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1

Obstetric events leading to anal sphincter damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the obstetric factors relating to anal sphincter injury at first vaginal delivery by prospective cohort study of primiparous women.Methods: We compared the results of a bowel function questionnaire and anal vector manometry before and 6 weeks after delivery in 184 primiparous women. Postpartum, pudendal nerve conduction latency was measured in all women, and anal endosonography was performed

Valerie Donnelly; Michelle Fynes; Deirdre Campbell; Howard Johnson; P. Ronan O’Connell; Colm O’Herlihy

1998-01-01

2

The relation of sensation in the anal canal to the functional anal sphincter: a possible factor in anal continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal subjects the length of the functional anal sphincter has been compared with the extent of sensation to light touch in the anal canal. At rest, the sphincteric zone was the longer. On distension of the rectum, a decrease in pressure in the anal canal so shortened the functional sphincter that intrarectal pressure extended down to contact the sensory

H. L. Duthie; R. C. Bennett

1963-01-01

3

[Pathophysiologic role of the internal anal sphincter in chronic anal fissure].  

PubMed

Internal anal sphincter manometric and myoelectrical investigations were performed under basal conditions and in response to rectal distension in 17 patients with chronic anal fissures and 15 controls. Measurement of sphincter pressures were carried out by pull-through technique, using water perfused open-tip-catheters. Electrical signals were obtained employing concentric needle electrodes inserted into the internal anal sphincter. No statistically different resting pressures were noted between patients with fissures and controls. Just so no significant difference were found in frequency and amplitude of slow potentials generated by the internal and sphincter. Neither amplitude or frequency correlate with anal sphincter pressures. In both groups, transient rectal distension produced relaxation of the internal sphincter and were associated with inhibition or irregularity of electric activity. Distribution and amplitude of internal overshoot contraction showed no difference in both groups. It can be concluded that internal sphincter spasm can not be considered as the sole cause for persistence of fissures. PMID:4082687

Braun, J; Raguse, T

1985-10-01

4

Prospective study of the extent of internal anal sphincter division during lateral sphincterotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of lateral internal anal sphincterotomy when treating anal fissure is to divide the distal one-third to one-half of the internal anal sphincter. This study aimed to evaluate prospectively the extent of disruption to the internal anal sphincter following lateral anal internal sphincterotomy and also to establish the prevalence of symptoms of anal incontinence in these patients. METHODS:

Abdul H. Sultan; Michael A. Kamm; R. John Nicholls; Clive I. Bartram

1994-01-01

5

Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex: a review.  

PubMed

Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Endoanal ultrasound requires specialised equipment and its relative invasiveness has prompted clinicians to explore alternative imaging techniques. Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound have been recently evaluated as alternative imaging modalities. However, the need for technique standardisation, validation and reporting is of paramount importance. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1950 to February 2010) and critically reviewed studies using the three imaging techniques in evaluating anal sphincter integrity. PMID:22374273

Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

2012-07-01

6

Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex: a review  

PubMed Central

Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Endoanal ultrasound requires specialised equipment and its relative invasiveness has prompted clinicians to explore alternative imaging techniques. Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound have been recently evaluated as alternative imaging modalities. However, the need for technique standardisation, validation and reporting is of paramount importance. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1950 to February 2010) and critically reviewed studies using the three imaging techniques in evaluating anal sphincter integrity. PMID:22374273

Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

2012-01-01

7

Quantitative anal sphincter EMG in multisystem atrophy and 100 controls  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate data of quantitative anal sphincter EMG in normal controls and to compare them with patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA).?METHODS—Quantitative anal sphincter EMG were performed on 100 normal controls and 11 patients with MSA to characterise EMG data in these two groups.?RESULTS—In the normal controls, there was a trend for increased motor unit potential (MUP) amplitude, duration, area, and polyphasicity with advancing age. Patients with MSA exhibited similar MUP size and fibre density. Significant differences were found only in parameters of the recruitment pattern, which were reduced in MSA, with a diminution in the number of active MUPs during rest.?CONCLUSIONS—These results may reflect either decreased number of motor cells in Onuf's nucleus without significant consequential reinnervation, or upper motor neuron involvement affecting the anal sphincter in MSA. They further underline the importance of comparative data for age matched controls.?? PMID:11606668

Gilad, R; Giladi, N; Korczyn, A; Gurevich, T; Sadeh, M

2001-01-01

8

Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the function of the pelvic floor in primiparae before and during pregnancy with the status post partum concerning symptoms of incontinence, sphincter ruptures, bladder-neck mobility and the influence of the different modes of deliveries. Methods Questionnaire evaluating symptoms of urinary and anal incontinence in nulliparous women before and after delivery and correlating these symptoms with functional changes of the pelvic floor based on a careful gynaecologic examination as well as perineal and endoanal ultrasound. Results 112 women were included in our study and came for the first visit, 99 women returned for follow-up 6 months after childbirth. Stress and flatus incontinence significantly increased from before pregnancy (3 and 12%) to after childbirth (21 and 28%) in women with spontaneous delivery or vacuum extraction. No new symptoms occurred after c-section. There was no significant difference between the bladder neck position before and after delivery. The mobility of the bladder neck was significantly higher after vaginal delivery using a vacuum extraction compared to spontaneous delivery or c-section. The bladder neck in women with post partum urinary stress incontinence was significantly more mobile than in continent controls. The endoanal ultrasound detected seven occult sphincter defects without any correlation to symptoms of anal incontinence. Conclusion Several statistically significant changes of the pelvic floor after delivery were demonstrated. Spontaneous vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction increases the risk for stress or anal incontinence, delivery with vacuum extraction leads to higher bladder neck mobility and stress incontinent women have more mobile bladder necks than continent women. PMID:20696633

2010-01-01

9

Transvaginal Versus Anal Endosonography for Detecting Damage to the Anal Sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. We undertook this study to establish the accuracy of transvaginal endosonography for detecting damage to the anal sphincter. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Anal endosonography was performed in 47 parous patients and one nulliparous patient using a sonographic scanner, an 1850 endoprobe, and a 10-MHz trans- ducer protected by a water-filled hard plastic cone. This procedure was followed by transvaginal sonography

Andrea Frudinger; Clive I. Bartram; Michael A. Kamm

10

A comparison between electromyography and anal endosonography in mapping external anal sphincter defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping of the external anal sphincter by anal endosonography was compared with the electromyographic findings in 15 patients with fecal incontinence after perineal trauma. Both examinations showed no defect in three patients. In the 12 patients with muscle defects, there was agreement on the quadrant involved in all patients. In seven patients, there was total agreement in the hours of

Penelope J. Law; M. A. Kamm; C. I. Bartram

1990-01-01

11

Standardization of anal sphincter EMG: technique of needle examination.  

PubMed

The external anal sphincter (EAS) anatomy is complex, and no exact technique of needle electrode insertion into it for electromyography (EMG) has been described. To define optimal positions for needle electrode insertions, EAS muscle topography was studied by concentric needle EMG. Fifteen women without uroneurological disorders were examined. Perpendicular insertions were made superficially (just under the mucosa) at the mucocutaneous junction, 5 and 10 mm more proximally (toward the anus), and at the anal orifice. In addition, at the anal orifice, deeper insertions were made. Superficially, EMG activity was detected at the mucocutaneous junction in 9 (60%) subjects. In the remaining 6, the muscle was found either 5 mm (in 5) or 10 mm (in 1) more centrally. At the anal orifice, superficial EMG activity was present in 67% of women. On deep insertion (15-25 mm) at the anal orifice, muscle was always present. It is suggested that, in further studies, the portions of the EAS muscle examined should be specified. PMID:10086902

Podnar, S; Rodi, Z; Lukanovic, A; Trsinar, B; Vodusek, D B

1999-03-01

12

Influence of pudendal block on the function of the anal sphincters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the anal sphincters has been studied by obtaining continuous recordings of the pressure in the anal canal and the electromyographic activity in the striated sphincter muscles during expansion of the ampulla recti by means of an air balloon. Ten healthy subjects were examined before and after the striated muscles had been entirely paralysed by bilateral pudendal block,

B Frenckner; C V Euler

1975-01-01

13

Decreased rate of obstetrical anal sphincter laceration is associated with change in obstetric practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to describe the rate of obstetrical anal sphincter laceration in a large cohort of women and to identify\\u000a the characteristics associated with this complication. Data from all vaginal deliveries occurring between January 1996 and\\u000a December 2004 at one institution were used to compare women with and without anal sphincter lacerations. Among 16,667 vaginal\\u000a deliveries, 1,703 (10.2%)

Steven M. Minaglia; Begüm Özel; Nicole M. Gatto; Lisa Korst; Daniel R. Mishell Jr; David A. Miller

2007-01-01

14

Physioanatomic entirety of external anal sphincter with bulbocavernosus muscle.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the glans penis evokes contraction of both the bulbocavernosus muscles (BCM) and the external anal sphincter (EAS). This synchronous contraction of the two muscles led us to study their physioanatomic relationship and possible role in erection and ejaculation. Fifteen male cadavers were studied (8 neonatal deaths and 7 adults; mean age 48 years) by dissection. The bulbocavernosus reflex action was performed in 12 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years) before and after anesthetizing the EAS. The response of the EAS and BCM to inferior rectal nerve stimulation was assessed in 6 men (mean age 41 years). The superficial fibers of the base loop of the EAS extended forward to the penile bulb where they were arranged into 3 groups: 1 median and 2 lateral. The median fibers, or the "retractor penis muscle," were found inserted into the corpora cavernosa and the lateral fibers, or the "compressor bulbae muscle," into the perineal membrane. Upon glans penis stimulation, both the EAS and BCM contracted synchronously with similar latency and action potentials. During EAS anesthesia, the two muscles did not respond to glans penis stimulation. They contracted simultaneously with similar latency and action potentials upon inferior rectal nerve stimulation. The BCM is an integral part of the EAS, and the muscle in its entirety is appropriately named "anogenital muscle." The muscle plays a dual and synchronous role in fecal control and sexual response. PMID:9973145

Shafik, A

1999-01-01

15

Preoperative Therapy for Lower Rectal Cancer and Modifications in Distance From Anal Sphincter  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the frequency and magnitude of changes in lower rectal cancer resulting from preoperative therapy and its impact on sphincter-saving surgery. Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter. However, reliable data concerning these modifications are not yet available in published reports. Methods and Materials: A total of 98 cases of locally advanced cancer of the lower rectum (90 Stage uT3-T4N0-N+ and 8 uT2N+M0) that had undergone preoperative therapy were studied by endorectal ultrasonography. The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy. Surgery was performed 6-8 weeks after therapy, and the histopathologic margins were compared with the endorectal ultrasound data. Results: Of the 90 cases, 82.5% showed tumor downsizing, varying from one-third to two-thirds or more of the original tumor mass. The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases. The median increase was 0.73 cm (range, 0.2-2.5). Downsizing was not always associated with an increase in distance. Preserving surgery was performed in 60.6% of cases. It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy. The distal margin was tumor free in these cases. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter. These modifications affect the primary surgical options, facilitating or making sphincter-saving surgery possible.

Gavioli, Margherita [Divisione di Chirurgia II, Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino-Estense, Modena (Italy)], E-mail: gavioli.margherita@libero.it; Losi, Lorena [Instituto di Anatomia Patologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Luppi, Gabriele; Iacchetta, Francesco; Zironi, Sandra; Bertolini, Federica [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Falchi, Anna Maria; Bertoni, Filippo [Unita di Radioterapia Oncologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Natalini, Gianni [Divisione di Chirurgia II, Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino-Estense, Modena (Italy)

2007-10-01

16

The Onuf's nucleus and the external anal sphincter muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Shy-Drager syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior sacral horns and external anal sphincter muscle were examined histologically with special reference to Onuf's nucleus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Shy-Drager syndrome. Onuf's nucleus and the external anal sphincter muscles were well preserved in ALS, but in Shy-Drager syndrome both structures showed marked degenerative changes. These findings suggest that Onuf's nucleus does not belong to the

T. Mannen; M. Iwata; Y. Toyokura; K. Nagashima

1982-01-01

17

Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer.

Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W. (Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, Washington University Medical Center, MO (United States))

1992-08-01

18

Experience with a new prosthetic anal sphincter in three coloproctological centres  

PubMed Central

Background Fecal incontinence is a common and severely disabling disorder. For patients with severe fecal incontinence, surgery may prove to be the only adequate treatment option. Methods This study reports on 43 patients that were treated with a prosthetic sphincter system between 2005 and 2009 in three coloproctological centres. Main Outcome Measures: complications, anal pressures before and after surgery, fecal continence score. Results The new artificial sphincter system significantly improves continence but leads to some complications in clinical practice. After implantation of the device, continence improved significantly (Keller & Jostarndt continence score 2.6 to 14.3 (P?anal sphincter squeeze pressure (32.2 mmHg versus 85.9 mm Hg, P?anal band of AMI (AAS), a new artificial anal sphincter, improves severe anal incontinence, but it must be regarded as a last treatment option to avoid a stoma. PMID:24502440

2013-01-01

19

Local transdermal delivery of phenylephrine to the anal sphincter muscle using microneedles  

PubMed Central

We propose pretreatment using microneedles to increase perianal skin permeability for locally targeted delivery of phenylephrine (PE), a drug that increases resting anal sphincter pressure to treat fecal incontinence. Microneedle patches were fabricated by micromolding poly-lactic-acid. Pre-treatment of human cadaver skin with microneedles increased PE delivery across the skin by up to 10-fold in vitro. In vivo delivery was assessed in rats receiving treatment with or without use of microneedles and with or without PE. Resting anal sphincter pressure was then measured over time using water-perfused anorectal manometry. For rats pretreated with microneedles, topical application of 30% PE gel rapidly increased the mean resting anal sphincter pressure from 7 ± 2 cm H2O to a peak value of 43 ± 17 cm H2O after 1 h, which was significantly greater than rats receiving PE gel without microneedle pretreatment. Additional safety studies showed that topically applied green fluorescent protein–expressing E. coli penetrated skin pierced with 23- and 26-gauge hypodermic needles, but E. coli was not detected in skin pretreated with microneedles, which suggests that microneedle-treated skin may not be especially susceptible to infection. In conclusion, this study demonstrates local transdermal delivery of PE to the anal sphincter muscle using microneedles, which may provide a novel treatment for fecal incontinence. PMID:21586307

Baek, Changyoon; Han, MeeRee; Min, Junghong; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jungho

2014-01-01

20

The gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healthy adults.  

PubMed

The primary clinical symptom of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is acute paralytic illness produced by paralyzing toxins. Paralytic shellfish poison is formed by a mixture of phycotoxins and their toxicity is due to its reversible binding to a receptor site on the voltage-gated sodium channel on excitable cells, thus blocking neuronal transmission. We studied the effect of the gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers by local infiltration in the anal internal sphincter of healthy voluntary adults in order to reduce anal tone. The toxin was injected after prior clinical evaluation, anoscopy and anorectal manometry. Post injection clinical examination, electromyography and anorectal manometry were performed. Resting and voluntary contraction pressures were measured and the anorectal inhibitory and anocortical reflexes were tested by manometry. Blood and urine samples were obtained from each participant, and hemogram, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis were done both before and one week after the injection. This study shows, for the first time, that gonyautoxin 2/3 reduces the anal tone by relaxing the anal sphincters in 100 % of the participants. Manometric recordings showed a significant decrease in anal maximal voluntary contraction pressure after the toxin injection, dropping to 55.2+/-6.2 % and 47.0+/-6.8% (Mean Value+/-Std.Dev.) of the baseline values at 2 minutes and at 24 hours respectively after the injection. Post-injection electromyography showed that activity of the muscle was abolished. We conclude that local administration of gonyautoxin 2/3 to the anal sphincter produces immediate relaxation and a statistically significant decrease in the anal tone (p <0.001). PMID:15515965

Garrido, Rogelio; Lagos, Néstor; Lattes, Karinna; Azolas, Carlos García Rodrigo; Bocic, Gunther; Cuneo, Aldo; Chiong, Hector; Jensen, Cristian; Henríquez, Ana I; Fernández, Cristian

2004-01-01

21

An Audit of Clinician Compliance with Best Practice Recommendations to Repair Severe Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries occur uncommonly in Caribbean practice but are accompanied by substantial morbidity. Objective: To evaluate clinicians’ compliance with management guidelines at a national referral hospital in Jamaica. Design: Retrospective review of the records of all consecutive obstetric patients with anal sphincter injuries between November 1, 2007, and December 30, 2012. Main Outcome Measures: The primary end point was the completion of each of 8 tasks from existing management guidelines: 1) interdisciplinary consultation, 2) perineal examination with the patient under anesthesia, 3) injury repair in the operating room, 4) prophylactic antibiotics at induction, 5) repair by an experienced clinician, 6) repair method appropriate for injury grade, 7) slowly absorbable suture chosen for sphincter repair, and 8) rapidly absorbable suture for mucosal repair. We quantified clinician compliance with the guidelines by assigning a score of 1 for each task completed and 0 for an incomplete task. Individual task scores were summed. Clinicians were considered compliant when their overall score was above 6. Results: Twenty-six women (mean age = 27 years; standard deviation = 5.78 years) had obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Nine cases (34.6%) earned clinician compliance scores above 6, and 17 (65.4%) had scores of 6 or below. Experienced clinicians repaired all the injuries in this study—the only task for which compliance was 100%. Conclusion: Despite attempts at improving therapeutic outcomes by creating tailored guidelines for repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries, there is a serious barrier to success because 65% of senior clinicians were noncompliant. PMID:25102516

Cawich, Shamir O; Kulkarni, Santosh; Ramdass, Michael; Hassranah, Dale; Bambury, Ian; Christie, Loxley R; Naraynsingh, Vijay

2014-01-01

22

An electromyographic study of the normal function of the external anal sphincter and pelvic diaphragm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The electrical activity of the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscle of normal subjects has been investigated using\\u000a concentric needle electrodes.\\u000a \\u000a The activity in these muscles at rest, during voluntary and involuntary contractions and during defecation is described.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The findings show a delicate adjustment of activity to changing needs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Variations in sphincter tone result from changes in the firing rate

D. Taverner; F. G. Smiddy

1959-01-01

23

Postpartum anal sphincter lacerations in a population with minimal exposure to episiotomy and operative vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case–control study was designed to identify risk factors for anal sphincter lacerations (ASL) in a multicultural population\\u000a where episiotomies and operative vaginal deliveries are rarely performed. Cases were subjects with ASL delivered between July\\u000a 1997 and June 2003. Two controls were selected for each case matched for gestational age. Independent variables collected\\u000a included age, race\\/ethnicity, parity, tobacco use, medical

Cindi Lewis; Alana M. Williams; Rebecca G. Rogers

2008-01-01

24

Sphincter-Preserving Therapy for Treating a Chronic Anal Fissure: Long-term Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the risk of recurrent fissure in ano after sphincter preserving treatments. Methods A retrospective case note review, combined with a telephone survey was conducted for all patients treated for a chronic anal fissure between 1998 and 2008. Results Six hundred and twelve patients (303 women: mean age, 39 years; range, 16-86 years) were treated for chronic anal fissure between 1998 and 2008. Topical diltiazem 2% was initially prescribed for 8 weeks. The fissure did not heal in 141 patients. These patients (61 women: mean age, 30 years; range, 15-86 years) were treated with 100 IU botulinum A toxin (Botox) injection combined with a fissurectomy under general anaesthesia. Thirty eight patients suffered a recurrence of their fissure within two years. Thirty-four healed with further medical or sphincter conserving surgical therapy while four required a lateral internal sphincterotomy. Conclusion The vast majority of patients with chronic anal fissure can be treated with sphincter conserving treatments. This may require several interventions before healing can be achieved. Assessment for recurrence after 'conservative' treatments requires a minimum of two-year follow-up. PMID:24999464

Farouk, Ridzuan

2014-01-01

25

Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. Methods and Materials: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men who had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. Results: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; {>=}40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). Conclusions: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.

Alsadius, David, E-mail: david.alsadius@oncology.gu.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Hedelin, Maria [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden) [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundstedt, Dan [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Pettersson, Niclas [Department of Radiophysics, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Department of Radiophysics, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden) [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-10-01

26

Automatic detection of motor unit innervation zones of the external anal sphincter by multichannel surface EMG.  

PubMed

A method to detect automatically the location of innervation zones (IZs) from 16-channel surface EMG (sEMG) recordings from the external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle is presented in order to guide episiotomy during child delivery. The new algorithm (2DCorr) is applied to individual motor unit action potential (MUAP) templates and is based on bidimensional cross correlation between the interpolated image of each MUAP template and two images obtained by flipping upside-down (around a horizontal axis) and left-right (around a vertical axis) the original one. The method was tested on 640 simulated MUAP templates of the sphincter muscle and compared with previously developed algorithms (Radon Transform, RT; Template Match, TM). Experimental signals were detected from the EAS of 150 subjects using an intra-anal probe with 16 equally spaced circumferential electrodes. The results of the three algorithms were compared with the actual IZ location (simulated signal) and with IZ location provided by visual analysis (VA) (experimental signals). For simulated signals, the inter quartile error range (IQR) between the estimated and the actual locations of the IZ was 0.20, 0.23, 0.42, and 2.32 interelectrode distances (IED) for the VA, 2DCorr, RT and TM methods respectively. PMID:24948528

Ullah, Khalil; Cescon, Corrado; Afsharipour, Babak; Merletti, Roberto

2014-12-01

27

Damage to the innervation of the voluntary anal and periurethral sphincter musculature in incontinence: an electrophysiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 40 women with idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence, 20 of whom also had stress urinary incontinence, single fibre EMG studies showed an increased fibre density in the external anal sphincter muscle. All these patients showed excessive descent of the pelvic floor on straining. The mean terminal motor latencies in the pudendal and perineal nerves, measured by a digitally-directed intrarectal stimulating

S J Snooks; P R Barnes; M Swash

1984-01-01

28

Myoarchitectural and functional alterations in rabbit external anal sphincter muscle following experimental surgical trauma.  

PubMed

Obstetrical trauma to external anal sphincter (EAS) is extremely common; however, its role in the development of anal incontinence is not clear. We examined the regenerative process and functional impact of experimental surgical trauma to EAS muscle in an animal model. Surgical myotomy, a craniocaudal incision extending along the entire length and thickness of the EAS, was performed in rabbits. Animals were allowed to recover, and anal pressures were recorded at weekly intervals for 12 wk using a custom-designed probe system to determine the length-tension property of EAS muscle. Animals were killed at predetermined time intervals, and the anal canal was harvested for histochemical studies (for determination of muscle/connective tissue/collagen) and sarcomere length measurement. In addition, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) and fiber tracking was performed to determine myoarchitectural changes in the EAS. Myotomy of the EAS muscle resulted in significant impairment of its length-tension property that showed only partial recovery during the 12-wk study period. Histology revealed marked increase in the fibrosis (connective tissue = 69% following myotomy vs. 28% in controls) at 3 wk, which persisted at 12 wk. Immunostaining studies confirmed deposition of collagen in the fibrotic tissue. There was no change in the sarcomere length following myotomy. MR-DTI studies revealed disorganized muscle fiber orientation in the regenerating muscle. We conclude that, following experimental injury, the EAS muscle heals with an increase in the collagen content and loss of normal myoarchitecture, which we suspect is the cause of impaired EAS function. PMID:24994856

Rajasekaran, M Raj; Sinha, Shantanu; Seo, Youngjin; Salehi, Mitra; Bhargava, Valmik; Mittal, Ravinder K

2014-08-15

29

Outcome of repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries after three years  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively assess change in bowel symptoms and quality of life (QoL) approximately 3 years after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). Methods Between July 2002 and December 2007 women who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital, UK, 9 weeks following primary repair of OASIS were asked to complete the Manchester Health Questionnaire and a questionnaire to obtain a St Mark incontinence score. All women had endoanal scans at this visit. In June 2008 all women were asked to complete the questionnaires again. Results Of 344 patients who responded to the questionnaires and were included in the analysis, long-term symptoms of fecal urgency, flatus incontinence, and fecal incontinence occurred in 62 (18.0%), 52 (15.1%), and 36 (10.5%), respectively. Overall, there was a significant improvement in fecal urgency (P < 0.001) and flatus incontinence (P < 0.001) from 9 weeks to 3 years. Of 31 women with fecal incontinence symptoms at early follow-up, 28 were asymptomatic at 3 years. However, 33 women developed de novo symptoms. The only predictors of fecal incontinence at 3 years were fecal urgency at 9 weeks (OR 4.65; 95% CI, 1.38–15.70) and a higher St Mark score (OR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09–1.80). Conclusion Following primary repair of OASIS, the majority of symptoms and QoL significantly improve, unless there is a persistent anal sphincter defect. This highlights the importance of adequate repair. PMID:25097141

Reid, Annette J.; Beggs, Andrew D.; Sultan, Abdul H.; Roos, Anne-Marie; Thakar, Ranee

2014-01-01

30

Assessment and in vitro experiment of artificial anal sphincter system based on rebuilding the rectal sensation function.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel artificial anal sphincter (AAS) system based on rebuilding the rectal sensation function is proposed to treat human fecal incontinence. The executive mechanism of the traditional AAS system was redesigned and integrated for a simpler structure and better durability. The novel executive mechanism uses a sandwich structure to simulate the basic function of the natural human anal sphincter. To rebuild the lost rectal sensation function caused by fecal incontinence, we propose a novel method for rebuilding the rectal sensation function based on an Optimal Wavelet Packet Basis (OWPB) using the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index and a support vector machine (SVM). OWPB using a DB index is used for feature vector extraction, while a SVM is adopted for pattern recognition.Furthermore, an in vitro experiment with the AAS system based on rectal sensation function rebuilding was carried out. Experimental results indicate that the novel executive mechanism can simulate the basic function of the natural human anal sphincter, and the proposed method is quite effective for rebuilding rectal sensation in patients. PMID:24619902

Zan, Peng; Liu, Jinding; Jiang, Enyu; Wang, Hua

2014-05-01

31

Design and assessment of novel artificial anal sphincter with adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper presents the in vitro assessment of a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) with an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) for treatment of severe faecal incontinence (FI). The proposed adaptive TETS has a phase control, which can maintain the output voltage at ??7?V across the full range of the coupling coefficient variation (from 0.09-0.31) during the whole process of charging with a phase shift of 177.5° to 79.1°. A maximum surface temperature of 42.2?°C was measured above the secondary coil during an energy transmission of 3.5?W in air. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density analysis of the biological three-layers structure, including the skin, fat and muscle) surrounding the coil pair were analysed and the results of simulation analysis showed that the value of SAR and current density were very small at any given transmission condition compared with the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In conclusion, in vitro experimental results showed that the ES-AASS can control simulated faecal behaviour effectively and the performance of TETS was validated. PMID:25626127

Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang

2015-02-01

32

Power flow control of TET system for a novel artificial anal sphincter system.  

PubMed

This paper presents an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) integrated with a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) for treating severe faecal incontinence (FI). The ES-AASS is based on a novel executive mechanism that uses a spring scalable structure to clamp the rectum. To deliver the correct amount of power (i.e. to match the load demand under variable coupling conditions or different operation stages of the implanted device) for internal battery charging and ensure safety for the human body, theoretical analysis was conducted as a control rule with respect to the relationship between the phase of driver signals and output voltage. An easy regulating procedure to stabilize output voltage with a phase shift controller is also presented. To validate the phase control rules, a prototype of the TETS was constructed and its performance was validated across the whole coupling coefficient range (0.09???0.29) as well as load resistance (50???120??). The results show that the output voltage of the secondary side can be maintained at a constant 7?V with a phase regulation range of 78.7-178.2° and the proposed controller has reached a maximal end-to-end power efficiency of 74.2% at 1?W. PMID:25350041

Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Li, Xiyang

2015-01-01

33

The Association of Episiotomy with Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury–A Population Based Matched Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the independent association of episiotomy with obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using first a cross-sectional and then a matched pair analysis. Design A matched cohort. Setting Data was gathered from the Finnish Medical Birth Register from 2004–2011. Population All singleton vaginal births (n?=?303,758). Methods Women resulting matched pairs (n?=?63,925) were matched based on baseline risk of OASIS defined based on parity (first or second/subsequent vaginal births), age, birth weight, mode of delivery, prior caesarean section, and length of active second stage of birth. Results In cross-sectional analysis episiotomy was associated with a 12% lower incidence of OASIS (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 0.98) in first vaginal births and with a 132% increased incidence of OASIS in second or subsequent vaginal births (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.77 to 3.03). In matched pair analysis episiotomy was associated with a 23% (aOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.86) lower incidence of OASIS in first vaginal births and a 61% (aOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.29) increased incidence of OASIS in second or subsequent vaginal births compared to women who gave birth without an episiotomy. The matched pair analysis showed a 12.5% and a 31.6% reduction in aORs of OASIS associated with episiotomy, respectively. Conclusions A matched pair analysis showed a substantial reduction in the aORs of OASIS with episiotomy, due to confounding by indication. This indicates that results of observational studies evaluating an association between episiotomy and OASIS should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25203655

Räisänen, Sari; Selander, Tuomas; Cartwright, Rufus; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R.; Laine, Katariina; Heinonen, Seppo

2014-01-01

34

Heme oxygenase-1 upregulation modulates tone and fibroelastic properties of internal anal sphincter.  

PubMed

A compromise in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone and fibroelastic properties (FEP) plays an important role in rectoanal incontinence. Herein, we examined the effects of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 upregulation on these IAS characteristics in young rats. We determined the effect of HO-1 upregulator hemin on HO-1 mRNA and protein expressions and on basal IAS tone and its FEP before and after HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX. For FEP, we determined the kinetics of the IAS smooth muscle responses, by the velocities of relaxation, and recovery of the IAS tone following 0 Ca(2+) and electrical field stimulation. To characterize the underlying signal transduction for these changes, we determined the effects of hemin on RhoA-associated kinase (RhoA)/Rho kinase (ROCK) II, myosin-binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase 1, fibronectin, and elastin expression levels. Hemin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein similar to the increases in the basal tone, and in the FEP of the IAS. Underlying mechanisms in the IAS characteristics are associated with increases in the genetic and translational expressions of RhoA/ROCKII, and elastin. Fibronectin expression levels on the other hand were found to be decreased following HO-1 upregulation. The results of our study show that the hemin/HO-1 system regulates the tone and FEP of IAS. The hemin/HO-1 system thus provides a potential target for the development of new interventions aimed at treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders, specifically the age-related IAS dysfunction. PMID:25035109

Krishna, Chadalavada Vijay; Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Rattan, Satish

2014-09-15

35

Neuronal mediators of inhibitory junction potentials and relaxation in the guinea-pig internal anal sphincter.  

PubMed Central

1. Inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) and relaxations evoked in response to field stimulation (supramaximal voltage, 0.1 ms, single stimulus and 5 stimuli at 5-40 Hz) of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) nerves with atropine and phentolamine (each 1 microM) were measured in the guinea-pig internal anal sphincter (gpIAS). The mean resting membrane potential was -44.2 +/- 0.2 mV (n = 1119 cells from 260 preparations). 2. NANC nerve stimulation evoked frequency-dependent IJPs (19.7 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 165, 33 tissues to a single stimulus) and relaxations. IJPs consisted of two tetrodotoxin (1 microM)-sensitive components: one was abolished by apamin (0.3 microM) and the P2-purinoceptor antagonist suramin (100 microM); the other, smaller in amplitude, was sensitive to inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, e.g. L-NAME, 100 microM) and the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger oxyhaemoglobin (HbO, 10 microM). 3. ATP (1 mM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 0.01-0.25 microM) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP(1-27), 0.84 microM) each hyperpolarized and relaxed the gpIAS; only ATP responses resembled the evoked IJPs in time course. 4. The guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY83583 (10 microM) abolished apamin-insensitive IJPs and relaxations. The cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor M&B 22948 (30 microM) and 8-Br-cGMP (100 microM) each hyperpolarized the gpIAS. 5. Two components comprise the IJP and relaxation evoked in response to NANC nerve stimulation in the gpIAS. One, sensitive to apamin, resembles the response to ATP and is modulated by purinoceptor antagonists; the other, apamin and suramin insensitive, is inhibited by NO antagonists. PMID:8782113

Rae, M G; Muir, T C

1996-01-01

36

Can the risk of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) be predicted using a risk-scoring system?  

PubMed Central

Background Perineal trauma involving the anal sphincter is an important complication of vaginal delivery. Prediction of anal sphincter injuries may improve the prevention of anal sphincter injuries. Our aim was to construct a risk scoring model to assist in both prediction and prevention of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIs). We carried out an analysis of factors involved with OASIs, and tested the constructed model on new patient data. Methods Data on all vaginal deliveries over a 5 year period (2004–2008) was obtained from the electronic maternity record system of one institution in the UK. All risk factors were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios for independent variables were then used to construct a risk scoring algorithm. This algorithm was then tested on subsequent vaginal deliveries from the same institution to predict the incidence of OASIs. Results Data on 16,920 births were analysed. OASIs occurred in 616 (3.6%) of all vaginal deliveries between 2004 and 2008. Significant (p < 0.05) variables that increased the risk of OASIs on multivariate analysis were: African-Caribbean descent, water immersion in labour, water birth, ventouse delivery, forceps delivery. The following variables remained independently significant in decreasing the risk of OASIs: South Asian descent, vaginal multiparity, current smoker, home delivery. The subsequent odds ratios were then used to construct a risk-scoring algorithm that was tested on a separate cohort of patients, showing a sensitivity of 52.7% and specificity of 71.1%. Conclusions We have confirmed known risk factors previously associated with OASIs, namely parity, birth weight and use of instrumentation during delivery. We have also identified several previously unknown factors, namely smoking status, ethnicity and water immersion. This paper identifies a risk scoring system that fulfils the criteria of a reasonable predictor of the risk of OASIs. This supersedes current practice where no screening is implemented other than examination at the time of delivery by a single examiner. Further prospective studies are required to assess the clinical impact of this scoring system on the identification and prevention of third degree tears. PMID:25056485

2014-01-01

37

A new technique for sphincter-preserving anal fistula repair using a novel radial emitting laser probe.  

PubMed

Anal fistula repair still remains challenging. Up to 30% of fistulas persist after surgery despite many improvements in surgical skills and technique. One major reason for surgical failure is a persistent fistula track or remnants of the fistula epithelium which could not be removed during surgery. To overcome this problem, a novel technique was developed using a newly invented radial emitting laser probe ("FiLaC™", Biolitec, Germany) to destroy the fistula epithelium and to simultaneously obliterate the remaining fistula track. In a pilot study, we operated on 11 patients with cryptoglandular anal fistula. All patients underwent previous surgery up to 6 times prior to definitive surgery. In the primary operation, the initial abscess was drained, the internal opening of the fistula identified and seton drainage placed. During fistula repair, we used the flap technique for conventional closure of the internal opening. The remaining fistula track was cleaned mechanically, the laser inserted into the track and energy applied homogeneously at a wavelength of 1,470 nm and 13 watt. While providing continuous retraction of the probe, the remaining epithelium was destroyed and the fistula track obliterated. The median follow-up was 7.4 months. Nine out of 11 fistulas showed primary healing (81.8%). Only one minor form of incontinence (limited soiling) was observed and no complications occurred. The use of a novel diode laser source and a radial emitting laser probe in addition to conventional surgery is a very promising new technique in sphincter-preserving anal fistula repair. The observed healing rate is high. Due to minimized trauma to the sphincter muscle, there are good short-term functional results without observable procedure-related complications. PMID:21845480

Wilhelm, A

2011-12-01

38

Anal fissure - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... rectum through which passes stool during defecation. The anal sphincter is a critical mechanism for control of ... Anal fissures are tears in the skin overlying the anal sphincter, usually due to increased tone of ...

39

Rle de l'innervation enkphalinergique dans la commande nerveuse du sphincter anal interne chez le chat, par J. C. GRIMAUD, M. BOUVIER, G. KIRSCHNER, et J. GONELLA.J. C. GRIMAUD, M. BOUVIER, G. KIRSCHNER, J. GONELLA.  

E-print Network

Rôle de l'innervation enképhalinergique dans la commande nerveuse du sphincter anal interne chez le-Aiguier, 13402 Mar- seille Cedex 9. Le sphincter anal interne (SA!), qui est la portion la plus extrême du muscle enképhalinergiques sont impliqués dans un réflexe inhibiteur vésico-anal Bouvier et Grimaud (1984). Dans le but d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Is a New High-Resolution Probe Better than the Standard Probe for 3D Anal Sphincter and Levator Ani Imaging?  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of a new three-dimensional (3D) endoluminal ultrasound probe in assessing the levator ani muscle and anal sphincter complex. A total of 85 patients who had undergone concurrent 3D endovaginal (EVUS) and 3D endoanal (EAUS) ultrasound with both the standard BK 2052 probe and the new high-definition BK 8838 probes were included. For EVUS volumes, the levator ani deficiency (LAD) scores were calculated for each probe. For the EAUS volumes, any defects in the external anal sphincter (EAS) and the internal anal sphincter (IAS) visualized with each probe were recorded. The 3D volumes were evaluated in a blinded fashion. Appropriate statistics were utilized to assess absolute agreements between each pair of imaging modalities. The mean age of the patient population was 59 years (SD ± 10.76), the mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.36 (SD ± 5.99), and the median parity was 2 (range 1, 7). In all, 93% of the patients were Caucasian, 31% had stage 0 or 1 prolapse, while 59% had stage 2 prolapse. The mean total LAD score obtained on EVUS with the standard and the new probes were 11.49 (SD ± 4.94) and 11.53 (SD ± 5.01), respectively, p = 0.3778. Among the 53 patients who had EAUS with both probes, exact agreement for visualization of EAS and IAS for the standard and the new probes was 83% and 98%, respectively. Both transducers can be used for endovaginal imaging of the levator ani muscles interchangeably. Both transducers can be used for endoanal imaging of anal sphincter complex interchangeably. PMID:24831299

Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; White, Dena; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S Abbas

2014-05-14

41

Increased motor unit fibre density in the external anal sphincter muscle in ano-rectal incontinence: a single fibre EMG study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motor unit fibre density in the external anal sphincter muscle has been measured in 13 normal subjects aged 18 to 78 years, and in 14 patients with ano-rectal incontinence, aged 17 to 72 years. The mean fibre density in the normal subjects was 1.5 +\\/- 0.16, and in the incontinent subjects it was 2.17 +\\/- 0.28 (p less than

M E Neill; M Swash

1980-01-01

42

Comparison of the main body of the external anal sphincter muscle cross-sectional area between women with and without prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to compare the main body of the external anal sphincter (EAS) cross-sectional area (CSA) of women\\u000a with and without pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 40 women were selected for analysis.\\u000a Of these women, 20 had pelvic organ prolapse and 20 had normal support. Of the women with normal support,

Yvonne Hsu; Markus Huebner; Luyun Chen; Dee E. Fenner; John O. L. DeLancey

2007-01-01

43

Anal fissure  

MedlinePLUS

... The water should cover only your hips and buttocks. If the anal fissues do not go away with home care methods, treatment may involve: Botox injections into the muscle in the anus (anal sphincter) ...

44

Anal Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... pelvis and anal sphincters. It is the final orifice through which stool passes out of the body. ... small hemorrhoid at the edge of the anal orifice can clot off ("thrombosis"). This may be triggered ...

45

Anal Fissure  

PubMed Central

Anal fissure is one of the most common anorectal problems. Anal fissure is largely associated with high anal sphincter pressures and most treatment options are based on reducing anal pressures. Conservative management, using increased fiber and warm baths, results in healing of approximately half of all anal fissures. In fissures that fail conservative care, various pharmacologic and surgical options offer satisfactory cure rates. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for definitive management of anal fissure. This review outlines the key points in the presentation, pathophysiology, and management of anal fissure. PMID:22379402

Zaghiyan, Karen N.; Fleshner, Phillip

2011-01-01

46

Anal fissure.  

