recognized as the largest waste stream and accounts for 39.25 % of total municipal solid waste in Thailand. Chulalongkorn University has participated in the program of in situ energy recovery from food wastes under the Ministry of Energy (MOE), Thailand. This research aims to develop a prototype single-stage anaerobic digestion system for biogas production and energy recovery from food wastes inside Chulalongkorn University. Here, the effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time were investigated as the main key parameters for the system design and operation. From the results obtained in this study, it was found that the sludge recirculation rate of 100 % and the mixing time of 60 min per day were the most suitable design parameters to achieve high efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), and total volatile solid (TVS) removal and also biogas production by this prototype anaerobic digester. The obtained biogas production was found to be 0.71 m(3)/kg COD and the composition of methane was 61.6 %. Moreover, the efficiencies of COD removal were as high as 82.9 % and TVS removal could reach 83.9 % at the optimal condition. Therefore, the developed prototype single-stage anaerobic digester can be highly promising for university canteen application to recover energy from food wastes via biogas production. PMID:25864735

  17. [High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sludge and kitchen garbage under mesophilic conditions].

    PubMed

    Duan, Ni-Na; Dong, Bin; Li, Jiang-Hua; Dai, Ling-Ling; Dai, Xiao-Hu

    2013-01-01

    At solid retention time (SRT) of 20 days, biogas production, volatile solid (VS) degradation and system stability in co-digestion systems of dewatered sludge (DS) and kitchen garbage (KG) were investigated in semi-continuous completely mixed reactors numbered R1-R5 (the DS/KG of their feeding substrate based on wet mass was 1:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3 and 0:1, respectively). The results showed that, with larger proportion of KG in feeding substrate, higher methane yield and biogas yield were obtained with lower methane content. For certain reactor at given SRT, KG addition could significantly improve the organic loading rate (OLR) and volume biogas production. System with more KG addition favored higher hydraulic constant k and VS reduction. The hydraulic constant k was 0.25 d(-1), 0.61 d(-1), 1.09 d(-1) and 1.56 d(-1), and the VS reduction was 37.4%, 50.6%, 60.7% and 68.2% for R1-R4, respectively, indicating higher hydrolysis rates with more KG addition, which led to increased VS reductions. With larger KG proportion in feeding substrate, pH, total alkalinity (TA), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) showed decreasing trend. As KG addition increased by 60%, pH, TA, TAN and FAN decreased by 6%, 16%, 22% and 75%, respectively. FAN and Na+ respectively were potential inhibitory chemicals that threatened the stability of the mono-system of DS and KG. In comparison with the mono-system of DS or KG, the co-system showed higher stability by diluting toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na+ to much lower levels. PMID:23487958

  18. Floatation of flocculent and granular sludge in a high-loaded anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Ma, Chun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2014-10-01

    The floatation of flocculent and granular sludge was investigated in this study. An anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated for 665 days. During this time, the maximum nitrogen removal rate was 52.6 kg Nm(-3) d(-1). Floccule floatation occurred between days 100 and 140, which potentially resulted from the sudden increase in gas yield and the poor settling ability of the floccules. Increasing the shear rate from 0.084 to 0.135 s(-1) was effective at eliminating floccule floatation. In addition, granule floatation occurred between days 572 and 665, which likely resulted from the formation of hollows within the granules. Floatation may be effectively prevented by maintaining a shear rate of more than 0.778 s(-1). Furthermore, the mechanisms of granule floatation and the floatation processes were proposed. Overall, controlling the shear force may effectively overcome sludge floatation. PMID:25069095

  19. Enhanced deodorization and sludge reduction in situ by a humus soil cooperated anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Li, Biqing; Lei, Fang; Feng, Xin; Pang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneous sludge reduction and malodor abatement in humus soil cooperated an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) wastewater treatment were investigated in this study. The HSR-A2O was composed of a humus soil reactor (HSR) and a conventional A2O (designated as C-A2O).The results showed that adding HSR did not deteriorate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, while total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency in HSR-A2O was improved by 18 % in comparison with that in the C-A2O. Both processes had good performance on total nitrogen (TN) removal, and there was no significant difference between them (76.8 and 77.1 %, respectively). However, NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N were reduced to 0.3 and 6.7 mg/L in HSR-A2O compared to 1.5 and 4.5 mg/L. Moreover, adding HSR induced the sludge reduction, and the sludge production rate was lower than that in the C-A2O. The observed sludge yield was estimated to be 0.32 kg MLSS/day in HSR-A2O, which represent a 33.5 % reduction compared to a C-A2O process. Activated sludge underwent humification and produced more humic acid in HSR-A2O, which is beneficial to sludge reduction. Odor abatement was achieved in HSR-A2O, ammonium (NH3), and sulfuretted hydrogen (H2S) emission decreased from 1.34 and 1.33 to 0.06 mg/m(3), 0.025 mg/m(3) in anaerobic area, with the corresponding reduction efficiency of 95.5 and 98.1 %. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relevant microorganism enrichment explained the reduction effect of humus soil on NH3 and H2S emission. The whole study demonstrated that humus soil enhanced odor abatement and sludge reduction in situ. PMID:27146529

