Science.gov

Sample records for analysis dublin ireland

  1. Space Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city's natural harbor along the Irish Sea. The pinkish areas in the center are the densely populated parts of the city and the blue/green areas are the suburbs. The two ends of the Dublin Bay are Howth Point, the circular peninsula near the upper right side of the image, and Dun Laoghaire, the point to the south. The small island just north of Howth is called 'Ireland's Eye,' and the larger island, near the upper right corner of the image is Lambay Island. The yellow/green mountains in the lower left of the image (south) are the Wicklow Mountains. The large lake in the lower left, nestled within these mountains, is the Poulaphouca Reservoir along River Liffey. The River Liffey, the River Dodden and the Tolka River are the three rivers that flow into Dublin. The straight features west of the city are the Grand Canal and the three rivers are the faint lines above and below these structures. The dark X-shaped feature just to the north of the city is the Dublin International Airport. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. This area is centered at 53.3 degrees north latitude, 6.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 55 kilometers by 42 kilometers (34 miles by 26 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  3. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe. PMID:7590563

  4. Syphilis serology in pregnancy: an eight-year study (2005-2012) in a large teaching maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGettrick, Padraig; Ferguson, Wendy; Jackson, Valerie; Eogan, Maeve; Lawless, Mairead; Ciprike, Vaneta; Varughese, Alan; Coulter-Smith, Sam; Lambert, John S

    2016-03-01

    All cases of positive syphilis serology detected in antenatal and peripartum screening in a large teaching maternity hospital in inner city Dublin, Ireland over an eight-year period (2005-2012 inclusive) were reviewed and included in our study. Demographic, antenatal registration, laboratory (including co-infections), partner serology, treatment and delivery data were recorded in our database. Infant follow-up, treatment and outcome data were also collected. During this period, 194 women had positive syphilis serology, of which 182 completed their pregnancies at the institution. This accounts for 0.28% of the total number of women completing their pregnancies during this time (N = 66038); 79 had no previous diagnosis of infection. There was one case of re-infection during pregnancy. Thirty-two women were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. There was one case suggestive of congenital syphilis infection. Our study is a comprehensive analysis of the diagnosis, management and clinical outcomes of women testing positive for syphilis infection in pregnancy. It reveals the relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection in the population utilising the maternity services in north inner-city Dublin. It re-enforces the importance of continued active surveillance to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with maternal syphilis infection. It also highlights the importance of strategies such as re-testing high-risk groups and definitive screening of spouse serology. PMID:25829517

  5. Characterising the hydrothermal circulation patterns beneath thermal springs in the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, Ireland: a geophysical and geochemical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozár, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model of the sources, circulation pathways and temporal variations of two low-enthalpy thermal springs is derived from a multi-disciplinary approach. The springs are situated in the Carboniferous limestones of the Dublin Basin, in east-central Ireland. Kilbrook spring (Co. Kildare) has the highest recorded temperatures for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25.0 °C), and St. Gorman's Well (Co. Meath) has a complex and variable temperature profile (maximum of 21.8 °C). These temperatures are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5 - 10.5 °C), and represent a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys, time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, and hydrochemical analysis, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The hydrochemical analysis indicates that the thermal waters flow within the limestones of the Dublin Basin, and there is evidence that Kilbrook spring receives a contribution from deep-basinal fluids. The time-lapse temperature, electrical conductivity and water level records for St. Gorman's Well indicate a strongly non-linear response to recharge inputs to the system, suggestive of fluid flow in karst conduits. The 3-D electrical resistivity models of the subsurface revealed two types of geological structure beneath the springs; (1) Carboniferous normal faults, and (2) Cenozoic strike-slip faults. These structures are dissolutionally enhanced, particularly where they intersect. The karstification of these structures, which extend to depths of at least 500 m, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 240 and 1,000 m) within the Dublin

  6. Open drug scenes and drug-related public nuisance: a visual rapid assessment research study in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The research was undertaken at a time of increasing public concerns for drug- and alcohol-related public nuisance in the city center of Dublin, Ireland. Rapid Assessment Research was conducted involving qualitative interviewing with drug service users; business, transport, community, voluntary, and statutory stakeholders (n = 61); and an environmental mapping exercise. The interplay between homelessness, loitering, an influx of drug users via city metro systems, transient open drug scenes, street drinking, drug injecting, intimidation, knife crime, and prescribed medication abuse was evident. Potential strategies to address drug and alcohol related public nuisance are advised to include the relocation of treatment services, targeted harm reduction initiatives, urban regeneration, improved community rehabilitation pathways, and heightened policing intensity. PMID:23768432

  7. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland. Proceedings of the Symposium on Hiberno-English (1st, Dublin, Ireland, September 16-17, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of symposium papers on varieties of the English language used in Ireland includes: "The Role of Irish English in the Formation of Colonial Englishes," by P. Trudgill; "Anglo-Irish Verse in Translation from Irish," by P. L. Henry; "The Methodology of Urban Language Studies," by J. Milroy; "Questions and Answers: An Analysis of the…

  8. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: a combined measurement and modelling case study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J; Gill, L W; McNabola, A

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. PMID:23669579

  9. Threshold Concepts: From Personal Practice to Communities of Practice. Proceedings of the National Academy's Sixth Annual Conference and the Fourth Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference [E-publication] (Dublin, Ireland, June 27-29, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Catherine, Ed.; Buchanan, Avril, Ed.; O'Rourke, Mary, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The 6th Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 4th Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference was held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, on June 27-29, 2012. The NAIRTL is a collaborative initiative between University College Cork, Cork Institute of Technology, National…

  10. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  11. Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ireland has a rich and long history. It is a land of fable and of strife, from the legendary warrior Fionn Mac Cumhaill (anglicized as Finn McCool) and the god-like Tuatha De Danann to the potato famine and the more recent Troubles. In the last decade, Ireland has experienced an economic boom and assumed a new place in the political landscape via…

  12. The Great Libraries of Dublin: A Scholar's Delight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Provides descriptions of prominent libraries in Dublin, Ireland, including Trinity College Library, National Library of Ireland, Chester Beatty Library, Marsh's Library (first public library), Kings Inn Law School Library, Steevens Hospital Library, Royal Irish Academy Library, Royal Dublin Society Library, religious libraries (Franciscan,,…

  13. DUBLIN CORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dublin Core is a metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. It was originally conceived for author-generated descriptions of Web resources, and the Dublin Core has attracted broad ranging international and interdisciplinary support. The cha...

  14. Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015.

    PubMed

    Giese, Coralie; Igoe, Derval; Gibbons, Zorina; Hurley, Caroline; Stokes, Siobhan; McNamara, Sinead; Ennis, Orla; O'Donnell, Kate; Keenan, Eamon; De Gascun, Cillian; Lyons, Fiona; Ward, Mary; Danis, Kostas; Glynn, Ronan; Waters, Allison; Fitzgerald, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p=0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe. PMID:26537764

  15. 76 FR 22804 - Technical Amendment to List of CBP Preclearance Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin, Ireland AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS... station in Dublin, Ireland. CBP officers at preclearance stations conduct inspections and examinations to.... The Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Ireland...

  16. Diversity and molecular variation among plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin based on restriction enzyme fragmentation pattern analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, L. M.; Wray, C.; Platt, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular variation within and between plasmids of Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin was analysed. Such variation has been demonstrated in the serotype-specific plasmids (SSP's) of Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The two aims of this study were to determine the plasmid diversity in a host-adapted serotype and also the incidence of molecular variation in the SSP among strains of Dublin using restriction endonuclease fragmentation pattern (REFP) analysis with Pst1, Sma1 and EcoRV. Sixty-five strains were examined from seven countries. Plasmid profile and REFP analysis showed that none of the strains was plasmid-free. Seventy-seven percent of the strains possessed the 72 kb SSP either alone or in combination with another plasmid; 23% harboured plasmids which were molecular variants of the SSP. Four of the variants were more closely related to each other than to the reference SSP and were harboured by Dublin isolated from both the USA and Europe. A further three were shown to be cointegrate plasmids and were similarly distributed. Thirty-two percent of strains possessed the SSP alone. None of the UK strains was resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested whereas 74% of the remaining strains were resistant to between one and five antimicrobial agents. This study corroborates previous findings concerning the high degree of stability of the SSP and confirmed the clonal nature of Dublin. Co-resident plasmids provided evidence of sub-clones within localized geographical areas. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7705487

  17. Towards a new earthquake catalog for Ireland and its near offshore domains : a joint analysis of permanent and dense temporary seismic array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroucau, Pierre; Lebedev, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Ireland is located on the European North Atlantic margin, at the northwesternmost edge of the Eurasian continent, several hundred kilometers away from the closest plate boundaries, namely the North Atlantic ridge and the Nubia-Eurasia convergence front. Its low level of seismicity, according to the number of events and magnitudes given by the existing catalogs, is thus expected. However, it still appears surprisingly low compared to neighboring domains, including Great Britain and, more generally, the rest of the Atlantic margin. One explanation might be that the events reported in those catalogs do not reflect the actual seismic activity of Ireland due to a lack, until recently, of permanent seismological stations on the Irish territory. Although the Irish National seismic Network (INSN) now consists of 6 stations, and despite a good station coverage of Britain, to the east, by the British Geological survey (BGS) stations, most of the earthquakes occurring in Ireland may still be missed because of their low magnitude. Here, we combine the waveform data recorded at permanent (INSN, BGS) stations with that from dense temporary array deployed in the past 5 years by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) and the University College Dublin (UCD). In addition to new arrival time data and new locations for already known catalog events, our analysis reveals newly detected earthquakes in Ireland, and sheds new light on the seismotectonics of this intraplate continental region. This sets the stage for joint earthquake relocation and 3D velocity model determination, which should lead to a better understanding of the relationships between the current seismic activity and the geological structure of the Irish lithosphere.

  18. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  19. Ireland (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 51.5 and 55.5 degrees north latitude, Ireland could easily find itself buried in snow during the winter, but the island's average temperature in January is 7 degrees Celsius (45 degrees Fahrenheit). Ireland's mild climate results from the influence of the ocean current known as the North Atlantic Drift, which extends the warm waters of the Gulf Stream northward. The island enjoys mild temperatures in the summertime as well; extreme heat and cold are virtually unknown. Precipitation ranges from 78.5 centimeters (31 inches) around Dublin to 300 centimeters (118 inches) along the west coast. The mild, rainy climate is good for vegetation. In this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on May 2, 2007, Ireland overwhelms the viewer with hues of green, particularly in the interior, where the vegetation overlies lowlands of limestone--the remains of marine animals from an ancient sea. Little of the island's famous greenness results from trees, however. Seventeenth-century clearing removed most of the country's forests, and despite replanting efforts, Ireland is Europe's least forested country, after Iceland. The island's mild temperatures and humidity have instead blanketed the landscape in abundant grasses. Along Ireland's west coast, bare brown rocks emerge from the plant cover. In the north, the rocks are primarily ancient, crystalline rocks deposited well over a billion years ago. In the south, the rocks are primarily sandstone deposited roughly 350 million years ago. Evidence of urbanization dots the landscape, especially along the east coast. The metropolitan area of Dublin appears as an uneven patch of gray, mingled with dots of green. Human habitation is also evident around Londonderry, Belfast, and Cork.

  20. Identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin-specific sequences by subtractive hybridization and analysis of their role in intestinal colonization and systemic translocation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; Dziva, Francis; Charleston, Bryan; Wallis, Timothy S; Stevens, Mark P

    2008-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a host-restricted serovar associated with typhoidal disease in cattle. In contrast, the fowl-associated serovar S. enterica serovar Gallinarum is avirulent in calves, yet it invades ileal mucosa and induces enteritis at levels comparable to those induced by S. enterica serovar Dublin. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify S. enterica serovar Dublin strain SD3246 genes absent from S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strain SG9. Forty-one S. enterica serovar Dublin fragments were cloned and sequenced. Among these, 24 mobile-element-associated genes were identified, and 12 clones exhibited similarity with sequences of known or predicted function in other serovars. Three S. enterica serovar Dublin-specific regions were homologous to regions from the genome of Enterobacter sp. strain 638. Sequencing of fragments adjacent to these three sequences revealed the presence of a 21-kb genomic island, designated S. enterica serovar Dublin island 1 (SDI-1). PCR analysis and Southern blotting showed that SDI-1 is highly conserved within S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates but rarely found in other serovars. To probe the role of genes identified by subtractive hybridization in vivo, 24 signature-tagged S. enterica serovar Dublin SD3246 mutants lacking loci not present in Salmonella serovar Gallinarum SG9 were created and screened by oral challenge of cattle. Though attenuation of tagged SG9 and SD3246 Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 mutant strains was detected, no obvious defects of these 24 mutants were detected. Subsequently, a DeltaSDI-1 mutant was found to exhibit weak but significant attenuation compared with the parent strain in coinfection of calves. SDI-1 mutation did not impair invasion, intramacrophage survival, or virulence in mice, implying that SDI-1 does not influence fitness per se and may act in a host-specific manner. PMID:18794283

  1. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  2. Computational and asymptotic methods for boundary and interior layers; Proceedings of the Second BAIL Conference, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, June 16-18, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. J. H.

    Strange boundary layer effects on the edge of a nonlinear plasma are considered along with the behavior of the exact solution and the error in a numerical solution of a turning point problem, the numerical treatment of special initial value problems, a method of enriched subspaces for the numerical solution of a parabolic singular perturbation problem, and accurate multistep methods for smooth stiff problems. Attention is given to shock tracking methods in two-dimensional flows, the numerical treatment of the viscous interaction problem for blown transonic airfoils, the numerical analysis of the solution of one ordinary differential equation with a sign-changing form, boundary layers near free surfaces, mathematical models and numerical algorithms for viscous flows, and asymptotic phenomena in meteorology. Other topics explored are related to a mesoscale three-dimensional second order closure model for the atmospheric boundary layer, thermal stresses in cylindrical and spherical composite bodies, the asymptotic structure of laminar flow with finite regions of separation, and exponentially derived switching schemes. For individual items see A84-37677 to A84-37714

  3. Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (3rd, Dublin, Ireland, November 11-12, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer, Ed.; Griffin, Carrie, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The third annual conference of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) was held at Trinity College Dublin on 11-12 November 2009, and was attended by over 300 delegates. The theme--"Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy"--was timely and generated some fascinating papers, workshops and debates,…

  4. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella Dublin infections reduce gross margins and compromise animal health and welfare in dairy cattle herds. Despite on-going control efforts in several countries the duration and risk factors of a persistent infection have been difficult to study due to a lack of suitable data. This study utilised the unique opportunity to extract systematically collected repeated bulk-tank milk antibody measurements from all the Danish dairy herds during a 10-year period to perform a time-to-event analysis of the factors that affect the duration of test-positivity and the hazards of recovery from S. Dublin at herd level. Recovery was defined as a shift from test-positive to test-negative between two year-quarters followed by at least three more test-negative year-quarters. The average duration of infection was approximately 2 years. Predictors of recovery were tested in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model allowing herds to recover from infection multiple times over the 10-year surveillance period. The model results were based on 36,429 observations with data on all the predictors, representing 3563 herds with a total of 3246 recoveries. Sixty-seven herds (2.4%) remained test-positive throughout the study period. The rest of the 317 herds that did not have any recoveries were censored, mainly due to a cessation of milk production. Prior recovery from test-positivity turned out not to be a significant predictor of recovery in the model. The effect of the duration of infection on the conditional probability of recovery (i.e. the hazard) was time-dependent: early in the study period, long durations of infection were predictive of a low hazard of recovery. Later in the control programme the effect of duration of infection was reduced indicating a desired effect of an intensified control programme. There was an increasing tendency towards longer durations and lower hazard of recovery with: (i) increasing herd sizes, (ii) increasing bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts

  5. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  6. Analysis of an anomalously severe thunderstorm system over Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, N. L.

