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Sample records for analysis inaa environmental

  1. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, M. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-06-01

    At ITN, analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999, stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed, leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA, in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of 115mIn in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of 115Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd, As, Ni, and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  2. Elemental analysis of Egyptian crude oils by INAA using rabbit irradiation system at ETRR-2 reactor.

    PubMed

    El-Khayatt, A M

    2010-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using rabbit irradiation system at ETRR-2 reactor was utilized to analyze some elements namely Na, Mg, Al, Cl, V, Mn, In, and Br in four different crude petroleum samples from different oil fields in the Suez-Gulf region of Egypt. The INAA was performed by four different standardization methods. Namely absolute, single comparator based on effective cross section concept, single comparator based on k(0,Au) factors, and that based on k(0,ic) factors defined versus any suitable internal comparator method. A FORTRAN computer program was written to calculate the extracted concentrations by these methods. A reasonable agreement between the obtained results was noticed. PMID:20692177

  3. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.; Khare, S.S.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Markesbery, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases.

  4. A comparison of the techniques of PIXE, PIGE and INAA by reference to the elemental analysis of porcine brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. D.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1994-12-01

    The trace element concentrations in porcine brain samples as determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis are compared. The matrix composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd were determined by PIXE analysis Na, K, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, and Cs by INAA and Na, Mg and Fe by PIGE analysis. The bulk elements C, N, O, Na Cl and S were found by RBS analysis. Elemental concentrations are obtained using the comparator method of analysis rather than an absolute method, the validity which is examined by comparing the elemental concentrations obtained in porcine brain using two separate certified reference materials.

  5. Compartmentalization of trace elements in guinea pig tissues by INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) and AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.; Holzbecher, J.; Katz, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Human scalp hair analysis has received considerable attention from a variety of disciplines over the last 20 yr or so. Trace element levels of hair have been used in environmental, epidemiological, forensic, nutritional, predictive, and preventive medicine studies. There still exist confusion, skepticism, and controversy, however, among the experts as well as lay persons in the interpretation of hair trace element data. Much of the criticism stems from the lack of quantitative and reliable data on the ability of hair to accurately reflect dose-response relationships. To better define the significance or hair trace element levels (under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency), the authors have undertaken a controlled set of animal experiments in which trace element levels in hair and other tissues have been measured after a mild state of systemic intoxication by chronic, low-does exposure to cadmium and selenium. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods have been developed for the determination of several elements with a high degree of precision and accuracy.

  6. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, O.; Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  7. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. PMID:21992845

  8. Use of INAA in archaeology in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Kilikoglou, V.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multi-element analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of archaeological problems. Elemental composition of an archaeological material, besides form and decoration style, may give supplementary information of the origin of the material. This paper is a review of provenance studies, based on minor and trace element research, of ancient books, ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble, and lead by INAA performed at the authors' radioanalytical laboratory.

  9. Trace elements in the diets of Turkish children determined by INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Aras, N.K. ); Mauerhofer, E.; Naidu, R.K.; Arcasoy, A.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1992-01-01

    The role of toxic and essential trace elements in human diet is increasingly important because of environmental problems and the increasingly sophisticated industrial treatment of food products. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is particularly well suited for multielement determinations. In order to test and demonstrated the usefulness of the method in connection with the fast pneumatic tube system of the Mainz TRIGA reactor, the authors have analyzed six diet samples of Turkish children.

  10. Environmental Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  11. INAA and DNAA for uranium determination in geological samples from Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2010-06-01

    Uranium isotopes found in soil, rock, water, plants, air, etc., contribute to the natural radiation exposure of the population. U concentrations in some Egyptian environmental samples like Toshki soil, Aswan iron-ore, and phosphate samples from El-Sibayia in the Nile Valley and El-Quseir in the Red Sea coast were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) in the Mainz TRIGA research reactor. The results showed that the phosphate rocks are rich natural sources of uranium among the other minerals forming the earth crust. PMID:20185320

  12. Mercury and gold concentrations of highly polluted environmental samples determined using prompt gamma-ray analysis and instrument neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Appel, Peter W. U.; Matsue, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    The authors have established a method of determining mercury and gold in severely polluted environmental samples using prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Since large amounts of mercury are constantly being released into the environment by small-scale gold mining in many developing countries, the mercury concentration in tailings and water has to be determined to mitigate environmental pollution. Cold-vapor atomic absorption analysis, the most pervasive method of mercury analysis, is not suitable because tailings and water around mining facilities have extremely high mercury concentrations. On the other hand, PGA can determine high mercury concentrations in polluted samples as it has an appropriate level of sensitivity. Moreover, gold concentrations can be determined sequentially by using INAA after PGA. In conclusion, the analytical procedure established in this work using PGA and INAA is the best way to evaluate the degree of pollution and the tailing resource value. This method will significantly contribute to mitigating problems in the global environment.

  13. k0-INAA for determining chemical elements in bird feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, Elvis J.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Antunes, Alexsander Z.; Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Bacchi, Márcio A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P. O.

    2010-10-01

    The k0-method instrumental neutron activation analysis ( k0-INAA) was employed for determining chemical elements in bird feathers. A collection was obtained taking into account several bird species from wet ecosystems in diverse regions of Brazil. For comparison reason, feathers were actively sampled in a riparian forest from the Marins Stream, Piracicaba, São Paulo State, using mist nets specific for capturing birds. Biological certified reference materials were used for assessing the quality of analytical procedure. Quantification of chemical elements was performed using the k0-INAA Quantu Software. Sixteen chemical elements, including macro and micronutrients, and trace elements, have been quantified in feathers, in which analytical uncertainties varied from 2% to 40% depending on the chemical element mass fraction. Results indicated high mass fractions of Br (max=7.9 mg kg -1), Co (max=0.47 mg kg -1), Cr (max=68 mg kg -1), Hg (max=2.79 mg kg -1), Sb (max=0.20 mg kg -1), Se (max=1.3 mg kg -1) and Zn (max=192 mg kg -1) in bird feathers, probably associated with the degree of pollution of the areas evaluated. In order to corroborate the use of k0-INAA results in biomonitoring studies using avian community, different factor analysis methods were used to check chemical element source apportionment and locality clustering based on feather chemical composition.

  14. Quantitative environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Klovning, J.; Nilsen, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    According to regulations relating to implementation and rise of risk analysis in the petroleum activities issued by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, it is mandatory for an operator on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to establish acceptance criteria for environmental risk in the activities and carry out environmental risk analysis. This paper presents a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} method for environmental risk analysis developed by the company. The objective has been to assist the company to meet rules and regulations and to assess and describe the environmental risk in a systematic manner. In the environmental risk analysis the most sensitive biological resource in the affected area is used to assess the environmental damage. The analytical method is based on the methodology for quantitative risk analysis related to loss of life. In addition it incorporates the effect of seasonal fluctuations in the environmental risk evaluations. The paper is describing the function of the main analytical sequences exemplified through an analysis of environmental risk related to exploration drilling in an environmental sensitive area on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  15. Environmental analysis support

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. An important activity was the preparation for METC of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. In addition, a post-project environmental analysis was prepared for PETC to evaluate the Demonstration of Advanced Combustion Techniques for a Tangentially-Fired Boiler in Lynn Haven, Florida.

  16. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2007-11-01

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  17. A Possible Tool for Checking Errors in the INAA Results, Based on Neutron Data and Method Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincu, Em.; Grigore, Ioana Manea; Barbos, D.; Cazan, I. L.; Manu, V.

    2008-08-01

    This work presents preliminary results of a new type of possible application in the INAA experiments of elemental analysis, useful to check errors occurred during investigation of unknown samples; it relies on the INAA method validation experiments and accuracy of the neutron data from the literature. The paper comprises 2 sections, the first one presents—in short—the steps of the experimental tests carried out for INAA method validation and for establishing the `ACTIVA-N' laboratory performance, which is-at the same time-an illustration of the laboratory evolution on the way to get performance. Section 2 presents our recent INAA results on CRMs, of which interpretation opens discussions about the usefulness of using a tool for checking possible errors, different from the usual statistical procedures. The questionable aspects and the requirements to develop a practical checking tool are discussed.

  18. Determination of {sup 140}La fission product interference factor for INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro Jr, Iberê S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2014-11-11

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a technique widely used to determine the concentration of several elements in several kinds of matrices. However if the sample of interest has higher relative uranium concentration the obtained results can be interfered by the uranium fission products. One of these cases that is affected by interference due to U fission is the {sup 140}La, because this radioisotope used in INAA for the determination of concentration the La is also produced by the {sup −}β of {sup 140}Ba, an uranium fission product. The {sup 140}La interference factor was studied in this work and a factor to describe its time dependence was obtained.

  19. Height-resolved large-sample INAA of a 1 m long, 13 cm diameter ditch-bottom sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauw, M.; Baas, H. W.; Donze, M.

    2003-06-01

    A facility for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of large samples (up to 1 m long and 15 cm diameter) has been built. Correction methods for the simultaneous occurrence of neutron self-shielding and gamma-ray self-attenuation effects have been implemented and tested with a variety of samples. Now, the method has been extended to allow for the interpretation of scanned, collimated measurements, where results are obtained for individual voxels. As a validation and demonstration, a ditch-bottom sample of the maximum size was taken in a frozen condition. It was cut in 2 cm slices, still frozen, and put together again with each slice in a 2 cm height Petri dish divided in three sections. This allowed for verification of the results by ordinary INAA. Possible explanations for the discrepancies we observed between ordinary and large-sample INAA in the region where the concentration gradients are the steepest are discussed.

  20. GC in Environmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosink, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Gas chromatography can be used to quantitate various gases, complex organic molecules, metals, anions, and pesticides in the lab or in the field. Important advances in gas chromatography and how they directly apply to environmental analyses plus suggestions where they will be of importance to environmental chemists are discussed. (BT)

  1. Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

  2. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  3. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  4. INAA for determination of trace elements in bottom sediments of the Selenga river basin in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Aleksiayenak, Yu. V.

    2014-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in samples of bottom sediments of the inflows of the Selenga river basin to assess the impact of the contamination from the industrial complex Erdenet and other industrial enterprises in Mongolia. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th, and U) was determined by combination of conventional and epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP JINR, Dubna. For the first time such a large set of elements was used for characterization of the bottom sediments as accumulating media which may reflect industrial contamination of the water basin. The concentrations of heavy metals and other trace elements in the samples from three inflows of the Selenga river basin were compared with data from the previous studies. It was shown that the industrial zone of the Erdenet Mining Corporation (EMC) and gold mining zone Zaamar are the sources of strong environmental contamination. The concentrations of Cu and Sb determined in sediment samples of the River Khangal and Govil near the EMC exceed average crustal rock and soil values by factors of 50 and 15, respectively. In the area of the gold mining zone Zaamar concentrations of Au, As, and Sb exceed crustal rock and soil values by factors of 4, 25, and 6, respectively. The relatively high levels of As, V, Zn, V, and Sr in the sediments of the studied rivers are obviously due to the discharges of untreated wastewater of desalination plant, electrical power station, textile industry and mining activities as well as domestic wastewater.

  5. Intervention analysis in environmental engineering.

    PubMed

    Hipel, K W; McLeod, A I

    1989-11-01

    Intervention analysis techniques are described for identifying and statistically modelling trends which may be present in water quality time series. At the exploratory data analysis stage, simple graphical and modelling methods can be employed for visually detecting and examining trends in a time series caused by one or more external interventions. For instance, a plot of a robust locally weighted regression smooth through a graph of the observations over time may reveal trends and other interesting statistical properties contained in the time series. In addition, statistical tests, such as different versions of the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, can be used to detect the presence of trends caused by unknown or known external interventions. To characterize rigorously and estimate trends which may be known in advance or else detected using exploratory data analysis studies, different parametric methods can be utilized at the confirmatory data analysis stage. Specifically, the time series modelling approach to intervention analysis can be employed to estimate the magnitudes of the changes in the mean level of the series due to the interventions. Particular types of regression models can also be used for estimating trends, especially when there are many missing observations. To demonstrate how intervention analysis methods can be effectively used in environmental impact assessment, representative applications to water quality time series are presented. PMID:24243172

  6. Multianalytical determination of trace elements in atmospheric biomonitors by k0-INAA, ICP-MS and AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, M. C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Dionísio, I.; Sarmento, S.; Baptista, M. S.; Vasconcelos, M. T. S. D.; Cabral, J. P.