  20. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35°C), thermophilic (55°C) and temperature phased (65+55°C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m(3)d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m(3)d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m(3)d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m(3)/kgVS(fed) at 35, 55, and 65+55°C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65°C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 g COD (soluble) per gVS(fed). The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor. PMID:22305642

  1. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  2. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system. PMID:26139136

  3. Effect of nanoscale zero-valent iron and magnetite (Fe3O4) on the fate of metals during anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Suanon, Fidèle; Sun, Qian; Mama, Daouda; Li, Jiangwei; Dimon, Biaou; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the most widely used processes to stabilize waste sewage sludge and produce biogas renewable energy. In this study, two different iron nanoparticles [nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and magnetite (Fe3O4)] were used in the mesophilic AD processes (37 ± 1 °C) to improve biogas production. In addition, changes of heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr) speciation during AD of sludge with and without iron nanoparticles have been investigated. Concentrations of metals in the initial sludge were as follows: 63.1, 73.4, 1102.2, 2060.3, 483.9 and 604.1 mg kg(-1) (dry sludge basis) for Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, respectively. Sequential fractionation showed that metals were predominantly bonded to organic matter and carbonates in the initial sludge. Compared with AD without iron nanoparticles, the application of iron nanoparticles (at dose of 0.5% in this study) showed positive impact not only on biogas production, but also on improvement of metals stabilization in the digestate. Metals were found concentrated in Fe-Mn bound and residual fractions and little was accumulated in the liquid digestate and most mobile fractions of solid digestate (water soluble, exchangeable and carbonates bound). Therefore, iron nanoparticles when properly used, could improve not only biogas yield, but also regulate and control the mobilization of metals during AD process. However, our study also observed that iron nanoparticles could promote the immobilization of phosphorus within the sludge during AD, and more research is needed to fully address the mechanism behind this phenomenon and the impact on future phosphorus reuse. PMID:26613183

  4. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process. PMID:26652215

  5. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production. PMID:23419990

  6. Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.

    PubMed

    Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-02-01

    The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

  7. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the biogas production and microbial communities balance during anaerobic digestion of urban and industrial waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Hajer; Miladi, Baligh; Diaz, Soraya Zahedi; Güelfo, Luis Alberto Fernández; Solera, Rosario; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-08-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on the microbial populations balance and biogas production was studied during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) coming from urban (US: urban sludge) and industrial (IS: industrial sludge) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The highest biogas yields of 0.42l/gvolatile solid (VS) removed and 0.37l/gVS removed were obtained with urban and industrial sludge pre-treated at 120°C, respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to quantify the major Bacteria and Archaea groups. Compared to control trails without pretreatment, Archaea content increased from 34% to 86% and from 46% to 83% for pretreated IS and US, respectively. In fact, the thermal pre-treatment of WAS enhanced the growth of hydrogen-using methanogens (HUMs), which consume rapidly the H2 generated to allow the acetogenesis. Therefore, the stable and better performance of digesters was observed involving the balance and syntrophic associations between the different microbial populations. PMID:27132226

  8. Addition of crude glycerine as strategy to balance the C/N ratio on sewage sludge thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, G; Fernández, B; Bonmatí, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of adding crude glycerine during continuous sewage sludge anaerobic digestion was investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. Addition of CGY at thermophilic temperature range showed a negative impact on stability and performance of the process, even at low doses. The extreme pH values of CGY, together with the rapid release of VFA, causes SS alkalinity fail to control pH drop. On the contrary, at mesophilic temperature range the process performs steadily, with 148% increase in methane production when CGY represented 1% v/v of the influent (27% of influent COD). Further CGY percentages did not show any added improvement; the biomass shift, due to a high C/N ratio, could explain this behaviour. Results suggested that CGY can be used as co-substrate of SS anaerobic digestion though, depending on the characteristics of CGY, and on operational conditions, different parameters should be taken into account to achieve a steady and consistent operation. PMID:26143573

  9. [Physicochemical and ecological characteristics of the granular sludge during start-up of Anammox reactor].