    In Northern Ireland, as elsewhere in Europe, attempts to reduce the societal impacts of severe convective storms are constrained by underestimations in frequency and intensity of extreme events within the present-day climate regime. Such underestimations also present difficulties in estimating probabilities of extreme storm frequency and intensity in relation to future climate change scenarios. Detailed analyses of past extreme events enhance the robustness of hydrometeorological and climatological models, and improve human perception of the true nature of present climate. In Northern Ireland, extensive thunderstorm development is infrequent due to relatively low relief and limited severe convectional activity in summer. On 25-26 July 1985 extensive thunderstorm activity occurred accompanied by hailstones 3 cm in diameter, some of the largest on record to fall over the Province. The event predates operation of the Northern Ireland component of the UK rainfall radar network. Nevertheless, utilizing quality-controlled autographic rain gauge records and radiosonde data, the synoptic situation was examined and the mesoscale precipitation signatures determined throughout the duration of thunderstorm activity. Within the cyclonic circulation covering Northern Ireland for much of the day, potential instability existed at three levels and on release the buoyant upward motion resulted in clouds of more than 11 km in depth. While upland areas recorded 30 to 50 mm, the greatest precipitation totals of up to 85 mm were received in lowland areas around Lough Neagh. Several lowland sites recorded rainfall totals and intensities with frequencies of about 1 in 100 years. Significant thunderstorm activity occurred over a period of 11 h and resulted in serious flooding. Observed mesoscale precipitation patterns displayed limited evidence of orographic enhancement within the moist southeast to south airflow. At best, orography assisted in terms of initial uplift, but thereafter

  7. Evolution of genes on the Salmonella Virulence plasmid phylogeny revealed from sequencing of the virulence plasmids of S. enterica serotype Dublin and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chishih; Feng, Ye; Chien, An-Chi; Hu, Songnian; Chu, Chi-Hong; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2008-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin harbors an approximately 80-kb virulence plasmid (pSDV), which mediates systemic infection in cattle. There are two types of pSDV: one is pSDVu (pOU1113) in strain OU7025 and the other pSDVr (pOU1115) in OU7409 (SD Lane) and many clinical isolates. Sequence analysis showed that pSDVr was a recombinant plasmid (co-integrate) of pSDVu and a plasmid similar to a 35-kb indigenous plasmid (pOU1114) of S. Dublin. Most of the F-transfer region in pSDVu was replaced by a DNA segment from the pOU1114-like plasmid containing an extra replicon and a pilX operon encoding for a type IV secretion system to form pSDVr. We reconstructed the particular evolutionary history of the seven virulence plasmids of Salmonella by comparative sequence analysis. The whole evolutionary process might begin with two different F-like plasmids (IncFI and IncFII), which then incorporated the spv operon and fimbriae operon from the chromosome to form the primitive virulence plasmids. Subsequently, these plasmids descended by deletion from a relatively large plasmid to smaller ones, with some recombination events occurring over time. Our results suggest that the phylogeny of virulence plasmids as a result of frequent recombination provides the opportunity for rapid evolution of Salmonella in response to the environmental cues. PMID:18718522

  8. Grimsvotn ash plume detection by ground-based elastic Lidar at Dublin Airport on May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Martucci, G.; O'Dowd, C.; sauvage, L.; Nolan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic emissions comprising steam, ash, and gases are injected into the atmosphere and produce effects affecting Earth's climate. Volcanic ash is composed of non-spherical mineral and metal (particles spanning a large size range. The largest ones are likely to sediment quickly close to the eruption site. The ash component, and sulphate formed by subsequent oxidation of the SO2 occurring in clouds, poses a variety of hazards to humans and machinery on the ground, as well as damage to the aircrafts which fly through the ash layers. To mitigate such hazards the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA) equipped with an ALS Lidar, produced by LEOSPHERE, deployed at Dublin Airport, which provides real-time range-corrected backscatter signal and depolarization ratio profiles allowing the detection and monitoring of ash plumes. On May, 21st 2011, the Grimsvotn Icelandic volcano erupted, sending a plume of ash, smoke and steam 12 km into the air and causing flights to be disrupted at Iceland's main Keflavik airport and at a number of North European airports. Due to upper level global circulation, the ash plume moved from Iceland towards Ireland and North of Scotland, and was detected a number of times by the ALS Lidar above Dublin Airport between May, 21st and 25th. A preliminary analysis of the detected volcanic plume is presented here as well as a preliminary intercomparison of the microphysical and optical characteristics with the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010.

  9. Simulating Climate Change in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, P.; Lynch, P.

    2012-04-01

    At the Meteorology & Climate Centre at University College Dublin, we are using the CLM-Community's COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model (RCM) and the WRF RCM (developed at NCAR) to simulate the climate of Ireland at high spatial resolution. To address the issue of model uncertainty, a Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) approach is used. The ensemble method uses different RCMs, driven by several Global Climate Models (GCMs), to simulate climate change. Through the MME approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections is quantified, enabling us to estimate the probability density function of predicted changes, and providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. The RCMs were validated by performing a 20-year simulation of the Irish climate (1981-2000), driven by ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis data, and comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCMs exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical data record. Projections for the future Irish climate were generated by downscaling the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5 GCM, the UK Met Office HadGEM2-ES GCM and the CGCM3.1 GCM from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling. Simulations were run for a reference period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the A1B, A2, B1, RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in precipitation and wind speed for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The predicted annual change in temperature is approximately 1.1°C over Ireland. To date, all RCM projections are in general agreement, thus increasing our confidence in the robustness of the results.

  10. Liver transplantation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Masood; Elrayah, Elgaily A; Traynor, Oscar; McCormick, P Aiden

    2016-07-01

    The Irish National Liver Transplant program commenced in 1993 in St. Vincent's University Hospital in Dublin. It is an adult-only program and is the only liver transplant program in Ireland. Pediatric recipients are referred to King's College Hospital in the United Kingdom. To date, almost 1000 adult liver transplants have been performed. Current 1-year patient survival is 93%, and 5-year survival is 79%. The program is fully funded by the government health service. There is a close collaboration with the United Kingdom Organ Donation and Transplant Directorate, and there is an arrangement for organ sharing for super-urgent transplants. Traditionally, organ donation rates have been high in Ireland. However, demand for liver transplant has increased over the past 20 years, and waiting lists are now lengthening. Deceased cardiac death donation is now being considered, but there are no plans for living related donor liver transplant. Donor coordinators have recently been appointed to the major hospitals in Ireland, and it is hoped that this initiative will lead to an increase in organ donation rates. Liver Transplantation 22 1014-1018 2016 AASLD. PMID:27065358

  11. Technical Education in Northern Ireland after Partition: A Case Study of the Work of a Newly-Formed Local Education Authority, County Down 1925-1933

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, George

    2006-01-01

    On the partition of Ireland in 1921, the Northern Ireland Ministry of Education assumed control of the educational services which had been previously administered by four independent bodies in Dublin. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 created the county councils and county borough councils of the new devolved state the local education…

  12. The NCI All Ireland Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    Johnston; Daly; Liu

    1999-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recently decided to embark on an international partnership with the developing cancer programs on the Island of Ireland (Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland) in an attempt to further improve the quality and range of cancer services available for patients. This Transatlantic Partnership called the All Ireland-NCI Cancer Consortium offers exciting opportunities in cancer treatment, education and research as the cancer-caring communities from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland prepare to join with the U.S. NCI in this major endeavor. The inaugural event of the partnership will be the NCI All Ireland Cancer Conference to be held in Belfast, October 3-6, 1999. (See www.allirelandcancer.com, for information on the conference.) Cancer is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity on the Island of Ireland. There are approximately 28,000 new cases and approximately 11,000 deaths from cancer each year. Therefore, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland have among the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Western World. In recent years there has been a major restructuring of cancer services in both parts of the Island. This is the result of several government reports such as the Campbell Report in Northern Ireland and the National Strategy Document for Cancer in the Republic of Ireland. The National Strategy Document proposes that cancer treatment services should be centered around primary care services, regional services, supra-regional centers and a national coordinating structure whereby the supra-regional centers deliver specialist surgery, medical and radiation oncology, rehabilitation and specialist palliative care. Three supra-regional cancer centers are being established in the cities of Dublin, Cork and Galway and a National Cancer Forum, which has served as a multidisciplinary advisory board to the Government, has pushed the development and implementation of this plan. This has

  13. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  14. An American in Dublin: Visit to an Irish Primary School Demonstrates Learning Forward's International Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A visit to a primary school in Dublin, Ireland, shows that, although the structure of the Irish school system is much different than in the U.S., the professional learning needs and challenges are very much the same. In this article, Anthony Armstrong, publications editor at Learning Forward, writes about his meeting with Maria Spring, principal…

  15. Whole genome sequencing provides an unambiguous link between Salmonella Dublin outbreak strain and a historical isolate.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M; Delappe, N; O'Connor, J; McKeown, P; Garvey, P; Cormican, M

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin is an uncommon cause of human salmonellosis; however, a relatively high proportion of cases are associated with invasive disease. The serotype is associated with cattle. A geographically diffuse outbreak of S. Dublin involving nine patients occurred in Ireland in 2013. The source of infection was not identified. Typing of outbreak associated isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was of limited value because PFGE has limited discriminatory power for S. Dublin. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) showed conclusively that the isolates were closely related to each other, to an apparently unrelated isolate from 2011 and distinct from other isolates that were not readily distinguishable by PFGE. PMID:26165314

  16. Evaluation and comparison of molecular techniques for epidemiological typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin.

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, B; Schwarz, S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 28 unrelated isolates of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin (S. dublin) collected during a 6-year period, as well as four samples of the S. dublin live vaccine strain Bovisaloral and its prototype strain S. dublin 442/039, were investigated by different molecular typing methods for the following reasons: (i) to find the most discriminatory method for the epidemiological typing of isolates belonging to this Salmonella serovar and (ii) to evaluate these methods for their capacity to discriminate among the live vaccine strain Bovisaloral, its prototype strain S. dublin 442/039, and field isolates of the serovar dublin. Five different plasmid profiles were observed; a virulence plasmid of 76 kbp as identified by hybridization with an spvB-spvC gene probe was present in all isolates. The detection of 16S rRNA genes and that of IS200 elements proved to be unsuitable for the epidemiological typing of S. dublin; only one hybridization pattern could be observed with each of these methods. The results obtained from macrorestriction analysis strongly depended on the choice of restriction enzyme. While the enzyme NotI yielded the lowest discriminatory index among all enzymes tested, it was the only enzyme that allowed discrimination between the Bovisaloral vaccine strain and its prototype strain. In contrast to the enzymes XbaI and SpeI, which only differentiated among the S. dublin field isolates, XhoI as well as AvrII also produced restriction fragment patterns of the Bovisaloral strain and of its prototype strain that were not shared by any of the S. dublin field isolates. Macrorestriction analysis proved to be the most discriminatory method not only for the epidemiological typing of S. dublin field isolates but also for the identification of the S. dublin live vaccine strain Bovisaloral. PMID:8904430

  17. Elastic structure and seismicity of Donegal (Ireland): insights from passive seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Ireland's crust is the result of a complex geological history, which began in the Palaeozoic with the oblique closure of the Iapetus Ocean and, probably, it is still on-going. In the northwestern portion of the island, the geology of Donegal has been the subject of detailed geological investigation by many workers in the last century. The most widely represented rock types in Donegal are metasediments of Dalradian and Moinian age, invaded by several granites of Caledonian age (so called Donegal granite). Smaller and separate intrusions are present (e.g. Fanad Head). On the contrary, it is widely accepted that the the deep crustal structure of the northern portion of Ireland has been re-worked in more recent time. The several phases of lithospheric stretching associated to the opening of the Atlantic ocean interested such portion of Ireland, with the extrusion of flood basalts. Moreover, the presence of a hot, low-density asthenospheric plume spreading from Iceland has been suggested, with the formation of a thick high-velocity layer of magmatic underplated material at the base of the crust. Oddly, at present, Donegal is the only seismically active area in Ireland, with an average rate of one Mw=2-3 event every 3-4 years. In the last three years, passive seismic data have been recorded at 12 seismic stations deployed across the most seismically active area in Co. Donegal, with the aim of reconstructing the seismic structure down to the upper-mantle depth and of locating the microseismic activity within investigating volume. Both local and teleseismic events were recorded giving the opportunity of integrating results form different techniques for seismic data analysis, and jointly interpret them together with surface geology and mapped fault traces. Local events have been used to define constrain faulting volumes, focal mechanisms and to reconstruct a low-resolution 3D Vp and VpVs velocity models. Teleseismic events have been used to compute receiver function data

  18. The scale and nature of Viking settlement in Ireland from Y-chromosome admixture analysis.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Brian; Brady, Claire; Moore, Laoise T; Bradley, Daniel G

    2006-12-01

    The Vikings (or Norse) played a prominent role in Irish history but, despite this, their genetic legacy in Ireland, which may provide insights into the nature and scale of their immigration, is largely unexplored. Irish surnames, some of which are thought to have Norse roots, are paternally inherited in a similar manner to Y-chromosomes. The correspondence of Scandinavian patrilineal ancestry in a cohort of Irish men bearing surnames of putative Norse origin was examined using both slow mutating unique event polymorphisms and relatively rapidly changing short tandem repeat Y-chromosome markers. Irish and Scandinavian admixture proportions were explored for both systems using six different admixture estimators, allowing a parallel investigation of the impact of method and marker type in Y-chromosome admixture analysis. Admixture proportion estimates in the putative Norse surname group were highly consistent and detected little trace of Scandinavian ancestry. In addition, there is scant evidence of Scandinavian Y-chromosome introgression in a general Irish population sample. Although conclusions are largely dependent on the accurate identification of Norse surnames, the findings are consistent with a relatively small number of Norse settlers (and descendents) migrating to Ireland during the Viking period (ca. AD 800-1200) suggesting that Norse colonial settlements might have been largely composed of indigenous Irish. This observation adds to previous genetic studies that point to a flexible Viking settlement approach across North Atlantic Europe. PMID:16957681

  19. Analysis of Primary School Curriculum of Turkey, Finland, and Ireland in Terms of Media Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implications of Media Literacy Education (MLE) in Turkey by analyzing the Primary School Curricula in terms of MLE comparatively in Turkey, Ireland and Finland. In this study, the selection of Finland and Ireland curricula is related with those countries' being the pioneering countries in MLE and the…

  20. The Carbon Stocks of Peatlands Under Forestry in the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol it is necessary for all industries (including forestry) within the Republic of Ireland to report their GHG emission sinks and sources. Forestry plays an important role within the global carbon cycle as a carbon store within the biomass (above- and below-ground), litter and soil. Along with forests, peatlands are another important store for carbon, holding around one third of the global soil carbon pool. Peatlands held very important roles for irish society for hundreds of years, i.e. agriculture, horticulture, energy etc, and cover approximately 17.2 % or 1.34 million ha of the total irish land area (Hammond, 1981) with around 260,000 ha of the peatland forested (NFI, 2007). Afforestation of peatlands began in Ireland in the 1950s with the majority of the planting being done by the state. At present the state doesn't forest peatland, but there is still substantial planting from the private sector. Afforested peatland in Ireland represents a large store of C and so far there has been no quantification of the total carbon stock of the soil. The project FORESTC is aiming to provide an analysis of the stocks of C that are stored within the afforested peatlands of Ireland. To achieve this 20 forested peatland sites around Ireland will be sampled, comprising 5 conifer, low level blanket peat sites (peats located at elevations lower than 150 m), 5 conifer, high level blanket peat sites (peats located at elevations greater than 150 m), 5 conifer basin peats and 5 mixed conifer and broadleaf basin peats. The peat will be sampled down the entire soil profile up to 10 m deep for both bulk density and carbon % every 50 cm using a peat sampler (Eijlelkamp, NL). Along with the peat samples, litter and F/H layer samples will be taken to quantify the carbon stock of the litter layer atop the peat. This data shall then be able to provide a total carbon stock of these 20 forest sites that hopefully will allow for the estimation of the total C stock of the

  1. "Click Here to Order This Book": A Case Study of Print and Electronic Patron-Driven Acquisition in University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Mark; McCarney, Eoin

    2014-01-01

    University College Dublin became the first library in the Republic of Ireland to trial patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a collection development tool in 2013. A total of 42% of UCD Library's book budget was allocated to the project, which included both electronic and print books. This article describes the twelve month project from the tender…

  2. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  3. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets. PMID:25609188

  4. Analysis and interpretation of 18 years of mercury observations since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Manning, A. J.; Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; Spain, T. G.; Jennings, S. G.; Slemr, F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of atmospheric mercury at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the Atlantic coast of Ireland made from February 1996 to December 2013 are analyzed. Using meteorological analysis and a sophisticated Lagrangian dispersion model, the hourly averaged mercury concentrations were attributed to four different air mass types: baseline, local, European polluted, and sub-tropical maritime. Monthly median Hg concentrations of all types decreased over the analyzed period but the trend for sub-tropical maritime air masses was with -0.016 ± 0.002 ng m-3 yr-1 in absolute terms significantly smaller than the trends for all other classes which varied between -0.021 and -0.023 ng m-3 yr-1. The seasonal variation for sub-tropical maritime air masses is also shallower than for all other classes. This is most likely due to shallower seasonal variation of oxidant concentrations at lower latitudes. The north-south gradient of the trend is qualitatively consistent with the GEOS-Chem model predictions based on decrease of mercury concentrations in surface waters of the North Atlantic but the trends are smaller than predicted. Tests for temporal change of the trends indicate that the decreasing trends of mercury concentrations are leveling off for all air masses with possible exception of the sub-tropical maritime air mass. Quantitative assessment of the trend changes, however, will require a longer time series of the mercury measurements at Mace Head.

