Science.gov

Sample records for analytic receiver analysis

  1. ADMX Receiver and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagon, Ana; ADMX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    ADMX looks for the excess radiation deposited into a cavity from the conversion of a dark matter axion into a microwave photon. The sensitivity of the experiment increases by reducing the background thermal noise and minimizing the electronic noise of the readout system. The axion masses that the experiment can detect are determined by the resonant frequency of the cavity mode of interest, which is tuned using a two rod configuration. One can also increase the search rate by measuring the output from two cavity modes at once, which requires two separate readout schemes. I will discuss the ADMX dual-channel receiver which has been upgraded to have near quantum-limited sensitivity on both channels, and describe how the correct modes are verified, using simulations, in the presence of dense electromagnetic structure. I conclude by describing upgrades to the ADMX analysis which allow for real-time exclusion limits. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  2. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  3. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  4. Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.

  5. Receiver Functions Analysis across the Northen Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bona, M.; Lucente, F. P.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Selvaggi, G.; Levin, V.; Park, J.

    2001-12-01

    The syn-collisional extension of the Northern Apennines is well established mainly from tomographic images, active faulting and geological data. A step forward in understanding how this process began, and how is going on, is the modelling of dynamic processes causing syn-collision extension. This requires the knowledge of several, still lacking, geometric characteristics of the deep structure. Among these, crustal structure, depth and geometry of main discontinuities is priority for dynamic modelling. For this reason, we deployed 10 continuosly recording broad-band seismic stations from Corsica to the Adriatic coast for five months during the past millennium, with the aim to apply receiver function analysis, to gain refined tomographic images, and to explore anisotropic characteristics of the upper mantle. We recorded several tens of teleseismic events with magnitude larger than 5.0 (up to Mw=8.3) with a good azimuthal coverage. Receiver functions are performed for teleseisms in the epicentral distance interval between 30° and 100° through classical frequency-domain deconvolution. Following the approach developed by Di Bona (1998), we could provide a variance estimate for single receiver function, assessing the statistical accuracy of amplitudes. This procedure allows us to use small magnitude events (Mb=5.0) generally excluded from receiver function analyses. Results show that individual converted arrivals have a large consistency for each station. The best receiver functions will be inverted for fine crustal structure following the inversion scheme proposed by Sambridge (1998). Finally, the dataset has been provided to the Dept. Of Geology and Geophysics (Yale University) with the aim to compare independent estimate of receiver functions (see Levin et al., this session).

  6. Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, H.

    1983-07-01

    Before discussing Deep Space Network receivers, a brief description of the functions of receivers and how they interface with other elements of the Network is presented. Different types of receivers are used in the Network for various purposes. The principal receiver type is used for telemetry and tracking. This receiver provides the capability, with other elements of the Network, to track the space probe utilizing Doppler and range measurements, and to receive telemetry, including both scientific data from the onboard experiments and engineering data pertaining to the health of the probe. Another type of receiver is used for radio science applications. This receiver measures phase perturbations on the carrier signal to obtain information on the composition of solar and planetary atmospheres and interplanetary space. A third type of receiver utilizes very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques for both radio science and spacecraft navigation data. Only the telemetry receiver is described in detail in this document. The integration of the Receiver-Exciter subsystem with other portions of the Deep Space Network is described.

  7. Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, H.

    1983-01-01

    Before discussing Deep Space Network receivers, a brief description of the functions of receivers and how they interface with other elements of the Network is presented. Different types of receivers are used in the Network for various purposes. The principal receiver type is used for telemetry and tracking. This receiver provides the capability, with other elements of the Network, to track the space probe utilizing Doppler and range measurements, and to receive telemetry, including both scientific data from the onboard experiments and engineering data pertaining to the health of the probe. Another type of receiver is used for radio science applications. This receiver measures phase perturbations on the carrier signal to obtain information on the composition of solar and planetary atmospheres and interplanetary space. A third type of receiver utilizes very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques for both radio science and spacecraft navigation data. Only the telemetry receiver is described in detail in this document. The integration of the Receiver-Exciter subsystem with other portions of the Deep Space Network is described.

  8. Analysis of Optimum Heterodyne Receivers for Coherent Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2002-01-01

    A full analysis of the combined effects of all the noise sources of optical heterodyne receiver and the interaction between the competing control parameters of the receiver detector and pre-amplifier will be presented. This analysis provides the mean for true optimization of the coherent lidar receiver. The significance of the optimization of heterodyne receiver is shown for 2-micron coherent lidar.

  9. Phenol Analysis -- Some Analytical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, R. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of potable water supplies with halogenated phenols in concentrations of 2-10 parts per billion (ppb) produces objectionable tastes and odors capable of influencing consumer acceptability. Routine analysis by the distillation/ 4-aminoantipyrine method is limited by lack of sensitivity and subject to interference by aryl amines. This has been overcome by developing a continuous liquid-liquid extraction system to selectively isolate phenols and eliminate major interfering substances. Stable reagents have been formulated to reduce blank color and extend sensitivity. Equipment suitable for analysis of phenols at the 1 ppb level or less in 20 minutes is described.

  10. CFD analysis of coverplate receiver flow

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, O.; Zimmermann, H.; Kutz, J.

    1998-01-01

    The flow field in a preswirled cooling air supply to a turbine rotor has been investigated by means of CFD simulations. Coefficients for system efficiency are derived. The influences of various geometric parameters for different configurations have been correlated with the help of appropriate coefficients. For some of the most important geometric parameters of the coverplate receiver, design recommendations have been made. For the preswirl nozzles, the potential of efficiency improvement by contour design is highlighted.

  11. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JULY 22, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Best, D.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the boron oxide content of the colemanite raw aggregate material prior to it being mixed into the concrete. SRNL received ten samples of colemanite for analysis on July 22, 2013. The elemental boron content of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The boron oxide content was calculated using the oxide conversion factor for boron.

  12. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JULY 22, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Best, D.

    2013-08-13

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the boron oxide content of the colemanite raw aggregate material prior to it being mixed into the concrete. SRNL received ten samples of colemanite for analysis on July 22, 2013. The elemental boron content of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The boron oxide content was calculated using the oxide conversion factor for boron.

  13. Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model. PMID:24808167

  14. Analytical Results For MOX Colemanite Concrete Samples Received On September 4, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-09-24

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received three samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on September 4, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  15. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON SEPTEMBER 4, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received three samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on September 4, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  16. Analytical Results For MOX Colemanite Concrete Samples Received On November, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-12-18

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received two samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on November 21, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  17. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON NOVEMBER 21, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received two samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on November 21, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  18. The Relation of Perceived and Received Social Support to Mental Health among First Responders: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    There are plenty of theories that may support the protective role of social support in the aftermath of potentially traumatic events. This meta-analytic review examined the role of received and perceived social support in promoting mental health among first responders (e.g., firefighters, police officers, and paramedics or emergency medical…

  19. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation. [analytical instrumentation, materials performance, and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information is presented covering the areas of: (1) analytical instrumentation useful in the analysis of physical phenomena; (2) analytical techniques used to determine the performance of materials; and (3) systems and component analyses for design and quality control.

  20. Received optical power calculations for optical communications link performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, W. K.; Burk, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The factors affecting optical communication link performance differ substantially from those at microwave frequencies, due to the drastically differing technologies, modulation formats, and effects of quantum noise in optical communications. In addition detailed design control table calculations for optical systems are less well developed than corresponding microwave system techniques, reflecting the relatively less mature state of development of optical communications. Described below are detailed calculations of received optical signal and background power in optical communication systems, with emphasis on analytic models for accurately predicting transmitter and receiver system losses.

  1. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  2. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JANUARY 15, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Best, D.

    2013-02-13

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received twelve samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on January 15, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1311, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the hydrogen partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. All of the samples met or exceeded the boron partial density lower bound with the exception of samples G3-M11-2000-H, G3-M11-3000-M, and G5-M1-3000-H which are below the limit of 1.65E-01 g/cm3.

  3. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON JANUARY 15, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received twelve samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on January 15, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the hydrogen partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. All of the samples met or exceeded the boron partial density lower bound with the exception of samples G3-M11-2000-H, G3-M11-3000-M, and G5-M1-3000-H which are below the limit of 1.65E-01 g/cm{sup 3}.

  4. Analytical and experimental performance evaluation of an integrated Si-photonic balanced coherent receiver in a colorless scenario.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Poulin, Michel; Painchaud, Yves; Pelletier, Martin; Paquet, Carl; Plant, David V

    2014-03-10

    We study analytically and experimentally the performance limits of a Si-photonic (SiP) balanced coherent receiver (CRx) co-packaged with transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) in a colorless WDM scheme. Firstly, the CRx architecture is depicted and characterization results are presented. Secondly, an analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the CRx output is rigorously developed and various noise sources in the context of colorless reception are outlined. Thirdly, we study experimentally the system-level CRx performance in colorless reception of 16 × 112 Gbps PDM-QPSK WDM channels. Using a 15.5 dBm local oscillator (LO) power, error free transmissions over 4800 and 4160 km at received powers of -3 and -21 dBm per channel, respectively, were achieved in a fully colorless and preamplifierless reception. Next, a set of measurements on one of the center WDM channels is performed where the LO power, received signal power, distance, and number of channels presented to the CRx are swept to evaluate the performance limits of colorless reception. Results reveal that the LO beating with optical noise incoming with the signal is a dominant noise source regardless of received signal power. In the high received signal power regime (~0 dBm/channel), the self-beat noise from out-of-band (OOB) channels is an additional major noise source especially for small LO-to-signal power ratio, short reach and large number of OOB channels. For example, at a received signal power of 0 dBm/channel after 1600 km transmission, the SNR difference between the fully filtered and colorless scenarios, where 1 and 16 channels are passed to the CRx respectively, grows from 0.5 to 3.3 dB as the LO power changes from 12 to 0 dBm. For low received power (~-12 dBm/channel), the effect of OOB channels becomes minor while the receiver shot and thermal noises become more significant. We identify the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and sensitivity as the two important CRx specifications that

  5. Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; DeNap, Frank A; Potok, Thomas E; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  6. Structural analysis of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Stone, C. M.

    1991-06-01

    Coupled thermal-structural finite element calculations of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver were performed to characterize the operating stresses and to address issues affecting the service life of the receiver. Analyses performed using shell elements provided information for receiver material selection and design optimization. Calculations based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles were performed using continuum elements to assess the vulnerability of a seam-weld to fatigue crack growth. All calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose finite element code, and elements specifically formulated for coupled thermal-structural analysis. Two materials were evaluated: 316L SS and Haynes 230 alloys. The receiver response was simulated for a combination of structural and thermal loads that represent the startup and operating conditions of the receiver. For both materials, maximum stresses in the receiver developed shortly after startup due to uneven temperature distribution across the receiver surface. The largest effective stress was near yield in the 316L SS receiver and below 39 percent of yield in the Haynes 230 receiver. The calculations demonstrated that stress reductions of over 25 percent could be obtained by reducing the aft dome thickness to one closer to the absorber. The fatigue calculations demonstrated that the stress distribution near the seam-weld notch depends primarily on the structural load created by internal pressurization of the receiver rather than the thermal, indicating that the thermal loads can be neglected when assessing the stress intensity near the seam-weld notch. The stress intensity factor, computed using the J-integral method and crack opening-displacement field equations, was significantly below the fatigue threshold for most steels. The calculations indicated that the weld notch was always loaded in compression, a condition which is not conducive to fatigue crack growth.

  7. Structural analysis of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.; Stone, C.M.

    1991-06-01

    Coupled thermal-structural finite element calculations of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver were performed to characterize the operating stresses and to address issues affecting the service life of the receiver. Analyses performed using shell elements provided information for receiver material selection and design optimization. Calculations based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles were performed using continuum elements to assess the vulnerability of a seam-weld to fatigue crack growth. All calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose finite element code, and elements specifically formulated for coupled thermal-structural analysis. Two materials were evaluated: 316L SS and Haynes 230 alloys. The receiver response was simulated for a combination of structural and thermal loads that represent the startup and operating conditions of the receiver. For both materials, maximum stresses in the receiver developed shortly after startup due to uneven temperature distribution across the receiver surface. The largest effective stress was near yield in the 316L SS receiver and below 39 percent of yield in the Haynes 230 receiver. The calculations demonstrated that stress reductions of over 25 percent could be obtained by reducing the aft dome thickness to one closer to the absorber. The fatigue calculations demonstrated that the stress distribution near the seam-weld notch depends primarily on the structural load created by internal pressurization of the receiver rather than the thermal, indicating that the thermal loads can be neglected when assessing the stress intensity near the seam-weld notch. The stress intensity factor, computed using the J-integral method and crack opening-displacement field equations, was significantly below the fatigue threshold for most steels. The calculations indicated that the weld notch was always loaded in compression, a condition which is not conducive to fatigue crack growth. 15 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Green analytical method development for statin analysis.

    PubMed

    Assassi, Amira Louiza; Roy, Claude-Eric; Perovitch, Philippe; Auzerie, Jack; Hamon, Tiphaine; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Green analytical chemistry method was developed for pravastatin, fluvastatin and atorvastatin analysis. HPLC/DAD method using ethanol-based mobile phase with octadecyl-grafted silica with various grafting and related-column parameters such as particle sizes, core-shell and monolith was studied. Retention, efficiency and detector linearity were optimized. Even for column with particle size under 2 μm, the benefit of keeping efficiency within a large range of flow rate was not obtained with ethanol based mobile phase compared to acetonitrile one. Therefore the strategy to shorten analysis by increasing the flow rate induced decrease of efficiency with ethanol based mobile phase. An ODS-AQ YMC column, 50 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm was selected which showed the best compromise between analysis time, statin separation, and efficiency. HPLC conditions were at 1 mL/min, ethanol/formic acid (pH 2.5, 25 mM) (50:50, v/v) and thermostated at 40°C. To reduce solvent consumption for sample preparation, 0.5mg/mL concentration of each statin was found the highest which respected detector linearity. These conditions were validated for each statin for content determination in high concentrated hydro-alcoholic solutions. Solubility higher than 100mg/mL was found for pravastatin and fluvastatin, whereas for atorvastatin calcium salt the maximum concentration was 2mg/mL for hydro-alcoholic binary mixtures between 35% and 55% of ethanol in water. Using atorvastatin instead of its calcium salt, solubility was improved. Highly concentrated solution of statins offered potential fluid for per Buccal Per-Mucous(®) administration with the advantages of rapid and easy passage of drugs. PMID:25582487

  9. Finite Element Analysis of the LOLA Receiver Telescope Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzinger, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element stress and distortion analysis completed on the Receiver Telescope lens of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). LOLA is one of six instruments on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), scheduled to launch in 2008. LOLA's main objective is to produce a high-resolution global lunar topographic model to aid in safe landings and enhance surface mobility in future exploration missions. The Receiver Telescope captures the laser pulses transmitted through a diffractive optical element (DOE) and reflected off the lunar surface. The largest lens of the Receiver Telescope, Lens 1, is a 150 mm diameter aspheric lens originally designed to be made of BK7 glass. The finite element model of the Receiver Telescope Lens 1 is comprised of solid elements and constrained in a manner consistent with the behavior of the mounting configuration of the Receiver Telescope tube. Twenty-one temperature load cases were mapped to the nodes based on thermal analysis completed by LOLA's lead thermal analyst, and loads were applied to simulate the preload applied from the ring flexure. The thermal environment of the baseline design (uncoated BK7 lens with no baffle) produces large radial and axial gradients in the lens. These large gradients create internal stresses that may lead to part failure, as well as significant bending that degrades optical performance. The high stresses and large distortions shown in the analysis precipitated a design change from BK7 glass to sapphire.

  10. Analytical Evaluation of Bit Error Rate Performance of a Free-Space Optical Communication System with Receive Diversity Impaired by Pointing Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazrul Islam, A. K. M.; Majumder, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Analysis is carried out to evaluate the conditional bit error rate conditioned on a given value of pointing error for a Free Space Optical (FSO) link with multiple receivers using Equal Gain Combining (EGC). The probability density function (pdf) of output signal to noise ratio (SNR) is also derived in presence of pointing error with EGC. The average BER of a SISO and SIMO FSO links are analytically evaluated by averaging the conditional BER over the pdf of the output SNR. The BER performance results are evaluated for several values of pointing jitter parameters and number of IM/DD receivers. The results show that, the FSO system suffers significant power penalty due to pointing error and can be reduced by increasing in the number of receivers at a given value of pointing error. The improvement of receiver sensitivity over SISO is about 4 dB and 9 dB when the number of photodetector is 2 and 4 at a BER of 10-10. It is also noticed that, system with receive diversity can tolerate higher value of pointing error at a given BER and transmit power.

  11. Rectangular shape distributed piezoelectric actuator: analytical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bohua; Qiu, Yan

    2004-04-01

    This paper is focused on the development of distributed piezoelectric actuators (DPAs) with rectangular shapes by using PZT materials. Analytical models of rectangular shape DPAs have been constructed in order to analyse and test the performance of DPA products. Firstly, based on the theory of electromagnetics, DPAs have been considered as a type of capacitor. The charge distributed density on the interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), which has been applied in the actuators, and the capacitance of the DPAs have been calculated. The accurate distribution and intensity of electrical field in DPA element have also been calculated completely. Secondly, based on the piezoelectric constitutive relations and the compound plates theory, models for mechanical strain and stress fields of DPAs have been developed, and the performances of rectangular shape DPAs have been discussed. Finally, on the basis of the models that have been developed in this paper, an improved design of a rectangular shape DPA has been discussed and summed up. Due to the minimum hypotheses that have been used during the processes of calculation, the characteristics of this paper are that the accurate distribution and intensity of electrical fields in DPAs have been concluded. The proposed accurate calculations have not been seen in the literature, and can be used in DPA design and manufacture processes in order to improve mechanical performance and reduce the cost of DPA products in further applications. In this paper, all the processes of analysis and calculation have been done by MATLAB and MathCAD. The FEM results used for comparison were obtained using the ABAQUS program.

  12. Finite element analysis of the LOLA receiver telescope lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzinger, Elizabeth A.

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the finite element stress and distortion analysis completed on the receiver telescope lens of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). LOLA is one of six instruments on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), scheduled to launch in 2008. LOLA's main objective is to produce a high-resolution global lunar topographic model to aid in safe landings and enhance surface mobility in future exploration missions. A receiver telescope captures the laser pulses transmitted through a diffractive optical element (DOE) and reflected off the lunar surface. The largest lens of the receiver telescope was modeled with solid elements and constrained in a manner consistent with the behavior of the mounting configuration. Twenty-one temperature load cases were mapped to the nodes based on thermal analysis completed by LOLA's lead thermal analyst, and loads were applied to simulate the preload applied from the ring flexure. The thermal environment of the baseline design produces large radial and axial gradients in the lens. These large gradients create internal stresses that may lead to part failure, as well as significant bending that degrades optical performance. The high stresses and large distortions shown in the analysis precipitated a design change from BK7 glass to sapphire.

  13. Wavelet and receiver operating characteristic analysis of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffery, G.; Griffith, T. M.; Naka, K.; Frennaux, M. P.; Matthai, C. C.

    2002-02-01

    Multiresolution wavelet analysis has been used to study the heart rate variability in two classes of patients with different pathological conditions. The scale dependent measure of Thurner et al. was found to be statistically significant in discriminating patients suffering from hypercardiomyopathy from a control set of normal subjects. We have performed Receiver Operating Characteristc (ROC) analysis and found the ROC area to be a useful measure by which to label the significance of the discrimination, as well as to describe the severity of heart dysfunction.

  14. UV Lidar Receiver Analysis for Tropospheric Sensing of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of a ground based Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) receiver system was performed under realistic daytime conditions to understand how range and lidar performance can be improved for a given UV pulse laser energy. Calculations were also performed for an aerosol channel transmitting at 3 W. The lidar receiver simulation studies were optimized for the purpose of tropospheric ozone measurements. The transmitted lidar UV measurements were from 285 to 295 nm and the aerosol channel was 527-nm. The calculations are based on atmospheric transmission given by the HITRAN database and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological data. The aerosol attenuation is estimated using both the BACKSCAT 4.0 code as well as data collected during the CALIPSO mission. The lidar performance is estimated for both diffuseirradiance free cases corresponding to nighttime operation as well as the daytime diffuse scattered radiation component based on previously reported experimental data. This analysis presets calculations of the UV-DIAL receiver ozone and aerosol measurement range as a function of sky irradiance, filter bandwidth and laser transmitted UV and 527-nm energy

  15. Single Cell Analysis of a Bacterial Sender-Receiver System.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Tiago; Meyer, Andrea; Mückl, Andrea; Kapsner, Korbinian; Gerland, Ulrich; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring gene expression dynamics on the single cell level provides important information on cellular heterogeneity and stochasticity, and potentially allows for more accurate quantitation of gene expression processes. We here study bacterial senders and receivers genetically engineered with components of the quorum sensing system derived from Aliivibrio fischeri on the single cell level using microfluidics-based bacterial chemostats and fluorescence video microscopy. We track large numbers of bacteria over extended periods of time, which allows us to determine bacterial lineages and filter out subpopulations within a heterogeneous population. We quantitatively determine the dynamic gene expression response of receiver bacteria to varying amounts of the quorum sensing inducer N-3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (AHL). From this we construct AHL response curves and characterize gene expression dynamics of whole bacterial populations by investigating the statistical distribution of gene expression activity over time. The bacteria are found to display heterogeneous induction behavior within the population. We therefore also characterize gene expression in a homogeneous bacterial subpopulation by focusing on single cell trajectories derived only from bacteria with similar induction behavior. The response at the single cell level is found to be more cooperative than that obtained for the heterogeneous total population. For the analysis of systems containing both AHL senders and receiver cells, we utilize the receiver cells as 'bacterial sensors' for AHL. Based on a simple gene expression model and the response curves obtained in receiver-only experiments, the effective AHL concentration established by the senders and their 'sending power' is determined. PMID:26808777

  16. Single Cell Analysis of a Bacterial Sender-Receiver System

    PubMed Central

    Mückl, Andrea; Kapsner, Korbinian; Gerland, Ulrich; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring gene expression dynamics on the single cell level provides important information on cellular heterogeneity and stochasticity, and potentially allows for more accurate quantitation of gene expression processes. We here study bacterial senders and receivers genetically engineered with components of the quorum sensing system derived from Aliivibrio fischeri on the single cell level using microfluidics-based bacterial chemostats and fluorescence video microscopy. We track large numbers of bacteria over extended periods of time, which allows us to determine bacterial lineages and filter out subpopulations within a heterogeneous population. We quantitatively determine the dynamic gene expression response of receiver bacteria to varying amounts of the quorum sensing inducer N-3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (AHL). From this we construct AHL response curves and characterize gene expression dynamics of whole bacterial populations by investigating the statistical distribution of gene expression activity over time. The bacteria are found to display heterogeneous induction behavior within the population. We therefore also characterize gene expression in a homogeneous bacterial subpopulation by focusing on single cell trajectories derived only from bacteria with similar induction behavior. The response at the single cell level is found to be more cooperative than that obtained for the heterogeneous total population. For the analysis of systems containing both AHL senders and receiver cells, we utilize the receiver cells as ‘bacterial sensors’ for AHL. Based on a simple gene expression model and the response curves obtained in receiver-only experiments, the effective AHL concentration established by the senders and their ‘sending power’ is determined. PMID:26808777

  17. Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…

  18. Correlation analysis between ionospheric scintillation levels and receiver tracking performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.; Forte, B.