    PubMed

    Song, Yuxia; Xiong, Lei; Chai, Liyuan; Liao, Qi; Tang, Chongjian; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic granular sludge from an Internal Circulation (IC) reactor of a paper mill wastewater treatment plant were seeded in an Anammox upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. After 185 days operation, the reactor was finally started up by increasing the influent ammonium and nitrite concentrations to 224 mg/L and 255 mg/L, respectively, with volumetric nitrogen removal rate increasing to 3.76 kg/(m3·d). The physicochemical characteristics of the cultivated Anammox granules were observed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results suggested that during the start-up course, the granular sludge initially disintegrated and then re-aggregated. FTIR spectra results revealed that the Anammox granular sludge contained abundant functional groups, indicating that it may also possess good adsorption properties. The ecological structure of the granular sludge, analyzed by the metagenomic sequencing methods, suggested that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial community in the seeding sludge, i.e., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, significantly reduced, while Planctomycetes which contains anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria remarkably increased from 1.59% to 23.24% in the Anammox granules. PMID:26016375

  10. Treatment of phthalic waste by anaerobic hybrid reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tur, M.Y.; Huang, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    The anaerobic treatment performance of phthalic acid at 4,000 mg/L (dry weight) by a hybrid reactor consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a biofilter was examined. Using anaerobic sewage sludge as the seed and glucose as a carbon supplement, it took 3 months to initiate phthalate degradation. After that, the glucose supplement could be discontinued. At 35 C and a phthalic loading of 20 g-COD/L-d, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was nearly 95%. About 89.5% of the removed phthalic COD was converted to methane. When the phthalic loadings were increased to 26.7, 33.0, 39.7, and 46.3 g-COD/L-d, the COD removal efficiencies were progressively reduced to 78, 65, 58, and 47.7%, respectively. More than 95% of the residual effluent COD was composed of nondecomposed phthalic acid. In the hybrid reactor, 86% of the biomass was found in the UASB section while the remaining 14% was found in the biofilter section. The anaerobic sludge could lead to granulation. At 35 C and a phthalic loading of 26 g-COD/L-D, the overall specific removal rate was 0.81--0.85 g-COD/g VSS-d, and the corresponding methane production rate was 0.24--0.26 L CH{sub 4}/g VSS-d.

  11. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  12. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  13. Novel insights into enzymatic-enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Hong-Bo; Liu, Xian; Yang, Guo-jing; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2013-04-01

    In our previous study, it has been proposed that the hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (WAS) can be enhanced by hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, fluorescence spectral characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) during anaerobic digestion were investigated using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy to explore the destruction mechanisms of WAS enhanced by additional enzymes (protease, α-amylase and the mixture). Two individual fluorescence peaks associated with protein-like fluorophores (aromatic and tryptophan protein-like substances) were identified in the EEM fluorescence spectra of the EPS after 1 and 6d, and only aromatic protein-like substances were observed after 12d of anaerobic digestion for all treatments. As for the DOM, three individual fluorescence peaks were identified, but the peaks associated with visible humic acid-like fluorophores disappeared after 12d. The EEM fluorescence intensity of EPS decreased during the entire anaerobic process, whereas that of the DOM increased at 1d and then decreased till the end. In the EPS, the residual protein-like substances were found to be the lowest during the entire anaerobic process when treated with protease. Correspondingly, the protein-like substances in the DOM increased rapidly from 1 to 6d, and decreased to the lowest level after 12d for the protease treatment. PMID:23266409

  14. A comparison study on the high-rate co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using a temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2011-08-01

    Assessing contemporary anaerobic biotechnologies requires proofs on reliable performance in terms of renewable bioenergy recovery such as methane (CH(4)) production rate, CH(4) yield while removing volatile solid (VS) effectively. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (TPASBR) system that is a promising approach for the sustainable treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). TPASBR system is compared with a conventional system, mesophilic two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system, which differs in operating temperature of 1st-stage. Results demonstrate that TPASBR system can obtain 44% VS removal from co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste while producing 1.2m(3)CH(4)/m(3)(system)/d (0.2m(3)CH(4)/kgVS(added)) at organic loading rate of 6.1gVS/L/d through the synergy of sequencing-batch operation, co-digestion, and temperature-phasing. Consequently, the rapid and balanced anaerobic metabolism at thermophilic stage makes TPASBR system to afford high organic loading rate showing superior performance on OFMSW stabilization. PMID:21600764

  15. Anaerobic biogranulation using phenol as the sole carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; He, Y.X.; Yan, Y.G.