  5. The School-Based Lives of LGBT Youth in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reygan, Finn

    2009-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The current study assessed the school-based experiences of twenty five (N = 25) participants in the BeLonG To LGBT youth group in Dublin city using a mixed design survey instrument. The majority (n = 19) of…

  6. Straight Talking: Explorations on Homosexuality and Homophobia in Secondary Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins-Norman, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines research that was conducted among students, parents, teachers and senior management teams in six secondary schools in the Greater Dublin area of Ireland. The research involved semi-structured interviews and observations. The findings of this research are significant in that it was the first time any data had been gathered on…

  7. Spatial Reflexivity and Undergraduate Transitions in the Republic of Ireland after the Celtic Tiger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, David; Growiec, Katarzyna; Smyth, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the geographical mobility intentions of students aged between 18 and 24 years in the Republic of Ireland after the end of the economic boom commonly referred to as the "Celtic Tiger". Focusing upon a sample of undergraduates in Dublin and Cork, the article looks at how many respondents intend to move abroad in the future,…

  8. Negotiating Difference in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Approaches to Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author critically examines a variety of approaches to multicultural education noted in integrated (mixed Catholic and Protestant) schools in Northern Ireland and considers their implications in the context of the wider debate around multiculturalism. She argues that educators should challenge sectarianism, but should also…

  9. Defending Identity and Ethos: An Analysis of Teacher Perceptions of School Collaboration in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the process of collaborative working between teachers located in separate faith-based schools in Northern Ireland. Drawing on theories of intergroup relations, and with reference to in-depth interviews with teachers in post-primary schools, the article shows that despite earlier research which identified a…

  10. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  11. Sir Robert Stawell Ball (1840-1913): Royal Astronomer in Ireland and astronomy's public voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Allan

    2007-11-01

    Nineteenth-century Ireland, and especially Dublin, had a vibrant scientific tradition. And astronomy in particular was seriously cultivated, being part of an Irish tradition extending back to early medieval times. This paper examines principally the career of Sir Robert Stawell Ball, who, while holding three prestigious posts in Ireland, namely those of Andrews Professor at Trinity College, Dublin, Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Director of the Dunsink Observatory, became famous for his genius as a popular astronomical interpreter, lecturer, and writer. The paper looks at Ball's wider career, the circumstances that provided a receptive market for astronomical information across the English-speaking world, and his massive outreach as both a lecturer and a writer.

  12. The letter from Dublin: climate change, colonialism, and the Royal Society in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Brant

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an anonymous letter published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1676 that reports the theories of American colonists about the cause of their warming climate (cultivation and deforestation), and offers Ireland's colonial experience as a counterexample: Ireland was a colony with decreased cultivation, but the same perceived warming. That such an objection seemed necessary to the author shows that anthropogenic climate change could be a subject of debate and that the concept of climate was tied into theories of land use and to the colonial enterprise. Since he was liminal to both the Royal Society of London and the intellectual circles of Dublin, his skepticism, contextualized here, questions both the elite discourse and the discourse at the colonial periphery. PMID:21936189

  13. William Wilde and the Early Records of Consumption in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

    2011-01-01

    Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland. PMID:22347740

  14. Gold potential in the Dalradian rocks of NW Northern Ireland: GIS-based prospectivity analysis using Tellus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusty, P. A. J.; McDonnell, P. M.; Gunn, A. G.; Chacksfield, B. C.; Cooper, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are essential tools for the management and integration of the large amounts of multivariate spatial data used in mineral exploration. Prospectivity analysis combines these datasets, in the context of a mineral deposit model, to produce a map showing the distribution of potential for a particular type of mineral deposit. In this example Arc-Spatial Data Modeller software has been used to analyse the prospectivity for orogenic vein gold mineralisation in the Dalradian rocks of north-western Northern Ireland. A knowledge-driven (fuzzy logic) approach was used because of the small number of gold deposits within the area. Fuzzy logic is used in situations where information is inexact and the use of classical set theory is inappropriate. Fuzzy logic allows assignment of weightings to exploration data on a continuous scale from 1 (full membership) to 0 (full non-membership). This allows a level of uncertainty or 'fuzziness' to be incorporated into the modelling. The key stages of prospectivity analysis are: (1) analysis of the deposit model to determine key exploration indicators; (2) data processing, interpretation and analysis to extract key indicators; (3) assignment of weightings, zones and styles of influence to key indicators; and (4) calculation of prospectivity. This research is based largely on new geochemical and geophysical data resulting from the Tellus Project in Northern Ireland. The Tellus Project involved geochemical and airborne geophysical surveys over the whole of Northern Ireland carried out between 2004-6 with funding from the Government of Northern Ireland. The study area (3074 km2) is underlain mainly by Neoproterozoic rocks of the Dalradian Supergroup (ca. 590 Ma) which form part of the Caledonide orogenic belt. The Dalradian Supergroup comprises a thick succession of semi-pelites, psammites and pelites, with graphitic pelite horizons that host much of the known gold mineralisation. In the Sperrin Mountains two

  15. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…

  16. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  17. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-First Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current…

  18. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  19. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; et al

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content betweenmore » strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.« less

  20. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  1. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Matthews, T David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  2. Analysis of groundwater-level response to rainfall and estimation of annual recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers, NW Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Ofterdinger, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Despite fractured hard rock aquifers underlying over 65% of Ireland, knowledge of key processes controlling groundwater recharge in these bedrock systems is inadequately constrained. In this study, we examined 19 groundwater-level hydrographs from two Irish hillslope sites underlain by hard rock aquifers. Water-level time-series in clustered monitoring wells completed at the subsoil, soil/bedrock interface, shallow and deep bedrocks were continuously monitored hourly over two hydrological years. Correlation methods were applied to investigate groundwater-level response to rainfall, as well as its seasonal variations. The results reveal that the direct groundwater recharge to the shallow and deep bedrocks on hillslope is very limited. Water-level variations within these geological units are likely dominated by slow flow rock matrix storage. The rapid responses to rainfall (⩽2 h) with little seasonal variations were observed to the monitoring wells installed at the subsoil and soil/bedrock interface, as well as those in the shallow or deep bedrocks at the base of the hillslope. This suggests that the direct recharge takes place within these units. An automated time-series procedure using the water-table fluctuation method was developed to estimate groundwater recharge from the water-level and rainfall data. Results show the annual recharge rates of 42-197 mm/yr in the subsoil and soil/bedrock interface, which represent 4-19% of the annual rainfall. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the rainfall intensity and water-table rise reveal that the low rainfall intensity group (⩽1 mm/h) has greater impact on the groundwater recharge rate than other groups (>1 mm/h). This study shows that the combination of the time-series analysis and the water-table fluctuation method could be an useful approach to investigate groundwater recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers in Ireland.

  3. An analysis of the synoptic and climatological applicability of circulation type classifications for Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, Ciaran; Fealy, Rowan

    2013-04-01

    Circulation type classifications (CTCs) compiled as part of the COST733 Action, entitled 'Harmonisation and Application of Weather Type Classifications for European Regions', are examined for their synoptic and climatological applicability to Ireland based on their ability to characterise surface temperature and precipitation. In all 16 different objective classification schemes, representative of four different methodological approaches to circulation typing (optimization algorithms, threshold based methods, eigenvector techniques and leader algorithms) are considered. Several statistical metrics which variously quantify the ability of CTCs to discretize daily data into well-defined homogeneous groups are used to evaluate and compare different approaches to synoptic typing. The records from 14 meteorological stations located across the island of Ireland are used in the study. The results indicate that while it was not possible to identify a single optimum classification or approach to circulation typing - conditional on the location and surface variables considered - a number of general assertions regarding the performance of different schemes can be made. The findings for surface temperature indicate that that those classifications based on predefined thresholds (e.g. Litynski, GrossWetterTypes and original Lamb Weather Type) perform well, as do the Kruizinga and Lund classification schemes. Similarly for precipitation predefined type classifications return high skill scores, as do those classifications derived using some optimization procedure (e.g. SANDRA, Self Organizing Maps and K-Means clustering). For both temperature and precipitation the results generally indicate that the classifications perform best for the winter season - reflecting the closer coupling between large-scale circulation and surface conditions during this period. In contrast to the findings for temperature, spatial patterns in the performance of classifications were more evident for

  4. An inventory of trees in Dublin city centre.

    PubMed

    Ningal, Tine; Mills, Gerald; Smithwick, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    While urban areas are often considered to be comprised chiefly of artificial surfaces, they can contain a substantial portion of green space and a great diversity of natural habitats. These spaces include public parks, private gardens and street trees, all of which can provide valuable environmental services, such as improved air quality. Trees play a particular role in cities as they are often placed along roadsides and in the median strip of busy streets. As such they regulate access to sunshine, restrict airflow, provide shelter, scavenge air pollutants and manage noise at the street level. A tree planting policy can be an important part of a broader environmental strategy aimed at improving the quality of life in urban areas but this requires up-to-date knowledge of the current tree stock, which does not exist for Dublin. This article presents an inventory of trees in Dublin's city centre, defined as the area between the Grand and Royal canals. The results show that there are over 10,000 trees in the study area representing a density of 684 trees km-2 or one tree to approximately every 50 residents of the city centre. The tree canopy extent when in full foliage was nearly 1 km2 in extent or 6% of the study area. A more detailed analysis of those trees planted along streets shows little species variation but clear distinction in the sizes of trees, which is indicative of the age of planting. These data are used to estimate the carbon stored in Dublin's trees. PMID:21197800

  5. A thermoluminescence dosimetry system for personal monitoring in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Currivan, L; Spain, D; Donnelly, H; Colgan, P A

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 the decision was taken to replace film badges with thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) as the main form of dosemeter for both whole-body and extremity monitoring at the Dosimetry Service of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in Dublin. A review of commercially available automatic TLD systems was carried out to identify the system which best met the RPII's requirements. This paper describes the dosimetry system used, and, in addition, discusses the problems encountered and how these were addressed. PMID:11586731

  6. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland. PMID:9254847

  7. Bovine congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria in a crossbred limousin heifer in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; O'Neill, Henry; Badminton, Michael; Ryan, Eoin G

    2015-01-01

    An unusual case of an 11-month-old, black Limousin-cross heifer, with an 8-month history of episodic seizures and photosensitisation, was referred by a veterinary practitioner to the Farm Animal Section of the UCD Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland, in August 2014. Following an investigation, a diagnosis of Bovine Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (BCEPP) was made. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of such a case in Ireland. BCEPP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young animals displaying periodic seizures and/or photosensitisation. PMID:26140209

  8. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. PMID:27156498

  9. Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infection: an Emerging Infectious Disease for the Northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Patrick L.; Fogelman, David; Shin, Sang J.; Brunner, Michael A.; Lein, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Dublin (S. enterica Dublin) emerged for the first time in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio in 1988. Since that time this host-adapted serotype has spread throughout the veal- and dairy beef-raising operations in the region; very few dairy farms have experienced clinical S. enterica Dublin infections. This study details the epidemiology of the outbreaks in cattle. During the period 1988 through 1995, nine New York and four Pennsylvania counties have been affected; 13 different locations were involved in New York, and 10 were involved in Pennsylvania. The morbidity and mortality and seasonal distribution of outbreaks, which totaled 35, is described. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates revealed that many of the strains were resistant to a number of commonly used drugs. Clinical case details and pathology information are provided, with a caution to clinicians and microbiologists presented with suspect animals, i.e., most cases occurred in older calves, which is atypical for salmonellosis for this region (calves were 8 or more weeks old) and presented as pneumonia and septicemia rather than the primarily diarrheal syndrome that is more typically recognized for the region. The epidemiology of cases is analyzed through cluster analysis of bacterial isolates and their fatty acid methyl ester profiles; at least six clones appeared in the region during the study period. Results of the epidemiology analysis are used to support a hypothesis regarding the source of S. enterica Dublin for the region and its manner of dissemination. PMID:10405378

  10. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland. PMID:27083456

  11. Joyce's Political Development and the Aesthetic of "Dubliners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Traces James Joyce's political evolution from 1903 to his artistic maturity; suggests the chief elements of a political interpretation of Dubliners''; and argues that Joyce's political conscious derives logically from social questions posed in Dubliners.'' Comment by Gaylord C. LeRoy. (RB)

  12. The perception of place and the 'origins of handedness' debate: towards a cognitive cartography of science in late-Victorian Dublin.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In 1884, a medical paper entitled 'Consideration of the Structural and Acquisitional Elements in Dextral Pre-Eminence' penned by the Dublin physician George Sigerson, appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. A number of years later, the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland presented a similar piece by Dublin anatomist Daniel John Cunningham, on the topic of 'Right-Handedness and Left-Brainedness'. For the late nineteenth-century scientific community, these articles represented two Dublin-based contributions to a long-running and wide-ranging debate on the origins of handedness. However, by building on the geographical premise that scientific knowledge bears the imprint of its location and that place matters in the way scientific claims come to be sanctioned, this paper probes, not merely an encounter with evolutionary science in the less well explored domain of fin de siècle Dublin, but more crucially, how these local reviews of manual dexterity were in part shaped by the scientists' differing perceptions of their city. By attending to the lives of Sigerson and Cunningham and focusing on the interplay between life-space, city-space and science, it underscores the critical role of place and space in the reception, circulation and mobilisation of scientific knowledge in the city. PMID:26122977

  13. The epidemiology of infectious syphilis in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M; Domegan, L; Thornton, L; Fitzgerald, M; Hopkins, S; O'Lorcain, P; Creamer, E; O'Flanagan, D

    2004-12-01

    In response to the increasing numbers of syphilis cases reported among men having sex with men (MSM) in Dublin, an Outbreak Control Team (OCT) was set up in late 2000. The outbreak peaked in 2001 and had largely ceased by late 2003. An enhanced syphilis surveillance system was introduced to capture data from January 2000. Between January 2000 and December 2003, 547 cases of infectious syphilis were notified in Ireland (415 were MSM). Four per cent of cases were diagnosed with HIV and 15.4% of cases were diagnosed with at least one other STI (excluding HIV) within the previous 3 months. The mean number of contacts reported by male cases in the 3 months prior to diagnosis was 4 (range 0-8) for bisexual contacts and 6 for homosexual contacts (range 1-90). Thirty one per cent of MSM reported having had recent unprotected oral sex and 15.9% of MSM reported having had recent unprotected anal sex. Sixteen per cent of cases reported having had sex abroad in the three months prior to diagnosis. The results suggest that risky sexual behaviour contributed to the onward transmission of infection in Dublin. The outbreak in Dublin could be seen as part of a European-wide outbreak of syphilis. The rates of co-infection with HIV and syphilis in Ireland are comparable with rates reported from other centres. There is a need to improve surveillance systems in order to allow real time evaluation of interventions and ongoing monitoring of infection trends. PMID:15677853