    2006-08-01

    Elemental contents of atmospheric biomonitors—epiphytic lichens and tree bark, exposed in continuous and discontinuous modes—have been assessed through k0-standardised instrumental neutron activation analysis ( k0-INAA) (two different institutions), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Certified reference materials—ISE-921 (river clay), NIST-1547 (peach leaves), ICHTJ-INCT-TL-1 (tea leaves; TL-1 hereinafter) and IAEA-336 (lichen material), and nonparametric statistics—rank-order correlations (Spearman RS) and enhanced-sign tests (Wilcoxon T)—were used for analytical control and data comparison, respectively. In general, quality of procedures was deemed good, except for k0-INAA in determining Br, Cu and Na, all likely affected by high counting statistics, and/or contamination issues (the latter). Results for Cu, Ni, Pb and Sr (by both ICP-MS and AAS) revealed that, despite an outstanding correlation (asymptotic p=0.000), they could be viewed as statistically equal for Cu only: AAS tended to yield higher values for Pb and Ni, and lower ones for Sr. The comparison between ICP-MS and k0-INAA data from TUDelft, for Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V, showed an excellent correlation (as above) and random (relative) magnitude for Cu, Mg, Mn and Ti only: ICP-MS tended to yield higher values for Al, Na and V, and lower ones for Ca, whereas between k0-INAA data from TUDelft and ITN, for Br, Ca and Na, resulted in systematically higher [Br] and [Ca] variates from TUDelft, even if all corresponding data sets were found to correlate at stringent significance levels. In a few cases, though—Ca, Sr in lichens; Pb in bark—matrix effects did appear to interfere in the outcome of matched-pairs, signed-rank tests, since random hierarchy of variates could be asserted just when lichen and bark data sets were processed separately.

  7. Visualizing data for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.

    1997-04-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has over 11,000 sampling locations in a 44 square mile area. The sample analyses contain raw analytical chemistry values for over 2,300 analytes and compounds used to define and remediate contaminated areas at LANL. The data consist of 2.5 million records in an oracle database. Maps are often used to visualize the data. Problems arise when a client specifies a particular kind of map without fully understanding the limitations of the data or the map. The ability of maps to convey information is dependent on many factors, though all maps are data dependent. The quantity, spatial distribution, and numerical range of the data can limit use with certain kinds of maps. To address these issues and educate the clients, several types of statistical maps (e.g., choropleth, isarithm, and graduated symbol such as bubble and spike) used for environmental analysis were chosen to show the advantages, disadvantages, and data limitations of each. By examining both the complexity of the analytical data and the limitations of the map type, it is possible to consider how reality has been transformed through the map, and if that transformation accurately conveys the information present.

  8. Decision Analysis for Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental management problems are often complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, and analyze the major uncertainties in environmental problems. This course will present a process that fo...

  9. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... analysis of the actions contemplated in the application. (b) For each exploration license, the BLM...

  10. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section 3910.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  11. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section 3910.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  12. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section 3910.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  13. k0-INAA of Archaeological and Industrial Venezuelan Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Pino, F.; Sneyers, L.; Vermaecker, P.; Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma. M.; Antczak, A.; Greaves, E.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-01

    Archaeological and industrial Venezuelan samples were analyzed by k0-INAA to provide new data on the provenance study of the figurines found in Los Roques Archipelago and on recycling of industrial by-products. Los Roques and Valencia Lake Basin figurines are similar. Bottom Oil Ashes have 10 times the concentration of V, Mg, Ni, Fe, Na compared to ICP-AES and TXRF results. Red Mud samples have Thnat and Unat from four to ten times higher concentrations than those recommended for building materials.

  14. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2007-11-26

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  15. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  16. Elemental content of feldspar from Eastern Desert, Egypt, determined by INAA and XRF.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and HPGe detector gamma-spectroscopy were used to determine a total of 16 elements qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time from feldspar rock samples collected from Gabel El Dubb, Eastern desert, Egypt. The elements determined are (Na, Mg, K, Sc, Ga, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Nb, Ba, Ce, Eu, Hf, Th and U). The samples were properly prepared together with their standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7x10(11)n/cm(2)s. XRF was also used. Comparison of the results obtained by both techniques showed good agreement for such elements as K, Na, Fe, Mg, Ba and Cr. PMID:20185321

  17. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; García-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (I(geo)) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment. PMID:26629683

  18. Environmental management strategy: four forces analysis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy. PMID:25331643

  19. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  20. Environmental Impact Analysis: Philosophy and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Goodale, Thomas L.

    Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Impact Analysis held in Green Bay, Wisconsin, January 4-5, 1972, are compiled in this report. The conference served as a forum for exchange of information among State and Federal agencies and educators on experiences with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. Hopefully, results of the…

  1. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nurshafiq Ezam; Siong, Khoo Kok; Siong, Wee Boon

    2014-02-01

    Lichens have been used as effective biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73+0.85 mg/kg), Ce (3.65+1.91 mg/kg), Co (0.29+0.12 mg/kg), Cr (5.92+3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92+0.25 mg/kg), Eu (0.03+0.02 mg/kg), Fe (1280+760 mg/kg), Hf (0.37+0.18 mg/kg), La (1.52+0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7+4.8 mg/kg), Sc (0.33+0.19 mg/kg), Sm (0.28+0.16 mg/kg), Th (1.21+0.62 mg/kg) and Zn (116+27 mg/kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable biomonitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area.

  2. A Hierarchical Analysis of Environmental Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, James M.; Baumgart, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Reported is a reanalysis of responses of a survey of environmental attitudes of English high school students. The purpose of the analysis was to try to determine if there was a hierarchical relationship among the items. Relationships were identified. (RH)

  3. Comparing distributions of environmental outcomes for regulatory environmental justice analysis.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Kelly; Sheriff, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ) emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context. PMID:21655146

  4. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of /sup 241/Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the /sup 241/Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for /sup 244/Cm analysis.

  5. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... the making of any other findings prerequisite to lease issuance. (43 CFR 3400.3, 3461.1(a)) ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3425.3...

  6. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  7. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  8. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  9. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  10. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  11. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  12. [Environmental management: critical analysis, scenarios and challenges].

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the limits, alternatives and challenges of environmental management in contemporary globalized capitalist societies. It is based on a critical analysis supported by authors from social sciences, political ecology and public health. To this end, we systematize the meaning of hegemonic environmental management in terms of eco-efficiency and its limits to tackle environmental risks and construct democratic processes and societies. We developed four ideal scenarios involving possible combinations of environmental management and democracy. This model served as a base, together with academic studies and the theoretical and militant experience of the authors, for a reflection on the current characteristics and future trends of environmental management and democracy, with emphasis on the reality of Latin America, specifically Brazil. Lastly, we discuss possibilities for social transformation taking into consideration the contradictions and emancipatory alternatives resulting from confrontations between hegemonic tendencies of the market and counter-hegemonic utopias and social movements. The latter assume principles of environmental justice, economic solidarity, agro-ecology and sustainability as well as the construction of new epistemologies. PMID:22699636

  13. Spatial data analysis and environmental justice

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, R.; Samuels, W.B.; Williams, J.W.; Zeitoun, A.H.

    1997-08-01

    Evaluations of environmental justice for government actions concerned with the transportation of hazardous materials over cross country routes presents a significant challenge in spatial data analysis. The sheer volume of data required for accurate identification of minority and low-income populations along the routes and at the endpoints can be formidable. Managing and integrating large volumes of information with state-of-the-art tools is essential in the analysis of environmental justice and equity concerns surrounding transportation of hazardous materials. This paper discusses the role and limitations of geographical information systems in the analysis and visualization of populations potentially affected by the transportation of hazardous materials over transcontinental ground and water routes. Case studies are used to demonstrate the types of data and analyses needed for evaluations of environmental justice for cross country routes and end points. Inherent capabilities and limitations in spatial resolution are evaluated for environmental assessments in which potentially affected areas are quantified based on the physical characteristics of the hazardous cargo.

  14. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carrabba, M.M.

    1994-11-01

    Following the identification of a potentially contaminated facility (DOE Site Characterization), the type of contamination and its extent must be characterized before remediation can begin. For soil and ground water, it is important to limit remediation activities to contaminated locations. In situ techniques are extremely useful for mapping contaminant distribution as well as for measuring remediation effectiveness. This article describes the first phase of a program to take existing Raman technology and integrate it into a system of hardware, software and operational protocols which can be evaluated for in situ environmental analysis at DOE environmental restoration field sites. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Chemical elements in common vegetable components of Portuguese diets, determined by k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Ventura, M. G.; Dionísio, I.; Ermakova, E.

    2006-08-01

    Vegetables play an important role in national diets, as a side dish to many a main-course fare the whole year round, and, especially in what concerns raw lettuce and tomato, with a higher seasonal rate of consumption during summer months, as associated to the traditional charcoal-grilled sardines. In March 2004, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots and cabbages of Portuguese origin (except for the carrots from one site) were purchased from large commercial areas or central markets of two central and southern regional hubs, respectively Coimbra and Évora. Even if from different growers, all vegetables had come from horticultural plots in the same general area of western Portugal, north of Lisboa. For lettuce plants, the inner leaves were separated from the external ones and processed as different samples for further analysis. In this work, the reactor and detector parameters were re-evaluated for the new IAEA k0-INAA software. Quality assessment was obtained through analysis of IAEA-359 (cabbage material) and BCR-679 (Bowen's kale). Traces of hazardous elements—namely, antimony, arsenic and bromine—could be found throughout, and, for lettuce samples, the overall results indicate that outer leaves feature higher concentrations than inner ones. Interestingly enough, vegetables from Coimbra and Évora appeared to differ from each other in their elemental levels, even if originally grown at relatively close range. Concentrations of trace elements are compared to available data from other countries' cultivars.

  16. Environmental Resources Analysis System, A Prototype DSS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, M.; Campbell, S.G.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960's, an increase in the public's environmental ethics, federal species preservation, water quality protection, and interest in free flowing rivers have evolved to the current concern for stewardship and conservation of natural resources. This heightened environmental awareness creates an appetite for data, models, information management, and systematic analysis of multiple scientific disciplines. A good example of this information and analysis need resides in the Green and Yampa Rivers, tributary to the Upper Colorado River. These rivers are home to endangered native fish species including the pikeminnow and razorback sucker. Two dams, Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge, impound the Green River headwaters. The respective reservoirs store water supplies as well as generate hydropower. Conversely, the Yampa River is considered unregulated and encompasses most of Dinosaur National Monument. Recreation is highly regarded on both rivers including fishing, whitewater rafting, and aesthetic values. Vast areas of irrigated agriculture, forestry, and mineral extraction also surround these rivers. To address this information need, we developed a prototype Environmental Resources Analysis System (ERAS) spreadsheet-based decision support system (DSS). ERAS provides access to historic data sets, scientific information, statistical analysis, model outputs, and comparative methods all in a familiar and user-friendly format. This research project demonstrates a simplified decision support system for use by a diverse mix of resource managers, special interest groups, and individuals concerned about the sustainability of the Green and Yampa River ecosystem.

  17. Application of Electromigration Techniques in Environmental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Studzińska, Sylwia; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Inherently trace-level concentration of pollutants in the environment, together with the complexity of sample matrices, place a strong demand on the detection capabilities of electromigration methods. Significant progress is continually being made, widening the applicability of these techniques, mostly capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography, to the analysis of real-world environmental samples, including the concentration sensitivity and robustness of the developed analytical procedures. This chapter covers the recent major developments in the domain of capillary electrophoresis analysis of environmental samples for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines, carboxylic acids, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and ionic liquids. Emphasis is made on pre-capillary and on-capillary chromatography and electrophoresis-based concentration of analytes and detection improvement.

  18. Study of uptake of zinc into blood from a Nigerian diet using INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, J. O.; Osoniyi, R. O.; Aboderin, A. O.

    2003-01-01

    This work describes our on-going investigations on the study of uptake of zinc from dietary intakes, into blood. The aim is to evaluate the possibility of successful application of dietary zinc therapy in the management of Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Seven adult subjects were involved in the current study. After the ingestion of an experimental diet, blood samples were withdrawn from the subjects at various time intervals. The blood samples were further separated into erythrocytes and plasma. Both blood components and the ingested diet were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for zinc. Significant increases in the levels of plasma zinc were recorded in the subjects within 2 hours after the ingestion of the diet and were sustained till about the fourth hour. We were not able to detect significant uptake of zinc in the erythrocytes. Either the levels of ingested zinc were too low or there were inhibitions of the absorption by the diet. Better response is expected in SCA patients since they are known to be frequently zinc-deficient.

  19. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoxi; Feng, Songlin; Feng, Xiangqian; Wang, Yanqing; Zhu, Jihao; Yan, Lingtong; Li, Yongqiang; Han, Hongye

    2007-11-01

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware.

  20. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoxi; Feng, Songlin; Feng, Xiangqian; Li, Yongqiang; Han, Hongye; Wang, Yanqing; Zhu, Jihao; Yan, Lingtong; Li, Li

    2009-03-01

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  1. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  2. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions requiring environmental analysis. 651.10 Section 651.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process § 651.10...

  3. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Actions requiring environmental analysis. 651.10 Section 651.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process § 651.10...

  4. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Actions requiring environmental analysis. 651.10 Section 651.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process § 651.10...

  5. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the authorized officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, if necessary, of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2...

  6. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the authorized officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, if necessary, of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2...

  7. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the authorized officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, if necessary, of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2...

  8. Analysis of environmental data with censored observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Lu, J.-C.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meeker, W.Q.