    2000-04-01

    The granulation process was extensively examined using phenol as sole carbon source in a 2-L laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The study was conducted mesophilically at 35 C. Anaerobically digested sludge was used as seed after a 14-day activation period with glucose feed. Massive initial granules were developed after 3 months of startup, grew at an accelerated pace for 6 months, then became fully grown. The granulation process can be broken into three phases: acclimation, granulation, and maturation. However, granulation with phenol proceeded more slowly than it did in UASB reactors fed with readily biodegradable carbohydrates studied previously. The granular sludge cultivated had a median diameter of 1.8 mm, phenol-degrading activity of 0.65 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g volatile suspended solids (VSS){sm_bullet}d, and a sludge volume index of 14 mL/g. Phenol COD removal efficiency of 86% was achieved when the reactor was operating at an influent phenol concentration of 1,260 mg/L (corresponding to 3,000 mg COD/L), hydraulic retention time of 12 hours, and volumetric loading rate of 6 g COD/L{sm_bullet}d. However, the lower-than-expected phenol COD removal efficiency could be attributed to inhibition by the high influent phenol concentration or loading. The batch test demonstrated that the sludge methanogenic activity was reduced by 52 and 75% at phenol concentrations of 420 and 840 mg/L, respectively.

  16. Psychrophilic (6--15 {degree}C) high-rate anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater in a two-module expanded granular sludge bed system

    SciTech Connect

    Rebac, S.; Lier, J.B. van; Lens, P.; Cappellen, J. van; Vermeulen, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Dekkers, F.; Swinkels, K.T.M.

    1998-11-01

    Psychrophilic (6--15 C) anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater was investigated. A two-module expanded granular sludge bed reactor system with a total volume of 140 dm{sup 3} was used to treat malting wastewater having a soluble and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 233 and 1778 mg dm{sup {minus}3} and between 317 and 4422 mg dm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. The removal efficiencies at 6 C were 47 and 71% of the soluble and volatile fatty acids (VFA) COD, at organic loading rates (OLR) ranging between 3.3 and 5.8 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The removal efficiencies at 10--15 C were 67--78 and 90--96% of the soluble and VFA COD at an OLR between 2.8 and 12.3 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The specific methanogenic activity of the sludge present in each module increased 2--3-fold during system operation for 400 days. The relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the influent (25% of the total COD) caused a deterioration of the sludge bed in the first reactor module. This was aggravated by excessive growth of acidifying biomass, which persisted in the first module sludge bed and resulted in granular sludge flotation. However, the second module could accommodate the increased OLR, this providing a very high effluent quality (soluble COD < 200 mg dm{sup {minus}3}) of the total system. The stability of module 1 concerning suspended solids could be restored by presettling the wastewater.

  17. Aerobic/anoxic post-treatment of anaerobically digested sewage sludge as an alternative to biological nitrogen removal from reject water.

    PubMed

    Morras, Mikel; Dosta, J; García-Heras, J L

    2015-05-01

    Stabilisation and biological nitrogen removal (BNR) of anaerobically digested sewage sludge were studied in a post-aeration reactor at pilot scale working under alternating anoxic-aerobic conditions. Digested sludge came from a two-stage anaerobic digestion (thermophilic + mesophilic). The best post-aerator performance was achieved when working at an HRT of 10 days (4 days aerobic; dissolved oxygen of 1.8 mg L(-1)) and VS content in the feed no lower than 6.7 g L(-1). Free ammonia concentration values in the effluent above 1.5 mg N L(-1) (around 150 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) at pH 7) were necessary to promote the BNR over nitrite. Removal efficiencies up to 80 % NH4 (+)-N, 50-55 % total nitrogen and 15-20 % VS were recorded in this study, with no external addition of chemicals. A nitrogen mass balance revealed that the high percent of NH4 (+)-N assimilated in heterotrophic growth was counteracted with that released in ammonification and fermentation, leading to a NH4 (+)-N removal mainly related to biological nitritation/denitritation. PMID:25407727