  14. Spotlight on VET: Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of VET (vocational education and training) in Ireland. In Ireland, the main providers of VET are the national Training and Employment Authority (FAS--a non-commercial semi-State body, part of the public sector) and vocational education committees (VECs--public sector bodies at county level responsible for vocational…

  15. Gifted Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Colm

    2013-01-01

    This article will outline the current status of gifted education in Ireland. To fully understand the picture, one needs to look at the history of the Irish education system and how educational decisions are made in the country. Political climate is often an important factor in how people view special education programs and Ireland is no different…

  16. Education in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Harold D.

    This study provides a profile of the educational system of Ireland. It is intended as background reading for University of West Florida officials involved with evaluating applications for admission of students from Ireland. The Irish educational system can be divided into primary (elementary), post primary (secondary), and tertiary education…

  17. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  18. Comparison of whole genome sequencing typing results and epidemiological contact information from outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in Swedish cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Estelle C. C.; Wahlström, Helene; Vesterlund-Carlson, Catrin; Lahti, Elina; Melin, Lennart; Söderlund, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S. Dublin. Material and methods In this study, 28 isolates from 26 cattle herds were analysed and the WGS results were compared with results from the epidemiological investigations, for example, information on contacts between herds. The isolates originated from herds in three different outbreaks separated geographically and to some extent also in time, and from the only region in Sweden where S. Dublin is endemic (Öland). Results The WGS results of isolates from the three non-endemic regions were reliably separated from each other and from the endemic isolates. Within the outbreaks, herds with known epidemiological contacts generally showed smaller differences between isolates as compared to when there were no known epidemiological contacts. Conclusion The results indicate that WGS can provide valuable supplemental information in S. Dublin outbreak investigations. The resolution of the WGS was sufficient to distinguish isolates from the different outbreaks and provided additional information to the investigations within an outbreak. PMID:27396609

  19. Contexts and Constraints: An Analysis of the Evolution of Evaluation in Ireland with Particular Reference to the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Joe; McNamara, Gerry; Boyle, Richard; Sullivan, Connor

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a case study of the emergence of an evaluation culture in the public sector and particularly in education in Ireland over the past three decades. It suggests that the emergence of this culture was strongly influenced by external factors, particularly the European Union (EU), and to a lesser but significant degree, the Organisation…

  20. "Give Them Time" -- An Analysis of School Readiness in Ireland's Early Education System: A Steiner Waldorf Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Doireann; Angus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a Steiner Waldorf Perspective to School Readiness and applies that international ideology to educational practice and curriculum policy in modern Ireland. The case for a later school start is championed with strong arguments underpinning the reasons why a later start is better in the long run for children's formal learning…

  1. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  2. Case of coccidioidomycosis in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Patrick Thomas; Deegan, Alexander P; McDonnell, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Coccidioidal infection is a well-recognised cause of pulmonary disease in certain parts of the south-western USA, Central and South America; however, it is rarely encountered elsewhere in the world. We describe the case of a previously healthy man presenting to a Dublin hospital with fever, dry cough and chest pain, following a visit to the western USA. Despite treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, the patient developed progressive bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a large pleural effusion. After extensive investigations including CT, bronchoscopy and pleural fluid analysis, a diagnosis of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis was made. Following the initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient made a full recovery. This case was of interest due to the rarity of the disease outside its areas of endemicity and the unusual findings associated with its diagnosis. PMID:27516109

  3. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts. PMID:27301232

  4. Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicist's Labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    I describe some of the rich physical and natural-philosophy heritage of the urban center of the Irish capital Dublin (first tour) and its environs (second tour), in a two-part excursion that could take between two and eight hours in toto. In terms of history, both tours center around the nineteenth century. The first tour is located in and around Trinity College, and we encounter such personages as William Rowan Hamilton, George Fitzgerald, Ernest Walton, and Erwin Schrödinger, among others. Moving away from Trinity College, the second tour explores some of the periphery of the city. I describe the role of politics, money, and religion in shaping the emergence and development of scientific talent among the Irish people, and consequently the footprint left by physics in the city today, with its numerous sites and names that put Irish physics in an honorable place among the nations.

  5. Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, John

    2012-01-01

    In Ireland, historically and in the current era, family has been a central concern for society and the State. This article provides a descriptive overview of family life in Ireland and of major family-related changes over the past 40 years. It presents a general framework of analysis within which these changes can be understood, considers the…

  6. The Economic Impact of Ulster University on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Ulster University and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. With over 26,000 students, Ulster University is Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of student numbers. With its headquarters based at the Coleraine Campus, it has three more campuses in Northern Ireland: the…

  7. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mullane, Monica

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  8. X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Ikehara, Ken

    2011-02-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

  9. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  10. A tornado climatology for Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, John

    The results of detailed records and site investigations of reported tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds over the last 3 years (1999-2001) are presented. Part of the analysis also includes the more fragmented record from 1950. These results are placed in the context of the potential for the atmosphere to produce the type of severe convective weather over Ireland often associated with tornadoes. This has been characterised from an analysis of daily values of several extreme weather parameters, namely Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Bulk Richardson Number (BRN) and Severe Weather (SWEAT), derived from upper air soundings at Valentia. It is concluded that this potential is slight, though sufficient to produce moderately intense tornadoes at times. The analysis of the tornado record demonstrates that the annual frequency of such severe events is highly variable. Nevertheless, there have been many as 30 per year, although the average frequency of 10 per year may be more typical. In contrast to neighbouring countries, tornadoes mostly occurred during the summer months, especially August. It suggested that the strong monthly and diurnal patterns in the data might have more complex explanations than appears at first sight, when the particular climatic circumstances of Ireland are taken into account. Tornado intensities have ranged between T0 and T6 (F0 and F3) and a relationship between tornado intensity, track length and track width is considered. Finally, the geographical distribution of tornado and funnel cloud events is presented and an interpretation is given that considers the possible role of the terrain and land surface conditions in the development of atmospheric environments conducive for tornado events in Ireland.

  11. Palliative care research on the island of Ireland over the last decade: a systematic review and thematic analysis of peer reviewed publications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As palliative care research continues to expand across Europe, and the world, questions exist about the nature and type of research undertaken in addition to the research priorities for the future. This systematic review, which is the first stage of a larger scale study to identify the research priorities for palliative care on the island of Ireland, examined palliative care research conducted on the island over the last decade. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was implemented and strict eligibility criteria were applied in order to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles. Inclusion criteria were all of the palliative care studies undertaken on the island of Ireland and published between January 2002 and May 2012. These were assessed in relation to year, setting, sample size, research methodology, and relevant findings. Results 412 publications were identified for screening and their abstracts obtained. After eliminating articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 151 remained for further analysis. A thematic analysis of 128 studies published between 2006 and 2012 revealed eight core themes: (1) specific groups/populations; (2) services and settings; (3) management of symptoms (physical, psychological, social); (4) bereavement; (5) communication and education; (6) death and dying; (7) spirituality; and (8) complementary and alternative medicine/intervention (CAM). There was an upward trend in the number of publications in palliative care research over the last ten years with over 72% of studies being published within the previous four years. A slightly higher number of studies were quantitative in nature (surveys, questionnaires, standardised assessments) followed by qualitative (individual and focus group interviews, case studies, documentary analysis and retrospective case note reviews), mixed methods, and systematic reviews. Conclusions Whilst there has been a welcome growth in palliative care research across Ireland, this has

  12. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions. PMID:26320736

  13. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Jaythoon; O’Neill, Derek; Honari, Bahman; De Gascun, Cillian; Connell, Jeff; Keogan, Mary; Hickey, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and primary infection usually occurs in early childhood and is often asymptomatic whereas primary infection in adults may result in symptomatic illness. CMV establishes a chronic latent infection with intermittent periods of reactivation. Primary infection or reactivation associate with increased mortality and morbidity in those who are immunocompromised. Transplacental transmission may result in significant birth defects or long-term sensorineural hearing loss. We performed a study to determine the CMV seroprevalence and the association between HLA Class I alleles and frequency of CMV infection in Ireland. The presence of CMV IgG, a marker of previous CMV infection, was determined for a cohort of 1849 HLA typed solid organ transplant donors between 1990 and 2013. The presence of CMV IgG was correlated with HLA type. The CMV seroprevalence in solid organ transplant donors was 33.4% (range 22–48% per annum) over the time period 1990 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both age and HLA alleles were associated with CMV seropositivity. A significant and positive relationship between age and CMV seropositivity was observed (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001, CI [1.007, 1.019]). Chi-square analysis revealed that the female gender was independently associated with CMV seropositivity (P < 0.01). Seroprevalence in women of reproductive age (20–39 years) was significantly higher than men of the same age (37% vs 26%, P < 0.01). The frequencies of HLA-A1, HLA-A2, and HLA-A3 in our cohort were 40.8%, 48.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of HLA-A1 but not HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 was independently associated with CMV seronegativity (P < 0.01). Interestingly, individuals who co-expressed HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 alleles were significantly more likely to be CMV seropositive (P < 0.02). The frequencies of HLA-B5, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 in our cohort

  14. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  15. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin by polymerase chain reaction in multiplex format.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ligong; Kong, Xiaohan; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Zhang, Chong; Bie, Xiaomei

    2014-05-01

    S. Dublin has caused widespread concerns in cattle produce. Using a comparative genomic method, two specific targets like SeD_A1118 and SeD_A2283 for S. Dublin identification were firstly obtained. An efficient multiplex PCR for S. Dublin detection based on the two novel specific genes and invA was therefore developed. PMID:24607499

  16. Community Development in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, community development in Ireland has emphasized social and economic inclusion, regeneration, and civic participation. Continuing challenges include designation of diverse community representatives, demand for increased administrative efficiency, and management of mandates and accountability. There are more community development…

  17. Vocational Training in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooney, Roy; Dunne, Paul

    This monograph, one of a series of studies of vocational education in the countries of the European Communities, describes the vocational training system in Ireland. The study was compiled from existing statistics and descriptions, and most figures cited refer to 1984. The report is organized in eight chapters. Chapter 1 covers population,…

  18. Literacy Policy in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eithne

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 15 years or so, individual governments worldwide have put an unprecedented focus on educational policy in an effort to ensure the acquisition of literacy skills for all children, recognising underachievement in literacy as a universal social justice issue preventing many individuals from reaching their promise. In Ireland, literacy…

  19. Abortion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  20. Counseling in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Morain, Padraig; McAuliffe, Garrett J.; Conroy, Kayte; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Michel, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Counseling in Ireland has experienced rapid growth in the past 30 years. Public attitudes toward counseling have become more positive, especially with the increasing secularization of a once strongly religious Catholic society. Licensure is nonexistent but there are certification bodies that attempt to ensure qualified practice. There is no…

  1. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems at Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were characterized in the City of Waynesboro area in Burke County, Georgia, based on geophysical and drillers’ logs, flowmeter surveys, a 24-houraquifer test, and the collection and chemical analysis of water samples in a newly constructed well. At the test site, the Dublin aquifer system consists of interlayered sands and clays between depths of 396 and 691 feet, and the Midville aquifer system consists of a sandy clay layer overlying a sand and gravel layer between depths of 728 and 936 feet. The new well was constructed with three screened intervals in the Dublin aquifer system and four screened intervals in the Midville aquifer system. Wellbore-flowmeter testing at a pumping rate of 1,000 gallons per minute indicated that 52.2 percent of the total flow was from the shallower Dublin aquifer system with the remaining 47.8 percent from the deeper Midville aquifer system. The lower part of the lower Midville aquifer (900 to 930 feet deep), contributed only 0.1 percent of the total flow. Hydraulic properties of the two aquifer systems were estimated using data from two wellbore-flowmeter surveys and a 24-hour aquifer test. Estimated values of transmissivity for the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were 2,000 and 1,000 feet squared per day, respectively. The upper and lower Dublin aquifers have a combined thickness of about 150 feet and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Dublin aquifer system averages 10 feet per day. The upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer have a combined thickness of about 210 feet, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Midville aquifer system averages 6 feet per day. Storage coefficient of the Dublin aquifer system, computed using the Theis method on water-level data from one observation well, was estimated to be 0.0003. With a thickness of about 150 feet, the specific storage of the Dublin aquifer

  2. An integrated pressure and pathway approach to the spatial analysis of groundwater nitrate: a case study from the southeast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tedd, K M; Coxon, C E; Misstear, B D R; Daly, D; Craig, M; Mannix, A; Williams, N H Hunter

    2014-04-01

    Excess nitrogen in soil, aquatic and atmospheric environments is an escalating global problem. Eutrophication is the principal threat to surface water quality in the Republic of Ireland. European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) water quality status assessments found that 16% of Irish groundwater bodies were 'at risk' of poor status due to the potential deterioration of associated estuarine and coastal water quality by nitrate from groundwater. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating pressure and pathway parameters affecting the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate, investigated at a regional scale using existing national spatial datasets. The potential for nitrate transfer to groundwater was rated based on the introduced concepts of Pressure Loading and Pathway Connectivity Rating, each based on a combination of selected pressure and pathway parameters respectively. In the region studied, the South Eastern River Basin District of Ireland, this methodology identified that pathway parameters were more important than pressure parameters in understanding the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate. Statistical analyses supported these findings and further demonstrated that the proportion of poorly drained soils, arable land, karstic flow regimes, regionally important bedrock aquifers and high vulnerability groundwater within the zones of contribution of the monitoring points are statistically significantly related to groundwater nitrate concentrations. Soil type was found to be the most important parameter. Analysis of variance showed that a number of the pressure and pathway parameters are interrelated. The parameters identified by the presented methodology may provide useful insights into the best way to manage and mitigate the influence of nitrate contamination of groundwater in this region. It is suggested that the identification of critical source areas based on the identified parameters would be an appropriate management tool

  3. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Kilbrook spring is a thermal spring in east-central Ireland. The temperatures in the spring are the highest recorded for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25 °C). The temperature is elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5-10.5 °C), and represents a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon an audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) survey, and hydrochemical analysis including time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of the subsurface at Kilbrook spring was obtained by the inversion of AMT impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions. The model is interpreted alongside high resolution temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and a previous hydrochemical analysis. The hydrochemical analysis and time-lapse measurements suggest that the thermal waters have a relatively stable temperature and major ion hydrochemistry, and flow within the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin at all times. The 3-D resistivity model of the subsurface reveals a prominent NNW aligned structure within a highly resistive limestone lithology that is interpreted as a dissolutionally enhanced strike-slip fault, of Cenozoic age. The karstification of this structure, which extends to depths of at least 500 m directly beneath the spring, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 560 and 1000 m) within the limestone succession of the Dublin Basin. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the winter thermal maximum and simultaneous increased discharge at Kilbrook spring is the result of rapid infiltration, heating and

  4. To Hel(sinki) and Back for the Dublin Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla

    1997-01-01

    Describes the fifth Dublin Core (DC Workshop) DC is a small set of simple, descriptive data elements intended to aid in the discovery of Internet resources. Covers metadata issues, "DC Lite," current international projects utilizing the Core, and issues yet to be resolved. (AEF)

  5. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  6. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  7. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  8. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  9. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  10. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  11. The State of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: April 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    At the sixth Dublin Core Metadata Workshop convened in Washington, DC, in November 19998, a work plan was developed to address unresolved issues in resource description. This report summarizes that work plan, highlights the progress that has been made on it and identifies a few significant projects that exemplify this progress. (AEF)

  12. Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities…

  13. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  14. The Frustration of Lady Aberdeen in her Crusade against Tuberculosis in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-01-01

    When in his Annual Report for 1905 the Registrar General for Ireland pointed out to the lately arrived Lord Lieutenant, The Earl of Aberdeen, that annually in every 100 deaths in Ireland 16 were victims of tuberculosis, Lady Aberdeen took notice. In March 1907 she founded the WNHA with the clear duty of taking part in the fight against the appalling ravages of that disease, and organised a Tuberculosis Exhibition the following October. And so began a campaign that led to the building of Peamount Sanatorium in county Dublin, the Allan Ryan Hospital at Ringsend, and the Collier Dispensary in the city centre. However, the Irish parliamentarians at Westminster emasculated the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act 1908 by ensuring that notification was not made compulsory. Passage of the National Health Insurance Act (1911) necessitated changes that resulted in the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act (1913), but the crucial shortcomings of the earlier Act were not rectified: notification was necessary but still not compulsory. Lady Aberdeen recognised this serious flaw she was powerless to correct, and turned to propaganda, editing Sláinte, a monthly magazine founded in January 1909 by the WNHA, and editing a three-volume account of Ireland’s Crusade Against Tuberculosis (1908-1909). PMID:23536737

  15. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  16. Analysis of High Frequency Site-Specific Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, M. J.; Harris, E. J.; Olszewski, W.; Ono, S.; Prinn, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) significantly impacts Earth's climate due to its dual role as an inert potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere and as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. However, there remain significant uncertainties in the global budget of this gas. The marked spatial divide in its reactivity means that all stages in the N2O life cycle—emission, transport, and destruction—must be examined to understand the overall effect of N2O on climate. Source and sink processes of N2O lead to varying concentrations of N2O isotopologues (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N18O being measured) due to preferential isotopic production and elimination in different environments. Estimation of source and sink fluxes can be improved by combining isotopically resolved N2O observations with simulations using a chemical transport model with reanalysis meteorology and treatments of isotopic signatures of specific surface sources and stratospheric intrusions. We present the first few months of site-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition data from the Stheno-TILDAS instrument (Harris et al, 2013) at Mace Head, Ireland and compare these to results from MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) chemical transport model runs including N2O isotopic fractionation processes and reanalysis meterological fields (NCEP/NCAR, MERRA, and GEOS-5). This study forms the basis for future inverse modeling experiments that will improve the accuracy of isotopically differentiated N2O emission and loss estimates. Ref: Harris, E., D. Nelson, W. Olszewski, M. Zahniser, K. Potter, B. McManus, A. Whitehill, R. Prinn, and S. Ono, Development of a spectroscopic technique for continuous online monitoring of oxygen and site-specific nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide, Analytical Chemistry, 2013; DOI: 10.1021/ac403606u.

