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Sample records for analysis petroleum processes

  1. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Fractionation process for petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

  3. Process and apparatus for desalting crude petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, C.; Bourgeois, C.; Richmond, J.; Scherrer, C.; Siffert, B.; Wiegandt, H.

    1980-04-29

    A process for desalting crude petroleum comprises breaking down a stable emulsion of water and crude petroleum when formed in a desalter, by injecting a demulsifying agent, such as di-2-ethyl hexyl sulphosuccinate, into the desalter at a predetermined level, when the sample taken at this level contain a predetermined content of stable emulsion. An apparatus for carrying out this process continuously is also included.

  4. Process for producing a petroleum wax composition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

  5. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  6. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  7. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  8. SYSTEMS CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of an established mathematical treatment useful for the characterization and identification of petroleum pollutants is described. Using discriminant analysis of relevant infrared spectrophotometric data, 99% of numerous known and unknown oil samples have been corr...

  9. Recycled fatty acid crude petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, G. L.; Herter, C.

    1984-11-06

    A method of recovering crude oil for subsequent processing. The method contemplates the step of exposing the source of crude oil such as a subterranean petroleum reservoir or a vessel or container of tar sands, kerogen or the like to aliphatic or carboxylic acid, preferably oleic acid, to produce a solvated crude oil mixture of reduced viscosity. This mixture is saponifyed by reacting it with a nucleophilic base, preferably a hydroxide of potassium or sodium, under pressure whereby to separate the solvated mixture into petroleum crude and an acid soap which migrates to an aqueous phase. The petroleum crude is separated from the aqueous soap through conventional techniques. Afterwards, a desaponification step contemplates recovery of the aliphatic or carboxylic acid for subsequent recycling in the previously mentioned exposing step. Reuse is facilitated by desaponifying aqueous soap within a high pressure containment vessel reacted with an acid suitable for donating a hydrated proton to the aqueous phase of the soap. This reconstituted acid is recycled for injection into the inputting step. Preferably carbonic acid is generated for the desaponifying step by injecting high pressure carbon dioxide within the containment vessel. By-products of the chemical reaction are separated and/or filtered as necessary to effectuate necessary purification sub-steps.

  10. Process for emulsion flooding of petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lepper, U.

    1984-12-18

    A process for emulsion flooding of petroleum reservoirs comprising injecting a thermodynamically stable microemulsion consisting of oil, a non-ionic surfactant and water which optionally contains salts dissolved in any desired concentrations, into an injection well; driving injected microemulsion bank through the reservoir by means of water which likewise may contain salts dissolved in any desired concentrations. The microemulsion bank in contact with the water driving the bank forms an excess phase with a high water content, a low surfactant content and low oil content, and has such a viscosity sufficient to prevent the penetration of the subsequent water into the microemulsion bank which would cause a decrease of its flowability and its ability to displace oil.

  11. Importance of technical analysis of petroleum futures

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Recent structural changes of the global economy have resulted in {open_quotes}free market{close_quotes} forces determining the prices of petroleum products. In the early years of the petroleum age, market prices were unduly influenced by forces such as Standard Oil. The Texas Railroad Commission, {open_quotes}The Seven Sisters{close_quotes} and OPEC. Petroleum product prices set on the New York Mercantile and on the International Petroleum Exchange in London reflect the current supply/demand judgement of informed participants. In dollar terms, crude oil is the worlds most important commodity. Large capital pools such as hedge and pension funds seek risk diversification through purchases of derivatives such as the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index futures contract established in 1991. Global computerized trading made possible in part by advances in telecommunication technology can result in rapid market adjustments. Computer assisted mathematical analysis of price, volume, open interest, momentum, volatility, and premiums is useful to the working energy professional when planning upstream activities such as production purchases or drilling programs.

  12. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is

  13. ARTICLES: Laser spectrochromatographic analysis of petroleum components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobeĭnik, G. S.; Letokhov, V. S.; Montanari, S. G.; Tumanova, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    A system combining a gas chromatograph and a laser optoacoustic spectrometer (with a CO2 laser and means for fast frequency scanning) was used to investigate model hydrocarbon mixtures, as well as some real objects in the form of benzine fractions of petroleum oil. The fast scanning regime was used to record optoacoustic spectra of hydrocarbons (in the range 9.2-10.8μ) during the travel time (1-10 sec) of the individual components of a mixture through an optoacoustic cell in the course of chromatrographic separation of these components. The spectra were used to carry out a group hydrocarbon analysis of benzine fractions of petroleum oil from various locations. The proposed method was relatively fast and was characterized by a good ability for identification of various components, compared with the usually employed method such as gas-liquid capillary chromatography.

  14. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  15. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication. PMID:17400318

  16. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. PMID:26378365

  17. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  18. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  19. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  20. SIMS image processing methods for petroleum cracking catalyst characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Leta, D.P.; Lamberti, W.A.; Disko, M.M.; Kugler, E.L.; Varady, W.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The technique of Imaging Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) has proven to be very well suited to the characterization of fluidized petroleum cracking catalysts (FCC). The ability to view elemental distributions with 0.5 micron spatial resolution at concentrations in the ppm range mates well with the submicron phases and low concentration contaminants present in commercial multi-component FCC particles. The use of ultra-low light level imaging systems with the intrinsically sensitive SIMS technique makes real time viewing of many of the elements important in FCC catalysts possible. Aluminum, silicon and the rare earth elements serve to define the major phases present within each catalyst particle, while the transition row elements and all of the alkali and alkaline elements may be seen at trace concentrations. Of particular importance is the use of the technique to study the distributions of nickel and vanadium which are the most deleterious of the contaminant metals. Modern image processing computers and software now allow the rapid quantitative analysis of SIMS elemental images in order to more clearly reveal the locations of the catalyst phases and the quantitative distributions of the contaminant metals on those phases. Although the analysis techniques discussed in this study may be applied to any of the contaminant elements, for simplicity the authors will limit their examples to the major catalyst elements, and the nickel and vanadium contaminants.

  1. Factorial kriging analysis applied to geological data from petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquet, O.

    1989-10-01

    A regionalized variable, thickness of the reservoir layer, from a gas field is decomposed by factorial kriging analysis. Maps of the obtained components may be associated with depositional environments that are favorable for petroleum exploration.

  2. Fractals in petroleum geology and earth processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; La Pointe, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The editors of this book chose a diverse spectrum of papers written by pioneers in the field of fractals and their application to the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The geology of the Earth`s crust is complex, chaotic, and unpredictable. Fractal geometry can quantify the spatial heterogeneity of the different geologic patterns and ultimately help improve the results of both production and exploration. To this goal the book has accomplished such an objective with diverse, well-chosen contributions from a variety of experts in the field. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basics, with a short historical foot-note by Benoit Mandelbrot, who is considered the {open_quotes}father of fractals.{close_quotes} Mandelbrot emphasized that geologic processes not only exhibit fractal properties but also are strongly connected to the economic system. This paved the way for the next three chapters that deal with the size and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and their importance in economic evaluations. The following four chapters deal with the fractal processes as related to sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic systems. Chapter five is an interesting one that deals with stratigraphic models and how their fractal processes can be tied with the inter-well correlation and reconstruct depositional environments. The next three chapters are concerned with porous and fractured rocks and how they affect the flow of fluids. The last two chapters (chapters 13 and 14) are of particular interest. Chapter 13 deals with the vertical vs. horizontal well-log variability and application to fractal reservoir modeling. Chapter 14 illustrates how fractal geometry brings mathematical order to geological and geophysical disorder. This is evident when dealing with geophysical modeling and inversion.

  3. Probability theory versus simulation of petroleum potential in play analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An objective was to replace an existing Monte Carlo simulation method in order to increase the efficiency of the appraisal process. Underlying the two methods is a single geologic model which considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The results of the model are resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and a closed form solution of all means and standard deviations, along with the probabilities of occurrence. ?? 1987 J.C. Baltzer A.G., Scientific Publishing Company.

  4. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25532346

  5. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9. PMID:18814290

  6. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  7. APPLICATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PETROLEUM RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Betty M.; Domaratz, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum resource assessment procedures require the analysis of a large volume of spatial data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and applied spatial information handling procedures and digital cartographic techniques to a recent study involving the assessment of oil and gas resource potential for 74 million acres of designated and proposed wilderness lands in the western United States. The part of the study which dealt with the application of spatial information technology to petroleum resource assessment procedures is reviewed. A method was designed to expedite the gathering, integrating, managing, manipulating and plotting of spatial data from multiple data sources that are essential in modern resource assessment procedures.

  8. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  9. Analysis of Strategic Petroleum Reserve bubble point pressure data

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented to predict the bubble pressure for 481 cavern oil samples withdrawn from the Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites. The predicted bubble point pressure is compared to experimentally measured bubble point pressure to resolve potential sources of error introduced to the experimental analysis. In order to gain a higher level of confidence in the measurement of the bubble point pressure, a stochastic analysis of the data is recommended in the future.

  10. Simulation and optimization technologies for petroleum waste management and remediation process control.

    PubMed

    Qin, X S; Huang, G H; He, L

    2009-01-01

    Leakage and spill of petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks and pipelines have posed significant threats to groundwater resources across many petroleum-contaminated sites. Remediation of these sites is essential for protecting the soil and groundwater resources and reducing risks to local communities. Although many efforts have been made, effective design and management of various remediation systems are still challenging to practitioners. In recent years, the subsurface simulation model has been combined with techniques of optimization to address important problems of contaminated site management. The combined simulation-optimization system accounts for the complex behavior of the subsurface system and identifies the best management strategy under consideration of the management objectives and constraints. During the past decades, a large number of studies were conducted to simulate contaminant flow and transport in the subsurface and seek cost-effective remediation designs. This paper gives a comprehensive review on recent developments, advancements, challenges, and barriers associated with simulation and optimization techniques in supporting process control of petroleum waste management and site remediation. A number of related methodologies and applications were examined. Perspectives of effective site management were investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced research efforts, which include issues of data availability and reliability, concerns in uncertainty, necessity of post-modeling analysis, and usefulness of development of process control techniques. PMID:18694620

  11. Emergency petroleum conservation: a review and analysis of selected measures

    SciTech Connect

    Boercker, F.D.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Hull, E.; Savadelis, J.; Valentini, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    ORNL was asked by the Economic Regulatory Administration to (1) collect, screen, and recommend a limited number of emergency measures that might conserve petroleum in residential and commercial buildings and in commercial transportation and (2) provide a detailed analysis of the energy savings and the economic and environmental impacts associated with restricting the hours of operation of commercial buildings. A total of 41 emergency measures were identified that might conserve petroleum, and these were reduced to a list of five that seemed most promising. Analysis of the measure to restrict hours of operation for commercial buildings shows that it might save 4 to 6% of annual commercial building energy use. The type of fuel conserved would vary widely from region to region, and appreciable negative economic impacts would result from implementing the measure.