  18. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation. PMID:26363316

  19. Effect of heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on anaerobic granular sludge performance and microbial community for the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Su, Chengyuan; Li, Weiguang; Lu, Yuxiang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi

    2016-08-15

    The effect of a heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on the anaerobic processes, characteristics and microbial community of sludge was investigated for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater containing rhein. When the concentrations of rhein were 50mg/L and 100mg/L, the toxic effect was physiological toxicity for anaerobic granular sludge. Using a single double circle (DC) reactor for the treatment of TCM wastewater containing rhein at concentrations of 15-20mg/L, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 69%, and coenzyme F420 was nearly undetectable in the 3D-excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of soluble microbial products (SMP). The abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were only 5.57%, 2.39% and 1.08% in the DC reactor, respectively. TCM wastewater containing rhein could be successfully treated by the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment and the DC reactor processes, and the COD removal rate reached 95%. Meanwhile, the abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula increased to 22.5%, 18.5%, and 13.87%, respectively. For the bacterial community, the abundance of Acidobacteria_Gp6 decreased from 6.99% to 1.07%, while the abundances of Acidobacteria_Gp1 and Acidobacteria_Gp2 increased from 1.61% to 6.55% and from 1.28% to 5.87%, respectively. PMID:27107235

  20. PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

  1. Degradation and Fate of Carbon Tetrachloride in Unadapted Methanogenic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Van Eekert MHA; Schröder; Stams; Schraa; Field

    1998-07-01

    The potential of granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for bioremediation of chlorinated pollutants was evaluated by using carbon tetrachloride (CT) as a model compound. Granular sludges cultivated in UASB reactors on methanol, a volatile fatty acid mixture, or sucrose readily degraded CT supplied at a concentration of 1,500 nmol/batch (approximately 10 µM) without any prior exposure to organohalogens. The maximum degradation rate was 1.9 µmol of CT g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1. The main end products of CT degradation were CO2 and Cl-, and the yields of these end products were 44 and 68%, respectively, of the initial amounts of [14C]CT and CT-Cl. Lower chlorinated methanes accumulated in minor amounts temporarily. Autoclaved (dead) sludges were capable of degrading CT at rates two- to threefold lower than those for living sludges, indicating that abiotic processes (mediated by cofactors or other sludge components) played an important role in the degradation observed. Reduced components in the autoclaved sludge were vital for CT degradation. A major part (51%) of the CT was converted abiotically to CS2. The amount of CO2 produced (23%) was lower and the amount of Cl- produced (86%) was slightly higher with autoclaved sludge than with living sludge. Both living and autoclaved sludges could degrade chloroform. However, only living sludge degraded dichloromethane and methylchloride. These results indicate that reductive dehalogenation, which was mediated better by living sludge than by autoclaved sludge, is only a minor pathway for CT degradation. The main pathway involves substitutive and oxidative dechlorination reactions that lead to the formation of CO2. Granular sludge, therefore, has outstanding potential for gratuitous dechlorination of CT to safe end products. PMID:9647798

  2. Degradation and Fate of Carbon Tetrachloride in Unadapted Methanogenic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Van Eekert, Miriam H. A.; Schröder, Thomas J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Schraa, Gosse; Field, Jim A.

    1998-01-01

    The potential of granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for bioremediation of chlorinated pollutants was evaluated by using carbon tetrachloride (CT) as a model compound. Granular sludges cultivated in UASB reactors on methanol, a volatile fatty acid mixture, or sucrose readily degraded CT supplied at a concentration of 1,500 nmol/batch (approximately 10 μM) without any prior exposure to organohalogens. The maximum degradation rate was 1.9 μmol of CT g of volatile suspended solids−1 day−1. The main end products of CT degradation were CO2 and Cl−, and the yields of these end products were 44 and 68%, respectively, of the initial amounts of [14C]CT and CT-Cl. Lower chlorinated methanes accumulated in minor amounts temporarily. Autoclaved (dead) sludges were capable of degrading CT at rates two- to threefold lower than those for living sludges, indicating that abiotic processes (mediated by cofactors or other sludge components) played an important role in the degradation observed. Reduced components in the autoclaved sludge were vital for CT degradation. A major part (51%) of the CT was converted abiotically to CS2. The amount of CO2 produced (23%) was lower and the amount of Cl− produced (86%) was slightly higher with autoclaved sludge than with living sludge. Both living and autoclaved sludges could degrade chloroform. However, only living sludge degraded dichloromethane and methylchloride. These results indicate that reductive dehalogenation, which was mediated better by living sludge than by autoclaved sludge, is only a minor pathway for CT degradation. The main pathway involves substitutive and oxidative dechlorination reactions that lead to the formation of CO2. Granular sludge, therefore, has outstanding potential for gratuitous dechlorination of CT to safe end products. PMID:9647798