PubMed

Anal fissure is one of the most common anorectal problems. Anal fissure is largely associated with high anal sphincter pressures and most treatment options are based on reducing anal pressures. Conservative management, using increased fiber and warm baths, results in healing of approximately half of all anal fissures. In fissures that fail conservative care, various pharmacologic and surgical options offer satisfactory cure rates. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for definitive management of anal fissure. This review outlines the key points in the presentation, pathophysiology, and management of anal fissure. PMID:22379402

Zaghiyan, Karen N; Fleshner, Phillip

2011-03-01

47

Dosimetric Coverage of the External Anal Sphincter by 3-Dimensional Conformal Fields in Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Implications for the Concept of Sphincter-Preserving Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background. We evaluated the anatomic location of the external anal sphincter (EAS) to pelvic bony landmarks related to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) and studied the dosimetric coverage of the EAS in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Methods. Sixty-four consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation were included. All patients were treated in a prone position on a bellyboard by 3DRT. The inferior border of the RT fields was at least 3–5?cm inferior to the gross tumorous volume (GTV) or at the inferior border of the obturator foramen (IBOF), whichever was more inferior. The EAS was contoured and dose distributions were determined using dose-volume histograms. Results. In 53 out of 64 cases (82.8%), the EAS was completely inferior to the IBOF. In the remaining 11 cases, the EAS was either overlapping the IBOF (10 cases; 15.6%) or completely superior to the IBOF (1 case; 1.7%). The average mean dose delivered to the EAS was 2795?cGy. Lower mean doses were delivered to the EAS when the center of the EAS was located more distant from the GTV. Conclusions. Meticulous planning to define the inferior border of the RT field is recommended to avoid irradiating the EAS. PMID:25089274

Chen, Michelle B.; Liu, Alan J.; Tsai, Peter

2014-01-01

48

Changing associations of episiotomy and anal sphincter injury across risk strata: results of a population-based register study in Finland 2004–2011  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the changing association between lateral episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) for women with low and high baseline risk of OASIS. Design A population-based register study. Setting Data gathered from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for the years 2004?2011. Participants All women with spontaneous vaginal or vacuum-assisted singleton births in Finland (n=384?638). Main outcome measure OASIS incidence. Results During the study period, the incidence of OASIS increased from 1.3% to 1.7% in women with first vaginal births, including women admitted for first vaginal birth after a prior caesarean section and from 0.1% to 0.3% in women with at least one prior birth, whereas episiotomy rates declined from 56.7% to 45.5% and 10.1– 5.3%, respectively. At the study onset, when episiotomy was used more widely, it was negatively associated with OASIS in women with first vaginal births, but as episiotomy use declined it became positively associated with OASIS. Women with episiotomy were complicated by OASIS with clearly higher risk scores than women without episiotomy suggesting that episiotomy was clearly protective against OASIS. OASIS occurred with lower mean risk scores among women with and without episiotomy over time. However, OASIS incidences increased only among women with episiotomy, whereas it decreased or remained among women without episiotomy. Conclusions The cross-over effect between episiotomy and OASIS could be explained by increasing disparity in baseline OASIS risk between treated and untreated women, since episiotomy use declined most in women at low OASIS risk. Episiotomy rate can be safely reduced in low-risk women but interestingly along with the policy change the practice to cut the episiotomy became less protective among high-risk women. PMID:23955189

Räisänen, Sari; Cartwright, Rufus; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Laine, Katariina; Jouhki, Maija-Riitta; Heinonen, Seppo

2013-01-01

49

Anal function-preserving subtotal intersphincteric resection/partial external sphincteric resection with hybrid 2-port hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (Mukai's operation) for very low stage I rectal cancer: A case report  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old male patient underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Additional hybrid 2-port hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) (Mukai's operation) was performed for early rectal cancer located at the distal border of the rectum/below the peritoneal reflection (Rb) region [SM massive invasion/ly+/vertical margin (VM)X] via a small transverse incision, approximately 55 mm long, at the superior border of the pubic bone. After the pelvic floor muscles were dissected by laparoscopy-assisted manipulation, transanal subtotal intersphincteric resection (ISR) was performed under direct vision, securing a margin of more than 15 mm distal to the EMR scar. Partial external sphincteric resection (ESR) was also performed to obtain an adequate VM at the posterior region of the EMR scar. After bowel reconstruction, the layers were sutured transanally and a temporary covering colostomy was created. The resected specimen contained no residual tumor cells without lymph node metastasis. At 3 months after the operation, digital examination revealed good tonus of the anal muscles without stricture. The patient is currently undergoing rehabilitation of his anal sphincter muscles in preparation for the colostomy closure. In conclusion, subtotal ISR combined with partial ESR may decrease the need to perform Miles' operation for T1/2 stage I rectal cancer located at the distal border of the Rb region. PMID:22866130

Mukai, Masaya; Sekido, Yasutomo; Fukumitsu, Hiroshi; Izumi, Hideki; Hoshikawa, Tatsuhiko; Tajima, Takayuki; Tobita, Kousuke; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Yasuda, Seiei; Ogoshi, Kyoji

2011-01-01

50

Sphincter tears in primiparous women: is age a factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal sphincter tears during vaginal delivery may result in serious sequelae. We examined whether younger primiparous patients\\u000a were at increased risk for sphincter tears during vaginal delivery. Data from an obstetric automated record were analyzed.\\u000a Primiparous women delivering term infants (n?=?5,937) were included to test for an association between age and sphincter tear rates. Three age groups were considered:\\u000a young

C. Bryce Bowling; Thomas L. Wheeler II; Kimberly A. Gerten; Victoria R. Chapman; Kathryn L. Burgio; Holly E. Richter

2009-01-01

51

Anal endosonography: Technique and normal anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal endosonography using a specially designed hard cone attachment to a radial 7-MHz probe has been performed in 26 normal patients — 3 patients following lateral anal sphincterotomy, 1 patient undergoing electromyophysiological mapping of the external anal sphincter, and in 2 resected specimens. The examinations were rapid, simple, and well tolerated, and they provided high-resolution images of the five layers

Penelope J. Law; Clive I. Bartram

1989-01-01

52

Modern management of anal fistula  

PubMed Central

Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of new sphincter-preserving techniques. PMID:25574077

Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

2015-01-01

53

Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDSome patients with faecal incontinence are not amenable to simple surgical sphincter repair, due to sphincter weakness in the absence of a structural defect.AIMSTo evaluate the efficacy and possible mode of action of short term stimulation of sacral nerves in patients with faecal incontinence and a structurally intact external anal sphincter.PATIENTSTwelve patients with faecal incontinence for solid or liquid stool

C J Vaizey; M A Kamm; I C Turner; R J Nicholls; J Woloszko

1999-01-01

54

[Acute anal pain].  

PubMed

Acute anal pain is a common proctological problem. A detailed history together with the clinical examination are crucial for the diagnosis. An acute perianal vein thrombosis can be successfully excised within the first 72 hours. Acute anal fissures are best treated conservatively using stool regulation and topical medications reducing the sphincter spasm. A chronic anal fissure needs surgery. Perianal abscesses can very often be incised and drained in local anesthesia. Proctalgia fugax and the levator ani syndrome are exclusion diagnoses and are treated symptomatically. PMID:23798022

Pittet, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

2013-07-01

55

Anorectal conditions: anal fissure and anorectal fistula.  

PubMed

Anal fissures are linear splits in the anal mucosa. Acute fissures typically resolve within a few weeks; chronic fissures persist longer than 8 to 12 weeks. Most fissures are posterior and midline and are related to constipation or anal trauma. Painful defecation and rectal bleeding are common symptoms. The diagnosis typically is clinical. High-fiber diet, stool softeners, and medicated ointments relieve symptoms and speed healing of acute fissures but offer limited benefit in chronic fissures. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical management of choice for chronic and refractory acute fissures. Anorectal fistula is an abnormal tract connecting the anorectal mucosa to the exterior skin. Fistulas typically develop after rupture or drainage of a perianal abscess. Fistulas are classified as simple or complex; low or high; and intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, or extrasphincteric. Inspection of the perianal area identifies the skin opening, and anoscopy visualizes internal openings. The goal of management is to obliterate the tract and openings with negligible sphincter disruption to minimize incontinence. Fistulotomy is effective for simple fistulas; patients with complex fistulas may require fistulectomy. Other procedures that are used include injection of fibrin glue or insertion of a bioprosthetic plug into the fistula opening. PMID:24742084

Fox, Audralan; Tietze, Pamela H; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan

2014-04-01

56

Neurophysiologic assessment of the anal sphincters  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred twenty consecutive patients with either fecal incontinence (60 patients), chronic constipation (41 patients), or idiopathic intractable pelvic pain (19 patients) were prospectively assessed. Patients underwent concentric needle electromyography (EMG), bilateral pudendal nerve terminal motor latency evaluation, anorectal manometry, and cinedefecography. The most common EMG finding in patients with fecal incontinence was decreased recruitment of motor units with squeezing

Steven D. Wexner; Floriano Marchetti; Virgilio D. Salanga; Christobal Corredor; David G. Jagelman

1991-01-01

57

Anal function: Effect of pregnancy and delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effect of pregnancy and delivery on anal continence, sensation, manometry, and sphincter integrity. Study Design: Two hundred eighty-six nulliparous women in the third trimester completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent anorectal sensation and manometric evaluations. Three months postpartum, 161 women returned and the questionnaires and investigations were repeated together with anal endosonographic examinations. Results: The prevalence

Charlotte Chaliha; Abdul H. Sultan; J. Martin Bland; Ash K. Monga; Stuart L. Stanton

2001-01-01

58

[Surgical treatment of anal fistula].  

PubMed

Anal fistula is a common disease. It is also quite difficult to be solved without recurrence or damage to the anal sphincter. Several techniques have been described for the management of anal fistula, but there is no final conclusion of their application in the treatment. This article summarizes the history of anal fistula management, the current techniques available, and describes new technologies. Internet online searches were performed from the CNKI and Wanfang databases to identify articles about anal fistula management including seton, fistulotomy, fistulectomy, LIFT operation, biomaterial treatment and new technology application. Every fistula surgery technique has its own place, so it is reasonable to give comprehensive individualized treatment to different patients, which may lead to reduced recurrence and avoidance of damage to the anal sphincter. New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management. Surgeons still need to focus on the invention and improvement of the minimally invasive techniques. Besides, a new therapeutic idea is worth to explore that the focus of surgical treatment should be transferred to prevention of the formation of anal fistula after perianal abscess. PMID:25529943

Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Yong

2014-12-25

59

Update on the management of anal fissure.  

PubMed

Anal fissure is an ulceration of the anoderm in the anal canal. Its pathogenesis is due to multiple factors: mechanical trauma, sphincter spasm, and ischemia. Treatment must address these causative factors. While American and British scientific societies have published recommendations, there is no formal treatment consensus in France. Medical treatment is non-specific, aimed at softening the stool and facilitating regular bowel movements; this results in healing of almost 50% of acute anal fissures. The risk of recurrent fissure remains high if the causative factors persist. If non-specific medical treatment fails, specific medical treatment can be offered to reversibly decrease hypertonic sphincter spasm. Surgery remains the most effective long-term treatment and should be offered for cases of chronic or complicated anal fissure but also for acute anal fissure with severe pain or for recurrent fissure despite optimal medical treatment. Surgical treatment is based on two principles that may be combined: decreasing sphincter tone and excision of the anal fissure. Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is the best-evaluated technique and remains the gold standard in English-speaking countries. Since LIS is associated with some risk of irreversible anal incontinence, its use is controversial in France where fissurectomy combined with anoplasty is preferred. Other techniques have been described to reduce the risk of incontinence (calibrated sphincterotomy, sphincteroplasty). The technique of forcible uncalibrated anal dilatation is no longer recommended. PMID:25305752

Higuero, T

2014-10-01

60

[Perianal fistula and anal fissure].  

PubMed

CRYPTOGLANDULAR ANAL FISTULA: Perianal abscesses are caused by cryptoglandular infections. Not every abscess will end in a fistula. The formation of a fistula is determined by the anatomy of the anal sphincter and perianal fistulas will not heal on their own. The therapy of a fistula is oriented between a more aggressive approach (operation) and a conservative treatment with fibrin glue or a plug. Definitive healing and the development of incontinence are the most important key points. ANAL FISSURES: Acute anal fissures should be treated conservatively by topical ointments, consisting of nitrates, calcium channel blockers and if all else fails by botulinum toxin. Treatment of chronic fissures will start conservatively but operative options are necessary in many cases. Operation of first choice is fissurectomy, including excision of fibrotic margins, curettage of the base and excision of the sentinel pile and anal polyps. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is associated with a certain degree of incontinence and needs critical long-term observation. PMID:23179514

Heitland, W

2012-12-01

61

Sphincteroplasty for anal incontinence  

PubMed Central

Sphincteroplasty (SP) is the operation most frequently performed in patients suffering from moderate-to-severe anal incontinence (AI) who do not respond to conservative treatment. Other costly surgeries, such as artificial bowel sphincter (ABS) and electro-stimulated graciloplasty, have been more or less abandoned due to their high morbidity rate. Minimally invasive procedures are widely used, such as sacral neuromodulation and injection of bulking agents, but both are costly and the latter may cure only mild incontinence. The early outcome of SP is usually good if the sphincters are not markedly denervated, but its effect diminishes over time. SP is more often performed for post-traumatic than for idiopathic AI. It may also be associated to the Altemeier procedure, aimed at reducing the recurrence rate of rectal prolapse, and may be useful when AI is due either to injury to the sphincter, or to a narrowed rectum following the procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids (PPH) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR). The outcome of SP is likely to be improved with biological meshes and post-operative pelvic floor rehabilitation. SP is more effective in males than in multiparous women, whose sphincters are often denervated, and its post-operative morbidity is low. In conclusion, SP, being both low-cost and safe, remains a good option in the treatment of selected patients with AI. PMID:24759337

Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo; Pescatori, Mario

2014-01-01

62

[A method of creating the sphincter apparatus of the rectum].  

PubMed

The data on surgical anatomy of the musculus gracilis, which is used for sphincteroplasty, is presented. In the experiment on 25 dogs with modelled incompetence of the anal sphincter, a technique for cutting the non-free flaps out of the musculus gracilis and creation of obturator apparatus of the rectum has been developed. The advantages of a developed method over the existing ones, efficacy and possibility for its use in the clinic are shown. PMID:1564856

Tat'ianchenko, V K

1992-01-01

63

Anal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Anal Cancer Anal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Anal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Anal Cancer Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Symptoms ...

64

The use of conventional electromyography to assess external sphincter neuropathy in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional electromyography was used to measure motor unit potential duration in the external anal sphincter in normal subjects and patients with idiopathic faecal incontinence. The results revealed a direct correlation between age and mean motor unit potential duration in control subjects, but no differences between age-matched male and female subjects. Patients with faecal incontinence exhibited prolongation of mean motor unit

D C Bartolo; J A Jarratt; N W Read

1983-01-01

65

Anal Warts  

MedlinePLUS

What are anal warts? Anal warts (also called "condyloma acuminata") are a condition that affects the area around and inside the anus. They may also ... may grow quite large and cover the entire anal area. Usually, they do not cause pain or ...

66

Anal erogeneity: the goose and the rat.  

PubMed

A case is presented in which the patient's traumatically derived intense anal erogeneity (associated with traumatic anxiety as well as with castration anxiety) inhibited his phallic sensations and potency and also his power to sustain productive thought. His passive cravings were disguised and reacted against in his compulsive-exhibitionistically phallic role of a Don Juan. He described at least two levels of anal feelings: a dangerous but exciting, tolerable or even pleasurable tension associated with the imago of the goose; and an unbearable, terrifying overcharged level embodied in the imago of the rat. (He had read of, and had felt himself identified with, Freud's Rat Man.) Contrasts are presented with François Rabelais' account of the instinctual development and anal training of Gargantua, in which the connotations of the goose lead to a happy anal, phallic and intellectual control. Generalizations are ventured about the crucial attainment of command over the anal sphincter for the taming of 'primal affect'(Fliess). With early psychopathology there is a defensive overcathexis of anal control (and of anal mechanisms and character traits) to try to contain over-stimulation. In contrast true anal mastery contributes to the acquisition of optimal genital feelings and functioning and to the capacity for sustaining integrative thinking so necessary for 'owning' one's affects and impulses, and therefore for a feeling of identity. Finally, some remarks of Freud on Rabelais are reviewed in relation to levels of urethral erogeneity, seen as developmental way stations between the anal and the phallic, and partaking of both. PMID:6752066

Shengold, L

1982-01-01

67

[Stretch sphincter of the esophagus : Paradoxical sphincter with angiomyoelastic architecture.  

PubMed

The investigations described in this article clearly show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) represents a variation of circular muscular occlusive mechanisms found elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. The LES is a double layer stretch sphincter that operates in an apparently paradoxical manner: it closes when under stretch but opens when the muscle fibers contract. Impedance manometry studies demonstrate that the entire esophagus is involved in the normal functioning of the esophagus as well as in esophageal disorders. The pronounced elasticity of esophageal tissue is a functional feature that has its basis in the singular architecture of elastic fibers located between the muscle layers. All traditional forms of operative treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) impede the natural functioning of the stretch sphincter to a greater or lesser degree by locking it up. The cause of GERD is mainly by contraction of the esophagus brought about by the cephalad transposition of the stretch sphincter segment into the chest. In a sense this is an incipient axial hernia that frequently remains undiagnosed in the early stages. The operative repositioning of the stretch sphincter segment into the abdominal cavity provides sufficient restoration of the natural topographic relationships to achieve a cure of GERD. Whether this straightforward repair restores the function of the entire esophagus remains to be elucidated. The concept of the stretch provides a good explanation of the pathophysiology of achalasia, a condition in which a paralyzed paradoxical ring sphincter remains occluded. Successful myotomy approaches only split the muscularis propria layer of the stretch sphincter while leaving subepithelial muscle fibers intact that remain paralyzed. This limited intervention provides a good relief of symptoms. PMID:25204425

Stelzner, F

2014-09-11

68

The evolution of artificial sphincter cuff in growing animals.  

PubMed

An animal model was developed to simulate the effect of implantation of artificial sphincter cuff on the urethra in children. The study was conducted on 28 pigs, 15 castrated males, four uncastrated males and nine females, divided into four groups: control unoperated, and three operated groups. Group I contained young piglets (castrated males, uncastrated males and females), group II contained adult animals and group III contained sham operated animals. An AS 800 belt occlusion cuff was implanted in the deflated state distal to the bladder neck around the urethra in the young and adult groups, while no sphincter was implanted in the sham group. Neither primary nor secondary activation was done. The pigs were followed for a period of six to eight weeks and then sacrificed. The morphological and histological observations on the effects of the artificial sphincter cuff on the underlying urethral tissue showed significant transmural atrophy of the urethral and prostatic segment underlying the cuff in the young growing castrated and uncastrated male group with mild changes in the young female group. Bladder rupture occurred in three uncastrated males. There were no changes encountered in the adult or sham operated groups. Variable degrees of upper tract changes and renal deterioration were seen in the young group. These changes occurred mainly in the male piglets while a lesser degree occurred in the female piglets. No changes were demonstrated in the adult and sham groups. This study suggests the possibility of similar changes occurring in young male children who have undergone artificial sphincter implantation. PMID:3411693

Mokhless, I; Hassouna, M M; Kiruluta, G H; Seemeyer, T A; Homsy, Y L; Coolsaet, B L; Elhilali, M M

1988-09-01

69

Smooth Muscle Enfoldment Internal Sphincter Construction after Intersphincteric Resection for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess smooth muscle enfoldment and internal sphincter construction (SMESC) for improvement of continence after intersphincteric resection (ISR) for rectal cancer. Methods Twenty-four Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into a conventional ISR group and experimental SMESC group, with 12 pigs in each group. The proximal sigmoid colon was anastomosed directly to the anus in the ISR group. In the SMESC group, internal sphincter construction was performed. At 12 weeks before and after surgery, rectal resting pressure and anal canal length were assessed. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to determine the thickness of the internal sphincter. After the animals were sacrificed, the rectum and anus were resected and pathological examinations were performed to evaluate the differences in sphincter thickness and muscle fibers. Results All 24 animals in the SMESC group and the ISR group survived the surgery. Twelve weeks post-surgery, the rectal resting pressure, length of the anal high-pressure zone and the postoperative internal sphincter thickness for the ISR group were significantly lower than for the SMESC group. There was a thickened area (about 2 cm) above the anastomotic stoma among animals from the SMESC group; in addition, the smooth muscles were significantly enlarged and enfolded when compared to the ISR group. Conclusion This animal model study shows that the SMESC procedure achieved acceptable reconstruction of the internal anal neo-sphincter (IAN/S), without increasing surgical risk. However, the findings in this experimental animal model must be confirmed by clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of this procedure in clinical practice. PMID:24626174

Jin, Heiying; Zhang, Bei; Yao, Hang; Du, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Leng, Qiang

2014-01-01

70

Overlapping sphincteroplasty for acquired anal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

When defects of the anal sphincter are caused by trauma, surgical correction can be successful even in long-standing cases.\\u000a At the University of Minnesota, we used overlapping sphincteroplasty in 79 patients with fecal incontinence from 1952 to 1982.\\u000a There were 62 women and 17 men. Ages ranged from 17 to 68 years. Incontinence had been present from three weeks to

David T. Fang; Santhat Nivatvongs; Fred D. Vermeulen; Fred N. Herman; Stanley M. Goldberg; David A. Rothenberger

1984-01-01

71

Recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of chronic anal fissure: an update.  

PubMed

Surgical sphincterotomy reduces anal tone and sphincter spasm and promotes ulcer healing. Because the surgery is associated with the side effect of faecal incontinence, pharmacological agents to treat chronic anal fissure have been explored recently. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment (0.2%) has an efficacy of up to 68% in healing chronic anal fissure, but it is associated with headache as the major and most common side effect. Though botulinum toxin injected into the anal sphincter healed over 80% of chronic anal fissures, it is more invasive and expensive than GTN therapy. Diltiazem ointment achieved healing of chronic anal fissure comparable to 0.2% GTN ointment but was associated with fewer side effects. Other drugs that have been tried are lidocaine, the alpha-adrenergic antagonist indoramin, and the potassium channel opener minoxidil. PMID:18658016

Medhi, Bikash; Rao, Ramya Sankarnarayan; Prakash, Ajay; Prakash, Om; Kaman, Lileswar; Pandhi, Promila

2008-07-01

72

Anal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Anal cancer is a rare type of cancer. The anus is where stool leaves your body when you go to the bathroom. It is made up of your outer layers of ... and the end of your large intestine. Anal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form ...

73

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess  

PubMed Central

A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management. PMID:24898408

Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

2014-01-01

74

Cost considerations in the treatment of anal fissures.  

PubMed

Anal fissure is a split in the lining of the distal anal canal. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment of anal fissure. Although technique is simple and effective, a drawback of this surgical procedure is its potential to cause minor but some times permanent alteration in rectal continence. Conservative approaches (such as topical application of ointment or botulinum toxin injections) have been proposed in order to treat this condition without any risk of permanent injury of the internal anal sphincter. These treatments are effective in a large number of patients. Furthermore, with the ready availability of medical therapies to induce healing of anal fissure, the risk of a first-line surgical approach is difficult to justify. The conservative treatments have a lower cost than surgery. Moreover, evaluation of the actual costs of each therapeutic option is important especially in times of economic crisis and downsizing of health spending. PMID:24867398

Brisinda, Giuseppe; Bianco, Giuseppe; Silvestrini, Nicola; Maria, Giorgio

2014-08-01

75

Study of Operated Patients of Lateral Internal Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissure  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Anal fissure causes significant morbidity in the population. It is proposed that elevated sphincter pressures may cause ischaemia of the anal lining and this may be responsible for the pain of anal fissures and their failure to heal. When pharmacologic therapy fails or fissures recur frequently, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical treatment of choice. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis was done of admitted and operated patients of anal fissure by lateral anal internal sphincterotomy either by open or closed technique between April 2010 and November 2011 in Gujarat Medical Education & Research Society Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, India. The follow-up data of all patients was evaluated for pain relief, recurrence, wound infection, incontinence to flatus or stool or both for a period of up to 6 months. Results: Wound infection rate was 10.3% in open method and 4.2% in closed method. Incontinence to flatus was 8.3% in closed method and 3.4% in open method. This was temporary and controlled within a 1 week. Incontinence to stool was 3.4% in open method which was temporary and controlled within 2 weeks while none in closed method. None of the patients in either group had come with recurrence within 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral anal internal sphincterotomy is safe regarding long term incontinence and effective regarding recurrence. PMID:24551659

Patel, Harshad Shankarlal; Chavda, Jagdish; Parikh, Jayesh; Naik, Nehal

2013-01-01

76

Describing a new syndrome in L5-S1 disc herniation: Sexual and sphincter dysfunction without pain and muscle weakness  

PubMed Central

Context: Little seems to be known about the sexual dysfunction (SD) in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Aims: Investigation of sexual and sphincter dysfunction in patient with lumbar disc hernitions. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: Sexual and sphincter dysfunction in patients admitted with lumbar disc herniations between September 2012-March 2014. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW) Statistics 18.0 for Windows (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to evaluate the difference between patients. Results: Four patients with sexual and sphincter dysfunction were found, including two women and two men, aged between 20 and 52 years. All of them admitted without low back pain. In addition, on neurological examination, reflex and motor deficit were not found. However, almost all patients had perianal sensory deficit and sexual and sphincter dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of three patients displayed a large extruded disc fragment at L5-S1 level on the left side. In fourth patient, there were not prominent disc herniations. There was not statistically significant difference between pre-operative and post-operative sexual function, anal-urethral sphincter function, and perianal sensation score. A syndrome in L5-S1 disc herniation with sexual and sphincter dysfunction without pain and muscle weakness was noted. We think that it is crucial for neurosurgeons to early realise that paralysis of the sphincter and sexual dysfunction are possible in patients with lumbar L5-S1 disc disease. Conclusion: A syndrome with perianal sensory deficit, paralysis of the sphincter, and sexual dysfunction may occur in patients with lumbar L5-S1 disc disease. The improvement of perianal sensory deficit after surgery was counteracted by a trend toward disturbed sexual function. Further researches are needed to explore the extent of this problem.

Akca, Nezih; Ozdemir, Bulent; Kanat, Ayhan; Batcik, Osman Ersagun; Yazar, Ugur; Zorba, Orhan Unal

2014-01-01

77

Neoadjuvant therapy followed by local excision and two-stage total mesorectal excision: a new strategy for sphincter preservation in locally advanced ultra-low rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: With the increased usage of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, improved surgical technique and stapling devices, sphincter-preserving resection has become more frequent for patients with rectal cancer. However, as for locally advanced ultra-low rectal cancer, sphincter-preservation is still facing an enormous challenge. Objective: To introduce an NLT strategy of sphincter-preservation—neoadjuvant therapy (NT) followed by local excision (LE) and two-stage total mesorectal excision (TME)—into the treatment of locally advanced ultra-low rectal cancer (lesions with anal sphincter invasion). Methods: From October 2010 to October 2011, nine patients with locally advanced rectal cancer located less than 3 cm from the anal verge were treated by the NLT strategy. All patients had shown good clinical response to NT. The LE procedure was carried transanally 6–8 weeks after completion of the NT. TME was performed to dissect mesorectal lymph nodes 4–6 weeks after LE. Results: Of the nine patients, the lesion was assessed as T2 in two, T3 in five, and T4 in two before NT, and lymph node metastasis was detected in five patients. The median distance from the tumor to the anal verge was 2.5 cm (range: 1–3 cm). The median follow-up was 27 months (range: 24–34 months). No distant metastasis was detected. Only one patient (11.1%) developed local recurrence at 12 months post-operatively and then underwent abdomino-perineal resection. The remaining eight patients had preserved long-term continence and the median Wexner score at two years post-operation was 4 (range: 2–6). Conclusion: The new NLT strategy can achieve sphincter-preservation in some patients with ultra-low rectal cancer, with favorable oncological outcome and preservation of normal anal sphincter function. PMID:24760235

Wang, Ting; Wang, Jianping; Deng, Yanhong; Wu, Xiaojian; Wang, Lei

2014-01-01

78

[Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer].  

PubMed

Local control and sphincter preservation are the two challenges of anal canal cancer treatment. These tumors are radio- and chemo-sensitive and treatment moved from surgical approach, with abdominoperineal resection, to definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Randomised trials proved the benefit of combined modality with chemoradiotherapy and of mitomycine C (MMC) compared with radiotherapy alone, with a toxic death rate of about 2%. Indications of chemoradiotherapy are locally advanced tumor T2 > or = 4 cm, T3-4 or N1-3 but the best modalities of combined treatment are still under debate. Standard chemotherapy is 5 flurouracile (5FU) + MMC, but cisplatinum (CDDP) is an effective and well tolerated substitute for MMC. Favourable results with CDDP-containing regimen in term of toxicity and carcinologic control have been reported in phase II and retrospective studies. Total radiation dose, overall duration of radiation therapy, duration of the gap and indications of additional boost are not clear, but it is demonstrated that overall duration of treatment should be as short as possible to improve the therapeutic radio. Phase II and III studies are ongoing, to evaluate the best chemotherapy regimen between 5FU+MMC and 5FU+CDDP, the benefit of neoadjuvant or maintenance chemotherapy and the interest of increased total dose. Next future could be the utilisation of oral 5FU. This article is a review of past randomised trials, phases II and retrospective study on radiochemotherapy of anal canal carcinoma. PMID:16396750

Ortholan, Cécile; François, Eric; Gérard, Jean-Pierre

2005-12-01

79

Isolated Bilateral Congenital Iris Sphincter Agenesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We herein report a patient with bilateral congenital total iris sphincter agenesis with no other abnormality detected on systemic examination. Methods. A 24-year-old laborer presented to us for a routine checkup with complaint of photophobia and inability to work under sunlight. Examination revealed bilateral absence of sphincter and 6.5?mm pupil in both eyes in the undilated state. Results. Accommodation was poor in both eyes. Systemic examination was within normal limits. He was prescribed bifocal photochromic glasses for constant wear. Conclusions. Congenital sphincter agenesis can occur in an isolated form without systemic abnormalities which can be managed conservatively. PMID:22606462

Rao, Aparna

2011-01-01

80

Electromagnetic assessment of embedded micro antenna for a novel sphincter in the human body.  

PubMed

This paper presents a wireless, miniaturized, bi-directional telemetric artificial anal sphincter system that can be used for controlling patients' anal incontinence. The artificial anal sphincter system is mainly composed of an executive mechanism, a wireless power supply system and a wireless communication system. The wireless communication system consists of an internal RF transceiver, an internal RF antenna, a data transmission pathway, an external RF antenna and an external RF control transceiver. A micro NMHA (Normal Mode Helical Antenna) has been used for the transceiver of the internal wireless communication system and a quarter wave-length whip antenna of 7.75 cm has been used for the external wireless communication system. The RF carrier frequency of wireless communication is located in a license-free 433.1 MHz ISM (Industry, Science, and Medical) band. The radiation characteristics and SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) are evaluated using the finite difference time-domain method and 3D human body model. Results show that the SAR values of the antenna satisfy the ICNIRP (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection) limitations. PMID:23706019

Zan, Peng; Liu, Jinding; Ai, Yutao; Jiang, Enyu

2013-05-01

81

Ethanol inhibits sphincter of oddi motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with alcohol-induced liver disease are at increased risk for pigment gallstones, which are known to be particularly\\u000a associated with biliary stasis. Although the effects of ethanol on the sphincter of Oddi are thought to contribute to alcoholic\\u000a pancreatitis, the precise effects of ethanol on the biliary component of the sphincter of Oddi are unclear. In the prairie\\u000a dog the

Sean Tierney; Zhiping Qian; Pamela A. Lipsett; Henry A. Pitt; Keith D. Lillemoe

1998-01-01

82

Why do we have so much trouble treating anal fistula?  

PubMed Central

Anal fistula is among the most common illnesses affecting man. Medical literature dating back to 400 BC has discussed this problem. Various causative factors have been proposed throughout the centuries, but it appears that the majority of fistulas unrelated to specific causes (e.g. Tuberculosis, Crohn’s disease) result from infection (abscess) in anal glands extending from the intersphincteric plane to various anorectal spaces. The tubular structure of an anal fistula easily yields itself to division or unroofing (fistulotomy) or excision (fistulectomy) in most cases. The problem with this single, yet effective, treatment plan is that depending on the thickness of sphincter muscle the fistula transgresses, the patient will have varying degrees of fecal incontinence from minor to total. In an attempt to preserve continence, various procedures have been proposed to deal with the fistulas. These include: (1) simple drainage (Seton); (2) closure of fistula tract using fibrin sealant or anal fistula plug; (3) closure of primary opening using endorectal or dermal flaps, and more recently; and (4) ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT). In most complex cases (i.e. Crohn’s disease), a proximal fecal diversion offers a measure of symptomatic relief. The fact remains that an “ideal” procedure for anal fistula remains elusive. The failure of each sphincter-preserving procedure (30%-50% recurrence) often results in multiple operations. In essence, the price of preservation of continence at all cost is multiple and often different operations, prolonged disability and disappointment for the patient and the surgeon. Nevertheless, the surgeon treating anal fistulas on an occasional basis should never hesitate in referring the patient to a specialist. Conversely, an expert colorectal surgeon must be familiar with many different operations in order to selectively tailor an operation to the individual patient. PMID:21876616

Dudukgian, Haig; Abcarian, Herand

2011-01-01

83

What Is Anal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... that develop from cells that cover nerves Potentially pre-cancerous anal conditions Some changes in the anal ... a cancer. A common term for these potentially pre-cancerous conditions is dysplasia . Some warts, for example, ...

84

Clinical and Functional Anatomy of the Urethral Sphincter  

PubMed Central

Continence and micturition involve urethral closure. Especially, insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles including the urethral sphincter muscles causes urinary incontinence (UI). Thus, it is most important to understand the main mechanism causing UI and the relationship of UI with the urethral sphincter. Functionally and anatomically, the urethral sphincter is made up of the internal and the external sphincter. We highlight the basic and clinical anatomy of the internal and the external sphincter and their clinical meaning. Understanding these relationships may provide a novel view in identifying the main mechanism causing UI and surgical techniques for UI. PMID:23094214

Ahn, Hyo Kwang; Huh, Youngbuhm

2012-01-01

85

Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Fistula in ano is a common disease seen in the surgical outpatient department. Many procedures are advocated for the treatment of fistula in ano. However, none of the procedures is considered the gold standard. The latest addition to the list of treatment options is video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT). It is a minimally invasive, sphincter-saving procedure with low morbidity. The aim of our study was to compare the results with a premier study done previously. Methods: The procedure involves diagnostic fistuloscopy and visualization of the internal opening, followed by fulguration of the fistulous tract and closure of the internal opening with a stapling device or suture ligation. The video equipment (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) was connected to an illuminating source. Results: The study was conducted from July 2010 to March 2014. Eighty-two patients with fistula in ano were operated on with VAAFT and were followed up according to the study protocol. The recurrence rate was 15.85%, with recurrences developing in 13 cases. Postoperative pain and discomfort were minimal. Conclusion: VAAFT is a minimally invasive procedure performed under direct visualization. It enables visualization of the internal opening and secondary branches or abscess cavities. It is a sphincter-saving procedure and offers many advantages to patients. Our initial results with the procedure are quite encouraging. PMID:25419106

Saha, Sudipta; Andley, Manoj; Kumar, Ashok; Saurabh, Gyan; Pusuluri, Rahul; Bhise, Vikas; Kumar, Ajay

2014-01-01

86

Preoperative Radiochemotherapy and Sphincter-Saving Resection for T3 Carcinomas of the Lower Third of the Rectum  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the complications and oncologic and functional results of preoperative radiochemotherapy and sphincter-saving resection for T3 cancers of the lower third of the rectum. Summary Background Data Carcinomas of the lower third of the rectum (i.e., located at or below 6 cm from the anal verge) are usually treated by abdominoperineal resection, especially for T3 lesions. Few data are available evaluating concomitant chemotherapy with preoperative radiotherapy for increasing sphincter-saving resection in low rectal cancer. Methods Between 1995 and 1999, 43 patients underwent preoperative radiochemotherapy with conservative surgery for a low rectal tumor located a mean of 4.5 cm from the anal verge (range 2–6); 70% of the lesions were less than 2 cm from the anal sphincter. There were 40 T3 and 3 T4 tumors. Patients received preoperative radiotherapy with a mean dose of 50 Gy (range 40–54) and concomitant chemotherapy with 5-FU in continuous infusion (n = 36) or bolus (n = 7). Sphincter- saving resection was performed 6 weeks after treatment, in 25 patients by using intersphincteric resection. Coloanal anastomoses were associated with a colonic pouch in 86% of the patients, and all patients had a protecting stoma. Results There were no deaths related to preoperative radiochemotherapy and surgery. Acute toxicity was mainly due to diarrhea, with 54% of grade 1 to 2. Four anastomotic fistulas and two pelvic hematomas occurred; all patients but one had closure of the stoma. Distal and radial surgical margins were respectively 23 ± 8 mm (range 10–40) and 8 ± 4 mm (range 1–20) and were negative in 98% of the patients. Downstaging (pT0–2N0) was observed in 42% of the patients (18/43) and was associated with a greater radial margin (10 vs. 6 mm;P = .02). After a median follow-up of 30 months, the rate of local recurrence was 2% (1/43), and four patients had distal metastases. Overall and disease-free survival rates were both 85% at 3 years. Functional results were good (Kirwan continence I, II) in 79% of the available patients (n = 37). They were slightly altered by intersphincteric resection (57 vs. 75% of perfect continence; NS) but were significantly improved by a colonic pouch (74 vs. 16%;P = .01). Conclusions These results suggest that preoperative radiochemotherapy allowed sphincter-saving resection to be performed with good local control and good functional results in patients with T3 low rectal cancers that would have required abdominoperineal resection in most instances. PMID:11685026

Rullier, Eric; Goffre, Béatrice; Bonnel, Catherine; Zerbib, Frank; Caudry, Michel; Saric, Jean

2001-01-01

87

Intramural distribution of regulatory peptides in the sigmoid-recto-anal region of the human gut.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of regulatory peptides was studied in the separated mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa taken at 10 sampling sites encompassing the whole human sigmoid colon (five sites), rectum (two sites), and anal canal (three sites). Consistently high concentrations of VIP were measured in the muscle layer at most sites (proximal sigmoid: 286 (16) pmol/g, upper rectum: 269 (17), a moderate decrease being found in the distal smooth sphincter (151 (30) pmol/g). Values are expressed as mean (SE). Conversely, substance P concentrations showed an obvious decline in the recto-anal muscle (mid sigmoid: 19 (2.0) pmol/g, distal rectum: 7.1 (1.3), upper anal canal: 1.6 (0.6)). Somatostatin was mainly present in the sigmoid mucosa and submucosa (37 (9.3) and 15 (3.5) pmol/g, respectively) and showed low, but consistent concentrations in the muscle (mid sigmoid: 2.2 (0.7) pmol/g, upper anal canal: 1.5 (0.8]. Starting in the distal sigmoid colon, a distinct peak of tissue NPY was revealed, which was most striking in the muscle (of mid sigmoid: 16 (3.9) pmol/g, upper rectum: 47 (7.8), anal sphincter: 58 (14)). Peptide YY was confined to the mucosa and showed an earlier peak (upper sigmoid: 709 (186) pmol/g, mid-distal sigmoid: 1965 (484)). A clear differential distribution of regulatory peptides was thus shown in the region studied. A possible role is suggested for NPY and VIP containing nerves in the effector control of the human internal anal sphincter. PMID:2454876

Ferri, G L; Adrian, T E; Allen, J M; Soimero, L; Cancellieri, A; Yeats, J C; Blank, M; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

1988-01-01

88

Anal cancer – a review  

PubMed Central

Anal cancer accounts for only 1.5% of gastrointestinal malignancies but this disease has shown a steady increase in incidence particularly in HIV positive males. The understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of anal cancer has changed radically over last thirty years. Risk factors have been identified and organ preservation by chemoradiotherapy has become a standard. This article aims to review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options for anal cancer in the light of current literature. PMID:23580899

Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Kadi, Azzam

2012-01-01

89

Application of YAG laser technique in the treatment of anal fistula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of treating anal fistula with YAG laser technique is described in this essay. One-hundred-twenty patients have been treated successfully with this method and no recurrence was found in our series. Anal fistula is a common disorder in the anus and rectum. The tunnel of fistula zigzags around the external or internal sphincters. If the drainage is poor, and the skin around the external opening grows rapidly, false healing may occur and cause recurrent abscess. In this case, a fistula can not be cured except by operation.

Liu, Jian-xun; Zhang, Xinrong

1993-03-01

90

JAMA Patient Page: Anal Fissure  

MedlinePLUS

... All rights reserved. JAMA PATIENT PAGE| Digestive System Anal Fissure An anal fissure is a tear in the opening of ... anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. Anal fissures are common in infants but less so ...

91

Sphincter repair for fecal incontinence after obstetrical or iatrogenic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with fecal incontinence underwent sphincter repair between 1975 and 1984. Divided sphincter musculature resulted\\u000a from obstetrical injury in 23 and previous anorectal surgery in 17. Eighteen had undergone a previous attempt at repair. Fifteen\\u000a patients experienced seepage of stool and 25 had gross incontinence. In nine patients, reconstruction of the external sphincter\\u000a was by overlap of the muscle

Michael E. Pezim; Robert J. Spencer; C. Robert Stanhope; Robert W. Beart; Roger L. Ready; Duane M. Ilstrup

1987-01-01

92

The functional sphincter of Oddi disorder.  