  12. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique. PMID:26853634

  13. Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Knut Øien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

  14. Discrete computer analysis in petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharian, A.Z.

    1995-08-01

    Computer analysis must not be resembling on geologist`s work, having its own way because of uncertainty and shortness of geological information even on mature stage of exploration, when our original system of formal discrete computer analysis, realised on {open_quotes}FoxPro for Windows{close_quotes} with not substantial but probabilistic (without ever driving the usual maps) representation of geological situation was used for picking out the sets of best points for exploration drilling in south part of Dheprovsko-Donetzky oil-gas basin.

  15. Evaluation of electrochemical processes for the removal of several target aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Alsalka, Yamen; Karabet, François; Hashem, Shahir

    2011-03-01

    Ground and surface water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products is a serious and growing environmental problem throughout the world. Consequently, a study of the use of electrochemical treatment in the clean-up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination by aromatic pollutants to more acceptable levels. In the experiments described, water contamination by refined petroleum products was simulated under laboratory conditions. Electrochemical treatment, using aluminium electrodes, has been optimised by full factorial design and surface response analysis in term of BTEX and PAHs removal and energy consumption. The optimal conditions of pH, current density, electrolysis time, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration have then been applied in the treatment of real water samples which were monitored as petroleum contaminated samples. Treatment results have shown that electrochemical methods could achieve the concentration of these pollutants to undetectable levels in particular groundwater and surface water, hence, they can be highly effective in the remediation of water contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons, and the use of these processes is therefore recommended. PMID:21243149

  16. Downhole fluid analysis and asphaltene science for petroleum reservoir evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Oliver C; Pomerantz, Andrew E; Zuo, Julian Y; Dong, Chengli

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoirs are enshrouded in mysteries associated with all manner of geologic and fluid complexities that Mother Nature can inspire. Efficient exploitation of petroleum reservoirs mandates elucidation of these complexities; downhole fluid analysis (DFA) has proven to be indispensable for understanding both fluids and reservoir architecture. Crude oil consists of dissolved gases, liquids, and dissolved solids, known as the asphaltenes. These different fluid components exhibit fluid gradients vertically and laterally, which are best revealed by DFA, with its excellent precision and accuracy. Compositional gradient analysis falls within the purview of thermodynamics. Gas-liquid equilibria can be treated with a cubic equation of state (EoS), such as the Peng-Robinson EoS, a modified van der Waals EoS. In contrast, the first EoS for asphaltene gradients, the Flory-Huggins-Zuo (FHZ) EoS, was developed only recently. The resolution of the asphaltene molecular and nanocolloidal species in crude oil, which is codified in the Yen-Mullins model of asphaltenes, enabled the development of this EoS. The combination of DFA characterization of gradients of reservoir crude oil with the cubic EoS and FHZ EoS analyses brings into view wide-ranging reservoir concerns, such as reservoir connectivity, fault-block migration, heavy oil gradients, tar mat formation, huge disequilibrium fluid gradients, and even stochastic variations of reservoir fluids. New petroleum science and DFA technology are helping to offset the increasing costs and technical difficulties of exploiting ever-more-remote petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24702298

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  18. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  19. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase I. Petroleum savings analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of near-term electric-hybrid vehicles. Its purpose was to estimate their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles were first modeled. The projected US fleet composition was estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs were conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates were then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of several conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle-mission-battery combination. A discussion of lessons learned during the construction and test of the General Electric Hybrid Test Vehicle is also presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  20. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  1. Analysis of the petroleum resources of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Flertoft, I.P.; Kvadsheim, E.; Kalheim, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 1995 analysis of the petroleum resources of Norway is based on a play analysis. The input to the 1995 analysis is updated and refined compared with the analysis of 1993. The analysis makes a major distinction between unconfirmed play models and plays confirmed by discoveries. The unconfirmed plays have a higher risk and a greater range of uncertainty in the resource estimates compared to the confirmed plays. The effect of the unconfirmed plays on the estimates within different exploration areas is discussed. The unconfirmed play models are an important aspect of the exploration in the new exploration areas north of 62{degrees}N. The total estimate for the Norwegian Shelf is well within the estimate given in the 1993 analysis, but there are some adjustments in the relative importance of the different exploration provinces. Much emphasis is placed on incorporating historical exploration data and statistics to calibrate the play models. This includes rate of success and field size distributions of the individual play models and exploration provinces. Major confirmed plays in the North Sea have a rate of success of about 30% and show a good fit to a log normal field size distribution. Based on the log normal distribution it is possible to give prognosis for the size distribution of the undiscovered accumulation. This has made it possible to work out an economic analysis of the profitability of future exploration on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  2. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  3. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neill, K.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  4. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  5. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  6. Aerobic biodegradation process of petroleum and pathway of main compounds in water flooding well of Dagang oil field.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minmin; Yao, Jun; Yang, Huaijun; Wang, Ruixia; Masakorala, Kanaji

    2013-09-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of crude oil and its pathways were investigated via in vitro culture and GC-MS analysis in water flooding wells of Dagang oil field. The in vitro aerobic culture lasted 90 days when 99.0% of n-alkanes and 43.03-99.9% of PAHs were degraded and the biomarkers and their ratios were changed. The spectra of components in the residual oil showed the similar biodegradation between aerobic process of 90 days and degradation in reservoir which may last for some millions years, and the potential of serious aerobic biodegradation of petroleum in reservoir. 24 Metabolites compounds were separated and identified from aerobic culture, including fatty acid, naphthenic acid, aromatic carboxylic acid, unsaturated acid, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The pathways of alkanes and aromatics were proposed, which suggests that oxidation of hydrocarbon to organic acid is an important process in the aerobic biodegradation of petroleum. PMID:23867530

  7. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  8. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1993-05-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the processes in coal/petroleum coprocessing systems which led to coke formation. Specifically, the interactions between the petroleum residue and coal, leading to retrogressive products, were investigated. Five coals were reacted with five model compounds in order to investigate the coal conversions in a variety of solvents and to determine the role of the solvent in promoting or inhibiting coal conversion. The selected model compounds range from paraffinic to fully aromatic and were chosen as representative of types of compounds that are found in petroleum residua. Coprocessing experiments were conducted using the five coals and three petroleum residua. The effect of temperature on coal conversions was crucial. The coal conversions at 350 and 400{degree}C seem to be governed by the nature of the coal and to a lesser extent by the petroleum residua. Negative coal conversions were observed above 400{degree}C indicating that retrogressive processes had occurred. At temperatures higher than 400{degree}C, the petroleum residua undergo physical and chemical transformations and the influence of the petroleum residua on coal conversions is significant. The structural features of the residues indicated that the residues were predominately coal-derived. An overall increase in aromaticity was observed with increasing temperature which was also accompanied by loss of oxygen functional groups. The retrogressive reactions with non-caking coals involve carbonyl and carboxyl group leading to a final solid characterized by a cross-linked structure. In the case of caking coal, these reactions are governed by loss of aromatic oxygen groups and loss of alkyl groups.

  9. A novel process to treat spent petroleum catalyst using sulfur-oxidizing lithotrophs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong J; Mishra, Debaraj; Ahn, Jong G; Chaudhury, Gautam R; Ralph, David E

    2009-12-01

    A novel process was developed using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to extract metal values like Ni, V and Mo from spent petroleum catalyst. Bacteria were grown in elemental sulfur media for five day and after filtering, the filtrate was used for leaching purpose. Effect of different parameters such as contact time, particle size, pulp density and lixiviant composition were studied to find out the extent of metal leaching during the leaching process. XRD analysis proved the existence of V in oxide form, Ni in sulfide form, Mo both in oxide as well as sulfide forms, and sulfur in elemental state only. In all the cases studied Ni and V showed higher leaching efficiency compared to Mo. The low Mo leaching rate may be either due to formation of impervious sulfur layer or refractoriness of sulfides or both. Leaching kinetics followed dual rate, initial faster followed by slower. Dissolution mechanism was explained on the basis of both surface and pore diffusion rate. The leaching kinetics followed 1st order reaction rate. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to compare the observed and calculated leaching percentage values for three metals. PMID:20183517

  10. Improvement of processes for treating saline wastewater in petroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Sorochenko, V.F.

    1994-11-01

    The saline waste water produced in desalting crude oil in electric desalting units is usually dumped into the sewer system of the refinery. This work was aimed at developing methods of treatment with reagents to prevent and remove salt deposits in the process of freshening saline wastes, by means of aluminium chloride waste materials that have been recovered for utilization.

  11. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.; Tomic, J.; Moyer, D.; McConnie, J.

    1990-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. Specific objectives include examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components in retarding or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by studies of the carbonaceous residues by such techniques as diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. This quarter microautoclave testing of mixtures of model compounds and coal was concluded. In addition mixtures of coals and petroleum feedstocks were reacted under the same reaction conditions as used for the model compounds experiments. The petroleum resids were also independently tested in absence of coal. For a set of coal/resid feedstock pairs tests were performed in both horizontal and vertical microautoclaves in order to compare the mixing properties of these two different designs. 7 refs., 25 figs.

  12. Computational methods for a three-dimensional model of the petroleum-discovery process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Bawiec, W.J.; Drew, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    A discovery-process model devised by Drew, Schuenemeyer, and Root can be used to predict the amount of petroleum to be discovered in a basin from some future level of exploratory effort: the predictions are based on historical drilling and discovery data. Because marginal costs of discovery and production are a function of field size, the model can be used to make estimates of future discoveries within deposit size classes. The modeling approach is a geometric one in which the area searched is a function of the size and shape of the targets being sought. A high correlation is assumed between the surface-projection area of the fields and the volume of petroleum. To predict how much oil remains to be found, the area searched must be computed, and the basin size and discovery efficiency must be estimated. The basin is assumed to be explored randomly rather than by pattern drilling. The model may be used to compute independent estimates of future oil at different depth intervals for a play involving multiple producing horizons. We have written FORTRAN computer programs that are used with Drew, Schuenemeyer, and Root's model to merge the discovery and drilling information and perform the necessary computations to estimate undiscovered petroleum. These program may be modified easily for the estimation of remaining quantities of commodities other than petroleum. ?? 1980.

  13. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Greene, M.I.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a process for liquefying a carbonaceous solid in a thermal liquefaction heater in a first stage thermal liquefaction in the presence of a liquefaction solvent, followed by a second stage catalytic hydrogenation wherein liquefaction solvent is recovered from the second stage for use in the first stage. This patent describes improvement in introducing a liquefaction solvent to the first stage liquefaction heater.