    1997-01-01

    The potential threats to humans and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from environmental contamination could depend on the sum of the concentrations of different chemicals. However, direct summation of environmental data is not generally feasible because it is common for some chemical concentrations to be recorded as being below the analytical reporting limit. This creates special problems in the analysis of the data. A new model selection procedure, named forward censored regression, is introduced for selecting an appropriate model for environmental data with censored observations. The procedure is demonstrated using concentrations of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), deethylatrazine (DEA, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) in groundwater in the midwestern United States by using the data derived from a previous study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. More than 80% of the observations for each compound for this study were left censored at 0.05 μg/L. The values for censored observations of atrazine, DEA, and DIA are imputed with the selected models. The summation of atrazine residue (atrazine + DEA + DIA) can then be calculated using the combination of observed and imputed values to generate a pseudo-complete data set. The all-subsets regression procedure is applied to the pseudo-complete data to select the final model for atrazine residue. The methodology presented can be used to analyze similar cases of environmental contamination involving censored data.

  9. [Integrated model system for environmental policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin

    2006-05-01

    An integrated model system for environmental policy analysis is built up with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model as a core model, which is linked with an environmental model, air dispersion model, and health effect model (exposure-response functions) in an explicit way, therefore the model system is capable of evaluating the effects of policies on environment, health and economy and their interactions comprehensively. This method is used to analyze the effects of Beijing presumptive (energy) taxes on air quality, health, welfare and economic growth, and the conclusion is that sole presumptive taxes may slow down the economic growth, but the presumptive taxes with green tax reform can promote Beijing sustainable development. PMID:16850855

  10. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  11. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyarko, B. J. B.; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S. B.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Osae, S.; Perbi, A.; Chatt, A.

    2007-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated.

  12. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  13. Environmental studies: Mathematical, computational, and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Summer Program on Mathematical, Computational, and Statistical Analyses in Environmental Studies held 6--31 July 1992 was designed to provide a much needed interdisciplinary forum for joint exploration of recent advances in the formulation and application of (A) environmental models, (B) environmental data and data assimilation, (C) stochastic modeling and optimization, and (D) global climate modeling. These four conceptual frameworks provided common themes among a broad spectrum of specific technical topics at this workshop. The program brought forth a mix of physical concepts and processes such as chemical kinetics, atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics and dynamics, flow in porous media, remote sensing, climate statistical, stochastic processes, parameter identification, model performance evaluation, aerosol physics and chemistry, and data sampling together with mathematical concepts in stiff differential systems, advective-diffusive-reactive PDEs, inverse scattering theory, time series analysis, particle dynamics, stochastic equations, optimal control, and others. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.

    2001-06-01

    A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

  15. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  16. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  17. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  18. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  19. Environmental transport in the Oil Shale Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Feerer, J L; Gratt, L B

    1983-06-01

    The Oil Shale Risk Analysis differs from similar efforts in coal and nuclear energy in that the industry is not yet developed to a commercial scale. Many assumptions are necessary to predict the future oil shale industry pollutants, the environmental transport of these pollutants, and subsequent human health and environmental effects. The environmental transport analysis in the Oil Shale Risk Analysis is used as an example of applying assumptions to the best available data to predict potential environmental effects of a future commercial industry. The analysis provides information to aid in formulating and managing a program of environmental research focused on reducing uncertainties in critical areas. PMID:6879167

  20. PBDEs in environmental samples: sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia; Zabiegała, Bożena; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-05-15

    The paper reviews the subject literature concerning analytical procedures routinely sed for monitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in environmental samples. It describes and summarizes subsequent stages of analytical procedure including sample collection and preparation, extraction, clean-up and final determination. Different approaches with their advantages and limitations are presented. Special attention is drawn to the newly developed, promising extraction techniques, especially: liquid-liquid-microextraction (LLME) with its modifications, cloud point extraction (CPE) and hollow fiber microextraction. The review compares available detection techniques taking into account their usefulness for determining different PBDEs in complex matrix as well as discussing possible limitations that may occur during the analysis. The quality assurance and quality control aspect of analytical procedure is described. Finally special attention is paid to the determination of highly brominated PBDE compounds (e.g. BDE209), which requires implementation of different analytical approach. PMID:22483870

  1. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

  2. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  3. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

  4. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  5. Theory and Practice of Environmental Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in California indicate that their effectiveness is directly related to the local political structure. Environmental planning is expected to improve as environmental impact reports gain more credence as an information base for city planners. The need for uniform impact guidelines are…

  6. Environmental Technology (Laboratory Analysis and Environmental Sampling) Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinojosa, Oscar V.; Guillen, Alfonso

    A project assessed the need and developed a curriculum for environmental technology (laboratory analysis and environmental sampling) in the emerging high technology centered around environmental safety and health in Texas. Initial data were collected through interviews by telephone and in person and through onsite visits. Additional data was…

  7. MS-MS Approaches for the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about the environment and the start of environmental analysis coincided with the rise of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) was founded in 1970, and as the need for techniques to analyze environmental...

  8. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  9. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of the proposed lease area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... impact statement and the hearing required by § 3425.4(a)(1). BLM also will mail to the surface owner...

  10. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of the proposed lease area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... impact statement and the hearing required by § 3425.4(a)(1). BLM also will mail to the surface owner...

  11. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of the proposed lease area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... impact statement and the hearing required by § 3425.4(a)(1). BLM also will mail to the surface owner...

  12. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... that the Department of Agriculture is apprised of ongoing analyses so as to facilitate coordination...

  13. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  14. 15 CFR 970.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis. 970.204 Section 970.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... Applications Contents § 970.204 Environmental and use conflict analysis. (a) Environmental information. To... technical guidance document which will provide assistance for the agency and the applicant, in...

  15. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  16. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  17. DETECTION AND QUANTITATION LIMITS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site assessment, remediation, and compliance monitoring require the routine determination of the concentration of regulated subsatances in environmental samples. Each measurement methodology, providing the concentration determinations, is required to specify key data quality elem...

  18. The measurement of trace elements in interplanetary dust and cometary particles by ultra-high sensitivity INAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Today the major elemental composition of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is routinely determined in many laboratories. These and mineralogical studies have revealed the presence of at least two major types of IDPs, chondritic and refractory. Preliminary results of a successful attempt to determine abundances of a large suite of trace elements from both chondritic and refractory IDPs are reported. The analytical procedure can be used in the grain-by-grain analysis of returned cometary samples. Chondritic and refractory IDPs are characterized by standard scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. With this system, detection limits for many elements are well below picogram levels, and some approach femtogram levels. This technique is non-destructive, although some sample handling is required, so particles can be analyzed by other techniques after instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) is completed. Data is presently being reduced from the analyses of 7 IDPs. These are U2015E10, U2015F1, W7029-A2, W7029-A3, W7013A8, LACl (all chondritic) and 705 (refractory). So far, 17 different major and trace elements were detected and measured in these particles, including rare earths and some very volatile elements (Br and Zn).

  19. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yan, L. T.; Feng, S. L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A lot of official wares carved "Guan" or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  20. Service Area Market Analysis: Environmental Scanning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report presents, in brief, various key indicators: political climate, population demographics, secondary education, postsecondary education, welfare, unemployment, industry, labor, and general conclusions. General conclusions made in this report are as follows: higher education is expected to receive a slight increase…

  1. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.W. III; Forney, R.W.; Carrabba, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    This project entails the development of a compact raman spectrograph for field screening and monitoring of a wide variety of wastes, pollutants, and corrosion products in tanks, and environmental materials. The design of a fiber optic probe for use with the spectrograph is also discussed.

  2. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ISSUES REGARDING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water...

  3. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport. PMID:15504492

  4. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500. ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  5. Environmental Education in Macedonian Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srbinovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…

  6. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500. ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  7. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500. ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  8. Cost analysis and environmental impact of nonthermal technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of high pressure processing (HPP) orange juice and its environmental impact were estimated. In addition, the environmental impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurization were assessed for comparison. The cost analysis was based on commercial processing conditions that wer...

  9. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22(b... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500....

  10. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  11. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  12. The New Environmental Paradigm and Further Scale Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Francis P.; Snow, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Examined were the responses of park visitors to the New Environmental Paradigm scale. Research methods, and results including reliabilities and factor analysis of the scales on the survey are discussed. (CW)

  13. BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology 'bioassay directed chemical analysis' to best describe this marriage of analy...

  14. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  15. Remote sources of airborne lanthanoids and actinoids collected in the Azores’ lower free troposphere, studied with k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Carmo Freitas, Maria; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.

    2010-10-01

    The location of Azores turns it into an ideal platform for tracking the long-range transport of air masses from surrounding continents over the North Atlantic Ocean. Aerosol samples (PM 10) have been collected using an aethalometer located at PICO-NARE observatory, in Pico island, from 15 July 2001 to 18 April 2004. The instrument is at an altitude of 2225 m above mean sea level (AMSL), and sampled for 24 h in most cases, and for a few periods continuously. The data herein refer to daily collections of PM 10 in the period July 2001-July 2002. Samples were assessed through instrumental neutron activation analysis, k0-variant ( k0-INAA). The lanthanoids and actinoids with concentrations above detection limits and above blank backgrounds were La, Sm, Lu, and Th, U, respectively. Back-trajectory results by the HYSPLIT model have shown that the highest values of La are of African origin, likely related to Saharan-dust episodes, while U comes mainly from northern Europe and North-Central America, down to the Caribbean. Every element presents the same enrichment-factor pattern concerning its annual, summer and winter averages. As for lanthanoids, La and Sm are not enriched relatively to soil while Lu is (actinoids are enriched as well), which indicates preferential enrichment of heavy rare earths compared to the light ones.

  16. Multi-scale analysis for environmental dispersion in wetland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi; Li, Z.; Chen, G. Q.

    2011-08-01

    Presented in this work is a multi-scale analysis for longitudinal evolution of contaminant concentration in a fully developed flow through a shallow wetland channel. An environmental dispersion model for the mean concentration is devised as an extension of Taylor's classical formulation by a multi-scale analysis. Corresponding environmental dispersivity is found identical to that determined by the method of concentration moments. For typical contaminant constituents of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and heavy metal, the evolution of contaminant cloud is illustrated with the critical length and duration of the contaminant cloud with constituent concentration beyond some given environmental standard level.

  17. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  18. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  20. 78 FR 39284 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY... Regulatory Analysis.'' The purpose of this notice is to extend the public comment period by 60 days. The... Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 1890T,...

  1. Multivariate analysis of environmental data for two hydrographic basins

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, J.M.; Prada, D.; Muniategui, S.; Gonzalez, E.; Alonso, E. )

    1992-02-01

    A multivariate study (PCA Analysis and Cluster analysis) of two Spanish hydrographic basins (The Mandeo and Mero basins) was made to achieve reliable conclusions about their actual physico-chemical environmental situation. Two police-samples' are defined, their effects explained, and are introduced in Cluster analysis as a way to examine sample quality. The multivariate analysis shows different qualities in the two hydrographic basins.

  2. The INAA of air particulates from three sites in Lagos

    SciTech Connect

    Spyrou, N.M. ); Asubiojo, O.I.; Oluwole, A.F.; Oluyemi, E.A. ); Farooqi, A.S.; Akanle, O.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project on environmental monitoring and impact assessment carried out in Nigeria in a collaboration between the University of Surrey and the Obafemi Awolowo University and funded by the Commission of the European Communities under the Lorme III agreement. Lagos is the biggest industrial city in Nigeria and shares [approximately]38% of the total manufacturing industries. These are associated in the main with the manufacture of cement, glass, plastics, pharmaceutical, cars, textiles, and paints. In the early 1970s, 80% of the air pollution was reported to be due to vehicular exhaust in Nigeria. The speed of motorcars plays an important role in causing pollution through exhaust, and in Lagos, the operating speed of vehicles has been reported to be very low, <10 km/h, for most of the roads in the city. However, domestic waste generation in Lagos city is estimated as >5 x 10[sup 5] tonne/yr and is another source of air pollution because roughly half is combustible. The selection of three sampling sites in the northeastern part of the city of Lagos provided an opportunity to study air pollution in an industrial area and a nearby residential area.