PubMed

The sphincter of Oddi disorder (SOD) has been a controversial subject for many years, about which a lot has been written. However, new findings mainly using Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) demonstrate the fact of this diagnostic. SOD is just a part of a larger pathology, the tfunctional gastrointestinal disorders, which have been reconsidered as an important part of gastrointestinal diseases. For a better understanding, the American Gastroenterology Association Institute created a new classification of The Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2006, Rome III Classification, in which the SOD is grouped in the functional biliary disorders (category E). The term SOD is used to define manometric abnormalities in patients who have signs and symptoms consistent with a biliary or pancreatic ductal origin. Based on the pathogenic mechanism and manometry findings, the SOD is separated into two groups: a group characterized by a stenotic pattern (anatomical abnormality) and a second group with a dyskinetic pattern functional abnormality). The purpose of this article is to construct a short presentation of the main aspects regarding tfunctional SOD (E2 and E3 after Rome III Classificatio). PMID:20108458

Pop, Corina; Purc?reanu, Adina; Purc?rea, Monica; Andronescu, Dan

2008-01-01

93

Anal fissure and stenosis.  

PubMed

Anal fissure is a common anorectal disorder resulting in anal pain and bleeding. Fissures can either heal spontaneously and be classified as acute, or persist for 6 or more weeks and be classified as chronic, ultimately necessitating treatment. Anal stenosis is a challenging problem most commonly resulting from trauma, such as excisional hemorrhoidectomy. This frustrating issue for the patient is equally as challenging to the surgeon. This article reviews these 2 anorectal disorders, covering their etiology, mechanism of disease, diagnosis, and algorithm of management. PMID:24280397

Shawki, Sherief; Costedio, Meagan

2013-12-01

94

The OTSC® Proctology clip system for anorectal fistula closure: the 'anal fistula claw': case report.  

PubMed

Abstract Surgical treatment of high or complex anal fistulas often renders unsatisfying results. This is the report of the first successful closure of such anal fistula using a special Nitinol clip and applicator, the OTSC® Proctology system (Ovesco AG, Tuebingen, Germany): A 54-year old female patient was suffering from a high transsphincteric anal fistula. After seton drainage of the fistula for ten weeks, the fistula track was debrided using a special fistula brush. After transanal clip release from the applicator, the internal fistula opening was adequately closed by the clip. Eight months after clip closure the fistula had healed and the clip was removed using the OTSC® Proctology Clip Cutter. Fistula closure using the OTSC® Proctology system represents a promising sphincter-preserving minimally invasive procedure. PMID:22657572

Prosst, Ruediger L; Ehni, Wolfgang

2012-07-01

95

The effect of topical nifedipine in treatment of chronic anal fissure.  

PubMed

Chronic anal fissure is the most common cause of anal pain associated with internal anal sphincter hypertonia. Reduction of hypertonocity is a special treatment for fissure healing. For this purpose chronic anal fissures were conventionally treated by anal dilatation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these methods may cause a degree of incontinence in some patients. The uptake of medical therapies that create a reversible chemical sphincterotomy has recently become widespread. The aim of this prospective clinical trial study was to assess the effectiveness of nifedipine in healing anal fissure, a calcium channel blocker that reduces sphincter pressure. A single-blind randomized comparative trial was setup to compare traditional treatment with stool softeners and 2% lidocaine cream against 0.5% nifedipine cream for 4 weeks. 110 patients were included in this study, 60 patients in the nifedipine group and 50 patients in the control group and the therapeutic outcome and side effects were recorded. Healing had occurred in 70% of patients in the nifedipine group and in 12% of patients in the control group after 4 weeks treatment (P < 0.005). Recurrence of symptoms occurred in four of healed patients in the nifedipine group and three patients in the control group in two months. The final result of nifedipine application after 12 months follow up was recurrence in 11 patients (26.19%). Mild headache occurred in four patients (6.6%) of the nifedipine group. Patients in the nifedipine group showed significant healing and relief from pain compared with patients in the control group. Recurrence rate with nifedipine use in spite of control of predisposing factors such as constipation was significant. Another finding was low complication rate with this treatment. PMID:21287460

Golfam, Farzaneh; Golfam, Parisa; Khalaj, Alireza; Sayed Mortaz, Sayed Saaid

2010-01-01

96

Bioengineering of physiologically functional intrinsically innervated human internal anal sphincter constructs.  

PubMed

Muscle replacement for patients suffering from extensive tissue loss or dysfunction is a major objective of regenerative medicine. To achieve functional status, bioengineered muscle replacement constructs require innervation. Here we describe a method to bioengineer functionally innervated gut smooth muscle constructs using neuronal progenitor cells and smooth muscle cells isolated and cultured from intestinal tissues of adult human donors. These constructs expressed markers for contractile smooth muscle, glial cells, and mature neuronal populations. The constructs responded appropriately to physiologically relevant neurotransmitters, and neural network integration was demonstrated by responses to electrical field stimulation. The ability of enteric neuroprogenitor cells to differentiate into neuronal populations provides enormous potential for functional innervation of a variety of bioengineered muscle constructs in addition to gut. Functionally innervated muscle constructs offer a regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approach for neuromuscular replacement after trauma or degenerative disorders. PMID:24328537

Gilmont, Robert R; Raghavan, Shreya; Somara, Sita; Bitar, Khalil N

2014-06-01

97

Sphincter-saving procedures for distal carcinoma of the rectum.  

PubMed Central

Methods of sphincter preservation were developed more than a century ago. Combining these techniques with adequate anterior resection has permitted the resurrection of sphincter-saving procedures that are currently being applied in the therapy of cancer at every level of the rectum. Although Miles' abdominoperineal resection still remains the "gold standard" for the treatment of low rectal neoplasms, restorative resection may now be possible with equivalent oncologic disease control and survival. Further, current trends also suggest that the abdominoperineal resection is being used less frequently in the treatment of most rectal cancers and is being replaced with sphincter-preserving techniques that afford excellent functional results. In this review, the pertinent anorectal anatomy, current issues, and sphincter-saving surgical techniques presently available for the treatment of distal cancers of the rectum are presented. PMID:2642688

Yeatman, T J; Bland, K I

1989-01-01

98

[Epidermoid anal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is a rare cancer, and conventionally affects elderly women. Its incidence is on the increase, at a younger age of onset, particularly within the male homosexual population. Main predisposing factors are sexually transmitted diseases and particularly human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, variety of sexual partners, smoking, homosexuality, history of uterine cervix cancer, and immunodepression. Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific. Therefore any atypical lesion should be systematically biopsied for histology. The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography. Key prognostic factors are infiltration of the initial tumour and presence of lymph node metastasis. First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms. PMID:19143150

Gorez, Etienne; Staumont, Ghislain

2008-10-31

99

The epidemiology of anal incontinence and symptom severity scoring  

PubMed Central

For many patients, anal incontinence (AI) is a devastating condition that can lead to social isolation and loss of independence, contributing to a substantial economic health burden, not only for the individual but also for the allocation of healthcare resources. Its prevalence is underestimated because of poor patient reporting, with many unrecorded but symptomatic cases residing in nursing homes. Endosonography has improved our understanding of the incidence of post-obstetric sphincter tears that are potentially suitable for repair and those cases resulting from anorectal surgery, most notably after fistula and hemorrhoid operations. The clinical scoring systems assessing the severity of AI are discussed in this review, along with their limitations. Improvements in the standardization of these scales will advance our understanding of treatment response in an era where the therapeutic options have multiplied and will permit a better comparison between specific therapies. PMID:24759339

Nevler, Avinoam

2014-01-01

100

Vagal control of lower oesophageal sphincter motility in the cat  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of vagal efferent fibre stimulation on the smooth muscle of the lower oesophageal sphincter have been studied on the anaesthetized animal and on the isolated and perfused organ. 2. In both muscle layers (longitudinal and circular) vagal stimulation elicits two types of electromyographic (e.m.g.) potentials: (a) excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) where there is a depolarization of the smooth muscle fibres. E.j.p.s can give rise to spike potentials inducing a contraction of the sphincter; (b) inhibitory junction potentials (i.j.p.s) where there is hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle fibres, often followed by a transient depolarization which may initiate spikes (post-inhibitory rebound). 3. Pure i.j.p.s are observed after atropine treatment which suppresses e.j.p.s. Under these conditions, a long lasting vagal stimulation induces a long duration hyperpolarization concomitant with an opening of the lower oesophageal sphincter followed after the cessation of stimulation by a powerful rebound leading to a strong contraction which closes the sphincter. 4. Several arguments, pharmacological (action of acetylcholine (ACh), atropine and hexamethonium) and physiological (threshold and latency of responses) lead to the following conclusions. Preganglionic vagal fibres are cholinergic and they activate (a) intramural excitatory cholinergic neurones; (b) intramural non-adrenergic inhibitory neurones (purinergic neurones). Preganglionic fibres leading to inhibition have a higher threshold than those leading to excitation. Both excitatory and inhibitory pathways are interconnected inside the intramural network. In particular, activation of intramural inhibitory neurones, by relaxing the oesophagus orally to the lower oesophageal sphincter, inhibits intramural excitatory neurones and subsequently blocks vagal excitatory responses. 5. Two functions may be attributed to the vagal extrinsic innervation: (a) closure of the lower oesophageal sphincter by maintaining the basal tone of the sphincter; this would imply that at rest the inhibitory control is supplanted by the excitatory one; (b) sphincter opening during swallowing by suppressing the excitatory stimulus and reinforcing the inhibitory one (it may be recalled that after bilateral vagotomy, swallowing is no longer followed by a relaxation of the sphincter). PMID:604452

Gonella, J.; Niel, J. P.; Roman, C.

1977-01-01

101

The management of patients with primary chronic anal fissure: a position paper.  

PubMed

Anal fissure is one of the most common and painful proctologic diseases. Its treatment has long been discussed and several different therapeutic options have been proposed. In the last decades, the understanding of its pathophysiology has led to a progressive reduction of invasive and potentially invalidating treatments in favor of conservative treatment based on anal sphincter muscle relaxation. Despite some systematic reviews and an American position statement, there is ongoing debate about the best treatment for anal fissure. This review is aimed at identifying the best treatment option drawing on evidence-based medicine and on the expert advice of 6 colorectal surgeons with extensive experience in this field in order to produce an Italian position statement for anal fissures. While there is little chance of a cure with conservative behavioral therapy, medical treatment with calcium channel blockers, diltiazem and nifepidine or glyceryl trinitrate, had a considerable success rate ranging from 50 to 90%. Use of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate in standardized fashion seems to have the best results despite a higher percentage of headache, while the use of botulinum toxin had inconsistent results. Nonresponding patients should undergo lateral internal sphincterotomy. The risk of incontinence after this procedure seems to have been overemphasized in the past. Only a carefully selected group of patients, without anal hypertonia, could benefit from anoplasty. PMID:21538013

Altomare, D F; Binda, G A; Canuti, S; Landolfi, V; Trompetto, M; Villani, R D

2011-06-01

102

Anal Involvement in Pemphigus Vularis  

PubMed Central

Background. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucosa. Anal mucosa may be involved in PV, but the frequency and clinical profile are not fully ascertained. Objective. The aim was to investigate the involvement of the anal area in newly diagnosed PV patients. Patients and Methods. A total of 168 consecutive newly diagnosed PV patients were enrolled. Anal symptoms and signs, involvement of other body sites, and severity of disease were recorded. Results. A total of 47 out of 168 patients (27.9%) had involvement of the anal area. Anal involvement was significantly associated with PV lesions in ophthalmic (P = 0.03), nasal (P = 0.02), and genital mucosa (P < 0.001) but not the oral cavity (P = 0.24). There was a significant association between number of involved mucosal sites and anal involvement (P < 0.001). Anal involvement was associated with oral severity (P = 0.02). Constipation was the most frequent symptom (73.8%) followed by pain on defecation (50%). Seventeen patients (36%) were symptom-free. Erosion was the most frequent sign (91.5%). Conclusion. Anal involvement in PV seems to be more frequent than previously assumed. Routine anal examination is recommended even in asymptomatic patients as anal involvement appears to correlate with the severity of PV. PMID:24298388

Khezri, Somayeh; Mahmoudi, Hamid-Reza; Masoom, Seyedeh Nina; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Balighi, Kamran; Hosseini, S. Hamed; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

2013-01-01

103

[Acute anal fissures in puerperants].  

PubMed

The author shares his experiences with treatment of 236 puerperas with anal fissures. Three types of anal fissures are established. The appearance of anal fissures can be caused by precipitated labor, large fetus, episio- and perineotomy. The main attention in cases with postpartum anal fissures was given to local treatment by different means which included arrest of the pain syndrome and formation of the granulation barrier till the appearance of regular stool and prevention of constipation. Long-term results were good. PMID:10533232

Sariev, A A

1999-01-01

104

Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch  

MedlinePLUS

... Pelvic pouch; Ileal-anal pouch; Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; IPAA; Ileal-anal reservoir surgery ... is sewn to the anus may come open ( anastomosis ), which can be life threatening Wound breaks open Wound infections

105

Neuroanatomy of the External Urethral Sphincter: Implications for Urinary Continence Preservation During Radical Prostate Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence probably is multifactorial and sphincteric nerve injury could be a contributing cause. Controversy still exists regarding the innervation of the external sphincter, and currently pudendal nerve injury is not believed to be an etiological factor in post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. To understand better the sphincter and its innervation, we undertook an anatomical and histological study of 18 adult

Perinchery Narayan; Badrinath Konety; Khalid Aslam; Sherif Aboseif; Walter Blumenfeld; Emil. Tanagho

1995-01-01

106

Can Anal Cancer Be Found Early?  

MedlinePLUS

... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of anal cancer Can anal cancer be found early? Many anal cancers can be found early in the course of the ... they reach an advanced stage. Other anal cancers can cause symptoms like those of diseases other than ...

107

Role of anal dilatation in treatment of idiopathic constipation in children: long-term follow-up of a double-blind randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

Constipation in childhood is a common symptom, with an estimated incidence between 0.3% and 8%. Most of the evidence for the current management of constipation and fecal soiling in children is based on reports of nonrandomized retrospective trials. Anal dilatation has had an established role in the management of idiopathic constipation but has never been evaluated by a randomized study. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was done of children who failed to respond to medical treatment and were admitted for investigation and treatment of idiopathic constipation to Guy's Hospital, London, between April 2001 and April 2003. All children had intestinal transit study on admission. They were randomized, using a computer-generated allocation in sealed envelopes, to receive no anal dilatation (control group) or anal dilatation (anal dilatation group). Anorectal manometry and endosonography were done under ketamine anesthesia followed by anal dilatation if necessary under the same anesthesia. Disimpaction of feces from the rectum was done at the end of the procedure under general anesthesia using propofol muscle relaxant to minimize stretching of anal sphincter muscles in the control group. All children had intensification of medical treatment, toilet training, and monitoring of their response to treatment during their hospital stay, which ranged from 3 to 5 days. Outcome was measured using a parent's questionnaire of symptom severity at 3 and 12 months of follow-up by one of the authors, who was blinded to randomization. The symptom severity score ranged between 0 and 65 and consisted of scores for the following: delay in defecation (score range 0-10), difficulty and pain with passing stool (0-5), soiling problem (0-10), intensity of laxative treatment (0-10), child's general health (0-5), behavior related to the bowel problem (0-5), overall improvement of symptoms (0-12,) and assessment of megarectum on abdominal examination (0-8). Of 60 neurologically normal children, 31 (19 males) were randomized in the control group and 29 (18 males) in the anal dilatation group. All children had findings consistent with idiopathic constipation and positive anorectal reflex on manometry, no anal sphincter damage on endosonography, and no anal fissure on examination under anesthesia. The median age for control and anal dilatation groups was 7.97 (range 4.1-14.25) years and 7.78 (4-13.25) years, respectively. Both groups were also comparable with regard to median of duration of laxative treatment (32 months vs. 31.5 months), internal anal sphincter thickness on endosonography (0.90 mm vs. 0.80 mm), resting anal sphincter pressure on manometry (51 mmHg vs. 51 mmHg), total rectal capacity on manometry (260 mmHg vs. 260 mmHg), and total symptom severity score before admission (33 vs. 29), respectively. At 12-month follow-up, the median pre-admission symptom severity score had improved significantly, from 33 (range 12-49) in the control group and 29 (16-51) in the dilatation group to 15 (0-51, p < 0.0001) and 19 (1-46, p < 0.0001), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to symptom severity score improvement at 12-month follow-up (p < 0.92). We found a significant correlation between total rectal capacity measured on manometry and symptom severity score before admission and at 12-month follow-up (r = 0.30, p < 0.01 and r = 0.25, p < 0.05, respectively). Our results indicate that anal dilatation does not contribute to the management of school-aged children with idiopathic constipation. Admission to hospital for clarification of diagnosis and intensification of medical treatment with disimpaction of stool from the rectum is beneficial. PMID:15662516

Keshtgar, Alireza S; Ward, Harry C; Clayden, Graham S; Sanei, Ahmad

2005-02-01

108

Anal Pap smears and anal cancer: What dermatologists should know.  

PubMed

Squamous epithelial cells are susceptible to infection by the human papillomavirus. Infection of squamous epithelium with oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with development of dysplasia and potential malignant transformation. Historically, cervical cancer has been the most prevalent human papillomavirus-induced squamous neoplasia. However, because of widespread screening via Pap smear testing, rates of cervical cancer in the United States have decreased dramatically during the past 50 years. Rates of anal cancer, in contrast, have doubled during the past 30 years. The groups at highest risk for development of anal cancer are men who have sex with men, HIV-positive patients, and patients immunosuppressed as a result of solid-organ transplantation. By detecting dysplasia before it develops into invasive cancer, anal Pap smears may be a potentially useful screening tool for anal cancer, particularly in individuals known to be at increased risk. However, at this time, sufficient data supporting the benefit of anal Pap smear screening are lacking. With insufficient evidence, no national health care organizations currently recommend the use of anal Pap smears as a routine screening test, even among high-risk groups. PMID:25088812

Liszewski, Walter; Ananth, Amy T; Ploch, Lauren E; Rogers, Nicole E

2014-11-01

109

Glass rupture disk  

DOEpatents

A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

110

Vagal Afferent Innervation of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter  

PubMed Central

To supply a fuller morphological characterization of the vagal afferents innervating the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), specifically to label vagal terminals in the tissues forming the LES in the gastroesophageal junction, the present experiment employed injections of dextran biotin into the nodose ganglia of rats. Four types of vagal afferents innervated the LES. Clasp and sling muscle fibers were directly and prominently innervated by intramuscular arrays (IMAs). Individual IMA terminals subtended about 16° of arc of the esophageal circumference, and, collectively, the terminal fields were distributed within the muscle ring to establish a 360° annulus of mechanoreceptors in the sphincter wall. 3D morphometry of the terminals established that, compared to sling muscle IMAs, clasp muscle IMAs had more extensive arbors and larger receptive fields. In addition, at the cardia, local myenteric ganglia between smooth muscle sheets and striated muscle bundles were innervated by intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs), in a pattern similar to the innervation of the myenteric plexus throughout the stomach and esophagus. Finally, as previously described, the principle bundle of sling muscle fibers that links LES sphincter tissue to the antropyloric region of the lesser curvature was innervated by exceptionally long IMAs as well as by unique web ending specializations at the distal attachment of the bundle. Overall, the specialized varieties of densely distributed vagal afferents innervating the LES underscore the conclusion that these sensory projections are critically involved in generating LES reflexes and may be promising targets for managing esophageal dysfunctions. PMID:23583280

Powley, Terry L.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Gilbert, Jared M.; Hudson, Cherie N.; Martin, Felecia N.; Mason, Jacqueline K.; McAdams, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Robert J.

2013-01-01

111

Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic and clinical evidence has suggested a possible association between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)\\u000a types that are known to be associated with cervical and other genital cancers. Using Southern blot and dot blot analysis,\\u000a the authors examined 45 primary anal malignancies for HPV DNA types 6,11,16, and 18. HPV 16, DNA was detected in 23 of 41\\u000a (56

J. G. Palmer; J. H. Scholffield; P. J. Coates; N. A. Shepherd; J. R. Jass; L. V. Crawford; J. M. A. Northover

1989-01-01

112

Complications After Sphincter-Saving Resection in Rectal Cancer Patients According to Whether Chemoradiotherapy Is Performed Before or After Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with postoperative CRT on the incidence and types of postoperative complications in rectal cancer patients who underwent sphincter-saving resection. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 285 patients who received preoperative CRT and 418 patients who received postoperative CRT between January 2000 and December 2006. Results: There was no between-group difference in age, gender, or cancer stage. In the pre-CRT group, the mean level of anastomosis from the anal verge was lower (3.5 {+-} 1.4 cm vs. 4.3 {+-} 1.7 cm, p < 0.001) and the rate of T4 lesion and temporary diverting ileostomy was higher than in the post-CRT group. Delayed anastomotic leakage and rectovaginal fistulae developed more frequently in the pre-CRT group than in the post-CRT group (3.9% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.020, 6.5% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.027, respectively). Small bowel obstruction (arising from radiation enteritis) requiring surgical intervention was more frequent in the post-CRT group (0% in the pre-CRT group vs. 1.4% in the post-CRT group, p = 0.042). Multivariate analysis identified preoperative CRT as an independent risk factor for fistulous complications (delayed anastomotic leakage, rectovaginal fistula, rectovesical fistula), and postoperative CRT as a risk factor for obstructive complications (anastomotic stricture, small bowel obstruction). The stoma-free rates were significantly lower in the pre-CRT group than in the post-CRT group (5-year stoma-free rates: 92.8% vs. 97.0%, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The overall postoperative complication rates were similar between the pre-CRT and the Post-CRT groups. However, the pattern of postoperative complications seen after sphincter- saving resection differed with reference to the timing of CRT.

Kim, Chan Wook [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang Sik, E-mail: csyu@amc.seoul.k [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ui Sup; Park, Jin Seok; Jung, Kwang Yong [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Nam; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-01

113

Response of the lower esophageal sphincter to gastric distention by carbonated beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastroesophageal reflux disease often occurs in patients with normal resting pressure and length of the lower esophageal sphincter.\\u000a Such patients often have postprandial reflux. The mechanism of postprandial reflux remains controversial. To further clarify\\u000a this, we studied the effect of carbonated beverages on the resting parameters of the lower esophageal sphincter. Nine asymptomatic\\u000a healthy volunteers underwent lower esophageal sphincter manometry

Nahid Hamoui; Reginald V. Lord; Jeffrey A. Hagen; Joerg Theisen; Tom R. DeMeester; Peter F. Crookes

2006-01-01

114

What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... anal cancer? What are the risk factors for anal cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... about HPV and HPV vaccines, see HPV Vaccines . Anal warts Anal warts (also known as condyloma acuminata ) ...

115

Supersonic Rupture of Rubber  

E-print Network

The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

M Marder

2005-04-24

116

CIVILAND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2012 Anal. Geom.  

E-print Network

CIVILAND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2012 FRESHMAN FALL SP English 1157 (3) Calculus & Anal. Geom. *2107 (3) Biology Elective (3) Progrm/ Graphics 2301 (4) English 1158 (3) Calculus & Anal. Geom. *2108) Calculus & Anal. Geom. *2109 (4) Physics 1062 (3) Statics 2350 (3) Humanities Elective (3) Diff. Equ. 2221

Kulp, Mark

117

Refractoriness of urethral striated sphincter during voiding: studies with afferent pudendal reflex arc stimulation in male subjects.  

PubMed

To assess the excitability of the striated sphincter under normal and abnormal conditions, electrostimulation of the periurethral striated sphincter via the dorsal nerve of the penis was done with the patient at rest and during voiding. Monitoring of simultaneous intravesical and intramembranous urethral pressures, and electromyographic responses of the striated sphincter was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 14 male subjects. The urethral striated sphincter attained a state of relative refractoriness during detrusor contraction (voiding phase) and greater amounts of afferent stimulation were required to elicit sphincter contractile activity compared to the amounts required during resting states. Under conditions of a hyperactive detrusor with synergic voiding, the amounts of stimulation required to elicit striated sphincter responses were higher than those required in normal subjects. On the other hand, under conditions of striated sphincter dyssynergia, minute amounts of afferent stimulation were enough to produce sphincter contraction during voiding. PMID:3959194

Dyro, F M; Yalla, S V

1986-04-01

118

ERCP, biliary crystal analysis, and sphincter of Oddi manometry in idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study investigated the role of ERCP, analysis of bile for microcrystals, and sphincter of Oddi manometry in idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Methods: One hundred twenty-six patients met criteria for idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Patients with a normal ERCP underwent sphincter of Oddi manometry and analysis of bile. Bile was also collected in patients with papillary stenosis (defined as ductal dilation

Madhukar Kaw; George J. Brodmerkel

2002-01-01

119

Muscle precursor cells for the restoration of irreversibly damaged sphincter function.  

PubMed

Multiple modalities, including injectable bulking agents and surgery, have been used to treat stress urinary incontinence. However, none of these methods is able to fully restore normal striated sphincter muscle function. In this study, we explored the possibility of achieving functional recovery of the urinary sphincter muscle using autologous muscle precursor cells (MPCs) as an injectable, cell-based therapy. A canine model of striated urinary sphincter insufficiency was created by microsurgically removing part of the sphincter muscle in 24 dogs. Autologous MPCs were obtained, expanded in culture, and injected into the damaged sphincter muscles of 12 animals. The animals were followed for up to 6 months after injection, and urodynamic studies, functional organ bath studies, ultrastructural and histological examinations were performed. Animals receiving MPC injections demonstrated sphincter pressures of approximately 80% of normal values, while the pressures in the control animals without cells dropped and remained at 20% of normal values. Histological analysis indicated that the implanted cells survived and formed tissue, including new innervated muscle fibers, within the injected region of the sphincter. These results indicate that autologous muscle precursor cells may be able to restore otherwise irreversibly damaged urinary sphincter function clinically. PMID:22236637

Eberli, Daniel; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

2012-01-01

120

Neuroscience Letters 244 (1998) 137-140 Urethral pudendal afferent-evoked bladder and sphincter reflexes  

E-print Network

reflexes in decerebrate and acute spinal cats Susan J. Shefchyk*, R.R. Buss Department of Physiology of the urethral sensory pudendal nerve in decerebrate or acute spinal cats was used to evoke micturition reflexes sphincter activity and contribute to both guarding-like reflexes as well as suppression of sphincter

Manitoba, University of

121

Effect of head position on the dynamics of the upper esophageal sphincter and pharynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limitations in available technology it has been difficult to obtain data on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and pharyngeal (P) function under varying physiologic conditions. We used a manometry system with solid-state intraluminal transducers, including a circumferential sphincter transducer, and computer analysis to measure pressure changes in UES and P during wet (5 ml H2O) swallows as the head

June A. Castell; Donald O. Castell; Adeline R. Schultz; Susan Georgeson

1993-01-01

122

Simultaneous penile prosthesis and male sling/artificial urinary sphincter  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from urethral sphincteric deficiency is not an uncommon problem. The commonest etiology is intervention for localized prostate cancer and/or radical cystoprostatectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Despite advances in surgical technology with robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and nerve sparing techniques, the rates of ED and SUI remain relatively unchanged. They both impact greatly on quality of life domains and have been associated with poor performance outcomes. Both the artificial urinary sphincter and penile prosthesis are gold standard treatments with proven efficacy, satisfaction and durability for end-stage SUI and ED respectively. Simultaneous prosthesis implantation for concurrent conditions has been well described, mostly in small retrospective series. The uptake of combination surgery has been slow due in part to technical demands of the surgery and to an extent, a heightened anxiety over potential complications. This paper aims to discuss the technical aspect of concurrent surgery for both disease entity and the current published outcomes of the various surgical techniques with this approach. PMID:23202702

Lee, Dominic; Romero, Claudio; Alba, Frances; Westney, O Lenaine; Wang, Run

2013-01-01

123

Sphincter sparing resection of a large obstructive distal rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumour after neoadjuvant therapy with imatinib (Glivec).  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are generally rare but are known to be the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of a patient who presented with persistent obstructive gastrointestinal and urological symptoms, a sense of incomplete evacuation and bleeding per rectum. A colonoscopy was performed and a biopsy was taken of a submucosal mass in the distal rectum that revealed a GIST with positive KIT immunostaining. A positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan showed a large metabolically active distal rectal tumour of 8?cm with macroscopic invasion of surrounding structures. Neoadjuvant therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib (400?mg orally daily) was initiated and an excellent partial response consisting of a significant decrease in the size of the tumour with complete metabolic resolution was observed within 3?months. Six months after initiation of the neoadjuvant therapy a rectum resection with manual side-to-end coloanal anastomosis was performed. Pathology showed a GIST of 5?cm located 0.1?cm from the distal section plane. Our case shows that in patients with a large invasive distal rectal GIST, neoadjuvant imatinib therapy can facilitate anal sphincter sparing surgery. PMID:25572603

Kramp, Kelvin Harvey; Omer, Mohab Galal; Schoffski, Patrick; d'Hoore, Andre

2015-01-01

124

Effects of loperamide on anal sphincter function in patients complaining of chronic diarrhea with fecal incontinence and urgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of loperamide (4 mg tds) on the continence to a standard volume of rectally infused saline and anorectal manometry in 26 patients complaing of chronic diarrhea complicated by fecal incontinence and severe urgency. Each patient was treated for one week with loperamide (4 mg tds) and for one week with an identical placebo in a

Maria Read; N. W. Read; D. C. Barber; H. L. Duthie

1982-01-01

125

Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin for suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin is a potent inhibitor of the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings. It has previously been shown that it can effectively reduce lower oesophageal sphincter pressures both in animals and humans with achalasia. This study examined the hypothesis that locally injected botulinum toxin could also reduce sphincter of Oddi pressure in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Two patients with postcholecystectomy pain syndrome were diagnosed with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (by biliary manometry in one patient and by hepatobiliary scanning criteria in the other). Botulinum toxin was injected into the sphincter of Oddi, by a sclerotherapy needle passed through a duodenoscope. In the first patient, intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin reduced sphincter pressure by about 50%, an effect that was sustained for at least four months. In the second patient, intrasphincteric injection caused about a 50% improvement in bile flow, with normalisation of scintigraphy. Neither patient showed any sustained improvement in pain despite these objective findings. Both patients eventually had endoscopic sphincterotomy, which also did not result in symptomatic improvement in either patient. No side effects were seen. Intrasphincteric botulinum toxin is a simple and effective means of lowering sphincter of Oddi pressure. This technique has potential for being useful clinically. PMID:7959245

Pasricha, P J; Miskovsky, E P; Kalloo, A N

1994-01-01

126

Detrusor urethral sphincter dyssynergia: micturitional vesicourethral pressure profile patterns.  

PubMed

Vesicourethral static pressure recordings were attempted in patients with detrusor urethral sphincter dyssynergia. The technique consisted of recording vesicourethral pressures at successive points, commencing in the lower segment of the bladder during micturition. A small catheter with side holes was used for this purpose and static (lateral) pressure profile recordings were attempted during voiding. Successful static pressure recordings were obtained only in those patients who could expel urine as uninterrupted stream. Patients who could not void or those who could void only with interrupted stream have demonstrated profile patterns that required careful interpretation. The accuracy of urodynamic interpretation also depended upon careful clinical evaluation and awareness of the built-in artifacts of the technique. PMID:7176062

Yalla, S V; Yap, W; Fam, B A

1982-11-01

127

Congenital fibrolipoma of anal canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rare, congenital lipomatosis presents during first few months of life as large sub-cutaneous fatty masses on chest\\u000a with extension into skeletal muscle bundles. Only a few such cases have been reported in the literature. A rare case of congenital\\u000a fibrolipoma of anal canal in a 3-day-old male child is being documented in the present report.

S. K. Mathur; Richa Jindal; Sunita Singh; Nisha Marwah; K. Rattan; B. Arora

2003-01-01

128

Achilles Tendon Rupture  

PubMed Central

Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

2013-01-01

129

What Are the Key Statistics for Anal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for anal cancer? What are the key statistics about anal cancer? Anal cancer is fairly rare – ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

130

Treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia by pudendal nerve block in patients with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsai S-J, Lew HL, Date E, Bih L-I. Treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia by pudendal nerve block in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:714-7. Objective: To study the effects of pudendal nerve block with phenol on detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Before-after trial performed by using a consecutive sample. Setting: Rehabilitation hospital

Su-Ju Tsai; Henry L. Lew; Elaine Date; Liu-Ing Bih

2002-01-01

131

Total rectal resection and colo-anal anastomosis for low rectal tumours: comparative results in a group of young and old patients.  

PubMed

Rectal cancer incidence is increasing among the elderly who are more often considered for palliation rather than for surgical cure. Moreover, sphincter-sparing surgery is often avoided when treating the elderly. We report our experience on a consecutive series of 38 subjects, suffering from a lower third rectal tumour with a median distance of 5.6 cm from the anal verge (7 Dukes' A, 6 Dukes' B, 17 Dukes' C, 3 Dukes' D, 3 anastomotic recurrences and 2 large villous adenomas). All subjects were prospectively collected in a 2-year period and treated with total resection and colo-anal hand-sewn anastomosis on a J colic reservoir. 20 patients younger than 65 years and 18 over 65 years were matched for surgical complications, late morbidity, oncological and functional results but no statistical difference was found. Our hope is that a conservative approach in treating the low rectal tumours will progressively be accepted for elderly patients. PMID:7654436

Leo, E; Audisio, R A; Belli, F; Vitellaro, M; Baldini, M T; Mascheroni, L; Patuzzo, R; Rigillo, G; Rebuffoni, G; Filiberti, A

1994-01-01

132

Effect of general anaesthesia on transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in the dog.  

PubMed

This report investigates the hypothesis that gastro-oesophageal flow is modulated by central nervous activity. The hypothesis was examined using the canine model in which gastro-oesophageal flow was stimulated by gastric insufflation of air at 80 ml/min and central nervous depression was produced with the anaesthetic agents thiopentone, nitrous oxide and halothane. Duplicate paired studies were performed in four dogs, either unsedated or anaesthetized. Gastro-oesophageal flow was assessed manometrically by a sleeve catheter assembly and by pH electrode. Gastric compliance was assessed by inflation of a thin-walled, plastic bag. Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, the dominant mechanism of retrograde trans-sphincter flow in unsedated animals, was abolished by general anaesthesia. Retrograde flow of gas across the lower oesophageal sphincter in anaesthetized animals eventually occurred, but only after massive gastric distension and elevation of gastric pressure to lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. The effects observed could not be explained by a direct action of anaesthetic on the lower oesophageal sphincter or on the gastric wall. It is proposed that general anaesthesia results in blockade of the neural pathway responsible for transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation by withdrawal of facilitative higher centre activity. The findings have implications for the use of sedation in experimental studies on factors which control gastro-oesophageal reflux, and clinical application to the risk of tracheal aspiration during general anaesthesia. PMID:3250418

Cox, M R; Martin, C J; Dent, J; Westmore, M

1988-10-01

133

Results of salvage abdominoperineal resection for recurrent anal carcinoma following combined chemoradiation therapy.  

PubMed

Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy is the standard treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Failures are often not associated with distant recurrence and are therefore potentially amenable to salvage abdominoperineal resection. The aim of this study was to review our experience with abdominoperineal resection following failure of chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus. Between 1980 and 1998, 17 patients underwent salvage abdominoperineal resection following failure of chemoradiation therapy. Four patients were excluded from survival analysis because resection was performed with palliative intent. Survival curves were based on the method of Kaplan and Meier, and univariate analysis of predictive variables was performed using the log-rank test. Twelve patients underwent abdominoperineal resection for persistent disease and five patients for recurrent disease. No operative deaths occurred, but local complications including perineal wound infection and wound breakdown was seen in 8 of 17 patients and 6 of 17 patients, respectively. Patients undergoing omental flap reconstruction (n = 3) or no pelvic reconstruction (n = 5) had a higher incidence of perineal breakdown compared to those undergoing muscle flap reconstruction (n = 9) (P <0.05). The median follow-up time for the patients operated on with curative intent was 53 months. The 5-year actuarial survival was 47%. Potential prognostic factors that were not found to have an impact on survival included margin status of resection, sphincter invasion, and degree of differentiation. Only pathologic tumor size greater than 5.0 cm (P <0.001) and age over 55 years (P <0.05) adversely affected survival. Selected patients with recurrent or persistent anal carcinoma following chemoradiation therapy can be offered salvage abdominoperineal resection. This operation is associated with a high incidence of local wound complications, and muscle flap reconstruction should be considered when possible. Prolonged survival can be achieved in some patients following salvage resection for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. PMID:11985979

van der Wal, B C; Cleffken, B I; Gulec, B; Kaufman, H S; Choti, M A

2001-01-01

134

Technical Notes Anal. Chem. 1994,66, 418-423  

E-print Network

Technical Notes Anal. Chem. 1994,66, 418-423 Iridium-Based Ultramicroelectrode Array Fabricated.; Wightman, R. M. Anal. Chem. 1985,57, 1989-1993. (5) Baranski, A. S.Anal. Chem. 1987, 59, 661666. (6) Daniele, S.;Baldo, M. A.; Ugo, P.; Mauocchin, A. Anal. Chem.Acto 1989, (7) Kounavcs, S . P. And. Chem

Kounaves, Samuel P.