  14. Computer processing of remote-sensing data for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Sabins, F.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Digitally processed remote-sensing images acquired from satellites and aircraft are increasingly employed for onshore exploration. The US Landsat thematic mapper acquires regional images (170 {times} 185 km) with moderate spatial resolution (30 m) and seven spectral bands. The French SPOT system acquires local images (60 by 60 km) in two modes: infrared color images of moderate resolution (20 m) and panchromatic images of high resolution (10 m). Landsat and SPOT are passive systems that primarily record reflectance at visible and reflected infrared wavelengths which do not penetrate clouds. Radar is an active system that operates at microwave wavelengths and penetrates clouds to produce images that enhance subtle topographic and tectonic features. The following digital processes are applied to the remote-sensing data to produce images for geologic interpretation. Restoration compensates for errors, noise, and distortion introduced during the scanning, transmission, and recording of image data. Typical programs correct for dropouts, banding, noise, atmospheric effects, and geometric distortion. Enhancement modifies data to improve its interpretability. Typical programs include contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, and transformation into intensity, hue, and saturation components. Information extraction identifies specific geologic relationships for the interpreter. Principal components, ratios, and classification images provide lithologic and other geologic information. Regional studies in temperate to arid areas typically use Landsat images. Complex subareas are then examined on SPOT panchromatic images which may be digitally composited with Landsat data. Radar images are employed in cloudy regions and to enhance low-relief features. These concepts are illustrated with processed images from various exploration project.

  15. Microarray analysis of Neosartorya fischeri using different carbon sources, petroleum asphaltenes and glucose-peptone.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Edna L; Ramírez-Puebla, Shamayim T; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Asphaltenes are considered as the most recalcitrant petroleum fraction and represent a big problem for the recovery, separation and processing of heavy oils and bitumens. Neosartorya fischeri is a saprophytic fungus that is able to grow using asphaltenes as the sole carbon source [1]. We performed transcription profiling using a custom designed microarray with the complete genome from N. fischeri NRRL 181 in order to identify genes related to the transformation of asphaltenes [1]. Data analysis was performed using the genArise software. Results showed that 287 genes were up-regulated and 118 were down-regulated. Here we describe experimental procedures and methods about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE68146) and describe the data analysis to identify different expression levels in N. fischeri using this recalcitrant carbon source. PMID:26484261

  16. Microarray analysis of Neosartorya fischeri using different carbon sources, petroleum asphaltenes and glucose-peptone

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-López, Edna L.; Ramírez-Puebla, Shamayim T.; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Asphaltenes are considered as the most recalcitrant petroleum fraction and represent a big problem for the recovery, separation and processing of heavy oils and bitumens. Neosartorya fischeri is a saprophytic fungus that is able to grow using asphaltenes as the sole carbon source [1]. We performed transcription profiling using a custom designed microarray with the complete genome from N. fischeri NRRL 181 in order to identify genes related to the transformation of asphaltenes [1]. Data analysis was performed using the genArise software. Results showed that 287 genes were up-regulated and 118 were down-regulated. Here we describe experimental procedures and methods about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE68146) and describe the data analysis to identify different expression levels in N. fischeri using this recalcitrant carbon source. PMID:26484261

  17. Distribution of petroleum degrading genes and factor analysis of petroleum contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinglong; Tang, Jingchun; Bai, Zhihui; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P.

    2015-06-01

    Genes that encode for enzymes that can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) are critical for the ability of microorganisms to bioremediate soils contaminated with PHs. Distributions of two petroleum-degrading genes AlkB and Nah in soils collected from three zones of the Dagang Oilfield, Tianjin, China were investigated. Numbers of copies of AlkB ranged between 9.1 × 105 and 1.9 × 107 copies/g dry mass (dm) soil, and were positively correlated with total concentrations of PHs (TPH) (R2 = 0.573, p = 0.032) and alkanes (C33 ~ C40) (R2 = 0.914, p < 0.01). The Nah gene was distributed relatively evenly among sampling zones, ranging between 1.9 × 107 and 1.1 × 108 copies/g dm soil, and was negatively correlated with concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH) (R2 = -0.567, p = 0.035) and ∑16 PAHs (R2 = -0.599, p = 0.023). Results of a factor analysis showed that individual samples of soils were not ordinated as a function of the zones.

  18. Distribution of petroleum degrading genes and factor analysis of petroleum contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinglong; Tang, Jingchun; Bai, Zhihui; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Genes that encode for enzymes that can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) are critical for the ability of microorganisms to bioremediate soils contaminated with PHs. Distributions of two petroleum-degrading genes AlkB and Nah in soils collected from three zones of the Dagang Oilfield, Tianjin, China were investigated. Numbers of copies of AlkB ranged between 9.1 × 105 and 1.9 × 107 copies/g dry mass (dm) soil, and were positively correlated with total concentrations of PHs (TPH) (R2 = 0.573, p = 0.032) and alkanes (C33 ~ C40) (R2 = 0.914, p < 0.01). The Nah gene was distributed relatively evenly among sampling zones, ranging between 1.9 × 107 and 1.1 × 108 copies/g dm soil, and was negatively correlated with concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH) (R2 = −0.567, p = 0.035) and ∑16 PAHs (R2 = −0.599, p = 0.023). Results of a factor analysis showed that individual samples of soils were not ordinated as a function of the zones. PMID:26086670

  19. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. The specific objectives include examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components in retarding or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by studies of the carbonaceous residues by such techniques as diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. During this reporting period work focused on identification of mechanisms of coke formation. The objective of this task is to identify those compounds or components which are specifically responsible for initiating coke formation.

  20. Leasing policy and the rate of petroleum development: analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Bivins, R

    1982-03-01

    The study has two objectives: first, to consider whether alternative leasing systems are desirable to speed the rate of oil and gas exploration and development in frontier basins; second, to evaluate the Petroleum Activity and Decision Simulation model developed by the US Department of the Interior for economic and land use planning and for policy analysis. Analysis of the model involved structural variation of the geology, exploration, and discovery submodels and also involved a formal sensitivity analysis using the Latin Hypercube Sampling Method. We report the rate of exploration, discovery, and petroleum output under a variety of price, leasing policy, and tax regimes.

  1. Best technical approach for the Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) system. Report for January-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, G.E.; Westbrook, S.R.

    1994-08-01

    Recent U.S. military operations have identified a need for improved methods of fuel and lubricant analysis in the field. This analysis capability should be highly mobile and built around modern, state-of-the-art analytical techniques. This report contains a critical review of current U.S. Army fuel testing requirements and the significance of each of the specified fuel properties. A trade-off analysis of each of the specified fuel properties was conducted. Based on the trade-off analysis, fuel property and analysis method recommendations are provided to help design a Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) system. The proposed PQA system is capable of timely evaluation of mobility fuels in the field using a restricted number of instruments housed on a mobile platform. Fuels, Transportable analytical equipment, Diesel fuel, Infrared spectroscopy, Instrumental analysis, Fuel properties, Petroleum analysis, Testing Mobile.

  2. In-situ LIF Analysis of Biological and Petroleum-based Hydraulic Oils on Soil

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Matthias; Fernández-Trujillo, Rebeca; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence properties of 4 hydraulic oils (3 biological and 1 petroleum-based) were investigated. In-situ LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) analysis of the oils on a brown sandy loam soil was performed. With calibration, quantitative detection was achieved. Estimated limits of detection were below ca. 500 mg/kg for the petroleum-based oil and ca. 2000 mg/kg for one biological oil. A semi-quantitative classification scheme is proposed for monitoring of the biological oils. This approach was applied to investigate the migration of a biological oil in soil-containing compartments, namely a soil column and a soil bed.

  3. U.S. strategic petroleum reserve Big Hill 114 leak analysis 2012.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent well integrity issues related to cavern 114 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. DM Petroleum Operations, M&O contractor for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, recognized an apparent leak in Big Hill cavern well 114A in late summer, 2012, and provided written notice to the State of Texas as required by law. DM has since isolated the leak in well A with a temporary plug, and is planning on remediating both 114 A- and B-wells with liners. In this report Sandia provides an analysis of the apparent leak that includes: (i) estimated leak volume, (ii) recommendation for operating pressure to maintain in the cavern between temporary and permanent fixes for the well integrity issues, and (iii) identification of other caverns or wells at Big Hill that should be monitored closely in light of the sequence of failures there in the last several years.

  4. Evaluation Of In Situ Steam-Injection Processes For Reduction Of Petroleum Compounds Within An Abandoned Canal

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptual approach of a novel application of in-situ thermal processes that would either use a steam injection process or a steam/surfactant injection process was considered to remediate petroleum contaminated sediment residing in an abandoned canal. Laboratory tests were c...

  5. Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1989-04-28

    The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

  6. Molecular Biological Analysis of Microorganisms in Petroleum Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Son, H. A.; Im, K. C.; Back, K. H.; Kim, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs were analyzed to examine the potential to apply for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Genomic DNA (16S rDNA) were extracted from two heavy oil samples from Canadian oil sand and six light oil samples from the Salin fore-arc basin in Myanmar, and amplified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The microbes were identified by cloning the PCR products and pyrosequencing. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were common in both Canadian and Myanmar samples. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus belonging to the Firmicutes phylum are abundant in oil sands, while Propionibacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum and Coprothermobacter, Streptococcus, and Clostridia belonging to the Frimicutes phylum are contained in Myanmar samples. Streptococcus is known to use crude oil as nutrient, and produce organic acid, bio-gas and polysaccharide that could reduce oil viscosity, improve permeability by dissolving carbonate cement from pores throat, and reduce interfacial tension between oil and rock/water surface. Clostridia produce acids and gases by methanogenesis that could improve oil recovery.

  7. Probabilistic methodology for estimation of undiscovered petroleum resources in play analysis of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A geostochastic system called FASPF was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for their 1989 assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in the United States. FASPF is a fast appraisal system for petroleum play analysis using a field-size geological model and an analytic probabilistic methodology. The geological model is a particular type of probability model whereby the volumes of oil and gas accumulations are modeled as statistical distributions in the form of probability histograms, and the risk structure is bilevel (play and accumulation) in terms of conditional probability. The probabilistic methodology is an analytic method derived from probability theory rather than Monte Carlo simulation. The resource estimates of crude oil and natural gas are calculated and expressed in terms of probability distributions. The probabilistic methodology developed by the author is explained. The analytic system resulted in a probabilistic methodology for play analysis, subplay analysis, economic analysis, and aggregation analysis. Subplay analysis included the estimation of petroleum resources on non-Federal offshore areas. Economic analysis involved the truncation of the field size with a minimum economic cutoff value. Aggregation analysis was needed to aggregate individual play and subplay estimates of oil and gas, respectively, at the provincial, regional, and national levels. ?? 1992 Oxford University Press.