  3. INAA and PIXE of atmospheric and combustion aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kucera, J; Havránek, V; Smolík, J; Schwarz, J; Veselý, V; Kugler, J; Sýkorová, I; Santroch, J

    1999-01-01

    Using instrumental neutron activation analyses and photon-induced x-ray emission techniques for analysis of size-fractionated atmospheric and combustion aerosols and other emission samples arising from fluidized-bed combustion of North Bohemian lignites up to 42 elements were determined in all samples types. This allowed the evaluation of element enrichment, time trends, and inter-element correlations and the performance of factor analysis of various fractions of atmospheric aerosols. The data obtained on mass and element size distributions of aerosols and emission samples obtained upon lignite combustion in an experimental scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor without and with added hydrated lime and limestone were used to elucidate the mechanism of abatement of toxic trace and matrix elements from flue gas. PMID:10676497

  4. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. PMID:26108794

  5. Environmental analysis of the eastern shale hydroretorting data base

    SciTech Connect

    Rex, R.C. Jr.; Lynch, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary environmental analysis of certain chemical aspects of Eastern shale hydroretorting utilizing the data from the twenty-one (21) bench scale unit runs conducted during the HYTORT Feasibility Study. The report contained herein primarily addresses the potential types and quantities of pollutants emanating directly from the hydroretorting of oil shale (i.e., the retort paper). The following areas are discussed in detail: nitrogen distribution; sulfur distribution; gas trace constituents; sour water constituents; and shale leachates. The results of the analysis have not identified any potential pollutants or quantities which cannot be brought to conformance with currently promulgated environmental standards using existing technology. Additional analysis of the process chemistry portion of the HYTORT data base, coupled with the process and mechanical design information, can provide a methodology for dealing with the identified environmental concerns as they pertain to a commercial facility. Section 5.0 of the report delineates the areas which should be addressed in a continuing analysis of environmental concerns. The suggested program divides naturally into three phases, of which Phase 1 has been completed: Phase 1 - Environmental Analysis of the Eastern Shale Hydroretorting Data Base; Phase 2 - Generic (non-site-specific) Environmental Analysis; and Phase 3 - Site-Specific Environmental Analysis. Phase 2 details the anticipated emissions from all areas of a commercial HYTORT facility operating on a typical Eastern shale using the results of this Phase 1 effort and the HYTORT data base. Phase 3 utilizes this information to assess the effects of plant emissions on chosen sites in the context of applicable laws and regulations. 7 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Environmental Management. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  7. Behavioral Path Analysis and Environmental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James A.; Kahle, Ellen

    Behavioral Path Analysis is both a theory and a methodology for studying person-environment interactions. It is designed to be applicable to the evaluation of both environments in use and proposed designed environments. This paper presents the basics of the theory, and some examples of recent applications that have guided its development. The…

  8. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:19048472

  9. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:21384330

  10. Analysis of shock pulses for environmental tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Specifications for shock testing of components that will be used on the Space Shuttle vehicles require very high acceleration levels. A special shock machine was built for testing of rocket components to determine if they can meet the specified accelerations. Calibrations of transducers and methods to monitor the shock tests raised several signature-analysis questions. In this report, calibration capabilities of shock accelerometers are found to be limited to 10,000g. Equivalency of the mechanical shock test and the rocket pyrotechnic shock are examined, and two simple relationships for equivalency are proposed. Five different pulse signature-analysis techniques are tested on analytical and experimental pulse data and recommendations are made for the signature technique which most clearly identifies the magnitude of the impulse applied to the test specimen.

  11. Environmental analysis of the chemical release module. [space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Dubin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The environmental analysis of the Chemical Release Module (a free flying spacecraft deployed from the space shuttle to perform chemical release experiments) is reviewed. Considerations of possible effects of the injectants on human health, ionosphere, weather, ground based optical astronomical observations, and satellite operations are included. It is concluded that no deleterious environmental effects of widespread or long lasting nature are anticipated from chemical releases in the upper atmosphere of the type indicated for the program.

  12. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  13. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  14. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  15. Methodologic research needs in environmental epidemiology: data analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R L; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of data analysis methods for the identification and quantification of associations between environmental exposures and health events of interest. Data analysis methods are outlined for each of the study designs mentioned, with an emphasis on topics in need of further research. Particularly noted are the need for improved methods for accommodating exposure assessment measurement errors in analytic epidemiologic studies and for improved methods for the conduct and analysis of aggregate data (ecologic) studies. PMID:8206041

  16. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, N.; Cossonnet, C.; Fournier, M.; Momoshima, N.; Ansoborlo, E.

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  17. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-01-15

    An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials. PMID:24239259

  18. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.W. III; Forney, R.W.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The enormous cost for chemical analysis at DOE facilities predicates that cost-saving measures be implemented. Many approaches, ranging from increasing laboratory sample throughput by reducing preparation time to the development of field instrumentation, are being explored to meet this need. Because of the presence of radioactive materials at many DOE sites, there is also a need for methods that are safer for site personnel and analysts. This project entails the development of a compact Raman spectrograph for field screening and monitoring of a wide variety of wastes, pollutants, and corrosion products in storage tanks, soils, and ground and surface waters. Analytical advantages of the Raman technique include its ability to produce a unique, spectral fingerprint for each contaminant and its ability to analyze both solids and liquids directly, without the need for isolation or cleanup.

  19. Field Raman Spectrograph for Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvia, J.M.; Haas, J.W.; Spencer, K.M.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.; Forney, R.W.; Johnston, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    The widespread contamination found across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has received considerable attention from the government and public alike. A massive site characterization and cleanup effort has been underway for several years and is expected to continue for several decades more. The scope of the cleanup effort ranges from soil excavation and treatment to complete dismantling and decontamination of whole buildings. To its credit, DOE has supported research and development of new technologies to speed up and reduce the cost of this effort. One area in particular has been the development of portable instrumentation that can be used to perform analytical measurements in the field. This approach provides timely data to decision makers and eliminates the expense, delays, and uncertainties of sample preservation, transport, storage, and laboratory analysis. In this program, we have developed and demonstrated in the field a transportable, high performance Raman spectrograph that can be used to detect and identify contaminants in a variety of scenarios. With no moving parts, the spectrograph is rugged and can perform many Raman measurements in situ with flexible fiber optic sampling probes. The instrument operates under computer control and a software package has been developed to collect and process spectral data. A collection of Raman spectra for 200 contaminants of DOE importance has been compiled in a searchable format to assist in the identification of unknown contaminants in the field.

  20. Fuzzy Clustering Analysis in Environmental Impact Assessment--A Complement Tool to Environmental Quality Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Hsiang-Te; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In spite of rapid progress achieved in the methodological research underlying environmental impact assessment (EIA), the problem of weighting various parameters has not yet been solved. This paper presents a new approach, fuzzy clustering analysis, which is illustrated with an EIA case study on Baoshan-Wusong District in Shanghai, China. (Author)

  1. Characterization of the inaA gene and expression of ice nucleation phenotype in Pantoea ananatis isolates from Maize White Spot disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, A M; Figueiredo, J E F; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Paccola-Meirelles, L D

    2016-01-01

    Maize White Spot (MWS), a foliar disease caused by Pantoea ananatis, could cause up to 60% yield loss. Some strains of P. ananatis harboring the ice nucleation gene inaA catalyze the formation of ice nuclei, causing tissue damage at temperatures slightly below freezing. Little is known about the relationship between the presence of the ina gene in this maize pathogen and its expression during the phenomenon of ice nucleus formation. Here, we attempted to verify the presence of the inaA gene and the expression of phenotype in vitro. The identity of the isolates and the presence of the inaA gene were determined by P. ananatis species-specific primers. The expression of the inaA gene was assessed in vitro by the visualization of ice-crystal formation in water at subzero temperatures. A total of ninety P. ananatis isolates from MWS lesions were characterized. The presence of the inaA gene was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the 350-400-bp PCR products. The inaA primers did not lead to DNA fragment amplification in three isolates. The ice nucleation phenotype was expressed in 83.34% of the isolates carrying the inaA gene. Our study showed that the ice nucleation in P. ananatis isolated from MWS lesions was dependent on the presence of a functional ina gene in the genome. We also found evidence indicating that some P. ananatis strains have a mutated form of the inaA gene, producing a non-functional ice nucleation protein. This is the first report on inaA gene characterization in P. ananatis isolates from Maize White Spot. PMID:26985943

  2. VHH antibodies: emerging reagents for the analysis of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bever, Candace S; Dong, Jie-Xian; Vasylieva, Natalia; Barnych, Bogdan; Cui, Yongliang; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Hammock, Bruce D; Gee, Shirley J

    2016-09-01

    A VHH antibody (or nanobody) is the antigen binding fragment of heavy chain only antibodies. Discovered nearly 25 years ago, they have been investigated for their use in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics, and more recently for environmental monitoring applications. A new and valuable immunoreagent for the analysis of small molecular weight environmental chemicals, VHH will overcome many pitfalls encountered with conventional reagents. In the work so far, VHH antibodies often perform comparably to conventional antibodies for small molecule analysis, are amenable to numerous genetic engineering techniques, and show ease of adaption to other immunodiagnostic platforms for use in environmental monitoring. Recent reviews cover the structure and production of VHH antibodies as well as their use in clinical settings. However, no report focuses on the use of these VHH antibodies to detect small environmental chemicals (MW < 1500 Da). This review article summarizes the efforts made to produce VHHs to various environmental targets, compares the VHH-based assays with conventional antibody assays, and discusses the advantages and limitations in developing these new antibody reagents particularly to small molecule targets. Graphical Abstract Overview of the production of VHHs to small environmental chemicals and highlights of the utility of these new emerging reagents. PMID:27209591

  3. Environmental control and life support system: Analysis of STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The capability of the orbiter environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) to support vehicle cooling requirements in the event of cabin pressure reduction to 9 psia was evaluated, using the Orbiter versions of the shuttle environmental consumbles usage requirement evaluation (SECURE) program, and using heat load input data developed by the spacecraft electrical power simulator (SEPS) program. The SECURE model used in the analysis, the timeline and ECLSS configuration used in formulating the analysis, and the results of the analysis are presented. The conclusion which may be drawn drom these results. is summarized. There are no significant thermal problems with the proposed mission. There are, however, several procedures which could be optimized for better performance: setting the cabin HX air bypass and the interchanger water bypass to the zero flow position is of questionable efficacy; the cabin air pressure monitoring procedure should be re-evaluated; and the degree of equipment power down specified for this analysis and no problems were noted.

  4. Practitioner Representations of Environmental Uncertainty: An Application of Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Lalit

    Multiple discriminant analysis was used to analyze the structure of a perceived environmental uncertainty variable employed previously in research on public relations roles. Data came from a subset (N=229) of a national sample of public relations practitioners belonging to the Public Relations Society of America, who completed a set of scaled…

  5. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  6. Quantitative modeling and analysis in environmental studies. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaver, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the many mathematical modeling and statistical data analysis problems that arise in environmental studies. It makes no claim to be comprehensive nor truly up-to-date. It will appear as a chapter in a book on ecotoxicology to be published by CRC Press, probably in 1995. Workshops leading to the book creation were sponsored by The Conte Foundation.

  7. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  8. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  9. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  10. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  11. Quality assurance of hair analysis for evaluation of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Gwozdz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Trace analysis of human hair has been used for assessing the exposure to toxic trace elements in the environment of an ore-processing plant. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a reference scenario for environmental pollution to determine the effect of future major technical improvements in plant operation.

  12. Safety risk analysis of an innovative environmental technology.

    PubMed

    Parnell, G S; Frimpon, M; Barnes, J; Kloeber, J M; Deckro, R E; Jackson, J A

    2001-02-01

    The authors describe a decision and risk analysis performed for the cleanup of a large Department of Energy mixed-waste subsurface disposal area governed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In a previous study, the authors worked with the site decision makers, state regulators, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional regulators to develop a CERCLA-based multiobjective decision analysis value model and used the model to perform a screening analysis of 28 remedial alternatives. The analysis results identified an innovative technology, in situ vitrification, with high effectiveness versus cost. Since this technology had not been used on this scale before, the major uncertainties were contaminant migration and pressure buildup. Pressure buildup was a safety concern due to the potential risks to worker safety. With the help of environmental technology experts remedial alternative changes were identified to mitigate the concerns about contaminant migration and pressure buildup. The analysis results showed that the probability of an event with a risk to worker safety had been significantly reduced. Based on these results, site decision makers have refocused their test program to examine in situ vitrification and have continued the use of the CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology to analyze remedial alternatives. PMID:11332543

  13. Innovative waste stream analysis process for a utilities environmental laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.; Scherer, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    Compliance with government regulations for a vast multitude of chemical wastes streams can be a difficult undertaking. Under 40 CFR 261.11, a person who generates a solid waste must first determine if the waste is a hazardous waste to determine proper disposal. A common sense approach to meeting this requirement for a utility environmental laboratory has been developed at the Colorado Springs Utilities, Department of Water Resources, Environmental Quality Laboratory (EQL). The Colorado Springs Utilities, Water Resources Department, Environmental Quality Laboratory (EQL) operates a 10,000 square foot state-of-the-art laboratory facility. The EQL is a complete utilities environmental laboratory that conducts compliance analyses, process control analyses, and general environmental analyses. The EQL also provides inter-departmental analytical support analyses including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformer gas analysis for the electric department, hazard analyses for the Fire Department`s Haz-mat Unit, and compressor oil analyses for the Gas Department. The EQL has an excellent record of quality performance and is the only municipally owned laboratory in Colorado with Class 100 Clean Room capability. The EQL developed an innovative waste stream analysis process for its laboratory operations.

  14. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  15. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  16. TXRF analysis of soils and sediments to assess environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Cazzago, Davide; Zacco, Annalisa; Bontempi, Elza; Guarneri, Rita; Bernardello, Marco; Attuati, Silvia; Lazo, Pranvera; Depero, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) is proposed for the elemental chemical analysis of crustal environmental samples, such as sediments and soils. A comparative study of TXRF with respect to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was performed. Microwave acid digestion and suspension preparation methods are evaluated. A good agreement was found among the results obtained with different spectroscopic techniques and sample preparation methods for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn. We demonstrated that TXRF is suitable for the assessment of environmental contamination phenomena, even if the errors for Pb, As, V, and Ba are ingent. PMID:24122164

  17. Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center (EQIAC) operating procedures handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.E. ); Das, S. )

    1992-08-01

    The Operating Procedures Handbook of the Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center (EQIAC) is intended to be kept current as EQIAC develops and evolves. Its purpose is to provide a comprehensive guide to the mission, infrastructure, functions, and operational procedures of EQIAC. The handbook is a training tool for new personnel and a reference manual for existing personnel. The handbook will be distributed throughout EQIAC and maintained in binders containing current dated editions of the individual sections. The handbook will be revised at least annually to reflect the current structure and operational procedures of EQIAC. The EQIAC provides information on environmental issues such as compliance, restoration, and environmental monitoring do the Air Force and DOD contractors.