  17. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  18. Repression of flagella is a common trait in field isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and is associated with invasive human infections.

    PubMed

    Yim, Lucía; Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:-:-, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin. PMID:24421045

  19. Repression of Flagella Is a Common Trait in Field Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin and Is Associated with Invasive Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:−:−, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin. PMID:24421045

  20. The role of private care in the interval between diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in Northern Ireland: an analysis of Registry data

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia; Gavin, Anna; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the differences in the interval between diagnosis and initiation of treatment among women with breast cancer in Northern Ireland. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting All breast cancer care patients in the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry in 2006. Participants All women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer in Northern Ireland in 2006. Main outcome measure The number of days between diagnosis and initiation of treatment for breast cancer. Results The mean (median) interval between diagnosis and initiation of treatment among public patients was 19 (15) compared with 14 (12) among those whose care involved private providers. The differences between individual public providers were as marked as those between the public and private sector—the mean (median) ranging between 14 (12) and 25 (22) days. Multivariate models revealed that the differences were evident when a range of patient characteristics were controlled for including cancer stage. Conclusions A relatively small number of women received care privately in Northern Ireland but experienced shorter intervals between diagnosis and initiation of treatment than those who received care wholly in the public system. The variation among public providers was as great as that between the public and private providers. The impact of such differences on survival and in light of waiting time targets introduced in Northern Ireland warrants investigation. PMID:24302511

  1. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  2. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  3. Ireland's newest import.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1999-01-01

    This editorial reports that leaders of the antiabortion movement have visited Northern and Southern Ireland to share their protest tactics with colleagues. This paper also comments on the irony of the issue of violent actions of antiabortion activists. Joe Scheidler and Patrick Mahoney, both militant American antiabortion leaders, may have spoken of saving lives in the island but they will sow the same divisiveness and a climate of hate they have helped create in the US. These leaders, particularly Scheidler, have ties with the most violent member of the movement, Michael Bray. Bray has served in prison for the bombing of ten abortion clinics in Washington, DC. He believes that any action undertaken in opposition to abortion is justified and condones the murder of doctors and nurses who provide abortions. A most realistic evidence of abortion violence in America is the one committed against Emily Lyons. She was maimed and blinded in one eye by a bomb blast that shattered an Alabama abortion clinic in 1998. These examples should serve as warning to the citizens of Ireland about the presence of the leaders in their country. Political and religious leaders should provide condemnation of their violent ways in the strongest possible terms. PMID:12178908

  4. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  5. Feasibility and psychometric analysis of graduate satisfaction survey of medical students graduating from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain).

    PubMed

    Strachan, Kathryn; Ansari, Ahmed Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction levels of graduates of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain). The graduate survey was administered to four groups of graduates of the RCSI Bahrain who graduated between the years 2010 and 2014. The graduate survey assessed five major domains and comprised 41 items. The RCSI Bahrain opened its doors in 2004, with the first class graduating in 2010. The graduate cohorts used in this study were working in various countries at the time of survey completion. Out of 599 graduates, 153 responded to the graduate survey. The total mean response rate of the graduate survey was 26 %, including 102 females, 44 males, and 7 students who did not indicate their gender. 49 students graduated in 2012, and 53 students graduated in 2013. Of these graduates, 83 were working in Bahrain at the time of survey administration, 11 in the USA, 4 in Malta, and 3 in the UK; the total number of countries where graduates were working was 14. Reliability analysis found high internal consistency for the instrument (with a Cronbach's α of 0.97). The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.853; Bartlett test significant, p < 0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into five factors, which accounted for 72.3 % of the total variance: future performance, career development, skills development, graduate as collaborator, and communication skills. The survey results found that graduates of the RCSI Bahrain program who responded to this questionnaire are generally satisfied with their experience at the university, feel well prepared to join the field and feel ready to compete with graduates of competing universities. Furthermore, the graduate survey was found to be a reliable instrument and we provided some evidence to support the construct validity of the instrument. PMID:27066343

  6. The phenology of Rubus fruticosus in Ireland: herbarium specimens provide evidence for the response of phenophases to temperature, with implications for climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, E.; Proctor, H.; Jebb, M.; Sparks, T.; Donnelly, A.

    2012-11-01

    To date, phenological research has provided evidence that climate warming is impacting both animals and plants, evidenced by the altered timing of phenophases. Much of the evidence supporting these findings has been provided by analysis of historic records and present-day fieldwork; herbaria have been identified recently as an alternative source of phenological data. Here, we used Rubus specimens to evaluate herbaria as potential sources of phenological data for use in climate change research and to develop the methodology for using herbaria specimens in phenological studies. Data relevant to phenology (collection date) were recorded from the information cards of over 600 herbarium specimens at Ireland's National Herbarium in Dublin. Each specimen was assigned a score (0-5) corresponding to its phenophase. Temperature data for the study period (1852 - 2007) were obtained from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU); relationships between temperature and the dates of first flower, full flower, first fruit and full fruit were assessed using weighted linear regression. Of the five species of Rubus examined in this study, specimens of only one ( R. fruticosus) were sufficiently abundant to yield statistically significant relationships with temperature. The results revealed a trend towards earlier dates of first flower, full flower and first fruit phenophases with increasing temperature. Through its multi-phenophase approach, this research serves to extend the most recent work—which validated the use of herbaria through use of a single phenophase—to confirm herbarium-based research as a robust methodology for use in future phenological studies.

  7. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  8. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

  9. The Economic Impact of Queen's University Belfast on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Queen's University Belfast and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. Based in the City of Belfast, the university has over 22,500 students. Its turnover of nearly £290 million makes it Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of its financial standing. With origins going back…

  10. Report from the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimoto, Shigeo; Adachi, Jun; Baker, Thomas; Weibel, Stuart

    This paper describes the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2001 (DC-2001), the ninth major workshop of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), which was held in Tokyo in October 2001. DC-2001 was a week-long event that included both a workshop and a conference. In the tradition of previous events, the workshop…

  11. Cataloging Internet Resources: The Evolution of the Dublin Core Metadata Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Diane

    1997-01-01

    One of the recent innovations attempting to catalog Internet resources is a standard for resource description called the Dublin Core metadata set. Discussion includes application of library standards; development of metadata elements; ongoing refinement of the elements; and applying the Dublin Core. (AEF)

  12. 78 FR 53054 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Chillicothe, Dublin, Hillsboro, and Marion, Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Dublin, Ohio, over the objection of the Committee. See 70 FR 19337 (April 13, 2005). The Committee had... ground, and the Bureau denied the petition in the Memorandum Opinion and Order. See 71 FR 40927 (July 19... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Chillicothe, Dublin, Hillsboro, and Marion,...

  13. Coming to Journalism: A Comparative Case Study of Postgraduate Students in Dublin and Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Neil; Knowlton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot study of postgraduate journalism students in Dublin and Amman. The study compared professional outlooks and social characteristics of students in both contexts and examined institutional settings. The study finds that journalism students in Dublin and Amman have very similar views on the profession,…

  14. A milk-borne outbreak due to Salmonella dublin.

    PubMed Central

    Small, R. G.; Sharp, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Salmonella dublin is primarily adapted to bovines and is a relatively rare cause of human illness. An outbreak is described in which it was estimated that at least 700 persons were infected from milk which had not been subjected to heat treatment. Although the organism was isolated from retail samples of milk, investigations at the dairy farm were inconclusive and a number of questions are posed. Attention is drawn to the value of inter-disciplinary cooperation in the investigation of the outbreak. PMID:570201

  15. The epidemiology of Salmonella dublin infection in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, G. H. K.; McPherson, E. A.; Laing, A. H.; Wooding, P.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologically relevant events that took place in a dairy herd infected by Salmonella dublin. The evidence presented indicates that it may be possible to eliminate infection from the farm and that residual infection or persistent excretion are uncommon. In two animals infection persisted, in one instance in the tonsil and in the other in the gall bladder. In this latter case the infection remained from the neonatal period until adulthood. It is possible that both these animals are relevant in a more general context and are indicative of the source of infection in outbreaks in which the origin of infection cannot be determined by more routine examinations. PMID:4602034

  16. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  17. Comparison and Evaluation of Aspects of Teacher Education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Sandra; Cannon, Paraig; Farrar, Margaret; Tubbert, Brian; Connolly, Claire; McSorley, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This paper critically considers teacher education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It was stimulated by an exchange programme between student teachers from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland for a period of school-based work in each other's jurisdictions. It examines recent curricular developments, partnership with…

  18. Seasonal, Diurnal and Vertical Variation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence on Phyllostachys humilis in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Van Goethem, Davina; De Smedt, Sebastiaan; Valcke, Roland; Potters, Geert; Samson, Roeland

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, temperate bamboo species have been introduced in Europe not only as an ornamental plant, but also as a new biomass crop. To measure adaptation stress of bamboo to the climate of Western Europe, chlorophyll fluorescence was measured on a diurnal and seasonal basis in Ballyboughal, Co. Dublin, Ireland. Measurements were attained on the leaves of each node of Phyllostachys humilis. The most frequently used parameter in chlorophyll fluorescence is the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm). A seasonal dip - as well as a larger variation - of Fv/Fm in spring compared to the rest of the year was observed. Over the year, the upper leaves of the plant perform better than the bottom leaves. These findings were linked to environmental factors such as light intensity, air temperature and precipitation, as increased light intensities, decreasing air temperatures and their interactions, also with precipitation levels have an effect on the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) in these plants. PMID:23967282

  19. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    conifer, broadleaf, and mixed (broadleaf and conifer) and soil type: brown earth, podzol, brown podzolic, gley and brown earth. The paired plot method involves selecting a second site that represents the same soil type and physical characteristics as the forest site. The only difference between the two sites should be the current land-use of the pair site, which should represent the pre-afforestation land-use of the forest site. Each forest site and its pair site will be sampled in the top 30 cm of soil for bulk density and organic carbon %, while litter and F/H layer samples will be taken and analysed for carbon. This data should provide an analysis of the carbon stocks of the soil and litter of both the forest site and its pair site allowing for comparison and thus the impact of afforestation on carbon stocks. References. Byrne, K.A., & Milne, R. (2006). Carbon stocks and sequestration in plantation forests in the Republic of Ireland. Forestry, 79, no. 4: 361. Davis, M.R., & Condron, L.M. (2002). Impact of grassland afforestation on soil carbon in New Zealand: a review of paired-site studies. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 40, no. 4: 675-690. Kyoto Protocol. 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1, Decision 1/CP.3, Annex 7. UN. National Forest Inventory: NFI Methodology. (2007). Forest Service, The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Wexford, Ireland. Pilcher, J.R. & Mac an tSaoir, S. (1995). Wood, Trees and Forests in Ireland. (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Renou, F. & Farrell, E.P. (2005). Reclaiming peatlands for forestry: the Irish experience. In: Stanturf, J.A. and Madsen, P.A. (eds.). Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton. p.541-557. UNFCCC. 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Palais des Nations, Geneva. http://www.unfccc.de/index.html

  20. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  1. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  2. Low Energy Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Out of a commitment to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, Ireland's Department of Education and Science has designed and constructed two low energy schools, in Tullamore, County Offaly, and Raheen, County Laois. With energy use in buildings responsible for approximately 55% of the CO[subscript 2] released into the atmosphere and a major…

  3. EFFECT OF AIR-POLLUTION CONTROL ON DEATH RATES IN DUBLIN, IRELAND: AN INTERVENTION STUDY. (R827353C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of ...

  4. Language across Cultures. Proceedings of a Symposium (St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland, July 8-9, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathuna, Liam Mac; Singleton, David

    Papers presented at the symposium on the relationship between language and culture include, in addition to an opening adress: "Sociosemiotics Across Cultures" (Wolfgang Kuhlwein); "Translation Across Languages or Across Cultures?" (Albrecht Neubert); "Grammatical Categories Across Cultures" (Olga Tomic); "On Taking Language Tests: What the…

  5. Metabolic Field (Schrodinger); an explanatory platform for biology: Based on lecture at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, July 18, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bortz, Walter M

    2015-12-01

    Metabolism represents the nexus of fundamental physical forces, which while present in all structure and function require new explanatory emergent principles, which, so far, cannot be predicted or derived solely from description of chemistry and physics. Metabolism is essentially concerned with the transduction of energy flows with respect to time, space, and matter. Language models and metaphors contribute to construction of scientific explanation within biology. The concept of a metabolic field yields a deeper, broader, more quantitative integrated theoretical framework leading to novel predictive models of systems biology. PMID:26404869

  6. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities’ libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries’ Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. Results: The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). Conclusion: It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers

  7. Toward a population genetic analysis of Salmonella: genetic diversity and relationships among strains of serotypes S. choleraesuis, S. derby, S. dublin, S. enteritidis, S. heidelberg, S. infantis, S. newport, and S. typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Beltran, P; Musser, J M; Helmuth, R; Farmer, J J; Frerichs, W M; Wachsmuth, I K; Ferris, K; McWhorter, A C; Wells, J G; Cravioto, A

    1988-10-01

    Variation in the chromosomal genomes of 1527 isolates of eight common serotypes (O and H antigen profiles) of Salmonella was assessed by analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable allelic polymorphism at 23 metabolic enzyme loci. Seventy-one distinctive electrophoretic types, representing multilocus genotypes, were identified. A basically clonal population structure was indicated by the presence of strong linkage disequilibrium among enzyme loci, the association of each serotype with a relatively small number of multilocus enzyme genotypes, and the global distribution of certain genotypes. For each of six of the serotypes, 83-96% of isolates were members of a single clone. The occurrence of each of four serotypes (S. derby, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, and S. newport) in isolates of clones belonging to several evolutionary lineages, some of which are distantly related, suggests that the horizontal transfer and recombination of chromosomal genes mediating expression of cell-surface antigens has been a significant process in the evolution of the salmonellae. Two divergent clone clusters of S. derby differ in the relative frequency with which they cause disease in birds versus mammals, and two major lineages of S. newport differ in the frequency with which their clones are associated with disease in humans versus animals. PMID:3051004