  8. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  9. Analysis of cavern shapes for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2006-07-01

    This report presents computational analyses to determine the structural integrity of different salt cavern shapes. Three characteristic shapes for increasing cavern volumes are evaluated and compared to the baseline shape of a cylindrical cavern. Caverns with enlarged tops, bottoms, and mid-sections are modeled. The results address pillar to diameter ratios of some existing caverns in the system and will represent the final shape of other caverns if they are repeatedly drawn down. This deliverable is performed in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Several three-dimensional models using a close-packed arrangement of 19 caverns have been built and analyzed using a simplified symmetry involving a 30-degree wedge portion of the model. This approach has been used previously for West Hackberry (Ehgartner and Sobolik, 2002) and Big Hill (Park et al., 2005) analyses. A stratigraphy based on the Big Hill site has been incorporated into the model. The caverns are modeled without wells and casing to simplify the calculations. These calculations have been made using the power law creep model. The four cavern shapes were evaluated at several different cavern radii against four design factors. These factors included the dilatant damage safety factor in salt, the cavern volume closure, axial well strain in the caprock, and surface subsidence. The relative performance of each of the cavern shapes varies for the different design factors, although it is apparent that the enlarged bottom design provides the worst overall performance. The results of the calculations are put in the context of the history of cavern analyses assuming cylindrical caverns, and how these results affect previous understanding of cavern behavior in a salt dome.

  10. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  11. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...

  12. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    PubMed Central

    Faizi, Shaheen; Sumbul, Saima; Versiani, Muhammed Ali; Saleem, Rubeena; Sana, Aisha; Siddiqui, Hira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds. PMID:25183335

  13. Dynamic processes of indigenous microorganisms from a low-temperature petroleum reservoir during nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei-Ke; Li, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Ling-Xia; Dai, Xue-Cheng; Tian, Hui-Mei; Dai, Liu-Bing; Wang, Hong-Bo; Huang, Hai-Dong; Chen, Yue-Hua; Ma, Ting

    2014-02-01

    Compared to medium-high temperature petroleum reservoirs (30°C-73°C), little is known about microbial regulation by nutrients in low-temperature reservoirs. In this study, we report the performance (oil emulsification and biogas production) and community structure of indigenous microorganisms from a low-temperature (22.6°C) petroleum reservoir during nutrient stimulation. Culture-dependent approaches indicated that the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria (HOB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and methane-producing bacteria (MPB) increased by between 10- and 1000-fold, while sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were observed at low levels during stimulation. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Halomonas and Marinobacter, which have the capability to produce surfactants, were selectively enriched. Methanoculleus, Methanosaeta, Methanocorpusculum and Methanocalculus showed the largest increase in relative abundance among archaea. Micro-emulsion formed with an average oil droplet diameter of 14.3 μm (ranging between 4.1 μm and 84.2 μm) during stimulation. Gas chromatographic analysis of gas production (186 mL gas/200 mL medium) showed the levels of CO2 and CH4 increased 8.97% and 6.21%, respectively. Similar to medium-high temperature reservoirs, HOB, NRB, SRB and MPB were ubiquitous in the low-temperature reservoir, and oil emulsification and gas production were the main phenomena observed during stimulation. Oil emulsification required a longer duration of time to occur in the low-temperature reservoir. PMID:23968868

  14. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  16. Basin Analysis of Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2001-03-01

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE for review. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. The information on the source rocks is being prepared for inclusion in the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern and western parts of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis continues. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Two underdeveloped Smackover reservoirs have been identified. They are the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - This task has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock information will continue to be prepared for the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Study of Smackover underdeveloped reservoirs will continue with focus on the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs.

  17. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Barry L.

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  18. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  19. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  20. Utilization of the PHOSter [trademark] process to improve in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B. ); Easton, S. ); Haselow, J. ); Klemm, D. )

    1996-01-01

    PHOSter[trademark] is a patented gas-phase nutrient delivery system that can be used to control the addition of vapor phase phosphorus and improve in situ bioremediation processes. PHOSter[trademark] can be easily and cost-effectively added to most existing biosparging or bioventing systems to provide the phosphorus that is often lacking for an optimally healthy microbial environment. Traditional approaches for adding phosphate to sites are based on addition of liquid fertilizer or phosphoric acid vapors. Such systems have been shown to influence very small areas and often result in overstimulation of the microbial population, which can lead to undesirable effects such as formation clogging. The PHOSter[trademark] system uses a relatively safe form of organic phosphate, triethylphosphate or TEP. TEP is added to an air injection stream by contacting or infusing the vapors from the liquid. With PHOSter[trademark], the presence of the ethyl groups on the phosphate reduces the nutrient's dissolution rate into water and provides a [open quotes]time released[close quotes] stimulation and prevents clogging, and because the phosphorus is in a gas form, it is more readily dispersed in the formation. PHOSter[trademark] has been successfully utilized in three states (South Carolina, Michigan, and New York) on petroleum hydrocarbon and trichloroethane contamination. A goal of a fourth test that is underway in Panama City, Florida at a gasoline distribution terminal is to improve the in situ remediation of BTEX and eliminate fugitive emissions from a multipoint airsparging process.

  1. Utilization of the PHOSter {trademark} process to improve in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Easton, S.; Haselow, J.; Klemm, D.

    1996-12-31

    PHOSter{trademark} is a patented gas-phase nutrient delivery system that can be used to control the addition of vapor phase phosphorus and improve in situ bioremediation processes. PHOSter{trademark} can be easily and cost-effectively added to most existing biosparging or bioventing systems to provide the phosphorus that is often lacking for an optimally healthy microbial environment. Traditional approaches for adding phosphate to sites are based on addition of liquid fertilizer or phosphoric acid vapors. Such systems have been shown to influence very small areas and often result in overstimulation of the microbial population, which can lead to undesirable effects such as formation clogging. The PHOSter{trademark} system uses a relatively safe form of organic phosphate, triethylphosphate or TEP. TEP is added to an air injection stream by contacting or infusing the vapors from the liquid. With PHOSter{trademark}, the presence of the ethyl groups on the phosphate reduces the nutrient`s dissolution rate into water and provides a {open_quotes}time released{close_quotes} stimulation and prevents clogging, and because the phosphorus is in a gas form, it is more readily dispersed in the formation. PHOSter{trademark} has been successfully utilized in three states (South Carolina, Michigan, and New York) on petroleum hydrocarbon and trichloroethane contamination. A goal of a fourth test that is underway in Panama City, Florida at a gasoline distribution terminal is to improve the in situ remediation of BTEX and eliminate fugitive emissions from a multipoint airsparging process.

  2. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  3. An analysis of increasing the size of the strategic petroleum reserve to one billion barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Emergency Policy and Evaluation requested that the Energy Information Administration complete an analysis of the proposed expansion in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from its currently planned size of 750 million barrels to 1000 million barrels. Because the SPR contains only 580 million barrels at this point in time, the benefits and costs of increasing the SPR from 600 to 750 million barrels were also estimated. This report documents the assumptions, methodology, and results of the analysis. 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Application of high-temperature simulated distillation to the residuum oil supercritical extraction process in petroleum refining

    PubMed

    Raia; Villalanti; Subramanian; Williams

    2000-01-01

    The gas chromatographic method of high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD) is described, and the results are presented for the application of HTSD to the characterization of petroleum refinery feed and products from solvent deasphalting operations. Results are presented for refinery residual feed, deasphalted oil, and asphaltene fractions from the residual oil supercritical extraction process. Asphaltene removal from petroleum residuum using solvent deasphalting results in the improved quality and high recovery of deasphalted oil product for use as lube oil, fluid catalytic cracking, or hydrocracker feedstocks. The HTSD procedure presented here proves valuable for characterizing the fractions from the deasphalting process to obtain the percentage yield with boiling point data over the range from approximately 36 degrees C (97 degrees F) to 733 degrees C (1352 degrees F), which covers the boiling range of n-paraffins of carbon number C5 to C108. PMID:10654784

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. [Phytoremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils with Iris pseudacorus L. and the Metabolic Analysis in Roots].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-nan; Cheng, Li-juan; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we performed a greenhouse pot-culture experiment to investigate the potential of a wild ornamental plant Iris pseudacorus L. in remediating petroleum contaminated soils from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results suggested that Iris pseudacorus L. had great resistance to ≤ 40,000 mg · kg(⁻¹ of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). The removal rate of TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils by Iris pseudacorus L. was 42.1%, 33.1% 31.2%, respectively, much higher than those in the corresponding controls (31.8%, 21.3% 11.9%, respectively) (P < 0.05). The root specific surface area of Iris pseudacorus L. was determined by the root scanner. The results suggested that TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils increased the root specific surface area comparing with the controls. Additionally, the metabolic analysis showed that root metabolism changed to different degrees under the stress of TPHs, and the levels or species of metabolites had a significant change (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results showed that 5 of 11 metabolites (VIP value > 1.2) with the root specific surface area from the PLS-DA model analysis, including ethanedioic acid, lactic acid, 2-butenedioic acid, phosphate and propanedioic acid, were positively correlated with the root specific surface area, but the others, gluconic acid, uridine, butanoic acid, maltose, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, phenylalanine, were negatively correlated with it. In conclusion, using Iris pseudacorus L. to remediate petroleum contaminated soils is feasible, and the metabolic analysis in roots is useful to better understand the metabolic response of plants exposure to petroleum contaminated soils, and then reveals its remediated mechanisms. PMID:27548979

  11. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 3. PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The petroleum refining industry is involved primarily in the conversion of crude oil i...

  13. ENGINEERING APPLICATION OF BIOOXIDATION PROCESSES FOR TREATING PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the U.S., the need for effective treatment of petroleum contaminated soil has escalated due to the increase in the number of underground storage tank (UST) systems being upgraded in response to EPA regulations. ptions for excavated contaminated soil have in the past be...

  14. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  15. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  16. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2000-12-31

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the modeling results are being interpreted for report writing (Table 1). Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern part of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis has been initiated. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - The report on basin flow will be completed. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock data will be reviewed in light of the basin flow model results. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis.