    2012-06-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a transionospheric radio signal caused by small scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere are known as scintillation. Scintillation can seriously impair a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver tracking performance, thus affecting the required levels of availability, accuracy and integrity, and consequently the reliability of modern day GNSS based applications. This paper presents an analysis of correlation between scintillation levels and tracking performance of a GNSS receiver for GPS L1C/A, L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The analyses make use of data recorded over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. The study presents for the first time this type of correlation analysis for GPS L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The scintillation levels are defined by the amplitude scintillation index, S4 and the receiver tracking performance is evaluated by the phase tracking jitter. Both S4 and the phase tracking jitter are estimated from the post correlation In-Phase (I) and Quadra-Phase (Q) components logged by the receiver at a high rate. Results reveal that the dependence of the phase tracking jitter on the scintillation levels can be represented by a quadratic fit for the signals. The results presented in this paper are of importance to GNSS users, especially in view of the forthcoming high phase of solar cycle 24 (predicted for 2013).

  19. Analytical analysis of particle-core dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri K

    2010-01-01

    Particle-core interaction is a well-developed model of halo formation in high-intensity beams. In this paper, we present an analytical solution for averaged, single particle dynamics, around a uniformly charged beam. The problem is analyzed through a sequence of canonical transformations of the Hamiltonian, which describes nonlinear particle oscillations. A closed form expression for maximum particle deviation from the axis is obtained. The results of this study are in good agreement with numerical simulations and with previously obtained data.

  20. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  1. Activated Corrosion Product Analysis. Analytical Approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Busby, Jeremy T; Stoller, Roger E

    2010-01-01

    The presence of activated corrosion products (ACPs) in a water cooling system is a key factor in the licensing of ITER and affects nuclear classification, which governs design and operation. The objective of this study is to develop a method to accurately estimate radionuclide concentrations during ITER operation in support of nuclear classification. A brief overview of the PACTITER numerical code, which is currently used for ACP estimation, is presented. An alternative analytical approach for calculation of ACPs, which can also be used for validation of existing numerical codes, including PACTITER, has been proposed. A continuity equation describing the kinetics of accumulation of radioactive isotopes in a water cooling system in the form of a closed ring has been formulated, taking into account the following processes: production of radioactive elements and their decay, filtration, and ACP accumulation in filter system. Additional work is needed to more accurately assess the ACP inventory in the cooling water system, including more accurate simulation of the Tokamak cooling water system (TCWS) operating cycle and consideration of material corrosion, release, and deposition rates.

  2. Receive Mode Analysis and Design of Microstrip Reflectarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally microstrip or printed reflectarrays are designed using the transmit mode technique. In this method, the size of each printed element is chosen so as to provide the required value of the reflection phase such that a collimated beam results along a given direction. The reflection phase of each printed element is approximated using an infinite array model. The infinite array model is an excellent engineering approximation for a large microstrip array since the size or orientation of elements exhibits a slow spatial variation. In this model, the reflection phase from a given printed element is approximated by that of an infinite array of elements of the same size and orientation when illuminated by a local plane wave. Thus the reflection phase is a function of the size (or orientation) of the element, the elevation and azimuth angles of incidence of a local plane wave, and polarization. Typically, one computes the reflection phase of the infinite array as a function of several parameters such as size/orientation, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence, and in some cases for vertical and horizontal polarization. The design requires the selection of the size/orientation of the printed element to realize the required phase by interpolating or curve fitting all the computed data. This is a substantially complicated problem, especially in applications requiring a computationally intensive commercial code to determine the reflection phase. In dual polarization applications requiring rectangular patches, one needs to determine the reflection phase as a function of five parameters (dimensions of the rectangular patch, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence, and polarization). This is an extremely complex problem. The new method employs the reciprocity principle and reaction concept, two well-known concepts in electromagnetics to derive the receive mode analysis and design techniques. In the "receive mode design" technique, the reflection phase is computed

  3. GOCE SSTI GNSS Receiver Re-Entry Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, A.; Zago, S.; Scaciga, L.; Marradi, L.; Floberghagen, R.; Fehringer, M.; Bigazzi, A.; Piccolo, A.; Luini, L.

    2015-03-01

    Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was an ESA Earth Explorer mission dedicated to the measure of the Earth Gravity field. The Spacecraft has been launched in 2009 and the re-entry in atmosphere happened at the end of 2013 [1]. The mean orbit altitude was set to 260 km to maximize the ultra-sensitive accelerometers on board. GOCE was equipped with two main payloads: the Electrostatic Gravity Gradiometer (EGG), a set of six 3-axis accelerometers able to measure the gravity field with unrivalled precision and then to produce the most accurate shape of the ‘geoid’ and two GPS receivers (nominal and redundant), used as a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking Instrument (SSTI) to geolocate the gradiometer measurements and to measure the long wavelength components of the gravity field with an accuracy never reached before. Previous analyses have shown that the Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of the GOCE satellite, derived by processing the dual-frequency SSTI data (carrier phases and pseudoranges) are at the “state-of-art” of the GPS based POD: kinematic Orbits Average of daily 3D-RMS is 2,06 cm [2]. In most cases the overall accuracy is better than 2 cm 3D RMS. Moreover, the “almost continuous” [2] 1 Hz data availability from the SSTI receiver is unique and allows for a time series of kinematic positions with only 0.5% of missing epochs [2]. In October 2013 GOCE mission was concluded and in November the GOCE spacecraft re-entered in the atmosphere. During the re-entry phase the two SSTI receivers have been switched on simultaneously in order to maximize the data availability. In summer 2013, the SSTI firmware was tailored in order to sustain additional dynamic error (tracking loops robustness), expected during the re-entry phase. The SW was uploaded on SSTI-B (and purposely not on SSTI-A). Therefore this was an unique opportunity to compare a “standard” receiver behaviour (SSTI-A) with an improved one (SSTI-B) in the challenging reentry phase

  4. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  5. Receiver operating characteristic analysis improves diagnosis by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.Z.; Forman, M.B.; Vaugh, W.K.; Sandler, M.P.; Kronenberg, M.W.

    1985-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) evaluates continuous variables to define diagnostic criteria for the optimal sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of a test. The authors studied exercise-induced chest pain (CP), ST-changes on electrocardiography (ECG) and rest-exercise gated radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) using ROC to clarify the optimal criteria for detecting myocardial ischemia due to coronary artherosclerosis (CAD). The data of 95 consecutive patients studied with coronary angiography, rest-exercise RVG and ECG were reviewed. 77 patients had ''significant'' CAD (greater than or equal to50% lesions). Exercise-induced CP, ECG abnormalities (ST-T shifts) and RVG abnormalities (change in ejection fraction, 2-view regional wall motion change and relative end-systolic volume) were evaluated to define optimal SENS/SPEC of each and for the combined data. ROC curves were constructed by multiple logistic regression (MLR). By MLR, RVG alone was superior to ECG and CP. The combination of all three produced the best ROC curve for the entire group and for clinical subsets based on the number of diseased vessels and the presence or absence of prior myocardial infarction. When CP, ECG and RVG were combined, the optimal SENS/SPEC for detection of single vessel disease was 88/86. The SENS/SPEC for 3 vessel disease was 93/95. Thus, the application of RVG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is improved with the inclusion of ECG and CP data by the use of a multiple logistic regression model. ROC analysis allows clinical application of multiple data for diagnosing CAD at desired SENS/SPEC rather than by arbitrary single-standard criteria.

  6. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA.

    PubMed

    Barends, D M; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Nauta, M J

    2012-05-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring of severity. In an example, the results of traditional FMEA of a Near Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for the screening of suspected counterfeited tablets are re-interpretated by this probabilistic modification of FMEA. Using this probabilistic modification of FMEA, the frequency of occurrence of undetected failure mode(s) can be estimated quantitatively, for each individual failure mode, for a set of failure modes, and the full analytical procedure. PMID:22410502

  7. Reflections on the Nature of Analysis and Some Analytical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, D. F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Before a meaningful account can be given of scholarly communication an investigation of the nature of "analytical skills" is required--the aim of this article. It sets out to come to terms with the meaning of analysis by showing that it rests on two mutually cohering features, namely identifying and distinguishing. Since identification implies…

  8. Analysis and simulation of an integrated optical receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Maha Saad

    2001-07-01

    Low latency, high bandwidth interconnection networks that directly link arbitrary pairs of processing elements without contention are desirable for parallel computers. The S_imultaneous O_ptical M_ultiprocessor E_xchange B_us based (SOME-Bus) on a fiber optic interconnect is such a network [21]. In the SOME-Bus, each processor can receive data simultaneously from all other processors in the system using an array of receiver. The receiver array is conceived as a single VLSI chip which has regular electrical connections to the processor and which takes input from all of the other processors through the optical fibers that lie on top of the die. This digital receiver should be integrated with the analog conditioning circuit which will accept the output from the photodetector and provide good digital signals to the receiver element [29]. The integration of the digital receiver element and the analog conditioning circuit in one chip reduces the layout area of the design and the cost. However, this integration gives rise to substrate noise problems. This noise is caused mainly by two factors: capacitive coupling and ground bounce. The ability to construct such a receiver with the lowest possible noise is a key to the success of the SOME-Bus system. In this dissertation, rapid modeling using HSPICE for substrate effect, capacitive coupling noise, and guard ring, as a solution for capacitive coupling noise, are presented. Also, a power based model is used to model the ground bounce noise problem. These models help in the early stages of the design to ascertain the system feasibility. Simulation results for these models indicate that the different sources of digital noise could be kept under control and do not significantly degrade the performance of the receiver element. Therefore, it is found that the designed receiver could be successfully fabricated.

  9. Complexity analysis of simulations with analytic bond-order potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teijeiro, Carlos; Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Seiser, Bernhard; Drautz, Ralf; Sutmann, Godehard

    2016-02-01

    The modeling of materials at the atomistic level with interatomic potentials requires a reliable description of different bonding situations and relevant system properties. For this purpose, analytic bond-order potentials (BOPs) provide a systematic and robust approximation to density functional theory (DFT) and tight binding (TB) calculations at reasonable computational cost. This paper presents a formal analysis of the computational complexity of analytic BOP simulations, based on a detailed assessment of the most computationally intensive parts. Different implementation algorithms are presented alongside with optimizations for efficient numerical processing. The theoretical complexity study is complemented by systematic benchmarks of the scalability of the algorithms with increasing system size and accuracy level of the BOP approximation. Both approaches demonstrate that the computation of atomic forces in analytic BOPs can be performed with a similar scaling as the computation of atomic energies.

  10. Analytical study of seismic effects of a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the seismic effects experienced by a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods. Ten concrete towers are modeled with the empty solar receiver structure and loaded solar receiver structure to examine the tower seismic effects on the solar receiver. The fundamental periods of the towers range from 0.22 seconds to 4.58 seconds, with heights ranging from 40.5 meters to 200 meters. Thirty earthquake ground motion records are used to investigate the responses of each of the combined receiver-on-tower models as well as the receiver-on-ground models by the STAAD Pro software using time history analyses. The earthquake ground motion records are chosen based on the ratio of the peak ground acceleration to the peak ground velocity, ranging from 0.29 g/m/s to 4.88 g/m/s. For each of the combined models, the base shear at the interface between the receiver and the concrete tower is compared with the base shear of the receiver-on-ground model, and the ratio of the two base shears represents the structure amplification factor. It is found that the peak mean plus one standard deviation value of the structure amplification factor matches well with equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 for the empty solar receiver structure. However, when the solar receiver structure is loaded with dead loads, the peak value is greatly suppressed, and using equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 will be overly conservative.

  11. Fiber alignment analysis of a receiver with integrated MEMS VOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Hickey, Ryan; Irwin, Rob; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhengxuan

    2006-09-01

    The structure of the optical path of a novel VOA integrated receiver is presented. The method to enhance the attenuation performance of the Receiver is described in detail. The standard coplanar package module exhibits a fluent attenuation curve and can achieve more than -20dB attenuation at ~ 6.5V drive voltage. S21, S22 performance and specifications of the module are explained in the paper. All these features provide customers considerable benefits, including high quality, low power consumption and cost, board real estate flexibility and ease of use.

  12. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/system-performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co-analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  13. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  14. Design and Analysis of a Hyperspectral Microwave Receiver Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Hancock, T.; Leslie, R.; Osaretin, I.; Shields, M.; Racette, P.; Hillard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral microwave (HM) sounding has been proposed to achieve unprecedented performance. HM operation is achieved using multiple banks of RF spectrometers with large aggregate bandwidth. A principal challenge is Size/Weight/Power scaling. Objectives of this work: 1) Demonstrate ultra-compact (100 cm3) 52-channel IF processor (enabler); 2) Demonstrate a hyperspectral microwave receiver subsystem; and 3) Deliver a flight-ready system to validate HM sounding.

  15. Mars orbiter laser altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Abshire, J B; Sun, X; Afzal, R S

    2000-05-20

    The design, calibration, and performance of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) receiver are described. The MOLA measurements include the range to the surface, which is determined by the laser-pulse time of flight; the height variability within the footprint determined by the laser echo pulse width; and the apparent surface reflectivity determined by the ratio of the echo to transmitted pulse energies. PMID:18345159

  16. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  17. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  18. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  19. Receiver Function Analysis of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, J. H.; Powell, C. A.; Langston, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present receiver/transfer functions determined for a seismic network associated with an active, intraplate seismic zone. Basement studies within eastern Tennessee are sparse despite the fact that these rocks host the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and are associated with an extensive aeromagnetic lineament called the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament. The NY-AL lineament is prominent in eastern Tennessee, with a SW-NE trend, and is characterized by a lateral change in magnetic and gravity anomalies in a NW to SE direction; high magnetic and low gravity anomalies lie west of the lineament, while low magnetic and high gravity anomalies are located east of the lineament. The NY-AL lineament is thought to be an ancient strike-slip fault that is reactivating in the present day stress field. A better understanding of the basement structure within the ETSZ will aid in the assessment of its seismic hazard potential. A network maintained by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis is located within the study area and consists of 23 short-period and three broadband seismometers. An additional station (TZTN) is maintained by IRIS and is included in our dataset. Receiver functions are computed using teleseismic earthquakes within a 30°-90° epicentral distance, at hypocentral depths greater than 30 km, and with magnitudes greater than Mw 6.0. A vertical component stack is used to obtain the best source function. A spectral waterlevel deconvolution is then used to calculate the receiver functions. Results indicate a thickening of the crust west of the NY-AL lineament and show vertical variation within the crust and upper mantle with abrupt polarity changes and strong positive and negative amplitude values. Crustal structure west of the NY-AL lineament appears to be much more complex than that east of the NY-AL lineament.

  20. Risk analysis by FMEA as an element of analytical validation.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, J F; Nauta, M J; de Kaste, D; Odekerken-Rombouts, Y M C F; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Barends, D M

    2009-12-01

    We subjected a Near-Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for screening drugs on authenticity to a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), including technical risks as well as risks related to human failure. An FMEA team broke down the NIR analytical method into process steps and identified possible failure modes for each step. Each failure mode was ranked on estimated frequency of occurrence (O), probability that the failure would remain undetected later in the process (D) and severity (S), each on a scale of 1-10. Human errors turned out to be the most common cause of failure modes. Failure risks were calculated by Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs)=O x D x S. Failure modes with the highest RPN scores were subjected to corrective actions and the FMEA was repeated, showing reductions in RPN scores and resulting in improvement indices up to 5.0. We recommend risk analysis as an addition to the usual analytical validation, as the FMEA enabled us to detect previously unidentified risks. PMID:19640668

  1. The performance analysis of linux networking - packet receiving

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; Bowden, Mark; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    The computing models for High-Energy Physics experiments are becoming ever more globally distributed and grid-based, both for technical reasons (e.g., to place computational and data resources near each other and the demand) and for strategic reasons (e.g., to leverage equipment investments). To support such computing models, the network and end systems, computing and storage, face unprecedented challenges. One of the biggest challenges is to transfer scientific data sets--now in the multi-petabyte (10{sup 15} bytes) range and expected to grow to exabytes within a decade--reliably and efficiently among facilities and computation centers scattered around the world. Both the network and end systems should be able to provide the capabilities to support high bandwidth, sustained, end-to-end data transmission. Recent trends in technology are showing that although the raw transmission speeds used in networks are increasing rapidly, the rate of advancement of microprocessor technology has slowed down. Therefore, network protocol-processing overheads have risen sharply in comparison with the time spent in packet transmission, resulting in degraded throughput for networked applications. More and more, it is the network end system, instead of the network, that is responsible for degraded performance of network applications. In this paper, the Linux system's packet receive process is studied from NIC to application. We develop a mathematical model to characterize the Linux packet receiving process. Key factors that affect Linux systems network performance are analyzed.

  2. Learning Geospatial Analysis Skills with Consumer-Grade GPS Receivers and Low Cost Spatial Analysis Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis technologies are increasingly important tools for all aspects of forest resource management. Field work previously accomplished with map, compass, and engineers' scale is now being augmented, or superseded, by the use of GPS and GIS. Professional-grade GPS receivers and commercial GIS software are preferred for their accuracy and…

  3. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  4. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  5. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado

    2016-07-01

    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by ~ 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near ~ 20°S has a deeper Moho at ~ 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at ~ 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  6. Receiver function analysis of crustal structure beneath northeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Shen, Y.; Li, H.; Shi, D.; Sandvol, E. A.; Li, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has been the prime site to understand the processes of continental collision, mountain building, and the interaction between tectonics. More detailed studies of crustal structure in northeast Tibet can be of great benefit to the understanding of crustal deformation and plateau growth mechanisms. We investigat crustal structure beneath 64 seismic stations in the northeast Tibet using the receiver function method to estimate the crustal thickness by analyzing the collected three-component teleseismic data recorded by 29 stations between June, 2008 and July, 2010 deployed by China University of Geosciences and 35 Ascent stations deployed between May, 2007 and August, 2008. The distributions of the crustal thickness have a good correlation with the known geological tectonic features. The images of Moho depth suggests the lateral variations of the crustal thickness decreasing from the northeastern margin of the Tibet (~70 km) to the Ordos Block (~40 km). The observations disagree with the crustal composition beneath the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Our results of crustal structure in this study area not only reveal the lateral inhomogeneity of the crustal structure but also provide some constraints on understanding the mechanism of uplift and crustal thickening of the Tibet and insights into the geodynamic process between the Tibet and its adjacent blocks.

  7. An Analytical Solution for Predicting Transient Seepage into Partially Penetrating Ditch Drains Receiving Water from a Ponded Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Gautam; Sarmah, Ratan

    2016-02-01

    A transient analytical model is worked out for predicting seepage from a ponded field of infinite extent to a network of equally spaced ditch drains in a homogeneous and anisotropic soil underlain by an impervious barrier at a finite distance from the surface of the soil. The solution can account for finite width and finite level of water in the ditches, finite penetration of the drains in the soil, and also a variable ponding field at the surface of the soil. The study highlights the fact that the transient state duration of a partially penetrating ponded drainage scenario may be considerable should the drains be dug in a lowly conductive soil with a high storage coefficient, particularly if the underlying impervious layer lies at a large distance from the bottom of the ditches and the separation between the adjacent ditches is also large at the same time.

  8. LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS FOR CONDENSATE RECEIVING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Russell E. Flye

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the life-cycle costs of several options relevant to the Condensate Removal System serving the Compressed Air System (CAS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The best option (least present value) will be selected as the preferred configuration to construct.