  18. Dual discounting in cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Erhun; Evans, David

    2011-04-15

    Discounting has been a long-established intertemporal efficiency tool in cost-benefit analysis which focuses on project selection at communal level with a view to maximising the social welfare. However, with the relentless growth in environmental stress that, in good parts, stems from investment projects the established criterion in discounting appears to be inadequate especially when environmental issues are taken into consideration. This paper looks at how dual focus on efficiency and sustainability can be achieved by using dual discounting, i.e. discounting environmental benefits separately and differently from other costs and benefits and applies this alternative criterion to an afforestation scheme in the United Kingdom which contains carbon sequestration in addition to timber benefits.

  19. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  20. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

  1. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  2. Dynamic analysis of news streams: institutional versus environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin; Corman, Steven

    2004-07-01

    Many societal phenomena are studied through analysis of their representation in media-related texts, such as news articles. The dynamics of such data reflect the phenomenon's underlying generative mechanism. Media artifacts are assumed to mirror the social activity occurring in the environment, thus observed dynamics are assumed to reflect environmental dynamics. The institutional mechanics of media production also affect the observed dynamics however. In this study we examine the extent to which institutional versus environmental effects explain the observed dynamics of media content, in particular focusing on semi-continuous "news streams". We examine the dynamics of news streams produced by the electronic news organization Reuters, immediately following the events of September 11, 2001. We find that many of the observed dynamics appear institutionally generated. We conclude with methodological suggestions concerning the dynamic analysis of media content. PMID:15233881

  3. Bioassay-directed chemical analysis in environmental research

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetzle, D.; Lewtas, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology bioassay directed chemical analysis to best describe this marriage of analytical chemistry and biology. The objective of this methodology is to identify key compounds in various types of air-pollutant samples. Once that task is completed, studies on metabolism, sources, environmental exposure and atmospheric chemistry can be undertaken. The principles and methodologies for bioassay directed chemical analysis are presented and illustrated in this paper. Most of this work has been directed toward the characterization of ambient air and diesel particulates, which are used as examples in this report to illustrate the analytical logic used for identifying the bio-active components of complex mixtures.

  4. Analysis of documentary support for environmental restoration programs in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.

    1995-12-31

    Taking into account an importance of an adequate regulations for ensuring of radiological safety of the biosphere and for successful implementation of environmental restoration projects, contents of legislative and methodical documents as well as their comprehensitivity and substantiation are subjected to critical analysis. It is shown that there is much scope for further optimization of and improvements in regulatory basis both on Federal and regional levels.

  5. Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of ignitor

    SciTech Connect

    Carpignano, A.; Francabandiera, S.; Vella, R.; Zucchetti, M.

    1996-12-31

    A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed Individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Biomonitor of Environmental Stress: Coral Trace Metal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N.; Hughen, K.

    2006-12-01

    Tropical reef corals are extremely sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and, as a result of environmental degradation and global climate change, coral reefs around the globe are severely threatened. Increased human population and development in tropical regions is leading to higher turbidity and silt loading from terrestrial runoff, increased pesticides and nutrients from agricultural land-use and sewage, and the release of toxic trace metals to coastal waters from industrial pollution. The uptake of these metals and nutrients within the coral skeletal aragonite is a sensitive biomonitor of environmental stresses on coral health. We analyzed 18 trace metals from the surface of coral skeletons collected in Bermuda, Indonesia and Belize to assess a range of threats to coral reef health - including climate change, agricultural runoff and pesticides, and coastal development and tourism. This surface sample network also includes samples representing 4 different coral species. Trace metal analysis was performed on an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to a high degree of accuracy and precision at extremely low (ppb) concentrations using a protocol we developed for samples less than 2 mg. Proper cleaning techniques were employed to minimize blank level concentrations for ultra-trace metal ICP-MS solution analysis. However, Zn/Ca and Ni/Ca concentrations remain below analytical detection limits. Initial results indicate that sea surface temperature proxies (e.g., Sr/Ca, B/Ca and Mg/Ca) display similar ratios between the different sites, whereas those metals associated with anthropogenic activities, such as Co, Pb and Cu, are site-specific and are linked to individual environmental stressors. Results from this study will be applied to down core trace metal records in the future. In doing so, we aim to understand the impacts of compounding environmental stresses on coral health, and to identify regional threshold values beyond which corals

  7. Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report presents the results of consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) concerning the consideration of biological diversity in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The report is intended to provide background on the emerging, complex subject of biodiversity, outline some general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, describe how the issue is currently addressed in NEPA analyses, and provide options for agencies undertaking NEPA analyses that consider biodiversity. The report does not establish new requirements for such analyses. It is not, and should not be viewed as, formal CEQ guidance on the matter, nor are the recommendations in the report intended to be legally binding. The report does not mean to suggest the biodiversity analyses should be included in every NEPA document, without regard to the degree of potential impact on biodiversity of the action under review.

  8. Systems analysis in environmental engineering: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Gujer, W

    2004-01-01

    Systems analysis is identified as a unifying topic of environmental engineering. Based on a questionnaire sent out to peers and based on the experience with an advanced systems analysis course the possible content and association of the content with bachelor and master's programs is discussed. At the bachelor's level it is concluded that an array of topics should be introduced more in an inductive way, going along with the discussion of examples. At the master's level it is suggested that a substantial course, which systematically introduces a broad variety of systems analysis tools, is provided. Such a course should go along with the introduction of a simulation tool, which supports application of systems analysis methods. PMID:15193092

  9. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  10. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  11. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  12. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  13. MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE ANALYSIS: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, the multielemental techniques of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP), x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been compared for the determination of antimony, a...

  14. Energy and environmental analysis of a linear concentrating photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzmann, Tony

    The world is facing an imminent energy supply crisis. In order to sustain and increase our energy supply in an environmentally-conscious manner, it is necessary to advance renewable technologies. Despite this urgency, however, it is paramount to consider the larger environmental effects associated with using renewable energy resources. This research is meant to better understand linear concentrating photovoltaics (LCPVs) from an engineering and environmental standpoint. In order to analyze the LCPV system, a simulation and life cycle assessment (LCA) were developed. The LCPV system serves two major purposes: it produces electricity, and waste heat is collected for heating use. There are three parts to the LCPV simulation. The first part simulates the multijunction cell output so as to calculate the temperature-dependent electricity generation. The second part simulates the cell cooling and waste heat recovery system using a model consisting of heat transfer and fluid flow equations. The waste heat recovery in the LCPV system was linked to a hot water storage system, which was also modeled. Coupling the waste heat recovery simulation and the hot water storage system gives an overall integrated system that is useful for system design, optimization, and acts as a stepping stone for future multijunction cell Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems. Finally, all of the LCPV system components were coded in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and were used in an energy analysis under actual weather and solar conditions for the Phoenix, AZ, region. The life cycle assessment for the LCPV system allowed for an environmental analysis of the system where areas of the highest environmental impact were pinpointed. While conducting the LCA research, each component of the system was analyzed from a resource extraction, production, and use standpoint. The collective production processes of each LCPV system component were gathered into a single inventory of materials and energy flows

  15. 78 FR 27235 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY..., ``Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis.'' The purpose of this... regulatory analyses. This guidance takes into account EPA's past experience in integrating EJ into...

  16. Using SWE Standards for Ubiquitous Environmental Sensing: A Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Alain; Granell, Carlos; Huerta, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Although smartphone applications represent the most typical data consumer tool from the citizen perspective in environmental applications, they can also be used for in-situ data collection and production in varied scenarios, such as geological sciences and biodiversity. The use of standard protocols, such as SWE, to exchange information between smartphones and sensor infrastructures brings benefits such as interoperability and scalability, but their reliance on XML is a potential problem when large volumes of data are transferred, due to limited bandwidth and processing capabilities on mobile phones. In this article we present a performance analysis about the use of SWE standards in smartphone applications to consume and produce environmental sensor data, analysing to what extent the performance problems related to XML can be alleviated by using alternative uncompressed and compressed formats.

  17. Planetary and Interplanetary Environmental Models for Radiation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2005-01-01

    The essence of environmental modeling is presented as suited for radiation analysis purposes. The variables of fundamental importance for radiation environmental assessment are discussed. The characterization is performed by dividing modeling into three areas, namely the interplanetary medium, the circumplanetary environment, and the planetary or satellite surface. In the first area, the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and their modulation by the heliospheric magnetic field as well as and solar particle events (SPE) are considered, in the second area the magnetospheres are taken into account, and in the third area the effect of the planetary environment is also considered. Planetary surfaces and atmospheres are modeled based on results from the most recent targeted spacecraft. The results are coupled with suited visualization techniques and radiation transport models in support of trade studies of health risks for future exploration missions.

  18. Analysis of the Environmental Impact on Remanufacturing Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa Skrainka, Manuel R.

    To deliver clean energy the use of wind turbines is essential. In June 2011 there was an installed wind capacity equivalent to 211,000MW world-wide (WWEA, 2011). By the end of the year 2009 the U.S. had 35,100MW of wind energy installed capacity to generate electricity (AWEA, 2010). This industry has grown in recent years and is expected to grow even more in the future. The environmental impacts that will arise from the increased number of wind turbines and their end-of-life should be addressed, as large amounts of resources will be required to satisfy the current and future market demands for wind turbines. Since future 10MW wind turbines are expected to be as heavy as 1000 tons each, the study of the environmental response of profitable retirement strategies, such as remanufacturing for these machines, must be considered. Because of the increased number of wind turbines and the materials used, this study provides a comparison between the environmental impacts from remanufacturing the components installed inside the nacelle of multi-megawatt wind turbines and wind turbines manufactured using new components. The study methodology is the following: • Describe the life-cycle and the materials and processes employed for the manufacture and remanufacturing for components inside the nacelle. • Identify remanufacturing alternatives for the components inside the nacelle at the end of the expected life-time service of wind turbines. • Evaluate the environmental impacts from the remanufactured components and compare the results with the impacts of the manufacturing of new components using SimaPro. • Conduct sensitivity analysis over the critical parameters of the life cycle assessment • Propose the most environmentally friendly options for the retirement of each major component of wind turbines. After an analysis of the scenarios the goal of the study is to evaluate remanufacturing as an end-of-life option from an environmental perspective for commercial multi

  19. 18 CFR 5.22 - Notice of acceptance and ready for environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.22 Notice of acceptance and ready for environmental analysis. (a... and ready for environmental analysis. 5.22 Section 5.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... application is ready for environmental analysis; (3) Requesting comments, protests, and interventions;...

  20. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  1. Parameter estimation and error analysis in environmental modeling and computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalmaz, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the estimation of parameters and error analysis in the development of nonlinear modeling for environmental impact assessment studies is presented. The modular computer program can interactively fit different nonlinear models to the same set of data, dynamically changing the error structure associated with observed values. Parameter estimation techniques and sequential estimation algorithms employed in parameter identification and model selection are first discussed. Then, least-square parameter estimation procedures are formulated, utilizing differential or integrated equations, and are used to define a model for association of error with experimentally observed data.

  2. California HSR corridor evaluation and environmental constraints analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.; Field, K.D.; Leavitt, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    California is studying the feasibility of a statewide, high-speed rail (HSR) transportation system as a link between major cities in the northern and southern portions of the state. This system will complement the state`s existing transportation system and serve as an alternative to air and auto travel. In this paper, the writers provide a condensed description of the findings and conclusions drawn from the 1996 California High Speed Rail Corridor Evaluation and Environmental Constraints Analysis, which they prepared for California`s Intercity High Speed Rail Commission to document and analyze the potential statewide HSR corridors.

  3. Integrated Analysis of Airport Capacity and Environmental Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Shahab; Long, Dou; Hart, George; Eckhause, Jeremy; Hemm, Robert; Busick, Andrew; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Murphy, Charles; Poage, James

    2010-01-01

    LMI conducted an integrated analysis of airport capacity and environmental constraints. identifying and ranking the key factors limiting achievement of NextGen capacity goals. The primary metric used was projected throughput, which was estimated for the years 2015 and 2025 based on the unconstrained demand forecast from the Federal Aviation Administration, and planned improvements including those proposed in the NextGen plan. A set of 310 critical airports was identified.. collectively accounting for more than 99 percent of domestic air traffic volume; a one-off analytical approach was used to isolate the constraint being assessed. The study considered three capacity constraints (runway.. taxiway, and gate) and three environmental constraints (fuel, NO(x) emissions, and noise). For the ten busiest airports, runway and noise are the primary and secondary constraints in both 2015 and 2025. For the OEP 35 airports and overall for the remaining airports, the most binding constraint is noise. Six of the 10 busiest airports, will face runway constraints in 2025, and 95 will face gate constraints. Nearly every airport will be subject to constraints due to emissions and NOx. Runway and taxi constraints are more concentrated in the large airports: environmental constraints are present at almost every airport regardless of size.

  4. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Bientinesi, M. Petarca, L.

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste.