  17. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed. PMID:25917503

  18. Bioleaching kinetics and multivariate analysis of spent petroleum catalyst dissolution using two acidophiles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Debabrata; Mishra, Debaraj; Kim, Dong J; Ahn, Jong G; Chaudhury, G Roy; Lee, Seoung W

    2010-03-15

    Bioleaching studies were conducted to evaluate the recovery of metal values from waste petroleum catalyst using two different acidophilic microorganisms, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Various leaching parameters such as contact time, pH, oxidant concentration, pulp densities, particle size, and temperature were studied in detail. Activation energy was evaluated from Arrhenius equation and values for Ni, V and Mo were calculated in case of both the acidophiles. In both cases, the dissolution kinetics of Mo was lower than those of V and Ni. The lower dissolution kinetics may have been due to the formation of a sulfur product layer, refractoriness of MoS(2) or both. Multivariate statistical data were presented to interpret the leaching data in the present case. The significance of the leaching parameters was derived through principle component analysis and multi linear regression analyses for both iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria. PMID:19879686

  19. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  20. Gas chromatographic analysis of petroleum associated condensate oil with simultaneous determination of some characteristic physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, N E

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed for the analysis of associated condensate by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with simultaneous determination of its major physical characteristic parameters. The method aims at the qualitative and quantitative determination of C(2)-C(36) alkanes, methylcyclopentane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. This composition is according to the petroleum companies demand. The method is used for the simultaneous determination of the condensate average molecular weight, density, carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and boiling range. The data obtained by the method has a good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The literature methods cited later used a simulated distillation method to obtain the hydrocarbon distribution spectrum of the given condensate sample. The obtained results revealed that the GC capillary method used is most rapid and accurate for achieving the demanded analytical report. PMID:18492346

  1. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-07-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications are in the process of being acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  2. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW. PMID:21907388

  3. Petroleum catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, B.

    1996-10-01

    Catalysis reaches almost every major industrial chemical process in place today and spans production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals to commodity plastics and gasoline. The catalytic upgrading of crude oil for example renders chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and even coke for steel production. The initial conversion point for all these end products is the petroleum refinery. While there are a variety of catalytic schemes in the modern refinery, four key processes make up the mainstay of refinery operations: Catalytic Cracking, Alkylation, Reforming, and Isomerization. A brief history and outline of the processes will be given followed by a more detailed discussion of the catalysis. It is intended that a knowledge of both the catalytic chemistry and catalytic materials useful in these reactions may be garnered along with a broader view of the importance of catalysis in modern industrial chemistry.

  4. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q.

    2010-12-08

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  8. Test kit/spectrometer for the analysis of petroleum substances using Friedel-Crafts colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanby, John D.; Hewitt, Alan D.; Lory, Ernest E.

    2001-02-01

    12 Laboratory and field results of the testing of a new, visible-range spectrometry utilizing the robust signals produced by Friedel-Crafts reaction compounds demonstrate the utility of a rapid, portable, and sensitive method of on-site analysis for petroleum substances in soil and water samples. Preliminary testing of the kits and spectrometer was performed at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH. Specific field protocols for the sampling and handling of soils for gasoline range organics and diesel range organics were established for the field sampling, which was conducted at the U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, CA. Co-located soil samples were collected and either split or homogenized for subsequent partitioning to provide samples for the on-site analysis by the field kit/spectrometer technology and for later analysis by off- site reference laboratories. Test kit colorimetric results are by visual and spectrometric methods, and are compared with reference laboratory results and CRREL analyses.

  9. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, Darrell; Azevado, Stephen

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  10. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater by the combined technique of adsorption onto perlite followed by the O3/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was treated using a combined system of adsorption onto powdered expanded perlite (PEP) followed by the O3/H2O2 process. The pretreatment investigations indicated a high capacity for PEP to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated water. An experimental total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) adsorption capacity of 275 mg/g PEP was obtained at the natural pH of water. The experimental data fit best with the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption model. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the performance of the O3/H2O2 process in the removal of residual TPH from pretreated water and compared the results with that of raw water. The O3/H202 process attained a maximum TPH removal rate for the pretreated water after 70 min, when 93% of the residual TPH in the effluent of the adsorption system was removed. Overall, the combination of adsorption onto PEP for 100 min and the subsequent treatment with the O3/H2O2 process for 70min eliminated over 99% of the TPH of highly petroleum-contaminated groundwater, with initial values of 162 mg/L. Therefore, we can conclude that the developed treatment system is an appropriate method of remediation for petroleum-contaminated waters. PMID:23240183

  11. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum-polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation.

    PubMed

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large-scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen-depleted petroleum-polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  12. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible andmore » are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.« less

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  14. Chemical Sensing in Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) rationale for chemical sensors in process analysis; (2) existing types of process chemical sensors; (3) sensor limitations, considering lessons of chemometrics; (4) trends in process control sensors; and (5) future prospects. (JN)

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Contributions in petroleum geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A.H.; Koederitz, L.; Honarpour, M. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses petroleum reservoir components and properties. The contents include: Systems of units. Reservoir Rocks. Reservoir fluids. Relative permeability and capillarity. Reservoir volume and fluid flow. Naturally fractured reservoirs. Natural production mechanisms. Prediction of oil and gas recovery. Analysis of well performance. Gas-condensate reservoirs. Enhanced oil recovery processes.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Containerless processing technology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on acoustic levitation, air-jet levitation, and heat transfer from molten samples is reported. The goal was to obtain a better understanding and improving the quality of containerless processing systems. These systems are applied to the processing of materials in situations in which contact with a container must be avoided, and have potential application in both ground based and orbiting laboratories. Containerless processing is reviewed. The development of glasses from materials which normally crystallize upon cooling, are studied.

  5. Experiences of a Multidisciplinary Course on Geo-Signal Processing from a DSP Perspective Offered in Electrical Engineering at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousa, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the experience gained in, and the efforts made toward, introducing and implementing a new course in the challenging and important area of geophysical signal processing at the Electrical Engineering (EE) Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The new course,…

  6. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be

  7. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  8. Analysis of refiners' total barrel costs and revenues from the sale of petroleum products, 1976 to 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    In this report, the Economic Regulatory Administration has evaluated refiners' costs and revenues from the sale of major petroleum products from July 1976 through December 1979. This report represents a continuing effort to assess No. 2 heating oil prices and margins in that it updates prior middle distillate studies through March 1980. The analysis examines selling prices and costs associated with each major petroleum product category and a combination of petroleum products (total barrel) from a sample of nine refiners. The total barrel approach was adopted to reduce distortions caused by varying methods of allocation of costs among regulated and unregulated products by refiners. This report determines the extent to which increased costs were recovered on controlled products and whether refiners obtained greater cost recoupment on decontrolled products than would have been allowed under continued controls. The principal methods of measurement used to evaluate product pricing levels for the nine refiners surveyed were cost recoupment (Chapter III), gross margins (Chapter IV), and net margins (Chapter V). Gross margins were derived by subtracting average crude oil costs from average product selling prices for individual product categories and the total barrel. Net margins were derived by subtracting average crude oil costs as well as average marketing, manufacturing, and purchased product costs from average selling prices for individual product categories and the total barrel.

  9. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Training in the Petroleum Industry: An Analysis of Its Organization and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William H.

    Exploratory, descriptive research was conducted to identify potential and existing shortages of skilled manpower in the petroleum industry. Data came from interviews with 60 individual companies, governments, industry groups, and professional associations. Company characteristics that were significant determinants of training were size, foreign or…

  11. The Language Needs Analysis Project at the College of Petroleum and Engineering, Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen; Al-Huneidi, Amal

    A study of the English language needs and attitudes of students and faculty in Kuwait University's College of Petroleum and Engineering is reported. The objective was to create a basis for assessing the relevance of the institution's current English second language program. Data were gathered through: (1) interviews with faculty, teaching…

  12. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  13. The coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography and field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kuangnan; Diehl, John W; Dechert, Gary J; DiSanzo, Frank P

    2004-01-01

    We report the first coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (FI-ToF HRMS), in parallel with ultraviolet (UV) detection and flame ionization detection (FID), for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates. SFC separates petroleum middle distillates into saturates and 1- to 3-ring aromatics. FI generates molecular ions for hydrocarbon species eluted from the SFC. The high resolution and exact mass measurements by ToF mass spectrometry provide elemental compositions of the molecules in the petroleum product. The amounts of saturates and aromatic ring types were quantified using the parallel SFC-FID assisted by SFC-UV. With a proper carbon-number calibration, the detailed composition of the petroleum middle distillate was rapidly determined. PMID:15103095

  14. The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran. Results To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved. Conclusions The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit. PMID:24422994

  15. Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

  16. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  17. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  18. Prevention of iron-sulfide deposition in petroleum processing. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Panchal, C. B.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-25

    The purpose of this CRADA extension which effectively ended in 2003 was to quantify the effect of iron-sulfide formation on the fouling propensity of crude oil. The specific objectives are focused on fouling of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU-1) at the Shell Refinery in Mobile, Alabama. The technical approach consists of analyzing the plant data, chemical analysis of crude oil to detect key precursors, performing refinery tests using the Argonne Field Fouling Unit, and verifying the effectiveness of a physical device of tube insert and enhanced tubes to change threshold conditions and thereby reducing fouling.

  19. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-05

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and the determination of the tectonic and depositional histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first three (3) to six (6) months of Year 1, the research focus is on data compilation and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the tectonic and depositional histories of the basin. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  20. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH. PMID:23567736

  1. Blast resistant modular buildings for the petroleum and chemical processing industries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ben F

    2003-11-14

    There exists a need for blast resistant yet portable buildings to protect personnel temporarily assigned duties within explosively hazardous areas. Blast resistant portable buildings (BRPBs) are a valuable asset for protection of temporarily assigned personnel involved in activities located near potential explosion sites. Portable. Stackable and modular. Blast designed and ductile. Several companies have designed products to meet this need. Blast resistant portable buildings are the size of a typical office trailer; however, they may be installed in a variety of configurations and floor plans. The buildings are similar in design and construction to steel shipping containers but they are larger in scale, are much stronger, and are intended to be occupied within hazardous areas. Typical siting issues for modular buildings involve blast related requirements, process related requirements and conventional loading requirements. Examples of these requirements include: Sliding and overturning during blast response. Positive pressure and forced ventilation requirements. Seismic and wind loading. This paper describes blast performance, structural siting issues, and presents different applications of blast resistant modular buildings that have been installed at various facilities. PMID:14602397

  2. Vocational Education Operations Analysis Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This manual on the vocational education operations analysis process is designed to provide vocational administrators/coordinators with an internal device to collect, analyze, and display vocational education performance data. The first section describes the system and includes the following: analysis worksheet, data sources, utilization, system…