  9. Crustal structure beneath China from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youlin; Niu, Fenglin; Liu, Ruifeng; Huang, Zhibin; TkalčIć, Hrvoje; Sun, Li; Chan, Winston

    2010-03-01

    We collected and processed a large amount of high-quality broadband teleseismic waveform data recorded by the 48 Chinese National Digital Seismic Network stations to estimate large-scale lateral variations of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio (hence Poisson's ratio) beneath China. A statistical method was used to select mutually coherent receiver functions at each station, which yielded over 200 traces for most of the stations. With the conventional H-κ (the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio) approach, there is a large trade-off between H and κ. Consequently, multiple maxima are frequently observed in the H-κ domain. We introduced a weight function that measures the coherence between the P-to-S conversion and the reverberation phases at each H-κ grid to reduce the trade-off. A 4th-root stacking method was further applied to reduce uncorrelated noise relative to the linear stack. These modifications turned out to be very effective in reducing the H-κ trade-off and yielded reliable estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. The crust beneath eastern China is as thin as 31-33 km and the underlying Moho is relatively flat and sharp. In the western part of China, the crust is considerably thicker and shows large variations. The Moho is observed at about 51 km depth along the Tian Shan fold system and about 84 km deep beneath the central part of the Tibetan Plateau. The transition occurs at the so-called N-S belt between about 100° and 110°E, which is featured by unusually high seismicity and large gravity anomalies. The average Vp/Vs ratio over the mainland China crust is about 1.730 (σ = 0.249), significantly lower than the global average 1.78 (σ = 0.27) of the continental crust. This lower Vp/Vs ratio may suggest a general absence of mafic lowermost crustal layer beneath China.

  10. Design, demonstration and analysis of a modified wavelength-correlating receiver for incoherent OCDMA system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng; Qiu, Kun; Wang, Leyang

    2011-03-28

    A novel wavelength-correlating receiver for incoherent Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Enabled by the wavelength conversion based scheme, the proposed receiver can support various code types including one-dimensional optical codes and time-spreading/wavelength-hopping two dimensional codes. Also, a synchronous detection scheme with time-to- wavelength based code acquisition is proposed, by which code acquisition time can be substantially reduced. Moreover, a novel data-validation methodology based on all-optical pulse-width monitoring is introduced for the wavelength-correlating receiver. Experimental demonstration of the new proposed receiver is presented and low bit error rate data-receiving is achieved without optical hard limiting and electronic power thresholding. For the first time, a detailed theoretical performance analysis specialized for the wavelength-correlating receiver is presented. Numerical results show that the overall performance of the proposed receiver prevails over conventional OCDMA receivers. PMID:21451629

  11. Gravity field error analysis: Applications of GPS receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the Earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3 to 10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85 respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  12. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  13. ANALYTICAL GALAXY PROFILES FOR PHOTOMETRIC AND LENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Spergel, David N.

    2010-11-15

    This article introduces a family of analytical functions of the form x {sup {nu}} K {sub {nu}}(x), where K {sub {nu}} is the incomplete Bessel function of the third kind. This family of functions can describe the density profile, projected and integrated light profiles, and the gravitational potentials of galaxies. For the proper choice of parameters, these functions accurately approximate Sersic functions over a range of indices and are good fits to galaxy light profiles. With an additional parameter corresponding to a galaxy core radius, these functions can fit galaxy like M87 over a factor of 10{sup 5} in radius. Unlike Sersic profiles, these functions have simple analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional Fourier transforms, so they are easily convolved with spatially varying point-spread function (PSF) and are well suited for photometric and lensing analysis. We use these functions to estimate the effects of seeing on lensing measurements and show that high S/N measurements, even when the PSF is larger than the galaxy effective radius, should be able to recover accurate estimates of lensing distortions by weighting light in the outer isophotes that are less affected by seeing.

  14. Analysis and design methodology for the development of optimized, direct-detection CO{sub 2} DIAL receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Cafferty, M.

    1996-12-31

    The analysis methodology and corresponding analytical tools for the design of optimized, low-noise, hard target return CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) receiver systems implementing both single element detectors and multi-pixel imaging arrays for passive/active, remote-sensing applications are presented. System parameters and components composing the receiver include: aperture, focal length, field of view, cold shield requirements, image plane dimensions, pixel dimensions, pixel pitch and fill factor, detection quantum efficiency, optical filter requirements, amplifier and temporal sampling parameters. The performance analysis is accomplished by calculating the system`s CO{sub 2} laser range response, total noise, optical geometric form factor and optical resolution. The noise components include speckle, photon noise due to signal, scene and atmospheric background, cold shield, and electronic noise. System resolution is simulated through cascaded optical transfer functions and includes effects due to atmosphere, optics, image sampling, and system motion. Experimental results of a developmental single-element detector receiver designed to detect 100 ns wide laser pulses (10 - 100 kHz pulse repetition rates) backscattered from hard-targets at nominal ranges of 10 km are presented. The receiver sensitivity is near-background noise limited, given an 8.5-11.5 {mu}m radiant optical bandwidth, with the total noise floor spectrally white for maximum pulse averaging efficiency.

  15. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to

  16. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  17. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; SwanII, J. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Jankun-Kelly, T.J.

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  18. Analytical analysis of single- and three-phase induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The analysis of single and multiphase induction motors continues to represent a challenge to researchers in computational electromagnetics due to the presence of r{Omega} x B electric fields. This contribution cannot be inserted into the Green`s function for boundary element codes; finite difference and finite element approaches are forced to hard code these effects, compensating at high speeds with upwinding techniques. The direct computation of these affects using transfer relations in a linear environment offers an analytical backdrop both for benchmark testing numerical codes and for design assessment criteria. In addition to torque-speed predictions, the terminal relations and total power dissipation in the rotor are computed for an exposed winding three-phase and single-phase machine.

  19. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; SwanII, J. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Jankun-Kelly, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today s increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today s data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. This chapter provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  20. Analytical framework for recurrence network analysis of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence networks are a powerful nonlinear tool for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. While there are already many successful applications ranging from medicine to paleoclimatology, a solid theoretical foundation of the method has still been missing so far. Here, we interpret an ɛ-recurrence network as a discrete subnetwork of a “continuous” graph with uncountably many vertices and edges corresponding to the system's attractor. This step allows us to show that various statistical measures commonly used in complex network analysis can be seen as discrete estimators of newly defined continuous measures of certain complex geometric properties of the attractor on the scale given by ɛ. In particular, we introduce local measures such as the ɛ-clustering coefficient, mesoscopic measures such as ɛ-motif density, path-based measures such as ɛ-betweennesses, and global measures such as ɛ-efficiency. This new analytical basis for the so far heuristically motivated network measures also provides an objective criterion for the choice of ɛ via a percolation threshold, and it shows that estimation can be improved by so-called node splitting invariant versions of the measures. We finally illustrate the framework for a number of archetypical chaotic attractors such as those of the Bernoulli and logistic maps, periodic and two-dimensional quasiperiodic motions, and for hyperballs and hypercubes by deriving analytical expressions for the novel measures and comparing them with data from numerical experiments. More generally, the theoretical framework put forward in this work describes random geometric graphs and other networks with spatial constraints, which appear frequently in disciplines ranging from biology to climate science.

  1. Focused analyte spray emission apparatus and process for mass spectrometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2012-01-17

    An apparatus and process are disclosed that deliver an analyte deposited on a substrate to a mass spectrometer that provides for trace analysis of complex organic analytes. Analytes are probed using a small droplet of solvent that is formed at the junction between two capillaries. A supply capillary maintains the droplet of solvent on the substrate; a collection capillary collects analyte desorbed from the surface and emits analyte ions as a focused spray to the inlet of a mass spectrometer for analysis. The invention enables efficient separation of desorption and ionization events, providing enhanced control over transport and ionization of the analyte.

  2. Low noise 22 GHz receiver for the radioastron satellite. Part 1: Requirements, design and reliability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piironen, P.; Mallat, J.; Raeisaenen, A.

    1994-03-01

    Radioastron project, initiated in 1985, is an international collaborative mission to launch a space research satellite carrying a radio telescope to an elliptical orbit around the Earth. The telescope comprises a 10 meter antenna and four two-channel VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) receivers at different frequencies built by project participants. This report presents principles of interferometry, VLBI system requirements, receiver requirements, principles and solutions for space qualified design and a reliability analysis for the cooled zz GHz receiver. The most important receiver design objectives have been low noise, good phase stability and high reliability.

  3. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  4. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  5. Linking TEM analytical spectroscopies for an assumptionless compositional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kothleitner, Gerald; Grogger, Werner; Dienstleder, Martina; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2014-06-01

    The classical implementation for putting quantitative figures on maps to reveal elemental compositions in transmission electron microscopy is by analytical methods like X-ray and energy-loss spectroscopy. Typically, the technique in use often depends on whether lighter or heavier elements are present and-more practically-which calibrations are available or sample-related properties are known. A framework linking electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) signals such that absolute volumetric concentrations can be derived without assumptions made a priori about the unknown sample, is largely missing. In order to combine both techniques and harness their respective potentials for a light and heavy element analysis, we have set up a powerful hardware configuration and implemented an experimental approach, which reduces the need for estimates on many parameters needed for quantitative work such as densities, absolute thicknesses, theoretical ionization cross-sections, etc. Calibrations on specimens with known geometry allow the measurement of inelastic mean free paths. As a consequence, mass-thicknesses obtained from the EDX ζ-factor approach can be broken up and quantities like concentrations and partial energy-differential ionization cross-sections become accessible. ζ-factors can then be used for conversion into EELS cross-sections that are hard to determine otherwise, or conversely, connecting EDXS and EELS in a quantitative manner quite effectively. PMID:24598412

  6. CFD analysis of supercritical CO2 used as HTF in a solar tower receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, M. I.; Fernández-Reche, J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative cost of a solar receiver can be minimized by the selection of an appropriate heat transfer fluid capable of achieving high receiver efficiencies. In a conventional central receiver system, the concentrated solar energy is transferred from the receiver tube walls to the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which passes through a heat exchanger to generate steam for a Rankine cycle. Thus, higher working fluid temperature is associated with greater efficiency in receiver and power cycle. Emerging receiver designs that can enable higher efficiencies using advanced power cycles, such as supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) closed-loop Brayton cycles, include direct heating of s-CO2 in tubular receiver designs capable of withstanding high internal fluid pressures (around 20 MPa) and temperatures (900 K). Due to the high pressures required and the presence of moving components installed in pipelines (ball-joints and/or flexible connections), the use of s-CO2 presents many technical challenges due to the compatibility of seal materials and fluid leakages of the moving connections. These problems are solved in solar tower systems because the receiver is fixed. In this regard, a preliminary analysis of a tubular receiver with s-CO2 as HTF has been developed using the design of a molten-salt receiver which was previously tested at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). Therefore, a simplified CFD model has been carried out in this study in order to analyze the feasibility of s-CO2 as HTF in solar towers. Simulation results showed that the heat gained by s-CO2 was around 75% greater than the one captured by molten salts (fluid inlet temperature of 715 K), but at a pressure range of 7.5-9.7 MPa. Thus, the use of s-CO2 as HTF in solar tower receivers appears to be a promising alternative, taking into account both the operating conditions required and their maintenance cost.

  7. Unifying Approach to Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Analysis: Problem-Oriented Role of Chemical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Harry L.; Woo, Jannie

    1984-01-01

    Proposes an approach to teaching analytical chemistry and chemical analysis in which a problem to be resolved is the focus of a course. Indicates that this problem-oriented approach is intended to complement detailed discussions of fundamental and applied aspects of chemical determinations and not replace such discussions. (JN)

  8. Fast gas chromatography for pesticide residues analysis using analyte protectants.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Michal; Húsková, Renáta; Matisová, Eva; Mocák, Ján

    2008-04-01

    Fast GC-MS with narrow-bore columns combined with effective sample preparation technique (QuEChERS method) was used for evaluation of various calibration approaches in pesticide residues analysis. In order to compare the performance of analyte protectants (APs) with matrix-matched standards calibration curves of selected pesticides were searched in terms of linearity of responses, repeatability of measurements and reached limit of quantifications utilizing the following calibration standards in the concentration range 1-500 ng mL(-1)(the equivalent sample concentration 1-500 microg kg(-1)): in neat solvent (acetonitrile) with/without addition of APs, matrix-matched standards with/without addition of APs. For APs results are in a good agreement with matrix-matched standards. To evaluate errors of determination of concentration synthetic samples at concentration level of pesticides 50 ng mL(-1) (50 microg kg(-1)) were analyzed and quantified using the above given standards. For less troublesome pesticides very good estimation of concentration was obtained utilizing APs, while for more troublesome pesticides such as methidathion, malathion, phosalone and deltamethrin significant overestimation reaching up to 80% occurred. According to presented results APs can be advantegously used for "easy" pesticides determination. For "difficult" pesticides an alternative calibration approach is required for samples potentially violating MRLs. An example of real sample measurement is shown. In this paper also the use of internal standards (triphenylphosphate (TPP) and heptachlor (HEPT)) for peak areas normalization is discussed in terms of repeatability of measurements and quantitative data obtained. TPP normalization provided slightly better results than the use of absolute peak areas measurements on the contrary to HEPT. PMID:17920613

  9. Performance analysis and receiver architectures of DCF77 radio-controlled clocks.

    PubMed

    Engeler, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    DCF77 is a longwave radio transmitter located in Germany. Atomic clocks generate a 77.5-kHz carrier which is amplitude- and phase-modulated to broadcast the official time. The signal is used by industrial and consumer radio-controlled clocks. DCF77 faces competition from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which provides higher accuracy time. Still, DCF77 and other longwave time services worldwide remain popular because they allow indoor reception at lower cost, lower power, and sufficient accuracy. Indoor longwave reception is challenged by signal attenuation and electromagnetic interference from an increasing number of devices, particularly switched-mode power supplies. This paper introduces new receiver architectures and compares them with existing detectors and time decoders. Simulations and analytical calculations characterize the performance in terms of bit error rate and decoding probability, depending on input noise and narrowband interference. The most promising detector with maximum-likelihood time decoder displays the time in less than 60 s after powerup and at a noise level of E(b)/N(0) = 2.7 dB, an improvement of 20 dB over previous receivers. A field-programmable gate array-based demonstration receiver built for the purposes of this paper confirms the capabilities of these new algorithms. The findings of this paper enable future high-performance DCF77 receivers and further study of indoor longwave reception. PMID:22622972

  10. Design analysis and containment canister life prediction for a Brayton engine solar receiver for Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Strumpf, H.J.; Avanessian, V.; Ghafourian, R. )

    1994-08-01

    A study has been conducted on the design and development of a solar receiver to be used for electrical power production for Space Station. The receiver incorporates integral thermal storage, using a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF[sub 2] as a solid-to-liquid phase-change material (PCM). The design comprises a cylindrical receiver cavity. The walls of the cavity are lined with a series of working fluid tubes running the length of the cavity. The PCM is enclosed in individual, sealed metallic containment canisters which are stacked and brazed to the tubes. The compartmentalization of the PCM localizes void formation upon freezing. An additional attribute of compartmentalization is that a containment canister failure affects only that canister; the receiver continues to operate with only a minute loss of capacity. Nevertheless, a considerable effort has been expended to ensure that the containment canisters will survive a 30-year life. A detailed analytical procedure was developed to evaluate the canister creep strain accumulated in 30 years. This accumulated creep strain, which is in the range of 0.03 to 0.79 percent, compares favorably with the preliminary value of four percent for the canister material allowable 30-year creep rupture ductility.

  11. Performance enhancement of rake-receiver using continuous and discrete wavelet transforms analysis through NLOS propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayadh, Rashid A.; Malek, F.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Dawood, Sameer A.; Abdullah, Farah Salwani

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, three levels of analysis and synthesis filter banks were used to create coefficients for a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The main property of these wavelet transform schemes is their ability to construct the transmitted signal across a log-normal fading channel over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Wireless rake-receiver structure was chosen as a major application to reduce the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and to minimize the noise. In this work, a new scheme of rake receiver is proposed to receive indoor, multi-path components (MPCs) for ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems. Rake receivers consist of a continuous wavelet rake (CW-rake) and a discrete wavelet rake (DW-rake), and they use huge bandwidth (7.5 GHz), as reported by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The indoor channel models chose for analysis in this research were the non line-of-sight (LOS) channel model (CM4 from 4 to 10 meters) to show the behavior of bit error rate (BER) with respect to signal-to noise ratio (SNR). Two types of rake receiver were used in the simulation, i.e., partial-rake and selective-rake receivers with the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique to capture the energy of the signal from the output of the rake's fingers.

  12. Performance Analysis of Receive Diversity in Wireless Sensor Networks over GBSBE Models

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shivali; Abawajy, Jemal H.; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have attracted a lot of attention recently. In this paper, we develop a channel model based on the elliptical model for multipath components involving randomly placed scatterers in the scattering region with sensors deployed on a field. We verify that in a sensor network, the use of receive diversity techniques improves the performance of the system. Extensive performance analysis of the system is carried out for both single and multiple antennas with the applied receive diversity techniques. Performance analyses based on variations in receiver height, maximum multipath delay and transmit power have been performed considering different numbers of antenna elements present in the receiver array, Our results show that increasing the number of antenna elements for a wireless sensor network does indeed improve the BER rates that can be obtained. PMID:22163510

  13. Solar thermal central receiver integrated commercialization analysis. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F.; Bos, P.B.; Weingart, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The report presents brief discussions on the following topics: (1) value analysis computer program; (2) levelized busbar energy cost computation; (3) electric utility avoided cost; and (4) commercial solar tax credits. Each topic is in reference to the integrated commercialization of solar thermal central receivers. (BCS)

  14. Applying Bayesian Modeling and Receiver Operating Characteristic Methodologies for Test Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiu; Diemer, Matthew A.; Maier, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated Bayesian hierarchical modeling and receiver operating characteristic analysis (BROCA) to evaluate how interest strength (IS) and interest differentiation (ID) predicted low–socioeconomic status (SES) youth's interest-major congruence (IMC). Using large-scale Kuder Career Search online-assessment data, this study fit three…

  15. An experimental analysis of a doped lithium fluoride direct absorption solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Pollak, Tom; Lacy, Dovie

    1988-01-01

    An experimental analysis of two key elements of a direct absorption solar receiver for use with Brayton solar dynamic systems was conducted. Experimental data are presented on LiF crystals doped with dysprosium, samarium, and cobalt fluorides. In addition, a simulation of the cavity/window environment was performed and a posttest inspection was conducted to evaluate chemical reactivity, transmissivity, and condensation rate.

  16. Application of Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis for Analytical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Toh, Yosuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Oshima, Masumi

    1999-12-31

    Feasibility of application of the multidimensional {gamma} ray spectroscopy for analytical chemistry was examined. Two reference igneous rock (JP-1, JB-1a) samples issued by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) were irradiated at a research reactor with thermal neutrons, and {gamma} rays from the radioisotopes produced by neutron capture reactions were measured using a {gamma}-ray detector array. Simultaneously 27 elements were observed with no chemical separation.

  17. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  18. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  19. Application of differential analysis of VLF signals for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection from multiple receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, Christos; Zaharis, Zaharias; Xenos, Thomas; Contadakis, Michael; Stratakis, Dimitrios; Tommaso, Maggipinto; Biagi, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the application of differential analysis on VLF signals emitted from a single transmitter and received by multiple stations in order to filter and detect disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena. The cross-correlation analysis applied on multiple VLF signals provides a way of discerning the nature of a given disturbance and accounts for more widespread geomagnetic interferences compared to local precursor phenomena. For the purpose of this paper, data acquired in Thessaloniki (40.59N, 22,78E) and in Heraklion (35.31N, 25.10E) from the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station Lat. 40.923, Lon. 9.731) for a period of four months (September 2014 - December 2014) are used. The receivers have been developed by Elettronika Srl and are part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). A normalization process and an improved variant of the Hilbert-Huang transform are initially applied to the received VLF signals. The signals derived from the first two Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF1 and IMF2) undergo a cross-correlation analysis and, in this way, time series from the two receivers can be compared. The efficacy of the processing method and the results produced by the proposed process are then discussed. Finally, results are presented along with an evaluation of the discrimination and detection capabilities of the method on disturbances of the received signals. Based upon the results, the merits of such a processing method are discussed to further improve the current method by using differential analysis to better classify between different disturbances but, more importantly, discriminate between points of interest in the provided spectra. This could provide an improved method of detecting disturbances attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena and also contribute to a real-time method for correlating seismic activity with the observed disturbances.

  20. Nonlinear thermal and structural analysis of a brazed solar-central-receiver panel

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.; Kanouff, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    One part of the evaluation program for a molten sodium central receiver was to be a test of a reduced-scale panel at Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque. The panel incorporates a new way of joining tubes - brazing to intermediate filler strips - which can affect the panel's lifetime. To calculate the stresses and strains for the worst-case section of the experimental panel, we have done a nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with the MARC finite element computer code, which takes the temperature dependence of the material properties into account. From the results, tube design lifetimes are predicted. The analysis shows that concerns for cracking and reduction in lifetime are warranted, but a more detailed fracture analysis is necessary to determine whether there is a stable-crack-growth problem.

  1. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    position (AP=H/D) were used to characterize the different configurations of Cavity Receiver and it was found that the Cavity Receiver with AR=0.5 and AP=0.53 has the maximum capability to utilize the solar heat to attain the maximum temperature of the heat pipe receiver. Experimental heat loss analysis at low temperature for different configurations of the cavity receiver was performed and air film temperature profiles along the wall height (H) of the cavity receiver were determined. Since sodium heat pipes operate at high temperature (973K), there are huge possibilities of radiation and convection heat losses for direct solar heating of the heater head. Therefore mathematical modeling of heat loss analysis and its numerical solution at high temperature was also included in the research objectives. 2-D axisymmetric model with weakly compressible Navier Stokes equation and general heat conduction and convection equations were simultaneously solved using the finite element method approach. Computational fluid dynamics package COMSOL 3.5a was used as a numerical tool. The temperature, and flow field pattern inside the cavity receiver were also visualized by means of surface contours. Heat loss analysis were performed for different configurations of Cavity Receiver and the numerical solution of different configuration showed that the aperture ratio (AR) plays a significant role for convection and radiation heat losses whereas the aperture position (AP) effects are negligible.