  8. Politics and palliative care: Ireland.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Dion

    2011-05-01

    Éire, or in its English language form, Ireland, is a constitutional republic island state bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on its rugged north and rocky west coasts and the rough Irish Sea on the east. After a period of calm, financial promise, and prosperity, the so called Celtic tiger's roar is less pronounced at the moment. A recent change in the Irish government heralds a period of austerity after a decade or more of almost double-digit growth. PMID:21647082

  9. Population structure and genome-wide patterns of variation in Ireland and Britain

    PubMed Central

    O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Morris, Derek; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Consortium, International Schizophrenia; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Wilson, James F; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2010-01-01

    Located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland, Britain and Ireland were among the last regions of Europe to be colonized by modern humans after the last glacial maximum. Further, the geographical location of Britain, and in particular of Ireland, is such that the impact of historical migration has been minimal. Genetic diversity studies applying the Y chromosome and mitochondrial systems have indicated reduced diversity and an increased population structure across Britain and Ireland relative to the European mainland. Such characteristics would have implications for genetic mapping studies of complex disease. We set out to further our understanding of the genetic architecture of the region from the perspective of (i) population structure, (ii) linkage disequilibrium (LD), (iii) homozygosity and (iv) haplotype diversity (HD). Analysis was conducted on 3654 individuals from Ireland, Britain (with regional sampling in Scotland), Bulgaria, Portugal, Sweden and the Utah HapMap collection. Our results indicate a subtle but clear genetic structure across Britain and Ireland, although levels of structure were reduced in comparison with average cross-European structure. We observed slightly elevated levels of LD and homozygosity in the Irish population compared with neighbouring European populations. We also report on a cline of HD across Europe with greatest levels in southern populations and lowest levels in Ireland and Scotland. These results are consistent with our understanding of the population history of Europe and promote Ireland and Scotland as relatively homogenous resources for genetic mapping of rare variants. PMID:20571510

  10. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion. PMID:12321445

  11. Predicted costs and benefits of eradicating BVDV from Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes an economically important endemic disease (BVD) of cattle in Ireland and worldwide. Systematic eradication by detection and removal of infectious (BVDV carrier) cattle has been successful in several regions. We therefore assessed the benefits (disease losses avoided) and costs (testing and culling regime) of a potential eradication programme in Ireland. Published bio-economic models of BVDV spread in beef suckler herds and dairy herds were adapted to estimate potential benefits of eradication in Ireland. A simple model of BVDV spread in beef finisher herds was devised to estimate the benefits of eradication in this sector. A six year eradication programme consisting of 5 inter-related virological and serological testing programmes is outlined and costed. We found that the annualised benefits of BVDV eradication in Ireland exceeded the costs by a factor of 5 in the beef suckler sector and a factor of 14 in the dairy sector. Corresponding payback periods were 1.2 and 0.5 years respectively. These results highlight the significant economic impact of BVDV on the Irish cattle industry and suggest a clear economic benefit to eradication using the proposed approach. This type of cost-benefit analysis is considered an essential prerequisite prior to undertaking an eradication campaign of this magnitude. PMID:22748235

  12. The occurrence of PAHs and faecal sterols in Dublin Bay and their influence on sedimentary microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brian T; O'Reilly, Shane S; Monteys, Xavier; Reid, Barry F; Szpak, Michal T; McCaul, Margaret V; Jordan, Sean F; Allen, Christopher C R; Kelleher, Brian P

    2016-05-15

    The source, concentration, and potential impact of sewage discharge and incomplete organic matter (OM) combustion on sedimentary microbial populations were assessed in Dublin Bay, Ireland. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and faecal steroids were investigated in 30 surface sediment stations in the bay. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content at each station was used to identify and quantify the broad microbial groups present and the impact of particle size, total organic carbon (%TOC), total hydrogen (%H) and total nitrogen (%N) was also considered. Faecal sterols were found to be highest in areas with historical point sources of sewage discharge. PAH distribution was more strongly associated with areas of deposition containing high %silt and %clay content, suggesting that PAHs are from diffuse sources such as rainwater run-off and atmospheric deposition. The PAHs ranged from 12 to 3072ng/g, with 10 stations exceeding the suggested effect range low (ERL) for PAHs in marine sediments. PAH isomer pair ratios and sterol ratios were used to determine the source and extent of pollution. PLFAs were not impacted by sediment type or water depth but were strongly correlated to, and influenced by PAH and sewage levels. Certain biomarkers such as 10Me16:0, i17:0 and a17:0 were closely associated with PAH polluted sediments, while 16:1ω9, 16:1ω7c, Cy17:0, 18:1ω6, i16:0 and 15:0 all have strong positive correlations with faecal sterols. Overall, the results show that sedimentary microbial communities are impacted by anthropogenic pollution. PMID:26961173

  13. Whole genome sequencing provides insights into the genetic determinants of invasiveness in Salmonella Dublin.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M; Cormican, M

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is one of the non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS); however, a relatively high proportion of human infections are associated with invasive disease. We applied whole genome sequencing to representative invasive and non-invasive clinical isolates of S. Dublin to determine the genomic variations among them and to investigate the underlying genetic determinants associated with invasiveness in S. Dublin. Although no particular genomic variation was found to differentiate in invasive and non-invasive isolates four virulence factors were detected within the genome of all isolates including two different type VI secretion systems (T6SS) encoded on two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI), including SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6) and SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19), an intact lambdoid prophage (Gifsy-2-like prophage) that contributes significantly to the virulence and pathogenesis of Salmonella serotypes in addition to a virulence plasmid. These four virulence factors may all contribute to the potential of S. Dublin to cause invasive disease in humans. PMID:26996313

  14. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  15. Aspects of agricultural land use in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    1986-02-01

    Ireland's soil regions consist largely of Luvisols, Cambisols, and Gleysols. Approximately 60% of Ireland's land area is subject to varying degrees of soil limitations. Twenty-five percent of the land area comprises wet lowland mineral soils. Ninety percent of Ireland's agricultural area comprises pasture, hay, and silage. Approximately 30% of the agricultural area is devoted to dairying, and 55% to cattle production. is devoted to dairying, and 55% to cattle production. Trends in agricultural land use indicate that tillage declined substantially while livestock showed a substantial increase particularly in the decade 1965 1975. Research concludes that over 2.8 million ha has a capacity to carry at least 100 LU/40 ha (100 acres). Levels of fertilizer use in Ireland are below EEC levels. The highest fertilizer use levels are associated with the eastern and southern areas of Ireland. Tillage crops occupy only 10% of the agricultural area, while they account for 26% of tertilizer and lime use.

  16. Ireland unveils new license regime

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Ireland has unveiled new terns designed to integrate the licensing regime for oil and gas exploration and development. They apply to new exploration and development authorizations and replace the exclusive offshore licensing terns introduced in 1975. Holders of existing licenses are still subject to the 1975 terms but can choose the new terns under appropriate circumstances. Frontier exploration licenses are currently available to complement the standard and deepwater exploration licenses in use. Rental fees are now spread evenly over the duration of the license, thereby eliminating large upfront payments. Lease extensions also have been introduced to enable operators to judge commerciality of a discovery beyond the set license period.

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 2001 [and] Presentation Materials (9th, Tokyo, Japan, October 24-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyama, Keizo, Ed.; Gotoda, Hironobu, Ed.

    The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative has helped to create a community of people united in the common purpose of promoting cross-disciplinary resource discovery. DC-2001, the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2001, is the first annual Dublin Core meeting in Asia, recognizing the growth of activities in the Asian…

  18. Analysis and interpretation of 25 years of ozone observations at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ireland from 1987 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, Richard G.; Manning, Alistair J.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Spain, T. Gerard; O'Doherty, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Observations of surface ozone have been made at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the Atlantic Ocean coastline of Ireland from April 1987 through to December 2012. Using meteorological analyses and a sophisticated Lagrangian dispersion model, the hourly observations have been sorted into baseline northern hemisphere mid-latitude, European regionally-polluted and southerly sub-tropical maritime air masses. Baseline monthly average levels showed a pronounced seasonal cycle with spring maxima and summer minima. Baseline levels have shown an average annual increase of +0.25 ± 0.09 ppb year-1 which has been stronger in the winter and spring and weaker in the summer months. The rate of this annual increase has slowed over the last decade to the extent that annual levels have been relatively constant through the 2000s. Annual mean O3 levels in European air masses have shown much reduced upwards trends compared with baseline air masses. European levels show a seasonal cycle with a spring maxima and a winter minima. Policy actions to reduce European regional-scale NOx emissions have led to an increase in wintertime O3 levels and a decrease in summertime peak levels. Levels in southerly sub-tropical maritime air masses have shown different seasonal cycles, different seasonal trends and systematically lower levels compared with baseline air masses. The baseline observations have been compared against a number of policy-relevant O3 metrics and these have demonstrated the potential importance of the growing northern hemisphere O3 baseline levels over the 25 year study period.

  19. Thank you for not flowering: conservation genetics and gene flow analysis of native and non-native populations of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Thomasset, M; Hodkinson, T R; Restoux, G; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Douglas, G C; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F

    2014-01-01

    The risks of gene flow between interfertile native and introduced plant populations are greatest when there is no spatial isolation of pollen clouds and phenological patterns overlap completely. Moreover, invasion probabilities are further increased if introduced populations are capable of producing seeds by selfing. Here we investigated the mating system and patterns of pollen-mediated gene flow among populations of native ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and mixed plantations of non-native ash (F. angustifolia and F. excelsior) as well as hybrid ash (F. excelsior × F. angustifolia) in Ireland. We analysed the flowering phenology of the mother trees and genotyped with six microsatellite loci in progeny arrays from 132 native and plantation trees (1493 seeds) and 444 potential parents. Paternity analyses suggested that plantation and native trees were pollinated by both native and introduced trees. No signs of significant selfing in the introduced trees were observed and no evidence of higher male reproductive success was found for introduced trees compared with native ones either. A small but significant genetic structure was found (φft=0.05) and did not correspond to an isolation-by-distance pattern. However, we observed a significant temporal genetic structure related to the different phenological groups, especially with early and late flowering native trees; each phenological group was pollinated with distinctive pollen sources. Implications of these results are discussed in relation to the conservation and invasiveness of ash and the spread of resistance genes against pathogens such as the fungus Chalara fraxinea that is destroying common ash forests in Europe. PMID:24424162

  20. Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose [and] On DigiPaper and the Dissemination of Electronic Documents [and] DFAS: The Distributed Finding Aid Search System [and] Best Practices for Digital Archiving: An Information Life Cycle Approach [and] Mapping and Converting Essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: Towards an Alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse [and] Evaluating Website Modifications at the National Library of Medicine through Search Log analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David M.; Huttenlocher, Dan; Moll, Angela; Smith, MacKenzie; Hodge, Gail M.; Chandler, Adam; Foley, Dan; Hafez, Alaaeldin M.; Redalen, Aaron; Miller, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Includes six articles focusing on the purpose of digital public libraries; encoding electronic documents through compression techniques; a distributed finding aid server; digital archiving practices in the framework of information life cycle management; converting metadata into MARC format and Dublin Core formats; and evaluating Web sites through…

  1. Traveller health and primary care in Ireland: a consultative forum.

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2010-05-01

    Travellers in Ireland continue to experience health disparity, cultural fragmentation and a lack of visibility in health service provision. This paper reports on a pilot study exploring factors that affect Traveller health and the experiences of primary care services from the perspectives of key Traveller health stakeholders in Ireland. The study was designed as an initial consultative forum using a single focus group (n = 13) in order to yield specific recommendations for the development of a designated primary care service framework for Travellers. A thematic analysis of the narratives identified key areas of interest--emerging issues in Traveller health, recognition of Traveller culture and ethnic identity,Traveller uptake of primary care services, the role of the primary health care Traveller (PHCT) worker, and recommendations for a primary care service framework for Travellers in Ireland. The findings highlight the importance of consulting Traveller communities in the design of a primary care service framework within each local needs analysis. The promotion of Traveller advocacy, visible access and referral pathways can therefore be achieved, with PHCT workers acting as a 'bridge' between Travellers and the designated area primary care team. PMID:20503791

  2. Ireland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  An Irish Tale: One City, Two Asteroids     View Larger Image ... were recently commemorated by the official naming of two asteroids, "ArmaghObs" and "Ardmacha". The latter is the ancient Gaelic name ...

  3. Mapping and converting essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: towards an alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, A.; Foley, D.; Hafez, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise and address a number of issues related to the conversion of Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core. We present an analysis of 466 FGDC metadata records housed in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) node of the FGDC Clearinghouse, with special emphasis on the length of fields and the total length of records in this set. One of our contributions is a 34 element crosswalk, a proposal that takes into consideration the constraints of the MARC21 standard as implemented in OCLC's World Cat and the realities of user behavior.

  4. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  5. First report of liver abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fen; Fan, Zhenping; Cui, Enbo; Zhang, Wenjin; Bao, Chunmei; Chen, Suming; Mao, Yuanli; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2013-09-01

    This is the first reported case of liver abscess attributable to Salmonella serovar Dublin infection and also the fourth case of Salmonella liver abscess complicated with hepatocellular carcinoma reported since 1990. Drainage combined with intravenous antibiotics resulted in improvement, but recovery regressed again. Subsequent hepatic left lobectomy led to full recovery. PMID:23784127

  6. Application of Dublin Core Metadata in the Description of Digital Primary Sources in Elementary School Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J.; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Landis, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of research examining the ability of fourth and fifth grade science and social science students to use Dublin Core metadata elements to describe image resources for inclusion in a digital archive. Describes networked learning environments called Digital Portfolio Archives and discusses metadata for historical primary…

  7. "A Victim of Its Own Success"? The Diploma in Addiction Studies at Trinity College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marguerite; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews and reflects on the Diploma in Addiction Studies: a 1-year, full-time programme taught at the School of Social Work and Social Policy in Trinity College Dublin since the academic year 1983/1984, which has recently had its external funding withdrawn. The programme was aimed at multidisciplinary classes, including students from…

  8. 75 FR 76953 - Foreign-Trade Zone 238-Dublin, VA Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 238--Dublin, VA Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 238 was approved by the Foreign-Trade Zones Board on August 5, 1999 (Board Order 1047). FTZ...