  3. Activated sludge mass reduction and biodegradability of the endogenous residues by digestion under different aerobic to anaerobic conditions: Comparison and modeling.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, C G; Fall, C; Olguín, M T

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to identify suitable conditions for the in-situ reduction of excess sludge production by intercalated digesters in recycle-activated sludge (RAS) flow. The objective was to compare and model biological sludge mass reduction and the biodegradation of endogenous residues (XP) by digestion under hypoxic, aerobic, anaerobic, and five intermittent-aeration conditions. A mathematical model based on the heterotrophic endogenous decay constant (bH) and including the biodegradation of XP was used to fit the long-term data from the digesters to identify and estimate the parameters. Both the bH constant (0.02-0.05 d(-1)) and the endogenous residue biodegradation constant (bP, 0.001-0.004 d(-1)) were determined across the different mediums. The digesters with intermittent aeration cycles of 12 h-12 h and 5 min-3 h (ON/OFF) were the fastest, compared to the aerobic reactor. The study provides a basis for rating RAS-digester volumes to avoid the accumulation of XP in aeration tanks. PMID:26720137

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of wine/fruit-juice production waste with landfill leachate diluted municipal sludge cake under semi-continuous flow operation.

    PubMed

    Leiva, M Barrantes; Koupaie, E Hosseini; Eskicioglu, C

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of four organic waste streams; a thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and screen cake (SC) from a fruit-juice/winery wastewater treatment plant along with municipal sludge cake (MC) and landfill leachate (LL) was evaluated. A total of eight semi-continuously-fed single and co-digesters were operated side-by-side at sludge retention times (SRT) of 20 and 10 days. Co-digestion of industrial waste streams (TWAS and SC) with MC and LL resulted in increased operational stability compared to the single digestion of industrial TWAS at the higher organic loading (10 d SRT). Although digester operational temperature had no statistically significant effect on organics removal and biogas production, mesophilic digesters had consistently higher total coliform densities (8838-37,959 most probable number or MPN/g-dry weight) compared to the thermophilic digesters (41-6723 MPN/g-dry weight) at both SRTs. Coliform analysis results also proved that most of the thermophilic digestates could be classified as Class A biosolids according to regulations. Furthermore, addition of industrial TWAS to co-digesters enhanced the dewaterability of the digested streams. A cost-benefit analysis confirmed the benefits and indicated that a full-scale co-digester utilizing all four waste streams can decrease the total capital and operational cost by 22% ($10.52 million). PMID:25081853

  5. A sustainable method for effective regulation of anaerobic granular sludge: artificially increasing the concentration of signal molecules by cultivating a secreting strain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yangcheng; Feng, Huajun; Huang, Wenkun; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen

    2015-11-01

    This study introduces sustainable quorum sensing (QS) granulation for anaerobic granular sludge (AnGS) and investigates the efficiency of three types of signal molecules on regulating AnGS granulation. The signal molecules of a secreting strain cultured in a QS regulating reactor increased their concentrations in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor throughout the granulating process. Increasing content of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) strengthened interspecific QS communication and gave a best performance with larger granular diameters, higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and relative hydrophobicity (RH). N-butyryl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) QS regulation was also favorable for granular growth, but its regulation was less than that of AI-2-QS. The AnGS granulated under these two types of QS regulations guided more filamentous bacteria to take part in granulation. Under diffusible signal factor (DSF)-QS regulation, the sludge had a lower granular level with a smaller granule diameter, lower EPS production (RH) when compared that of control medium. PMID:26253911

  6. Changes in the nitrogen removal performance and the properties of granular sludge in an Anammox system under oxytetracycline (OTC) stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2013-02-01