  5. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Bientinesi, M; Petarca, L

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of "fossil fuels" and "climate change". Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste. PMID:18829288

  6. Environmental Systems Research and Analysis FY 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Miller; Castle, Peter Myer; Steven J. Piet

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the INEEL. Strengthening the Technical capabilities of the INEEL will provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). This is a progress report for the third year of the ESR Program (FY 2000). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (1) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (2) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (3) Materials Dynamics, (4) Characterization Science, and (5) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, the report describes activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas. The five research areas are subdivided into 18 research projects. FY 2000 research in these 18 projects has resulted in more than 50 technical papers that are in print, in press, in review, or in preparation. Additionally, more than 100 presentations were made at professional society meetings nationally and internationally. Work supported by this program was in part responsible for one of our researchers, Dr. Mason Harrup, receiving the Department of Energy’s “Bright Light” and “Energy at 23” awards. Significant accomplishments were achieved. Non-Destructive Assay hardware and software was deployed at the INEEL, enhancing the quality and efficiency of TRU waste characterization for shipment. The advanced tensiometer has been employed at numerous sites around the complex to determine hydrologic gradients in variably saturated vadose zones. An ion trap, secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS) was designed and fabricated to deploy at the INEEL site to measure the

  7. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  8. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  9. Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Joerg; Bethel, E. Wes; Horsman, Jennifer L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Krishnan, Hari; Romosan, Alex; Keating, Elizabeth; Monroe, Laura M.; Strelitz, Richard; Moore, Philip; Taylor, Glenn; Torkian, Ben; Johnson, Timothy C.; Gorton, Ian

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) currently supports an effort to understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. Geologists, hydrologists, physicists and computer scientists are working together to create models of existing contaminated sites and to simulate their behavior. Simulation results are verified based on historical data and extrapolated into the future. Visualization is used for model setup verification, visual analysis of high-performance computing simulation results, and uncertainty quantification. This article describes the challenges and solutions for visual data analysis, which impacts the decision-making process for each of the contaminated sites. Lessons learned from these simulations will also have an impact on deciding on treatment measures for other, similarly contaminated areas, including those affected by more recent events, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima.

  10. On-line single particle analysis of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, K.A.; Morrical, B.O.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a major component in indoor and outdoor air pollution. It has been estimated that ETS accounts for approximately 2.7% of fine organic aerosol emissions in the Los Angeles area and the adverse health effects of cigarette emissions have been well documented. Particulate analysis by conventional analytical methods, such as GC/MS, do not provide information on individual aerosol particles due to the off-line collection and sampling procedures. Aerosol Time-Flight Mass Spectrometry is an on-line analytical technique that is uniquely capable of single particle analysis, simultaneously providing information on particle size and chemical composition. It will be demonstrated that this technique can be used to show how the chemical composition of ETS particles changes as a function of size. Data demonstrating the ability to monitor chemical composition and size change as a function of time will also be presented.

  11. Impact pathway analysis: A tool for improving environmental decision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.; Peuportier, B.

    1995-09-01

    This paper proposes that, for installations with major health risks, it may be practical and desirable to demand that and environmental impact study demonstrate not only that the emissions respect all applicable regulations (as is current practice), but that it actually evaluate the impacts, using the impact pathway methodology (i.e., analyze the dispersion of pollutants and apply dose-response functions to quantify impacts on health, vegetation, etc.). As a case study the authors apply the impact pathway analysis to the emissions data for an incinerator of toxic chemical waste, and they obtain several interesting results that could resolve some of the issues raised during the authorization process. They argue that the uncertainties, even though large, do not negate the value of the information. The results of such an impact analysis could also be used to communicate the risks posed by a proposed installation, fi a generally accepted set of reference risks is developed.

  12. Environmental sampling and analysis in support of NTI-3

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Harrar, J.E.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.; Andresen, B.D.

    1991-04-06

    The third National Trail Inspection took place at the Monsanto Chemical Plant in Luling, Louisiana. In order to test the effectiveness of environmental sampling (soil, water and air) in determining the nature of the chemical process in a given production plant and to examine the distance from a process building that samples can effectively be taken, we needed to select some materials that constituted components of process streams. Three materials were selected: 1. isopropyl amine for air monitoring, 2. 4-nitrophenol, one of the precursors in the acetaminophen process, and 3. an intermediate in the production of glyphosate for ROUNDUP that is known simply as glyphosate intermediated. LLNL did not participate in the air sampling nor the analysis for isopropyl amine. This paper discussed the steps in this experiment including sample collection, sample workshop, sample analysis the results and discussion and the conclusion. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Reviewed By Nathan W.

    1999-11-01

    This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students. R. N. Reeve's introductory, open-learning Environmental Analysis (Wiley, 1994) is one of the few, and it is aimed at a lower level and is less appropriate for traditional classroom study. Kebbekus and Mitra's book appears to be an update of I. Marr and M. Cresser's excellent 1983 text by the same name (and also published under the Chapman and Hall imprint). It assumes no background in instrumental methods of analysis but it does depend upon a good general chemistry background in kinetic and equilibrium calculations and the standard laboratory techniques found in a classical introduction to analytical chemistry. The slant taken by the authors is aimed more toward engineers, not only in the choice of topics, but also in how they are presented. For example, the statistical significance tests presented follow an engineering format rather than the standard used in analytical chemistry. This approach does not detract from the book's clarity. The writing style is concise and the book is generally well written. The earlier text, which has become somewhat of a classic, took the unusual step of teaching the instruments in the context of their environmental application. It was divided into sections on the "atmosphere", the "hydrosphere", the "lithosphere", and the "biosphere". This text takes a similar approach in the second half, with chapters on methods for air, water, and solid samples. Users who intend to use the book as a text instead of a reference will appreciate the addition of chapters in the first half of the book on spectroscopic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods. The six chapters in these two parts of the book along with four chapters scattered throughout on environmental measurements, sampling, sample preparation, and quality assurance make a nice

  14. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  15. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  16. Global Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Models: Convergence, Robustness and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, Fanny; Pianosi, Francesca; Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Van Griensven, Ann; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis aims to characterize the impact that variations in model input factors (e.g. the parameters) have on the model output (e.g. simulated streamflow). In sampling-based Global Sensitivity Analysis, the sample size has to be chosen carefully in order to obtain reliable sensitivity estimates while spending computational resources efficiently. Furthermore, insensitive parameters are typically identified through the definition of a screening threshold: the theoretical value of their sensitivity index is zero but in a sampling-base framework they regularly take non-zero values. There is little guidance available for these two steps in environmental modelling though. The objective of the present study is to support modellers in making appropriate choices, regarding both sample size and screening threshold, so that a robust sensitivity analysis can be implemented. We performed sensitivity analysis for the parameters of three hydrological models with increasing level of complexity (Hymod, HBV and SWAT), and tested three widely used sensitivity analysis methods (Elementary Effect Test or method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, and Variance-Based Sensitivity Analysis). We defined criteria based on a bootstrap approach to assess three different types of convergence: the convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices, of the ranking (the ordering among the parameters) and of the screening (the identification of the insensitive parameters). We investigated the screening threshold through the definition of a validation procedure. The results showed that full convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices is not necessarily needed to rank or to screen the model input factors. Furthermore, typical values of the sample sizes that are reported in the literature can be well below the sample sizes that actually ensure convergence of ranking and screening.

  17. Rare-earth elements in Egyptian granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2007-04-01

    The mobilization of rare-earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in REEs chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of REEs and related elements. Therefore, INAA was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of REEs to find out what information could be obtained about the REEs of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi El-Allaqi, El-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pasha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was also used. PMID:17208446

  18. EXSAA: Environmentally-Induced X-ray Spectral Analysis Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, F. W.; Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Truszkowski, W.

    2005-05-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is one of the principal means of compositional analysis in the lab and in the field: it will be a central tool in NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) missions. No currently available XRF software has the generic functionality to provide the basis for XRF experiment design, instrument development, and data interpretation for the suite of prospective EI missions. In response to this need, we have developed EXSAA (Environmentally-induced X-ray Spectral Analysis Automation), a generic, fast, interactive spectral simulation tool which can be used in assessing broadband continuous spectra being generated and detected during reconnaissance missions and field campaigns involving planetary surfaces. The software produces model spectra of detectable environmentally-induced X-ray spectra from fundamental principles for target characteristics and conditions likely to be experienced in remote or in situ planetary missions. Fluorescence is modeled following Jenkins and DeVries (1967); coherent and Compton scattering following Hubbell (1969). The modeling provided is extensible, and a user interface provides for selection of source, detector characteristics, compositional components, and geometry for known targets. An immediate application of the tool is the prediction for mission planning purposes of X-ray flux to be expected for a range of targets and instrumentation. A longer-term application is the model basis for the recovery of surface composition from actual missions, where some parameters (e.g. source flux) will be known, and others obtained from a Bayesian analysis of the observations. Ultimately, EXSAA could function as part of the agent-based SAA Toolkit being developed by a group of physical scientists, systems engineers, and AI practitioners to automate portions of the spectral analysis process. EXSAA could be called on by human or machine agents to provide an understanding of XRF phenomena for tasks including specifically (1

  19. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  20. Framework for risk analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES)

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.; Hoopes, B.L.; Pelton, M.A.; McDonald, J.P.; Gelston, G.M.; Taira, R.Y.

    1998-05-01

    The objectives of this workshop are to (1) provide the NRC staff and the public with an overview of currently available Federally-Sponsored dose models appropriate for decommissioning assessments and (2) discuss NRC staff-developed questions related to model selection criteria with the final rule on ``Radiological Criteria for License Termination`` (62 FR 39058). For over 40 years, medium specific models have been and will continue to be developed in an effort to understand and predict environmental phenomena, including fluid-flow patterns, contaminant migration and fate, human or wildlife exposures, impacts from specific toxicants to specific species and their organs, cost-benefit analyses, impacts from remediation alternatives, etc. For nearly 40 years, medium-specific models have been combined for either sequential or concurrent assessments. The evolution of multiple-media assessment tools has followed a logic progression. To allow a suite of users the flexibility and versatility to construct, combine, and couple attributes that meet their specific needs without unnecessarily burdening the user with extraneous capabilities, the development of a computer-based methodology to implement a Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) was begun in 1994. FRAMES represents a platform which links elements together and yet does not represent the models that are linked to or within it; therefore, changes to elements that are linked to or within FRAMES do not change the framework.

  1. Qualitative Environmental Analysis for Industrial Districts Implantation Using Geoprocessing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Baretta, Luciane; Veronez, Maurício Roberto; Reinhardt, Alessandro Ott

    2008-01-01

    Industrial districts became important instruments which are used by the Public Power to induce economic decentralization and create new development poles. For this reason the legislative process is an indispensable means to define the priorities in the uses of soil, also to conduct and follow the process of industrial registration. However, the industrial district establishment shall not be analyzed by taking into account just the economic factor, but also the environmental issue of the enterprise. Thus, this research has the objective of determining adequate places for industrial districts implantation, having as a pilot area the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Geographic Information System for execution of spatial analysis and criteria creation on a large volume of environmental information will be used as a tool, which will be guided by the Municipal, State and Federal legislation and a Quickbird satellite image that covers the interest area. The main information used on this research are: altimeter, hydrography, soil use, pedology, geology and infrastructure. The results are visualized in scenarios modeled in accordance with the restrictions imposed upon the information, allowing at the end, to combine all scenarios and create through the multiple criteria method a map that indicates adequate places for implantation of industrial districts. PMID:19151443

  2. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  3. Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center multi-year plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, R.G.; Das, S.; Walsh, T.E.

    1992-09-01

    An information analysis center (IAC) is a federal resource that provides technical information for a specific technology field. An IAC links an expert technical staff with an experienced information specialist group, supported by in-house or external data bases to provide technical information and maintain a corporate knowledge in a technical area. An IAC promotes the rapid transfer of technology among its users and provides assistance in adopting new technology and predicting and assessing emerging technology. This document outlines the concept, requirements, and proposed development of an Environmental Quality IAC (EQIAC). An EQIAC network is composed of several nodes, each of which has specific technology capabilities. This document outlines strategic and operational objectives for the phased development of one such node of an EQIAC network.

  4. Systems Analysis Approach for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This conference paper describes the current systems analysis approach being implemented for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project within the Integrated Systems Research Program under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The scope and purpose of these systems studies are introduced followed by a methodology overview. The approach involves both top-down and bottoms-up components to provide NASA s stakeholders with a rationale for the prioritization and tracking of a portfolio of technologies which enable the future fleet of aircraft to operate with a simultaneous reduction of aviation noise, emissions and fuel-burn impacts to our environment. Examples of key current results and relevant decision support conclusions are presented along with a forecast of the planned analyses to follow.

  5. NEW APPROACHES IN RISK ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS TO HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We explore the application of novel techniques for improving and integrating risk analysis of environmental stressors to human and ecological systems. Environmental protection decisions are guided by risk assessments serving as tools to develop regulatory policy and other relate...