135

MEETING ABSTRACTS Open Access Persistence of anal squamous intraepithelial  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACTS Open Access Persistence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and anal HPV Background A high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) and HPV infection have been in a longitudinal study before starting a first-line regimen of cART. Each patient provided anal samples for cytol

Boyer, Edmond

136

116/126 numerical anal. computational PDEs, grad level topics  

E-print Network

116/126 numerical anal. computational PDEs, grad level topics ?W 43 complex anal. 20 prob. & stats F W F F S W XF 35/63 real anal. XFS WS W W F F FWS Markov models, derivatives 86 math. finance F 56, huge data analysis 76 topics in appl. W time series, special topics grad. func. anal., special topics

137

Expression of serotonin receptors in human lower esophageal sphincter  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter and vasoactive amine that is involved in the regulation of a large number of physiological functions. The wide variety of 5-HT-mediated functions is due to the existence of different classes of serotonergic receptors in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of multiple types of 5-HT receptor (5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT3AR, 5-HT4R, 5-HT5AR, 5-HT6R and 5-HT7R) in sling and clasp fibers from the human lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Muscle strips of sling and clasp fibers from the LES were obtained from patients undergoing esophagogastrectomy, and circular muscle strips from the esophagus and stomach were used as controls. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to investigate the expression of the various 5-HT receptor types. Messenger RNA for all seven 5-HT receptor types was identified in the sling and clasp fibers of the LES. At the mRNA level, the expression levels were highest for 5-HT3AR and 5-HT4R, and lowest for 5-HT5AR, 5-HT6R and 5-HT7R. At the protein level, the expression levels were highest for 5-HT3AR and 5-HT4R, followed by 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR; 5-HT7R was also detected at a low level. The expression of 5-HT5AR and 5-HT6R proteins was not confirmed. The results indicate that a variety of 5-HT receptor types can be detected in the human LES and probably contribute to LES function. PMID:25452775

LI, HE-FEI; LIU, JUN-FENG; ZHANG, KE; FENG, YONG

2015-01-01

138

Ghrelin as a novel locally produced relaxing peptide of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is a recently described acylated peptide, which works as a somatosecretagogue and has described effects on the smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle. We examined the production and effects of ghrelin on relaxation of the iris muscles. Contractile effects of 1-5 human ghrelin (frGhr, 10(-9)-6 x 10(-5)M) and 1-5 human des-octanoyl-ghrelin (d-frGhr; 10(-9)-6 x 10(-5)M) were tested on iris rabbit sphincter (n=11 frGhr; n=7 d-frGhr), dilator (n=6 frGhr; n=6 d-frGhr) and rat sphincter (n=6 frGhr; n=8 d-frGhr) precontracted muscles. On rabbit sphincter the effect of frGhr was also tested in presence of: i) L-NA (10(-5)M; n=7); ii) indomethacin (10(-5)M; n=7); iii) DLys(3)GHRP6 (10(-4)M; n=6); and iv) apamin+carybdotoxin (10(-6)M; n=6). Furthermore, on rabbit dilator the effect of frGhr was tested in presence of DLys(3)GHRP6 (10(-4)M; n=7). Finally, ghrelin mRNA production was assessed by "in situ" hybridization in Wistar rat eyes (n=8). In all muscles, frGhr promoted a concentration-dependent relaxation, maximal at 6 x 10(-5)M, 1.5-3 min after its addition, decreasing tension by 34.1+/-12.1%, 25.8+/-4.8% and 52.1+/-10.3% in the rabbit sphincter, dilator and rat sphincter, respectively. In the rabbit sphincter the relaxing effects of frGhr were: (i) enhanced in presence of DLys(3)GHRP6 (118.1+/-21.1%); (ii) blunted by indomethacin; and (iii) not altered by apamin+carybdotoxin (36.4+/-14.4%) or L-NA (52.4+/-11.4%). Relaxing effects of d-frGhr in rabbit (43.3+/-5.2%) and rat (77.1+/-15.3%) sphincter muscles were similar to those of frGhr. In rabbit dilator muscle, d-frGhr did not significantly alter active tension and the relaxing effect of frGhr was blunted by GHSR-1a blockage. Ghrelin mRNA was identified in iris posterior epithelium. In conclusion, ghrelin is a novel, locally produced, relaxing agent of iris dilator and sphincter muscles, an effect that is mediated by GHSR-1a in the former, but not in the latter. Furthermore, in the sphincter it seems to be mediated by prostaglandins, but not by NO or K(Ca) channels. PMID:16904667

Rocha-Sousa, A; Saraiva, J; Henriques-Coelho, T; Falcão-Reis, F; Correia-Pinto, J; Leite-Moreira, A F

2006-11-01

139

Videourodynamic and sphincter motor unit potential analyses in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Urinary dysfunction is a prominent autonomic feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), which is not only troublesome but also a cause of morbidity in these disorders. Recent advances in investigative uroneurology offer a better insight into the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate management for urinary dysfunction.?METHODS—twenty one patients with PD (15 men, six women, mean age 64 (49-76), mean disease duration 4 years (1-8 years), median Hoehn and Yahr grade 3 (1-4), all taking 300 mg/day of levodopa (100-500 mg)) and 15 with MSA (eight men, seven women, mean age 59 (48-72), mean disease duration 3 years (0.5-6 years)) were recruited. Videourodynamic and sphincter motor unit potential analyses in the patients with PD and MSA were carried out, looking for distinguishing hallmarks that might be useful in the differential diagnosis of these two diseases.?RESULTS—Urinary symptoms were found in 72% of patients with PD and in 100% with MSA. Filling phase abnormalities in the videourodynamic study included detrusor hyperreflexia in 81% of patients with PD and 56% with MSA, and uninhibited external sphincter relaxation in 33% of patients with PD and 33% of those with MSA. However, open bladder neck at the start of filling was not seen in patients with PD but was present in 53% of those with MSA, suggestive of internal sphincter denervation. Sphincter motor unit potential analysis showed neurogenic motor unit potentials in 5% of patients with PD and in 93% of those with MSA, suggestive of external sphincter denervation. On voiding, detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia was not seen in patients with PD but was present in 47% of those with MSA. Pressure-flow analysis showed that the Abrams-Griffiths number, a grading of urethral obstruction (outflow obstruction >40), in PD (40 in women and 43 in men) was larger than that in MSA (12 in women and 28 in men). Weak detrusor in PD (66% of women and 40% of men) was less common than that in MSA (71% of women and 63% of men). Postmicturition residuals >100 ml were absent in patients with PD but were present in 47% of patients with MSA.?CONCLUSION—Patients with PD had less severe urinary dysfunction with little evidence of internal or external sphincter denervation, by contrast with the common findings in MSA. The findings of postmicturition residuals >100 ml, detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, open bladder neck at the start of bladder filling, and neurogenic sphincter motor unit potentials are highly suggestive of MSA.?? PMID:11606669

Sakakibara, R; Hattori, T; Uchiyama, T; Yamanishi, T

2001-01-01

140

Blunt traumatic pericardial rupture.  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old man presented with left chest, head and limb injuries following a road traffic accident (RTA). Increasing haemodynamic instability necessitated an emergency left thoracotomy at which a complete rupture of the pericardium and herniation of the heart was found. After repair, the patient made an uneventful post-operative recovery. The aetiology, investigation and management of this rare injury is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7640832

Levine, A J; Collins, F J

1995-01-01

141

Anal melanosis diagnosed by reflectance confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Until now, in vivo reflectance-mode confocal microscopy (IVCM) has been applied only to pigmented lesions of the vulvar and oral mucosa, but not to anal mucosa lesions. We present the first case in which IVCM has been used to diagnose anal melanosis. Clinical and dermoscopic features were of concern while IVCM found the draped pattern already described for genital melanosis. IVCM adds information to the clinical and dermatoscopic examination and allows skin biopsies to be avoided. Further studies are needed to define the IVCM features of anal melanosis and to compare the performance of IVCM with the findings of histological examinations. PMID:24004266

Cinotti, Elisa; Chol, Christelle; Perrot, Jean Luc; Labeille, Bruno; Forest, Fabien; Cambazard, Frédéric

2014-11-01

142

Rupture of Renal Transplant  

PubMed Central

Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A.

2015-01-01

143

[An elastic ileostomy sphincter using an autologous small intestine muscle flap].  

PubMed

To achieve continence in ileostomies by free transplantation of small intestinal smooth muscle according to Schmidt failed frequently because of hemorrhagic necrosis of this graft. To safeguard intact vascularisation of the transplant flapped intestinal smooth muscle was used therefore in 15 dogs with ileostomy for sphincter replacements. Contrary to free grafts, histological studies of flapped small intestinal muscle cuffs show generally undisturbed healing. Furthermore, monitoring of electrical activities corroborate the viability of the graft. In continent animals, pressure studies show the presence of a high pressure zone in the sphincter canal. The positive pressure profile was maintained and contributes to appropriate closing of the ileostomy. Despite histological, manometrical and electrical criterions of viability of the artificial sphincter, nevertheless the continence achieved by this procedure remains limited because of the restricted ability to contract the small intestinal muscle and the lacking ileal compliance. PMID:6471993

Braun, J; Raguse, T; Hartung, R

1984-01-01

144

Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese ( ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

145

Radiofrequency energy delivery to the gastric cardia inhibits triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and gastroesophageal reflux in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Delivery of radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter and gastric cardia is a new endoluminal technique proposed for the treatment of reflux disease. The mechanisms by which it achieves its effects are unclear. The study assessed the effect of radiofrequency energy delivery to the gastric cardia on the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and gastroesophageal reflux

Michael S. Kim; Richard H. Holloway; John Dent; David S. Utley

2003-01-01

146

Location of bladder and urethral sphincter motoneurons in the male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).  

PubMed

Although the guinea pig is used widely in experimental medical research, including in studies on micturition control, the spinal origin of preganglionic parasympathetic bladder and somatic external urethral sphincter motoneurons is not known. In the male guinea pig using wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase and dextran Alexa Fluor 488/568 tracers, preganglionic parasympathetic bladder motoneurons were observed in the ventrolateral part of the intermediolateral cell group of the first sacral segment. The external urethral sphincter motoneurons were found to be located in the ventral horn of the first sacral segment, in a cell group corresponding with the nucleus of Onuf in cat and human. PMID:15147780

Kuipers, Rutger; Izhar, Zofiet; Gerrits, Peter O; Miner, Wesley; Holstege, Gert

2004-05-13

147

KRAS and BRAF mutations in anal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The EGF receptor (EGFR) is expressed in most cases of anal carcinomas. Anecdotal benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy has been reported in anal cancer and a negative correlation with Kirsten Ras (KRAS) mutation status has been proposed. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency and the prognostic value of KRAS and BRAF mutations in a large cohort of patients with anal cancer. One hundred and ninety-three patients with T1-4N0-3M0-1 anal carcinoma were included in the study. Patients were treated with curative (92%) or palliative intent (8%) between January 2000 and January 2010. KRAS mutations were detected using Therascreen(®) KRAS real-time PCR assay (Qiagen) and V600E or V600D/K BRAF mutations were uncovered using Pyrosequencing. The frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations was low; KRAS mutations were detected in 1.6% and BRAF mutations in 4.7% of the biopsies. No impact of KRAS or BRAF status on survival was found. In conclusion, both KRAS and BRAF mutations are rare in anal cancer. The low frequency of KRAS mutations support protocols exploring EGFR-targeted therapy in patients with metastatic anal cancer, while treatment with BRAF inhibitors might be relevant for only a very few patients. PMID:25244542

Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Geertsen, Poul Flemming; Havsteen, Hanne

2015-01-01

148

Nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORS) in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of counting nucleolar organiser region associated proteins (AgNORs) in the management of anal squamous neoplasia. METHOD: Using a silver staining technique for NOR associated proteins, 32 routinely processed paraffin wax embedded sections of anal epithelium were assessed. These consisted of normal anal epithelium (n = 9), anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades I (n = 5), and III (n = 13), and invasive squamous neoplasia of the anus (n = 5). RESULTS: The median AgNOR counts for every 100 cells are as follows: normal anal epithelium 2.15 (95% CI 1.89-3.94); AIN I 3.21 (95% CI 2.89-7.14); AIN III 4.32 (95% CI 4.00-8.10); and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus 5.51 (95% CI 2.48-10.62). There were significant differences between AgNOR counts in anal cancer and normal epithelium (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test)), AIN III and normal anal epithelium (p < 0.005), and AIN III and AIN I (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between AIN I and normal anal epithelium, anal cancer and AIN I, and anal cancer and AIN III. There was a considerable degree of overlap among the different groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the strong association between AgNOR values and degree of dysplasia, the variability within pathological grade may preclude the adoption of this technique on its own as a prognostic indicator. It may, however, be useful in conjunction with other markers of neoplastic growth such as c-myc oncogene amplification or overexpression as a marker of disease progression in AIN and invasive anal squamous cell cancer. Images PMID:1430259

Ogunbiyi, O A; Scholefield, J H; Sharp, F; Ginsberg, R; Rogers, K

1992-01-01

149

Ruptured Spleen as a Differential Diagnosis in Ruptured Tubal Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Two cases of traumatic biphasic or secondary splenic rupture are presented to demonstrate the clinical picture of an entity the obstetrician-gynecologist will be encountering more commonly in the future. The signs and symptoms of this condition figured prominently in the differential diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy. PMID:6737489

Weekes, Leroy R.

1984-01-01

150

RBMK pressure tube rupture assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Russian RBMK reactor core design consists of multiple parallel pressure tube channels that contain Zr clad, UO{sub 2} fuel pin bundles. These parallel channels are contained within graphite moderator blocks which are, in turn, contained within a sealed core cavity. Current safety evaluation efforts of the RBMK reactors have been concentrating in the area of tube ruptures within the core cavity and, in particular, multiple tube ruptures that could threaten the reactor core integrity. Tube rupture events result in a pressurization of the reactor core cavity. The original design overpressure for the cavity region was based on a single tube rupture, resulting in considerable margin to the top plate lift pressure. The top plate lift pressure is 3.1 bar, and a single tube rupture would result in approximately 1.4 bar. RBMK plant specific cavity pressure relief designs provide for between three and in simultaneous tube ruptures before exceeding the top plate lift pressure. Thus, current safety evaluations have begun to examine the potential for multiple tube ruptures that could exceed the current cavity pressure relief designs. One such scenario being examined is a partial rupture in a group distribution header that results in stagnated (low) flow to up to 40 pressure tubes. The subsequent fuel heatup in these reduced flow tubes could result in multiple tube ruptures beyond the design relief capacity of the core cavity. This paper examines several key issues in evaluating this transient, including: (1) the effects of low flow, (2) the effects of axial peaking, and (3) the effects of radial peaking, all relative to the time to tube rupture. These issues each play a significant role in attempting to evaluate the likelihood and severity of multiple tube ruptures for a partial group distribution header break.

Schmitt, B.E.; Tsiklauri, G.V.

1994-08-01

151

Temporally separated bilateral anal sac gland carcinomas in four dogs.  

PubMed

Anal sac gland carcinoma arising from the apocrine secretory epithelium in the anal sac wall, is locally invasive and highly metastatic. The majority of anal sac gland carcinomas are unilateral on presentation, but bilateral tumours have been identified. This case series presents the outcome of four unique cases of unilateral anal sac gland carcinoma which subsequently developed contralateral anal sac gland carcinoma 50 to 390 days after removal of the initial tumour. Median survival was 1035 days after initial diagnosis and 807 days after diagnosis of the second anal sac gland carcinoma. PMID:23659267

Bowlt, K L; Friend, E J; Delisser, P; Murphy, S; Polton, G

2013-08-01

152

Muscle-Derived Cells for Treatment of Iatrogenic Sphincter Damage and Urinary Incontinence in Men  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the urinary sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transplantation. Methods. 222 male patients with stress urinary incontinence and sphincter damage after uroloical procedures were treated with transurethral injection of autologous muscle-derived cells. The transplanted cells were investigated after cultivation and prior to application by immunocytochemistry using different markers of myogenic differentiation. Feasibility and functionality assessment was achieved with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Results. Follow-up was at least 12 months. Of the 222 treated patients, 120 responded to therapy of whom 26 patients (12%) were continent, and 94 patients (42%) showed improvement. In 102 (46%) patients, the therapy was ineffective. Clinical improvement was observed on average 4.7 months after transplantation and continued in all improved patients. The cells injected into the sphincter were at least ~50% of myogenic origin and representative for early stages of muscle cell differentiation. Conclusions. Transurethral injection of muscle-derived cells into the damaged urethral sphincter of male patients is a safe procedure. Transplanted cells represent different phases of myogenic differentiation. PMID:22919359

Gerullis, H.; Eimer, C.; Georgas, E.; Homburger, M.; El-Baz, A. G.; Wishahi, M.; Borós, M.; Ecke, T. H.; Otto, T.

2012-01-01

153

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had

C. J. Fowler; T. J. Christmas; C. R. Chapple; H. F. Parkhouse; R. S. Kirby; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

154

[Is sphincter-plasty for treatment of fecal incontinence in patients older than 60 justified?].  

PubMed

Overlapping sphincteroplasty is the method of choice for isolated anterior sphincter defects. Patients over 60 years of age can undergo this operation with similar good results as in younger patients. However, preoperative physiologic assessment of the pelvic floor is necessary for a good postoperative outcome. PMID:9101903

Pfeifer, J; Rabl, H; Uranüs, S; Wexner, S D

1996-01-01

155

Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.

2012-01-01

156

Initiation of Voiding in Humans: The Nature and Temporal Relationship of Urethral Sphincter Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe nature and sequence of events during the initiation phase of human micturition are unclear. Disagreement concerning the urethra sphincter response to detrusor contraction may stem from the functional extension of periurethral striated muscle to the bladder neck in many but not all individuals, and the methods used during conventional cystometry, in which individuals are asked to forestall urination for

Subbarao V. Yalla; Neil M. Resnick

1997-01-01

157

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: Psychosocial distress correlates with manometric dyskinesia but not stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To compare postcholecystectomy patients with Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dyskinesia and those with nor- mal SO motility to determine the psychosocial distress, gender and objective clinical correlates of dyskinesia, and contrast these findings with comparisons between SO stenosis and normal SO motility. METHODS: Within a cohort of seventy-two consecutive postcholecystectomy patients with suspected SO dys- function, manometric assessment identified

Ethelle Bennett; Peter Evans; John Dowsett; John Kellow

2009-01-01

158

Modeling rupture of growing aneurysms.  

PubMed

Growth and rupture of aneurysms are driven by micro-structural alterations of the arterial wall yet precise mechanisms underlying the process remain to be uncovered. In the present work we examine a scenario when the aneurysm evolution is dominated by turnover of collagen fibers. In the latter case it is natural to hypothesize that rupture of individual fibers (or their bonds) causes the overall aneurysm rupture. We examine this hypothesis in computer simulations of growing aneurysms in which constitutive equations describe both collagen evolution and failure. Failure is enforced in constitutive equations by limiting strain energy that can be accumulated in a fiber. Within the proposed theoretical framework we find a range of parameters that lead to the aneurysm rupture. We conclude in a qualitative agreement with clinical observations that some aneurysms will rupture while others will not. PMID:24359675

Balakhovsky, K; Jabareen, M; Volokh, K Y

2014-02-01

159

Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-04-01

160

Introducing the operation method for curing anal fistula by laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key to the treatment of anal fistula lies in scavenging the infected anal gland thoroughly, which is the source of anal fistula infection. The fistula tract at the internal orifice of the anal fistula is cut 1 cm using laser with the infectious source completely degenerated and the wound gassified and scanned. The residual distal fistula softens and disappears upon the action of organic fibrinolysin.

Ji, Bingzhi

1993-03-01

161

ccsd00002493, Alguns fenomens de continuaci o anal tica  

E-print Network

ccsd­00002493, version 1 ­ 6 Aug 2004 Alguns fenomens de continuaci#19;o anal#19;#16;tica en una;#16; obtinguda #19;es una continuaci#19;o anal#19;#16;tica (o tamb#19;e un prolungament anal#19;#16;tic) de f p : C 1 ! C ; direm tamb#19;e que f q : C 2 ! C #19;es una continuaci#19;o anal#19;#16;tica de f p : C 1

162

Randomized prospective trial comparing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by excising the anal mucosa to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by preserving the anal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the results of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients in whom the anal mucosa is excised by handsewn techniques to those in whom the mucosa is preserved using stapling techniques. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis requiring proctocolectomy. Controversy exists over whether preserving the transitional mucosa of the anal canal improves outcomes. METHODS: Forty-one patients (23 men, 18 women) were randomized to either endorectal mucosectomy and handsewn IPAA or to double-stapled IPAA, which spared the anal transition zone. All patients were diverted for 2 to 3 months. Nine patients were excluded. Preoperative functional status was assessed by questionnaire and anal manometry. Twenty-four patients underwent more extensive physiologic evaluation, including scintigraphic anopouch angle studies and pudendel never terminal motor latency a mean of 6 months after surgery. Quality of life similarly was estimated before surgery and after surgery. Univariate analysis using Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: The two groups were identical demographically. Overall outcomes in both groups were good. Thirty-three percent of patients who underwent the handsewn technique and 35% of patients who underwent the double-stapled technique experienced a postoperative complication. Resting anal canal pressures were higher in the patients who underwent the stapled technique, but other physiologic parameters were similar between groups. Night-time fecal incontinence occurred less frequently in the stapled group but not significantly. The number of stools per 24 hours decreased from preoperative values in both groups. After IPAA, quality of life improved promptly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stapled IPAA, which preserves the mucosa of the anal transition zone, confers no apparent early advantage in terms of decreased stool frequency or fewer episodes of fecal incontinence compared to handsewn IPAA, which excises the mucosa. Higher resting pressures in the stapled group coupled with a trend toward less night-time incontinence, however, may portend better function in the stapled group over time. Both operations are safe and result in rapid and profound improvement in quality of life. PMID:9230807

Reilly, W T; Pemberton, J H; Wolff, B G; Nivatvongs, S; Devine, R M; Litchy, W J; McIntyre, P B

1997-01-01

163

Anal fissure: the changing management of a surgical condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Chronic anal fissure is a common benign disorder that causes severe, sharp anal pain during defaecation. Fissures are generally associated with raised resting anal pressures, and treatments are aimed at reduction of these pressures. Surgical sphincterotomy is very successful at healing fissures but is associated with significant morbidity. Much work has gone into the development of new pharmacological agents

A. G. Acheson; J. H. Scholefield

2005-01-01

164

Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

2012-01-01

165

Anal. Chem. 1007, 59, 2747-2749 2747 ACKNOWLEDGMENT  

E-print Network

Anal. Chem. 1007, 59, 2747-2749 2747 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful for the computer curve,3,657. (2) Armstrong, D. W. Sep. Purif. M e W s 1985, 74, 213. (3)Armstrong, D. W.; Nome. F. Anal. Chem. 1081,53,1662. (4) Arunyanart, M.; Cline Love, L. J. Anal. Chem. 1084,56, 1557. (5) Dorsey, J. G. A

Zare, Richard N.

166

Creep Ruptures in Heterogeneous Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to rupture. We discover that the rupture time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of rupture prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths.

Nechad, H.; Helmstetter, A.; El Guerjouma, R.; Sornette, D.

2005-01-01

167

Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial ante- rior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and to allow dis- tinction of partial from complete ACL ruptures. Materials and methods. Eighty-eight patients were stud- ied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL ruptures, and 31 with complete ACL ruptures). MR

Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Leonard Petrus; Joong K. Lee

1995-01-01

168

HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer: current issues  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades...

Stanley, Margaret A; Winder, David M; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

2012-09-08

169

EARTHQUAKE RUPTURES ON ROUGH FAULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Natural fault surfaces exhibit roughness at all scales, with root-mean-square height fluctuations of order 10??3 to 10??2 times the profile length. We study earthquake rupture propagation on such faults, using strongly rate-weakening fault friction\\u000a and off-fault plasticity. Inelastic deformation bounds stresses to reasonable values and prevents fault opening. Stress perturbations\\u000a induced by slip on rough faults cause irregular rupture propagation

Eric M. Dunham; Jeremy E. Kozdon; David Belanger; Lin Cong

170

Measurement of anal pressure and motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fine open perfused system and a closed balloon system for the measurement of anal pressure and motility have been compared. Measurements were made in 40 normal subjects and 84 patients with haemorrhoids. The rate of perfusion had a marked effect on the recorded pressure and motility details. The motility pattern was seen most clearly with the balloon probe and

B D Hancock

1976-01-01

171

Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Anal Intercourse Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of anal intercourse and its associated risk behaviors in a sample of Midwestern, predominantly white rural adolescents. Most of the research on this activity has been local or regional studies, with urban East and West Coast racial and ethnic minority adolescents. Methods: A…

Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly; Ward, Britney

2011-01-01

172

Botulinum A toxin as a treatment of detrusor- sphincter dyssynergia in patients with spinal cord injury: MRI controlled transperineal injections  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To correlate clinical and urodynamic findings with MRI in patients with spinal cord injury and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia who were consecutively treated with transperineal injections of botulinum-A toxin (BTX-A) under EMG control.?METHODS—Six patients with spinal cord injury and upper motor neuron bladder dysfunction associated with detrusor- sphincter dyssynergia were prospectively analysed. One hundred international units (IU) BTX-A (Botox® in 1 ml normal saline without preservative) diluted 1 to 1 with 1 ml gadopentetate were injected transperineally under EMG control. MRI was started immediately after needle withdrawal.?RESULTS—In all six patients gadopentetate was located in the external urethral sphincter on MRI. In no patient did traces of gadopentetate appear in the perineal musculature located in the vicinity of the external urethral sphincter. No patient developed resistance to BTX-A. All patients showed an (ongoing) improvement of their voiding function after BTX-A injections.?CONCLUSIONS—Transperineal injections of BTX-A under EMG control are efficient in the release or amelioration of lower urinary tract obstruction due to detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in patients with spinal cord injury. Despite well described methods, EMG of the external urethral sphincter is difficult and it is not possible to definitively exclude false recordings of the surrounding perineal musculature. By the use of MRI it was shown that both the EMG recordings and transperineal injection method are precise.?? PMID:9343126

Schurch, B.; Hodler, J.; Rodic, B.

1997-01-01

173

Non-popliteal synovial rupture.  

PubMed

The ruptured popliteal synovial cyst is a common complication of chronic knee arthritis. In contrast, non-popliteal synovial rupture is less well recognized and may present a diagnostic dilemma. We report an 81-year-old woman who presented with chest wall pain and ecchymosis. Ultrasonography of the shoulder region readily diagnosed a dissecting parasynovial cyst. She developed the unusual complication of contralateral recurrence. Literature review revealed a small but important set of non-popliteal synovial ruptures in the regions of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, spine, hip, knee, and ankle. Local swelling, inflammation, ecchymosis, and nerve impingement may mimic other conditions. Awareness of the clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to avoid diagnostic confusion. Management data are limited to case reports of arthrocentesis, injection, and very rarely, surgery. PMID:19390451

Sit, Michelle; Higgs, Jay B

2009-06-01

174

What differentiates anal rapists from vaginal rapists?  

PubMed

During the daily assessment routine of the Federal Documentation Centre for Sexual Offenders, important differences between rapists who commit their offense through anal penetration and other rapists became apparent. The hypothesis following these findings assumed that these and offenders would show a more sexualized behaviour than other rapists. The following differences between these two groups could be shown: violence and hypersexual desire. And rapists show a significantly higher degree in both areas, whereas, on the other side, no difference concerning psychopathic behaviour of the offenders could be proved. The preliminary conclusions that could be drawn according to these results express that anal rapists are more sexualized and, furthermore, they have a more obsessive sex life. PMID:12971187

Neuwirth, Wolfgang; Eher, Reinhard

2003-08-01

175

Risk Factors for Anal HPV Infection and Anal Precancer in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men  

PubMed Central

Background.?Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM. Methods.?Our study included 305 MSM at an HIV/AIDS clinic in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health Maintenance Organization. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of risk factors comparing men without anal HPV infection; men with anal HPV infection, but no precancer; and men with anal precancer. Results.?Low CD4 count (<350 cells/mm3) and previous chlamydia infection were associated with an increased risk of carcinogenic HPV infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–10.40 and OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.16–15.51, respectively). History of smoking (OR, 2.71 95% CI, 1.43–5.14), duration, recency, and dose of smoking increased the risk of anal precancer among carcinogenic HPV-positive men but had no association with HPV infection. Conclusions.?We found distinct risk factors for anal HPV infection and anal precancer. Risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer are similar to established risk factors for cervical cancer progression. PMID:23908478

Schwartz, Lauren M.; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Lorey, Thomas S.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Luhn, Patricia; Gage, Julia C.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

2013-01-01

176

Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

2011-01-01

177

Ruptures of the rotator cuff.  

PubMed Central

Through the use of improved diagnostic techniques, including arthrography and arthroscopy, ruptures of the rotator cuff that previously might not have been recognized are now being identified more frequently. In most cases the symptoms are relatively mild and respond satisfactorily to rest and therapy. Occasionally, however, there is severe, persistent disability despite treatment. These ruptures require surgical repair. In such cases the data obtained from special investigations help the surgeon select the appropriate surgical approach and repair technique. An imaginative program of physiotherapy before and after the operation contributes greatly to a satisfactory result. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7437980

Ha'eri, G B

1980-01-01

178

Spontaneous Forniceal Rupture in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Forniceal rupture is a rare event in pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old primigravid woman who experienced a forniceal rupture at 23 weeks of gestation with no inciting cause except for pregnancy. Pregnancy is associated with ureteral compression due to increase in pelvic vasculature with the right ureter more dilated due to anatomic reasons. Hormones such as prostaglandins and progesterone render the ureter more distensible to allow for pressure build-up and an obstructive picture at the collecting system. We will discuss physiologic changes in pregnancies that predispose to this uncommon phenomenon and the most up-to-date management strategies. PMID:25648411

Upputalla, Roshni; Moore, Robert M.; Jim, Belinda

2015-01-01

179

Anal Cancer: An Examination of Radiotherapy Strategies  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9811, ACCORD-03, and ACT II Phase III trials in anal cancer showed no benefit for cisplatin-based induction and maintenance chemotherapy, or radiation dose-escalation >59 Gy. This review examines the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation (CRT) in anal cancer, and discusses potential alternative radiotherapy strategies. The evidence for the review was compiled from randomized and nonrandomized trials of radiation therapy and CRT. A total of 103 retrospective/observational studies, 4 Phase I/II studies, 16 Phase II prospective studies, 2 randomized Phase II studies, and 6 Phase III trials of radiotherapy or chemoradiation were identified. There are no meta-analyses based on individual patient data. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach for all stages of anal cancer is inappropriate. Early T1 tumors are probably currently overtreated, whereas T3/T4 lesions might merit escalation of treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy or the integration of biological therapy may play a role in future.

Glynne-Jones, Rob; Lim, Faye [Centre for Cancer Treatment, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

2011-04-01

180

Heterosexual anal intercourse: a neglected risk factor for HIV?  

PubMed

Heterosexual anal intercourse confers a much greater risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse, yet its contribution to heterosexual HIV epidemics has been under-researched. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of heterosexual anal intercourse practice worldwide and identify the information required to assess its role in HIV transmission within heterosexual populations, including input measures required to inform mathematical models. We then discuss the evidence relating anal intercourse and HIV with sexual violence. PMID:23279040

Baggaley, Rebecca F; Dimitrov, Dobromir; Owen, Branwen N; Pickles, Michael; Butler, Ailsa R; Masse, Ben; Boily, Marie-Claude

2013-02-01

181

Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: A Neglected Risk Factor for HIV?  

PubMed Central

Heterosexual anal intercourse confers a much greater risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse, yet its contribution to heterosexual HIV epidemics has been under researched. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of heterosexual anal intercourse practice worldwide and identify the information required to assess its role in HIV transmission within heterosexual populations, including input measures required to inform mathematical models. We then discuss the evidence relating anal intercourse and HIV with sexual violence. PMID:23279040

Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Dimitrov, Dobromir; Owen, Branwen N.; Pickles, Michael; Butler, Ailsa R.; Masse, Ben; Boily, Marie-Claude

2014-01-01

182

AcceleratedArticles Anal. Chem. 1995, 67, 3093-3100  

E-print Network

AcceleratedArticles Anal. Chem. 1995, 67, 3093-3100 Using Capillary ElectrophoresisTo Follow.T.Angew. Chem.,Int. Ed. Engl. (3) Kuhr, W. G.; Monnig, C. A. Anal. Chem. 1992,64, 389-407. (4) Novotny, M. V) Mazzeo,J. R; Martineau,J. A;Krull, I. S.Anal. Biochem. 1993,208,323- 329. (8) Cobb, K A; Novotny, M. V

Prentiss, Mara

183

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

2014-01-01

184

Heterogeneous rupture on homogenous faults: Three-dimensional spontaneous rupture simulations with thermal pressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand role of fluid on earthquake rupture processes, we investigated effects of thermal pressurization on spatial variation of dynamic rupture by computing spontaneous rupture propagation on a rectangular fault. We found thermal pressurization can cause heterogeneity of rupture even on a fault of uniform properties. On drained faults, tractions drop linearly with increasing slip in the same way everywhere.

Yumi Urata; Keiko Kuge; Yuko Kase

2008-01-01

185

Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results  

PubMed Central

Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

2014-01-01

186

Non-surgical treatments for anal fissure in adults.  

PubMed

An anal fissure is defined as a linear tear or ulcer of the anal mucosa. Patients typically describe a sharp pain 'like passing broken glass' on defaecation, followed by a burning pain in the anus lasting a few hours. Pain and bleeding during and after the passage of stool are the usual presenting features. Fissures are most common in young to middle-aged adults and are also commonly seen in pregnant and postpartum women. The lifetime incidence of anal fissure is around 11%. Here, we review the evidence on the efficacy and safety of non-surgical treatments for anal fissure. PMID:24030967

2013-09-01

187

Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management  

PubMed Central

Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

2014-01-01

188

Distal biceps and triceps ruptures.  

PubMed

Biceps and triceps tendon ruptures are rather uncommon injuries and are most commonly diagnosed clinically. Magnetic resonance imaging can help the clinician to differentiate an incomplete tear and define any degeneration of the tendon. Surgical anatomical repair is typically performed in acute complete ruptures whereas nonoperative treatment can be used for partial ruptures, as well as for patients unfit for surgery. Single incision techniques are associated with a higher rate of nerve injuries, while double incision repairs have a higher prevalence of heterotopic ossification. Although various fixation methods have been applied including bone tunnels, interference screws, suture anchors, cortical button fixation, the current evidence does not support the superiority of one method over the other. A well-planned postoperative rehabilitation programme is essential for a good final outcome. As better fixation devices are being used, more aggressive rehabilitation programmes have been applied. Epidemiology, clinical evaluation, diagnosis, surgical and conservative management of these injuries are presented in this review along with the authors' preferred technique for the anatomical repair of acute complete ruptures. PMID:23352149

Kokkalis, Zinon T; Ballas, Efstathios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Soucacos, Panayotis N

2013-03-01

189

Anal. Chem. 1990, 62, 875-877 075 Harris, Jr., W. C.; Chandra, S.; Morrison, G. H. Anal. Chem. 1983, 55,  

E-print Network

Anal. Chem. 1990, 62, 875-877 075 Harris, Jr., W. C.; Chandra, S.; Morrison, G. H. Anal. Chem. 1983, M. J.; Briggs, D.; Yoon, S. C.; Ratner; B. D. SIA, Surf. Inter- face Anal. 1087, IO,524. Hues. S. M.; Gardella, J. A.. Jr.; Schultz, T. M.; Salvati, L., Jr.; Patil, D. G. Anal. Chem., in press. Clark, M. B

Weidner, John W.

190

Anal. Chem. 1981, 53,1509-1512 1509 (4) Fernandez, F. J.; Myers, S. A.; Slavln, W. Anal. Chem. 1080, 52,  

E-print Network

Anal. Chem. 1981, 53,1509-1512 1509 (4) Fernandez, F. J.; Myers, S. A.; Slavln, W. Anal. Chem. 1080, 52, (5) Manning D. C.; Slavin, W. Anal. Chim. Acta 1080, 118, 301-306. (6) Slavin, W.; Manning, E). C) Hageman, L. R.; Nlchols, J. A.; Viswanedham, P.; Woodriff, R. Anal. Chem. 1070, 51, 1406-1412. (9

Zare, Richard N.

191

Anal findings in children with and without probable anal penetration: a retrospective study of 1115 children referred for suspected sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Interpreting the significance of anal findings in child sexual abuse can be difficult. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of anal features between children with and without anal penetration. This is a retrospective blinded review of consecutive charts of children seen for suspected sexual abuse at a regional referral center from January 1. 2005 to December 31. 2009 Based on predetermined criteria, children were classified into two groups: low or high probability of anal penetration. The charts of 1115 children were included, 84% girls and 16% boys with an age range from 0.17 to 18.83 years (mean 9.20 year). 198 children (17.8%) were classified as belonging to the anal penetration group. Bivariate analysis showed a significant positive association between the following features and anal penetration: Anal soiling (p=0.046), fissure (p=0.000), laceration (p=0.000) and total anal dilatation (p=0.000). Logistic regression analysis and stratification analysis confirmed a positive association of soiling, anal lacerations and anal fissures with anal penetration. Total anal dilation was significantly correlated with a history of anal penetration in girls, in children examined in the prone knee chest position and in children without anal symptoms. Several variables were found to be significantly associated with anal penetration, including the controversial finding of total anal dilatation. Due to limitations in the study design, this finding should still be interpreted with caution in the absence of a clear disclosure from the child. PMID:23618719

Myhre, Arne K; Adams, Joyce A; Kaufhold, Marilyn; Davis, Jennifer L; Suresh, Premi; Kuelbs, Cynthia L

2013-07-01

192

A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

2014-01-01

193

Centrally-Rupturing Squib-Closure Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of rupture disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of rupture disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.

Richter, R.

1986-01-01

194

The experience of artificial urinary sphincter implantation by a single surgeon in 15 years.  

PubMed

Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence owing to sphincter incompetence. We reviewed our experience in AUS implantation. From 1995 to 2009, 19 patients underwent 25 AUS implantations performed by a single surgeon. The cause of incontinence was sphincter incompetence, which was secondary to prostate surgery, neurogenic bladder, radiation, and post-traumatic urethral lesion. Twenty-three prostheses were placed in the bulbar urethra for male patients: 11 AUS cuffs were placed through the perineal approach and 12 through the penoscrotal approach. Two procedures were applied over the bladder neck for the female patients. Through a retrospective review of charts, continence and complications were analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 50.0 ± 42.9 months (range: 2-146 months). There were 16 successful surgeries (64%), and these patients were free from the need for a pad. In eight surgeries (32%), the devices were removed due to infection, while one implantation (4%) was unsuccessful due to perforation into the bulbar urethra. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024) in failure rates between patients who received radiotherapy (100%) and other patients (22.7%). There was no statistically significant difference in dry and revision rates (p > 0.05) between the perineal and penoscrotal approach. Accordingly, over half of the patients with total incontinence benefitted from AUS implantation. In consideration of the high failure rate for patients receiving radiotherapy, caution should be exercised in the use of implantation. Secondary implantation has a satisfactory success rate in selected patients. The same success rate was noted for both perineal and penoscrotal approaches. PMID:23465419

Shen, Yuan-Chi; Chiang, Po-Hui

2013-03-01

195

Physiological and Functional Evaluation of the Transposed Human Pylorus as a Distal Sphincter  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Studies evaluating the human pylorus as a sphincter are scanty and contradictory. Recently, we have shown technical feasibility of transposing the human pylorus for end-stage fecal incontinence. This unique cohort of patients provided us an opportunity to study the sphincter properties of the pylorus in its ectopic position. Methods Antro-pylorus transposition on end sigmoid colostomies (n = 3) and in the perineum (n = 15) was performed for various indications. Antro-pylorus was assessed functionally (digital examination, high resolution spatiotemporal manometry, barium retention studies and colonoscopy) and by imaging (doppler ultrasound, MRI and CT angiography) in its ectopic position. Results The median resting pressure of pylorus on colostomy was 30 mmHg (range 28-38). In benign group, median resting pressure in perineum was 12.5 mmHg (range 6-44) that increased to 21.5 mmHg (range 12-29) (P = 0.481) and 31 mmHg (range 16-77) (P = 0.034) on first and second follow-up, respectively. In malignant group, median post-operative pressures were 20 mmHg (range 14-36) and 21 mmHg (range 18-44) on first and second follow-up, respectively. A definite tone and gripping sensation were felt in all the patients on digital examination. On distal loopogram, performed through the diverting colostomies, barium was retained proximal to the neo-pyloric valve. Both perineal ultrasound and MRI showed viable transposed graft. CT angiography and color doppler studies confirmed vascular flow in the transposed position. Conclusions The human pyloric valve can function as a tonic sphincter when removed from the gastroduodenal continuity. PMID:22837874

Ghoshal, Uday C; Gupta, Vishal; Jauhari, Ramendra; Srivastava, Rajendra N; Misra, Asha; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Manoj

2012-01-01

196

Delayed anastomotic leakage following sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of patients who developed delayed anastomotic leakage\\u000a (DAL) following sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. We evaluated the following factors: (1) the incidence of DAL,\\u000a (2) the clinical features of patients who developed DAL, (3) the risk factors for DAL, and (4) treatment outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed the case histories of

Ui Sup Shin; Chan Wook Kim; Chang Sik Yu; Jin Cheon Kim

2010-01-01

197

Can a meta-analysis answer the question: is mucosectomy and handsewn or double-stapled anastomosis better in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis?  

PubMed

Although ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the procedure of choice for polyposis and ulcerative colitis with medically refractory disease or dysplasia, controversy exists concerning whether mucosal preservation with double-stapled (DS) IPAA is superior to mucosectomy and handsewn (HS) IPAA anastomosis for postoperative function. Prospective studies have shown no statistically significant differences. The use of meta-analysis can strengthen statistical power by combining the data from related studies. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in functional and manometric outcome between HS-IPAA and DS-IPAA. Prospective, randomized studies were identified using a literature search. Functional outcome variables included number of normal continence, minor incontinence, nocturnal evacuation, the ability to discriminate flatus from stool, and antidiarrheal medication. Manometric outcomes included postoperative resting and squeeze anal pressures. Four prospective, randomized trials were identified. Of the 184 total patients, the HS-IPAA group included 86 patients (48 men and 38 women) and the DS-IPAA group included 98 patients (49 men and 49 women). There were no significant differences in functional outcome between HS-IPAA and DS-IPAA. In addition, there was no significant difference in sphincter resting and squeeze pressures between the two patient groups. This meta-analysis demonstrates that DS-IPAA offers no advantage in functional or manometric outcome when compared with HS-IPAA. PMID:17058734

Schluender, Stefanie J; Mei, Ling; Yang, Huiying; Fleshner, Phillip R

2006-10-01

198

Pressing the nerve alters muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus in rats: Preliminary evidence for external anal sphincteroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have demonstrated that anal reconstruction with a gracilis graft pressing the dominant nerve could be used to treat fecal incontinence. However, the detailed mechanism by this remains unknown. Herein, we evaluated the alteration in muscle fiber types and contractility of the peroneus longus muscle in rats after pressing its dominant nerves. Material/Methods The rat soleus and peroneus longus were exposed during surgery. The superficial peroneal nerve was pressed so that the peroneus longus temporarily lost its innervation. The epimysium between the soleus and the peroneus longus was removed. The end point of the soleus was cut off and the epimysium of the contact surfaces of the soleus and the peroneus longus were sutured. Five months later, peroneus longus contractility was recorded by the myograph system, and types of muscle fibers were observed using the myosin ATPase staining method. Results The skeletal muscle fiber type underwent adaptive changes due to double innervations with both fast and slow muscle nerves. Compared with other groups, the percentage of type I fibers in the peroneus longus increased significantly in the group of rats with the pressure on the nerve and removal of the sarcolemma. The maximal contraction and relaxation time at the single twitch and complete tetanus of the peroneus longus were also increased. Conclusions Our results show that pressing dominant nerves alter the skeletal muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus, which lead to increased maximal contraction and relaxation time, and significantly improve the ability in resistance to fatigue in rats. This study provides a basis for future clinical studies for external anal sphincter reconstruction using gracilis grafts that are doubly innervated by pressing on its dominant nerve. PMID:24807024

Shi, Song; Liu, Hao; Bai, Xiaobin; Cao, Yongxiao

2014-01-01

199

Predicting the endpoints of earthquake ruptures.  