  9. Solving Long-Term Unemployment in Dublin: The Lessons from Policy Innovation. Policy Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Eithne; Ingolsby, Brid; Daly, Fiona

    This report identifies what policies can be effective in eliminating hard-core unemployment in Dublin and preventing its re-emergence in a new generation. An executive summary precedes the main body of the report. Chapter 1 describes the background of economic boom against which the persistence of long-term unemployment appears paradoxical;…

  10. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways. PMID:24140322

  11. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Roslyn C; Kearney, John M

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering 'any' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and 'any' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the 'cultural' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve. PMID:18715521

  12. Ageing in Changing Community Contexts: Cross-Border Perspectives from Rural Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon; Scharf, Thomas; Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing demographic, social, economic and cultural changes point to the dynamic and continually changing contexts of rural areas in Ireland and Northern Ireland. However, the influence of such changes on the lives of older people remains under-explored, particularly the question of how older people perceive, connect to and engage in their…

  13. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  14. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  15. Exploring the consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology education: benchmarking across Norway, Ireland and Australia.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, T; Evans, J L; Haugen, H K; Gorman, C; Kavanagh, Y; Cameron, A B

    2016-08-01

    Dental technology programmes of study must prepare students to practice in a broad range of contemporary workplaces. Currently, there is limited evidence to benchmark dental technology education - locally, nationally or internationally. This research aims to improve consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology qualifications across three countries. Data were accessed from open-source curriculum documents and five calibrated assessment items. Three institutions collaborated with Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway; Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; and Griffith University, Australia. From these, 29-44 students completed 174 assessments. The curricula reflect the community needs of each country and display common themes that underpin professional dental technology practice. Assessment results differed between institutions but no more than a normal distribution. Face-to-face assessment moderation was critical to achieve consistency. This collaborative research has led to the development of a set of guidelines for other dental technology education providers interested in developing or aligning courses internationally to enhance the portability of qualifications. PMID:26147858

  16. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-02-22

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level to design successful programmes. Furthermore, knowledge about and access to diagnostic tests for use in practice including information about test accuracy and interpretation of available diagnostic test methods are requested. The aim is to synthesise the abundant literature on elements of pathogenesis and diagnosis of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of S. Dublin at animal and herd level. Relatively few in vivo studies on S. Dublin pathogenesis in cattle included more than a few animals and often showed varying result. It makes it difficult to draw conclusions about mechanisms that affect dissemination in cattle and that might be targets for control methods directed towards improving resistance against the bacteria, e.g. new vaccines. It is recommended to perform larger studies to elucidate dose-response relationships and age- and genetic effects of immunity. Furthermore, it is recommended to attempt to develop faster and more sensitive methods for detection of S. Dublin for diagnosis of infectious animals. PMID:22925272

  17. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  18. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to

  19. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland. PMID:26975131

  20. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds. PMID:23328264

  1. Giant hydronephrosis and secondary pyelonephritis induced by Salmonella dublin in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Taghipur Bazargani, T; Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Ashrafi, I; Abbassi, A M

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis occurs as a congenital or an acquired condition following obstruction of the urinary tract. In this study, a four month old male Holstein calf with emaciation, growth retardation and a poor dry scruffy hair coat was examined because of remarkable distention of right abdomen. At necropsy, right kidney was hydronephrotic as a very big fluid-filled round pelvis with the presence of multilocular cysts bulged from the cortical surface. With sectioning, more than 10 L of bloody fluid poured out from this sac. Microscopic examination showed severe atrophy of cortical tissue and fibrosis of the medulla. Also, the dilated pelvis was composed of fibrinous exudate and necrosis of epithelium associated with multifocal aggregations of neutrophils and bacterial microcolonies. In a culture and serotyping of isolated bacteria, Salmonella dublin was determined. In conclusion, S. dublin induced pyelonephritis secondary to congenital giant hydronephrosis is the first report in cattle in the world. PMID:27175163

  2. Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy cattle: risk factors for becoming a carrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R; Schukken, Y H; Gröhn, Y T; Ersbøll, A K

    2004-08-30

    Long-term Salmonella Dublin carrier animals harbor the pathogen in lymph nodes and internal organs and can periodically shed bacteria through feces or milk, and contribute to transmission of the pathogen within infected herds. Thus, it is of great interest to reduce the number of new carrier animals in cattle herds. An observational field study was performed to evaluate factors affecting the risk that dairy cattle become carrier animals after infection with Salmonella Dublin. Based on repeated sampling, cattle in 12 Danish dairy herds were categorized according to course of infection, as either carriers (n = 157) or transiently infected (n = 87). The infection date for each animal was estimated from fecal excretion and antibody responses. The relationship between the course of infection (carrier versus transiently infected) and risk factors were analyzed using a random effect multilevel, multivariable logistic regression model. The animals with the highest risk of becoming carriers were heifers infected between the age of 1 year and 1st calving, and cows infected around the time of calving. The risk was higher in the first two quarters of the year (late Winter to Spring), and when the prevalence of potential shedders in the herd was low. The risk also varied between herds. The herds with the highest risk of carrier development were herds with clinical disease outbreaks during the study period. These findings are useful for future control strategies against Salmonella Dublin, because they show the importance of optimized calving management and management of heifers, and because they show that even when the herd prevalence is low, carriers are still being produced. The results raise new questions about the development of the carrier state in cattle after infection with low doses of Salmonella Dublin. PMID:15454326

  3. Comparison of the environmental survival characteristics of Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2012-10-12

    To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:22565008

  4. Training in the Retail Trade in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Ireland's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  5. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  6. The Fallibility of High Stakes "11-Plus" Testing in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John; Cowan, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This paper sets out the findings from a large-scale analysis of the Northern Ireland Transfer Procedure Tests, used to select pupils for grammar schools. As it was not possible to get completed test scripts from government agencies, over 3000 practice scripts were completed in simulated conditions and were analysed to establish whether the tests…

  7. The Language Planning Situation in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laoire, Muiris O.

    2005-01-01

    Language planning for the Irish language in the Republic of Ireland has featured prominently in international language policy and planning literature over the years. Researchers in the field may not be up to date, however, with recent developments in the area of Irish language planning and their impact on the language ecology. This monograph…

  8. Family SMEs in Ireland as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether small and medium-sized family businesses in Ireland have the potential to be classified as learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology adopted for this study is that of multiple-case studies. In this research, personal interviews were selected as the…

  9. The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donna Dee

    The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

  10. Vocational Education and Training in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaher, Leo

    This monograph describes the various approaches to vocational training in Ireland. The report was compiled from existing statistics, various studies, and interviews with representatives of all the organizations, colleges, companies, and institutes involved in vocational training. Section 1 provides background information on political structures,…

  11. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D S

    1990-01-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  12. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  13. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and grow…

  14. New OBS network deployment offshore Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, Florian; Bean, Chris; Craig, David; Jousset, Philippe; Horan, Clare; Hogg, Colin; Donne, Sarah; McCann, Hannah; Möllhoff, Martin; Kirk, Henning; Ploetz, Aline

    2016-04-01

    With the presence of the stormy NE Atlantic, Ireland is ideally located to investigate further our understanding of ocean generated microseisms and use noise correlation methods to develop seismic imaging in marine environments as well as time-lapse monitoring. In order to study the microseismic activity offshore Ireland, 10 Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) units including hydrophones have been deployed in January 2016 across the shelf offshore Donegal and out into the Rockall Trough. This survey represents the first Broadband passive study in this part of the NE Atlantic. The instruments will be recovered in August 2016 providing 8 months worth of data to study microseisms but also the offshore seismic activity in the area. One of the main goal of the survey is to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of dominant microseism source regions, close to the microseism sources. Additionally we will study the coupling of seismic and acoustic signals at the sea bed and its evolution in both the deep water and continental shelf areas. Furthermore, the survey also aims to investigate further the relationship between sea state conditions (e.g. wave height, period), seafloor pressure variations and seismic data recorded on both land and seafloor. Finally, the deployed OBS network is also the first ever attempt to closely monitor local offshore earthquakes in Ireland. Ireland seismicity although relatively low can reduce slope stability and poses the possibility of triggering large offshore landslides and local tsunamis.

  15. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  16. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  17. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies

  18. The Economic Burden of PTSD in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Finola R; Brady, Sharon E; Bunting, Brendan P; Murphy, Samuel D; Bolton, David; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic costs of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the Northern Ireland (NI) adult population. The authors present a prevalence-based, bottom-up study based primarily on data from 1,986 participants in the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS). Both direct costs of treatment and indirect costs of productivity losses were included. Units of service and medication resource use were obtained from the NISHS and combined with their relevant unit costs from the Personal Social Services Research Unit and Prescription Costs Analysis data for NI. Indirect costs included the costs of incapacity days due to PTSD and presenteeism costs, with gender-specific wage rates used as the relevant unit costs. The total direct and indirect cost of PTSD in NI (2008) was £172,756,062. This figure is likely to be conservative due to the exclusion of a number of cost categories. Nevertheless, comparison of estimates of the burden of PTSD with the estimated cost of treating all adults with PTSD with the recommended treatments shows the potential for substantial economic gains to be made through extension and investment in effective evidence-based treatments. PMID:25990825

  19. Antiabortion positions and young women's life plans in contemporary Ireland.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Laury

    2003-05-01

    At a critical time when Ireland's abortion ban faces legal challenges and the number of women obtaining abortions abroad each year continues to climb, some antiabortion advocates have turned their attention toward the social factors that influence women's abortion decision-making. Through an analysis of articles carried in the Irish mainstream and Catholic presses, this article examines how antiabortion advocates since the late 1990s have promoted an "antiabortion, pro-motherhood" message in response to trends that they identify as indicating that Irish reproduction has "gone awry". Antiabortion activists have focused in particular on the life plans of young, middle-class, career-oriented women, many of whom have benefited from increased employment opportunities within Ireland. These women are more likely than young women in past generations to postpone childbearing or opt for abortion in the face of an unwanted pregnancy, and thus, symbolize for antiabortion advocates the devaluation of a "traditional" Irish culture centered on the privileging of motherhood and married family life. This article examines antiabortion ideologies deployed around motherhood, work, and childcare, and argues that antiabortion advocates' "pro-motherhood" campaign fails to adequately respond to the changing realities of young, middle-class Irish women's life opportunities and expectations. PMID:12650733

  20. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  1. Short communication: Characterization of the serologic response induced by vaccination of late-gestation cows with a Salmonella Dublin vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geof W; Smith, Feli; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Foster, Derek M

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhea due to Salmonella infection is an important cause of neonatal calf diarrhea. The acquisition of passive immunity in the calf by vaccinating the dam has shown some success in previous studies; however, no data exists on the use of currently licensed vaccines in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether vaccinating cows in late gestation with a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine would stimulate Salmonella-specific antibodies in the colostrum of cows at calving and whether these antibodies would be transferred to the calf. Thirty Holstein cows were vaccinated 3 wk before the end of lactation with a Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin vaccine, with a second dose given at dry-off. An additional 30 cows received only saline. Calves had a blood sample collected immediately after birth and were then fed fresh colostrum from their dam within 2 h of calving. A postcolostrum blood sample was collected 24 to 48 h later. Salmonella Dublin antibodies in colostrum as well as serum from the cows and calves were measured using an ELISA technique. Results of this study showed that vaccinated cattle had elevated Salmonella Dublin antibody titers at the time of calving (40.3 ± 9.1) as compared with control cows (-9.4 ± 1.1). Calves that received colostrum from vaccinated cattle also had a significant increase in Salmonella Dublin antibodies (88.5 ± 8.9) as compared with calves born to unvaccinated cows (-3.2 ± 1.2). This study demonstrated that the use of a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine can stimulate antibodies that are passed on to the calf via colostral transfer. Further studies need to be done to determine whether these antibodies will offer protection against Salmonella challenge. PMID:25648810

  2. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Dublin

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  3. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  4. Phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Irish Sea (right) is full of phytoplankton in this true-color image from January 15, 2002. The Irish Sea separates Ireland (center) from the United Kingdom (right). In this image the water of both the Irish and Celtic (lower right) Seas appears quite turbid, being a milky blue-green compared to the clearer waters of the open Atlantic (left). This milky appearance is likely due to the growth of marine plants called phytoplankton. Despite the fact that Ireland is at the same latitude as southern Hudson Bay, Canada, it remains green year round, thanks to the moderating effect on temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean. The Gulf Stream bring warmer waters up from the tropics, and southwesterly winds bring warmer air to the country, thus moderating seasonal temperature extremes.

  5. Lough Ree Power Station, Lanesboro, Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The peat-fueled, 100-MW Lough Ree power station in the midlands of Ireland marks the beginning of a new era of electricity generation by the Electricity Supply Board. 30% more efficient than the old peat-fired power plant it replaced, Lough Ree uses a circulating fluidized bed boiler from Foster Wheeler to meet very strict air-emissions standards while exploiting an indigenous energy source. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal infection. From Ireland's population of 6.4 million, we estimate 117, 000 patients develop significant fungal disease each year. By far the most common fungal disease is recurrent Candida vaginitis, with an estimated 95, 000 episodes annually (3000 per 100 000 women). Other fungal diseases which may be less well recognized are severe asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with estimated episodes per year of 11, 700 and 9000, respectively (182 and 140 per 100, 000 population, respectively). The model also estimates 450 episodes of invasive aspergillosis, 200 of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 600 of oesophageal candidiasis and 450 of candidaemia per year (7, 3, 9 and 6 episodes per 100, 000 population, respectively). This is, we believe, the first attempt to estimate the burden of fungal disease in our population and provides a basis for estimating its impact on human health and resource use. PMID:25596121

  7. A pragmatic assessment of government support for organic agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Duram, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a pragmatic approach, this paper provides an analysis of government support for organic farming in Ireland. Varying levels of encouragement and programmes are provided to farmers in their conversion from conventional to organic production, and in their maintenance of organic production. As support policies vary across regions and are linked to European Union legislation, it is challenging to document the many types of support in place. This paper investigates relevant technical, financial, and policy support available to organic farmers in Ireland. As an exploratory study, it develops an assessment of Ireland within eight key categories of organic agricultural support: policy, leadership, technical support, financial support, research, education and information, marketing and promotion, and future outlook. Information and data from the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF), the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority (Teagasc), and other government and semi-governmental agencies were utilized to assess the level of support in each category. This assessment provides key findings which will allow policymakers, organizations and citizens to better understand the current situation and set a path for the future development of organic farming in Ireland. PMID:22066154

  8. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jørgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism, all isolates of S. Dublin had indistinguishable patterns. The outbreaks took place during April and May, around the time of whelping. During this period, mink are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. All affected farms were served by the same feed factory and it was concluded that a batch of contaminated feed was responsible for the outbreaks, although repeated culture of feed samples collected during the same period were negative. No other likely source could be identified. The results emphasize the importance of strict hygiene measures at feed factories and the proper use of ingredients of known Salmonella status, in particular during the whelping season. Infected mink farms did not have a higher risk of outbreak of salmonellosis in the year following the outbreak. PMID:17217090

  9. Language Learning in Formal and Informal Contexts. Proceedings of a Joint Seminar of the Irish and British Associations for Applied Linguistics (Dublin, Ireland, September 11-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, D. M., Ed.; Little, D. G., Ed.

    A number of issues of central importance to understanding the nature of language, its acquisition and use were considered at a seminar on language learning. Papers delivered at the seminar are as follows: "Why Don't Learners Learn What Teachers Teach? The Interaction Hypothesis" (Dick Allwright); "The Role of Instruction in Second Language…

  10. Flexible Learning: Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (4th, Dublin, Ireland, October 6-7, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents 64 abstracts of keynote and parallel paper presentations of the Irish National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning's (NAIRTL) conference on the theme of flexible learning. The Flexible Learning conference was a joint initiative by NAIRTL and the Learning Innovation Network. The keynote presentations…

  11. New Approaches in the Language Classroom: Coping with Change. Proceedings of the National Modern Languages Convention (2nd, Dublin, Ireland, January 31-February 1, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Ed.; And Others

    These conference proceedings include: (1) opening speeches; (2) "Must Language Teaching Be Communicative?" (Christopher Brumfit); (3) "Recipes for Tired Teachers" (Mario Rinvolucri); (4) "Facing the Challenge of New Technologies: Interactive Video and the AUTOTUTOR Project" (David Little, Eugene Davis); (5) a panel discussion of questions…

  12. The sensitivity and specificity of the RSID-saliva kit for the detection of human salivary amylase in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Casey, David G; Price, Judy

    2010-01-30

    We demonstrate here that the RSID-saliva test can be used as a test for human salivary alpha-amylase on samples routinely examined in forensic casework. We show that the RSID-saliva test detects salivary alpha-amylase at lower concentrations than the Phadebas Quantitative test, that the RSID-saliva test does not cross-react with forensically important human fluids and that the RSID-saliva test can be successfully integrated into the whole swab semen extraction method. PMID:19931992

  13. Devising and Implementing a Suitable Graduate Education Platform for Dublin's Institute of Technology (DIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Janet; Jerrams, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Graduate education platforms have received general acclaim as key components in the future structural development of third-level and fourth-level education in Europe. In Ireland the Higher Education Authority (HEA) has endorsed the restructuring of postgraduate education to incorporate the training of research students in key generic and…

  14. Factors Influencing the Take-Up of Physics within Second-Level Education in Ireland--The Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politis, Yurgos; Killeavy, Maureen; Mitchell, Peter I.

    2007-01-01

    There has been a disturbing decline in the take-up of physics within second-level education in Ireland since the early nineties. Here, an analysis is presented of the main factors influencing the take-up of physics from the perspective of secondary school teachers. The database underpinning the analysis is based on a comprehensive survey of…

  15. The Association of Attitude to Reading and Reading Achievement among a Representative Sample of Nine Year Olds in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…

  16. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented. PMID:22240209

  17. Termination of pregnancy as emergency obstetric care: the interpretation of Catholic health policy and the consequences for pregnant women: an analysis of the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland and similar cases.