    The short- and long-term effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process were evaluated. The OTC inhibition of Anammox was substrate-, and especially nitrite-, dependent. The IC50 of OTC in the batch tests on an Anammox mixed culture was calculated to be 517.5 mg L(-1). The long-term effects of OTC on the Anammox process were examined in a continuous-flow upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Fifty milligrams per liter of OTC significantly decreased the nitrogen removal rate from 12.4 to 2 kg N m(-3) d(-1) within 26 days. The recovery of Anammox performance after OTC inhibition was accelerated by adding biocatalyst. In contrast to the modified Stover-Kincannon model, the modified Boltzmann model accurately simulated the recovery of Anammox performance. OTC presented in the influent led to sludge hardening and cell lysis. A poor settling property of Anammox sludge was also observed. PMID:23232224

  7. Municipal treatment plant sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the processing of municipal wastes. Topics considered at the conference included closed-loop thermal sludge processing, bioenergy, the Hyperion energy recovery system, sludge drying, fluidized bed sludge incineration with supplemental coal firing and power generation, a sludge to oil reactor system, and energy recovery from anaerobic digestion.

  8. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  9. Variations of organic matters and microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge with the addition of ferric salts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao; Lou, Ziyang; Zhang, Dongling; Shan, Aidang; Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Kanghan

    2015-03-01

    Ferric salts will influence the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). FeCl3 was found to contribute to the anaerobic digestion process with a cumulative biogas production of 357 mL/gVS, 79.6% higher than that in the control group, and Fe2(SO4)3 had no distinct impact, while Fe(NO3)3 inhibited the methanogenesis process. A favorable balance between the release of organic matters from WAS and consumption rate was established after dosing FeCl3 from the perspective of variations of soluble COD, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the dissolved organic matters (DOM) assessed by EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) technique. Conversely, the system with Fe(NO3)3 achieved an unsuitable substrates environment. Pyrosequencing revealed that the anaerobic digestion system with FeCl3 enriched Coprothermobacter for proteins fermentation and Methanosarcina for methanogenesis with the values of 18.7% and 63.2%, respectively, while that with the supplementation of Fe(NO3)3 obtained the lowest relative abundance. PMID:25545098

  10. Development and application of an enzymatic and cell flotation treatment for the recovery of viable microbial cells from environmental matrices such as anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gévaudan, Gaëlle; Patureau, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Efficient dissociation of microorganisms from their aggregate matrix is required to study the microorganisms without interaction with their native environment (e.g., biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) and to assess their community composition through the application of molecular or microscopy techniques. To this end, we combined enzymatic treatments and a cell extraction by density gradient to efficiently recover anaerobic microorganisms from urban wastewater treatment plant sludge. The enzymes employed (amylase, cellulase, DNase, and pectinase) as a pretreatment softly disintegrated the extrapolymeric substances (EPS) interlocked with the microorganisms. The potential damaging effects of the applied procedure on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density (using quantitative PCR), diversity (using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting [CE-SSCP]), and activity (using a standard anaerobic activity test) of the extracted microorganisms. The protocol preserved the general capacity of the microbial community to produce methane under anaerobic conditions and its diversity; particularly the archaeal community was not affected in terms of either density or structure. This cell extraction procedure from the matrix materials offers interesting perspectives for metabolic, microscopic, and molecular assays of microbial communities present in complex matrices constituted by bioaggregates or biofilms. PMID:22003005

  11. Microbial Communities and Their Performances in Anaerobic Hybrid Sludge Bed-Fixed Film Reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent under Various Organic Pollutant Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Meesap, Kanlayanee; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic hybrid reactor consisting of sludge and packed zones was operated with organic pollutant loading rates from 6.2 to 8.2 g COD/L day, composed mainly of suspended solids (SS) and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations between 5.2 to 10.2 and 0.9 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. The overall process performance in terms of chemical oxygen demands (COD), SS, and O&G removals was 73, 63, and 56%, respectively. When the organic pollutant concentrations were increased, the resultant methane potentials were higher, and the methane yield increased to 0.30 L CH4/g CODremoved. It was observed these effects on the microbial population and activity in the sludge and packed zones. The eubacterial population and activity in the sludge zone increased to 6.4 × 109 copies rDNA/g VSS and 1.65 g COD/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the packed zone were lower. The predominant hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria were Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the archaeal population and activity in the packed zone were increased from to 9.1 × 107 copies rDNA/g VSS and 0.34 g COD-CH4/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the sludge zone were not much changed. The most represented species of methanogens were the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium sp., and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiaceae. PMID:22927723

  12. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.