  2. An Analysis of the Effects of RFID Tags on Narrowband Navigation and Communication Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBerge, E. F. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The simulated effects of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag emissions on ILS Localizer and ILS Glide Slope functions match the analytical models developed in support of DO-294B provided that the measured peak power levels are adjusted for 1) peak-to-average power ratio, 2) effective duty cycle, and 3) spectrum analyzer measurement bandwidth. When these adjustments are made, simulated and theoretical results are in extraordinarily good agreement. The relationships hold over a large range of potential interference-to-desired signal power ratios, provided that the adjusted interference power is significantly higher than the sum of the receiver noise floor and the noise-like contributions of all other interference sources. When the duty-factor adjusted power spectral densities are applied in the evaluation process described in Section 6 of DO-294B, most narrowband guidance and communications radios performance parameters are unaffected by moderate levels of RFID interference. Specific conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  3. Cross-correlation analysis and interpretation of spaced-receiver measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, E.; Fougere, P.F.; Basu, S.

    1988-04-01

    Two algorithms that provide a statistical treatment to the estimation of the parameters of the cross-correlation analysis of spaced-receiver data are reviewed. Their results are compared using signals transmitted by a quasi-stationary polar beacon and received at Goose Bay, Labrador; and transmitted by the orbiting Hilat satellite and received at Tromso, Norway. A good general agreement is displayed in this comparison. The former experiment indicates the possibility of extreme daily variations in the anisotropy of the ground diffraction pattern and in the true drift velocity of the in-situ irregularities. The latter experiment displays geometrical enhancements in the intensity scintillation index S sub 4, in the rms phase fluctuation sigma/sub phi/ and in the axial ration of the ellipse which characterizes the anisotropy of the ground-diffraction pattern, around the region of local L shell alignment of the ray paths. Increases of these parameters also are observed northward of Tromso. These observations are thus consistent with a morphological model for anisotropy of high-latitude nighttime F-region irregularities proposed in the literature. A possible dependence of the results of the spaced-receiver measurements on the receiver baselines is discussed. It is argued that this mechanism could be responsible for the relatively small values of the anisotropy of the diffraction pattern obtained from the Hilat measurements at Tromso.

  4. Canonical Correlation Analysis as a General Analytical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper focuses on three aspects related to the conceptualization and application of canonical correlation analysis as a dominant statistical model: (1) partial canonical correlation analysis and its application in statistical testing; (2) the relation between canonical correlation analysis and discriminant analysis; and (3) the relation…

  5. Imaging the Crustal and Subducted Slab Structure Beneath Puerto Rico Using Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The determination of earthquake locations are dependent on the velocity model selected. Consequently, the refinement and updating of the velocity models used at the local and regional network level is a critical component for network efficiency through location accuracy. With the expansion of broadband instruments within the Puerto Rico -Virgin Islands region, updating the velocity model is a current long term goal of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). As a first step to this long term goal, receiver functions of ~20 broadband stations with data between 2010 and 2015 were calculated using iterative time domain deconvolution. The receiver function analysis not only provides insight into the crustal velocity structure but also leads to a better understanding of the region's larger tectonic structure. Preliminary results of the receiver function analysis exhibit evidence of a "slab signal"; the receiver function backazimuth sweeps for some stations particularly on the northern side of the island contain a strong P to S conversion at approximately 7 seconds which likely corresponds to the top of the slab beneath Puerto Rico. This strong slab signal implies that simple 1-D analyses of the data (e.g. H-K stacking) may lead to misleading results. To further understand the crustal structure of PRVI, we employ a 3D common-conversion-point analysis. This analysis yields a Moho beneath the island between 32-42km and a possible southward dipping slab structure between 60-80km depth. Further analysis is needed to determine the 2D or 3D velocity structure of Puerto Rico and the surrounding environs such as waveform modeling. Given the current geometry of the available array, detailed imaging of the slab and mantle wedge beneath Puerto Rico is limited. PRSN is currently seeking to install denser temporary networks to improve local imaging that will help understand the nature of the crust, mantle wedge and slab structure beneath the island as well as the structure's influence

  6. Organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Hoopes, V.; Rau, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the status of organic analyses and developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-103 (Tank 103-SY). The analytical data are to serve as an example of the status of methods development and application. Samples of the convective and nonconvective layers from Tank 103-SY were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The TOC value obtained for the nonconvective layer using the hot persulfate method was 10,500 {mu}g C/g. The TOC value obtained from samples of Tank 101-SY was 11,000 {mu}g C/g. The average value for the TOC of the convective layer was 6400 {mu}g C/g. Chelator and chelator fragments in Tank 103-SY samples were identified using derivatization. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic components were quantified using GC/flame ionization detection. Major components in both the convective and nonconvective-layer samples include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), succinic acid, nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), citric acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). Preliminary results also indicate the presence of C16 and C18 carboxylic acids in the nonconvective-layer sample. Oxalic acid was one of the major components in the nonconvective layer as determined by derivatization GC/flame ionization detection.

  7. Mirrored Modified Howland Circuit for Bioimpedance Applications: Analytical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Negri, L. H.; Felipe, A.; Vincence, V. C.

    2012-12-01

    Multifrequency Electrical Bioimpedance (MEB) has been widely used as a non-invasive technique for characterizing tissues. Most MEB systems use wideband current sources for injecting current to load and instrumentation amplifiers for measuring the resultant potential. Current sources should present intrinsically high output impedance in a very wide frequency range. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of the Mirrored Modified Howland Current Source (MMHCS) by comparing the analytical solution with the SPICE simulation. It was implemented four MMHCS circuits by using four different operational amplifiers each one. The output current was set to 1 mAp (peak) in the frequency from 1 Hz to 100 MHz. Both techniques presented similar results at lower frequencies. It can be concluded that the output impedance of the circuit is highly dependent of the open-loop gain of the operation amplifier. The analytical solution showed that it is possible to project a current source by using only theirs output current and impedance equations.

  8. Preliminary Analysis of the CASES GPS Receiver Performance during Simulated Seismic Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa-Perkins, A.; Reynolds, A.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the ability of a new GPS software receiver, called CASES (Connected Autonomous Space Environment Sensor), to measure seismic displacements in realtime. Improvements in GPS technology over the last 20 years allow for precise measurement of ground motion during seismic events. For example, GPS data has been used to calculate displacement histories at an earthquake's epicenter and fault slip estimations with great accuracy. This is supported by the ability to measure displacements directly using GPS, bypassing the double integration that accelerometers require, and by higher clipping limits than seismometers. The CASES receiver developed by ASTRA in collaboration with Cornell University and the University of Texas, Austin represents a new geodetic-quality software-based GPS receiver that measures ionospheric space weather in addition to the usual navigation solution. To demonstrate, in a controlled environment, the ability of the CASES receiver to measure seismic displacements, we simulated ground motions similar to those generated during earthquakes, using a shake box instrumented with an accelerometer and a GPS antenna. The accelerometer measured the box's actual displacement. The box moved on a manually controlled axis that underwent varied one-dimensional motions (from mm to cm) at different frequencies and amplitudes. The CASES receiver was configured to optimize the accuracy of the position solution. We quantified the CASES GPS receiver performance by comparing the GPS solutions against the accelerometer data using various statistical analysis methods. The results of these tests will be presented. The CASES receiver is designed with multiple methods of accessing the data in realtime, ranging from internet connection, blue-tooth, cell-phone modem and Iridium modem. Because the CASES receiver measures ionospheric space weather in addition to the usual navigation solution, CASES provides not only the seimic signal, but also the ionospheric space weather

  9. Application of surface analytical methods in thin film analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingu

    Self-assembly and the sol-gel process are two promising methods for the preparation of novel materials and thin films. In this research, these two methods were utilized to prepare two types of thin films: self-assembled monolayers of peptides on gold and SiO2 sol-gel thin films modified with Ru(II) complexes. The properties of the resulting thin films were investigated by several analytical techniques in order to explore their potential applications in biomaterials, chemical sensors, nonlinear optics and catalysis. Among the analytical techniques employed in the study, surface analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing angle reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RA-FTIR), are particularly useful in providing information regarding the compositions and structures of the thin films. In the preparation of peptide thin films, monodisperse peptides were self-assembled on gold substrate via the N-terminus-coupled lipoic acid. The film compositions were investigated by XPS and agreed well with the theoretical values. XPS results also revealed that the surface coverage of the self-assembled films was significantly larger than that of the physisorbed films and that the chemisorption between the peptides and gold surface was stable in solvent. Studies by angle dependent XPS (ADXPS) and grazing angle RA-FTIR indicated that the peptides were on average oriented at a small angle from the surface normal. By using a model of orientation distribution function, both the peptide tilt angle and film thickness can be well calculated. Ru(II) complex doped SiO2 sol-gel thin films were prepared by low temperature sol-gel process. The ability of XPS coupled with Ar + ion sputtering to provide both chemical and compositional depth profile information of these sol-gel films was evaluated. This technique, together with UV-VIS and electrochemical measurements, was used to investigate the stability of Ru complexes in the composite

  10. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  11. Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of electron transport in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the electron transport in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the electron mobility down to about 400 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ∼100 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.

  12. Two-port network analysis and modeling of a balanced armature receiver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Noori; Allen, Jont B

    2013-07-01

    Models for acoustic transducers, such as loudspeakers, mastoid bone-drivers, hearing-aid receivers, etc., are critical elements in many acoustic applications. Acoustic transducers employ two-port models to convert between acoustic and electromagnetic signals. This study analyzes a widely-used commercial hearing-aid receiver ED series, manufactured by Knowles Electronics, Inc. Electromagnetic transducer modeling must consider two key elements: a semi-inductor and a gyrator. The semi-inductor accounts for electromagnetic eddy-currents, the 'skin effect' of a conductor (Vanderkooy, 1989), while the gyrator (McMillan, 1946; Tellegen, 1948) accounts for the anti-reciprocity characteristic [Lenz's law (Hunt, 1954, p. 113)]. Aside from Hunt (1954), no publications we know of have included the gyrator element in their electromagnetic transducer models. The most prevalent method of transducer modeling evokes the mobility method, an ideal transformer instead of a gyrator followed by the dual of the mechanical circuit (Beranek, 1954). The mobility approach greatly complicates the analysis. The present study proposes a novel, simplified and rigorous receiver model. Hunt's two-port parameters, the electrical impedance Ze(s), acoustic impedance Za(s) and electro-acoustic transduction coefficient Ta(s), are calculated using ABCD and impedance matrix methods (Van Valkenburg, 1964). The results from electrical input impedance measurements Zin(s), which vary with given acoustical loads, are used in the calculation (Weece and Allen, 2010). The hearing-aid receiver transducer model is designed based on energy transformation flow [electric→ mechanic→ acoustic]. The model has been verified with electrical input impedance, diaphragm velocity in vacuo, and output pressure measurements. This receiver model is suitable for designing most electromagnetic transducers and it can ultimately improve the design of hearing-aid devices by providing a simplified yet accurate, physically

  13. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  14. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    Accomplishments in the following areas of research are presented: receiver performance study of spaceborne laser altimeters and cloud and aerosol lidars; receiver performance analysis for space-to-space laser ranging systems; and receiver performance study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR).

  15. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Field, Christopher T.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1996-01-01

    We report here the design and the performance measurements of the breadboard receiver of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The measured ranging accuracy was better than 2 cm and 10 cm for 5 ns and 30 ns wide received laser pulses under the expected received signal level, which agreed well with the theoretical analysis. The measured receiver sensitivity or the link margin was also consistent with the theory. The effects of the waveform digitizer sample rate and resolution were also measured.

  16. A Purposive Approach to Content Analysis: Designing Analytical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbic, Philippa; Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Content analysis of computer conferences provides a rich source of data for researching and understanding online learning. However, the complexities of using content analysis in a relatively new research field have resulted in researchers often avoiding this method and using more familiar methods such as survey and interview instead. This article…

  17. Analytical and Experimental Vibration Analysis of a Faulty Gear System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Braun, M. J.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure was developed for predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions. A gear tooth fault model is developed to simulate the effects of pitting and wear on the vibration signal under normal operating conditions. The model uses changes in the gear mesh stiffness to simulate the effects of gear tooth faults. The overall dynamics of the gear transmission system is evaluated by coupling the dynamics of each individual gear-rotor system through gear mesh forces generated between each gear-rotor system and the bearing forces generated between the rotor and the gearbox structure. The predicted results were compared with experimental results obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) was used to give a comprehensive comparison of the predicted and experimental results. The WVD method applied to the experimental results were also compared to other fault detection techniques to verify the WVD's ability to detect the pitting damage, and to determine its relative performance. Overall results show good correlation between the experimental vibration data of the damaged test gear and the predicted vibration from the model with simulated gear tooth pitting damage. Results also verified that the WVD method can successfully detect and locate gear tooth wear and pitting damage.

  18. [Analysis and experimental verification of sensitivity and SNR of laser warning receiver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Wang, Ming; Tian, Er-Ming; Li, Xiao; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yue

    2009-01-01

    In order to countermeasure increasingly serious threat from hostile laser in modern war, it is urgent to do research on laser warning technology and system, and the sensitivity and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are two important performance parameters in laser warning system. In the present paper, based on the signal statistical detection theory, a method for calculation of the sensitivity and SNR in coherent detection laser warning receiver (LWR) has been proposed. Firstly, the probabilities of the laser signal and receiver noise were analyzed. Secondly, based on the threshold detection theory and Neyman-Pearson criteria, the signal current equation was established by introducing detection probability factor and false alarm rate factor, then, the mathematical expressions of sensitivity and SNR were deduced. Finally, by using method, the sensitivity and SNR of the sinusoidal grating laser warning receiver developed by our group were analyzed, and the theoretic calculation and experimental results indicate that the SNR analysis method is feasible, and can be used in performance analysis of LWR. PMID:19385197

  19. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    SciTech Connect

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Stigma Among Latinos Receiving Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Interian, Alejandro; Martinez, Igda E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Vega, William A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study sought to describe the role of stigma in antidepressant adherence among Latinos. Methods The study utilized data generated from six focus groups of Latino outpatients receiving antidepressants (N=30). By using a grounded theory approach, qualitative analysis focused specifically on the role of stigma in antidepressant treatment, as well as salient Latino values. Results Perceptions of stigma were related to both the diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressant medication. Qualitative analyses showed that antidepressant use was seen as implying more severe illness, weakness or failure to cope with problems, and being under the effects of a drug. Reports of stigma were also related to social consequences. Also, the perceived negative attributes of antidepressant use were at odds with self-perceived cultural values. Conclusions Stigma was a prominent concern among Latinos receiving antidepressants, and stigma often affected adherence. Furthermore, culture is likely to play an important role in the communication of stigma and its associated complications. PMID:18048562

  1. Crustal structure beneath the eastern Nepal Himalayas and southern Tibet from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Arjun Sharma

    The Himalayas are the results of continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate and serve as a natural site to study the physical causes and process of mountain building. The crustal structure beneath the Himalayas has been subject to numerous geophysical studies and the variation in the velocity structure across the Himalayan region suggests significant differences in the crustal structure between the southern and northern portion in that region. In this research, a P receiver function analysis has been conducted on data collected for 14 years (2000-2014) from 211 different stations in Eastern Nepal and Southern Tibet, to better understand the seismic velocity structure in the region. The stations cover a large area encompassing the south eastern plains of Nepal, Lesser and Greater Himalayas and the Southern Tibetan Plateau and provide an excellent geometry for seismic structure research. Following the rotation of the two horizontal components to the radial and transverse components and the time iterative deconvolution to obtain the receiver functions the H-K stacking method of Zhu and Kanamori(Zhu and Kanamori, 2000) has been used to convert the time domain receiver functions into H-K domain and obtain the values of crustal thickness and the ratio of the P and S wave velocities. The main trend in the receiver function analysis across the Himalaya from our study reflects the deepening of the moho from about 40 km beneath southern Nepal in the foothills of the Himalaya to about 80 km in southern Tibet. A locally steeper moho deep is obtained in the high range of Himalayas.

  2. The Crustal Structure Of The Marmara Region Using Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükakpınar, Pınar; Gürbüz, Cemil; Zor, Ekrem

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara region is a rapidly deforming area with high seismic activity in the northwestern Turkey. In order to further understand the crustal structure in the region, we present results from receiver function analysis using the permanent stations in the region by applying H-κ stacking algorithm which gives crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath a station. 40 land stations between January of 2008 and April of 2012, and 5 cabled Sea Bottom Observatories which were deployed at the end of 2010 by KOERI located between 40.2°- 41.2° N and 26.5°- 30.5° E were included in the analysis. Approximately 250 teleseismic events from a wide range of epicentral distances with magnitudes greater than Mw 5.5 are used to obtain receiver functions. Furthermore, in order to calculate the receiver functions in time domain using iterative deconvolution technique suggested by Ligorria and Ammon (1999). Consequently, the crustal structure of the region has been reasonably defined and compared with the other studies. As a consequence of the receiver function analysis, the Moho depth variation map and Vp/Vs ratio map were plotted. The Moho depth on average is 31 km. There are no sharp changes in the crustal thickness of the Marmara Region except North Marmara Trough because basin structure of the Marmara Sea where crustal thickness reaches up to 26 km in the same region was not observed. Furthermore, we found overall average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.74, for the region but we obtained low Vp/Vs ratios in the stations located near Çınarcık Basin which varies between 1.64 - 1.74 indicating the effect of basin structure in the area and North Marmara where Vp/Vs ratios vary between 1.60 and 1.70 which is related to the sediment structure of the area. We also acquired higher Vp/Vs ratios which are between 1.86 and 1.96 in the Western Marmara Region. This can be due to increasing mafic content in this area. Additionally, an attempt has been made to invert the radial receiver function of the

  3. ANALYTICAL METHODS EVALUATION FOR APPLICABILITY IN LEACHATE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study a round robin analysis of 10 leachate samples was conducted by 32 laboratories in the United States and Canada. Samples were analyzed for up to 28 parameters, including physical parameters (ph, oxidation reduction potential, conductivity, turbidity, and residue), or...

  4. An investigation of lithospheric structure and evolution in convergent orogenic systems using seismic receiver functions and surface wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Joshua A.

    Whether by accretion, magmatic addition, or refinement of more mafic lithologies, continental arcs are likely zones for the creation of "average" continental crust with intermediate silica content. This dissertation contains the results of broadband seismic studies carried out in two field areas, an active subduction zone and the remnants of an extinct arc, with the aim of understanding lithospheric evolution at convergent margins. The analytical techniques of receiver function calculation and surface wave tomography are applied to data sets collected above the Andean subduction zone in Chile and western Argentina and in the Coast Mountains Batholith of central British Columbia. We present the first in-depth comparison of receiver functions calculated using the high frequencies available in records of intermediate-depth local earthquakes with those calculated from the lower frequency data in records of larger teleseismic events. The comparison reveals that the lower crust beneath the Western Sierras Pampeanas contains a gradational velocity increase over ˜20km above a small velocity step at the Moho. Surface wave tomography confirms the existence of an unusually high velocity anomaly in the mantle above the slab and yields estimates of slab thickness on the order of 50 km. To the south of the flat slab region, we see evidence of active mantle wedge convection above the steep slab, but no evidence of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the subducting Nazca plate. In the Coast Mountains Batholith (CMB), receiver functions image a bright, continuous Moho throughout the study region. Combined with petrologic modeling, the receiver function data point toward convective removal of any ultramafic root that formed beneath the CMB. Low absolute shear wave velocities in the upper mantle resolved via surface wave analysis strengthen the case for root removal beneath the eastern section of the CMB. On the far western edge of the CMB, we find evidence of a partially

  5. Performance analysis of pupil-matching optical differential receivers in space-to-ground laser communication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhi, Ya'nan; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Wei; Hou, Peipei; Xu, Qian; Liu, Liren

    2014-05-10

    In the paper, the principle and structure of a pupil-matching optical differential receiver consisting of double 4f confocal lens groups is introduced to overcome atmosphere turbulences in space-to-ground laser communication. Using the scalar diffraction theory, a systematic analysis of 4f lens groups is formulated mathematically. Based on Seidel aberration, lens aberrations produced by the inherent unideal lens and mutual alignment errors of double 4f lens groups primarily caused by relative axial displacement of the foci and vertical position change of the optical axes are studied mathematically and detailed. Under the effects of varying aberrations on the double 4f lens groups, we evaluate the performance of this receiving system by the model of power penalty for a given 10(-9) bit error ratio. Simulated results of the relationship between power penalty and the different root-mean-square errors are concluded in order to put forward the requirement of machining precision of individual components. That will be helpful in optimizing the design of these groups in the optical receiver. PMID:24922020

  6. Sublaminate analysis of interlaminar fracture in composites. I - Analytical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armanios, Erian A.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    A simple analysis method based on a transverse shear-deformation theory and a sublaminate approach is utilized to analyze a mixed-mode edge delamination specimen. The analysis provides closed-form expressions for the interlaminar shear stresses ahead of the crack, the total strain-energy release rate, and the strain-energy release-rate components. The parameters controlling the behavior are identified. The effect of specimen stacking sequence and delamination interface on the strain energy release rate components is investigated. Results are compared with a finite-element simulation for reference. The simple nature of the method makes it suitable for preliminary design analyses which require a large number of configurations to be evaluated quickly and economically.

  7. Qualitative analysis of interference on receiver performance using advanced pulse compression noise (APCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Mark A.; Elwell, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    We present an analysis of receiver performance when diverse waveforms such as the advanced pulse compression noise (APCN) are used. Two perspectives within the shared channel are considered: (1) a radar transceiving APCN in the presence of other radar interference sources, and (2) a communications system transceiving M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) in the presence of a radar interference sources practicing waveform diversity. Through simulation, we show how waveform diversity and the ability to tune the APCN spectrum characteristics minimizes interference for co-channel users.