  3. Deciphering Microbial Carbon Sources in Petroleum Contaminated Sediments Using Compound Specific Radiocarbon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, P. L.; Szponar, N.; Maunder, C.; Marvin, C.; Slater, G. F.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were analyzed to investigate microbial carbon sources and assess the impact of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in one of North America's most contaminated harbours. Sediment cores were sampled from two locations in the harbour: a highly impacted area, Dofasco Boat Slip; and a less impacted area, Carole's Bay. Natural organic matter (NOM) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were two possible organic carbon sources for microbial metabolisms. While the majority of organic carbon (OC) at both Dofasco and Carole's Bay was NOM, petroleum hydrocarbons also contributed to the OC. As expected, the concentration of the TPHs was much greater at the Dofasco site (270 ug/g) compared to the TPHs concentration measured at Carole's Bay (50 ug/g). However, the % of PAHs that contributed to TPHs was very similar in the first three centimeters at both sites (9%). The PLFAs distributions at Carole's Bay and Dofasco were fairly similar indicating an overall bulk similarity between the communities notwithstanding higher contaminant concentrations at the Dofasco site. PLFA distributions changed with depth, consistent with changes in redox conditions from oxic to anoxia. The PLFAs extracted from the upper 3 cm of sediment from Carole's Bay had modern cap delta 14C values (with an average value of -66 ) compared to both the NOM (cap delta 14C -132 ) and TPH (cap delta 14C -775 ), suggesting that the carbon substrate for microbial metabolisms was a younger more labile source. The cap delta 14C isotopic values between individual PLFAs were indistinguishable (within the standard error of 20 for accuracy and reproducibility) demonstrating that if TPHs were degraded the impact on the cap delta 14C was not resolvable at Carole's Bay. Co-metabolic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is one possible degradation mechanism whereby biodegradation is occurring, but the contaminant carbon may not be incorporated into the microbial membrane

  4. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  5. Petroleum system analysis of the Hunton Group in West Edmond field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Higley, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    West Edmond field, located in central Oklahoma, is one of the largest oil accumulations in the Silurian–Devonian Hunton Group in this part of the Anadarko Basin. Production from all stratigraphic units in the field exceeds 170 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 400 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), of which approximately 60 MMBO and 100 BCFG have been produced from the Hunton Group. Oil and gas are stratigraphically trapped to the east against the Nemaha uplift, to the north by a regional wedge-out of Hunton strata, and by intraformational diagenetic traps. Hunton Group reservoirs are the Bois d'Arc and Frisco Limestones, with lesser production from the Chimneyhill subgroup, Haragan Shale, and Henryhouse Formation. Hunton Group cores from three wells that were examined petrographically indicate that complex diagenetic relations influence permeability and reservoir quality. Greatest porosity and permeability are associated with secondary dissolution in packstones and grainstones, forming hydrocarbon reservoirs. The overlying Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale is the major petroleum source rock for the Hunton Group in the field, based on one-dimensional and four-dimensional petroleum system models that were calibrated to well temperature and Woodford Shale vitrinite reflectance data. The source rock is marginally mature to mature for oil generation in the area of the West Edmond field, and migration of Woodford oil and gas from deeper parts of the basin also contributed to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  6. Analysis of petroleum-contaminated soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Okparanma, Reuben N; Coulon, Frederic; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that partial least-squares regression analysis with full cross-validation of spectral reflectance data estimates the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated tropical rainforest soils. We applied the approach to 137 field-moist intact soil samples collected from three oil spill sites in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta province (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria. We used sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction-gas chromatography as the reference chemical method. We took soil diffuse reflectance spectra with a mobile fibre-optic visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer (350-2500 nm). Independent validation of combined data from studied sites showed reasonable prediction precision (root-mean-square error of prediction = 1.16-1.95 mg kg(-1), ratio of prediction deviation = 1.86-3.12, and validation r(2) = 0.77-0.89). This suggests that the methodology may be useful for rapid assessment of the spatial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Niger Delta to inform risk assessment and remediation. PMID:24077341

  7. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. The specific objectives include examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components in retarding or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by studies of the carbonaceous residues by such techniques as diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. During this reporting period work focused on identification of mechanisms of coke formation. The objective of this task is to identify those compounds or components which are specifically responsible for initiating coke formation.

  8. Petroleum Processing Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Jenny Loveridge

    2012-09-01

    A series of volatile crude oils was characterized using the Asphaltene Determinator oncolumn precipitation and re-dissolution method developed at Western Research Institute (WRI). Gravimetric asphaltenes and polars fractions from silica gel chromatography separation of the oils were characterized also. A study to define the differences in composition of asphaltenes in refinery desalter rag layer emulsions and the corresponding feed and desalter oils was conducted. Results indicate that the most polar and pericondensed aromatic material in the asphaltenes is enriched in the emulsions. The wax types and carbon number distributions in the two heptaneeluting fractions from the Waxphaltene Determinator separation were characterized by repetitive collection of the fractions followed by high temperature gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) was conducted by researchers at the Florida State University National High Magnetic Field laboratory in a no-cost collaboration with the study.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  11. A software surety analysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, S.; Tempel, P.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the High Consequence System Surety project, this work was undertaken to explore, one approach to conducting a surety theme analysis for a software-driven system. Originally, plans were to develop a theoretical approach to the analysis, and then to validate and refine this process by applying it to the software being developed for the Weight and Leak Check System (WALS), an automated nuclear weapon component handling system. As with the development of the higher level High consequence System surety Process, this work was not completed due to changes in funding levels. This document describes the software analysis process, discusses its application in a software, environment, and outlines next steps that could be taken to further develop and apply the approach to projects.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  13. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  14. Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Song, Linhua; Wu, Pingping; Liu, Yan; Li, Qingyin; Yan, Zifeng

    2014-03-01

    The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60-90°C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370°C, 40min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC-MS and FT-ICR MS techniques. PMID:24445192

  15. Aggregates structure analysis of petroleum asphaltenes with small-angle neutron scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R.; Hunt, J. E.; Winans, R. E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Sato, S.; Takanohashi, T.; Idemitsu Kosan Co.; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in the structures of petroleum asphaltene aggregates in situ with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Asphaltenes were isolated from three different crude oils: Maya, Khafji, and Iranian Light. An aliquot of the 5 wt % asphaltene solution in deuterated Decalin, 1-methylnaphthalene, or quinoline was loaded in a special stainless steel cell for SANS measurements. SANS data measured at various temperatures from 25 to 350 {sup o}C showed various topological features different with asphaltene or solvent species. A fractal network was formed only with asphaltene of Maya in Decalin, and it remained even at 350 {sup o}C. In all of the solvents, asphaltenes aggregate in the form of a prolate ellipsoid with a high aspect ratio at 25 {sup o}C and got smaller with increasing temperature. That became a compact sphere with the size of around 25 {angstrom} in radius at 350 {sup o}C.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. Logistics Process Analysis ToolProcess Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-03-31

    LPAT is the resulting integrated system between ANL-developed Enhanced Logistics Intra Theater Support Tool (ELIST) sponsored by SDDC-TEA and the Fort Future Virtual Installation Tool (sponsored by CERL). The Fort Future Simulation Engine was an application written in the ANL Repast Simphony framework and used as the basis for the process Anlysis Tool (PAT) which evolved into a stand=-along tool for detailed process analysis at a location. Combined with ELIST, an inter-installation logistics component wasmore » added to enable users to define large logistical agent-based models without having to program. PAT is the evolution of an ANL-developed software system called Fort Future Virtual Installation Tool (sponsored by CERL). The Fort Future Simulation Engine was an application written in the ANL Repast Simphony framework and used as the basis for the Process Analysis Tool(PAT) which evolved into a stand-alone tool for detailed process analysis at a location (sponsored by the SDDC-TEA).« less

  18. Reservoir analysis study, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 2 report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Jerry R. Bergeso and Associates, Inc. (Bergeson) has completed Phase II of the Reservoir Analysis, Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, Elk Hills Oilfield, California. The objectives for this phase of the study included the establishment of revised estimates of the original oil and gas-in-place for each of the zones/reservoirs, estimation of the remaining proved developed, proved undeveloped, probable and possible reserves, and assessment of the effects of historical development and production operations and practices on recoverable reserves. Volume one contains the following: summary; introduction; and reservoir studies for tulare, dry gas zone, eastern shallow oil zone, western shallow oil zone, and Stevens --MBB/W31S, 31S NA/D.

  19. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  20. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  1. Certification-Based Process Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

  2. Geomechanical analysis to predict the oil leak at the wellbores in Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung Yoon

    2014-02-01

    Oil leaks were found in wellbores of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interbed between the caprock bottom and salt top. A three dimensional finite element model, which contains wellbore element blocks and allows each cavern to be configured individually, is constructed to investigate the wellbore damage mechanism. The model also contains element blocks to represent interface between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interbed behavior in a realistic manner. The causes of the damaged casing segments are a result of vertical and horizontal movements of the interbed between the caprock and salt dome. The salt top subsides because the volume of caverns below the salt top decrease with time due to salt creep closure, while the caprock subsides at a slower rate because the caprock is thick and stiffer. This discrepancy yields a deformation of the well. The deformed wellbore may fail at some time. An oil leak occurs when the wellbore fails. A possible oil leak date of each well is determined using the equivalent plastic strain failure criterion. A well grading system for a remediation plan is developed based on the predicted leak dates of each wellbore.

  3. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  4. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  5. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  6. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  7. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  8. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  9. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  10. Identification of Biodegradation Pathways in a Multi-Process Phytoremediation System (MPPS) Using Natural Abundance 14C Analysis of PLFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, B. R.; Greenberg, B. M.; Slater, G. F.

    2008-12-01

    Optimizing remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils requires thorough understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in a proposed remediation system. In many engineered and natural attenuation systems, multiple degradation pathways may contribute to observed contaminant mass losses. In this study, biodegradation in the soil microbial community was identified as a major pathway for petroleum hydrocarbon removal in a Multi-Process Phytoremediation System (MPPS) using natural abundance 14C analysis of Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA). In contaminated soils, PLFA were depleted in Δ14C to less than -800‰, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum derived carbon (Δ14C = -992‰) during bioremediation. Mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons and a maximum of 20% was produced from metabolism of modern carbon sources. In contrast, in a nearby uncontaminated control soil, the microbial community maintained a nearly modern 14C signature, suggesting preferential degradation of more labile, recent carbon. Mass balance using δ13C and Δ14C of soil CO2 demonstrated that mineralization of petroleum carbon contributed 60-65% of soil CO2 at the contaminated site. The remainder was derived from atmospheric (27-30%) and decomposition of non- petroleum natural organic carbon (5-10%). The clean control exhibited substantially lower CO2 concentrations that were derived from atmospheric (55%) and natural organic carbon (45%) sources. This study highlights the value of using multiple carbon isotopes to identify degradation pathways in petroleum- contaminated soils undergoing phytoremediation and the power of natural abundance 14C to detect petroleum metabolism in natural microbial communities.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  15. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  16. Structural analysis of vibroacoustical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gromov, A. P.; Myasnikov, L. L.; Myasnikova, Y. N.; Finagin, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The method of automatic identification of acoustical signals, by means of the segmentation was used to investigate noises and vibrations in machines and mechanisms, for cybernetic diagnostics. The structural analysis consists of presentation of a noise or vibroacoustical signal as a sequence of segments, determined by the time quantization, in which each segment is characterized by specific spectral characteristics. The structural spectrum is plotted as a histogram of the segments, also as a relation of the probability density of appearance of a segment to the segment type. It is assumed that the conditions of ergodic processes are maintained.