  6. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  7. Environmental sampling and analysis as a safeguards tool

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental sampling and radionuclide analysis of the resulting material can be utilized as a supplemental approach in safeguarding practices and particularly for detection of undeclared nuclear activities. The production of nuclear weapons could be pursued by uranium enrichment processes to produce highly enriched U-235 or by nuclear reactor operations followed by chemical separations to produce Pu-239. The application of either of these processes results in the production of signature materials, some of which will be released to the environs. Results from the operations of the Hanford production facilities are discussed and indicate the type of signatures that may be expected from plutonium production facilities. These include noble gas emissions from the reactors and chemical separations processes, the production of radionuclides in reactor cooling water followed by their subsequent release to the Columbia River, and the release of mildly contaminated process water from the chemical processing facilities. These signature materials are carried by both gaseous and liqid effluents and enter various compartments of the environment. The types of signature materials which are most likely to be accumulated are discussed, together with examples of the quantities which have been released during past separations. There are numerous processes by which natural uranium may be enriched to produce highly enriched U-235. The most definitive signature of such processes is always a modification in uranium isotope ratios, and materials showing either enriched or depleted uranium in gaseous and liquid effluents provide the best indication that uramium enrichment processes are taking place. Therefore, techniques for sampling and analysis of airborne, waterborne, or deposited uranium in environmental matrices provide a means of detecting uranium enrichment which may lead to proliferation products.

  8. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc. PMID:16765586

  9. Environmental Metagenomics: The Data Assembly and Data Analysis Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinay; Maitra, S. S.; Shukla, Rohit Nandan

    2015-01-01

    Novel gene finding is one of the emerging fields in the environmental research. In the past decades the research was focused mainly on the discovery of microorganisms which were capable of degrading a particular compound. A lot of methods are available in literature about the cultivation and screening of these novel microorganisms. All of these methods are efficient for screening of microbes which can be cultivated in the laboratory. Microorganisms which live in extreme conditions like hot springs, frozen glaciers, acid mine drainage, etc. cannot be cultivated in the laboratory, this is because of incomplete knowledge about their growth requirements like temperature, nutrients and their mutual dependence on each other. The microbes that can be cultivated correspond only to less than 1 % of the total microbes which are present in the earth. Rest of the 99 % of uncultivated majority remains inaccessible. Metagenomics transcends the culture requirements of microbes. In metagenomics DNA is directly extracted from the environmental samples such as soil, seawater, acid mine drainage etc., followed by construction and screening of metagenomic library. With the ongoing research, a huge amount of metagenomic data is accumulating. Understanding this data is an essential step to extract novel genes of industrial importance. Various bioinformatics tools have been designed to analyze and annotate the data produced from the metagenome. The Bio-informatic requirements of metagenomics data analysis are different in theory and practice. This paper reviews the tools that are available for metagenomic data analysis and the capability such tools—what they can do and their web availability.

  10. Postindustrialization and Environmental Quality: An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dana R.; Freudenburg, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Existing sociological analyses express differing expectations about state control over economic actors and the political feasibility of environmental regulation. Recent literature on the environmental state sees environmental protection as becoming a basic responsibility of postindustrial states, with economic actors no longer having the autonomy…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the environmental sampling completed by EPA in southeastern Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina caused major catastrophic damage. Presentation also describes EPA's Environmental Unit activities in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA, and Dallas, TX.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of environmental radiation in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.Y.; Lee, B.C.; Shin, H.K.

    2007-07-01

    Geostatistical visualization of environmental radiation is a very powerful approach to explore and understand spatio-temporal variabilities of environmental radiation data. Spatial patterns of environmental radiation can be described quantitatively in terms of variogram and kriging, which are based on the idea that statistical variation of data are functions of distance. (authors)

  13. Assessing Evidence of Environmental Inequities: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringquist, Evan J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade activists, academics, and policymakers have devoted a great deal of attention to "environmental equity," or the notion that sources of potential environmental risk may be concentrated among racial and ethnic minorities and the poor. Despite these efforts, the existence and extent of environmental inequities is still the…

  14. 15 CFR 971.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrator to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on the proposed mining activities, and to... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental and use conflict... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY...

  15. 15 CFR 971.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrator to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on the proposed mining activities, and to... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental and use conflict... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY...

  16. 15 CFR 971.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrator to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on the proposed mining activities, and to... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental and use conflict... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY...

  17. Environmental Correlation Analysis for Genes Associated with Protection against Malaria.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Margaret J; Ndila, Carolyne; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Snow, Robert W; Band, Gavin; Rautanen, Anna; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Williams, Thomas N

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach-"environmental correlation analysis, ECA," which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure-to identify genes that have historically protected against death from malaria. We collected genotype data from 12,425 newborns on 57 candidate malaria resistance loci and 9,756 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected at random from across the genome, and examined their allele frequencies for geographic correlations with long-term malaria prevalence data based on 84,042 individuals living under different historical selection pressures from malaria in coastal Kenya. None of the 57 candidate SNPs showed significant (P < 0.05) correlations in allele frequency with local malaria transmission intensity after adjusting for population structure and multiple testing. In contrast, two of the random SNPs that had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) were in genes previously linked to malaria resistance, namely, CDH13, encoding cadherin 13, and HS3ST3B1, encoding heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1. Both proteins play a role in glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell adhesion which has been widely implicated in cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening form of this disease. Other top genes, including CTNND2 which encodes δ-catenin, a molecular partner to cadherin, were significantly enriched in cadherin-mediated pathways affecting inflammation of the brain vascular endothelium. These results demonstrate the utility of ECA in the discovery of novel genes and pathways affecting infectious disease. PMID:26744416

  18. Environmental Correlation Analysis for Genes Associated with Protection against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, Margaret J.; Ndila, Carolyne; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Snow, Robert W.; Band, Gavin; Rautanen, Anna; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Williams, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach—“environmental correlation analysis, ECA,” which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure—to identify genes that have historically protected against death from malaria. We collected genotype data from 12,425 newborns on 57 candidate malaria resistance loci and 9,756 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected at random from across the genome, and examined their allele frequencies for geographic correlations with long-term malaria prevalence data based on 84,042 individuals living under different historical selection pressures from malaria in coastal Kenya. None of the 57 candidate SNPs showed significant (P < 0.05) correlations in allele frequency with local malaria transmission intensity after adjusting for population structure and multiple testing. In contrast, two of the random SNPs that had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) were in genes previously linked to malaria resistance, namely, CDH13, encoding cadherin 13, and HS3ST3B1, encoding heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1. Both proteins play a role in glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell adhesion which has been widely implicated in cerebral malaria, the most life-threatening form of this disease. Other top genes, including CTNND2 which encodes δ-catenin, a molecular partner to cadherin, were significantly enriched in cadherin-mediated pathways affecting inflammation of the brain vascular endothelium. These results demonstrate the utility of ECA in the discovery of novel genes and pathways affecting infectious disease. PMID:26744416

  19. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology. PMID:18409652

  20. Socio-environmental health analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O’ Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales’s municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA’s) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA’s drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride

  1. STS-1 environmental control and life support system. Consumables and thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS)/thermal systems analysis for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) was performed using the shuttle environmental consumables usage requirements evaluation (SECURE) computer program. This program employs a nodal technique utilizing the Fortran Environmental Analysis Routines (FEAR). The output parameters evaluated were consumable quantities, fluid temperatures, heat transfer and rejection, and cabin atmospheric pressure. Analysis of these indicated that adequate margins exist for the nonpropulsive consumables and related thermal environment.

  2. Analysis Methods of Environmental Induced Anomalies of Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Thirty years after the first evidence of in-flight electrostatic discharges on synchronous spacecraft, they are still a threat. Analysis of anomalies will be always necessary for improving design guidelines and standards. A Ground Control Center dedicated to a Space System is monitoring for the nominal configuration of the spacecraft. An alarm or warning is triggered when the spacecraft gets out of its nominal working state. How to know what happens in flight? An electrostatic discharge is never observed itself but only its permanent consequences. Telemetry data is never designed for detecting unforeseen events, it is only defined for command purpose and good-health diagnosis. Probes are exceptionally implemented on commercial spacecraft to determine the state of environment at the location of the spacecraft at the time of the anomaly. The first step is the elimination of non-environmental causes: electromagnetic interference problem, equipment failure, corona discharge inside a high-voltage powered box, or man-made spurious command. Heavy ions or micrometeoroids are environmental causes with consequences that look like electrostatic discharges, so involving charging needs detailed and exhaustive analysis. The spacecraft-charging anomaly is at the end of a long chain of causes and consequences. Some regions of space have a radiation and particle content able to build up absolute and differential potentials at the surface or inside the spacecraft up to exceeding the breakdown voltage. Charges are released that induce electromagnetic fields in coupling current and voltage transients to cables. The pulses penetrate boxes and propagate along printed circuit board tracks, reaching active devices, upsetting logical devices, saturating amplifiers, or fusing lanes inside integrated circuits. Spacecraft event understanding is the conclusion of three convergent ways of analysis: environmental data, vacuum charging tests, electromagnetic immunity tests. When there is no borne

  3. Global Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Models: Convergence, Robustness and Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, F.; Pianosi, F.; Hartmann, A. J.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis aims to characterize the impact that changes in model input factors (e.g. the parameters) have on the model output (e.g. simulated streamflow). It is a valuable diagnostic tool for model understanding and for model improvement, it enhances calibration efficiency, and it supports uncertainty and scenario analysis. It is of particular interest for environmental models because they are often complex, non-linear, non-monotonic and exhibit strong interactions between their parameters. However, sensitivity analysis has to be carefully implemented to produce reliable results at moderate computational cost. For example, sample size can have a strong impact on the results and has to be carefully chosen. Yet, there is little guidance available for this step in environmental modelling. The objective of the present study is to provide guidelines for a robust sensitivity analysis, in order to support modellers in making appropriate choices for its implementation and in interpreting its outcome. We considered hydrological models with increasing level of complexity. We tested four sensitivity analysis methods, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, Method of Morris, a density-based (PAWN) and a variance-based (Sobol) method. The convergence and variability of sensitivity indices were investigated. We used bootstrapping to assess and improve the robustness of sensitivity indices even for limited sample sizes. Finally, we propose a quantitative validation approach for sensitivity analysis based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics.

  4. The Contribution of Systems Analysis to Training Students in Cognitive Interdisciplinary Skills in Environmental Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuin, K. P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    Professionals in the environmental domain require cognitive interdisciplinary skills to be able to develop sustainable solutions to environmental problems. We demonstrate that education in environmental systems analysis allows for the development of these skills. We identify three components of cognitive interdisciplinary skills: (1) the ability…

  5. Tackling the Dilemma of the Science-Policy Interface in Environmental Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimorelli, Alan J.; Stahl, Cynthia H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientifically derived environmental indicators are central to environmental decision analysis. This article examines the interface between science (environmental indicators) and policy, and the dilemma of their integration. In the past, science has been shown to dominate many policy debates, usually with unfavorable results. The issue, therefore,…

  6. Rethinking Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis of Shared Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research has concluded that the more important environmental influences result in differences between siblings (referred to as "nonshared"; "e[superscript 2]"), whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as "shared"; "c[superscript 2]") are indistinguishable from zero. However, there…

  7. Design and implementation analysis of an environmental regulatory program

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation analytically describes the Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) in the U.E. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from a behavioral science point of view. The research combines an overview of a portion of the culture of EPA, with observation and description of effects of OUST behaviors on policies and practices for attaining compliance over a broad regulatory spectrum. A case study approach, decision-making, trust, and leadership provides an analytical framework for the study. The analysis pulls out some topics that are moving in a different direction from quantitative, positivistic measurement, and focuses on the inner processes which form an organization's character. Emphasis is on the organizational consequences of discretionary actions, and the importance of method and means, and not merely outcomes, in implementation of a public program. Actual numbers of underground storage tanks, including the number of leaking tanks and cleanups completed, are included as background to the more important elements of the study, which address issues of how a complex program is implemented within a turbulent organizational setting. Techniques of the Organization Development (OD) interventionist were used during the research to gain information and draw together several pieces of a modern regulatory program which are not traditionally examined. Process consultation techniques were particularly useful for generating data and to help set the direction of the research. The analysis supports further behavioral research into public programs which draws attention to the process itself, and not only to programmatic outputs. It is expected that an organization can learn to perform at a more effective level through the thoughtful and constructive application of behavioral processes into organizational contexts.