PubMed

The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop rupture propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake rupture. Here I examine the mapped surface rupture traces of 22 historical strike-slip earthquakes with rupture lengths ranging between 10 and 420 km. I show that about two-thirds of the endpoints of strike-slip earthquake ruptures are associated with fault steps or the termini of active fault traces, and that there exists a limiting dimension of fault step (3-4 km) above which earthquake ruptures do not propagate and below which rupture propagation ceases only about 40 per cent of the time. The results are of practical importance to seismic hazard analysis where effort is spent attempting to place limits on the probable length of future earthquakes on mapped active faults. Physical insight to the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process is further gained with the observation that the limiting dimension appears to be largely independent of the earthquake rupture length. It follows that the magnitude of stress changes and the volume affected by those stress changes at the driving edge of laterally propagating ruptures are largely similar and invariable during the rupture process regardless of the distance an event has propagated or will propagate. PMID:17108963

Wesnousky, Steven G

2006-11-16

200

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. We test this model with 450 small earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation effects. Our approach avoids directly modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest directivity <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity model but suggest that directivity is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S31A0181T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocities of Small Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whether the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of small earthquakes differs from those of large earthquakes has been a long- standing question in seismology. Recent proposals as to whether and how the physics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may change with earthquake size have sparked interest in the energy budget, which depends strongly on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity (Vr). Small earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities have proved difficult to determine due to the strong attenuation of high-frequency waves. We analyze P and S waves of small earthquakes to detect <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity and constrain Vr. We apply the projected Landweber deconvolution (PLD) method to a data set of 30 earthquakes 3.6<M<4.5 recorded by the HiNet seismic array. We use small aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGF) to deconvolve from the main shocks and obtain the relative source time functions (RSTF). The EGF approach removes the effects of complex structure between the earthquakes and the stations. Variation in RSTFs with azimuth yields estimates of Vr for 6 earthquakes from 0.4 to 0.9?. Our results are broadly consistent with those of Yamada and Mori (JGR, 2005) and McGuire (BSSA, 2004). We now explore the implications of the range in Vr for static stress drop (??), and the ratio of radiated energy to seismic moment, which are interrelated. Kanamori and Rivera (BSSA, 2004) discuss how Vr and ?? must change with earthquake moment, if the ratio of energy to moment ? increases with moment, as has been suggested by various studies. There is currently no consensus that such a change in this ratio truly occurs. The increase in the energy-to- moment ratio is controlled by the relation between moment and corner frequency, which has moment inversely proportional to corner frequency raised to the power (3 + ?). Data compiled in Kanamori and Rivera suggests ? of 0.5. Then Vr of 0.4 to 0.9? for M3 events require that ?? of M3 events range from 1 to 0.1 respectively, of that of M7 events. More constraints on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities of small earthquakes will help to resolve possible changes in the energy budget, and thus earthquake physics, with earthquake size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomic, J.; Houston, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1365160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lack of effect of a 5-HT3 antagonist, pancopride, on lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> pressure in volunteers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effects of pancopride (5 and 10 mg, intravenously), on lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> pressure (LOESP), were assessed in healthy volunteers by means of oesophageal manometry. After pancopride 10 mg, the LOESP was higher than placebo and 5 mg pancopride but there were no differences among the three treatments (P = 0.42). The areas under the curve were similar without differences, neither with absolute measurements (P = 0.53) nor after a baseline correction (P = 0.16). In conclusion, pancopride has no clinically relevant effect on lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> pressure. PMID:8554943</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grande, L; Lacima, G; Pérez, A; Zayas, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23329310"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Pelvic floor and <span class="hlt">anal</span> incontinence. Conservative therapy].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conservative treatment of fecal incontinence and obstructive defecation can be treated by many conservative treatment modalities. This article presents the options of medication therapy, spincter exercises, electric stimulation, transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, <span class="hlt">anal</span> irrigation and injection of bulking agents. These methods are presented with reference to the currently available literature but the evidence-based data level for all methods is low. For minor disorders of anorectal function these conservative methods can lead to an improvement of anorectal function and should be individually adapted. PMID:23329310</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kroesen, A J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25120160"> <span id="translatedtitle">A catheter-based acoustic interrogation device for monitoring motility dynamics of the lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents novel minimally-invasive, catheter-based acoustic interrogation device for monitoring motility dynamics of the lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES). A micro-oscillator actively emitting sound wave at 16 kHz is located at one side of the LES, and a miniature microphone is located at the other side of the <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> to capture the sound generated from the oscillator. Thus, the dynamics of the opening and closing of the LES can be quantitatively assessed. In this paper, experiments are conducted utilizing an LES motility dynamics simulator. The sound strength is captured by the microphone and is correlated to the level of LES opening and closing controlled by the simulator. Measurements from the simulator model show statistically significant (p < 0.05) Pearson correlation coefficients (0.905 on the average in quiet environment and 0.736 on the average in noisy environment, D.O.F. = 9). Measuring the level of LES opening and closing has the potential to become a valuable diagnostic technique for understanding LES dysfunction and the disorders associated with it. PMID:25120160</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Qian; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Sadowski, Daniel C; Mintchev, Martin P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3997679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary anorectal malignant melanoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>-sparing surgery: A case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary anorectal (PA) malignant melanoma (MM) is a rare disease associated with a high mortality rate. The most appropriate treatment strategy for PAMM remains controversial. A 55-year-old female patient, who was misdiagnosed with locally advanced rectal carcinoma, was treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent oral capecitabine. During the therapy, grade 1 leukopenia occurred, however, there was no interruption to treatment. Following chemoradiotherapy, a computer tomography scan identified that the tumor had shrunk significantly and the original enlarged lymph nodes had disappeared. Eight weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy, <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>-sparing surgery was performed on the patient and based on the postoperative pathological result, MM was diagnosed. At the time of writing, the patient has survived disease-free for 15 months and at the most recent follow-up examination the Karnofsky Performance Scale score was 100. The therapeutic regimen of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy together with <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>-sparing surgery is considered to be an optimal choice for patients with PAMM. However, further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and clinical utility of this therapeutic regimen. PMID:24765186</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SU, MENG; ZHU, LUCHENG; LUO, WENHUA; WEI, HANGPING; ZOU, CHANGLIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4178998"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Catheter-Based Acoustic Interrogation Device for Monitoring Motility Dynamics of the Lower Esophageal <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents novel minimally-invasive, catheter-based acoustic interrogation device for monitoring motility dynamics of the lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES). A micro-oscillator actively emitting sound wave at 16 kHz is located at one side of the LES, and a miniature microphone is located at the other side of the <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> to capture the sound generated from the oscillator. Thus, the dynamics of the opening and closing of the LES can be quantitatively assessed. In this paper, experiments are conducted utilizing an LES motility dynamics simulator. The sound strength is captured by the microphone and is correlated to the level of LES opening and closing controlled by the simulator. Measurements from the simulator model show statistically significant (p < 0.05) Pearson correlation coefficients (0.905 on the average in quiet environment and 0.736 on the average in noisy environment, D.O.F. = 9). Measuring the level of LES opening and closing has the potential to become a valuable diagnostic technique for understanding LES dysfunction and the disorders associated with it. PMID:25120160</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Qian; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Sadowski, Daniel C.; Mintchev, Martin P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32923998"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oral Nifedipine in the Treatment of Chronic <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Fissure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effect of oral nifedipine on maximal resting <span class="hlt">anal</span> pressure (MRAP) in healthy volunteers and to evaluate its role in the treatment of chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure (CAF). Methods: MRAP was measured in 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with CAF before and after oral nifedipine (20 mg b.i.d.). Patients were assessed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salahattin Cengiz; Mithat Kerim Arslan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29097470"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> function in geriatric patients with faecal incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The association of faecal incontinence with constipation and confusion in the elderly is well recognised but the <span class="hlt">anal</span> function of faecally incontinent geriatric patients is poorly understood. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> studies were therefore performed on 99 geriatric patients (49 with faecal incontinence, 19 continent patients with faecal impaction and 31 geriatric control patients with normal bowel habit) and 57 younger healthy control</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J A Barrett; J C Brocklehurst; E S Kiff; G Ferguson; E B Faragher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3996744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single incision laparoscopic surgery - trans <span class="hlt">anal</span> endoscopic microsurgery: A technological innovation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trans <span class="hlt">anal</span> endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) first burst upon the scene several decades ago and then underwent a period of immersion. We have herein reported our experience in two cases who underwent TEM using laparoscopic techniques. The advent of single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has made great inroads into various fields of general and gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. We decided to make use of the same technique in TEM for two patients who had large sessile villous adenomas of the rectum. We used this port and fixed it transanally to the edge of the anus. Carbon dioxide used for insufflation in laparoscopic surgery was used through one of the ports, and a telescope was inserted to the larger port. We made sure that the entire polyp was cut out completely until the circular muscle of the internal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> was clearly exposed. Next, the cut edges of the rectum were undermined between the mucosa and the circular muscles in order to bring the cut edges closer together. We were able to perform this SILS TEM in two cases. In both the cases, well differentiated villous adenoma (colonoscopically, biopsy proven before surgery) was confirmed after excision. The question has been raised whether TEM is the new laparoscopy for anorectal surgery. Increasingly, several reports are showing promise for treatment for early stage cancers and large rectal adenomas using TEM. Adoption of our technique using the SILS port that has not been previously described in medical literature, seems to be a promising tool for the future. TEM first burst upon the scene several decades ago and then under went a period of immersion. In recent years, with the onset of laparoscopic surgery, the thoughts and the ideas of using a laparoscopic surgical technique have invaded the area of colorectal cancer as well. We have herein reported our experience in two cases who underwent TEM using laparoscopic techniques. PMID:24761088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, Neha; Sasikumar, Pattabi; Rajkumar, Janavikula Sankaran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following endoscopic polypectomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 70-year-old man presented with two medium-sized colon polyps at the office of a gastroenterologist. After endoscopic polypectomy in a hospital, the patient was admitted to another hospital because of collapse and increasing abdominal pain. CT scan revealed hematoperitoneum and splenic subcapsular hematoma. Laparotomy with splenectomy was performed because of extended splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The postoperative course was unremarkable except late wound dehiscence. PMID:20352593</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedmann, M W; Kater, F; Böhm, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3015800"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Spleen Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally a safe and well-accepted procedure. However, in a small percentage of patients, it is associated with complications, such as bleeding and injury to the bile duct and other viscera. Splenic injury as a result of laparoscopic surgery has been reported only in the context of direct trauma, for example due to retraction in hand-assisted urologic surgery. To date, there have been no reported cases of patients requiring splenectomy following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We report an unusual case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen presenting less than 28 days following “uncomplicated” laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: A 52-year-old female presented to our Accident and Emergency department 3 weeks following “uncomplicated” laparoscopic cholecystectomy, complaining of severe left upper quadrant pain radiating to the left shoulder tip. Clinical examination revealed a patient in hypovolemic shock, with localized left upper quadrant peritonism. Abdominal computed tomography supported a diagnosis of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the patient required an emergency splenectomy. Discussion: Splenic injury rarely complicates laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We postulate that either congenital or posttraumatic adhesions of the parietal peritoneum to the spleen may have caused the capsule to tear away from the spleen when the pneumoperitoneum was established, resulting in subcapsular hematoma and subsequent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in this patient. Videoscopic assessment of the spleen at the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy might be a worthwhile exercise to aid early recognition and management in such cases. PMID:17651581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leff, Daniel; Nortley, Mei; Melly, Lucy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground motion hazard from supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An idealized <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, propagating smoothly near a terminal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, radiates energy that is focused into a beam. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity less than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in a beam of intense fault-normal velocity near the projection of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> trace. Although confined to a narrow range of azimuths, this beam diverges and attenuates. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity greater than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in Mach waves forming a pair of beams propagating obliquely away from the fault. These beams do not attenuate until diffraction becomes effective at large distance. Events with supershear and sub-Rayleigh <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity are compared in 2D plane-strain calculations with equal stress drop, fracture energy, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length; only static friction is changed to determine the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. Peak velocity in the sub-Rayleigh case near the termination of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is larger than peak velocity in the Mach wave in the supershear case. The occurrence of supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation reduces the most intense peak ground velocity near the fault, but it increases peak velocity within a beam at greater distances. ?? 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32899428"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of atropine on the frequency of reflux and transient lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> relaxation in normal subjects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background & Aims Low basal lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES) pressure is believed to be an important mechanism of reflux. The effects of atropine on the frequency and mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux under the experimental conditions of a low basal LES pressure in 13 normal subjects were studied. Methods LES pressure, esophageal pressures, esophageal pH, and crural diaphragm electromyogram were recorded</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ravinder K. Mittal; Richard Holloway; John Dent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early second trimester uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> uterus. PMID:24326433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23157060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic hemangioma in puerperium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare clinical entity and in the absence of trauma, the diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. In this article the authors discuss a case of a 45-year-old woman, gravida 5, para 4, with spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on her second postpartum day. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was related to a splenic hemangioma that is a vascular malformation and the most common neoplasm of the spleen. Despite the fact that hemangiomas are the most common primary neoplasms of the spleen, only few cases of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been described in pregnancy or puerperium. However, spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare event and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be suspected in woman with unexplained abdominal pain or with clear signs of haemorrhage. PMID:23157060</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carta, G; D'Alfonso, A; Nallbani, A; Palermo, P; Franchi, V; Patacchiola, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4205863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following perforating trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The immediate death rate for aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by pointed and sharp-edged instruments is very high; however, delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following the trauma is rarely reported. A patient who had an upper abdominal stab wound was sent to our hospital, and an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. No traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was found at that time. However, on the fifth day after surgery, aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma was formed. The patient eventually died. Aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was confirmed by a second emergency exploratory laparotomy and the autopsy. The information from exploratory laparotomies, post-operative observations and treatments, medical imaging reports, and reasons for delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as well as the underlying pathophysiological processes, are discussed in this case report. PMID:25405156</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/476.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66, 303-306 End-Column Chemiluminescence Detector for Capillary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66, 303-306 End-Column Chemiluminescence Detector for Capillary Electrophoresis Ra of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214. (1) Jorgenson, J. W.; Lukacs, K. D. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem,S. L., Jr.; a r e ,R. N.; Quint,J. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1989,61, 1642-1647. (7) Kobayashi, S I . ; Imai, K. <span class="hlt">Anal</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730014827&hterms=sigma+nickel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%257Bsigma%257D5%2Bnickel"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of cryogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55514236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying uncertainty in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using dynamic and kinematic models, we analyze the ability of GPS and strong-motion data to recover the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of earthquakes. By analyzing the near-source ground-motion generated by earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> through barriers and asperities, we determine that both the prestress and yield stress of a frictional inhomogeneity can be recovered. In addition, we find that models with constraints on <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan T. Page</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neck curve polynomials in neck <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25199188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of uterine leiomyoma during labour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The incidence of AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has increased in recent decades. AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1027863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individual motor unit analysis in the diagnosis of disorders of urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> innervation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique is described for recording the electromyographic activity of striated muscle in the urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>. Using a concentric needle electrode and an oscilloscope with a delay line and trigger, individual motor units were isolated and measured. To validate the method as a means of detecting pathology, the results are presented of analysis of the motor units of a group of patients with disturbances of micturition, known to have either cauda equina lesions or pelvic nerve injury. These results are compared with those from a group of controls. In the control group 93% of the motor units were less than 6 ms in duration and 2.0 mv in amplitude. Of motor units recorded from patients with cauda equina or pelvic nerve injury 59% exceeded the control ranges for amplitude or duration. It is concluded that quantitative analysis of individual motor units may be a helpful technique in the investigation of patients with disorders of micturition. PMID:6736998</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fowler, C J; Kirby, R S; Harrison, M J; Milroy, E J; Turner-Warwick, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12503268"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Duspatalin in functional disorders of the Oddi's <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> in patients subjected cholecystectomy].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There was an examination of 20 patients who had cholecystectomy and have dysfunctional disorders of the Oddi's <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>. All of the patients underwent the monotherapy with Mebeverine Retard in the dosage of 200 mg twice a day. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the dynamics of clinical symptoms, results of the study of biochemical blood indices, data of the ultrasonic examination, and intragastric pH measurement. A positive dynamics was observed against the background of the preparation administration, and it became apparent from the disappearance or reduction of pains strength, dyspeptic manifestations, normalization or improvement of biochemical blood indices, and reduction of the common bile duct lumen width according to the ultrasonic examination data. PMID:12503268</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Il'chenko, A A; Bystrovskaia, E V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230038"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preservation of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch <span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis; these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation. PMID:19230038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Fichera, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2653377"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preservation of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch <span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis; these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation. PMID:19230038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Fichera, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNEng...8c6001O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> EMG-controlled dorsal penile/clitoral nerve stimulation to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this study was to investigate whether real-time external urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (EUS) EMG-controlled dorsal genital nerve (DGN) stimulation can suppress undesired detrusor bladder contractions in patients with both neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and detrusor <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> dyssynergia (DSD). Detrusor pressure (Pdet) and EUS EMG were recorded in 12 neurogenic patients who underwent two filling cystometries. The first one was without stimulation and was intended to confirm the NDO and DSD and to set the EMG detection threshold. The second one was with real-time EMG-controlled stimulation of DGNs. Two detection methods were analyzed to detect bladder contractions. The first method was a Kurtosis-scaled root mean square (RMS) detector and was used on-line. The second was a simple RMS detector and was used off-line. Of 12 patients included, 10 patients showed both NDO and DSD. In nine of these ten patients relevant EMG concomitant to detrusor activity was detected and stimulation could suppress at least one detrusor contraction. The second filling compared to the first one showed an increase of 84% in bladder capacity (p = 0.002) and a decrease of 106% in Pdet (p = 0.002). Nine false-positive detections occurred during the ten fillings with electrical stimulation. The mean increases of both time and Pdet between stimulation and bladder contraction onsets for method 1 were 1.8 s and 4 cmH2O and for method 2 were 0.9 s and 2 cmH2O, respectively. This study shows that EUS EMG can be used in real time to detect the onset of a bladder contraction. In combination with DGN stimulation has been shown to be feasible to suppress undesired bladder contractions and in turn to increase bladder capacity in subjects with both NDO and DSD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Opisso, E.; Borau, A.; Rijkhoff, N. J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/results/summary/2013/electrocautery-anal-precancer0413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Lesions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous <span class="hlt">anal</span> lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rgmlab.chem.uconn.edu/publications-pdf/LEAFSProgress-TrAC-1998.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">[ 44] G.R. Long, S.E. Bialkowski, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 56 (1984) [ 45] S.E. Bialkowski, G.R. Long, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 59 (1987) 873.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">[ 44] G.R. Long, S.E. Bialkowski, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 56 (1984) 2806. [ 45] S.E. Bialkowski, G.R. Long, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 59 (1987) 873. [ 46] X.R. Zu, J.M. Harris, J. Phys. Chem. 93 (1989) 75. [ 47] X.R. Zu, D.J. McGraw, J.M. Harris, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 64 (1992) 710A. [ 48] A. Chartier, S.E. Biakowski, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 67</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michel, Robert G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28948520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical repair of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the surgical results of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the Achilles ten don treated from 1973 to 1984 to determine the causes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and to evaluate our treatment methods. Patients were divided into early and late repair groups and their charts reviewed to determine common clinical features. A new method of repair with early functional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James L. Beskin; Richard A. Sanders; Stephen C. Hunter; Jack C. Hughston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54098453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the endpoints of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here I examine the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven G. Wesnousky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770822"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective <span class="hlt">Anal</span> cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer. PMID:23781623</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28712993"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mucosal advancement in the treatment of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred eighty-nine patients with <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistula treated within an eight-month to seven-year period by <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistulectomy\\u000a and rectal mucosal advancement are presented. An 80 percent follow-up revealed a 90 percent asymptomatic group and a ten percent\\u000a group who had minor symptoms. Eight percent of the symptomatic patients had minor soiling; 7 percent were incontinent for\\u000a gas, and 6 percent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedro S. Aguilar; Gustavo Plasencia; Thomas G. Hardy; Rene F. Hartmann; William R. C. Stewart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42558560"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceptions of <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex in rural South Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the Microbicides Development Programme, we conducted formative research to explore perceptions of <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex at a site in rural KwaZulu?Natal. We were interested in the practice of <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex because of its potential role in HIV transmission. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with men and women from rural areas and in a semi?urban township. Participants were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catherine Ndinda; Chiweni Chimbwete; Nuala McGrath; Robert Pool</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.216...53X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes for reverse faults?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Chong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9115820"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Anal</span> epidermoid carcinoma: a rare incidence or a rare diagnosis?].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epidermoid cancer of the anus is a rare entity which represents 1-2% of all gastrointestinal tract cancers. Possible predisposing causes include smoking and sexual behaviour, particularly homosexual <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse, chronic inflammation (Crohn, <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistula, fissure, sepsis, hydradenitis suppurativa), and transmissible agents (human papillomavirus type 16 y 18, condylomata acuminata). Another factor is the genetic, which may be related to changes in chromosome 11 and the sort arm of chromosome 3. The aetiology of <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinoma is a multifactorial interaction between environmental factors. HPV infection, immune status and suppressor genes. We report on three cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus seen in our Unit of Proctology. One patient with widespread perianal hydradenitis suppurativa. Another one in a patient VIH+ with <span class="hlt">anal</span> human papillomavirus infection, in situ cervix cancer and condylomata acuminata of the vulva and anus. A third case, a man with haemorrhoids. Is addition, constant irritation, chronic inflammatory changes, and repeated epithelial regeneration that accompany noninfectious conditions may be related to risk of <span class="hlt">anal</span> epidermoid cancer. It is important that this cancer is kept in mind. It is unforgivable that a cancerous lesion that can be suspected in a simple inspection or rectal digital examination be attributed, to a benign <span class="hlt">anal</span> condition. PMID:9115820</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prieto Reyes, M; Vázquez Márquez, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://planetary.chem.tufts.edu/Publication-pdfs/ac1986v58p3199.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1906, 58, 3199-3202 3199 (11) Zhang, M. Y.; Liang, X. Y.; Chen, Y. Y.; Liang, X. G. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 56,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1906, 58, 3199-3202 3199 (11) Zhang, M. Y.; Liang, X. Y.; Chen, Y. Y.; Liang, X. G. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 56, (12) Tabet, J. C.; Jablonskl, M.; Cotter, R. J.; Hunt, J. E. Int. J. Mass (13) Brown, R-13, 1986. (18) Tembrueii, R.; Lubman, D. M. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1986, 58,1299-1303. (19) Johnson, J. V.;Britton, E</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kounaves, Samuel P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897340"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Rare Case of Granular Cell Tumor of the <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Region: Diagnostic Difficulty to Masses in the <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Granular cell tumor may be located anywhere in the body; however, the gastrointestinal tract is infrequently involved and <span class="hlt">anal</span> granular cell tumors are extremely rare. We report herein a rare case of granular cell tumor in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> region. In the current case, a 66-year-old Japanese woman was found to have a polypoid lesion in the anus with hemorrhoids. The mass detected as an <span class="hlt">anal</span> polypoid lesion with ulceration was resected and diagnosed as granular cell tumor by histologic examination. Granular cell tumor of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> region is rare, and benign perianal polypoid lesions are relatively uncommon clinical findings. They might present diagnostic challenges to surgeons and pathologists. Awareness of the differential diagnosis of granular cell tumor and careful microscopic examination might allow proper management and diagnosis. PMID:24444268</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujii, Takaaki; Morita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10930221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional outcome of stapled ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> canal anastomosis versus handsewn pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to determine whether stapled ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> canal anastomosis (IACA) preserving the <span class="hlt">anal</span> transitional zone (ATZ) or hand-sewn ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis with mucosectomy (IPAA) is more beneficial in achieving disease eradication and better postoperative function. IACA was performed in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 10 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), 15 of whom were examined proctoscopically. IPAA was performed in 4 patients with UC and 8 patients with FAP. The mean maximum resting pressure (MRP) was 55 mmHg in the IACA group and 34 mmHg in the IPAA group (P < 0.01). The anorectal inhibitory reflex was positive in 18 patients (90%) from the IACA group and 5 (42%) from the IPAA group (P < 0.05). The pre- and postoperative MRPs were 61 mmHg and 55 mmHg, respectively, in the IACA group vs 63 mmHg and 34 mmHg, respectively, in the IPAA group (P < 0.01). Whereas 16 (80%) of the 20 IACA patients could discriminate feces from gas, only 4 (33%) of the 12 IPAA patients could (P < 0.05). The mean observation period was 2.3 years, the mean length of the columnar cuff was 2.8 cm, and no case of dysplasia or adenoma was seen. Postoperative function is more favorable following IACA than following IPAA, both physiologically and symptomatically. However, long-term surveillance of the residual mucosa is necessary before making a final recommendation. PMID:10930221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saigusa, N; Kurahashi, T; Nakamura, T; Sugimura, H; Baba, S; Konno, H; Nakamura, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19843435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> commonly affect middle-aged athletes and can result in considerable functional impairment. While the cause is multifactorial, the greatest risk is present for athletes involved in sports that involve sudden acceleration and deceleration. A thorough history and physical examination can accurately yield a diagnosis, but when question remains, magnetic resonance imaging is superior to ultrasound-guided evaluation. The best evidence available suggests that operative treatment has a lower rate of rerupture, a higher rate of return to the same level of sport participation, and a higher complication rate, if an open technique is used. Percutaneous methods of fixation have lower complication rates without an increase in the rate of rerupture when compared with open methods. Augmentation of an Achilles tendon repair has demonstrated no clinical benefit. Rehabilitation with early mobilization leads to improved patient-reported outcomes. PMID:19843435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deangelis, Joseph P; Wilson, Kristina M; Cox, Charles L; Diamond, Alex B; Thomson, A Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2777620"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Surgery of traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, surgery and results of patients with acute traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta in a series of 21 consecutive patients. Direct cross-clamping without additional methods of spinal cord protection was used in 18/21 patients (86%). Direct suture was possible in 12/21 patients (60%). In the remaining patients, the repair was carried out by interposition of a Dacron graft. Overall mortality was 7/21 patients (33%). However, in 3 patients with severe polytrauma irreversible brain damage was the cause of death whereas 2 patients died from septicemia and myocardial infarction, respectively. No paraplegia nor paraparesis occurred in the surviving patients which were operated by direct cross-clamping of the aorta and rapid reanastomosis without additional methods of spinal cord protection. PMID:2777620</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Segesser, L; Schneider, K; Siebenmann, R; Glinz, W; Turina, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1028539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decelerating burst and complex repetitive discharges in the striated muscle of the urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>, associated with urinary retention in women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A type of electromyographic activity, formerly referred to as "pseudomyotonia", can be recorded from the striated muscle of the urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> using a concentric needle electrode. There are two components to this activity, complex repetitive discharges and decelerating bursts. The latter usually dominate recordings and sound very like myotonic discharges. Analysis of these discharges indicates that they are a form of "bizarre repetitive discharge", and as such, result from ephaptic spread of excitation between muscle fibres rather than from excitation arising in the terminal branches of the motor axon. Profuse activity of this type has been found in 15 women with symptoms of urethral dysfunction, including 11 with urinary retention. It is suggested that this activity is associated with a failure of urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> relaxation. Images PMID:4056803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fowler, C J; Kirby, R S; Harrison, M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S43A1056H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics: Effect of Small Size Strength Heterogeneity on Earthquake Size, Slip Distribution and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geological data and kinematic inversions of seismological data show that the overall shapes of slip profile along strike present long linear slopes (Manighetti et al., J. Geophys. R, 2005). <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> dynamics of a homogeneous friction properties fault do not lead to such slip distribution. We tried to retrieve this feature using a direct modelling of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, performing 3D simulations with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation, dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, and finally, self <span class="hlt">rupture</span> arrest (without a priori knowledge of the final size of the event). This last characteristic was obtained by imposing fault resistance to be infinite on some randomly sized and localized small patches. We found that small size heterogeneities, which cannot be identified by kinematic inversions using low frequency signal and hence only describing large-scale properties of earthquakes, might have a great influence on the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: -For statistically identical random realizations of barrier distribution, we obtain a great variability of event size, with a majority of small events and a few realizations leading to the entire fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. -The arrest of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by the distributed barrier leads, in general, final slip distribution to decay almost linearly from the zone of maximum slip. -Whereas, on an homogeneous model, one could observe a jump from subshear to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation velocity, with small barriers but the same slip-weakening law parameters (stress drop, strength excess & Dc), the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can keep propagating at subshear velocities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hok, S.; Campillo, M.; Cotton, F.; Manighetti, I.; Favreau, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70137547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation. A dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near?fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (? see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> computer simulation codes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684220"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current treatment options for management of <span class="hlt">anal</span> intraepithelial neoplasia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade <span class="hlt">anal</span> intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for <span class="hlt">anal</span> dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of <span class="hlt">anal</span> stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic inflammatory response. Successful treatment requires adherence to a regime that is uncomfortable at best and at worst painful. Topical treatments can be successful in motivated adherent patients willing to accept these side effects. PMID:23788834</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weis, Stephen E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~amir1/PS/Coarse-grained.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 33 (2012) 388400 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 33 (2012) 388­400 Contents lists available at SciVerse Science folders, Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. (2011), in press] hierarchical clustering algorithm. We show. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 33 (2012) 388­400 389</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Averbuch, Amir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24730200"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the knee is a common knee injury associated with sports and exercise. The injury typically arises when the foot is tightly locked against the floor or ground, whereby a sudden change of direction combined with the slowed motion causes a rotary motion of the upper part of the tibia and a force <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> the cruciate ligament. Approximately 30% of the injuries take place during a situation of direct contact. The instability of the knee due to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may be strongly invalidizing. In such case surgical therapy is required, if appropriate conservative treatment does not lead to a good result. PMID:24730200</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suomalainen, Piia; Sillanpää, Petri; Järvelä, Timo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1242646"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of tumors of the distal rectum with <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> preservation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred one patients with villous adenoma or invasive carcinoma of the distal rectum treated with local excision or coloanal anastomosis were studied. Twenty-three (45%) of the 51 patients with villous adenomas had transanal excision, another 23 (45%) had a posterior proctotomy, and five (10%) had a coloanal anastomosis. Only two patients with a villous adenoma developed a recurrence requiring repeat local excision. Fifteen (30%) of the 50 patients with invasive cancer were treated by transanal excision. All had tumors confined to the submucosa or superficial muscularis. Eighteen (85%) of 21 patients having posterior proctotomy also had tumors with similar depth of invasion. Six (43%) of the 14 patients having coloanal anastomosis had Dukes' B tumors, six (43%) were Dukes' C, and another two (14%) underwent palliative resection. The overall actuarial 5-year survival was 77%. Only four patients treated by transanal excision or posterior proctotomy died of metastatic disease. In the coloanal group, two of 12 patients undergoing curative resection died of recurrent cancer, and another has a pelvic recurrence. Villous adenomas of the distal rectum and selected carcinomas may be treated with local excision and coloanal anastomosis with preservation of <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> function with good results. PMID:1417192</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heimann, T M; Oh, C; Steinhagen, R M; Greenstein, A J; Perez, C; Aufses, A H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4307589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk Factors for Erosion of Artificial Urinary <span class="hlt">Sphincters</span>: A Multicenter Prospective Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short- to medium-term outcomes after artificial urinary <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (AUS) placement from a large, multi-institutional, prospective, follow-up study. We hypothesize that along with radiation, patients with any history of a direct surgery to the urethra will have higher rates of eventual AUS explantation for erosion and/or infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective outcome analysis was performed on 386 patients treated with AUS placement from April 2009 to December 2012 at 8 institutions with at least 3 months of follow-up. Charts were analyzed for preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications requiring explantation. RESULTS Approximately 50% of patients were considered high risk. High risk was defined as patients having undergone radiation therapy, urethroplasty, multiple treatments for bladder neck contracture or urethral stricture, urethral stent placement, or a history of erosion or infection in a previous AUS. A total of 31 explantations (8.03%) were performed during the follow-up period. Overall explantation rates were higher in those with prior radiation and prior UroLume. Men with prior AUS infection or erosion also had a trend for higher rates of subsequent explantation. Men receiving 3.5-cm cuffs had significantly higher explantation rates than those receiving larger cuffs. CONCLUSION This outcomes study confirms that urethral risk factors, including radiation history, prior AUS erosion, and a history of urethral stent placement, increase the risk of AUS explantation in short-term follow-up. PMID:25109562</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brant, William O.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Elliott, Sean P.; Powell, Christopher; Alsikafi, Nejd; McClung, Christopher; Myers, Jeremy B.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Smith, Thomas G.; Broghammer, Joshua A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293509"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Visceral Pain Due to <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> of Oddi Dysfunction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a syndrome of chronic biliary pain or recurrent pancreatitis due to the functional obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary flow. We report a case of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for chronic abdominal pain due to SOD. The patient had a history of cholecystectomy and had suffered from chronic right upper quadrant abdominal pain. The patient had been diagnosed as having SOD. The patient was treated with opioid analgesics and nerve blocks, including a splanchnic nerve block. However, two years later, the pain became intractable. We implanted percutaneous SCS at the T5-7 level for this patient. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain and the amount of opioid intake decreased. The patient was tracked for more than six months without significant complications. From our clinical case, SCS is an effective and alternative treatment option for SOD. Further studies and long-term follow-up are necessary to understand the effectiveness and the limitations of SCS on SOD. PMID:25589948</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Kang Hun; Lee, Sang Eun; Jung, Jae Wook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1027088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of relaxation of the lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> in healthy premature infants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease causes significant morbidity in premature infants, but the role of dysfunction of the lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LOS) in this condition is unclear. METHODS: Oesophageal manometry was performed after gavage feeding in 13 healthy preterm neonates (postmenstrual age > or = 33 weeks) with a perfused sleeve with side hole assembly. Swallow related (both single and multiple) and transient LOS relaxations (TLOSRs) were identified and the characteristics of these events defined. Reflux was identified with manometric criteria (common cavity episodes). RESULTS: Five hundred and eleven relaxation of the LOS were observed, 55% related to single swallows, 23% related to multiple swallows, and 22% TLOSRs. The time to maximal LOS relaxation was longer for TLOSRs than for single or multiple swallows (mean (SEM) 5.0 (0.3) s v 3.0 (0.1) s and 3.3 (0.1) s, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.005). The durations of multiple swallows and TLOSRs were longer than single swallows (12.2 (0.5) s and 11.2 (0.4) s v 5.3 (0.2) s, p < 0.0001). Most of the oesophageal body common cavity episodes (94%) occurred during TLOSRs. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy preterm infants (postmenstrual age > or = 33 weeks) the motor events associated with LOS relaxation were similar to those seen in healthy adults. TLOSRs may be an important mechanism of reflux in premature infants. PMID:9135527</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omari, T I; Miki, K; Davidson, G; Fraser, R; Haslam, R; Goldsworthy, W; Bakewell, M; Dent, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21276867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brachytherapy and Local Excision for <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> Preservation in T1 and T2 Rectal Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To report long-term results of brachytherapy after local excision (LE) in the treatment of T1 and T2 rectal cancer at risk of recurrence due to residual subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2007, 32 patients undergoing LE and brachytherapy were followed prospectively for a mean of 6.2 years. Estimates of local recurrence (LR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were generated. Treatment-related toxicity and the effect of known prognostic factors were determined. Results: There were 8 LR (3 T1, 5 T2), of which 5 were salvaged surgically. Median time to the 8 LR was 14 months, and the 5-year rate of local control was 76%. Although there have been 9 deaths to date, only 5 were from disease. Five-year DSS and OS rates were 85% and 78%, respectively. There were 4 cases of Grade 2-3 radionecrosis and 1 case of mild stool incontinence. The <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> was preserved in 27 of 32 patients. Conclusion: Local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy for T1 and T2 rectal cancer is an appealing treatment alternative to immediate radical resection, particularly in the frail and elderly who are unable to undergo major surgery, as well as for patients wanting to avoid a permanent colostomy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grimard, Laval [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: lgrimard@ottawahospital.on.ca; Stern, Hartley [Department of Surgery, Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Spaans, Johanna N. M.Sc. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+resistance+AND+resource&id=EJ826517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance classes are assigned based on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between thumb and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24415888"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> canal gastrointestinal stromal tumors: case report and literature review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are an uncommon group of tumors of mesenchymal origin. GIST of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal is extremely rare. At present, only 10 cases of c-kit positive <span class="hlt">anal</span> GIST have been reported in the literature. There is no widely accepted treatment approach for this neoplasia. Literature is sparse on imaging evaluation of <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal GIST, usually described as a lesion in the intersphincteric space. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man with a mass in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, and no other symptoms. Endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well circumscribed solid nodule in the intersphincteric space. The patient was treated by local excision. Gross pathological examination showed a 7 cm × 3.5 cm × 3 cm mass, and histological examination showed a proliferation of spindle cells, with prominent nuclear palisading. The mitotic count was of 12 mitoses/50 HPF. The tumor was positive for KIT protein, CD34 and vimentin in the majority of cells, and negative for desmin and S100. A diagnosis of GIST, with high risk aggressive behavior was made. An abdomino-perineal resection was discussed, but refused. The follow-up included clinical evaluation and <span class="hlt">anal</span> ultrasound. After 5 years the patient is well, with maintained continence and no evidence of local recurrence. PMID:24415888</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carvalho, Nuno; Albergaria, Diogo; Lebre, Rui; Giria, João; Fernandes, Vitor; Vidal, Helena; Brito, Maria José</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3886026"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> canal gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Case report and literature review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are an uncommon group of tumors of mesenchymal origin. GIST of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal is extremely rare. At present, only 10 cases of c-kit positive <span class="hlt">anal</span> GIST have been reported in the literature. There is no widely accepted treatment approach for this neoplasia. Literature is sparse on imaging evaluation of <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal GIST, usually described as a lesion in the intersphincteric space. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man with a mass in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, and no other symptoms. Endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well circumscribed solid nodule in the intersphincteric space. The patient was treated by local excision. Gross pathological examination showed a 7 cm × 3.5 cm × 3 cm mass, and histological examination showed a proliferation of spindle cells, with prominent nuclear palisading. The mitotic count was of 12 mitoses/50 HPF. The tumor was positive for KIT protein, CD34 and vimentin in the majority of cells, and negative for desmin and S100. A diagnosis of GIST, with high risk aggressive behavior was made. An abdomino-perineal resection was discussed, but refused. The follow-up included clinical evaluation and <span class="hlt">anal</span> ultrasound. After 5 years the patient is well, with maintained continence and no evidence of local recurrence. PMID:24415888</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carvalho, Nuno; Albergaria, Diogo; Lebre, Rui; Giria, João; Fernandes, Vitor; Vidal, Helena; Brito, Maria José</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3604295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: why is it important?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/343749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Renal allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with iliofemoral thrombophlebitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a renal allograft in the early posttransplant period is associated with tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria, swelling, pain, a falling hematocrit level, and tenderness at the transplant site. Occasionally, the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> allograft can be saved by control of the hemorrhage. Deep vein thrombophlebitis, a common occurrence after prolonged surgery and cortocosteroid therapy, is less common in renal allograft transplantation, but may be associated with renal vein thrombosis. The simultaneous occurrence of deep vein thrombophlebitis, renal vein thrombosis, and allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> contraindicates anticoagulent therapy. We present a patient in whom ipsilateral deep vein thrombophlebitis developed eight days after a cadaveric renal allograft, followed in two days by hypotension, a falling hematocrit level, oliguria, and a painfall mass at the allograft site. Surgical exploration revealed a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> allograft with iliofemoral and renal vein thrombosis and profuse hemorrhage. A transplant nephrectomy was performed. PMID:343749</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldman, M H; Leapman, S B; Handy, R D; Best, D W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Iliac Artery <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Endovascular Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1177P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process of Izmit (turkey) Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Izmit (Turkey) earthquake of 17 August 1999 (Mw=7.6), have been analysed using the wave form of P and S waves and the directivity function of Rayleigh waves recorded at teleseismic distances. The source model is a unilateral rectangular fault of finite dimensions (Haskell model). Initial values of orientation and sense <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, fault length and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity have been obtained from first motion of P wave and directivity function of Rayleigh waves. Depth and focal mechanism have been obtained from wave form of P and SH waves using a finite dimension source. The obtained solution is a strike slip mechanism with fault orientation : strike 270z, dip 80z and rake -180z, focal depth 10 km, fault length 120 km, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity 3 km/s and seismic moment 1.66 x 10^20 Nm. This solution agrees with the North Anatolia Fault tectonics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pro, C.; Buforn, E.; Udias, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34631161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Frames in Psychology: Demarcations and <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author\\u000a believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent\\u000a science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental “<span class="hlt">ruptures</span>” are identified: the “horizontal” <span class="hlt">rupture</span>\\u000a between various schools</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrey V. Yurevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rockefeller.edu/labheads/chait/pdf/91/91_Chowdhury_anal-chem.