  8. Validation of analytical breast cancer microarray analysis in medical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Amal Said; Louka, Manal Louis; Hana, Maha; Rashad, Shaymaa; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Sharaf-Eldin, Ahmed; Kassim, Samar Kamal

    2014-10-01

    A previously reported microarray data analysis by RISS algorithm on breast cancer showed over-expression of the growth factor receptor (Grb7) and it also highlighted Tweety (TTYH1) gene to be under expressed in breast cancer for the first time. Our aim was to validate the results obtained from the microarray analysis with respect to these genes. Also, the relationship between their expression and the different prognostic indicators was addressed. RNA was extracted from the breast tissue of 30 patients with primary malignant breast cancer. Control samples from the same patients were harvested at a distance of ≥5 cm from the tumour. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was done on all samples. There was a significant difference between the malignant and control tissues as regards Grb7 expression. It was significantly related to the presence of lymph node metastasis, stage and histological grade of the malignant tumours. There was a significant inverse relation between expression of Grb7 and expression of both oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Grb7 was found to be significantly related to the biological classification of breast cancer. TTYH1 was not expressed in either the malignant or the control samples. The RISS by our group algorithm developed was laboratory validated for Grb7, but not for TTYH1. The newly developed software tool needs to be improved. PMID:25182704

  9. Design and Analysis of the Aperture Shield Assembly for a Space Solar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Trinh, Tuan; Westelaken, William; Krystkowiak, Christopher; Avanessian, Vahe; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russia program has been conducted to design, develop, fabricate, launch, and operate the world's first space solar dynamic power system on the Russian Space Station Mir. The goal of the program was to demonstrate and confirm that solar dynamic power systems are viable for future space applications such as the International Space Station (ISS). The major components of the system include a solar receiver, a closed Brayton cycle power conversion unit, a power conditioning and control unit, a solar concentrator, a radiator, a thermal control system, and a Space Shuttle carrier. Unfortunately, the mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 Space Shuttle Program in 1996. However, NASA Lewis is proposing to use the fabricated flight hardware as part of an all-American flight demonstration on the ISS in 2002. The present paper concerns the design and analysis of the solar receiver aperture shield assembly. The aperture shield assembly comprises the front face of the cylindrical receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. The aperture shield assembly is a critical component that protects the solar receiver structure from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. A full-size aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This unit was essentially identical to the flight configuration, with the exception of materials substitution. In addition, a thermal shock test aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This test article utilized the flight materials and was used for high-flux testing in the solar simulator test rig at NASA Lewis. This testing is described in a companion paper.

  10. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  11. Multicriteria decision analysis in ranking of analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Orłowski, Aleksander

    2015-03-27

    The study presents the possibility of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) application when choosing analytical procedures with low environmental impact. A type of MCDA, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was chosen as versatile tool that meets all the analytical chemists--decision makers requirements. Twenty five analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water samples (as an example) were selected as input alternatives to MCDA analysis. Nine different criteria describing the alternatives were chosen from different groups--metrological, economical and the most importantly--environmental impact. The weights for each criterion were obtained from questionnaires that were sent to experts, giving three different scenarios for MCDA results. The results of analysis show that PROMETHEE is very promising tool to choose the analytical procedure with respect to its greenness. The rankings for all three scenarios placed solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction--based procedures high, while liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and stir bar sorptive extraction--based procedures were placed low in the ranking. The results show that although some of the experts do not intentionally choose green analytical chemistry procedures, their MCDA choice is in accordance with green chemistry principles. The PROMETHEE ranking results were compared with more widely accepted green analytical chemistry tools--NEMI and Eco-Scale. As PROMETHEE involved more different factors than NEMI, the assessment results were only weakly correlated. Oppositely, the results of Eco-Scale assessment were well-correlated as both methodologies involved similar criteria of assessment. PMID:25704773

  12. Global sensitivity analysis of analytical vibroacoustic transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, Jean-Loup; Ichchou, Mohamed; Troclet, Bernard; Bareille, Olivier; Ouisse, Morvan

    2016-04-01

    Noise reduction issues arise in many engineering problems. One typical vibroacoustic problem is the transmission loss (TL) optimisation and control. The TL depends mainly on the mechanical parameters of the considered media. At early stages of the design, such parameters are not well known. Decision making tools are therefore needed to tackle this issue. In this paper, we consider the use of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) for the analysis of the impact of mechanical parameters on features of interest. FAST is implemented with several structural configurations. FAST method is used to estimate the relative influence of the model parameters while assuming some uncertainty or variability on their values. The method offers a way to synthesize the results of a multiparametric analysis with large variability. Results are presented for transmission loss of isotropic, orthotropic and sandwich plates excited by a diffuse field on one side. Qualitative trends found to agree with the physical expectation. Design rules can then be set up for vibroacoustic indicators. The case of a sandwich plate is taken as an example of the use of this method inside an optimisation process and for uncertainty quantification.

  13. Analytical precision of one-sixth order semiquantitative spectrographic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Motooka, J.M.; Grimes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Over 2,700 separate analyses were made on 22 different geologic samples selected to cover wide concentration ranges for the 30 elements studied. The precision for low, medium, and high concentrations of each element determined is represented by superimposed frequency diagrams and displays the frequency of reported values occurring within one-sixth order reporting intervals about the mean.Results are derived from mixed analyst and instrument conditions with no controls enforced other than randomization of samples. The precision of the six-step (one-sixth order) semiquantitative spectrographic analysis utilized by the Denver-based mobile laboratories exceeds that which is necessary for exploration geochemistry. Disallowing results obtained near the detection levels, the repeatability of the method, in general, is shown to be within on adjoining reporting interval on each side of the mean, 83 percent of the time, and within two adjoining reporting intervals on each side of the mean 96 percent of the time.

  14. An Improved Time-Frequency Analysis Method in Interference Detection for GNSS Receivers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kewen; Jin, Tian; Yang, Dongkai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved joint time-frequency (TF) analysis method based on a reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (RSPWVD) has been proposed in interference detection for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the RSPWVD, the two-dimensional low-pass filtering smoothing function is introduced to eliminate the cross-terms present in the quadratic TF distribution, and at the same time, the reassignment method is adopted to improve the TF concentration properties of the auto-terms of the signal components. This proposed interference detection method is evaluated by experiments on GPS L1 signals in the disturbing scenarios compared to the state-of-the-art interference detection approaches. The analysis results show that the proposed interference detection technique effectively overcomes the cross-terms problem and also preserves good TF localization properties, which has been proven to be effective and valid to enhance the interference detection performance of the GNSS receivers, particularly in the jamming environments. PMID:25905704

  15. Imaging Taiwan Moho Discontinuity from Receiver Function Inversion, Analysis and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, H.; Zhu, L.; Duan, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We propose an updated Taiwan Moho discontinuity reference model from receiver function inversion, analysis and imaging based on all the available teleseismic data collected from 104 broadband stations. The 104 broadband stations cover two permanent networks from BATS, CWB and temporarily deployed arrays deployed by the TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research (TAIGER) project. The effective 1D velocity structure at each station was obtained through inversion. We further determined the spatial depth variation of Moho topography, crustal thickness (H), and Vp/Vs ratios (κ) beneath each broadband station. Using travel-time and waveforms of P-to-S wave conversion and crust reverberation phases, the H-κ stacking analysis provides the first hand information of Moho model. Images of crust-to-lithosphere scale structure profiles across three west-to-east linear receiver arrays were obtained from the CCP (common-conversion-point) stacking of teleseismic records collected from TAIGER project. Additional constraint from two north-to-south profiles along the Central Range and Longitudinal Valley can be derived by combining results from both permanent and portable broadband stations. These five CCP stacked images clearly reveal the Moho discontinuity relief changes. Preliminary results show that the deepest Moho-depth is 40 to 50 km in central Taiwan. The consistent results from velocity estimation, CCP and H-κ stacking marks the thicken crust in central Taiwan due to simultaneous subducting and overriding plates. All images show high impedance contrast that corresponds to sedimentary basins at shallow part of western foothill area.

  16. Imaging of Cocos Plate Beneath Southern Costa Rica From Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierma, Y.; Thorwart, M.; Rabbel, W.

    2007-12-01

    A transect of 19 seismological broadband stations crossing the Talamanca Mountain Range in Southern Costa Rica was operated from March 2005 to April 2007 as a part of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 574 "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones". The aim of the seismological subproject A2 was to gain insight into the structure of the Central American subduction zone and possible pathways for fluid migration. Previous studies of active seismics and local seismicity suggested to explain the gap of volcanism in the Talamanca range with the lack of a subducting slab. They assumed that the Cocos Ridge underlies the overriding plate at a shallow dip. In contrast, our receiver function analysis of 322 teleseimic earthquakes is able to image the subducting Cocos Plate down to depths of at least 100 km. The dip angle of the slab closer to the trench is outside the network but appears to be shallow, consistent with former studies. Below 40 km, the dip increases to more than 45 deg. This is supported by accurately located seismicity from a tomography study also performed by our group. Crustal structure could also be resolved by the receiver function analysis in agreement with tomography and active seismic investigations. The existence of the subducting slab poses the question why volcanism stopped 4 Ma ago; several possible scenarios are discussed.

  17. An Improved Time-Frequency Analysis Method in Interference Detection for GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kewen; Jin, Tian; Yang, Dongkai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved joint time-frequency (TF) analysis method based on a reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution (RSPWVD) has been proposed in interference detection for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the RSPWVD, the two-dimensional low-pass filtering smoothing function is introduced to eliminate the cross-terms present in the quadratic TF distribution, and at the same time, the reassignment method is adopted to improve the TF concentration properties of the auto-terms of the signal components. This proposed interference detection method is evaluated by experiments on GPS L1 signals in the disturbing scenarios compared to the state-of-the-art interference detection approaches. The analysis results show that the proposed interference detection technique effectively overcomes the cross-terms problem and also preserves good TF localization properties, which has been proven to be effective and valid to enhance the interference detection performance of the GNSS receivers, particularly in the jamming environments. PMID:25905704

  18. Joint multifractal analysis based on the partition function approach: analytical analysis, numerical simulation and empirical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Gao-Feng; Xiong, Xiong; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    Many complex systems generate multifractal time series which are long-range cross-correlated. Numerous methods have been proposed to characterize the multifractal nature of these long-range cross correlations. However, several important issues about these methods are not well understood and most methods consider only one moment order. We study the joint multifractal analysis based on partition function with two moment orders, which was initially invented to investigate fluid fields, and derive analytically several important properties. We apply the method numerically to binomial measures with multifractal cross correlations and bivariate fractional Brownian motions without multifractal cross correlations. For binomial multifractal measures, the explicit expressions of mass function, singularity strength and multifractal spectrum of the cross correlations are derived, which agree excellently with the numerical results. We also apply the method to stock market indexes and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of index volatilities.

  19. Free vibrations of beam-mass-spring systems: analytical analysis with numerical confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Mohammad A.; Kazemirad, Siavash; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2012-04-01

    Free vibrations of a beam-mass-spring system with different boundary conditions are analyzed both analytically and numerically. In the analytical analysis, the system is divided into three subsystems and the effects of the spring and the point mass are considered as internal boundary conditions between any two neighboring subsystems. The partial differential equations governing the motion of the subsystems and internal boundary conditions are then solved using the method of separation of variables. In the numerical analysis, the whole system is considered as a single system and the effects of the spring and point mass are introduced using the Dirac delta function. The Galerkin method is then employed to discretize the equation of motion and the resulting set of ordinary differential equations are solved via eigenvalue analysis. Analytical and numerical results are shown to be in very good agreement.

  20. An introduction to clinical microeconomic analysis: purposes and analytic methods.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S; Mauldin, P D; Becker, E R

    1994-06-01

    The recent concern with health care economics has fostered the development of a new discipline that is generally called clinical microeconomics. This is a discipline in which microeconomic methods are used to study the economics of specific medical therapies. It is possible to perform stand alone cost analyses, but more profound insight into the medical decision making process may be accomplished by combining cost studies with measures of outcome. This is most often accomplished with cost-effectiveness or cost-utility studies. In cost-effectiveness studies there is one measure of outcome, often death. In cost-utility studies there are multiple measures of outcome, which must be grouped together to give an overall picture of outcome or utility. There are theoretical limitations to the determination of utility that must be accepted to perform this type of analysis. A summary statement of outcome is quality adjusted life years (QALYs), which is utility time socially discounted survival. Discounting is used because people value a year of future life less than a year of present life. Costs are made up of in-hospital direct, professional, follow-up direct, and follow-up indirect costs. Direct costs are for medical services. Indirect costs reflect opportunity costs such as lost time at work. Cost estimates are often based on marginal costs, or the cost for one additional procedure of the same type. Finally an overall statistic may be generated as cost per unit increase in effectiveness, such as dollars per QALY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10151059

  1. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    PubMed

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry. PMID:25276875

  2. Systematic Receiver Function Analysis of the Moho Geometry in the Southern California Plate-Boundary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the geometry of the Moho interface in the southern California region including the San Andreas fault (SAF), San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), Elsinore fault (EF) and Eastern California Shear Zone with systematic analysis of receiver functions. The data set consists of 145 teleseismic events recorded at 188 broadband stations throughout the region. The analysis utilizes a 3D velocity model associated with detailed double-difference tomographic results for the seismogenic depth section around the SAF, SJFZ, and EF combined with a larger scale community model. A 3D ray tracing algorithm is used to produce effective 1D velocity models along each source-receiver teleseismic ray. Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacks are calculated using the set of velocity models extracted for each ray. The CCP stacks are analyzed with volumetric plots, maps of maximum CCP stack values, and projections along profiles that cross major faults and other features of interest. The results indicate that the Moho geometry in the study area is very complex and characterized by large prominent undulations along the NE-SW direction. A zone of relatively deep Moho (~35-40 km) with overall N-S direction crosses the SAF, SJFZ, and EF. A section of very shallow Moho (~10 km) below and to the SE of the Salton Trough, likely associated with a young oceanic crust, produces large Moho offsets at its margins. Locations with significant changes of Moho depth appear to be correlated with fault complexity in the brittle crust. The observations also show vertical Moho offsets of ~8 km across the SAF and SJFZ close to Cajon pass, and sections with no clear Moho phase underneath Cajon pass and adjacent to the SJFZ near Anza likely produced by complex local velocity structures in the brittle upper crust. These features are robust with respect to various parameters of the analysis procedure.

  3. Environmental Analytical Sciences: An automation analysis and description of current laboratory procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckemeyer, S.R.

    1990-05-07

    Environmental Analytical Sciences (EAS) is a state certified laboratory that analyzes potentially hazardous waste, generated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs. State laws require that hazardous waste be disposed of within 90 days. Chemistry and Materials Science expects the number of incoming samples to increase rapidly and EAS must be prepared to analyze them in a timely fashion. This report documents an analysis of Environmental Analytical Sciences, which is located in Buildings 222 and 226. It describes pertinent EAS procedures and recommends ways of automating EAS sample preparation, sample analysis, raw data acquisition and test results archiving. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Crustal Structure in the Chile Ridge Subduction Region, Northern Patagonia: Results from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Murdie, R. E.; VanDecar, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The actively spreading Chile ridge subducts beneath South America, creating an extensive slab window - a gap between the leading edge of the Antarctic plate and the trailing edge of the Nazca plate. Body wave tomography, analysis of surface waves, and shear wave splitting observations show that the slab window extends from crustal depths to well below 350 km, and that asthenospheric upper mantle flows through the gap from the Pacific side, displacing the upper mantle wedge beneath continental South America. Receiver functions - deconvolutions of vertical component P wave coda from corresponding radial component signals - yield an estimate of the times, polarities, and amplitudes of P-to-S converted phases generated at high-impedance contrast boundaries like the Moho. We determined 1982 such receiver functions at 41 stations deployed in the Chile Ridge subduction region (2004-2007) to determine crustal structure there. Arrival times of Ps, the S wave generated by mode conversion at the Moho, vary significantly across the study region: in the west, stations on the Taitao Peninsula, the southern Los Chonos islands, and along Canal Baker, P-Ps times incidate the crust of overlying South America is thinnest. Complexity in these receiver functions may be due to the either the presence of the Nazca slab at shallow depths beneath the forearc, or due to shallow asthenosphere of the slab window. Moho depths appear to be significantly greater east of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone and the active Southern Volcanic Zone. South American crustal thickness in the study area is greatest immediately north of the slab window.

  5. Real-time GPS seismology using a single receiver: method comparison, error analysis and precision validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake monitoring and early warning system for hazard assessment and mitigation has traditional been based on seismic instruments. However, for large seismic events, it is difficult for traditional seismic instruments to produce accurate and reliable displacements because of the saturation of broadband seismometers and problematic integration of strong-motion data. Compared with the traditional seismic instruments, GPS can measure arbitrarily large dynamic displacements without saturation, making them particularly valuable in case of large earthquakes and tsunamis. GPS relative positioning approach is usually adopted to estimate seismic displacements since centimeter-level accuracy can be achieved in real-time by processing double-differenced carrier-phase observables. However, relative positioning method requires a local reference station, which might itself be displaced during a large seismic event, resulting in misleading GPS analysis results. Meanwhile, the relative/network approach is time-consuming, particularly difficult for the simultaneous and real-time analysis of GPS data from hundreds or thousands of ground stations. In recent years, several single-receiver approaches for real-time GPS seismology, which can overcome the reference station problem of the relative positioning approach, have been successfully developed and applied to GPS seismology. One available method is real-time precise point positioning (PPP) relied on precise satellite orbit and clock products. However, real-time PPP needs a long (re)convergence period, of about thirty minutes, to resolve integer phase ambiguities and achieve centimeter-level accuracy. In comparison with PPP, Colosimo et al. (2011) proposed a variometric approach to determine the change of position between two adjacent epochs, and then displacements are obtained by a single integration of the delta positions. This approach does not suffer from convergence process, but the single integration from delta positions to

  6. Error analysis for semi-analytic displacement derivatives with respect to shape and sizing variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenyes, Peter A.; Lust, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is fundamental to the solution of structural optimization problems. Consequently, much research has focused on the efficient computation of static displacement derivatives. As originally developed, these methods relied on analytical representations for the derivatives of the structural stiffness matrix (K) with respect to the design variables (b sub i). To extend these methods for use with complex finite element formulations and facilitate their implementation into structural optimization programs using the general finite element method analysis codes, the semi-analytic method was developed. In this method the matrix the derivative of K/the derivative b sub i is approximated by finite difference. Although it is well known that the accuracy of the semi-analytic method is dependent on the finite difference parameter, recent work has suggested that more fundamental inaccuracies exist in the method when used for shape optimization. Another study has argued qualitatively that these errors are related to nonuniform errors in the stiffness matrix derivatives. The accuracy of the semi-analytic method is investigated. A general framework was developed for the error analysis and then it is shown analytically that the errors in the method are entirely accounted for by errors in delta K/delta b sub i. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that acceptable accuracy in the derivatives can be obtained through careful selection of the finite difference parameter.

  7. In vivo degradation of orthodontic miniscrew implants: surface analysis of as-received and retrieved specimens.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated in vivo degradation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy miniscrew implants. Miniscrew implants were placed in patients, and the surfaces were studied upon retrieval by scanning electron microscopy, microscale X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis and nanoindentation testing. Bone-like structures were formed on the retrieved specimens. The hardness and elastic modulus of the surfaces of the retrieved specimens were significantly lower than the as-received specimens, although no statistically significant differences were observed for the hardness and elastic modulus in the bulk region. Thick organic over-layer containing carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, with the thickness greater than 50 nm, covered the retrieved specimens, and higher concentrations of hydrogen were detected in the retrieved specimens compared with the as-received specimens. Minimal degradation of the bulk mechanical properties of miniscrew implants was observed after clinical use, although precipitation of bone-like structures, formation of a carbonaceous contamination layer, and hydrogen absorption were observed on the surfaces of miniscrew implants. PMID:25631268

  8. Analysis of Solar Receiver Flux Distributions for US/Russian Solar Dynamic System Demonstration on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Analyses have been performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Systems Project Office to support the design and development of the joint U.S./Russian Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration Project. The optical analysis of the concentrator and solar flux predictions on target receiver surfaces have an important influence on receiver design and control of the Brayton engine.

  9. Combined teleseismic surface wave and receiver function analysis of the crust and upper mantle of Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, M. J.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Shore, P.; Rambolamanana, G.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The continental crust and upper mantle velocity structure beneath Madagascar remained poorly constrained until recent deployments of broadband seismic instrumentation across the island. The MACOMO (MAdagascar, COmoros and MOzambique), RHUM-RUM (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel) and the Madagascar Seismic Profile experiments have opened up this region to be studied in detail for the first time. The island is an amalgamation of an Archean craton, associated with the Western Dhawar craton of southern India, and a series of Proterozoic terranes that comprise the backbone of the island (Tucker et al., 2010). A receiver-function analysis has provided both the first Moho depth measurements and spatially discrete 1-D shear velocity results that matched well with known tectonic regions. To provide a more continuous 2-D and 3-D velocity structure map, teleseismic surface wave analysis is employed. Using Helmholtz tomography as implemented by the ASWMS package (Ge, Gaherty and Hutko; 2014), we are able to map phase velocities from the cross-correlation of station pairs at periods 20-100 s. At periods 20-40 s our results compare well with ambient noise analysis results (see poster by Wysession et al. (this meeting)). The prominent features of these results are a distinct low phase-velocity sector beneath the central Itasy region, with a secondary low phase-velocity region to the north of the island. Both the central part of the island and the northern region have experienced geothermal activity in recent times as well as volcanic activity within the last 10,000 years. This may suggest that the crust and underlying mantle in these regions remains at relatively higher temperatures than the surrounding rock. Combining this information with receiver-function analysis, we jointly invert our data for the shear velocity structure. These analyses will constrain the upper mantle seismic velocities in the region, allowing further analysis from body waves to

  10. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  11. Synergistic effect of combining two nondestructive analytical methods for multielemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yosuke; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Hara, Kaoru Y; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Kitatani, Fumito; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi

    2014-12-16

    We developed a new analytical technique that combines prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and time-of-flight elemental analysis (TOF) by using an intense pulsed neutron beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. It allows us to obtain the results from both methods at the same time. Moreover, it can be used to quantify elemental concentrations in the sample, to which neither of these methods can be applied independently, if a new analytical spectrum (TOF-PGA) is used. To assess the effectiveness of the developed method, a mixed sample of Ag, Au, Cd, Co, and Ta, and the Gibeon meteorite were analyzed. The analytical capabilities were compared based on the gamma-ray peak selectivity and signal-to-noise ratios. TOF-PGA method showed high merits, although the capability may differ based on the target and coexisting elements. PMID:25371049

  12. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. PMID:26299761

  13. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1993-10-01

    This interim report consists of four separate reports from our research on the receivers of NASA's Gravity And Magnetic Experiment Satellite (GAMES). The first report is entitled 'Analysis of phase estimation bias of GAMES receiver due to Doppler shift.' The second report is 'Background radiation on GAMES fine ranging detector from the moon, the planets, and the stars.' The third report is 'Background radiation on GAMES receivers from the ocean sun glitter and the direct sun.' The fourth report is 'GAMES receiver performance versus background radiation power on the detectors.'