  8. Quantitative SERS sensors for environmental analysis of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Péron, O; Rinnert, E; Toury, T; Lamy de la Chapelle, M; Compère, C

    2011-03-01

    In the investigation of chemical pollutants, such as PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) at low concentration in aqueous medium, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) stands for an alternative to the inherent low cross-section of normal Raman scattering. Indeed, SERS is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique due to the excitation of the surface plasmon modes of the nanostructured metallic film. The surface of quartz substrates was coated with a hydrophobic film obtained by silanization and subsequently reacted with polystyrene (PS) beads coated with gold nanoparticles. The hydrophobic surface of the SERS substrates pre-concentrates non-polar molecules such as naphthalene. Under laser excitation, the SERS-active substrates allow the detection and the identification of the target molecules localized close to the gold nanoparticles. The morphology of the SERS substrates based on polystyrene beads surrounded by gold nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the Raman fingerprint of the polystyrene stands for an internal spectral reference. To this extent, an innovative method to detect and to quantify organic molecules, as naphthalene in the range of 1 to 20 ppm, in aqueous media was carried out. Such SERS-active substrates tend towards an application as quantitative SERS sensors for the environmental analysis of naphthalene. PMID:21165476

  9. Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Joerg; Bethel, E. Wes; Horsman, Jennifer L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Romosan,, Alexandru; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Monroe, Laura; Strelitz, Richard; Moore, Phil; Taylor, Glenn; Torkian, Ben; Johnson, Timothy C.; Gorton, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) currently supports an effort to understand and predict the fate of nuclear contaminants and their transport in natural and engineered systems. Geologists, hydrologists, physicists and computer scientists are working together to create models of existing nuclear waste sites, to simulate their behavior and to extrapolate it into the future. We use visualization as an integral part in each step of this process. In the first step, visualization is used to verify model setup and to estimate critical parameters. High-performance computing simulations of contaminant transport produces massive amounts of data, which is then analyzed using visualization software specifically designed for parallel processing of large amounts of structured and unstructured data. Finally, simulation results are validated by comparing simulation results to measured current and historical field data. We describe in this article how visual analysis is used as an integral part of the decision-making process in the planning of ongoing and future treatment options for the contaminated nuclear waste sites. Lessons learned from visually analyzing our large-scale simulation runs will also have an impact on deciding on treatment measures for other contaminated sites.

  10. Trade-off analysis for environmental projects: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Harrington, K.W.; Capan, D.T.

    1995-08-01

    This is a report with an attached annotated bibliography. This study explores the literature for analytical techniques that can support the complex decision-making process associated with Corps of Engineers environmental projects. The literature review focuses on opportunities for using trade-off methodologies and group processes in environmental plan formulation and evaluation. The work was conducted under the Evaluation Framework Work Unit within the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program.

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fundamental principles of electroanalytical methods based on potentiometry, coulometry, conductance, and voltammetry are reviewed, and examples are given of applications to environmental analyses.

  12. The politics of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research in the U.S. has found that liberals are generally more environmentally concerned than conservatives. The present study explores whether conservatives’ opposition to environmental protection is solely a U.S. or a universal phenomenon and whether this association is contingent on country-level characteristics such as development, environmental conditions, and communist history. Employing data for 19 countries from the ISSP module “Environment II,” this paper explores inter-country variations in the relationship between individual conservatism and environmental concern using multilevel modeling with cross-level interactions. The models reveal a number of intriguing associations. Most important, conservatives’ support for environmental protection varies by country. This variation is a function of country-level characteristics. The strongest opposition of conservatives’ toward environmental protection was observed in developed, capitalist nations, with superior environmental conditions. On the other hand, in less developed countries, and countries characterized by poor environmental quality, conservatives are more environmentally concerned than liberals.

  13. The environmental analysis of helicopter operations by Federal agencies: Current procedures and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. C.; Warner, D. B.; Dajani, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental problems restricting commercial helicopter passenger operations are reviewed. The key considerations for effective assessment procedures are outlined and a preliminary model for the environmental analysis of helicopters is developed. It is recommended that this model, or some similar approach, be used as a common base for the development of comprehensive environmental assessment methods for each of the federal agencies concerned with helicopters. A description of the critical environmental research issues applicable to helicopters is also presented.

  14. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  15. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF PROVISION RULES IN CONJOINT ANALYSIS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL VALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years there has been increasing use of conjoint analysis for environmental valuation. With conjoint analysis applications, respondents are simply asked to reveal their preferences - no published conjoint applications explicitly or implicitly describe how a good will ...

  16. ANALYSIS OF MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we assessed relationships among chemical and physical characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages at stream sites sampled by the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) in...

  17. 15 CFR 970.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... environmental impact statement (EIS) on the issuance of an exploration license, the application must include... applicant. The applicant must present physical, chemical and biological information for the exploration...

  18. 15 CFR 971.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... license EIS, additional exploration data acquired by the applicant, and other data in the public domain.... If the permit area lies within the area of NOAA's Deep Ocean Mining Environmental Study (DOMES),...

  19. 15 CFR 970.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement (EIS) on the issuance of an exploration license, the application must include information for use in preparing NOAA's EIS on the environmental impacts of the activities proposed by the... impacts which may result from the proposed exploration activities. (b) Use conflict information. To...

  20. 15 CFR 970.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement (EIS) on the issuance of an exploration license, the application must include information for use in preparing NOAA's EIS on the environmental impacts of the activities proposed by the... impacts which may result from the proposed exploration activities. (b) Use conflict information. To...

  1. 15 CFR 970.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement (EIS) on the issuance of an exploration license, the application must include information for use in preparing NOAA's EIS on the environmental impacts of the activities proposed by the... impacts which may result from the proposed exploration activities. (b) Use conflict information. To...

  2. Advanced flight design systems subsystem performance models. Sample model: Environmental analysis routine library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. C.; Torian, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A sample environmental control and life support model performance analysis using the environmental analysis routines library is presented. An example of a complete model set up and execution is provided. The particular model was synthesized to utilize all of the component performance routines and most of the program options.

  3. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1991-01-01

    Data analyses of the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) data and computer modeling were conducted to investigate spacecraft environmental effects associated with injection of electron beams, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle orbiter. The data analysis indicates that Extremely Low Frequency oscillations from 150 to 200 Hz were seen in the Langmuir probe current when the beam was fired in a continuous mode. The strongest oscillations occurred when the ambient pressure was augmented by neutral gas releases from the SEPAC plasma accelerator magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) arcjet. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential depends critically on the reflection coefficient of the conductor surface, which is defined as the percentage of incident particles reflected by the conductor. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging were examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. The simulations also indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. It appears that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. A survey of the simulation results suggests that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. These results are useful for explaining the spacecraft charging phenomena observed during SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1.

  4. Preparation steps in environmental trace element analysis - facts and traps.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, M

    2001-07-01

    The laboratory of CERVA is for several decades involved in the Belgian environmental research. The activity was associated to national monitoring programs dealing with trace metal pollution of all compartments of the environment (sea and river waters, sediments and organisms but also soils, plants, animal and food samples). Such a monitoring dealing with the total analyte contents in samples needed a comprehensive development of the whole methodology associated to the analyses using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques. This includes measurement but also preparation steps. The latter is the subject of this work. Long-term experience has shown that precisely sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because it is responsible for the largest and often hidden sources of errors. Errors due to contaminations may be usually overcome if necessary precautions are taken concerning reagents, tools and the manner of working. The problem is different for analyte losses: in this case, the responsible factor is an inappropriate methodology. This is particularly true for preparation of solid samples that have to be brought in a solution in order to satisfy needs of introduction systems of most spectroscopic techniques utilized in routine laboratories. For some types of samples (e.g. animal tissues), the dissolution is not a problem: it may be readily achieved by several procedures. This is not the case for samples that contain silicates in their matrix (e.g. soils, sediments, plants) because their complete dissolution cannot be ensured by a simple procedure. This review describes the present knowledge regarding possibilities and errors that concern preparation steps. In addition, possible effects of the preparation procedure on the quality of measurement are also systematically discussed. PMID:18968324

  5. The unusual Lovina Ataxite: Examination of Meteoritic Microstructures and Terrestrial Weathering by μXRD, Petrography, SEM, INAA and sXRF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, R. L.; McCausland, P. J.; Kissin, S. A.; Corcoran, P. L.; Biesinger, M. C.; McIntyre, N. S.; Fuller, M. L.; Feng, R.

    2009-05-01

    The football-sized 8.2 kg Lovina ataxite is a newly classified iron meteorite that was found in Bali, Indonesia in 1981. Its unusual appearance and strong weathering have, over the years, precluded its being identified as a meteorite. Remarkable features include cm-sized pyramidal projections, or ziggurats, with mm-spaced ribs on its top surface (orientation as discovered) and deep vugs in its lower surfaces. In situ examination of Lovina's weathered ziggurats by micro X-ray diffraction (μXRD revealed that they consisted of two iron alloys: Ni-rich taenite and very Ni-rich awaruite (Ni3Fe). Although this texture is reminiscent of Widmanstätten pattern, kamacite was not observed. Magnetite was frequently observed in association with awaruite, indicating very intense weathering. Micro-XRD of several locations on a polished thin section cut near the weathered surface and a freshly polished surface of Lovina, free of weathering, revealed primarily taenite with minor troilite. Measurement of bulk grain density by He-pycnometry for the 32.5 g type specimen (cut end piece) of Lovina and other iron meteorites found that Lovina's grain density of 7.00+/- 0.02 g/cm3 was significantly less than those found for Canyon Diablo (7.37+/-0.01) and a slightly weathered Mundrabilla fragment (7.20+/-0.01), measurably reflecting the presence of the lower-density weathering products in Lovina. The presence of taenite and troilite suggested that Lovina was an ataxite, as confirmed by correlated SEM X-ray maps, petrographic and bulk INAA analysis. X-ray maps of the thin section confirmed the identities of magnetite, troilite, massive taenite, and located Ni enrichment (awaruite) in the alloy surrounding magnetite in severely weathered areas. Petrographic observations indicated the taenite to be massive, lacking exsolved kamacite spindles, daubreelite and Neumann bands, which are commonly present in ataxites. Abundant globular troilite nodules up to 0.8 mm in diameter are present. Many

  6. SIMULATION MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIMEDIA ANALYSIS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimedia understanding of pollutant behavior in the environment is of particular concern for chemicals that are toxic and are subject to accumulation in the environmental media (air, soil, water, vegetation) where biota and human exposure is significant. Multimedia simulation ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  8. Statistical analysis of real-time, environmental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Spitz, H B; Tomczak, L

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses of radon measurement results were conducted to determine what impact, if any, radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Fernald Environmental Management Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: 1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; 2) the production/administration area; 3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and 4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed in these 4 areas to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant

  9. Stratospheric flight environmental impact: Analysis of trends and tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Hang

    When jetliners fly in the stratosphere, their emissions tend to be longer-lived and therefore have greater environmental impact. Since the bottom of the stratosphere can be lower than the cruise altitude of most commercial flights, the amount of stratospheric emissions must not be overlooked. The impacts of stratospheric emissions are different from tropospheric emissions, and the amount of stratospheric emissions today need to be evaluated. On the other hand, some studies suggest placing more flights into the stratosphere, as flying in the stratosphere can significantly reduce the presence of contrails. The tradeoff between the effect of contrails and that of stratospheric emissions is still unclear, but contrails can often be avoided without entering the stratosphere. In this study, we develop simple quantitative ways of assessing current stratospheric fuel burn using publicly available data, and then we develop a way of assessing stratospheric flight strategies. Our analysis covers 78% of the total travelled distance reported by the United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics, and shows that these flights burned ~ 9 million tons of fuel annually, or ~ 25% of cruise fuel, in the stratosphere between 2008 and 2012. Our results also show that the chance of flying into stratosphere varies by area because of variations in the tropopause height, but flights within the contiguous United States tend to stay below the stratosphere. The stratosphere fuel burn of Asia-US flights may be significantly reduced by taking jet stream routes since the stratosphere is lower near the poles. For the feasibility of contrail avoidance, our result showed that the chance of finding an Ice-Supersaturated-free region within 1000 ft. of the current flight level below the tropopause is significant for mid-latitude regions. We also found that if the region right below the tropopause is occupied by an Ice-Supersaturated Region (ISSR), this ISSR tends to be thicker. Thus, if a flight in

  10. Why do neighbors have different environmental priorities? Analysis of environmental risk perception in a Beirut neighborhood.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Abbas; Nasrallah, Rola; Nuwayhid, Iman; Kai, Lea; Makhoul, Jihad

    2006-04-01

    Differences in environmental priorities within an urban neighborhood of Beirut are analyzed. The explanatory capabilities of five categories of contextual variables are compared: socioeconomic status, locality, health, behavior, and environmental beliefs. Semi-structured interviews with key individuals in the community and residents were first conducted. Four environmental issues of concern were identified. A survey was carried out to identify the relative priority accorded by respondents to these four issues, and to measure variables likely to explain differences of opinion. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for each of the four problems. The 99% confidence interval (CI) of the odds ratio (OR) was used as a test of significance. Respondents suffering from a respiratory disease (OR = 6.94, 99%CI = 1.54-31.25), those living in less crowded houses (OR = 4.88, 99%CI = 1.38-17.24), and those not living close to the neighborhood's industrial street (OR=5.26, 99%CI = 1.01-27.78) are significantly more likely to rank poor air quality first. Significant associations are found between poor water quality as first priority and nonpresence of a smoker in the household (OR = 6.12, 99%CI = 1.84-20.32) and perception of water salinity as a problem (OR = 7.46, 99%CI = 1.50-37.03). Males (OR = 6.94, 99%CI = 1.02-47.62) and tenants versus owners (OR = 10.49, 99%CI = 1.36-80.61) are significantly more likely to rank the residential-industrial mix first. Socioeconomic variables retain their explanatory capability in the studied neighborhood, despite relatively small income disparities. Behavioral variables, such as smoking, may be causative factors of priorities. Analyzing relative priorities, rather than "concern" or lack of it, reveals more complex patterns of association. Identifying environmental-perception divide lines can help develop a more inclusive and effective participatory environmental management. PMID:16573631