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">1660 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1991, 63,1660-1664 with the electrospray source installed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1660 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1991, 63,1660-1664 with the electrospray source installed. The protein samples.; Straub. K. M.; Burlingame, A. L. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1982, 54, 2029-2034. (4) Chowdhuy, S. K.;Katta, V.; Chalt,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chait, Brian T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://erwan.deriaz.free.fr/ACHA-09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 26 (2009) 249269 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 26 (2009) 249­269 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 26 (2009) 249­269 This decomposition is straightforward in (L2 (Rn ))n thanks to the Leray</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starck, Jean-Luc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ectm.et.tudelft.nl/publications_pdf/document1139.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Bioanal Chem (2006) 386: 12671272 DOI 10.1007/s00216-006-0623-y</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Bioanal Chem (2006) 386: 1267­1272 DOI 10.1007/s00216-006-0623-y ORIGINAL PAPER R. Bernini . E/detection system. The sample liquid, con- taining the fluorescent marked particles/cells under <span class="hlt">anal</span>- ysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Technische Universiteit Delft</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/boxer/papers/paper25.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biochemistry 1983,22, 2923-2933 2923 Deutschmann, G., & Ullrich, V. (1979)<span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Biochem. 94,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biochemistry 1983,22, 2923-2933 2923 Deutschmann, G., & Ullrich, V. (1979)<span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Biochem. 94, Geraci Derivatives,Royal Van Gorcum, Ltd., Assen, The Netherlands. Van Assendelft, 0.W., & Zijlstra, W. G. (1975)<span class="hlt">Anal</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boxer, Steven G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://webee.technion.ac.il/people/YoninaEldar/112.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 30 (2011) 407422 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 30 (2011) 407­422 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied. / Appl. Comput. Harmon. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 30 (2011) 407­422 The literature offers several automatic ways for choosing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eldar, Yonina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4188878"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of peri-<span class="hlt">anal</span> fistula in Crohn's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-<span class="hlt">anal</span> region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-<span class="hlt">anal</span> fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315557"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade <span class="hlt">anal</span> intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Although <span class="hlt">anal</span> high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade <span class="hlt">anal</span> intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+) among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women). Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer screening with <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013. Results Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology 48%) of MSM, 28% (abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology 28%) of HSM, and 27% (abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology 34%) of women. Among 117 (53%) individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above), 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM). HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49) and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=?0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09). Conclusion Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer screening among non-MSM. PMID:25670914</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gandra, Sumanth; Azar, Aline; Wessolossky, Mireya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28783645"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical Nifedipine vs. Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate for Treatment of Chronic <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Fissure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: Nifedipine (administered orally or applied topically) has been effective for nonsurgical treatment of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure. We compared the efficacy of nifedipine vs. glyceryl trinitrate for chemical sphincterotomy of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind trial, 52 patients suffering from chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure were randomly and equally allocated to receive either glyceryl trinitrate or nifedipine, both applied topically to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tiberiu Ezri; Sergio Susmallian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~avangeen/pdf/vanGeen_AnalChem_90.pdf.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1990, 62,1705-1709 1705 distinguished. Conversely, a PDMS or FAB mass spectrum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1990, 62,1705-1709 1705 distinguished. Conversely, a PDMS or FAB mass spectrum, R. J.; Stults,J. T. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Biochem. 1989, 783, 190. Nielsen, P. F.; Klarskov, K.; Hojrup, P.; Becker, G.W.; Occolowitz,J. L.; Jardine, I. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Biochem. 1988, 171, 113.(1) Biemann, K. In Methods</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Geen, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vertes.columbian.gwu.edu/publicat_html/Noncovalent.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1995, 67, 4542-4548 Noncovalent Protein-Oligonbicleotide Interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1995, 67, 4542-4548 Noncovalent Protein-Oligonbicleotide Interactions Monitored. $Naval Research Laboratory. s Cruachem, Inc. (1) Karas, M.; Hillenkamp, F. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1988, 60, 2299-2301. (2) Mann, M.; Meng, C. K; Fenn, J. B. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1989, 61, 1702-1708. (3) Beavis, R C.; Chait, B. T</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vertes, Akos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.carma.newcastle.edu.au/jon/walks-anu.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intro Comb <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Prob Higher Dim Other Problems Moments and Densities of Short Random Walks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intro Comb <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Prob Higher Dim Other Problems Moments and Densities of Short Random Walks New, 2014 Revised: 27-11-14 JMB/JW Short Random Walks #12;Intro Comb <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Prob Higher Dim Other Problems and early career researchers. JMB/JW Short Random Walks #12;Intro Comb <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Prob Higher Dim Other Problems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borwein, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/478.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1993, 65, 3571-3575 3571 Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1993, 65, 3571-3575 3571 Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic, J. A,; Leszczyszyn, D. J.; Wightman, R. (4) Lee, T. T.; Yeung, E. S. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1992,64, 3045. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1992, 64, 2985- (7) Malinski, T.; Taha, Z. Nature 1992,358,676-678. (8) Lau, Y. Y.; Abe, T</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wpi.edu/~sweekes/KL/rectangular.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">J. Math. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Appl. 355 (2009) 180194 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">J. Math. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Appl. 355 (2009) 180­194 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal exchange in a spatio-temporal material composite with rectangular microstructure, J. Math. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Appl. 314- temporal material composite with rectangular microstructure, J. Math. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Appl. 314 (2006) 286</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weekes, Suzanne L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mat.uab.es/~xarles/confe.dvi"> <span id="translatedtitle">Breu introducci'o a la geometria <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica r'igida Xavier Xarles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Breu introducci'o a la geometria <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica r'igida Xavier geometria r'igida <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica 'es desenvolupar una "geometria" sobre un cos complet respecte un valor absolut de tipus finit) tingui una 'unica varietat <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica V an associada. A m'es, si V 'es connexa</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xarles, Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mat.uab.es/~xarles/CONFE.ps"> <span id="translatedtitle">Breu introducci'o a la geometria <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica r'igida Xavier Xarles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Breu introducci'o a la geometria <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica r'igida Xavier Xarles Gener del 1999 Introducci'o Objectiu L'objectiu de la geometria r'igida <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica 'es desenvolupar una ``geometria'' sobre un cos'es en general, tot esquema localment de tipus finit) tingui una ' unica varietat <span class="hlt">anal</span>'itica V</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xarles, Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://corninfo.ps.uci.edu/reprints/RMC44.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1995,67,4452-4457 Control of the Specific Adsorption of Proteins onto</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Articles <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1995,67,4452-4457 Control of the Specific Adsorption of Proteins onto Gold;Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1987. (2) Scott, D. L.; Bowden, E. F. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66,1217-1223. (3) Hoshi, T.; Anzai, J.; Osa, T. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1995,67,770-774. Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Ave., Madison, WI 53706</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hawaii.edu/pceidr/2550.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women and Its Relationship with Cervical Infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human papillomavirus (HPV), the primary cause of cervical cancer, is also associated with the development of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV infection among healthy females and its relation- ship to cervical infection. We sought to characterize <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV infection in a cohort of adult women in Hawaii. Overall, 27% (372 of 1,378) of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brenda Y. Hernandez; Katharine McDuffie; Xuemei Zhu; Lynne R. Wilkens; Jeffrey Killeen; Bruce Kessel; Mark T. Wakabayashi; Cathy C. Bertram; David Easa; Lily Ning; Jamie Boyd; Christian Sunoo; Lori Kamemoto; Marc T. Goodman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/10803/83998"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estudio de la fisiología del esfínter <span class="hlt">anal</span> interno porcino y de la rata, y de la fisiopatología de las alteraciones de la motilidad del esfínter <span class="hlt">anal</span> interno en pacientes con fisura <span class="hlt">anal</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">??Las patologías anorectales benignas (fisura <span class="hlt">anal</span>, incontinencia fecal, hemorroides) presentan una elevada prevalencia. De forma general, se desconoce la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades en las… (more)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Opazo Valdés, Álvaro Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3235594"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro effect of pantoprazole on lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> tone in rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To investigate the in vitro effects of pantoprazole on rat lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES) tone. METHODS: Rats weighing 250-300 g, provided by the Yeditepe University Experimental Research Center (YÜDETAM), were used throughout the study. They were anesthetized before decapitation. LES tissues whose mucosal lining were removed were placed in a standard 30-mL organ bath with a modified Krebs solution and continuously aerated with 95% oxygen-5% carbon dioxide gas mixture and kept at room temperature. The tissues were allowed to stabilize for 60 min. Subsequently, the contractile response to 10-6 mol/L carbachol was obtained. Different concentrations of freshly prepared pantoprazole were added directly to the tissue bath to generate cumulative concentrations of 5 × 10-6 mol/L, 5 × 10-5 mol/L, and 1.5 × 10-4 mol/L. Activities were recorded on an online computer via a 4-channel transducer data acquisition system using the software BSL PRO v 3.7, which also analyzed the data. RESULTS: Pantoprazole at 5 × 10-6 mol/L caused a small, but statistically insignificant, relaxation in the carbachol-contracted LES (2.23% vs 3.95%). The 5 × 10-5 mol/L concentration, however, caused a significant relaxation of 10.47% compared with the control. 1.5 × 10-4 mol/L concentration of pantoprazol caused a 19.89% relaxation in the carbachol contracted LES (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that pantoprazole has a relaxing effect in isolated LESs. These results might have significant clinical implications for the subset of patients using proton pump inhibitors who do not receive full symptomatic alleviation from gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:22171145</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duman, Mustafa; Özer, Mahmut; Reyhan, Enver; Demirci, Yeliz; At?c?, Ali E; Dalg?ç, Tahsin; Bostanc?, Erdal B; Genç, Ece</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16301241"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peripheral N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulate nonadrenergic noncholinergic lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> relaxation in rabbits.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the role of peripheral N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the myenteric plexus in mediating nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) nitrergic relaxation of the lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES). Isometric contraction of LES strips from Japanese White rabbits was measured. NANC relaxation was induced by KCl (30 mM) in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. The concentration of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was measured using a radioimmunoassay. The muscle strips were exposed to diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA; 3 mM) to inactivate Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. MK801 (5-methyl-10,11-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine) inhibited NANC relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 1.5 x 10(-5) M), accompanied by a decrease in cGMP production. NMDA induced a concentration-dependent relaxation, which was antagonized by MK801. NMDA stimulated cGMP production, which was inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine. Superoxide dismutase (100 U/mL) shifted the concentration-response relationship of MK801-mediated inhibition of NANC relaxation to the right (EC50 = 3.4 x 10(-5) M), whereas catalase did not. Treatment with DETCA shifted the concentration-response relationships of pyrogallol-, ketamine- and MK801-mediated inhibition of NANC relaxation to the left. These findings suggest that the peripheral NMDA receptors mediate NANC smooth muscle relaxation, and modulate it, in part, through extracellular production of superoxide anions, thus eliminating the relaxant effect of endogenous nitric oxide. PMID:16301241</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kohjitani, Atsushi; Funahashi, Makoto; Miyawaki, Takuya; Hanazaki, Motohiko; Matsuo, Ryuji; Shimada, Masahiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Roles of <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> of Oddi motility and serum vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastrin and cholecystokinin octapeptide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To investigate roles of <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> of Oddi (SO) motility played in pigment gallbladder stone formation in model of guinea pigs. METHODS: Thirty-four adult male Hartley guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups: the control group and pigment stone group. The pigment stone group was divided into 4 subgroups with 6 guinea pigs each according to time of sacrifice, and were fed a pigment lithogenic diet and sacrificed after 3, 6, 9 and 12 wk. SO manometry and recording of myoelectric activity of the guinea pigs were obtained by multifunctional physiograph at each stage. Serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) were detected at each stage in the process of pigment gallbladder stone formation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The incidence of pigment gallstone formation was 0%, 0%, 16.7% and 66.7% in the 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-wk group, respectively. The frequency of myoelectric activity decreased in the 3-wk group. The amplitude of myoelectric activity had a tendency to decrease but not significantly. The frequency of the SO decreased significantly in the 9-wk group. The SO basal pressure and common bile duct pressure increased in the 12-wk group (25.19 ± 7.77 mmHg vs 40.56 ± 11.81 mmHg, 22.35 ± 7.60 mmHg vs 38.51 ± 11.57 mmHg, P < 0.05). Serum VIP was significantly elevated in the 6- and 12-wk groups and serum CCK-8 was decreased significantly in the 12-wk group. CONCLUSION: Pigment gallstone-causing diet may induce SO dysfunction. The tension of the SO increased. The disturbance in SO motility may play a role in pigment gallstone formation, and changes in serum VIP and CCK-8 may be important causes of SO dysfunction. PMID:24782626</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Xu, Jian; Cui, Xian-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Yi; Xian, Guo-Zhe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237852"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing Argus sling and artificial urinary <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> in patients with moderate post-prostatectomy incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is a main complication of radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the Argus male sling (Argus) with that of artificial urinary <span class="hlt">sphincters</span> (AUS) in patients with moderate PPI. A total of 33 moderate PPI patients underwent AUS or Argus implantation from January 2009 to June 2013 (13 AUS, 20 Argus). We defined moderate PPI as the use of 2–4 pads per day. To compare efficacy, we assessed the success rate between the two groups. Success was defined as the daily need for no pads or one small safety pad that remained dry most of the day. The mean patient age was 73.5±6.3 yr in the AUS group and 70.9±5.1 yr in the Argus group, and the mean follow-up period was 29.8±14.9 months in the AUS group and 24.7±11.8 months in the Argus group. The success rate was 72.7% in the AUS group and 85.0% in the Argus group (P=0.557). Abnormal postoperative pain persisted in more patients in the Argus group (6/20, 30%) than in the AUS group (1/13, 7.7%) (P=0.126). However, the rate of other complications was not different between the two groups (7.7% and 15.0% for AUS and Argus, respectively, P=0.822). Argus surgery showed similar success and complication rates to those of AUS in moderate PPI patients, indicating that it could be an alternative surgical option for the treatment of moderate PPI. PMID:25426474</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Bumjin; Kim, Aram; Song, Miho; Chun, Ji-Youn; Park, Junsoo; Choo, Myung-Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3068268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> relaxation is impaired in older patients with dysphagia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To characterize the effects of age on the mechanisms underlying the common condition of esophageal dysphagia in older patients, using detailed manometric analysis. METHODS: A retrospective case-control audit was performed on 19 patients aged ? 80 years (mean age 85 ± 0.7 year) who underwent a manometric study for dysphagia (2004-2009). Data were compared with 19 younger dysphagic patients (32 ± 1.7 years). Detailed manometric analysis performed prospectively included basal lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> pressure (BLESP), pre-swallow and nadir LESP, esophageal body pressures and peristaltic duration, during water swallows (5 mL) in right lateral (RL) and upright (UR) postures and with solids. Data are mean ± SE; a P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Elderly dysphagic patients had higher BLESP than younger patients (23.4 ± 3.8 vs 14.9 ± 1.2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Pre-swallow LESP was elevated in the elderly in both postures (RL: 1 and 4 s P = 0.019 and P = 0.05; UR: P < 0.05 and P = 0.05) and solids (P < 0.01). In older patients, LES nadir pressure was higher with liquids (RL: 2.3 ± 0.6 mmHg vs 0.7 ± 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.05; UR: 3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 1.6 ± 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.01) with shorter relaxation after solids (7.9 ± 1.5 s vs 9.7 ± 0.4 s, P = 0.05). No age-related differences were seen in esophageal body pressures or peristalsis duration. CONCLUSION: Basal LES pressure is elevated and swallow-induced relaxation impaired in elderly dysphagic patients. Its contribution to dysphagia and the effects of healthy ageing require further investigation. PMID:21455332</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Besanko, Laura K; Burgstad, Carly M; Mountifield, Reme; Andrews, Jane M; Heddle, Richard; Checklin, Helen; Fraser, Robert JL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term recording of external urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> EMG activity in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The external urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> muscle (EUS) plays an important role in urinary function and often contributes to urinary dysfunction. EUS study would benefit from methodology for longitudinal recording of electromyographic activity (EMG) in unanesthetized animals, but this muscle is a poor substrate for chronic intramuscular electrodes, and thus the required methodology has not been available. We describe a method for long-term recording of EUS EMG by implantation of fine wires adjacent to the EUS that are secured to the pubic bone. Wires pass subcutaneously to a skull-mounted plug and connect to the recording apparatus by a flexible cable attached to a commutator. A force transducer-mounted cup under a metabolic cage collected urine, allowing recording of EUS EMG and voided urine weight without anesthesia or restraint. Implant durability permitted EUS EMG recording during repeated (up to 3 times weekly) 24-h sessions for more than 8 wk. EMG and voiding properties were stable over weeks 2-8. The degree of EUS phasic activity (bursting) during voiding was highly variable, with an average of 25% of voids not exhibiting bursting. Electrode implantation adjacent to the EUS yielded stable EMG recordings over extended periods and eliminated the confounding effects of anesthesia, physical restraint, and the potential for dislodgment of the chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes. These results show that micturition in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats is usually, but not always, associated with EUS bursting. This methodology is applicable to studying EUS behavior during progression of gradually evolving disease and injury models and in response to therapeutic interventions. PMID:24990895</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaPallo, Brandon K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Chen, Xiang Yang; Carp, Jonathan S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevention of Esophagopharyngeal Reflux by Augmenting the Upper Esophageal <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> Pressure Barrier</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives/Hypothesis Incompetence of the upper esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (UES) is fundamental to the occurrence of esophagopharyngeal reflux (EPR), and development of supraesophageal manifestations of reflux disease (SERD). However, therapeutic approaches to SERD have not been directed to strengthening of the UES barrier function. Our aims were to demonstrate that EPR events can be experimentally induced in SERD patients and not in healthy controls, and ascertain if these events can be prevented by application of a modest external cricoid pressure. Study Design Individual case control study. Methods We studied 14 SERD patients (57±13 years, 8 females) and 12 healthy controls (26±3 years, 7 females) by concurrent intraesophageal slow infusion and pharyngoscopic and manometric technique without and with the application of a sustained predetermined cricoid pressure to induce, detect, and prevent EPR, respectively. Results Slow esophageal infusion (1 mL/s) of 60 mL of HCl resulted in a total of 16 objectively confirmed EPR events in none patients and none in healthy controls. All patients developed subjective sensation of regurgitation. Sustained cricoid pressure resulted in a significant UES pressure augmentation in all participants. During application of sustained cricoid pressure, slow intraesophageal infusion resulted in only one EPR event (P<.01). Conclusions Slow esophageal liquid infusion unmasks UES incompetence evidenced as the occurrence of EPR. Application of 20 to 30 mm Hg cricoid pressure significantly increases the UES intraluminal pressure and prevents pharyngeal reflux induced by esophageal slow liquid infusion. These techniques can be useful in diagnosis and management of UES incompetence in patients suffering from supraesophageal manifestations of reflux disease. PMID:24782387</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaker, Reza; Babaei, Arash; Naini, Sohrab R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54034681"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Paths in Kappa-Maps: Quantitative Insights on Heterogeneous Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> From Energy Arguments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. Although heterogeneities of strength and initial stress contribute to this <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity, a systematic approach to quantify their effect has not yet been attempted. For instance, little is known about the relation between the final size of an earthquake and the statistical properties of initial strength excess fields. Canonical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ampuero; J. Ripperger; M. Mai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3510519"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of echinococcal cysts: diagnosis, classification, and clinical implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors classify <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of echinococcal cysts into three types: contained, communicating, and direct. Contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when only the parasitic endocyst <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and the cyst contents are confined within the host-derived pericyst. When cyst contents escape via biliary or bronchial radicles that are incorporated in the pericyst, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is communicating. Direct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when both the endocyst and the pericyst tear, spilling cyst contents directly into the peritoneal or pleural cavities or occasionally into other structures. Communicating and direct forms have more serious clinical implications than contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but even contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should have prompt surgical attention to prevent it from developing into one of the other forms. Untreated communicating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a liver cyst can lead to obstruction of the biliary system with a 50% mortality rate. Direct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may cause anaphylaxis, and it should be managed surgically, possibly with adjunctive treatment with antihelminthic drugs to decrease the possibility of metastatic hydatosis. PMID:3510519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewall, D B; McCorkell, S J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4093318"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of Refractory Metastatic <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Squamous Cell Carcinoma Following Disease Progression on Traditional Chemoradiation Therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Case Study Ms. S.G., a 56-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III (T2, N1, M0), was initially diagnosed in December, 2007 at an outside institution after she had noted blood in her stool for approximately 6 months. Her medical history was unremarkable. She had no known history of HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. At the time of presentation, Ms. S.G. had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 related to cancer-related pain. Her appetite and weight were both stable. A complete colonoscopy demonstrated a large, immobile, ulcerated, firm, 4-cm lesion in the distal rectum, arising from the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal. Initial staging positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan revealed a hypermetabolic inferior anorectal mass with left perirectal and presacral nodal metastases. There was no definite evidence of distant metastatic disease. Ms. S.G. received chemoradiation treatment following her diagnostic studies, with a total dose of 45 Gy over 26 fractions to the pelvis with concurrent infusional fluorouracil (5-FU; 2, 450 mg over 7 days) and mitomycin C (12 mg/m2 on day 1) at an outside institution. However, during her chemoradiation therapy, Ms. S.G. experienced a 3-week treatment break due to severe radiation dermatitis, as recommended by her outside treating oncologist. Upon treatment completion, Ms. S.G. underwent a biopsy of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, which revealed no evidence of residual malignancy. As recommended by her treating oncologist, she received four additional cycles of adjuvant infusional 5-FU in combination with leucovorin. Shortly thereafter, Ms. S.G. developed progressive pelvic pain. She underwent a second PET/CT scan, revealing mixed findings: interval resolution of abnormal standardized uptake value (SUV) activity at the primary tumor in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, but an increase in the size and SUV of nodal disease within the left perirectal and presacral regions. A CT-guided biopsy noted a perirectal abscess requiring drainage but was inconclusive for disease recurrence; Ms. S.G. was treated with IV antibiotics. Six weeks later, repeat radiographic imaging noted additional changes suspicious for regional recurrence, which was biopsy-confirmed. Ms. S.G. was subsequently referred to MD Anderson Cancer Center for consideration of salvage pelvic exenteration. On physical exam a mass was palpated in the left lower quadrant, but there was no evidence of inguinal adenopathy. On digital rectal exam there was notable external erythema with a fixed mass and moderate <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> tone. A chest CT scan showed no definite evidence of metastatic disease, but an MRI of the abdomen/pelvis indicated the presence of a complex partially necrotic mass (7.6 × 4.9 × 7.3 cm3) extending to the rectosigmoid junction, inseparable from the left lateral bowel wall, with partial encasement of the bowel. In addition, there was infiltration of the left piriformis muscle and cervix consistent with local recurrence. She was referred to medical oncology and radiation oncology for consideration of reirradiation with concurrent neoadjuvant chemotherapy for palliation and possible surgical resection. In early December 2008, Ms. S.G. received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with a total dose of 27 Gy over 18 fractions. She received concurrent infusional 5-FU at 300 mg/m2/day, from Monday to Friday, on the days of radiation. She also received a weekly bolus dose of cisplatin at 20 mg/m2. The intent was to treat to 30 Gy, but the patient deferred further treatment early due to anorectal irritation. She then underwent restaging with a PET/CT scan and a pelvic MRI in February 2009, revealing radiographic partial response of the known pelvic recurrence and reduced pelvic pain (Figures 1A and 1B). Figure 1 Figure 1. Contrast-enhanced axial MRI image of the lower pelvis. (A) Pretreatment, complex mass at the rectosigmoid junction measuring approximately 7.6 × 4.9 × 7.3 cm3. (B) Posttreatment, large necrotic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva, Ninoska N.; Eng, Cathy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031942"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of refractory metastatic <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous cell carcinoma following disease progression on traditional chemoradiation therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Case Study Ms. S.G., a 56-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III (T2, N1, M0), was initially diagnosed in December, 2007 at an outside institution after she had noted blood in her stool for approximately 6 months. Her medical history was unremarkable. She had no known history of HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. At the time of presentation, Ms. S.G. had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 related to cancer-related pain. Her appetite and weight were both stable. A complete colonoscopy demonstrated a large, immobile, ulcerated, firm, 4-cm lesion in the distal rectum, arising from the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal. Initial staging positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan revealed a hypermetabolic inferior anorectal mass with left perirectal and presacral nodal metastases. There was no definite evidence of distant metastatic disease. Ms. S.G. received chemoradiation treatment following her diagnostic studies, with a total dose of 45 Gy over 26 fractions to the pelvis with concurrent infusional fluorouracil (5-FU; 2, 450 mg over 7 days) and mitomycin C (12 mg/m(2) on day 1) at an outside institution. However, during her chemoradiation therapy, Ms. S.G. experienced a 3-week treatment break due to severe radiation dermatitis, as recommended by her outside treating oncologist. Upon treatment completion, Ms. S.G. underwent a biopsy of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, which revealed no evidence of residual malignancy. As recommended by her treating oncologist, she received four additional cycles of adjuvant infusional 5-FU in combination with leucovorin. Shortly thereafter, Ms. S.G. developed progressive pelvic pain. She underwent a second PET/CT scan, revealing mixed findings: interval resolution of abnormal standardized uptake value (SUV) activity at the primary tumor in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, but an increase in the size and SUV of nodal disease within the left perirectal and presacral regions. A CT-guided biopsy noted a perirectal abscess requiring drainage but was inconclusive for disease recurrence; Ms. S.G. was treated with IV antibiotics. Six weeks later, repeat radiographic imaging noted additional changes suspicious for regional recurrence, which was biopsy-confirmed. Ms. S.G. was subsequently referred to MD Anderson Cancer Center for consideration of salvage pelvic exenteration. On physical exam a mass was palpated in the left lower quadrant, but there was no evidence of inguinal adenopathy. On digital rectal exam there was notable external erythema with a fixed mass and moderate <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> tone. A chest CT scan showed no definite evidence of metastatic disease, but an MRI of the abdomen/pelvis indicated the presence of a complex partially necrotic mass (7.6 × 4.9 × 7.3 cm(3)) extending to the rectosigmoid junction, inseparable from the left lateral bowel wall, with partial encasement of the bowel. In addition, there was infiltration of the left piriformis muscle and cervix consistent with local recurrence. She was referred to medical oncology and radiation oncology for consideration of reirradiation with concurrent neoadjuvant chemotherapy for palliation and possible surgical resection. In early December 2008, Ms. S.G. received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with a total dose of 27 Gy over 18 fractions. She received concurrent infusional 5-FU at 300 mg/m(2)/day, from Monday to Friday, on the days of radiation. She also received a weekly bolus dose of cisplatin at 20 mg/m(2). The intent was to treat to 30 Gy, but the patient deferred further treatment early due to anorectal irritation. She then underwent restaging with a PET/CT scan and a pelvic MRI in February 2009, revealing radiographic partial response of the known pelvic recurrence and reduced pelvic pain (Figures 1A and 1B). Figure 1 Figure 1. Contrast-enhanced axial MRI image of the lower pelvis. (A) Pretreatment, complex mass at the rectosigmoid junction measuring approximately 7.6 × 4.9 × 7.3 cm3. (B) Posttreatment, large necrotic mass me</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva, Ninoska N; Eng, Cathy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28796322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining Pelvic Factors in <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span>-Preservation of Low Rectal Cancer with a Three-Dimensional Digital Model of Pelvis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Purpose  Surgeons often can contribute failure of <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>-preserving procedure to a limitation of pelvis anatomy; however, they cannot\\u000a determine definitely which anatomic diameter or spatial factor actually affected the success of the procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Colorectal surgeons, radiologists, and research fellows collaborated closely to establish a three-dimensional digital model\\u000a of the pelvis with spiral computerized tomography scanning data of patients with rectal cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jin Gu; Xue Feng Bo; Chun Yang Xiong; Ai Wen Wu; Xiao Peng Zhang; Ming Li; Qi An; Jing Fang; Jie Li; Xuan Zhang; Hong Yi Wang; Fei Gao; Wei Cheng You</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17880306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous urinary incontinence presenting as the initial symptoms demonstrating acontractile detrusor and intrinsic <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> deficiency in multiple system atrophy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Severe stress incontinence due to intrinsic <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> deficiency may be common in aged women. However stress urinary incontinence could be the initial symptom of severe neurogenic bladder even if no neurological signs have previously been recognized. Urodynamic study is necessary in such a case. Tension-free vaginal tape surgery and intermittent self-catheterization may be one option, but self catheterization might become difficult when the neurological disorders develop. In this case report, we highlight the need for caution in identifying the presence of an occult neurogenic bladder when intending to carry out surgery for patients with severe stress incontinence. PMID:17880306</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mashidori, Tomoko; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Sakurai, Kunihiko; Hirata, Koichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k1w06760l3jr2362.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volatile Compounds from <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Glands of the Wolverine, Gulo gulo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) <span class="hlt">anal</span> gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William F. Wood; Miranda N. Terwilliger; Jeffrey P. Copeland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28840991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of age, gender, and parity on <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal pressures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The contribution of the resting <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal pressure (RAP) and the maximal squeeze pressure (MSP) to the problem of fecal incontinence was assessed by comparing 143 incontinent patients to a control population of 157 healthy subjects. These parameters were determined using a multilumen continuously perfused catheter and a mechanized rapid pull-through technique. In 10 male volunteers both RAP and MSP</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sean M. McHugh; Nicholas E. Diamant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47247665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lateral Subcutaneous Internal Sphincterotomy in Treatment of <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Fissure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred and three patients with <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures have been treated by lateral internal sphincterotomy performed by a subcutaneous myotomy technique, and 99 have been successfully followed up for from 3 to 24 months (mean 11 months). The operation was free from significant complications, apart from slight reactionary bleeding in one case and a perianal abscess in another. The fissure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. C. Hoffmann; J. C. Goligher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chem.tamu.edu/rgroup/goodman/pdf%20files/sia-32-161-2001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS Surf. Interface <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 2001; 32: 161165</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS Surf. Interface <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 2001; 32: 161­165 Initial growth of Au diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and high as nanoscale clusters its chemical and physical properties are changed dramatically. It has been reported</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goodman, Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ams.ac.ir/AIM/08115/0013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Randomized Clinical Trial on the Effect of Oral Metronidazole on Wound Healing and Pain after <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Sphincterotomy and Fissurectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure is one of the most common causes of <span class="hlt">anal</span> pain and surgical therapy is the treatment of choice. There is scarce information regarding the prophylactic effects of oral metronidazole on postoperative complications of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of metronidazole as a prophylactic measure for postoperative <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure complications. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seyed Vahid Hosseini; Babak Sabet; Mohamoud Nouri; Shahram Bolandparvaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/348.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">766 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. $909, citive current at the ensemble (ic,,) is given by i , , = vC~A,,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">766 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. $909, citive current at the ensemble (ic,,) is given by i , , = vC~A,, where A.; Martin, C. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1987, 59, 2625. Cheng, I. F.; Martin, C. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1988, 60, 2163. Wang. J, unpublishedresults, July 1988. Wehmeyer, K. R.; Deakln, M. R.; Wightman, R. M. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1985, 57, 1913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/217.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1982, 54, 2117-2120 2117 validity of the ASV titration method. We are confident that</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1982, 54, 2117-2120 2117 validity of the ASV titration method. We are confident. H. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem.,preceding paper in this issue. Tuschall, J. R., Jr.; Brezonik, P. L. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1981, 53, 1986-1989. Shuman, M. S. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1982, 54, 998-1000. Brezonlk, P. L; Tuschall, J. R., Jr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10818980"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively rare event, and various degrees of partial tendon tears have been reported. In the current study four patients with partial atraumatic distal biceps tendon tears (mean age, 59 years; range, 40-82 years) are reported. In all four patients, a common clinical pattern emerged. Pain at the insertion of the distal biceps tendon in the radius unrelated to any traumatic event was the main symptom. In all patients the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography imaging. In three of four patients the partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the tendon caused a significant bursalike lesion. The typical appearance was a partially <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> biceps tendon, with contrast enhancement signaling the degree of degeneration, tenosynovitis, and soft tissue swelling extending along the tendon semicircular to the proximal radius. In three patients, conservative treatment was successful. Only one patient needed surgery, with reinsertion of the tendon resulting in total functional recovery. PMID:10818980</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dürr, H R; Stäbler, A; Pfahler, M; Matzko, M; Refior, H J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090814"> <span id="translatedtitle">The diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in the diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is widely accepted to be the imaging study of choice for most women. Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of silicone implant failure has been shown to have the highest sensitivity and specificity and has the ability to image the entire implant without the use of ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, some women are unable to have a magnetic resonance imaging examination of the breast because of contraindications such as cardiac pacemakers, aneurysm clips, and claustrophobia. Therefore, mammography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography will have roles in the diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. This article illustrates the spectrum of imaging appearances of normal silicone gel implants and the appearances of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:18090814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorczyca, David P; Gorczyca, Stephanie M; Gorczyca, Kathryn L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23622472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic levels of heavy truck tire <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transportation vehicles, whether they are passenger vehicles or heavy trucks and transport vehicles, rely upon rubber tires to negotiate the roadways and surfaces on which they are driven. These tires have the potential of sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from various causes including but not limited to over-pressurization, sidewall failures, or punctures from roadway debris. These <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events can and do occur while the vehicles are stationary (e.g., during servicing) or are being driven, and often occur without notice. While the phenomenon of sudden tire failure has been documented for several decades, the potential bodily injury which can occur when an individual is in close proximity to such a sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has only more recently been documented. Aside from anecdotal mention in case studies, there has been little quantitative information available on the acoustic levels during these failures. Our study provides measured acoustic levels as a function of distance for such catastrophic tire failures. PMID:23622472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Matthew; Woodruff, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5461408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequency estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6862348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1242544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Role of the lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>, esophageal acid and acid/alkaline exposure, and duodenogastric reflux.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The factors contributing to the development of esophageal mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are unclear. The lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>, esophageal acid and acid/alkaline exposure, and the presence of excessive duodenogastric reflux (DGR) was evaluated in 205 consecutive patients with GERD and various degrees of mucosal injury (no mucosal injury, n = 92; esophagitis, n = 66; stricture, n = 19; Barrett's esophagus, n = 28). Manometry and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring showed that the prevalence and severity of esophageal mucosal injury was higher in patients with a mechanically defective lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (p less than 0.01) or increased esophageal acid/alkaline exposure (p less than 0.01) as compared with those with a normal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> or only increased esophageal acid exposure. Complications of GERD were particularly frequent and severe in patients who had a combination of a defective <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> and increased esophageal acid/alkaline exposure (p less than 0.01). Combined esophageal and gastric pH monitoring showed that esophageal alkaline exposure was increased only in GERD patients with DGR (p less than 0.05) and that DGR was more frequent in GERD patients with a stricture or Barrett's esophagus. A mechanically defective lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> and reflux of acid gastric juice contaminated with duodenal contents therefore appear to be the most important determinants for the development of mucosal injury in GERD. This explains why some patients fail medical therapy and supports the surgical reconstruction of the defective <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> as the most effective therapy. PMID:1632700</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stein, H J; Barlow, A P; DeMeester, T R; Hinder, R A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12038119"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Intrabiliary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatic hydatid cyst].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous hepatic hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary tract is unusual. The authors describe a case of a 62-year-old man with a hepatic hydatid cyst, showing that it is possible to confirm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary system with cholangiography-MRI. Surgical treatment remains the best form of management. Endoscopic management is a therapeutic possibility in all cases in which surgery is contraindicated. In the case observed endoscopic sphinctererotomy resolved the biliary obstruction, while the hydatid cyst was treated by transbiliary irrigation with scolicidal solutions and pharmacological therapy. The treatment permitted complete clinical resolution of the hepatic hydatosis. PMID:12038119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucinotta, Eugenio; Palmeri, Renato; Lazzara, Salvatore; Melita, Giuseppinella; Melita, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1797221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed gallbladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following percutaneous cholecystostomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Percutaneous cholecystostomy has become an accepted therapeutic alternative for high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. However, some authors have cautioned that patients with gallbladder wall necrosis and gangrene may not be effectively treated by means of percutaneous drainage alone. A case is reported in which gallbladder wall necrosis progressed following technically successful percutaneous drainage. Spontaneous gallbladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ensued, necessitating emergent cholecystectomy. Cholecystography 2 weeks following tube placement and 1 week prior to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> showed a markedly abnormal, irregular gallbladder lumen. The authors suggest that follow-up cholecystography may be a useful tool for evaluating patient response to percutaneous cholecystostomy and for determining subsequent patient management. PMID:1797221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaBerge, J M; Gordon, R L; Kerlan, R K; Ring, E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3531040"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rudimentary horn at 22 weeks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhar, Hansa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4119647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4285690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Upper esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> mechanical states analysis: a novel methodology to describe UES relaxation and opening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The swallowing muscles that influence upper esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (UES) opening are centrally controlled and modulated by sensory information. Activation of neural inputs to these muscles, the intrinsic cricopharyngeus muscle and extrinsic suprahyoid muscles, results in their contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to calculate the “mechanical states” of the muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Diseases that alter the neural pathways to these muscles can result in weakening the muscle contractility and/or decreasing the muscle compliance, all of which can cause dysphagia. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle is difficult and as the current interpretation of UES motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry), subtle changes in the muscle function during swallow can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the UES and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern the timing and extent of UES opening during swallowing. To achieve this we initially analyzed swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and UES pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the internal diameter of the lumen when compared to videofluoroscopy. Then using a database of pressure-impedance studies, recorded from young and aged healthy controls and patients with motor neuron disease, we calculated the UES mechanical states in relation to a standardized swallowed bolus volume, normal aging and dysphagia pathology. Our results indicated that eight different mechanical states were almost always seen during healthy swallowing and some of these calculated changes in muscle function were consistent with the known neurally dependent phasic discharge patterns of cricopharyngeus muscle activity during swallowing. Clearly defined changes in the mechanical states were observed in motor neuron disease when compared to age matched healthy controls. Our data indicate that mechanical state predictions were simple to apply and revealed patterns consistent with the known neural inputs activating the different muscles during swallowing. PMID:25610376</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omari, Taher I.; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Dinning, Philip; Costa, Marcello; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3311436"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel pattern of longitudinal muscle contraction with subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus: a possible mechanism of lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> relaxation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus induces lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES) relaxation and inhibits progression of ongoing peristaltic contraction in the esophagus. Recent studies show that longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus may play a role in LES relaxation. Our goal was to determine whether a subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus induces contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the esophagus and to determine the nature of this contraction. Studies were conducted in 16 healthy subjects. High resolution manometry (HRM) recorded pressures, and high frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS) images recorded longitudinal muscle contraction at various locations in the esophagus. Subthreshold pharyngeal stimulation was induced by injection of minute amounts of water in the pharynx. A subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus induced strong contraction and caudal descent of the upper esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (UES) along with relaxation of the LES. HFIUS identified longitudinal muscle contraction of the proximal (3–5 cm below the UES) but not the distal esophagus. Pharyngeal stimulus, following a dry swallow, blocked the progression of dry swallow-induced peristalsis; this was also associated with UES contraction and descent along with the contraction of longitudinal muscle of the proximal esophagus. We identify a unique pattern of longitudinal muscle contraction of the proximal esophagus in response to subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus, which we propose may be responsible for relaxation of the distal esophagus and LES through the stretch sensitive activation of myenteric inhibitory motor neurons. PMID:22173917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leslie, Eric; Bhargava, Valmik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1110153B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> tracking with different seismological methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial length, time duration, and direction of an earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are important parameters for an early warning of a potential tsunami. With different seismological methods namely polarization analysis of incoming compressional waves (P-waves), directivity effect, and wavelet transform these parameters are tried to estimate from recordings of broadband three-component-seismometers. One important requirement for a successful tsunami warning is a very fast (real time) investigation of seismograms. For some of the methods a dense station network and especially a wide backazimuthal distribution is necessary. The latter is a premise for the investigation of the directivity effect of an earthquake (in the literature this effect is often compared with a kind of doppler-effect). We show for some earthquakes e.g. Sichuan of May 2008, great Andaman of December 2004, and Pakistan of October 2005, that with a simple integration of regional and teleseismic recordings and subsequently plotting them sorted by the azimuth, stations can easily splitted into stations, from which the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> went away and stations, which lie in the direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. With this investigation, the question of the direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can quickly be answered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bayer, B.; Yuan, X.; Saul, J.; Kind, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141p4907G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Star polymers <span class="hlt">rupture</span> induced by constant forces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26599285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) scenarios</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) scenarios project was carried out in the EU 5th framework programme in the field of nuclear safety during years 2000–2002. The first objective of the project was to generate a comprehensive database on fission product retention in a steam generator. The second objective was to verify and develop predictive models to support accident management</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Auvinen; J. K. Jokiniemi; A. Lähde; T. Routamo; P. Lundström; H. Tuomisto; J. Dienstbier; S. Güntay; D. Suckow; A. Dehbi; M. Slootman; L. Herranz; V. Peyres; J. Polo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2568237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occult uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: role of ultrasonography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a case of occult spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicated by pelvic infection and peritonitis in the postpartum period. Ultrasonography played a primary role in the diagnosis of this complication and clearly demonstrated the uterine wall defect. This finding was confirmed later by computed tomography and by surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9640909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cadet, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_28_2010_otk7Nay4LH_09_28_2010_1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Northwest Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29864197"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the membranes and postpartum infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The greatest risk of preterm prelabour <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes (PPROM) is preterm delivery. According to the Perinatal Information System of Slovenia there were 5.92% preterm deliveries in 1994. We studied 809 deliveries of less than 34 weeks of gestation in the Ljubljana Maternity, from 1992 to 1994; 33.7% of these started with PPROM. Risk factors for PPROM were conization, cerclage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marjan Pajntar; Ivan Verdenik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular repair of iatrogenic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been used for traumatic and acute spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the descending thoracic aorta with good results. We present the case of a 40-year-old male whose thoracic spinal prosthesis eroded through the descending thoracic aorta; the aortic disruption was successfully managed with emergent deployment of an endovascular stent. PMID:23889586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lo, Casey; Galvin, Sean D; Barnett, Stephen; Seevanayagam, Siven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2728191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Management of Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Hepatocellular Adenoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIMS Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA) is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006) with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA). Three (10.7%) of 28 patients had spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation), as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation) and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient’s condition and the expertise of the surgical team. PMID:19690662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Chaib, Eleazar; Saad, William Abrão; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Cecconello, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51328197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supershear <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Transition on Fault Stepovers using Different Friction Parameterizations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that fault stepovers can under some circumstances allow through-going <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and under other circumstances cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span> termination (e.g., Harris and Day 1993; Kase and Kuge, 1998; Duan and Oglesby, 2006). However, the effect of the stepover on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity has not been investigated, and there has also not been an investigation of how different frictional parameterizations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Ryan; D. D. Oglesby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268758"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD. PMID:25552833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24014791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review article: Treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes is controversial. Surgical fixation has lower rates of re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> and confers increased strength and function, whereas conservative treatment has lower risks of wound complications. We review the literature on the optimal treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes. PMID:24014791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stavrou, Maria; Seraphim, Andreas; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Mordecai, Simon C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A. Kelleher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/staff/martin/papers/AGUMonograph_Ampueroetal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties of Dynamic Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> With Heterogeneous Stress Drop</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. We introduce a simplified semi-dynamic crack model to investigate the connec - tion between the statistical properties of stress and those of macroscopic source parameters such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> size, seismic moment, apparent stress drop and radiated energy. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> initiation is treated consistently with nucleation on a linear slip- weakening</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-P. Ampuero; J. Ripperger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54619313"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the great 1963 Kurile Islands earthquake sequence: Asperity interaction and multiple event <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The great Kurile Islands underthrusting earthquake (Mw=8.5) of October 13, 1963, was accompanied by a large foreshock and an aftershock. This sequence allows us to investigate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process and faul heterogeneities along a subduction zone. We have characterized the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the main shock event by deconvolving long-period P wave seismograms from azimuthally well-distributed stations to obtain source</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susan L. Beck; Larry J. Ruff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complications after ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To investigate the outcomes of treatments for complications after ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis (IPAA) in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Between March 1998 and February 2013, 72 patients (28 male and 44 female, median age 43.0 years ± 14.0 years) underwent total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The study cohort was registered prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, medical management histories, operative findings, pathology reports and postoperative clinical courses, including early postoperative and late complications and their treatments, were reviewed from a medical record system. All of the ileal pouches were J-pouch and were performed with either the double-stapling technique (n = 69) or a hand-sewn (n = 3) technique. RESULTS: Thirty-one (43.1%) patients had early complications, with 12 (16.7%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Pouch bleeding, pelvic abscesses and anastomosis <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were managed conservatively. Patients with pelvic abscesses were treated with surgical drainage. Twenty-seven (38.0%) patients had late complications during the follow-up period (82.5 ± 50.8 mo), with 21 (29.6%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Treatment for pouchitis included antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs. Pouch-vaginal fistulas, perianal abscesses or fistulas and anastomosis strictures were treated surgically. Pouch failure developed in two patients (2.8%). Analyses showed that an emergency operation was a significant risk factor for early pouch-related complications compared to elective procedures (55.6% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05). Pouchitis was related to early (35.3%) and the other late pouch-related complications (41.2%) (P < 0.05). The complications did not have an effect on pouch failure nor pouch function. CONCLUSION: The complications following IPAA can be treated successfully. Favorable long-term outcomes were achieved with a lower pouch failure rate than reported in Western patients. PMID:24966620</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Moon, Sang Hui; Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1051430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Familial craniosynostosis, <span class="hlt">anal</span> anomalies, and porokeratosis: CAP syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the occurrence of coronal craniosynostosis, <span class="hlt">anal</span> anomalies, and porokeratosis in two male sibs. A third male sib was phenotypically normal as were the parents. The occurrence of these three clinical features has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Cutaneous or <span class="hlt">anal</span> anomalies or both have been reported in a number of syndromes associated with craniosynostosis, including Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Apert, and Beare-Stevenson syndromes. These syndromes are associated with mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3. They are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. In contrast, the cases we report do not carry any of the common FGFR mutations and the pedigree suggests autosomal or X linked recessive inheritance. Images PMID:9733036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flanagan, N; Boyadjiev, S A; Harper, J; Kyne, L; Earley, M; Watson, R; Jabs, E W; Geraghty, M T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Innovations in chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure treatment: A systematic review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure is a common perianal condition. This review aims to evaluate both existing and new therapies in the treatment of chronic fissures. Pharmacological therapies such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), Diltiazem ointment and Botulinum toxin provide a relatively non-invasive option, but with higher recurrence rates. Lateral sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> dilatation has no role in treatment. New therapies include perineal support devices, Gonyautoxin injection, fissurectomy, fissurotomy, sphincterolysis, and flap procedures. Further research is required comparing these new therapies with existing established therapies. This paper recommends initial pharmacological therapy with GTN or Diltiazem ointment with Botulinum toxin as a possible second line pharmacological therapy. Perineal support may offer a new dimension in improving healing rates. Lateral sphincterotomy should be offered if pharmacological therapy fails. New therapies are not suitable as first line treatments, though they can be considered if conventional treatment fails. PMID:21160880</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poh, Aaron; Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2999245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Innovations in chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure treatment: A systematic review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure is a common perianal condition. This review aims to evaluate both existing and new therapies in the treatment of chronic fissures. Pharmacological therapies such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), Diltiazem ointment and Botulinum toxin provide a relatively non-invasive option, but with higher recurrence rates. Lateral sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> dilatation has no role in treatment. New therapies include perineal support devices, Gonyautoxin injection, fissurectomy, fissurotomy, sphincterolysis, and flap procedures. Further research is required comparing these new therapies with existing established therapies. This paper recommends initial pharmacological therapy with GTN or Diltiazem ointment with Botulinum toxin as a possible second line pharmacological therapy. Perineal support may offer a new dimension in improving healing rates. Lateral sphincterotomy should be offered if pharmacological therapy fails. New therapies are not suitable as first line treatments, though they can be considered if conventional treatment fails. PMID:21160880</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poh, Aaron; Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40448597"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> terminations and size of segment boundaries from historical earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the Basin and Range Province</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fault-segmentation method is commonly used to estimate the potential earthquake size. Segment boundaries play an important role in arresting earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from event to event. In the Basin and Range Province, earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> terminations are commonly associated with structural discontinuities, but not all-structural discontinuities have the capability to terminate an earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The size of structural discontinuities with respect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peizhen Zhang; Fengying Mao; D. B. Slemmons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28429033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oral lacidipine in the treatment of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.   The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effectiveness in healing <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure (AF) of lacidipine, a calcium channel\\u000a blocker with a better tolerability in comparison to other calcium antagonists. Twenty-one consecutive patients (16 women,\\u000a 76.2%) with AF (16 chronic, situated posteriorly in 17 patients (81.0%), anteriorly in 4) with a mean age of 37.1 years (SD,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Ansaloni; A. Bernabè; R. Ghetti; R. Riccardi; R. M. Tranchino; G. Gardini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28731427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis for Crohn's colitis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients with Crohn's colitis are generally not considered candidates for the ileal pouch-<span class="hlt">anal</span> anastomosis (IPAA). procedure. We reviewed 362 consecutive patients undergoing IPAA and analyzed the outcome of this procedure on 25 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of mucosal ulcerative colitis who were subsequently proven to have Crohn's disease. The mean follow-up was 38.1 months. Sixteen patients have a functioning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neil H. Hyman; Victor W. Fazio; Wayne B. Tuckson; Ian C. Lavery</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hg923866t25405p6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined therapy for cancer of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nineteen patients with squamous-cell cancer of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal have been treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy,\\u000a followed by appropriate surgery. The authors are convinced that the combined therapy is effective enough to avoid abdominoperineal\\u000a resection if disappearance of the lesion is proven by adequate examination and biopsy. Although they believe cancers 5 cm\\u000a or less in maximum diameter</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman D. Nigro; V. K. Vaitkevicius; T. Buroker; G. T. Bradley; B. Considine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281876"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology [?atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm3, 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of <span class="hlt">anal</span> specimens contained ?1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ?50 cells/mm3, HIV-1 viral load ?50 copies/mL, and <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ?<span class="hlt">anal</span> ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced <span class="hlt">anal</span> SCC screening efforts. PMID:25361401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luz, Paula M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progression of <span class="hlt">anal</span> high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer is elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) compared to the general population. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are common in HIV-infected MSM and the presumed precursors to <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous cell cancer; however, direct progression of HSIL to <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer has not been previously demonstrated. The medical records were reviewed of 138 HIV-infected MSM followed up at the University of California, San Francisco, who developed <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal or perianal squamous cancer between 1997 and 2011. Men were followed up regularly with digital anorectal examination (DARE), high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and HRA-guided biopsy. Although treatment for HSIL and follow-up were recommended, not all were treated and some were lost to follow-up. Prevalent cancer was found in 66 men. Seventy-two HIV-infected MSM developed <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer while under observation. In 27 men, <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer developed at a previously biopsied site of HSIL. An additional 45 men were not analyzed in this analysis due to inadequate documentation of HSIL in relation to cancer location. Of the 27 men with documented progression to cancer at the site of biopsy-proven HSIL, 20 men progressed from prevalent HSIL identified when first examined and seven men from incident HSIL. Prevalent HSIL progressed to cancer over an average of 57 months compared to 64 months for incident HSIL. Most men were asymptomatic, and cancers were detected by DARE. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> HSIL has clear potential to progress to <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer in HIV-infected MSM. Early diagnosis is facilitated by careful follow-up. Carefully controlled studies evaluating efficacy of screening for and treatment of HSIL to prevent <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer are needed. PMID:23934991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berry, J Michael; Jay, Naomi; Cranston, Ross D; Darragh, Teresa M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Welton, Mark L; Palefsky, Joel M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361401"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology [?atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm(3), 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of <span class="hlt">anal</span> specimens contained ?1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ?50 cells/mm(3), HIV-1 viral load ?50 copies/mL, and <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ?<span class="hlt">anal</span> ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal <span class="hlt">anal</span> cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced <span class="hlt">anal</span> SCC screening efforts. PMID:25361401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cambou, Mary C; Luz, Paula M; Lake, Jordan E; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G; Friedman, Ruth K; Grinsztejn, Beatriz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30468944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pseudodyssynergia (Contraction of the External <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> During Voiding) Misdiagnosed as Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis and the Role of Biofeedback as a Therapeutic Option</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PurposeChronic lower urinary tract symptoms in young men are often attributed to misdiagnosed chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. We analyzed contraction of the external urinary <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> during voiding (pseudodyssynergia) as an etiology of voiding dysfunction in men with misdiagnosed chronic prostatitis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven A. Kaplan; Richard P. Santarosa; Patricia Meade D'Alisera; Brenda J. Fay; Edward F. Ikeguchi; James Hendricks; Lonnie Klein; Alexis E. Te</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33720344"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Endoscopic Suturing of the Gastroesophageal Junction on Lower Esophageal <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> Function and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Patients with Reflux Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES:Plication of the gastroesophageal junction by endoscopic suturing has been reported to improve symptoms and reduce acid exposure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The mechanisms underlying these effects are not well defined. The aims of our study were to determine the impact of endoscopic suturing of the gastroesophageal junction on lower esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (LES) function in patients with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William C. E. Tam; Richard H. Holloway; John Dent; Rachael Rigda; Mark N. Schoeman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24024565"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heterosexual <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse among men in Long Beach, California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525852"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rare case of <span class="hlt">anal</span> porocarcinoma treated by electrochemotherapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT? We report the case of an old woman with an eccrine porocarcinoma unusually localized in the perianal area treated by electrochemotherapy, a new technique, emerging as a very effective local treatment of different skin metastases and selected primary tumors. Electrochemotherapy was performed taking into account patient wishes and refusal of demolitive surgery. The electrochemotherapy treatment was well tolerated by the patient, it gave an excellent clinical response and a complete clinical regression with no <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> dysfunction and signs of relapse observed during follow-up. The case is of particular interest for the exceptional localization of porocarcinoma for the first time treated by electrochemotherapy in this area. Electrochemotherapy could be considered as an alternative option for selected cases of cutaneous tumors. PMID:25525852</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzo, Borgognoni; Leonardo, Pescitelli; Carmelo, Urso; Paola, Brandani; Serena, Sestini; Cristina, Chiarugi; Riccardo, Gelli; Vanni, Giannotti; Gianni, Gerlini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18457852"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative analysis in spontaneous canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland adenomas and carcinomas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stained cytological specimens from 7 canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland adenomas and 11 canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland carcinomas were analyzed by computer-assisted nuclear morphometry. In each case, the nuclei of at least 100 neoplastic cells were measured, and the mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND) and nuclear roundness (NR) were calculated. The study aimed to evaluate (1) the possibility of using nuclear cytomorphometry as an auxiliary diagnostic method to differentiate between canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and (2) the prognostic value of nuclear morphometry in canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland adenocarcinomas. The results indicated that (1) MNA, MNP, MND and NR could be used as effective auxiliary tools for differential diagnosis between canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and (2) MNA, MNP and MND are reliable prognostic indicators for canine <span class="hlt">anal</span> sac gland adenocarcinomas. PMID:18457852</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simeonov, Radostin; Simeonova, Galina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.3133H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> modulated by waves in damaged fault zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">are usually surrounded by damaged zones of lower elastic moduli and seismic wave velocities than their host rocks. If the interface between the damaged rocks and host rocks is sharp enough, earthquakes happening inside the fault zone generate reflected waves and head waves, which can interact with earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and modulate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, slip rate, and rise time. We find through 2-D dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations the following: (1) Reflected waves can induce multiple slip pulses. The rise time of the primary pulse is controlled by fault zone properties, rather than by frictional properties. (2) Head waves can cause oscillations of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and, in a certain range of fault zone widths, a permanent transition to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with speeds that would be unstable in homogeneous media. (3) Large attenuation smears the slip rate function and delays the initial acceleration of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed but does not affect significantly the rise time or the period of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed oscillations. (4) Fault zones cause a rotation of the background stress field and can induce plastic deformations on both extensional and compressional sides of the fault. The plastic deformations are accumulated both inside and outside the fault zone, which indicates a correlation between fault zone development and repeating <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Spatially periodic patterns of plastic deformations are formed due to oscillating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, which may leave a permanent signature in the geological record. Our results indicate that damaged fault zones with sharp boundaries promote multiple slip pulses and supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Yihe; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Helmberger, Don V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/460.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">476 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1883, 65, 476-481 Determination of Carbohydrates by Capillary Zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">476 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1883, 65, 476-481 Determination of Carbohydrates by Capillary Zone.;Sheeley,D. M., Kuei, J.; Her, G. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1988,60, 2719-2722. (3)Shaw,P. E.;Wilson,C. W. J. Chromatogr.Sci. 1982,20,209-212. (4)Johnson, D. C.; Lacourse, W. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1990, 62, 589A- 597A. (5)Santos</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28700247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical correction of chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure: Results of lateral internal sphincterotomy vs. Fissurectomy—Midline sphincterotomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A retrospective study of 300 patients with chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fisure is presented. Lateral internal sphincterotomy offers shorter\\u000a hospital stay, rapid wound healing, low recurrence rate, and no permanent defect in continence, and is, therefore, the procedure\\u000a of choice in uncomplicated <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures. Fissurectomy-midline sphincterotomy should be reserved for patients in whom local\\u000a fistulization has complicated <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herand Abcarian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/483.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66, 2318-2329 Spontaneous Injection In Wrocotumn Separations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66, 2318-2329 Spontaneous Injection In Wrocotumn Separations Harvey A. Fkhman.; Jorgenwm,J. W. (3) Ewing, A. 0.;Wallingford, R. A.; OlefirowiczT. M.<span class="hlt">Anal</span>. C%m.1u19.61, (4) Lee,T. T.; Yeung. E. S.<span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chrm. 199264, 3045-3051. (5) Hogan, 8.;Yeung, E. S. Anat. Chem. 1992,64,2841-2845. (6)C00</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4047438"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following <span class="hlt">anal</span> child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of <span class="hlt">anal</span> abuse. Methods Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from1990 to 2007 alleging <span class="hlt">anal</span> abuse. Controls: all children examined <span class="hlt">anally</span> from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35–193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in <span class="hlt">anal</span> abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex <span class="hlt">anal</span> dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), <span class="hlt">anal</span> laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10). Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were <span class="hlt">anal</span> fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Anal</span> findings are more common in children alleging <span class="hlt">anal</span> abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed <span class="hlt">anal</span> abuse. PMID:24884914</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3078002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical evaluation of a single daily dose of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> mechanism incompetence in the bitch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches. Nine bitches diagnosed with USMI were treated with a single daily dose [1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] of PPA for at least 1 month. Urethral pressure profiles (UPP) were performed in 7 dogs before treatment and repeated in 4 of them after treatment. Treatment with PPA resulted in long-term continence in 8/9 bitches. One dog did not respond to PPA and was treated surgically later. Recheck UPPs showed a significant increase in maximal urethral closure pressure in the 4 bitches after treatment with PPA compared to before treatment. In conclusion, long-term continence can be achieved in bitches affected with USMI after administration of a single daily dose of PPA (1.5 mg/kg BW). PMID:22043069</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claeys, Stéphanie; Rustichelli, Frederico; Noël, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3822221"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Tiropramide chlorhydrate in premedication for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and its effects on the motor activity of Oddi's <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The activity of tiropramide chlorhydrate in the pre-medication for the endoscopical examinations has been evaluated. In particular ERCP has been studied considering as parameters the timing of the different stages of the examination and the activity of Oddi's <span class="hlt">sphincter</span>. At the end of endoscopy the pressure of the sphincterial region was measured a 3-way miniature catheter. Patients included in the study were divided into two different groups: group A treated with tiropramide chlorhydrate and diazepam vs group B treated only with diazepam. The group with patients pre-medicated with tiropramide chlorhydrate presented a significant reduction in the timing of the different stages of endoscopy. Endoscopy was better tolerated. Manometry showed an antispastic action of the drug without side effects. An important reduction of the degree and duration of the sphincterial phase activity, with a possible improvement of biliary defluxion into the duodenum, was observed. PMID:3822221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bolognese, A; Lamazza, A; Tocchi, A; Bruni, C; Crimi, M R; Fontana, B; De Masi, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/10037/3824"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional ultrasound of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal. The effect of pregnancy and childbirth .</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">??This thesis is concerned with functional three-dimensional ultrasound of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal. Comparing acquisitions assessed with endoanal- and transvaginal transducers, the transvaginal transducer turned out… (more)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olsen, Ingrid Petrikke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early diagnosis and management of myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. We present an 82-year-old woman with an anterolateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Because of unexplained hypotension, echocardiography was performed and contrast (Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging) was used to improve visualization. Findings included a small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without frank tamponade, however, there was significant intramyocardial tracking of the contrast into the epicardial space, localized to the mid to apical portion of the anterior septum, consistent with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or disruption of the wall segment. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room where fresh blood and clots were evacuated from the pericardial space with immediate hemodynamic improvement. The patient underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:25547556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Shuangbo; Glavinovic, Tamara; Tam, James W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of gastrocnemius muscle <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, known as "tennis leg", typically occurs when the muscle has been overstretched by dorsiflexion of the ankle with full knee extension. The classic clinical presentation is a middle-aged person who complains of sports-related acute pain in the mid portion of the calf, associated with a snapping sensation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound is often required to evaluate patients with this condition. This injury is usually managed non-operatively, surgical treatment rarely being indicated according to published reports. One case of longstanding and one of recent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius that were successfully treated by surgical repair are presented here and the MRI characteristics and indications for surgery are discussed. PMID:23109311</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, Yu; Yang, Hui-lin; Sun, Zhi-yong; Ni, Li; Zhang, Hong-tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4091436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Plasmodium vivax malaria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to the infection, which requires attention. PMID:25025027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860005910&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Internal%2BCombustion%2529%2BEngine%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of Stirling engine materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28941058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of partial Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifty-four patients with a total of 58 partial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the Achilles tendon were treated surgically. The postoperative observation time ranged from 8 months to 7 years. Forty-six patients indicated that they were pleased with the results, 8 were satisfied, and 3 were unsatisfied (one died during the interim). Thirty-seven of the 44 patients who had been engaged in competitive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tor Finn Denstad; Asbjørn Roaas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000179&hterms=burnout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dburnout"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wrapped Wire Detects <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Of Pressure Vessel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunt, James B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3951965"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Repetition of Large-Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This survey of well-documented repeated fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerry Sieh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026606"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JBO....14c4007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (<span class="hlt">rupture</span>) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JInst...7C2002E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in EMCCD technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20506939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous reconstruction of quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after TKA and neglected Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of simultaneous reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and neglected Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which occurred before TKA with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft. A 64-year-old woman presented with persistent right knee pain. She also had right heel pain and had received multiple steroid injections at the knee joint and heel. On examination, she showed osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint and an Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the ipsilateral limb. There was skin dimpling and the proximal portion of tendon was migrated. We performed TKA, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. She returned 3 months postoperatively, however, with skin dimpling around the suprapatellar area and weakness of knee extension. Her ankle symptoms were also aggravated because she could not use the knee joint freely. We performed simultaneous reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon and the Achilles tendon using an ipsilateral hamstring autograft.Hamstring autograft offers a good alternative treatment option for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> repair, particularly with concommitant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of multiple sites when primary repair is not possible or the viability of repaired tissue is poor. PMID:20506939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Yong Seuk; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Oh, Kyung Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Lung Hydatid Cyst <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> into Bronchi and Pleural Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17210968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic function of dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent kinematic and hydrodynamic studies on fish median fins have shown that dorsal fins actively produce jets with large lateral forces. Because of the location of dorsal fins above the fish's rolling axis, these lateral forces, if unchecked, would cause fish to roll. In this paper we examine the hydrodynamics of trout <span class="hlt">anal</span> fin function and hypothesize that <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins, located below the fish's rolling axis, produce similar jets to the dorsal fin and help balance rolling torques during swimming. We simultaneously quantify the wake generated by dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins in brook trout by swimming fish in two horizontal light sheets filmed by two synchronized high speed cameras during steady swimming and manoeuvring. Six major conclusions emerge from these experiments. First, <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins produce lateral jets to the same side as dorsal fins, confirming the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins produce fluid jets that balance those produced by dorsal fins. Second, in contrast to previous work on sunfish, neither dorsal nor <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins produce significant thrust during steady swimming; flow leaves the dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins in the form of a shear layer that rolls up into vortices similar to those seen in steady swimming of eels. Third, dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fin lateral jets are more coincident in time than would be predicted from simple kinematic expectations; shape, heave and pitch differences between fins, and incident flow conditions may account for the differences in timing of jet shedding. Fourth, relative force and torque magnitudes of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> fin are larger than those of the dorsal fin; force differences may be due primarily to a larger span and a more squarely shaped trailing edge of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> fin compared to the dorsal fin; torque differences are also strongly influenced by the location of each fin relative to the fish's centre of mass. Fifth, flow is actively modified by dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins resulting in complex flow patterns surrounding the caudal fin. The caudal fin does not encounter free-stream flow, but rather moves through incident flow greatly altered by the action of dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins. Sixth, trout <span class="hlt">anal</span> fin function differs from dorsal fin function; although dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fins appear to cooperate functionally, there are complex interactions between other fins and free stream perturbations that require independent dorsal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> fin motion and torque production to maintain control of body position. PMID:17210968</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Standen, E M; Lauder, G V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17586965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Squamous cell carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> region at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study documents the epidemiological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal as it has presented to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC). Thirty-eight (33 Saudis) patients, 24 males and 14 females were studied. They ranged in age from 32 to 100 years. Twenty-four had <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal tumors and 12 had <span class="hlt">anal</span> margin cancers. Riyadh, the Eastern Province or Medina provided most patients and the majority presented with bleeding, a lump or pain. Symptom duration ranged from one month to more than two years. Fourteen had previous <span class="hlt">anal</span> problems. There was an almost equal distribution of lesions between the anterior and posterior halves of the anus. Nineteen had clinically normal inguinal nodes. Thirty had squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid) and eight had cloacogenic/basiloid tumors. Most tumors were either moderately or poorly differentiated. Twenty-eight presented with T3 or T4 tumors and only ten presented with T1 or T2 tumors. Five had evidence of metastases at initial presentation. Eight were treated by abdominoperinal resection of the rectum. A diversion colostomy was performed in six. Fifteen received radiotherapy alone but only three were treated by chemotherapy alone. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy was given to 14. More males than females had both <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> margin tumors. Patients with <span class="hlt">anal</span> margin tumors were on average ten years older. There were twice as many with <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal as <span class="hlt">anal</span> margin tumors. There were more node-positive patients with <span class="hlt">anal</span> margin tumors. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> canal tumors were less well-differentiated. Follow-up was inadequate. PMID:17586965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Garni, S; Al-Nassar, S; Isbister, W H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20842901"> <span id="translatedtitle">FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Surgical staging and treatment of <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen. Results: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cotter, Shane E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Medical Scientist Training Program, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States) and Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States) and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)]. E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu; Siegel, Barry A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] (and others)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/32/75/95/PDF/65537galleys3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SIAM J. MATRIX <span class="hlt">ANAL</span>. APPL. c XXXX Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 0, No. 0, pp. 000000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SIAM J. MATRIX <span class="hlt">ANAL</span>. APPL. c XXXX Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 0, No. 0, pp it to a four-way array to perform a blind identification of an under-determined mixture (UDM). Since <span class="hlt">anal</span>- ysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fishbull.noaa.gov/2-1/worth1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">54 BULLETIN OF TEE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. scarcely longest, 16 in head. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> comparatively long and high, its</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">54 BULLETIN OF TEE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. scarcely longest, 16 in head. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> comparatively nearer base of ventral8 than <span class="hlt">anal</span>. Color rather dull grayish brown, with bluish and purple reflections</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.neu.uni-bayreuth.de/de/Uni_Bayreuth/Fakultaeten/1_Mathematik_Physik_und_Informatik/Mathematisches_Institut/mathe_VI-Rein/de/download/vmstaba.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arch. Rational Mech. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 121, 187 -203 (1992) A stability result for the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arch. Rational Mech. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 121, 187 - 203 (1992) A stability result for the relativistic Vlasov stability result for the Vlasov-Poisson system in three dimensions, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. di Mat. Pura ed Appl. 164, 133</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dettweiler, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.math.ucdavis.edu/~temple/!!!PubsForWeb/cv78.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SIAM J. MATH. <span class="hlt">ANAL</span>. c 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 149</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SIAM J. MATH. <span class="hlt">ANAL</span>. c 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 1-periodic sound wave propagation in the compressible Euler equations, Methods Appl. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>., 16 (2009), pp. 341</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Temple, Blake</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1661110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ileo-<span class="hlt">anal</span> pouch procedure: experience in the Chinese population.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ileo-<span class="hlt">anal</span> pouch procedure is now a well-established method for dealing with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis in many centres in the West. Experience in the Chinese population is not well documented, mainly due to the rarity of inflammatory bowel disease. This report documents the experience of a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Despite being a small series, the low complication rates and good functional results show that the pelvic pouch procedure has now evolved to a stage where it can be performed safely even in centres with infrequent experience. PMID:1661110</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lau, P W; Boey, J; Lorentz, T G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/87/05/00/PDF/Article_IUvsIA_v89.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus <span class="hlt">anal</span> incontinence four years after first1 Aim: delivery can be complicated by urinary or <span class="hlt">anal</span> incontinence (UI or AI). We4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus <span class="hlt">anal</span> incontinence four years after first1 delivery.2 Abstract3 Aim: delivery can be complicated by urinary or <span class="hlt">anal</span> incontinence (UI or AI). We4 found specific associations between obstetrical risk factors and urinary21 versus <span class="hlt">anal</span> incontinence four</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dental.cam.ac.uk/downloads/chlamydia-leaflet.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do not have any sex (oral, vaginal, <span class="hlt">anal</span> or using sex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Do not have any sex (oral, vaginal, <span class="hlt">anal</span> or using sex toys) with a partner until their treatment has also been completed Prevention Preventing Chlamydia · Use condoms every time you have sex sex (oral, vaginal, <span class="hlt">anal</span> or using sex toys) with a partner until their treatment has also been</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Talbot, James P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39752835"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial contents of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> and castor glands of beaver ( Castor canadensis )</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial contents of both the <span class="hlt">anal</span> gland and castor gland of the beaver (Castor canadensis) were determined. Using our culture methods, no bacteria were isolated from the castor glands, but the <span class="hlt">anal</span> gland contained high numbers of the aerobeEscherichia coli and the anaerobeBacteroides fragilis. The latter may be represented by several variants but facilities were not available for advanced anaerobic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerald E. Svendsen; Joseph D. Jollick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/newsfromnci/2012/HIVwithAnalCancer"> <span id="translatedtitle">HIV infection connected to rising <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer rates in men in the U.S.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancers in general population with dashed line showing those with HIV infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22999485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Benign fibrous histiocytoma presenting as <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal polyp: first case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonepithelial and nonmelanocytic <span class="hlt">anal</span> neoplasms are uncommon. The majority are mesenchymal tumors, most of which are malignant sarcomas, particularly leiomyosarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Benign mesenchymal <span class="hlt">anal</span> neoplasms are even rarer. The most common reported cases were <span class="hlt">anal</span> leiomyomas, granular cell tumors, fibroadenomas, and xanthogranulomas. Benign fibrous histiocytomas (BFHs) or dermatofibromas are common mesenchymal cutaneous tumors that occur in different sites and at any age. Review of the literature did not show previous reports of BFH arising in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal region. We report the first case of a solitary BFH, an unexpected occurrence of a common tumor type presenting as a polyp in an unusual site such as the anus. This rare occurrence can present diagnostic challenges for the surgeons and pathologists. Clinically, it can be confused with the usual <span class="hlt">anal</span> tags, fibroepithelial polyps, or hemorrhoids. Benign fibrous histiocytoma is a neoplasm with a potential of local recurrence and, therefore, carries certain clinical implications for the patients' management and follow-up when compared with the common nonneoplastic causes of <span class="hlt">anal</span> polyps such as the <span class="hlt">anal</span> tags of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures, hemorrhoids, or fibroepithelial papilla. Histologically, it should be differentiated from other histiocytic lesions. This can be resolved by the application of certain histologic features with the appropriate immunohistochemical markers taken within the correct clinical context. PMID:22999485</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AbdullGaffar, Badr; Abdulrahim, Manal; Ghazi, Esaaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ym757243661pq271.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A randomized trial of oral vs. topical diltiazem for chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION: Chemical sphincterotomy has proved effective in treating chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure. Glyceryl trinitrate is the most widely used agent, and topical 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate ointment heals up to two thirds of chronic <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures. Unfortunately, however, many patients experience troublesome headaches as a side effect of this treatment. This study assessed the effectiveness of oral and topical diltiazem in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marion Jonas; Keith R. Neal; John F. Abercrombie; John H. Scholefield</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/18480/1/Anales-Psicologia-2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">La revista <span class="hlt">Anales</span> de Psicología desde una perspectiva de redes sociales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Title: <span class="hlt">Anales</span> de Psicologia journal from a social networks framework. Abstract: This paper shows the results obtained on the analysis of the journal <span class="hlt">Anales</span> de Psicología. In this article, authors analyze the collaboration between authors, institutions and countries for this journal. This collabo- rational analysis is made on the basis of the Social Network Analysis (SNA) with the software Pajek</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">María Peñaranda-Ortega; Elena Quiñones-Vidal; Julia Osca-Lluch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gmwgroup.harvard.edu/pubs/pdf/551.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>.Chem.1997, 69,3321-3328 On-Line Detection of Nonspecific Protein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">6@3 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>.Chem.1997, 69,3321-3328 On-Line Detection of Nonspecific Protein Adsorption at Artificial,J. W.; Manin, $. J.;White,R M. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem.1993, A5'940-%8' 987-996. Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 69, No</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prentiss, Mara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29058504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence and outcome after primary treatment of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistulae in Crohn's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the period 1955 to 1974 inclusive, 826 patients developed Crohn's disease and were registered citizens of Stockholm County at the time of definite diagnosis. These patients were followed up and investigated with reference to the occurrence of and outcome after treatment for <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistulae. These fistulae were recorded in 184 patients (23%). The incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fistulae increased the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G Hellers; O Bergstrand; S Ewerth; B Holmström</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=anal&pg=2&id=EJ823640"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> Intercourse and Sexual Risk Factors among College Women, 1993-2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To determine trends and sexual risk behaviors associated with <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse among college women over an 8-year period. Methods: A sexual activity questionnaire was used to collect data from 813 students enrolled in a women's health course. Results: Thirty-two percent of the women had engaged in <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse, and this measure was…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flannery, Diana; Ellingson, Lyndall; Votaw, Karen S.; Schaefer, Elizabeth Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24167099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iodamoeba butschlii in an <span class="hlt">anal</span> pap test confirmed by iodine stain.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the finding of Iodamoeba butschlii amebic cysts on a liquid-based <span class="hlt">anal</span> Pap smear from an HIV-positive male. Iodine staining of the smear confirmed the diagnosis. It is important to distinguish I. butschlii from pathogenic ameobae and other organisms seen on <span class="hlt">anal</span> Pap smears. PMID:24167099</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schuetz, Audrey N; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schreiner, Andrew M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3685232"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural History of <span class="hlt">Anal</span> vs Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background.?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at greater risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated <span class="hlt">anal</span> than oropharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> vs oral HPV infections is higher in this population, but whether this is explained by higher incidence or persistence is unknown. Methods.?Oral rinse and <span class="hlt">anal</span> swab samples were collected semiannually from 404 HIV-infected adults in Baltimore, Maryland. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types using PGMY09/11 primers and reverse line-blot hybridization. Risk factors for HPV persistence were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld models. Results.?The prevalence (84% vs 28%), incidence (145 vs 31 per 1000 person-months), and 12-month persistence (54% vs 29%) were higher for <span class="hlt">anal</span> vs oral HPV infections, respectively (each P < .001). Heterosexual men had lower incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV than men who have sex with men and women, but a higher incidence of oral HPV infection (test of interaction P < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, risk factors for HPV persistence included prevalent vs incident (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5–4.8) and <span class="hlt">anal</span> vs oral HPV infections (aHR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–1.9). Conclusions.?The higher incidence and persistence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> vs oral HPV infections likely contributes to the higher burden of <span class="hlt">anal</span> as compared to oral HPV-associated cancers in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:23596319</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beachler, Daniel C.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Xiao, Wiehong; Gillison, Maura L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p01974556r311153.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of human papillomavirus infection in patients with <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid (HPV DNA) in <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous carcinoma. METHODS: HPV DNAin situhybridization for HPV Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35 was performed on the formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded tissue from 53 perianal and <span class="hlt">anal</span> squamous carcinomas and 10 controls. RESULTS: HPV DNA sequences were identified</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. S. Ramanujam; K. S. Venkatesh; T. Co Barnett; M. J. Fietz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://chipre.iqm.unicamp.br/~marcia/Pub115.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">218 C. DAOLIO ET AL. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 19: 218228 (2008)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">218 C. DAOLIO ET AL. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 19: 218­228 (2008) DOI: 10.1002.pca Phytochemical Analysis Phytochem. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. 19: 218­228 (2008) Published online 21 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Keywords: NMR; HPLC; 1 H-HR-MAS; PCA; HCA; Catuaba. Phytochemical Analysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferreira, Márcia M. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=safe+AND+sexual+AND+practices&pg=2&id=EJ966136"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resisting the "Condom Every Time for <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Sex" Health Education Message</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex") were sought.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3499109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of and Risk Factors for <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Young Healthy Women in Costa Rica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background.?<span class="hlt">Anal</span> cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), yet little is known about <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV infection among healthy young women. Methods.?A total of 2017 sexually active women in the control arm of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial had a single <span class="hlt">anal</span> specimen collected by a clinician at the 4-year study visit. Samples were tested for HPV by SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25, version 1. Results.?A total of 4% of women had HPV-16, 22% had oncogenic HPV, and 31% had any HPV detected in an <span class="hlt">anal</span> specimen. The prevalence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV was higher among women who reported <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse, compared with those who did not (43.4% vs 28.4%; P < .001). Among women who reported <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse, cervical HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.4–8.2]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1–4.6] for ?4 partners), and number of <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse partners (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1–3.3] for ?2 partners) were independent risk factors for <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV detection. Among women who reported no <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse, cervical HPV (aOR, 4.7 [95% CI, 3.7–5.9]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.7–3.4] for ?4 partners), and report of <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures (aOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–4.8]) were associated with an increased odds of <span class="hlt">anal</span> HPV detection. Conclusion.?<span class="hlt">Anal</span> HPV is common among young women, even those who report no <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex, and was associated with cervical HPV infection. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> fissures in women who report never having had <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse may facilitate HPV exposure. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00128661. PMID:22850119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castro, Felipe A.; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; DelVecchio, Corey; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28964611"> <span id="translatedtitle">End-to-End Operative Repair of Achilles Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the long-term results of operative repair in 23 consecutive patients with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, treated between 1984 and 1991, to evaluate our treat ment method and determine the clinical causes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Fifty-four percent of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occurred in peo ple in their 30s; 90% occurred during participation in acceleration-deceleration sports. All but three patients were treated within 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffery J. Soldatis; Donald B. Goodfellow; John H. Wilber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23464778"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: case report and literature review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is extremely rare. Usually a diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is trauma induced. We describe a case of an 18-year old patient admitted 2 hours after onset, presenting severe epigastric and left sided chest pain without any trauma history. Upright chest x-ray revealed displaced stomach and colon into the left pleural cavity with a collapsed left lung. Surgery for a left-sided diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with stomach, spleen and colon splenic flexure herniation was undertaken. We present a brief review regarding the aetiology, diagnostic and treatment policy of spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:23464778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Condratsky, E; Zastavnitsky, Gh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21276522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute and chronic Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Achilles tendon is the most injured tendon of athletes in the lower extremities and is the most common tendon to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> spontaneously. Operative repair provides earlier return to sporting activities and lesser rate of rerupture. The general goal is to attempt anastomosis of the acute <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ends; however, delayed <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may require more extensive procedures. New surgical approaches, including percutaneous and mini-open techniques, are being introduced to potentially diminish perioperative complications. Advent of early protective range of motion and rehabilitation has shown a potential for earlier return to sporting activities for Achilles <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:21276522</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, Jonathan; Baravarian, Bob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act02.