  14. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1993-01-01

    This interim report consists of four separate reports from our research on the receivers of NASA's Gravity And Magnetic Experiment Satellite (GAMES). The first report is entitled 'Analysis of phase estimation bias of GAMES receiver due to Doppler shift.' The second report is 'Background radiation on GAMES fine ranging detector from the moon, the planets, and the stars.' The third report is 'Background radiation on GAMES receivers from the ocean sun glitter and the direct sun.' The fourth report is 'GAMES receiver performance versus background radiation power on the detectors.'

  15. Crustal structure beneath the Japanese Islands inferred from receiver function analysis using similar earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    The stress concentration and strain accumulation process due to inter-plate coupling of the subducting plate should have a large effect on inland shallow earthquakes that occur in the overriding plate. Information on the crustal structure and the crustal thickness is important to understanding their process. In this study, I applied receiver function analysis using similar earthquakes to estimate the crustal velocity structures beneath the Japanese Islands. Because similar earthquakes are caused repeatedly at almost the same place, they are useful for extracting information on spatial distribution and temporal changes of seismic velocity structures beneath the seismic stations. I used telemetric seismographic network data covered the Japanese Islands and moderate-sized similar earthquakes which occurred in the southern Hemisphere with epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees for about 26 years from October 1989. Data analysis was performed separately before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To identify the spatial distribution of crustal structure, I searched for the best-correlated model between an observed receiver function at each station and synthetic ones by using a grid search method. As results, I clarified the spatial distribution of the crustal velocity structures. The spatial patterns of velocities from the ground surface to 5 km deep are corresponding with basement depth models although the velocities are slower than those of tomography models. They indicate thick sediment layers in several plain and basin areas. The crustal velocity perturbations are consistent with existing tomography models. The active volcanoes correspond low-velocity zones from the upper crust to the crust-mantle transition. A comparison of the crustal structure before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake suggests that the northeastern Japan arc changed to lower velocities in some areas. This kind of velocity changes might be due to other effects such as changes of

  16. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  17. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (PRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALYTICAL REFERENCE MATERIALS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA programs in pesticides, toxics, and hazardous waste require analytical reference materials. This project emphasized the collection of and analysis of urine, fat, and blood for ultimate use as reference samples. Another objective of the project concerned the practicality of us...

  18. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  19. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INTENSITY CALIBRATION FOR RAMAN ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL ANALYTES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern dispersive Raman spectroscopy offers unique advantages for the analysis of low-concentration analytes in aqueous solution. However, we have found that proper intensity calibration is critical for obtaining these benefits. This is true not only for producing spectra with ...

  1. A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

  2. Evaluation of 3D multimodality image registration using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holton Tainter, Kerrie S.; Robb, Richard A.; Taneja, Udita; Gray, Joel E.

    1995-04-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis has evolved as a useful method for evaluating the discriminatory capability and efficacy of visualization. The ability of such analysis to account for the variance in decision criteria of multiple observers, multiple reading, and a wide range of difficulty in detection among case studies makes ROC especially useful for interpreting the results of a viewing experiment. We are currently using ROC analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of using fused multispectral, or complementary multimodality imaging data in the diagnostic process. The use of multispectral image recordings, gathered from multiple imaging modalities, to provide advanced image visualization and quantization capabilities in evaluating medical images is an important challenge facing medical imaging scientists. Such capabilities would potentially significantly enhance the ability of clinicians to extract scientific and diagnostic information from images. a first step in the effective use of multispectral information is the spatial registration of complementary image datasets so that a point-to-point correspondence exists between them. We are developing a paradigm of measuring the accuracy of existing image registration techniques which includes the ability to relate quantitative measurements, taken from the images themselves, to the decisions made by observers about the state of registration (SOR) of the 3D images. We have used ROC analysis to evaluate the ability of observers to discriminate between correctly registered and incorrectly registered multimodality fused images. We believe this experience is original and represents the first time that ROC analysis has been used to evaluate registered/fused images. We have simulated low-resolution and high-resolution images from real patient MR images of the brain, and fused them with the original MR to produce colorwash superposition images whose exact SOR is known. We have also attempted to extend this analysis to

  3. Nonparametric estimation receiver operating characteristic analysis for performance evaluation on combined detection and estimation tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Adam; Goossens, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In an effort to generalize task-based assessment beyond traditional signal detection, there is a growing interest in performance evaluation for combined detection and estimation tasks, in which signal parameters, such as size, orientation, and contrast are unknown and must be estimated. One motivation for studying such tasks is their rich complexity, which offers potential advantages for imaging system optimization. To evaluate observer performance on combined detection and estimation tasks, Clarkson introduced the estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curve and the area under the EROC curve as a summary figure of merit. This work provides practical tools for EROC analysis of experimental data. In particular, we propose nonparametric estimators for the EROC curve, the area under the EROC curve, and for the variance/covariance matrix of a vector of correlated EROC area estimates. In addition, we show that reliable confidence intervals can be obtained for EROC area, and we validate these intervals with Monte Carlo simulation. Application of our methodology is illustrated with an example comparing magnetic resonance imaging k-space sampling trajectories. MATLAB® software implementing the EROC analysis estimators described in this work is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/iqmodelo/. PMID:26158044

  4. Economic Analysis of a Pine Plantation Receiving Repeated Applications of Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O.; Wilks, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha-1 every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha-1) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner’s economic return. PMID:23451262

  5. Nonparametric estimation receiver operating characteristic analysis for performance evaluation on combined detection and estimation tasks.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Adam; Goossens, Bart

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to generalize task-based assessment beyond traditional signal detection, there is a growing interest in performance evaluation for combined detection and estimation tasks, in which signal parameters, such as size, orientation, and contrast are unknown and must be estimated. One motivation for studying such tasks is their rich complexity, which offers potential advantages for imaging system optimization. To evaluate observer performance on combined detection and estimation tasks, Clarkson introduced the estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curve and the area under the EROC curve as a summary figure of merit. This work provides practical tools for EROC analysis of experimental data. In particular, we propose nonparametric estimators for the EROC curve, the area under the EROC curve, and for the variance/covariance matrix of a vector of correlated EROC area estimates. In addition, we show that reliable confidence intervals can be obtained for EROC area, and we validate these intervals with Monte Carlo simulation. Application of our methodology is illustrated with an example comparing magnetic resonance imaging [Formula: see text]-space sampling trajectories. MATLAB® software implementing the EROC analysis estimators described in this work is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/iqmodelo/. PMID:26158044

  6. Seismic study of the crust beneath the Northern Mountains from Receiver Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mansour, Walid; England, Richard; Moorkamp, Max

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of P receiver functions is rapidly becoming a classical technique for study of the crust beneath seismic stations from seismic arrays. This approach is based on the simple assumption of 1D horizontal layers. If the resolution depends on the inter-station distance and the noise level, we can extract easily the Ps conversion from the Moho beneath the station by picking the spike around +/-5 s after the direct P wave. Knowing the delay between the Ps conversion and the direct P wave and assuming a relative Vp we can quantify the Moho depth and the Vp/Vs ratio. We have applied this approach in a noisy environment (Scandinavia) using 2 temporary broadband (SCANLIPS2 and SCANLIPS3D) arrays in order to have a better idea of the Moho geometry across the Scandinavian Mountains. This mountain range is a topographic anomaly (peaks above 1 km) close to the flat region of the Baltic shield (maximum height 500 m above sea level). The classical techniques such as H-k stacking and the CCP depth migration have been used to image the crustal structure. Our results show a crustal thickening from West to East (40 km to 50 km) without an associated change in surface or Moho topography. These results suggest that the Scandinavia Mountains will not be supported by a crustal root like that seen beneath young mountain ranges such as the Alps or Himalaya. Our inverse modelling cannot confirm the presence of a low velocity zone in the upper crust suggested previous works in the area using P receiver functions and controlled souce seismology. We suggest a new 2D crustal model (H, Vs) across the range. Nevertheless, the uncertainty on the Vp/Vs ratio under the some stations due to very weak PpS phase is an issue for the interpretation of our results. Indeed without extra information we have used a Vp/Vs ratio for the crust of 1.73 in the modelling of receiver functions. From the H-K stacking we have a variability of Vp/Vs ratio from 1.74 to 2.0-which is not consistent with the

  7. Use of analytical electron microscopy for the individual particle analysis of the Arctic haze aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of the analytical electron microscope for the analysis and source apportionment of individual aerosol particles, aerosol samples amenable to individual particle analysis were collected from a remote region. These samples were from the Arctic haze aerosol, and were collected on board a research aircraft during the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program in spring 1983. Before elemental analysis by analytical electron microscopy (AEM) could be performed, an extensive relative sensitivity factor study was undertaken to calibrate the microscope/detector system for quanitative x-ray microanalysis. Subsequently determined elemental data, along with morphological information, were used to group the particles into classes with similar characteristics. Forty-seven classes of particles were found in the Arctic samples, the most populous classes containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ droplets, carbonaceous particles, lithophilic particles, CaSO/sub 4/ or NaCl. Several classes containing anthropogenic particles were also identified.

  8. A survey of visual analytics for knowledge discovery and content analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2012-06-01

    This survey paper provides a review of tools and concepts of visual analytics, and the challenges faced by researchers developing application for knowledge discovery. A comparison is made based on analytic features, its ability to categorize data, the modeling procedures, visual representation, interoperability, and its reliability and portability. The issues related to heterogeneous data, its scalability and multi-dimensionality is also explored. An efficient, intelligent, interactive and robust visual analytics system allows the discovery of information hidden in a massive and dynamic volume of data, especially in a surveillance system thus creating an effective situation awareness of the environment. While visual analytics is hugely important in knowledge discovery, it is necessary for developers to avoid information overload due to inappropriate, irrelevant and uncertain data due to random or fuzzy sensor inputs, also known as noise. The discovered knowledge is the basis for adaptive situation awareness, as it often provides information beyond the perception of human cognitive mind. The tools and concepts researched for this article includes addressing the human computer interaction aspect for intelligent, adaptive decision making from multiple information resources. An attempt is made in this paper to combine the strengths of smart search and data analysis with visual perception and interactive analysis capability of the user.

  9. Numerical analysis of radiation propagation in innovative volumetric receivers based on selective laser melting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Santiago, Sergio; Roccabruna, Mattia; Luque, Salvador; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Crema, Luigi; Romero, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric absorbers constitute one of the key elements in order to achieve high thermal conversion efficiencies in concentrating solar power plants. Regardless of the working fluid or thermodynamic cycle employed, design trends towards higher absorber output temperatures are widespread, which lead to the general need of components of high solar absorptance, high conduction within the receiver material, high internal convection, low radiative and convective heat losses and high mechanical durability. In this context, the use of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting, has allowed for the fabrication of intricate geometries that are capable of fulfilling the previous requirements. This paper presents a parametric design and analysis of the optical performance of volumetric absorbers of variable porosity conducted by means of detailed numerical ray tracing simulations. Sections of variable macroscopic porosity along the absorber depth were constructed by the fractal growth of single-cell structures. Measures of performance analyzed include optical reflection losses from the absorber front and rear faces, penetration of radiation inside the absorber volume, and radiation absorption as a function of absorber depth. The effects of engineering design parameters such as absorber length and wall thickness, material reflectance and porosity distribution on the optical performance of absorbers are discussed, and general design guidelines are given.

  10. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments receiving various wastewater effluents with high-throughput sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    454 Pyrosequencing was applied to examine bacterial communities in sediment samples collected from a river receiving effluent discharge from rural domestic sewage (RDS) and various factories, including a tannery (TNS), clothing plant (CTS), and button factory (BTS), respectively. For each sample, 4,510 effective sequences were selected and utilized to do the bacterial diversity and abundance analysis, respectively. In total, 1,288, 2,036, 1,800, and 2,150 operational taxonomic units were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in TNS, CTS, BTS, and RDS, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in RDS was higher than the other samples, and TNS had the least richness. The most predominant class in the TNS, CTS, and BTS samples is Betaproteobacteria. Cyanobacteria (no_rank) is the most predominant one in the RDS sample. Circa 31% sequences in TNS were affiliated with the Rhodocyclales order. In the four samples, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Clostridium, Legionella, Leptospira, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Treponema genera containing pathogenic bacteria were detected. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments from various downstream branches indicated that distinct wastewater effluents have similar potential to reduce the natural variability in river ecosystems and contribute to the river biotic homogenization. PMID:24477925

  11. Receiver Function Analysis of Strong-motion Stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Jyun-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The Kaohsiung City and Pingtung County are located in southern Taiwan and bounded on the west side by several active faults. The shallow velocity structure of thick alluvium basin in this area should be delineated to understand the seismic site effect of strong ground motion. Receiver Function (RF) is a conventional technique for studying the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the seismometer. But, the RF analysis of high-frequency acceleration seismograms is also proved to be feasible for estimating shallow structures recently. This study applied the RF technique on the Strong-motion records of almost one-hundred TSMIP stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area to estimate the shallow shear-wave velocity structures. The averaged RFs of all stations exhibit the obvious variation because of the different geologies and site conditions. After the forward modeling of RFs based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) searching, the shallow shear-wave velocity structures beneath all the strong-motion stations in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area were estimated to delineate the iso-depth contour maps of the main formation interfaces and a preliminary shallow 3D velocity model.

  12. Transmitter and receiver antenna gain analysis for laser radar and communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive and fairly self-contained study of centrally obscured optical transmitting and receiving antennas is presented and is intended for use by the laser radar and communication systems designer. The material is presented in a format which allows the rapid and accurate evaluation of antenna gain. The Fresnel approximation to scalar wave theory is reviewed and the antenna analysis proceeds in terms of the power gain. Conventional range equations may then be used to calculate the power budget. The transmitter calculations, resulting in near and far field antenna gain patterns, assumes the antenna is illuminated by a laser operating in the fundamental cavity mode. A simple equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn which display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the outgoing beam as a function of antenna size and central obscuration. The use of telescope defocusing as an approach to spreading the beam for target acquisition is compared to some alternate methods.

  13. Analytical tools for the analysis of β-carotene and its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Stutz, H; Bresgen, N; Eckl, P M

    2015-05-01

    β-Carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, possesses pronounced radical scavenging properties. This has centered the attention on β-carotene dietary supplementation in healthcare as well as in the therapy of degenerative disorders and several cancer types. However, two intervention trials with β-carotene have revealed adverse effects on two proband groups, that is, cigarette smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. Beside other causative reasons, the detrimental effects observed have been related to the oxidation products of β-carotene. Their generation originates in the polyene structure of β-carotene that is beneficial for radical scavenging, but is also prone to oxidation. Depending on the dominant degradation mechanism, bond cleavage might occur either randomly or at defined positions of the conjugated electron system, resulting in a diversity of cleavage products (CPs). Due to their instability and hydrophobicity, the handling of standards and real samples containing β-carotene and related CPs requires preventive measures during specimen preparation, analyte extraction, and final analysis, to avoid artificial degradation and to preserve the initial analyte portfolio. This review critically discusses different preparation strategies of standards and treatment solutions, and also addresses their protection from oxidation. Additionally, in vitro oxidation strategies for the generation of oxidative model compounds are surveyed. Extraction methods are discussed for volatile and non-volatile CPs individually. Gas chromatography (GC), (ultra)high performance liquid chromatography (U)HPLC, and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are reviewed as analytical tools for final analyte analysis. For identity confirmation of analytes, mass spectrometry (MS) is indispensable, and the appropriate ionization principles are comprehensively discussed. The final sections cover analysis of real samples and aspects of quality assurance, namely matrix effects and method validation

  14. Analytical tools for the analysis of β-carotene and its degradation products

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, H.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract β-Carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, possesses pronounced radical scavenging properties. This has centered the attention on β-carotene dietary supplementation in healthcare as well as in the therapy of degenerative disorders and several cancer types. However, two intervention trials with β-carotene have revealed adverse effects on two proband groups, that is, cigarette smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. Beside other causative reasons, the detrimental effects observed have been related to the oxidation products of β-carotene. Their generation originates in the polyene structure of β-carotene that is beneficial for radical scavenging, but is also prone to oxidation. Depending on the dominant degradation mechanism, bond cleavage might occur either randomly or at defined positions of the conjugated electron system, resulting in a diversity of cleavage products (CPs). Due to their instability and hydrophobicity, the handling of standards and real samples containing β-carotene and related CPs requires preventive measures during specimen preparation, analyte extraction, and final analysis, to avoid artificial degradation and to preserve the initial analyte portfolio. This review critically discusses different preparation strategies of standards and treatment solutions, and also addresses their protection from oxidation. Additionally, in vitro oxidation strategies for the generation of oxidative model compounds are surveyed. Extraction methods are discussed for volatile and non-volatile CPs individually. Gas chromatography (GC), (ultra)high performance liquid chromatography (U)HPLC, and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are reviewed as analytical tools for final analyte analysis. For identity confirmation of analytes, mass spectrometry (MS) is indispensable, and the appropriate ionization principles are comprehensively discussed. The final sections cover analysis of real samples and aspects of quality assurance, namely matrix effects and method

  15. Receiver Function Analysis using Ocean-bottom Seismometer Records around the Kii Peninsula, Southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuhara, T.; Mochizuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress on receiver function (RF) analysis has provided us with new insight about the subsurface structure. The method is now gradually being more applied to records of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). In the present study, we conducted RF analysis using OBS records at 32 observation sites around the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, from 2003 to 2007 (Mochizuki et al., 2010, GRL). We addressed problems concerning water reverberations. We first checked the effects of water reverberations on the OBS vertical component records by calculating vertical P-wave RFs (Langston and Hammer, 2001, BSSA), where the OBS vertical component records were deconvolved by stacked traces of on-land records as source functions. The resultant RFs showed strong peaks corresponding to the water reverberations. Referring to these RFs, we constructed inverse filters to remove the effects of water reverberations from the vertical component records, which were assumed to be represented by two parameters, a two-way travel time within the water layer, and a reflection coefficient at the seafloor. We then calculated radial RFs using the filtered, reverberation-free, vertical component records of OBS data as source functions. The resultant RFs showed that some phases at later times became clearer than those obtained by an ordinary method. From the comparison with a previous tomography model (Akuhara et al., 2013, GRL), we identified phases originating from the oceanic Moho, which delineates the relationship between the depth of earthquakes and the oceanic Moho: seaward intraslab seismicity is high within the oceanic crust while the landward seismicity is high within the oceanic mantle. This character may be relevant to the dehydration process.

  16. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  17. SAMURAI: Sensitivity analysis of a meta-analysis with unpublished but registered analytical investigations (software)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-availability of clinical trial results contributes to publication bias, diminishing the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although clinical trial registries have been established to reduce non-publication, the results from over half of all trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov remain unpublished even 30 months after completion. Our goals were i) to utilize information available in registries (specifically, the number and sample sizes of registered unpublished studies) to gauge the sensitivity of a meta-analysis estimate of the effect size and its confidence interval to the non-publication of studies and ii) to develop user-friendly open-source software to perform this quantitative sensitivity analysis. Methods The open-source software, the R package SAMURAI, was developed using R functions available in the R package metafor. The utility of SAMURAI is illustrated with two worked examples. Results Our open-source software SAMURAI, can handle meta-analytic datasets of clinical trials with two independent treatment arms. Both binary and continuous outcomes are supported. For each unpublished study, the dataset requires only the sample sizes of each treatment arm and the user predicted ‘outlook’ for the studies. The user can specify five outlooks ranging from ‘very positive’ (i.e., very favorable towards intervention) to ‘very negative’ (i.e., very favorable towards control). SAMURAI assumes that control arms of unpublished studies have effects similar to the effect across control arms of published studies. For each experimental arm of an unpublished study, utilizing the user-provided outlook, SAMURAI randomly generates an effect estimate using a probability distribution, which may be based on a summary effect across published trials. SAMURAI then calculates the estimated summary treatment effect with a random effects model (DerSimonian & Laird method), and outputs the result as a forest plot. Conclusions To our

  18. Optical receiver sensitivity analysis for electronic code division multiple access over passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yamei; Liang, Siyuan; Wang, Liqian; Chen, Xue

    2010-12-01

    Optical receiver sensitivity for electronic code division multiple access over a passive optical network (ECDMA-PON) is analyzed theoretically. Compared with TDM system, ECDMA-PON offers better receiver sensitivity due to coding gain. Fundamental simulation results are provided to show its validity.