  17. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  18. SIG. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.; Lager, D.; Azevedo, S.

    1992-01-22

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  19. SIG. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.; Lager, D.; Azevedo, S.

    1992-01-22

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG; a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments, commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a `repeat` sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  20. SIG. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.; Lager, D.; Azevedo, S.

    1992-01-22

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time-and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments, commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  1. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-08-01

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  2. Study of the petroleum schedules thermal cleaning process from asphalt, ressin and paraffin deposits using low- temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samigullin, A. D.; Galiakbarov, A. T.; Galiakbarov, R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum industry uses large amount of pumping and compression pipes. Carrying out the whole range of repair works requires cleaning of the pipe inner surface from deposits which appeared in it during operation [1]. The task of asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits control remains one of the most essential for the branch. The article deals with thermal method and device for asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits removal from pumping and compression pipes inner surface, describes and provides the device application scope for cleaning the pumping and compression pipes inner surface. To deal with borehole equipment and pipe systems waxing problem various deposit prevention and removal methods are used, including mechanical, thermal, chemical, combined and nonconventional methods.

  3. Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

  4. Digital recovery, modification, and analysis of Tetra Tech seismic horizon mapping, National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Kulander, Christopher S.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We have digitized, modified, and analyzed seismic interpretation maps of 12 subsurface stratigraphic horizons spanning portions of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). These original maps were prepared by Tetra Tech, Inc., based on about 15,000 miles of seismic data collected from 1974 to 1981. We have also digitized interpreted faults and seismic velocities from Tetra Tech maps. The seismic surfaces were digitized as two-way travel time horizons and converted to depth using Tetra Tech seismic velocities. The depth surfaces were then modified by long-wavelength corrections based on recent USGS seismic re-interpretation along regional seismic lines. We have developed and executed an algorithm to identify and calculate statistics on the area, volume, height, and depth of closed structures based on these seismic horizons. These closure statistics are tabulated and have been used as input to oil and gas assessment calculations for the region. Directories accompanying this report contain basic digitized data, processed data, maps, tabulations of closure statistics, and software relating to this project.

  5. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.

    2003-02-06

    The project objectives are improving access to information for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by inventorying data files and records of the major information repositories in the region, making these inventories easily accessible in electronic format, increasing the amount of information available on domestic sedimentary basins through a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and enhancing the understanding of the petroleum systems operating in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.

  6. Overview of infrared in the petroleum industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohliger, Albert A.

    2003-04-01

    Infrared Thermography has been found to be a very valuable tool in the petroleum industry. It has had focus in surveying all the types of equipment in its asset base. This includes electrical distribution systems, pumping systems, piping systems, exchangers, flares, process fired heaters and many other types of equipment. The petroleum industry is divided into three basic operating areas; Upstream, Midstream and Downstream. Upstream operation covers the exploration, drilling and production of natural gas and crude oil. Midstream operation in the petroleum industry is the distribution and storage system between the Upstream to the Downstream systems. Downstream operations make the finished energy product and are the refineries and chemical plants. As in other industries, the petroleum industry has mechanical equipment, electrical equipment, pressure-containing equipment, and fixed structures. In addition to this equipment, there is some specialty equipment which includes items such as fired heaters and specialty process vessels. The industry has put in place infrared programs as a predictive maintenance tool in many of their operating areas. Using infrared to monitor the operating integrity on equipment is one of the synergies now being better developed. The opportunity is to define measurable thermal patterns that can be used to define defects and predict failures. Infrared technology is a mature reliability work process and been around for many years. The first commercial infrared camera was available in the '70's. These radiometric cameras and the support equipment have had many improvements since then. The use of the technology has also been improved with synergies incorporated from many type of industries, including the military. Infrared is a technology that has been added to the predictive & preventative maintenance toolbox of the petroleum industry reliability focus. An important part of any reliability work process is to have predictive tools to define

  7. World petroleum systems with Jurassic source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D. )

    1993-11-08

    Fourteen petroleum systems with Upper Jurassic source rocks contain one quarter of the world's discovered oil and gas. Eleven other systems with Lower and Middle Jurassic source rocks presently have a minor but significant amount of discovered oil and gas. The purpose of this article is to review the systems geologically, describe their location in space and time on a continental scale, estimate their relative petroleum system recovery efficiencies, and outline the effect their essential elements and processes have on their petroleum plumbing.

  8. Classroom Use of Microcomputer Graphics and Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis to Demonstrate Petroleum Engineering Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, David L.; Terry, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program which allows the solution of a Monte Carlo simulation (probabilistic sensitivity analysis) has been developed for the Vic-20 microcomputer. Theory of Monte Carlo simulation, program capabilities and operation, and sample calculations are discussed. Student comments on the program are included. (JN)

  9. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  12. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment. PMID:26241934

  13. Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-06-15

    The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Optimization-based multicriteria decision analysis for identification of desired petroleum-contaminated groundwater remediation strategies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongwei; Feng, Mao; He, Li; Ren, Lixia

    2015-06-01

    The conventional multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods used for pollution control generally depend on the data currently available. This could limit their real-world applications, especially where the input data (e.g., the most cost-effective remediation cost and eventual contaminant concentration) might vary by scenario. This study proposes an optimization-based MCDA (OMCDA) framework to address such a challenge. It is capable of (1) capturing various preferences of decision-makers, (2) screening and analyzing the performance of various optimized remediation strategies under changeable scenarios, and (3) compromising incongruous decision analysis results. A real-world case study is employed for demonstration, where four scenarios are considered with each one corresponding to a set of weights representative of the preference of the decision-makers. Four criteria are selected, i.e., optimal total pumping rate, remediation cost, contaminant concentration, and fitting error. Their values are determined through running optimization and optimization-based simulation procedures. Four sets of the most desired groundwater remediation strategies are identified, implying specific pumping rates under varied scenarios. Results indicate that the best action lies in groups 32 and 16 for the 5-year, groups 49 and 36 for the 10-year, groups 26 and 13 for the 15-year, and groups 47 and 13 for the 20-year remediation. PMID:25613797

  17. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. ); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  18. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2005-03-31

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and basin modeling and petroleum system identification of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first six (6) to nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus is on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  19. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-11-05

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and basin modeling and petroleum system identification of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first six (6) to nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus is on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  20. World petroleum outlook. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Cosso projects the following: (1) petroleum consumption growth will decline during the 1980s, with the US recording the largest decline, while supplies will be adequate and price increases moderate; (2) fuel substitution and conservation will account for most of the drop in demand, but some will shift to developing countries; (3) excess refinery capacity will increase because of reduced demand, which will also moderate prices; and (4) energy projects will demand a large share of investment capital during the decade because of exploration and alternative energy sources. These forecasts are based on market statistics, world reserve estimates, refining capacity, and an analysis of the OPEC pricing plan. 8 tables. (DCK)

  1. Asbestos exposure and cancer mortality among petroleum refinery workers: a Poisson regression analysis of updated data.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Fabio; Ceppi, Marcello; Puntoni, Riccardo; Silvano, Stefania; Gennaro, Valerio

    2004-04-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between asbestos exposure and respiratory cancer mortality among maintenance workers and other blue-collar workers at an Italian oil refinery. The cohort contained 931 men, 29,511 person-years, and 489 deaths. Poisson regression analysis using white-collar workers as an internal referent group provided relative risk estimates (RRs) for main causes of death, adjusted for age, age at hiring, calendar period, length of exposure, and latency. Among maintenance workers, RRs for all tumors (RR = 1.50), digestive system cancers (RR = 1.41), lung cancers (RR = 1.53), and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (RR = 1.71) were significantly increased (p < 0.05); no significant excess was found for all causes and among maintenance (RR = 1.12) and other blue-collar workers (RR = 1.01). Results confirm the increased risk of death from respiratory diseases and cancer among maintenance workers exposed to asbestos, whereas other smoking-related diseases (circulatory system) were not statistically different among groups. PMID:16189991

  2. Molecular Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Crude Oil Samples from Two Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Korenblum, Elisa; Souza, Diogo Bastos; Penna, Monica; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat. PMID:22319534

  3. A Pareto analysis approach to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprint for petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Tehrani, Nejad M. Alireza

    2015-07-15

    Recently, linear programing (LP) models have been extended to track the marginal CO{sub 2} intensity of automotive fuels at the refinery gate. The obtained CO{sub 2} data are recommended for policy making because they capture the economic and environmental tensions as well as the processing effects related to oil products. However, they are proven to be extremely sensitive to small perturbations and therefore useless in practice. In this paper, we first investigate the theoretical reasons of this drawback. Then, we develop a multiple objective LP framework to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprints that preserve both defensibility and stability at a satisfactory level of acceptance. A case study illustrates this new methodology. - Highlights: • Refining LP models have limitations to provide useful marginal CO{sub 2} footprints. • A multi objective optimization framework is developed to assess relevant CO{sub 2} data. • Within a European Refinig industry, diesel is more CO{sub 2} intensive than gasoline.

  4. IWTU Process Sample Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2013-04-01

    CH2M-WG Idaho (CWI) requested that Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) analyze various samples collected during June – August 2012 at the Integrated Waste Treatment Facility (IWTU). Samples of IWTU process materials were collected from various locations in the process. None of these samples were radioactive. These samples were collected and analyzed to provide more understanding of the compositions of various materials in the process during the time of the process shutdown that occurred on June 16, 2012, while the IWTU was in the process of nonradioactive startup.

  5. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. PMID:19101761

  6. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community in hypersaline petroleum produced water from the Campos Basin.

    PubMed

    Piubeli, Francine; Grossman, Matthew J; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Durrant, Lucia R

    2014-10-01

    In this work the archaea and eubacteria community of a hypersaline produced water from the Campos Basin that had been transported and discharged to an onshore storage facility was evaluated by 16S recombinant RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The produced water had a hypersaline salt content of 10 (w/v), had a carbon oxygen demand (COD) of 4,300 mg/l and contains phenol and other aromatic compounds. The high salt and COD content and the presence of toxic phenolic compounds present a problem for conventional discharge to open seawater. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the COD and phenolic content could be largely removed under aerobic conditions, without dilution, by either addition of phenol degrading Haloarchaea or the addition of nutrients alone. In this study our goal was to characterize the microbial community to gain further insight into the persistence of reservoir community members in the produced water and the potential for bioremediation of COD and toxic contaminants. Members of the archaea community were consistent with previously identified communities from mesothermic reservoirs. All identified archaea were located within the phylum Euryarchaeota, with 98 % being identified as methanogens while 2 % could not be affiliated with any known genus. Of the identified archaea, 37 % were identified as members of the strictly carbon-dioxide-reducing genus Methanoplanus and 59 % as members of the acetoclastic genus Methanosaeta. No Haloarchaea were detected, consistent with the need to add these organisms for COD and aromatic removal. Marinobacter and Halomonas dominated the eubacterial community. The presence of these genera is consistent with the ability to stimulate COD and aromatic removal with nutrient addition. In addition, anaerobic members of the phyla Thermotogae, Firmicutes, and unclassified eubacteria were identified and may represent reservoir organisms associated with the conversion hydrocarbons to methane. PMID:24920265

  8. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  9. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  10. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2007-06-30

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Mesozoic (Bossier) petroleum system characterization and modeling and refined resource assessment. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  11. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modelling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  12. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-12-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  13. Lithography process window analysis with calibrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Yu, Jin; Lo, James; Liu, Johnson

    2004-05-01

    As critical-dimension shrink below 0.13 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based on CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate decision of process window center. However in practical fabrication, we found that systematic error introduced by metrology and/or resist process can significantly impact the process window analysis result. Especially, when the simple polynomial functions are used to fit the lithographic data from focus exposure matrix (FEM), the model will fit these systematic errors rather than filter them out. This will definitely impact the process window analysis and determination of the best process condition. In this paper, we proposed to use a calibrated first principle model to do process window analysis. With this method, the systematic metrology error can be filtered out efficiently and give a more reasonable window analysis result.