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Analogies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54001169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the Hayward Fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for a suite of 35 magnitude 6.7--7.2 scenario earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> involving the Hayward fault. The suite of scenarios encompasses variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length, hypocenter, distribution of slip, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, and rise time. The five <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lengths include the Hayward fault and portions thereof, as well as combined <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Aagaard; R. Graves; S. Larsen; S. Ma; A. Rodgers; T. Brocher; R. Graymer; R. Harris; J. Lienkaemper; D. Ponce; D. Schwartz; R. Simpson; P. Spudich; D. Dreger; A. Petersson; J. Boatwright</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52626305"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault length, multi-fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and relations to earthquakes in California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fault length is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length of future earthquakes. However, fault length is often poorly defined, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> often breaks beyond the mapped faults. Furthermore, multiple faults often <span class="hlt">rupture</span> together in a single earthquake. In this work I quantify how to use fault length to infer future <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length. I used observations of previous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> breaking multiple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natanya Maureen Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of Hole Nucleation in Biomembrane <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The core component of a biological membrane is a fluid-lipid bilayer held together by interfacial-hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions, which are balanced for the most part by acyl chain entropy confinement. If biomembranes are subjected to persistent tensions, an unstable (nanoscale) hole will emerge at some time to cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Because of the large energy required to create a hole, thermal activation appears to be requisite for initiating a hole and the activation energy is expected to depend significantly on mechanical tension. Although models exist for the kinetic process of hole nucleation in tense membranes, studies of membrane survival have failed to cover the ranges of tension and lifetime needed to critically examine nucleation theory. Hence, <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> giant (~20 ?m) membrane vesicles ultra-slowly to ultra-quickly with slow to fast ramps of tension, we demonstrate a method to directly quantify kinetic rates at which unstable holes form in fluid membranes, at the same time providing a range of kinetic rates from < 0.01 s?1 to > 100 s?1. Measuring lifetimes of many hundreds of vesicles, each tensed by precision control of micropipet suction, we have determined the rates of failure for vesicles made from several synthetic phospholipids plus 1:1 mixtures of phospho- and sphingo-lipids with cholesterol, all of which represent prominent constituents of eukaryotic cell membranes. Plotted on a logarithmic scale, the failure rates for vesicles are found to rise dramatically with increase of tension. Converting the experimental profiles of kinetic rates into changes of activation energy versus tension, we show that the results closely match expressions for thermal activation derived from a combination of meso-scale theory and molecular-scale simulations of hole formation. Moreover, we demonstrate a generic approach to transform analytical fits of activation energies obtained from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments into energy landscapes characterizing the process hole nucleation along the reaction coordinate defined by hole size. PMID:21966242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Evan; Smith, Benjamin A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24902970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of plaque formation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615127E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing Continental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Processes in Afar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vertes.columbian.gwu.edu/publicat_html/Cool_plume.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1993,65,2389-2393 2388 Hydrodynamic Model of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Mass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1993,65,2389-2393 2388 Hydrodynamic Model of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Mass, HungarianAcademyofSciences,H-1525Budapeat,P.O.Box17,Hungary. (1)Karas, M.; Hillenkamp, F. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1988.; Cotter, R. J. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1990,62, 793. (8)Nuwaysir, L. M.; Wilkins, Ch. L. Proc. 38th ASMS Conf. Mass</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vertes, Akos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~grossman/FNG85A.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1985, 57,551-555 551 (20) Kawaik, J.; Jerdrai, T.; Gaius, 2. J. Electroanal Chem. 1983, 745,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1985, 57,551-555 551 (20) Kawaik, J.; Jerdrai, T.; Gaius, 2. J. Electroanal Chem. 1983, 745, (21) Nicholson,163-17 1. R, s, <span class="hlt">Anal</span>, Chem, Ig65, 37,1351-1355, (22) Sharp, M. Electrochim. Acta) Adams, R. N. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1976, 48,1128A-1138A. (27) Sternson, A. W.; McCreery, R.; Feinberg, B.; Adams</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grossman, Lawrence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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Chem. 1988, 60, 1494-1498 related to the relatively small number of total ions utilized</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1494 <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1988, 60, 1494-1498 related to the relatively small number of total ions utilized, J. M. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1980. 34. 197. Cotter, R.'J. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1984, 56, 485A.; Derrick, P. J. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1988, 58, 165R. Hliienkamp, R. H. "Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chait, Brian T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/420.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1991, 63, 2193-2196 2193 background due to the secondary ions generated in the de-</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1991, 63, 2193-2196 2193 background due to the secondary ions generated in the de-362 and ref-. .erences therein. Klimcak, 0.;Wessei, J. E. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1080, 52, 1233. Rhodes, 0.; Opsal, R. B.; Meek, J. T.; Reiiiy, J. P. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1083, 55. 280..., ~ . . Dobson, R. L. M.; D'Siiva, A. P.; Weeks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.marquette.edu/chem/tran/documents/p50.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Ch" 1992, 64, 2775-2782 Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter as a Polychromator and Its</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Ch" 1992, 64, 2775-2782 Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter as a Polychromator and Its Application. M.; Callis, J. B.; Davidson, E. R.; Gauyeman, M.; (2)Warner, I.M.;Patonay, G.;Thomas,M. P. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>.;Callii,J. B.;Christian,G. D.;Davidson, E. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. (7) Roesi, T. M.; Warner, I. M. Appl. Spectrosc. 1984</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reid, Scott A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.izb.unibe.ch/content/e8426/e8427/e8556/e8557/analvesicle_eng.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Journal of Insect Physiology 52 (2006) 269281 Development of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> vesicle, salivary glands and gut in the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Journal of Insect Physiology 52 (2006) 269­281 Development of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> vesicle, salivary glands the host. We present the first detailed study on the development of the <span class="hlt">anal</span> vesicle and the gut. The analyses reveal that the <span class="hlt">anal</span> vesicle is first seen on the dorsal side of the abdomen as an internal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lanzrein, Beatrice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1991, 63, 496-502496 (6) Moscowitz, A. Adv. Chem. Fhys. 1962, 4 , 67-112.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1991, 63, 496-502496 (6) Moscowitz, A. Adv. Chem. Fhys. 1962, 4 , 67-112. (7) Djerassi, 1021-1030. (16) Kersey, A. D.; Dawson, J. B. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Roc. (London) 1981, 18, 187- 189. (17) Debus, H, H.: Ogawa, T. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Sci. 1990, 6 , 135-136. (20) Partington, J. R. Advanced Treatiseon Fhysical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355741"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1?week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (linear whole wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span>). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25355741</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361560"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1?week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (linear whole wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span>). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25361560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in gouty arthritis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 34-year-old male presented with right knee instability without any trauma. He had been diagnosed with right knee gouty arthritis 2 years prior. An arthroscopic examination revealed abundant calcific material deposited around the knee joint, including in the ACL tissue, and that the ACL was torn at the femoral attachment site. Treatment involved a synovectomy to remove calcific material, followed by an ACL reconstruction. Histology evaluation revealed gouty arthritis with the presence of tophi in the synovium, soft tissue, and ACL tissue. The case presented here indicates the possibility of pathologic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ACL associated with gouty tophus infiltration of that ligament. Level of evidence IV. PMID:22048747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Soon-Hyuck; Han, Seung-Beom; Park, Si-Young; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Dae-Hee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90e2710T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The behavior of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces, despite its scientific and technological significance, is poorly understood. By simultaneously taking into account (i) the dynamics of spontaneous pore opening and closing in surface bound vesicles; (ii) their volume loss via leakage through the pores; (iii) and the propagation of their contact line, we have developed a simple model that can fully describe the detailed mechanism of and provide the necessary conditions for the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of vesicles and the subsequent formation of supported lipid bilayers. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with many of the experimental observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takáts-Nyeste, Annamária; Derényi, Imre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and local tsunamis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geist, E.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/831681"> <span id="translatedtitle">Idiopathic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the iliac vein.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Idiopathic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of large veins is very rare. There has been one report in the Portugese literature of such an instance involving the iliac vein. Our patient was an elderly woman in whom evidence of intra-abdominal hemorrhage developed. There was no clinical evidence of trauma. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal hematoma secondary to an 8-mm tear in the left common iliac vein was found. The tear occurred adjacent to where the right common iliac artery passes over the vein. Repair was followed by uneventful recovery. Results of the pathological examination showed nonspecific information. PMID:831681</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, L; Sanchez, F; Mannix, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3974539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colonic and <span class="hlt">anal</span> metastases from pancreato-biliary malignancies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pancreato-biliary malignancies often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment although less than 20% of tumours are suitable for resection at presentation. Common sites for metastases are liver, lungs, lymph nodes and peritoneal cavity. Metastatic disease carries poor prognosis, with median survival of less than 3 mo. We report two cases where metastases from pancreato-biliary cancers were identified in the colon and <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal. In both cases specific immunohistochemical staining was utilised in the diagnosis. In the first case, the presenting complaint was obstructive jaundice due to an ampullary tumour for which a pancreato-duodenectomy was carried out. However, the patient re-presented 4 wk later with an atypical <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure which was found to be metastatic deposit from the primary ampullary adenocarcinoma. In the second case, the patient presented with obstructive jaundice due to a biliary stricture. Subsequent imaging revealed sigmoid thickening, which was confirmed to be a metastatic deposit. Distal colonic and anorectal metastases from pancreato-biliary cancers are rare and can masquerade as primary colorectal tumours. The key to the diagnosis is the specific immunohistochemical profile of the intestinal lesion biopsies. PMID:24707155</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ejtehadi, Farshid; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Brais, Rebecca J; Hall, Nigel R; Godfrey, Edmund M; Huguet, Emmanuel; Praseedom, Raaj K; Jah, Asif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913124"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> warts (condylomata acuminata) - current issues and treatment modalities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">HPV infections are currently the most frequent cause of genital infections in the USA. Risk factors are early onset of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, a history STDs, an early age of first pregnancy and tobacco use. In the past, HPV viruses were thought to be STDs, but it is now known that penetration is not necessary. Skin-to-skin or mucosa-to-mucosa contact is enough to transmit the virus, which presents high tropism for those tissues. The Papillomaviridae family includes over 120 viruses, some of which have high malignant transformation rates. The most common malignancy connected to HPV is uterine cervix cancer and <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal cancer. The range of morphology of perianal lesions means that a thorough clinical examination is required, including an anoscopy. Therapeutic modalities often seek to eliminate macroscopic changes rather than focus on the cause of the infection, which leads to a high recurrence rate. Externally located changes can be eliminated with patient-applied treatments. Those located in the <span class="hlt">anal</span> canal and distal end of the rectal ampulla require treatment by a qualified medical provider. Due to the high recurrence rate after standard treatment, special attention has been given to vaccinations. The polyvalent vaccine includes HPV viruses with both low and high malignant transformation risk. This has led to a decrease in the rate of malignancies. PMID:24913124</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leszczyszyn, Jaros?aw; ?ebski, Igor; ?ysenko, Lidia; Hirnle, Lidia; Gerber, Hanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35549321"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Muscarinic-Stimulated Polyphosphoinositide Hydrolysis and Ca 2+ Mobilization in Cat Iris <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> Smooth Muscle Cells By cAMP-Elevating Agents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of carbachol (CCh) on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilization, and their regulation by cAMP-elevating agents were investigated in SV-40 transformed cat iris <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells. CCh produced time- and dose-dependent increases in IP3 production; the t1\\/2 and EC50 values were 68 s and 0.5 ?M, respectively. The muscarinic agonist provoked a transient</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ke-Hong Ding; Shahid Husain; Rashid A Akhtar; Carlos M Isales; Ata A Abdel-Latif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/5pj9fdqjhlle2ahh.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) in Stress Incontinent Women with Intrinsic <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> Deficiency (ISD) - A Long-Term Follow-up</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a prospective long-term study 49 women with stress incontinence and ISD (intrinsic <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> deficiency) were followed for a mean of 4 years (range 3-5) after TVT operation. Preoperatively all patients underwent urodynamic investigations, quality of life evaluation, a 24-hour pad test and a gynecologic examination to properly verify the incontinence symptoms. The same protocol was used for postoperative evaluation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Rezapour; C. Falconer; U. Ulmsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=5M&pg=4&id=EJ826748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Condition, Viscosity, and Volume on Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal <span class="hlt">Sphincter</span> Pressure and Temporal Measurements during Swallowing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of trial (i.e., Trial 1 vs. Trial 2); viscosity (i.e., saliva, thin, nectar-thick, honey-thick, and pudding-thick water); volume (i.e., 5 mL vs. 10 mL); age (i.e., young vs. older adults); and gender on pharyngeal (i.e., upper and lower) and upper esophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> (UES) pressures,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butler, Susan G.; Stuart, Andrew; Castell, Donald; Russell, Gregory B.; Koch, Kenneth; Kemp, Shannon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6684C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocity inferred from near-field differential ground motion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The velocity of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation is a fundamental source parameter that strongly affects ground motion. It is commonly assessed from kinematic inversion of strong-motion or teleseismic data, sometimes combined with InSar and/or GPS data. The obtained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity remains inevitably affected by uncertainties, mainly due to imperfect knowledge of the earth structure and tradeoffs between different source parameters. In this study we show how the analysis of differential ground-motion may help constraining the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, without a priori information about the earth velocity structure. Our analysis is based on synthetic ground-motion simulations (0-2 Hz) for vertical strike-slip earthquakes propagating unilaterally at a fixed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity in a homogeneous elastic medium covered with a 1 km-thick low velocity layer (shear wave velocity equal to 1 km/s). We show that when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> reaches the bottom of the shallow layer, the phase velocity of transverse waves measured in the forward <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction up to a few <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lengths is equal to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, for a large range of frequencies. The comparison with the phase velocity obtained for a point source then enables to retrieve the value of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. The phase velocity is simply computed from the ratio between the ground velocity and the shear strain or the rotation about a vertical axis. This study points out the utility of setting up dense arrays at the vicinity of major faults to retrieve <span class="hlt">rupture</span> features such as the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Causse, Mathieu; Cornou, Cécile; Bécasse, Julie; Bouchon, Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1374094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Location of the lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> and the squamous columnar mucosal junction in 109 healthy controls and 778 patients with different degrees of endoscopic oesophagitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study the location of the lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> measured by manometry and the location of the squamous columnar junction measured by endoscopy were determined in 109 healthy controls and 778 patients with different degrees of endoscopic oesophagitis. No significant differences in the prevalence and severity of the heartburn and regurgitation were observed when different degrees of oesophagitis were compared but dysphagia was more common and severe in patients with complicated Barrett's oesophagus (p < 0.001). This group also showed a male predominance and older age compared with other groups. The total length of the oesophagus, measured by the location of the distal end of the lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> was similar in all patients; however, the location of the squamous columnar junction extended more proximally and was related to the increasing severity of endoscopic oesophagitis. The manometric defects at the cardia were more frequent in severe oesophagitis (p < 0.001). These results suggest that, during the course of oesophagitis, the squamous columnar junction is displaced proximally. This displacement is limited to the mucosa, however, and does not involve the muscular layer, because the lower oesophageal <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> undergoes no dislocation. PMID:8432446</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Csendes, A; Maluenda, F; Braghetto, I; Csendes, P; Henriquez, A; Quesada, M S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRB..111.3307S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear thermoporoelastic effects on dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we theoretically examine thermohydraulic effects on dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We first derive the system of governing equations assuming a thermoporoelastic medium and then conduct numerical calculations based on these equations. Nonlinear feedback between changes in temperature, fluid pressure, and fault slip are shown to play an important role in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics. For example, these feedbacks produce a longer duration of fault slip than that predicted by the classical Griffith crack model assumed in an elastic medium; deviation of our results from those of the Griffith crack model increases with increased thickness of the heated fault zone. The feedback effects also produce slip-weakening behavior and gradual slip onset. The slip-weakening distance increases with increased rate of fluid outflow from the heated fault zone. Our simulations demonstrate that smaller events record smaller static stress drops, consistent with seismological observations. This relationship occurs because ongoing fault slip tends to result in increased fluid pressure. Our simulations also indicate that scaling relationships between small and large earthquakes are complicated by thermohydraulic effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Takehito; Yamashita, Teruo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24637031"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicating aortitis: a case report].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical aortitis is a rare and poorly described aortic disease, sometimes confounded with Takayasu's disease, mainly in people from Africa. In this case report, the panaortic aneurysmal disease in a young woman from Haiti, first diagnosed after a work-up on renovascular hypertension, would appear to approach this particular arterial disease with no clinical, radiological or biological argument for an infectious etiology. The initially suspected diagnosis of Takayasu's disease had to be rethought because of the presence of several saccular aneurysms extending from the aortic arch to the infrarenal aorta, rarely described in Takayasu's aortitis. Expert opinions from vascular surgeons and clinicians tagged this aortic disease as similar to tropical aortitis which remained asymptomatic for more than a decade. Hypertension was managed with successful balloon angioplasty of the left renal artery stenosis and anti-hypertensive combination therapy. Surgical management of the extended aortic aneurysms was not proposed because of the stability and asymptomatic nature of the aneurysmal disease and the high risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. More than ten years after diagnosis, the course was marked with inaugural and sudden-onset chest pain concomitant with contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. This case report underlines the persistent risk of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the importance of an anatomopathological study for the diagnosis of complex aortic disease. PMID:24637031</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yannoutsos, A; Mercier, O; Messas, E; Safar, M E; Blacher, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279443"> <span id="translatedtitle">False vs True <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New medical nomenclature: False <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes or False ROM and Double <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cohain, J S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T33C2644F"> <span id="translatedtitle">How is a stick slip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the initiation process of stick slip events that occurred during large scale rock friction experiments conducted on the large scale shaking table at NIED (Fukuyama et al., 2012, AGU Fall meeting). We used a pair of Indian gabbro rock samples stacked vertically and applied normal and shear forces. The sliding area between the samples is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width. We conducted a sequence of experiments using the same rock sample, and before each experiment we removed gouge particles created during the previous experiment by a brush and a cleaner. Here, we show the experiments under constant slip velocity of 0.1mm/s with constant normal stress of 2.7MPa (LB04-003) or 6.7MPa (LB04-005); the final displacement reached 0.04m. We used 44 acoustic sensors (PZT, vertical mode, 0.5MHz resonance frequency), 32 2-comp strain gouges (SGs) for shear strain and 16 1-comp SGs for normal strain measurements, with 48 0.5MHz dynamic SG amplifiers. We also used a 2MN load cell for shear force measurement and three 0.4MN load cells for vertical forces. Data are recorded continuously at an interval of 10MHz for PZT and 1MHz for other sensors. Just after the shear force applied, many stick slip events (SEs) occurred at an interval of a few seconds. By looking carefully at the PZT and SG array data during an SE, we found that one SE consists of many micro stick slip events (MSEs), which can be grouped into two (the former and the latter). These two groups correspond to the acceleration and deceleration stage of the SE. In LB04-005 (6.7MPa normal stress), a clear nucleation phase can be detected that initiated at a narrow area, propagate slowly (~20m/s) and accelerated. Then, a seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> started to propagate at a velocity of ~3km/s (subshear) or ~6.5km/s (supershear). Detailed features are shown in Mizoguchi et al. (this meeting). It should be noted that this seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated at a narrow area inside the nucleation zone and sometimes after a certain amount of time; it does not seem a smooth transition process from the acceleration to the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as proposed in Ohnaka and Shen (1999, JGR). In contrast, under low normal stress case (LB04-003, 2.7MPa), there were no visible nucleation phases but a sequence of foreshocks was observed, which was not dominant in LB04-005. The foreshock slip area was typically around 10cm long. Again, we could not see any visible correlation between the location and preceding time of foreshocks and that of seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation. By looking at the fault surface topography that was recorded as photograph images before and after the experiment, in the nucleation zone, grooves are not developed, while outside the nucleation area, grooves are well developed. Grooves are caused by the creation of gouge particles during the sliding. It could be interesting to note that outside the groove, the sliding surface looks very smooth and shiny, indicating that this area was polished but did not create gouge particles. Therefore, we might speculate that this shiny fault area is responsible for the initiation phase and when the stress state becomes critical, seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starts around one of the grooves. And in LB04-003, the shiny area might not support the shear stress so that the foreshock releases the strain around the grooves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Kawakata, H.; Takizawa, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31797659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posttraumatic free intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver cystic echinococcosis: a case series and review of literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundA serious complication of cystic echinococcus (CE) is the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the cysts. Free intra-abdominal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs in approximately 3.2% of all cases. Posttraumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver CE is very rare.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gurkan Ozturk; Bulent Aydinli; M. Ilhan Yildirgan; Mahmut Basoglu; S. Selcuk Atamanalp; K. Yalcin Polat; Fatih Alper; Bulent Guvendi; M. Nuran Akcay; Durkaya Oren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26173142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomechanics of Plaque <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter D. Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19642345"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Late diagnosed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm --a case review].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors describe a case of the patient with late diagnosis of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There was a bowel obstruction found in X-ray scan. After endotracheal intubation was complicated of tension pneumotorax. Laparotomy was found <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm. PMID:19642345</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simánek, V; Treska, V; Klecka, J; Spidlen, V; Vodicka, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2604640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intracranial aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and ventricular opacification during carotid angiography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of intra-angiography <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an aneurysm, a rarity, is reported. It was confirmed by CT Scan and autopsy. The aneurysm <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> despite taking all precautions recommended in the literature. This complication may be reduced by the use of non-ionic contrast media and slow flow rate injections. PMID:2604640</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jayakumar, P N; Jain, V K; Rao, T V; Arya, B Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6577844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracheobronchial and oesophageal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> caused by blunt injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the period 1968-1982, six patients with tracheobronchial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following chest injury were treated in the Royal Newcastle Hospital Intensive Care Unit. In one there was associated oesophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The management of these patients is described and recommendations regarding management are made. PMID:6577844</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James, O F; Moore, P G; Gillies, J R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53072436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristic scales of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from numerical models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical models of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are used to investigate characteristic length scales and size distributions of repeated earthquakes on vertical, planar fault segments. The models are based on exact solutions of static three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity. Dynamical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is approximated by allowing the static stress field to expand from slip motions at a single velocity. To show how the vertical fault</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. H. Heimpel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5421G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the 2000 and 2008 Ölfus (Iceland) earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of three earthquakes occurred in 2000 (17-06, Mw=6.5 and 21-06, Mw=6.4) and 2008 (29-05, Mw=6.2) in Iceland, with epicentres very close. We have estimated focal mechanism from inversion of body waves at teleseismic distances (30°-90°) using the algorithm developed by Kikuchi and Kanamori for a kinematic source. In a second step, the slip distribution over the fault-plane has been estimated. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been estimated from Rayleigh waves using the directivity function. The obtained results show similar focal mechanism for the three earthquakes corresponding to strike-slip motion. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> plane is oriented in all cases in NS direction, which agrees with tectonics of the area. The slip distribution obtained for the three shocks, shows a single process that starts at shallow depth (5 to 7 km), with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagating to the south and parallel to the surface. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity estimated from body waves and Rayleigh waves is very low: 1.5 km/s. In order to confirm these low values, we have estimated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process using strong motion data recorded by Icelandic Strong-Motion Network. Accelerograms were converted to displacement by double integration and filtered. We have carried out a kinematic inversion of these data in order to constraint the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Girona, Társilo; Pro, Carmen; Buforn, Elisa; Peyrat, Sophie; Sigbjörnsson, Ragnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47267936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survivors of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm: the iceberg's tip</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In four and a half years 25 patients in one community suffered a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eleven died at home, nine died without operation in hospital, and only five had the aneurysm removed. There were four survivors. A further seven patients might have lived had they had a prompt operation. The average operative mortality for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms among series</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R H Armour</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> augmentation with the LINX device for gastroesophageal reflux disease after U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic <span class="hlt">sphincter</span> augmentation (MSA) of the gastroesophageal junction with the LINX Reflux Management System is an alternative to fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2012. This is a prospective observational study of all patients who underwent placement of the LINX at two institutions from April 2012 to December 2013 to evaluate our clinical experience with the LINX device after FDA approval. There were no intraoperative complications and only four mild postoperative morbidities: three urinary retentions and one readmission for dehydration. The mean operative time was 60 minutes (range, 31 to 159 minutes) and mean length of stay was 11 hours (range, 5 to 35 hours). GERD health-related quality-of-life scores were available for 83 per cent of patients with a median follow-up of five months (range, 3 to 14 months) and a median score of four (range, 0 to 26). A total of 76.9 per cent of patients were no longer taking proton pump inhibitors. The most common postoperative complaint was dysphagia, which resolved in 79.1 per cent of patients with a median time to resolution of eight weeks. There were eight patients with persistent dysphagia that required balloon dilation with improvement in symptoms. MSA with LINX is a safe and effective alternative to fundoplication for treatment of GERD. The most common postoperative complaint is mild to moderate dysphagia, which usually resolves within 12 weeks. PMID:25264655</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Jessica L; Zehetner, Joerg; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai; Katkhouda, Namir; Dandekar, Giovanni; Lipham, John C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/176.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">2082 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 51, NO. 13, NOVEMBER 1979 (18) Burdo, T. G.; Seitz, W. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1975, 47, 1639.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2082 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 51, NO. 13, NOVEMBER 1979 (18) Burdo, T. G.; Seitz, W. R. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>.D.Thesis, Wayne State University,Detroit, Mich., 1974. (24) Nau, v.; Nieman, T. A. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1979, 51, 424. (25) Stieg, S.; Nieman, T. A. <span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. submitted for publication. (26) Veazey, R.; Nieman, T. A. <span class="hlt">Anal</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Prevalence%20and%20Risk%20Factors%20for%20HPV%20Infection%20of%20the%20Anal%20Canal%20in%20HIV-Positive%20and%20HIV-Negative%20Homosexual%20Men%20.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus Infection of the <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Canal in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?Positive and HIV?Negative Homosexual Men</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the groups at highest risk of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer is homosexual and bisexual men. Like cervical cancer, <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> HPV infection was characterized in a study of 346 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - positive and 262 HIV- negative homosexual and bisexual men. <span class="hlt">Anal</span> HPV DNA was detected in 93% of HIV-positive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naomi Jay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369888"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inconsistencies on U.S. Departments of Health Websites Regarding <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Use of the Female Condom.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The female condom (FC) is FDA approved to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections during vaginal intercourse, but not for use during <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse. Studies suggest that a sizeable proportion of men who have sex with men use the FC for <span class="hlt">anal</span> intercourse despite lack of safety and efficacy information. We reviewed Department of Health (DOH) websites for U.S. states (n = 50) and major municipalities (population >500,000; n = 29) regarding <span class="hlt">anal</span> use of the FC. Forty-eight (60.8 %) websites mentioned the FC, of which only 21 (45.8 %) mentioned <span class="hlt">anal</span> use. Of those that mention <span class="hlt">anal</span> use, 8 (38.1 %) supported, 13 (61.9 %) were neutral, and 1 (4.8 %) discouraged this use. Ten websites (47.6 %) provided instructions for <span class="hlt">anal</span> use of the FC-ranging from removal of the inner ring, leaving the inner ring in place, and either option. In the absence of safety and efficacy data, U.S. DOH websites are providing different and often contradictory messages about the FC for <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex. PMID:25369888</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez, Kristina; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; LeVasseur, Michael T; Kelvin, Elizabeth A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4010050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contained Left Ventricular Free Wall <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Myocardial Infarction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the free wall of the left ventricle occurs in approximately 4% of patients with infarcts and accounts for approximately 20% of the total mortality of patients with myocardial infractions. Relatively few cases are diagnosed before death. Several distinct clinical forms of ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been identified. Sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with massive hemorrhage into the pericardium is the most common form; in a third of the cases, the course is subacute with slow and sometimes repetitive hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms generally occur as a consequence of left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> covered by a portion of pericardium, in contrast to a true aneurysm, which is formed of myocardial tissue. Here, we report a case of contained left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following myocardial infarction. PMID:24804119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shiyovich, Arthur; Nesher, Lior</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5528696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of high-energy pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments: Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fracture mechanics and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the EPRI high energy pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments have been carried out. The purpose of these evaluations was to benchmark analytical methods with prototypical pipe leak and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior. Fracture mechanics predictions were made using methods and materials property data available in the literature. Conditions which were predicted to produce a pipe leak did result in a leak while conditions expected to result in pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> did <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Further, system blowdown following breaching of the pipe wall does not appear to influence the pipe leak or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior except for long axial defects. The thermal hydraulic behavior of the EPRI high energy pipe tests was typical of system blowdowns from an initial subcooled condition. Predictions of vessel depressurization, discharge flow rate from the final crack opening area, and blowdown thrust forces are consistent with observations. 22 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerber, T.L.; Kuo, A.Y.; Copeland, J.F.; Abdollahian, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22007028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical features of early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We assessed the clinical features of patients with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> within 48 to 72 hours, defined as early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Six patients (4 men, 66 ± 13 years) with early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were identified from 1252 consecutive patients undergoing PCI for STEMI. We evaluated the degree of microvascular reperfusion using thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade and a resolution of sum of ST-segment elevation in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Time from PCI to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 11 ± 7 hours. All patients showed TMP grade 0 or 1 and an increase in sum of ST-segment elevation after PCI (1.9 ± 0.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.7 mV; P = .032), suggesting severely failed reperfusion at the level of microcirculation as the common feature to develop early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after PCI for STEMI. PMID:22007028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Makoto; Enomoto, Daijiro; Seike, Fumiyasu; Fujita, Shimpei; Honda, Kazuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S53D..05G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macroscopic Source Properties from Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Styles in Plastic Media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High stress concentrations at earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts may generate an inelastic off-fault response at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip, leading to increased energy absorption in the damage zone. Furthermore, the induced asymmetric plastic strain field in in-plane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes may produce bimaterial interfaces that can increase radiation efficiency and reduce frictional dissipation. Off-fault inelasticity thus plays an important role for realistic predictions of near-fault ground motion. Guided by our previous studies in the 2D elastic case, we perform <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics simulations including rate-and-state friction and off-fault plasticity to investigate the effects on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties. We quantitatively analyze macroscopic source properties for different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> styles, ranging from cracks to pulses and subshear to supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and their transitional mechanisms. The energy dissipation due to off-fault inelasticity modifies the conditions to obtain each <span class="hlt">rupture</span> style and alters macroscopic source properties. We examine apparent fracture energy, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and healing front speed, peak slip and peak slip velocity, dynamic stress drop and size of the process and plastic zones, slip and plastic seismic moment, and their connection to ground motion. This presentation focuses on the effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> style and off-fault plasticity on the resulting ground motion patterns, especially on characteristic slip velocity function signatures and resulting seismic moments. We aim at developing scaling rules for equivalent elastic models, as function of background stress and frictional parameters, that may lead to improved "pseudo-dynamic" source parameterizations for ground-motion calculation. Moreover, our simulations provide quantitative relations between off-fault energy dissipation and macroscopic source properties. These relations might provide a self-consistent theoretical framework for the study of the earthquake energy balance based on observable earthquake source parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriel, A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, P. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836932"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of De Novo Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 8 Days after the Clipping of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm. PMID:24278654</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kim, Se-Hoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3806681"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of Two Cases of Recurrent <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the low incidence of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer and generally high cure rates, few second-line treatment options have been evaluated in the setting of formal clinical trials. We briefly report two cases that were both found to have wild-type K-RAS, with no epidermal growth factor receptor amplification or evidence of prior persistent human papilloma virus infection. Both cases were treated with irinotecan and cetuximab with evidence of clinical benefit in the setting of a third recurrence, as well as evidence of response to other strategies employed in their management. These cases provide support for the suggestion that treatment planning in conjunction with molecular profiling may be beneficial in such uncommon clinical settings. PMID:24163660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klimant, Eiko; Markman, Maurie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074958"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical aspects of radiation therapy for <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Historically treated with surgery, current practice recommends <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinoma to be treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. This review will examine the anatomy, modes of disease spread and recurrence, and evaluate the existing evidence for treatment options for these tumors. An in-depth examination of specific radiation therapy (RT) techniques—such as conventional 3D-conformal RT and intensity-modulated RT—will be discussed along with modern dose constraints. RT field arrangement, patient setup, and recommended gross and clinical target volume (CTV) contours will be considered. Areas in need of further investigation, such as the role in treatment for positron emission tomography (PET) will be explored. PMID:24982768</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scher, Eli D.; Ahmed, Inaya; Yue, Ning J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1646059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expansion and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of charged microcapsules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the deformations of pH-responsive spherical microcapsules -- micrometer-scale liquid drops surrounded by thin, solid shells -- under the influence of electrostatic forces. When exposed to a large concentration of NaOH, the microcapsules become highly charged, and expand isotropically. We find that the extent of this expansion can be understood by coupling electrostatics with shell theory; moreover, the expansion dynamics is well described by Darcy's law for fluid flow through the microcapsule shell. Unexpectedly, however, below a threshold NaOH concentration, the microcapsules begin to disintegrate, and eventually <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; they then expand non-uniformly, ultimately forming large, jellyfish-like structures. Our results highlight the fascinating range of behaviors exhibited by pH-responsive microcapsules, driven by the interplay between electrostatic and mechanical forces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Datta, Sujit S; Weitz, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.8270v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expansion and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of charged microcapsules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the deformations of pH-responsive spherical microcapsules -- micrometer-scale liquid drops surrounded by thin, solid shells -- under the influence of electrostatic forces. When exposed to a large concentration of NaOH, the microcapsules become highly charged, and expand isotropically. We find that the extent of this expansion can be understood by coupling electrostatics with shell theory; moreover, the expansion dynamics is well described by Darcy's law for fluid flow through the microcapsule shell. Unexpectedly, however, below a threshold NaOH concentration, the microcapsules begin to disintegrate, and eventually <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; they then expand non-uniformly, ultimately forming large, jellyfish-like structures. Our results highlight the fascinating range of behaviors exhibited by pH-responsive microcapsules, driven by the interplay between electrostatic and mechanical forces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sujit S. Datta; Alireza Abbaspourrad; David A. Weitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25036206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perianeurysmal edema as a predictive sign of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracranial aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors may affect the probability of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, such as tobacco and alcohol use; size, shape, and location of the aneurysm; presence of intraluminal thrombus; and even the sex of the patient. However, few data correlate such findings with the timing of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The authors report 2 cases of middle-age women with headache and MRI findings of incidental aneurysms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of surrounding parenchymal edema, and in one case there was a clear increase in edema during follow-up, suggesting a progressive inflammatory process that culminated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These findings raise the possibility that bleb formation and an enlargement of a cerebral aneurysm might be associated with an inflammatory reaction of the aneurysm wall resulting in perianeurysmal edema and subsequent aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There may be a temporal link between higher degree of edema and higher risk for <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including risk for immediate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25036206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Ferreira, Nelson Paes Fortes Diniz; de Macedo, Leonardo Lopes; Brock, Roger Schmidt; de Souza, Valéria Cardoso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11D1674A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Time-dependent <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> on Tsunami Generation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differential GPS data from the recent Chile 2009 and Japan 2011 seismic events have unveiled complex time-dependent ground motion dynamics during seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Current tsunami modeling techniques usually ignore this time-dependent behavior in tsunami sources by assuming an instantaneous initial deformation field. Initial attempts to include time-dependent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior have motivated scientists to simulate this phenomenon as a series of instantaneous changes in the sea-floor. The present study investigates the effect of dynamic ground motion <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on tsunami generation by including the time-dependent initial conditions in the derivation of the linear shallow-water wave equations. We then study the sensitivity of initial water surface deformation to time-dependent seafloor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by performing a parametric study of varying speed and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction, while assuming a monotonic deformation from an initial pre-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> state to a post-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> final state. Numerical results for some selected scenarios are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of the non-homogeneous linear shallow-water equations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S12B1207G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground Motion Levels From Deeper Versus Shallower Fault <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Somerville (2000) found a systematic difference in the level of earthquake ground motions for three M 7.2-7.6 earthquakes with large surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and three M 6.7-7.0 earthquakes on buried faults. He found that the acceleration spectra of the smaller events are much larger than the 1994 UCB code spectrum for soil site conditions in the intermediate period range of 0.5-2.5 seconds, but similar to the UCB code spectrum at longer periods. He pointed out that this is contrary to all current earthquake source models and ground motion spectral scaling with magnitude. We have tested the results by Somerville using dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling. We compare a 45o-dipping, 5 km buried thrust fault to a 30o-dipping thrust fault that breaks the surface in a halfspace model with uniform dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> parameters on the faults. The seismic moments of the two dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> amount to 3.4 ? 1019 Nm (M 7.0) in the first, and 5.3 ? 1019 Nm (M 7.1) in the latter case. The increased seismic moment for the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is due to the time-dependent normal-stress interaction of the wavefield with the free surface. We find that, compared to those for the buried <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> shows larger spectral accelerations for periods between 0.33 and 5 seconds. Thus, our dynamic simulations can not confirm the observations from Somerville (2000), and we conclude that his results are not a first-order dynamic effect related to the depth of burial of the fault. Finally, we test whether dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling can explain the differences by in ground motion levels from a combination of smaller fault areas and larger slip velocities for buried faults relative to those for scenarios with surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Somerville et al., 2002).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gottschaemmer, E.; Olsen, K. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6261G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with small-scale heterogeneities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. Ad-hoc kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these <span class="hlt">rupture</span> variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.eeb.ucla.edu/Faculty/Blumstein/pdf%20reprints/Cross_etal_2012_JZool.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to <span class="hlt">anal</span> gland secretions?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, Crested Butte, CO, USA Keywords <span class="hlt">anal</span> gland secretion; dear enemy phenomenon; kinship; Marmota flaviventris. We tested philopatric female yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) for the presence of DEP</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blumstein, Daniel T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411941"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span> fissure in children: a 10-year clinical experience with nifedipine gel and lidocaine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of the use of nifedipine gel with lidocaine in the treatment of acute <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures in children by reviewing of 106 children with acute <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissure treated conservatively by nifedipine gel with lidocaine between the years 2003--2012. There were 48 males and 58 females. Their clinical presentation consisted of constipation, rectal bleeding, <span class="hlt">anal</span> pain, perianal itching, abdominal pain, irritability and rectal prolapsed. Posterior, anterior, both anterior and posterior, multiple, both posterior and lateral locations were the main physical findings in 65,23,10,7,and 1 cases. Ninety nine patients completed the 4--week treatment course of nifedipine gel with lidocaine successfully (93.40%), with complete healing of the fissure. The recurrence rate observed was very low (6.60%). Topical 0.2% nifedipine with lidocaine appears an efficient mode of treatment for <span class="hlt">anal</span> fissures in children, with a significant healing rate and no side effects. PMID:25411941</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klin, B; Efrati, Y; Berkovitch, M; Abu-Kishk, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2752002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To investigate the potential role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for development of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with invasive <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinoma and 103 healthy blood donors were included in the study. p53 codon 72 polymorphism was analyzed in blood samples through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The relative frequency of each allele was 0.60 for Arg and 0.40 for Pro in patients with <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer, and 0.61 for Arg and 0.39 for Pro in normal controls. No significant differences in distribution of the codon 72 genotypes between patients and controls were found. CONCLUSION: These results do not support a role for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in <span class="hlt">anal</span> carcinogenesis. PMID:19777616</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Contu, Simone S; Agnes, Grasiela; Damin, Andrea P; Contu, Paulo C; Rosito, Mário A; Alexandre, Claudio O; Damin, Daniel C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24963851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward an understanding of the context of <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex behavior in ethnic minority adolescent women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the context of <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex behavior among ethnic minority adolescent women has public health implications for behavioral sexual health promotion and risk reduction interventions. African-American (n = 94) and Mexican-American (n = 465) women (14-18 years of age) enrolled in a clinical trial completed semi-structured interviews to assess psychosocial and situational factors and relationships to sexual risk behavior, substance use, sexually transmitted infection/HIV acquisition, and violence. Bivariate analyses with comparisons by <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex experiences identified differences by ethnicity and higher self-reported histories of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, violence, and stressful psychosocial and situational factors among adolescent women experiencing <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex. Predictors of <span class="hlt">anal</span> sex identified through logistic regression included Mexican-American ethnicity, ecstasy use, methamphetamine use, childhood sexual molestation, oral sex, and sex with friends for benefits. PMID:24963851</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Roye, Carol F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pmmh.espci.fr/~wesfreid/references/analChem%201994;66.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66,168-176 Classification of Countercurrent Chromatography Solvent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Anal</span>. Chem. 1994,66,168-176 Classification of Countercurrent Chromatography Solvent Systems Cedex 05, France Solvent systems used for countercurrent chromatography (CCC) have been classified predictionof the experimental flow behavior in CCC. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a separation method</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wesfreid, José Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25502520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Linear Array for HPV Genotyping in <span class="hlt">Anal</span> Swab Samples.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of <span class="hlt">anal</span> intraepithelial neoplasias and <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancers. With the gradual increase of <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for <span class="hlt">anal</span> cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in <span class="hlt">anal</span> samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). <span class="hlt">Anal</span> swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's ?(2) tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (? = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay ag