  19. Analysis of solar receiver flux distributions for US/Russian solar dynamic system demonstration on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Fincannon, James

    1995-01-01

    The United States and Russia have agreed to jointly develop a solar dynamic (SD) system for flight demonstration on the Russian MIR space station starting in late 1997. Two important components of this SD system are the solar concentrator and heat receiver provided by Russia and the U.S., respectively. This paper describes optical analysis of the concentrator and solar flux predictions on target receiver surfaces. The optical analysis is performed using the code CIRCE2. These analyses account for finite sun size with limb darkening, concentrator surface slope and position errors, concentrator petal thermal deformation, gaps between petals, and the shading effect of the receiver support struts. The receiver spatial flux distributions are then combined with concentrator shadowing predictions. Geometric shadowing patterns are traced from the concentrator to the target receiver surfaces. These patterns vary with time depending on the chosen MIR flight attitude and orbital mechanics of the MIR spacecraft. The resulting predictions provide spatial and temporal receiver flux distributions for any specified mission profile. The impact these flux distributions have on receiver design and control of the Brayton engine are discussed.

  20. Crustal Structure of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D.; Snyder, D.

    2009-05-01

    Cratons are vast areas of continental lithosphere that have remained relatively intact and stable since the Precambrian. They tend to be underlain by deep roots, characterized by anomalously fast seismic velocities (˜3%), which tomographic images show can extend to depths of ˜350km. The process by which these roots are formed is presently not well understood, but is believed to be associated with the accretion and imbrication of subducted oceanic material during the Archean. In order to test hypotheses on Precambrian crustal and lithospheric evolution in the North American craton and its influence on the intracratonic Hudson Bay basin, we undertake a study of P-to-S receiver functions to obtain estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Our high quality data come from the POLARIS, CHASME and CNSN networks, and the recently deployed HuBLE-UK broadband network of ten stations presently recording in northern Hudson Bay. Receiver functions from stations on Archean basement exhibit a sharp Moho Ps phase and clear subsequent reverberations, in contrast to those in the Trans-Hudson, which show much more complexity. Our results indicate Moho depths in Archean domains are consistent with other cratons worldwide (35-40km), with significant crustal thickening occurring within the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (up to 52km). Increased crustal thickness (>40km) is also seen on Baffin Island, another region dominated by Proterozoic geology. Variations in Vp/Vs ratio appear to characterise certain geological regions, with elevated values (>1.74) in the Hearne craton, northern Hudson Bay and Southern Baffin Island regions, possibly due to reworking during Hudsonian collision. The lowest Vp/Vs ratios (˜1.70) are found within the Rae Craton, indicative of a felsic to intermediate lower crust. Combining results from the H-κ analysis with the nature of the crust-mantle transition zone will provide insights into the composition of the lower crust, and also shed light onto

  1. Experimental approach to validation of an analytical and numerical thermal analysis of a travelling wave tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiejak, W.; Wymysłowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) is an electronic vacuum microwave device, which is used as a high power microwave amplifier, mainly in telecommunication purposes, e.g. radar systems. TWT's is an alternative solution in comparison to semiconductor devices in case of high power and high frequency applications. Thermal behaviour of TWT is one of the key aspects influencing its reliability and working parameters. The main goal of the research was to perform analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of a temperature distribution of a low band TWT in case of a typical working condition. Because the theoretical analysis seems to be very complex thus it was decided to compare the experimental results with the numerical simulations as well as with the simplified analytical formulas. As a first step of the presented research, the analytical analysis and numerical modelling of the helix TWT was carried out. The objective of the thermal analysis was to assess the temperature distribution in different parts of the helix TWT assembly during the extreme standard and working conditions. As a second stage of the research the numerical results were validated by the experimental measurements, which were carried out using a specially designed TWT test samples and corresponding experimental measurement tools.

  2. PICASSSO Ps Receiver Function Analysis of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, S.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2011-12-01

    Rif and Betic Mountains we observe complex crustal structures, possibly resulting from the associated thrust systems in each region. Along a profile across Morocco, we observe thick crust in the north beneath the Rif Mountains and to the south beneath the northern edge of the West African craton. Near the center of this transect, directly beneath the Atlas, we observe a much thinner crust at ~30-35 km. These receiver functions also reveal a clear LAB at variable depths throughout the study area, with up to a ~100% change in LAB depth from the southern region to the northern region. From south to north, we see an abrupt change in LAB depth from the High Atlas (~85-95 km) to the Middle Atlas (~65-70 km). The LAB remains relatively shallow beneath the Rif (~75 km) and thickens to the north beneath the Betic Mountains (~85-95 km) and the Iberian Massif (~100-125 km). These LAB depth estimates agree well with those from the surface wave analysis presented by Palomeras et al. (this session), and both data sets can be used to better constrain the LAB depth.

  3. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Beaver, Justin M; BogenII, Paul L.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Pyle, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  4. Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: Analytical model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guan; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectrum analysis (PASA) has demonstrated the capability of identifying the microstructures in phantoms and biological tissues. PASA adopts the procedures in ultrasound (US) spectrum analysis although the signal generation mechanisms related to ultrasound backscatter and photoacoustic wave generation differ. The purpose of this study is to theoretically validate the method of PASA. The analytical solution to the power spectrum of PA signals generated by identical microspheres following discrete uniform random distribution in space was derived. The simulation and experiment validation of analytical solution include: 1) the power spectrum profile of a single microsphere with a diameter of 300 μm; and 2) the PASA parameters of the PA signals generated by randomly distributed microspheres of diameters of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μm, and at concentrations of 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 per 1.53cm3 in the observation range of [0.5, 13MHz]. PMID:25748521

  5. Dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Volume 1: Analytical developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical procedures and digital computer code are presented for the dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Topics, considered include: (1) nonlinear response in the time domain, and (2) linear response in the frequency domain. The spacecraft is assumed to consist of an assembly of connected rigid or flexible subassemblies. The total system is not restricted to a topological connection arrangement and may be acting under the influence of passive or active control systems and external environments. The analytics and associated digital code provide the user with the capability to establish spacecraft system nonlinear total response for specified initial conditions, linear perturbation response about a calculated or specified nominal motion, general frequency response and graphical display, and spacecraft system stability analysis.

  6. Analytical evaluation of describing functions arising from harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, B A

    2008-05-01

    A new algorithm of harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscopes has been developed. The new algorithm is applicable to analytical evaluation of a large class of common tip-sample interaction potentials. The extensive test calculations show that the proposed algorithm in this work is the efficient one in practical computations. The comparative values presented in tables are acceptable and have the excellent agreement with the numerical results. PMID:18513097

  7. HEAP: Heat Energy Analysis Program, a computer model simulating solar receivers. [solving the heat transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.

  8. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). 10-MWe Solar Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: solar-facilities design integration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The results are presented of those thermal hydraulic, structural, and stress analyses required to demonstrate that the Receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant will satisfy the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life. Recommendations resulting from those analyses and supporting test programs are presented regarding operation of the receiver. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding. (LEW)

  9. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  10. Irreversible and reversible reactive chromatography: analytical solutions and moment analysis for rectangular pulse injections.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Sameena; Qamar, Shamsul; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    This work is concerned with the analysis of models for linear reactive chromatography describing irreversible A→B and reversible A↔B reactions. In contrast to previously published results rectangular reactant pulses are injected into initially empty or pre-equilibrated columns assuming both Dirichlet and Danckwerts boundary conditions. The models consist of two partial differential equations, accounting for convection, longitudinal dispersion and first order chemical reactions. Due to the effect of involved mechanisms on solute transport, analytical and numerical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand, design and optimize chromatographic reactors. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations analytically for linear adsorption isotherms. Statistical temporal moments are derived from solutions in the Laplace domain. Analytical results are compared with numerical predictions generated using a high-resolution finite volume scheme for two sets of boundary conditions. Several case studies are carried out to analyze reactive liquid chromatographic processes for a wide range of mass transfer and reaction kinetics. Good agreements in the results validate the correctness of the analytical solutions and accuracy of the proposed numerical algorithm. PMID:25670415

  11. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Weight Scale Analysis Fairbanks Weight Scale Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, M.D.

    2000-03-13

    Fairbanks Weight Scales are used at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to determine the weight of waste drums as they are received, processed, and shipped. Due to recent problems, discovered during calibration, the WRAP Engineering Department has completed this document which outlines both the investigation of the infeed conveyor scale failure in September of 1999 and recommendations for calibration procedure modifications designed to correct deficiencies in the current procedures.

  12. Cancer risk in patients receiving renal replacement therapy: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Huang, Liu; Li, Li; Li, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), including dialysis and kidney transplantation, tend to have an increased risk of cancer; however, studies on the degree of this risk have remained inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to quantify the cancer risk in patients with RRT. Cohort studies assessing overall cancer risk in RRT patients published before May 29, 2015 were included following systematic searches with of PubMed, EMBASE and the reference lists of the studies retrieved. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessment were performed. A total of 18 studies including 22 cohort studies were eventually identified, which comprised a total of 1,528,719 patients. In comparison with the general population, the pooled SIR for patients with dialysis including non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), dialysis excluding NMSC, transplantation including NMSC, transplantation excluding NMSC and RRT were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36–1.45), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.23–1.50), 3.26 (95% CI, 2.29–4.63), 2.08 (95% CI, 1.73–2.50) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.70–2.38), respectively. The cancer risk was particularly high in subgroups of large sample size trials, female patients, younger patients (age at first dialysis, 0–34 years; age at transplantation, 0–20 years), the first year of RRT and non-Asian transplant patients. A significant association was also found between RRT and the majority of organ-specific cancers. However, neither dialysis nor transplantation was associated with breast, body of uterus, colorectal or prostate cancer. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding the association between RRT and overall cancer as well as the majority of site-specific cancer types. However, this heterogeneity had no substantial influence on the pooled SIR for overall cancer in RRT according to the

  13. Parametric Analysis of Cyclic Phase Change and Energy Storage in Solar Heat Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Carsie A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    A parametric study on cyclic melting and freezing of an encapsulated phase change material (PCM), integrated into a solar heat receiver, has been performed. The cyclic nature of the present melt/freeze problem is relevant to latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems used to power solar Brayton engines in microgravity environments. Specifically, a physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project was developed. Multi-conjugate effects such as the convective fluid flow of a low-Prandtl-number fluid, coupled with thermal conduction in the phase change material, containment tube and working fluid conduit were accounted for in the model. A single-band thermal radiation model was also included to quantify reradiative energy exchange inside the receiver and losses through the aperture. The eutectic LiF-CaF2 was used as the phase change material (PCM) and a mixture of He/Xe was used as the working fluid coolant. A modified version of the computer code HOTTube was used to generate results in the two-phase regime. Results indicate that parametric changes in receiver gas inlet temperature and receiver heat input effects higher sensitivity to changes in receiver gas exit temperatures.

  14. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  15. Phase-recovery improvement using analytic wavelet transform analysis of a noisy interferogram cepstrum.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2012-09-15

    We evaluate the extension of the exact nonlinear reconstruction technique developed for digital holography to the phase-recovery problems presented by other optical interferometric methods, which use carrier modulation. It is shown that the introduction of an analytic wavelet analysis in the ridge of the cepstrum transformation corresponding to the analyzed interferogram can be closely related to the well-known wavelet analysis of the interferometric intensity. Subsequently, the phase-recovery process is improved. The advantages and limitations of this framework are analyzed and discussed using numerical simulations in singular scalar light fields and in temporal speckle pattern interferometry. PMID:23041878

  16. Techno-economic analysis of receiver replacement scenarios in a parabolic trough field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röger, Marc; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Caron, Simon; Dieckmann, Simon

    2016-05-01

    The heat loss of an evacuated parabolic trough receiver of solar thermal power plants ranges typically between values below 150 and 200 W/m at 350°C. Defects, such as glass breakage by wind events and coating degradation, anti-reflection coating degradation or hydrogen accumulation in the annulus, decrease the annual electricity production. This study examines the effect of different receiver performance loss scenarios on the energetic and economic output of a modern 150-MWel-parabolic trough plant with 7.5-hours molten-salt storage, located in Ma'an, Jordan over the whole lifetime by modeling it in an extended version of the software greenius. Compared to the reference scenario, a wind event in year 5 (10, 15) causing glass envelope breakage and consequential degradation of the selective coating of 5.6% of the receivers reduces the electricity output by 5.1% (3.8%, 2.5%), the net present value is reduced by 36.5% (23.1%, 13.1%). The payback time of receiver replacement is only 0.7 years and hence this measure is recommended. The highest negative impact on performance and net present value of a project has the hydrogen accumulation scenario (50% of field affected) in event year 5 (10,15) reducing net electric output by 10.7% (8.1%, 5.4%) and the net present value by 77.0% (48.7%, 27.6%). Replacement of the receivers or even better an inexpensive repair solution is an energetically and economically sensible solution. The option of investing in premium receivers with Xe-capsule during the construction phase is a viable option if the surplus cost for premium receivers is lower than 10 to 20 percent.

  17. Social cognition and the cerebellum: A meta-analytic connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; D'aes, Tine; Mariën, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) study explores the functional connectivity of the cerebellum with the cerebrum in social cognitive processes. In a recent meta-analysis, Van Overwalle, Baetens, Mariën, and Vandekerckhove (2014) documented that the cerebellum is implicated in social processes of "body" reading (mirroring; e.g., understanding other persons' intentions from observing their movements) and "mind" reading (mentalizing, e.g., inferring other persons' beliefs, intentions or personality traits, reconstructing persons' past, future, or hypothetical events). In a recent functional connectivity study, Buckner et al. (2011) offered a novel parcellation of cerebellar topography that substantially overlaps with the cerebellar meta-analytic findings of Van Overwalle et al. (2014). This overlap suggests that the involvement of the cerebellum in social reasoning depends on its functional connectivity with the cerebrum. To test this hypothesis, we explored the meta-analytic co-activations as indices of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebrum during social cognition. The MACM results confirm substantial and distinct connectivity with respect to the functions of (a) action understanding ("body" reading) and (b) mentalizing ("mind" reading). The consistent and strong connectivity findings of this analysis suggest that cerebellar activity during social judgments reflects distinct mirroring and mentalizing functionality, and that these cerebellar functions are connected with corresponding functional networks in the cerebrum. PMID:26419890

  18. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-06-16

    An improved receiver and receiver mount for calutrons are described. The receiver can be manipulated from outside the tank by a single control to position it with respect to the beam. A door can be operated exteriorly also to prevent undesired portions of the beam from entering the receiver. The receiver has an improved pocket which is more selective in the ions collected. (T.R.H.)

  19. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

  1. Analysis of two kinds of tree as physical barriers against erythemal UVB radiation received.

    PubMed

    Ysasi, Gonzalo G; Ribera, Luis J C

    2013-01-01

    Differences between global radiation UVER (erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation) received under full sun and diffuse radiation received under the shadow of two types of tree are analyzed to check the importance of these components on human exposure to UV radiation. Blue Line spores dosimeters of VioSpor were used for measurement of erythemal dose of UV radiation (able to produce erythema in human skin.) The response profile of these devices is extremely similar to human skin, thus they are suitable to determine and predict the interactions between UV erythema and human skin. Measurements were obtained in relatively clear days from February to December 2009 between 9:30 and 15:30 h. Three dosimeters were placed on a horizontal surface: one in full sun and the other two under the shadow of each tree. Values of UVER in both cases, in full sun and under the shadow of pine and Sauce, were obtained. In addition, the comparison was made between values of dose received in each case and the exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Finally, average daily irradiance received under the shadow of each tree in comparison with those received in full sun, was also analyzed using two PMA2100 radiometers situated on a horizontal surface. PMID:23190700

  2. Estimation and analysis of GPS receiver differential code biases using KGN in Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B. K.; Cho, J. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2011-05-01

    The total electron content (TEC) estimation by the Global Positioning System (GPS) can be seriously affected by the differential code biases (DCB), referred to as inter-frequency biases (IFB), of the satellite and receiver so that an accuracy of GPS-TEC value is dependent on the error of DCBs estimation. In this paper, we proposed the singular value decomposition (SVD) method to estimate the DCB of GPS satellites and receivers using the Korean GPS network (KGN) in South Korea. The receiver DCBs of about 49 GPS reference stations in KGN were determined for the accurate estimation of the regional ionospheric TEC. They obtained from the daily solution have large biases ranging from +5 to +27 ns for geomagnetic quiet days. The receiver DCB of SUWN reference station was compared with the estimates of IGS and JPL global ionosphere map (GIM). The results have shown comparatively good agreement at the level within 0.2 ns. After correction of receiver DCBs and knowing the satellite DCBs, the comparison between the behavior of the estimated TEC and that of GIMs was performed for consecutive three days. We showed that there is a good agreement between KASI model and GIMs.

  3. Dynamic buckling analysis of delaminated composite plates using semi-analytical finite strip method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesy, H. R.; Totounferoush, A.; Ghannadpour, S. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The delamination phenomena can become of paramount importance when the design of the composite plates is concerned. In the current study, the effect of through-the-width delamination on dynamic buckling behavior of a composite plate is studied by implementing semi-analytical finite strip method. In this method, the energy and work integrations are computed analytically due to the implementation of trigonometric functions. Moreover, the method can lead to converged results with comparatively small number of degrees of freedom. These features have made the method quite efficient. To account for delamination effects, displacement field is enriched by adding appropriate terms. Also, the penetration of the delamination surfaces is prevented by incorporating an appropriate contact scheme into the time response analysis. Some selected results are validated against those available in the literature.

  4. Preliminary results from receiver function analysis in a seismological network across the Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sippl, Christan; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vlad; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.

    2010-05-01

    The multi-disciplinary TIen Shan-PAmir GEodynamic (TIPAGE) program aims to investigate the dynamics of the orogeny of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains, which are situated in south Kyrgyzstan and east Tajikistan in Central Asia. Deformation and uplift accompanied by crustal thickening is mainly induced by the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. As a local feature this collision provides the world's largest active intra-continental subduction zone. Within the framework of the TIPAGE program we operate a temporary seismic array consisting of 32 broadband and 8 short period seismic stations for a period of two years (from 2008 to 2010) covering an area of 300 x 300 km over the main part of the central Pamir plateau and the Alai-range of the southern Tien Shan. In the first year 24 broadband stations were set up in a 350-km long north-south profile geometry from Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan to Zorkul in south-eastern Tajikistan with approximately 15 km station spacing. We perform a receiver function (RF) analysis of converted P and S waves from teleseismic earthquakes at epicentral distances of 35-95 degrees with a minimum magnitude of 5.5. Therefore we decompose their wavefields by rotating the coordinate systems of the recorded seismograms from a N,E,Z into a SH,SV,P system. RFs are isolated by deconvolution of the P-component from the SH- and SV-component. They provide a robust tool to locate discontinuities in wave velocity like the Moho and thus represent the method of choice to determine crustal thickness. First results show a crustal thickness of 70-80km. Xenolith findings from depths of 100km reported by Hacker et al. (2005) give indication for even higher values. The N-S profile geometry will produce a high resolution RF image to map the gross crustal and lithospheric structure. In addition a 2D network with additional 16 stations will enable an investigation of lateral structure variation. We give an introduction to the project and

  5. Performance analysis of OOK receiver with a GSM laser in space to ground optical communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengnan; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Wu, Jiajie; Wang, Qi

    2015-09-01

    In practice, due to reasons related to the characteristics of the laser device and the inevitable error of the processing technique, a laser source emitted from a communication terminal is represented by the Gaussian Schell model (GSM). In a space to ground optical communication link, the incident optical intensity at the receiver aperture is affected by the source coherence parameter and the zenith angle. With full consideration of both the average optical intensity and scintillation, the statistical distribution of the optical intensity and the average bit error rate (BER) are obtained with different zenith angle and source coherence parameter. The effect of the source coherence parameter on the performance of an on-off-keying (OOK) receiver is systematically analyzed. The results indicate that the performance degrades seriously with increasing source coherence parameter or zenith angle. The hope of this work is to improve the redundancy design of the optical communication receiver system.

  6. A brief history of free-response receiver operating characteristic paradigm data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Dev P

    2013-07-01

    In the receiver operating characteristic paradigm the observer assigns a single rating to each image and the location of the perceived abnormality, if any, is ignored. In the free-response receiver operating characteristic paradigm the observer is free to mark and rate as many suspicious regions as are considered clinically reportable. Credit for a correct localization is given only if a mark is sufficiently close to an actual lesion; otherwise, the observer's mark is scored as a location-level false positive. Until fairly recently there existed no accepted method for analyzing the resulting relatively unstructured data containing random numbers of mark-rating pairs per image. This report reviews the history of work in this field, which has now spanned more than five decades. It introduces terminology used to describe the paradigm, proposed measures of performance (figures of merit), ways of visualizing the data (operating characteristics), and software for analyzing free-response receiver operating characteristic studies. PMID:23583665

  7. Error-analysis and comparison to analytical models of numerical waveforms produced by the NRAR Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinder, Ian; Buonanno, Alessandra; Boyle, Michael; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Healy, James; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K.; Nagar, Alessandro; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Pan, Yi; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Pürrer, Michael; Reisswig, Christian; Scheel, Mark A.; Schnetter, Erik; Sperhake, Ulrich; Szilágyi, Bela; Tichy, Wolfgang; Wardell, Barry; Zenginoğlu, Anıl; Alic, Daniela; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Bode, Tanja; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Campanelli, Manuela; Chu, Tony; Damour, Thibault; Grigsby, Jason D.; Hannam, Mark; Haas, Roland; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Husa, Sascha; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Laguna, Pablo; London, Lionel; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Lousto, Carlos O.; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard A.; Mösta, Philipp; Mroué, Abdul; Müller, Doreen; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nerozzi, Andrea; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pollney, Denis; Reifenberger, George; Rezzolla, Luciano; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Taracchini, Andrea; Taylor, Nicholas W.; Teukolsky, Saul A.; Thierfelder, Marcus; Witek, Helvi; Zlochower, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    The Numerical-Relativity-Analytical-Relativity (NRAR) collaboration is a joint effort between members of the numerical relativity, analytical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The goal of the NRAR collaboration is to produce numerical-relativity simulations of compact binaries and use them to develop accurate analytical templates for the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration to use in detecting gravitational-wave signals and extracting astrophysical information from them. We describe the results of the first stage of the NRAR project, which focused on producing an initial set of numerical waveforms from binary black holes with moderate mass ratios and spins, as well as one non-spinning binary configuration which has a mass ratio of 10. All of the numerical waveforms are analysed in a uniform and consistent manner, with numerical errors evaluated using an analysis code created by members of the NRAR collaboration. We compare previously-calibrated, non-precessing analytical waveforms, notably the effective-one-body (EOB) and phenomenological template families, to the newly-produced numerical waveforms. We find that when the binary's total mass is ˜100-200M⊙, current EOB and phenomenological models of spinning, non-precessing binary waveforms have overlaps above 99% (for advanced LIGO) with all of the non-precessing-binary numerical waveforms with mass ratios ⩽4, when maximizing over binary parameters. This implies that the loss of event rate due to modelling error is below 3%. Moreover, the non-spinning EOB waveforms previously calibrated to five non-spinning waveforms with mass ratio smaller than 6 have overlaps above 99.7% with the numerical waveform with a mass ratio of 10, without even maximizing on the binary parameters.