  14. Petroleum Technology: From Refinery To Home, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the application of petroleum technology and presents activities designed to raise students' awareness of the importance of petroleum-based products in their lives. Includes a handout designed to help students understand the refining processes in which the crude oil from the drill site is transformed into nearly 6,000 petroleum-based…

  15. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  17. The petroleum exponential (again)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The U.S. production and reserves of liquid and gaseous petroleum have declined since 1960, at least in the lower 48 states. This decline stems from decreased discovery rates, as predicted by M. King Hubbert in the mid-1950's. Hubbert's once unpopular views were based on statistical analysis of the production history of the petroleum industry, and now, even with inclusion of the statistical perturbation caused by the Prudhoe Bay-North Alaskan Slope discovery (the largest oil field ever found in the United States), it seems clear again that production is following the exponential curve to depletion of the resource—to the end of the ultimate yield of petroleum from wells in the United States.In a recent report, C. Hall and C. Cleveland of Cornell University show that large atypical discoveries, such as the Prudhoe Bay find, are but minor influences on what now appears to be the crucial intersection of two exponentials [Science, 211, 576-579, 1981]: the production-per-drilled-foot curve of Hubbert, which crosses zero production no later than the year 2005; the other, a curve that plots the energy cost of drilling and extraction with time; that is, the cost-time rate of how much oil is used to drill and extract oil from the ground. The intersection, if no other discoveries the size of the Prudhoe Bay field are made, could be as early as 1990, the end of the present decade. The inclusion of each Prudhoe-Bay-size find extends the year of intersection by only about 6 years. Beyond that point, more than one barrel of petroleum would be expended for each barrel extracted from the ground. The oil exploration-extraction and refining industry is currently the second most energy-intensive industry in the U.S., and the message seems clear. Either more efficient drilling and production techniques are discovered, or domestic production will cease well before the end of this century if the Hubbert analysis modified by Hall and Cleveland is correct.

  18. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  19. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  20. Remedial Process Optimization and Green In-Situ Ozone Sparging for Treatment of Groundwater Impacted with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, J.

    2012-12-01

    A former natural gas processing station is impacted with TPH and BTEX in groundwater. Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/AVE) remediation systems had previously been operated at the site. Currently, a groundwater extraction and treatment system is operated to remove the chemicals of concern (COC) and contain the groundwater plume from migrating offsite. A remedial process optimization (RPO) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of historic and current remedial activities and recommend an approach to optimize the remedial activities. The RPO concluded that both the AS/SVE system and the groundwater extraction system have reached the practical limits of COC mass removal and COC concentration reduction. The RPO recommended an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) study to evaluate the best ISCO oxidant and approach. An ISCO bench test was conducted to evaluate COC removal efficiency and secondary impacts to recommend an application dosage. Ozone was selected among four oxidants based on implementability, effectiveness, safety, and media impacts. The bench test concluded that ozone demand was 8 to 12 mg ozone/mg TPH and secondary groundwater by-products of ISCO include hexavalent chromium and bromate. The pH also increased moderately during ozone sparging and the TDS increased by approximately 20% after 48 hours of ozone treatment. Prior to the ISCO pilot study, a capture zone analysis (CZA) was conducted to ensure containment of the injected oxidant within the existing groundwater extraction system. The CZA was conducted through a groundwater flow modeling using MODFLOW. The model indicated that 85%, 90%, and 95% of an injected oxidant could be captured when a well pair is injecting and extracting at 2, 5, and 10 gallons per minute, respectively. An ISCO pilot test using ozone was conducted to evaluate operation parameters for ozone delivery. The ozone sparging system consisted of an ozone generator capable of delivering 6 lbs/day ozone through two ozone

  1. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  3. Enhanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-16

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous ammonium bisulfite (NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/) solution into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120*-300* F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  7. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  8. Analysis of petroleum contaminated soils by spectral modeling and pure response profile recovery of n-hexane.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Weindorf, David C; Li, Bin; Ali, Md Nasim; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-07-01

    This pilot study compared penalized spline regression (PSR) and random forest (RF) regression using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) derived spectra of 164 petroleum contaminated soils after two different spectral pretreatments [first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate (SNV) followed by detrending] for rapid quantification of soil petroleum contamination. Additionally, a new analytical approach was proposed for the recovery of the pure spectral and concentration profiles of n-hexane present in the unresolved mixture of petroleum contaminated soils using multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The PSR model using FD spectra (r(2) = 0.87, RMSE = 0.580 log10 mg kg(-1), and residual prediction deviation = 2.78) outperformed all other models tested. Quantitative results obtained by MCR-ALS for n-hexane in presence of interferences (r(2) = 0.65 and RMSE 0.261 log10 mg kg(-1)) were comparable to those obtained using FD (PSR) model. Furthermore, MCR ALS was able to recover pure spectra of n-hexane. PMID:24686115

  9. Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data. PMID:24977170

  10. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  11. The Independent Technical Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2007-04-13

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. In the past, regional parties have interacted with a single entity, the Fish Passage Center to access the data, analyses, and coordination related to fish passage. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  14. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Banda, Raju; Sohn, Seong Ho; Lee, Man Seung

    2012-04-30

    The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1M NH(4)OH and 0.05 M (NH(4))(2)CO(3). After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl(3). The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH=1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed. PMID:22336581

  15. Effect of the ultrasound-Fenton oxidation process with the addition of a chelating agent on the removal of petroleum-based contaminants from soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Fangmin; Li, Fanxiu; Yuan, Fuqian; Wei, Pingfang

    2015-12-01

    The effects of ultrasonic irradiation, the chelating agent modified Fenton reaction, and a combination of ultrasound and the Fenton method in removing petroleum contaminants from a soil were studied. The results showed that the contaminant removal rate of the Fenton treatment combined with an oxalic acid chelating agent was 55.6% higher than that without a chelating agent. The average removal rate of the contaminants using the ultrasound-Fenton treatment was 59.0% higher than that without ultrasonic treatment. A combination of ultrasound and an Fe(2+)/Fe(3+)-oxalate complex-modified Fenton reagent resulted in significantly higher removal rates of n-alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2), n < 28), isoprenoid hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturated polycyclic terpenes compared with the ultrasound treatment alone or the Fenton method. The Fenton reaction and the ultrasound-Fenton treatment can unselectively remove multiple components of residual hydrocarbons and a number of benzene rings in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The chemistry of the heterocyclic compounds and the position and number of substituents can affect the degradation process. PMID:26268625

  16. Commercial application of process for hydrotreating vacuum distillate in G-43-107 unit at the Moscow petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Kurganov, V.M.; Samokhvalov, A.I.; Osipov, L.N.; Lebedev, B.L.; Chagovets, A.N.; Melik-Akhnazarov, T.K.; Kruglova, T.F.; Imarov, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present results obtained during the shakedown run on the hydrotreating section of the title catalytic cracking unit. The flow plan of the unit is shown. The characteristics of the hydrotreater feed and the product are given. Changes in hydrotreating process parameters during unit operation are shown, as are changes in the raw and hydrotreated feed quality during the periods before and after a shutdown.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  3. Combustion of petroleum coke dust as a partial substitute for natural gas and oil in the alumina trihydrate calcination process

    SciTech Connect

    Desgroseillers, B.; Perron, J.; Laurin, P.; Menard, O.; Martin, J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Saguenay region, Alcan operates two coke calcination rotary kilns to supply with calcined coke its prebaked anode and Soderberg paste smelters. The annual production is approximately 220,000 t of calcined coke. For the last few years, the unwanted emissions of under calcined coke dust (UCCD) emitted from the kilns along with the hot gas reaches approximately 16,000 t per year. A maximum of 6,000 t of UCCD are recycled in fabrication processes. In the search of new possibilities to recycle and sell the remaining 10,000 t the possibility of using this UCCD as a heating source ion other processes has emerged, particularly for the calcination of alumina trihydrate. A feasibility study on the combustion as well as a plant trial showed the benefits of burning this UCCD in two 60 t/h capacity calcination units. In fact, appreciable savings in natural gas or oil, as well as increased energetic efficiency (gain of 6%) were observed in the calcination units. Furthermore, the impact on quality of the metallurgical alumina is negligible. These results can be explained partly by the use of a solid combustible which presents longer combustion time compared to natural gas. The combustion zones are therefore extended, favoring the heat transfer to the solid during calcination.

  4. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process. PMID:25646675

  5. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-11-15

    There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on

  6. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

  7. Meta-analysis using Dirichlet process.

    PubMed

    Muthukumarana, Saman; Tiwari, Ram C

    2016-02-01

    This article develops a Bayesian approach for meta-analysis using the Dirichlet process. The key aspect of the Dirichlet process in meta-analysis is the ability to assess evidence of statistical heterogeneity or variation in the underlying effects across study while relaxing the distributional assumptions. We assume that the study effects are generated from a Dirichlet process. Under a Dirichlet process model, the study effects parameters have support on a discrete space and enable borrowing of information across studies while facilitating clustering among studies. We illustrate the proposed method by applying it to a dataset on the Program for International Student Assessment on 30 countries. Results from the data analysis, simulation studies, and the log pseudo-marginal likelihood model selection procedure indicate that the Dirichlet process model performs better than conventional alternative methods. PMID:22802045

  8. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  9. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  10. Analysis of time series from stochastic processes

    PubMed

    Gradisek; Siegert; Friedrich; Grabec

    2000-09-01

    Analysis of time series from stochastic processes governed by a Langevin equation is discussed. Several applications for the analysis are proposed based on estimates of drift and diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation. The coefficients are estimated directly from a time series. The applications are illustrated by examples employing various synthetic time series and experimental time series from metal cutting. PMID:11088809