    PubMed

    Berer, Marge

    2013-05-01

    Issues arising from the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland in October 2012 include the question of whether it is unethical to refuse to terminate a non-viable pregnancy when the woman's life may be at risk. In Catholic maternity services, this decision intersects with health professionals' interpretation of Catholic health policy on treatment of miscarriage as well as the law on abortion. This paper explores how these issues came together around Savita's death and the consequences for pregnant women and maternity services worldwide. It discusses cases not only in Ireland but also the Americas. Many of the events presented are recent, and most of the sources are media and individual reports. However, there is a very worrying common thread across countries and continents. If further research unearths more cases like Savita's, any Catholic health professionals and/or hospitals refusing to terminate a pregnancy as emergency obstetric care should be stripped of their right to provide maternity services. In some countries these are the main or only existing maternity services. Even so, governments should refuse to fund these services, and either replace them with non-religious services or require that non-religious staff are available at all times specifically to take charge of such cases to prevent unnecessary deaths. At issue is whether a woman's life comes first or not at all. PMID:23684182

  18. Developing Online Tutorials to Improve Information Literacy Skills for Second-Year Nursing Students of University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirsteen; Bolich, Cecilia; Duffy, Daniel; Quinn, Ciarán; Walsh, Kathryn; Connolly, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the process of developing online tutorials for a specified student group, in this case Second-Year Nursing students in University College Dublin. The product was commissioned by the Health Sciences Library and the UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery, and Health Systems. It was developed as a "Capstone Project" for part…

  19. Beta-glucan plus ascorbic acid in neonatal calves modulates immune functions with and without Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves often succumb to Salmonella enterica, Dublin after maternal antibody protection has abated. Enhancement of innate immunity or earlier maturation of adaptive immunity to support vaccinations with dietary immune modulators may be the best option for protection during this vulnerable period. I...

  20. Disability Awareness and University Staff Training in Ireland (Practice Brief)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padden, Lisa; Ellis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    It is vital that all university staff have awareness of the difficulties that may be experienced by students with disabilities. Staff must be given the knowledge and resources to support these students effectively. University College Dublin (UCD) Access & Lifelong Learning has developed a communication and training strategy to improve…

  1. ICT Policy and Implementation in Education: Cases in Canada, Northern Ireland and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roger; Hunter, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Countries with similar levels of economic development often implement different education ICT policies. Much of the existing research attributes such differences to economic and political factors. In this paper, we examine the development of ICT policy and implementation in the two parts of Ireland and in two Canadian provinces and find that…

  2. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  3. Practical Work in Ireland: A Time of Reform and Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Declan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the role of practical work in science education in Ireland. The 2002 report of a government Task Force on the Physical Sciences, set up to consider the problems facing the teaching of the physical sciences in second-level schools in Ireland, has resulted in rapid reform of the science curriculum at both junior…

  4. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  5. Primary Languages in Northern Ireland: Too Little, Too Late?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Siberry, Laurence; Beale, George

    2010-01-01

    There has been much debate in recent years about the future of primary language teaching in England, Scotland and Wales but relatively little discussion about the situation in Northern Ireland. This paper seeks to set the policy context in Northern Ireland where the provision for primary languages lags behind other regions of the United Kingdom…

  6. Implementing E-Learning in Northern Ireland: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine trends in the development of e-learning in Northern Ireland, report on existing policies, practices and issues affecting its implementation across the sectors. Design/methodology/approach: The present study draws on e-learning policies and strategies that have been developed for Northern Ireland. Examples were drawn from…

  7. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  8. Early Education in Ireland--Towards Collision or Collaboration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Noirin

    An examination of service delivery in early childhood education in Ireland reveals that the lack of a national policy has led to a great variation in services, little possibility for assessing and regulating quality, and a very limited choice for many children and their families. This article describes Ireland's system for early education…

  9. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. Milestones in oral health services in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Margaret; Harding, M; Whelton, H; O'Mullane, D

    2012-01-01

    With the many changes occurring in Ireland it would seem an opportune time to review the body of research conducted and policy enacted in the Republic of Ireland on oral health services and oral health. The dental health of the nation prior to water fluoridation, the legislation and policy decisions impacting on oral health up to budgetary changes, and the production of evidence-based guidelines will be discussed. The first national survey of dental health was conducted in Ireland in 1952 - 'Dental Caries in Ireland'. In the intervening 60 years, further surveys of the oral health of people in Ireland have been carried out. Legislation, surveys and policy documents that have shaped dentistry and the oral health of the population are set out in Tables 1 and 2. A more comprehensive description of the policies can be found in the thesis submitted in fulfilment of Masters in Dental Public Health (MDPH) by the lead author. PMID:22888574

  11. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  12. Agricultural drainage practices in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, T. D.

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural drainage practices are reviewed under two main headings: arterial drainage of river catch-ments by developing main channels, and field drainage of smaller parcels of land using pipes and open trenches. The use of cost/benefit analysis on the arterial drainage program is considered and the inherent errors are discussed. Conservation of the environment is described as it applies to land-scaping, fisheries, and wildlife, and the drainage authorities are shown to have an enlightened attitude to proper preservation of the world around us.

  13. Trends in Irish-Medium Education in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1920: Shifting Agents and Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdory, Sara E.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2015-01-01

    Some recent studies have suggested a significant bottom-up or parental component to recent movements for autochthonous minority language-medium education (MLME). This study takes MLME as the outcome of interest and seeks to explain trends in Irish-medium education (IME) in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1920--a unique…

  14. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  15. Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riagain, Padraig O.

    2007-01-01

    Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

  16. Antithrombin Dublin (p.Val30Glu): a relatively common variant with moderate thrombosis risk of causing transient antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Fernández, José; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Águila, Sonia; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Sevivas, Teresa S; de Cos, Carmen; Fernández-Mosteirín, Nuria; Llamas, Pilar; Asenjo, Susana; Medina, Pilar; Souto, Juan Carlos; Overvad, Kim; Kristensen, Søren R; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The key haemostatic role of antithrombin and the risk of thrombosis associated with its deficiency support that the low incidence of antithrombin deficiency among patients with thrombosis might be explained by underestimation of this disorder. It was our aim to identify mutations in SERPINC1 causing transient antithrombin deficiency. SERPINC1 was sequenced in 214 cases with a positive test for antithrombin deficiency, including 67 with no deficiency in the sample delivered to our laboratory. The p.Val30Glu mutation (Antithrombin Dublin) was identified in five out of these 67 cases, as well as in three out of 127 cases with other SERPINC1 mutations. Genotyping in 1593 patients with venous thrombosis and 2592 controls from two populations, revealed a low prevalent polymorphism (0.3 %) that moderately increased the risk of venous thrombosis (OR: 2.9; 95 % CI: 1.07-8.09; p= 0.03) and identified one homozygous patient with an early thrombotic event. Carriers had normal anti-FXa activity, and plasma antithrombin was not sensitive to heat stress or proteolytic cleavage. Analysis of one sample with transient deficit revealed a type I deficiency, without aberrant or increased latent forms. The recombinant variant, which lacked the two amino-terminal residues, had reduced secretion from HEK-EBNA cells, formed hyperstable disulphide-linked polymers, and had negligible activity. In conclusion, p.Val30Glu by affecting the cleavage of antithrombin's signal peptide, results in a mature protein lacking the N-terminal dipeptide with no functional consequences in normal conditions, but that increases the sensitivity to be folded intracellularly into polymers, facilitating transient antithrombin deficiency and the subsequent risk of thrombosis. PMID:27098529

  17. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as...

  18. From biopolitics to bioethics: church, state, medicine and assisted reproductive technology in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Orla; Allison, Jill

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the emerging bioethical debate on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Ireland, which is shaped by the long-standing contentious issue of abortion and the constitutional protection afforded to the 'unborn'. The focus of the paper is on the way in which the terms of this debate are shaped and constrained by the historical relations of power between church, state and medicine. Since the representation of Ireland as a post-Catholic, plural republic is becoming increasingly mainstream to cultural and political discourse, we pay particular attention to how the Catholic Church embraces bioethics as a meta frame or code for refocusing questions of values, beliefs and meanings to sustain the ideal of Ireland as a 'pro-life' and essentially Catholic nation. The Catholic Church is not simply asserting its voice of dissent in the context of public debate as one voice amongst a plurality of other voices, but to shape the emerging debate as a powerful, institutional actor. The opportunity to do so is afforded by the lack of public debate on bioethical issues and the exceedingly slow pace at which bioethics is moving towards an institutionalised framework in Ireland. These events can be explained by the legacy of the social power of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the direct and indirect influence it has long exercised over public policy vis-à-vis the state and its institutions, including medicine. There are two interconnected threads to the contextual analysis presented in our case study: first, the legacy of the social power wielded by the Catholic Church, and its slow and incremental demise reflected in the pace of secularisation in Ireland and the privatisation of morality; second, the emergence of a bioethical regulatory debate on ART, which is mired in the abortion controversy. Our analysis focuses on a number of key contradictions and tensions in the way in which the key institutions of church, state and medicine navigate their own positions

  19. Damaged Youth: Prevalence of Community Violence Exposure and Implications for Adolescent Well-Being in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAloney, Kareena; McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; McCartan, Claire

    2009-01-01

    As Northern Ireland transitions to a post-conflict society the nature of violent victimization and its influence on adolescents following the "Troubles" becomes an even more important area of interest. Adolescents are particularly at risk of victimization and associated social, emotional, and psychological health problems. In this analysis of the…

  20. A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Disabled Post-Transition Students in Higher Education Institutions in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redpath, Jennifer; Kearney, Patricia; Nicholl, Peter; Mulvenna, Maurice; Wallace, Jonathan; Martin, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a systematic analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of disabled students from universities in Northern Ireland. Undertaken as part of the Uni4U initiative, the findings presented describe barriers experienced by students with disabilities to participation in higher education. The students provided comments concerning their…

  1. The Role of the Social Partners in Vocational Education and Training, Including Continuing Education and Training, in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy; Coldrick, Arthur J.

    This document is the result of the analysis of reports and the conduct of interviews with representatives of the social partners (employers, employers' organizations, and unions), education and training agencies, and other relevant agencies in Ireland. The document consists of four parts and a bibliography. The first part describes vocational…

  2. Graduate Employment and Training in SMEs in Northern Ireland: An Overview Using the 2000 Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard; Reid, Renee S.

    2005-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, this paper considers whether graduate employment is more important in the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector in Northern Ireland than in other regions of the UK. The authors disaggregate their analysis by gender, occupation and industry to provide a detailed breakdown. The issue of whether graduates are…

  3. Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Vang, Zoua M

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of housing supply in ethnic diversity and the residential segregation of Asian, African and eastern European immigrants from Irish nationals in Ireland. Housing supply is defined as the proportions of new housing, private rental accommodation and social housing among all housing units in an electoral district. Multivariate regressions reveal that, among all three housing supply variables, the proportion of private rentals had the largest effect on ethnic diversity and immigrant— Irish segregation. Areas with higher proportions of private rental units were more ethnically diverse, had greater presences of Africans, Asians and eastern Europeans (as opposed to high concentrations of Irish nationals) and exhibited greater integration between each of the three immigrant groups and Irish nationals. The article concludes with a discussion of immigrant assimilation and questions whether the patterns of residential integration observed would further facilitate other forms of social inclusion for immigrants in Irish society. PMID:21114091

  4. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged ≥180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds. PMID:23158650

  5. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement. PMID:15452757

  6. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mehanni, M; Cullen, A; Kiberd, B; McDonnell, M; O'Regan, M; Matthews, T

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children's health. PMID:11209910

  7. A Comparative Examination of Schools' Responses to Bereavement and the Associated Needs of the School Community in Galway, West of Ireland and Derry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Marguerita; Tracey, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The aim and objective of this study is to examine and compare how schools in Galway, Republic of Ireland and Derry in the North of Ireland (cities located within two independent jurisdictions in Ireland) manage and respond to bereavement. To carry out a survey of schools, the "Loss in Schools" questionnaire is considered the most suitable tool.…

  8. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, David

    2013-08-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the conductivity estimates using a lithological classification of the bedrock formations. A 1:250k geological classification of the data is performed leading to a 56 unit lithological and geostatistical analysis of the conductivity information. The central moments (medians) of the classified data are used to provide a new digital bedrock conductivity map of Northern Ireland with values ranging from 0.32 to 41.36 mS m-1. This baseline map of conductivities displays a strong correspondence with an existing 4 quadrant, chrono-geological description of Northern Ireland. Once defined, the baseline conductivity map allows departures from the norm to be assessed across each specific lithological unit. Bulk electrical conductivity is controlled by a number of petrophysical parameters and it is their variation that is assessed by the procedures employed. The igneous rocks are found to display the largest variability in conductivity values and many of the statistical distributions are multi-modal. A sequence of low-value modes in these data are associated with intrusives within volcanic complexes. These and much older Neoproterzoic rocks appear to represent very low porosity formations that may be the product of rapid cooling during emplacement. By way of contrast, extensive flood basalts (the Antrim lavas) record a well-defined and much higher median value (12.24 mS m-1) although they display complex spatial behaviour in detail. Sedimentary rocks appear to follow the broad behaviours anticipated

  9. Detection and characterisation of bovine rotavirus in Ireland from 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, Group A bovine rotavirus (RVA boRV) is one of the main causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Currently, limited epidemiological and sequence data exists on the RVA disease in bovines in Southern Ireland only. The aim of the study was to generate epidemiological and sequence data of RVA boRV distributed over a wide geographical area in Ireland. Findings 272 stool samples were obtained from symptomatic calves and analysed to identify the prevalent G and P genotypes. Viral type combinations including G6P[5], G6P[11] and G10P[11] genotype were the most frequently identified. The G6P[5] combination was predominant throughtout the study, accounting for 70% (n = 191). Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that Irish G6 strains fell within Lineage IV, similiar to previous reports in Ireland. Conclusion The detection of unusual G and P combinations may have an impact on rotavirus control programmes and current vaccines may need to incorporate new strains, as the current vaccine available may not offer protection against all of these circulating types. PMID:24987518

  10. Oral vaccination of calves with an aromatic-dependent Salmonella dublin (O9,12) hybrid expressing O4,12 protects against S. dublin (O9,12) but not against Salmonella typhimurium (O4,5,12).

    PubMed Central

    Segall, T; Lindberg, A A

    1993-01-01

    Three groups of six calves each, 5 to 7 weeks old, were orally vaccinated with the live aromatic-dependent delta aroA Salmonella dublin (O9,12) hybrid strain SL7103 with the O4,12-specifying rfb gene cluster from Salmonella typhimurium. SL7103 was given in three weekly doses, increasing from 2 x 10(9) to 1 x 10(11) bacteria per ml, was well tolerated, and caused mild, short-term temperature increases which diminished with each immunization. The strain was shed for up to 1 week. Strain SL7103 elicited significant (P < 0.001) and equal anti-S. dublin and -S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide serum antibody responses and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity immune responses. Six vaccinated calves orally challenged with 10(10) CFU (equivalent to 1,000 50% lethal doses) of the virulent parent strain S. dublin SVA47 were protected and experienced only transient fever and mild mucoid diarrhea. However, six vaccinated calves orally challenged with 3 x 10(9) CFU and another six challenged with 3 x 10(8) CFU (equivalent to 1,000 50% lethal doses) of the virulent S. typhimurium SVA44 became bacteremic with a profuse hemorrhagic diarrhea and had to be sacrificed within 2 to 7 days. The results suggest that the S. typhimurium antilipopolysaccharide immunity was insufficient to provide a solid protective efficacy against oral S. typhimurium infection. The immunohistopathological examination revealed that S. typhimurium SVA44 could be found in all layers of the intestinal mucosa and the lymphatic tissues of the Peyer's patches. In contrast, S. dublin SVA47 was found predominantly in the columnar enterocytes of the jejunum and ileum and the follicle-associated epithelium over the Peyer's patches. In addition, SVA47 was found in the glandular tissues of the duodenal and tonsillar areas and in the lungs. This suggests that the S. typhimurium and S. dublin strains have different virulence traits determining their tissue localization and dissemination. Images PMID:7681042