  8. Analytical tools for the analysis of fire debris. A review: 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando Ernesto; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-20

    The analysis of fire debris evidence might offer crucial information to a forensic investigation, when for instance, there is suspicion of the intentional use of ignitable liquids to initiate a fire. Although the evidence analysis in the laboratory is mainly conducted by a handful of well-established methodologies, during the last eight years several authors proposed noteworthy improvements on these methodologies, suggesting new interesting approaches. This review critically outlines the most up-to-date and suitable tools for the analysis and interpretation of fire debris evidence. The survey about analytical tools covers works published in the 2008-2015 period. It includes sources of consensus-classified reference samples, current standard procedures, new proposals for sample extraction and analysis, and the most novel statistical tools. In addition, this review provides relevant knowledge on the distortion effects of the ignitable liquid chemical fingerprints, which have to be considered during interpretation of results. PMID:27251852

  9. Space Trajectories Error Analysis (STEAP) Programs. Volume 1: Analytic manual, update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Manual revisions are presented for the modified and expanded STEAP series. The STEAP 2 is composed of three independent but related programs: NOMAL for the generation of n-body nominal trajectories performing a number of deterministic guidance events; ERRAN for the linear error analysis and generalized covariance analysis along specific targeted trajectories; and SIMUL for testing the mathematical models used in the navigation and guidance process. The analytic manual provides general problem description, formulation, and solution and the detailed analysis of subroutines. The programmers' manual gives descriptions of the overall structure of the programs as well as the computational flow and analysis of the individual subroutines. The user's manual provides information on the input and output quantities of the programs. These are updates to N69-36472 and N69-36473.

  10. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  11. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  12. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  13. Effects of joint controller on analytical modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ming; Zhang, Yanheng; Chen, Gang; Sun, Hanxu

    2015-04-01

    Modal analysis is a fundamental and important task for modeling and control of the flexible manipulator. However, almost all of the traditional modal analysis methods view the flexible manipulator as a pure mechanical structure and neglect feedback action of joint controller. In order to study the effects of joint controller on the modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator, a closed-loop analytical modal analysis method is proposed. Firstly, two exact boundary constraints, namely servo feedback constraint and bending moment constraint, are derived to solve the vibration partial differential equation. It is found that the stiffness and damping gains of joint controller are both included in the boundary conditions, which lead to an unconventional secular term. Secondly, analytical algorithm based on Ritz approach is developed by using Laplace transform and complex modal approach to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes. And then, the numerical simulations are performed and the computational results show that joint controller has pronounced influence on the modal parameters: joint controller stiffness reduces the natural frequency, while joint controller damping makes the shape phase non-zero. Furthermore, the validity of the presented conclusion is confirmed through experimental studies. These findings are expected to improve the performance of dynamics simulation systems and model-based controllers.

  14. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Scores in Epilepsy Surgery Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores were analyzed for 82 epilepsy surgery candidates and used in combination with receiver operating characteristic curves to classify patients with left (LTL) and right (RTL) temporal lobe seizure onset. Results indicate that WMS-R scores used alone or in combination provide relatively poor discrimination…

  15. Perturbation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Acoustic Phonatory Signal in Parkinsonian Patients Receiving Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victoria S.; Zhou, Xiao Ping; Rahn, Douglas A., III; Wang, Emily Q.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen PD patients who received deep brain stimulation (DBS), 10 non-surgical (control) PD patients, and 11 non-pathologic age- and gender-matched subjects performed sustained vowel phonations. The following acoustic measures were obtained on the sustained vowel phonations: correlation dimension (D[subscript 2]), percent jitter, percent shimmer,…

  16. Exact analysis of a balanced receiver for differential phase-shift keying signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2007-03-01

    The performance of differential phase-shift keying signals with a balanced receiver is exactly analyzed by using a closed-form expression without approximation. The numerical results are well matched with previous results based on the saddle-point approximation. The error probability is calculated exactly using the well-known Marcum Q function.

  17. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  18. Analytical analysis of borehole experiments for the estimation of subsurface thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso Lembcke, Luis G.; Roubinet, Delphine; Gidel, Floriane; Irving, James; Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-05-01

    Estimating subsurface thermal properties is required in many research fields and applications. To this end, borehole experiments such as the thermal response test (TRT) and active-line-source (ALS) method are of significant interest because they allow us to determine thermal property estimates in situ. With these methods, the subsurface thermal conductivity and diffusivity are typically estimated using asymptotic analytical expressions, whose simplifying assumptions have an impact on the accuracy of the values obtained. In this paper, we develop new analytical tools for interpreting borehole thermal experiments, and we use these tools to assess the impact of such assumptions on thermal property estimates. Quite importantly, our results show that the simplifying assumptions of currently used analytical models can result in errors in the estimated thermal conductivity and diffusivity of up to 60% and 40%, respectively. We also show that these errors are more important for short-term analysis and can be reduced with an appropriate choice of experimental duration. Our results demonstrate the need for cautious interpretation of the data collected during TRT and ALS experiments as well as for improvement of the existing in-situ experimental methods.

  19. Stress analysis for multilayered coating systems using semi-analytical BEM with geometric non-linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao-Ming; Gu, Yan; Chen, Jeng-Tzong

    2011-05-01

    For a long time, most of the current numerical methods, including the finite element method, have not been efficient to analyze stress fields of very thin structures, such as the problems of thin coatings and their interfacial/internal mechanics. In this paper, the boundary element method for 2-D elastostatic problems is studied for the analysis of multi-coating systems. The nearly singular integrals, which is the primary obstacle associated with the BEM formulations, are dealt with efficiently by using a semi-analytical algorithm. The proposed semi-analytical integral formulas, compared with current analytical methods in the BEM literature, are suitable for high-order geometry elements when nearly singular integrals need to be calculated. Owing to the employment of the curved surface elements, only a small number of elements need to be divided along the boundary, and high accuracy can be achieved without increasing more computational efforts. For the test problems studied, very promising results are obtained when the thickness of coated layers is in the orders of 10-6-10-9, which is sufficient for modeling most coated systems in the micro- or nano-scales.

  20. Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

    Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

  1. Analytical Problems and Suggestions in the Analysis of Behavioral Economic Demand Curves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves (Hursh, Raslear, Shurtleff, Bauman, & Simmons, 1988) are innovative approaches to characterize the relationships between consumption of a substance and its price. In this article, we investigate common analytical issues in the use of behavioral economic demand curves, which can cause inconsistent interpretations of demand curves, and then we provide methodological suggestions to address those analytical issues. We first demonstrate that log transformation with different added values for handling zeros changes model parameter estimates dramatically. Second, demand curves are often analyzed using an overparameterized model that results in an inefficient use of the available data and a lack of assessment of the variability among individuals. To address these issues, we apply a nonlinear mixed effects model based on multivariate error structures that has not been used previously to analyze behavioral economic demand curves in the literature. We also propose analytical formulas for the relevant standard errors of derived values such as P max, O max, and elasticity. The proposed model stabilizes the derived values regardless of using different added increments and provides substantially smaller standard errors. We illustrate the data analysis procedure using data from a relative reinforcement efficacy study of simulated marijuana purchasing. PMID:26741176

  2. New analysis technique for estimating zonal irregularity drifts and variability in the equatorial F region using spaced receiver scintillation data

    SciTech Connect

    Vacchione, J.D.; Franke, S.J.; Yeh, K.C.

    1987-10-01

    A new technique for analyzing spaced receiver measurements of equatorial scintillation is applied to VHF scintillation data. The technique is based on a model that includes both propagation effects and the statistical characteristics of scintillation-producing irregularities. Nonlinear least squares fitting is used to fit the model to measured auto- and cross-correlation functions of the signal amplitude fading on spaced receivers. The results are compared with mean and random drift estimates obtained using the classical type of correlation analysis. 17 references.

  3. Preliminary analysis of fluctuations in the received uplink-beacon-power data obtained from the GOLD experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of Fluctuations in the Received Uplink-Beacon-Power Data Obtained From the GOLD Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Uplink data from recent free-space optical communication experiments carried out between the Table Mountain Facility and the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are used to study fluctuations caused by beam propagation through the atmosphere. The influence of atmospheric scintillation, beam wander and jitter, and multiple uplink beams on the statistics of power received by the satellite is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Preliminary analysis indicates the received signal obeys an approximate lognormal distribution, as predicted by the weak-turbulence model, but further characterization of other sources of fluctuations is necessary for accurate link predictions.

  5. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Brunk, W.O.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given for an improved calutron receiver having a face plate lying at an angle to the direction of the entering ion beams but having an opening, the plane of which is substantially perpendicular to that of the entering ion beams. By so positioning the opening in the receiver, the effective area through which the desired material may enter the receiver is increased, and at the same time the effective area through which containattng material may enter the receiver is reduced.

  6. Development of an Automated LIBS Analytical Test System Integrated with Component Control and Spectrum Analysis Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu; Tian, Di; Chen, Feipeng; Chen, Pengfei; Qiao, Shujun; Yang, Guang; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-08-01

    The present paper proposes an automated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analytical test system, which consists of a LIBS measurement and control platform based on a modular design concept, and a LIBS qualitative spectrum analysis software and is developed in C#. The platform provides flexible interfacing and automated control; it is compatible with different manufacturer component models and is constructed in modularized form for easy expandability. During peak identification, a more robust peak identification method with improved stability in peak identification has been achieved by applying additional smoothing on the slope obtained by calculation before peak identification. For the purpose of element identification, an improved main lines analysis method, which detects all elements on the spectral peak to avoid omission of certain elements without strong spectral lines, is applied to element identification in the tested LIBS samples. This method also increases the identification speed. In this paper, actual applications have been carried out. According to tests, the analytical test system is compatible with components of various models made by different manufacturers. It can automatically control components to get experimental data and conduct filtering, peak identification and qualitative analysis, etc. on spectral data. supported by the National Major Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Funds of China (No. 2011YQ030113)

  7. Analytically Solved Solid Fraction Model for the Newtonian Thermal Analysis of Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbaş, Kadir Can

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the development of an alternative model which overcomes the drawbacks of the Newtonian thermal analysis of casting summarized from the literature. The alternative Analytically Solved Solid Fraction Model (AS-SFM) aims to improve the reliability of the measurement of latent heat and solid fraction. The latent heat of pure tin is computed by AS-SFM and the other models in the literature, and the results are compared with the literal value of the latent heat. The new method is shown to be a more reliable latent heat predictor than the other methods given in the literature.

  8. Simulation and analytic analysis of radiation driven islands at the density limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, D. P.; Liu, C.; Gates, D. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; White, R.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of radiative cooling on the onset and evolution of magnetic islands is investigated with nonlinear resistive MHD simulations and reduced theoretical analysis. The configuration is a cylindrical tokamak with a m/n = 2/1 island and includes three dimensional resistivity and anisotropic heat conduction in the simulations. The radiative cooling is implemented as a temperature perturbation inside the island, which modifies the island structure and drives the island more unstable. Analytic reduction of the saturated island size and structure supports the simulation results. The results offer intuitive understanding of experimental observations of radiation driven magnetic islands, which may explain density limit disruptions.

  9. Fluxball magnetic field analysis using a hybrid analytical/FEM/BEM with equivalent currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, João F. P.; Camilo, Fernando M.; Machado, V. Maló

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a fluxball electric machine is analyzed concerning the magnetic flux, force and torque. A novel method is proposed based in a special hybrid FEM/BEM (Finite Element Method/Boundary Element Method) with equivalent currents by using an analytical treatment for the source field determination. The method can be applied to evaluate the magnetic field in axisymmetric problems, in the presence of several magnetic materials. Same results obtained by a commercial Finite Element Analysis tool are presented for validation purposes with the proposed method.

  10. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE`s analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992).

  11. Analytically Solved Solid Fraction Model for the Newtonian Thermal Analysis of Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbaş, Kadir Can

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the development of an alternative model which overcomes the drawbacks of the Newtonian thermal analysis of casting summarized from the literature. The alternative Analytically Solved Solid Fraction Model (AS-SFM) aims to improve the reliability of the measurement of latent heat and solid fraction. The latent heat of pure tin is computed by AS-SFM and the other models in the literature, and the results are compared with the literal value of the latent heat. The new method is shown to be a more reliable latent heat predictor than the other methods given in the literature.

  12. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pořízka, Pavel; Prochazková, Petra; Prochazka, David; Sládková, Lucia; Novotný, Jan; Petrilak, Michal; Brada, Michal; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail. PMID:25251409

  13. Solving a layout design problem by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzkaya, Umut R.; Eser, Arzum; Argon, Goner

    2004-02-01

    Today, growing amounts of waste due to fast consumption rate of products started an irreversible environmental pollution and damage. A considerable part of this waste is caused by packaging material. With the realization of this fact, various waste policies have taken important steps. Here we considered a firm, where waste Aluminum constitutes majority of raw materials for this fir0m. In order to achieve a profitable recycling process, plant layout should be well designed. In this study, we propose a two-step approach involving Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to solve facility layout design problems. A case example is considered to demonstrate the results achieved.

  14. An analytical approach to grid sensitivity analysis for NACA four-digit wing sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in computational fluid dynamics with emphasis on grids and surface parameterization is described. An interactive algebraic grid-generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around NACA four-digit wing sections. An analytical procedure is developed for calculating grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters of a wing section. A comparison of the sensitivity with that obtained using a finite difference approach is made. Grid sensitivity with respect to grid parameters, such as grid-stretching coefficients, are also investigated. Using the resultant grid sensitivity, aerodynamic sensitivity is obtained using the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  16. Combining ray tracing and CFD in the thermal analysis of a parabolic dish tubular cavity receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Ken J.; Marsberg, Justin; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the numerical evaluation of a tubular receiver used in a dish Brayton cycle. In previous work considering the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to perform the calculation of the absorbed radiation from the parabolic dish into the cavity as well as the resulting conjugate heat transfer, it was shown that an axi-symmetric model of the dish and receiver absorbing surfaces was useful in reducing the computational cost required for a full 3-D discrete ordinates solution, but concerns remained about its accuracy. To increase the accuracy, the Monte Carlo ray tracer SolTrace is used to perform the calculation of the absorbed radiation profile to be used in the conjugate heat transfer CFD simulation. The paper describes an approach for incorporating a complex geometry like a tubular receiver generated using CFD software into SolTrace. The results illustrate the variation of CFD mesh density that translates into the number of elements in SolTrace as well as the number of rays used in the Monte Carlo approach and their effect on obtaining a resolution-independent solution. The conjugate heat transfer CFD simulation illustrates the effect of applying the SolTrace surface heat flux profile solution as a volumetric heat source to heat up the air inside the tube. Heat losses due to convection and thermal re-radiation are also determined as a function of different tube absorptivities.

  17. Numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud homodyne coherent receivers relying on line-coding and injection locking in lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xydas, Yannis; Ressopoulos, Constantinos; Bogris, Adonis

    2015-12-01

    We present a numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud coherent detection enabled by injection locked lasers and line coding. The coherent receiver was tested with respect to an ideal receiver for two higher order modulation formats (16-QAM, QPSK) and under diverse operating regimes relating to the slave laser linewidth properties, the injection level and the frequency detuning between the incoming signal and the slave laser. The impact of the slave laser properties and line coding techniques on the receiver performance is highlighted showing that the technique could be used as a practical solution in order to enable low-cost and short reach n × 100 Gb/s Ethernet communication systems with the potential of flexibility in terms of the data rate.

  18. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    York, H.F.

    1959-07-01

    A receiver construction is presented for calutrons having two or more ion sources and an individual receiver unit for each source. Design requirements dictate that the face plate defining the receiver entrance slots be placed at an angle to the approaching beam, which means that ions striking the face plate are likely to be scattcred into the entrance slots of other receivers. According to the present invention, the face plate has a surface provided with parallel ridges so disposed that one side only of each ridge's exposed directly to the ion beam. The scattered ions are directed away from adjacent receivers by the ridges on the lace plate.

  19. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  20. Analytical Services Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standardmore » chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.« less

  1. Analytical multiple scattering correction to the Mie theory: Application to the analysis of the lidar signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flesia, C.; Schwendimann, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of the multiple scattering to the lidar signal is dependent on the optical depth tau. Therefore, the radar analysis, based on the assumption that the multiple scattering can be neglected is limited to cases characterized by low values of the optical depth (tau less than or equal to 0.1) and hence it exclude scattering from most clouds. Moreover, all inversion methods relating lidar signal to number densities and particle size must be modified since the multiple scattering affects the direct analysis. The essential requests of a realistic model for lidar measurements which include the multiple scattering and which can be applied to practical situations follow. (1) Requested are not only a correction term or a rough approximation describing results of a certain experiment, but a general theory of multiple scattering tying together the relevant physical parameter we seek to measure. (2) An analytical generalization of the lidar equation which can be applied in the case of a realistic aerosol is requested. A pure analytical formulation is important in order to avoid the convergency and stability problems which, in the case of numerical approach, are due to the large number of events that have to be taken into account in the presence of large depth and/or a strong experimental noise.

  2. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA. PMID:24051769

  3. Analytical and multibody modeling for the power analysis of standing jumps.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G; Callegari, M; Fioretti, S

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the power analysis of standing jumps are proposed and compared in this article. The first method is based on a simple analytical formulation which requires as input the coordinates of the center of gravity in three specified instants of the jump. The second method is based on a multibody model that simulates the jumps processing the data obtained by a three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system and the dynamometric measurements obtained by the force platforms. The multibody model is developed with OpenSim, an open-source software which provides tools for the kinematic and dynamic analyses of 3D human body models. The study is focused on two of the typical tests used to evaluate the muscular activity of lower limbs, which are the counter movement jump and the standing long jump. The comparison between the results obtained by the two methods confirms that the proposed analytical formulation is correct and represents a simple tool suitable for a preliminary analysis of total mechanical work and the mean power exerted in standing jumps. PMID:24960184

  4. Analysis, development and testing of a fixed tilt solar collector employing reversible Vee-Trough reflectors and vacuum tube receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Vee-Trough/Vacuum Tube Collector (VTVTC) aimed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of collectors assembled from evacuated tube receivers. The VTVTC was analyzed rigorously and a mathematical model was developed to calculate the optical performance of the vee-trough concentrator and the thermal performance of the evacuated tube receiver. A test bed was constructed to verify the mathematical analyses and compare reflectors made out of glass, Alzak and aluminized GEB Teflon. Tests were run at temperatures ranging from 95 to 180 C during the months of April, May, June, July and August 1977. Vee-trough collector efficiencies of 35-40 per cent were observed at an operating temperature of about 175 C. Test results compared well with the calculated values. Test data covering a complete day are presented for selected dates throughout the test season. Predicted daily useful heat collection and efficiency values are presented for a year's duration at operation temperatures ranging from 65 to 230 C. Estimated collector costs and resulting thermal energy costs are presented. Analytical and experimental results are discussed along with an economic evaluation.

  5. An analytical technique for the analysis of airplane spin entry and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion for a spinning airplane are simplified to facilitate the analysis of spin entry and recovery maneuvers. Solutions of a nonlinear, first order equation for spin rate enable calculation of spin entry and recovery times and control required for recovery. The analysis is applied to a light airplane for which both aerodynamic data, rotory balance wind tunnel tests, and spin flight test data have been obtained. A comparison of predicted and actual transient spin responses is made which supports the validity of the analytical approach taken but which also illustrates the difficulty in obtaining accurate aerodynamic data for spinning airplanes. Certain normalized parameters of the reduced state spin equation suggest criteria for assessing the transient spin characteristics of light airplanes.

  6. Analytical mitigation of solute-capillary interactions in double detection Taylor Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Latunde-Dada, Seyi; Bott, Rachel; Hampton, Karl; Leszczyszyn, Oksana Iryna

    2015-08-21

    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in the presence of interactions between solutes and capillary walls yields inaccurate results for the diffusion coefficients of the solutes because the resulting concentration profiles are broadened and asymmetric. Whilst there are practical ways of mitigating these interactions, it is not always possible to eradicate them completely. In this paper, an analytical method of mitigating the effects of the adsorptions is presented. By observing the dispersion of the solute molecules at two detection points and using the expected relations between measured parameters, such as the standard deviations and peak amplitudes, the dispersive components of the profiles were isolated with a constrained fitting algorithm. The method was successfully applied to lysozyme and cytochrome C which adsorb onto fused silica capillary walls. Furthermore, this illustrates an advantage of using the fitting method for Taylor Dispersion Analysis. PMID:26189206

  7. Analysis, design, and experimental results for lightweight space heat receiver canisters, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Michael G.; Brege, Mark A.; Heidenreich, Gary R.

    1991-01-01

    Critical technology experiments have been performed on thermal energy storage modules in support of the Brayton Advanced Heat Receiver program. The modules are wedge-shaped canisters designed to minimize the mechanical stresses that occur during the phase change of the lithium fluoride phase change material. Nickel foam inserts were used in some of the canisters to provide thermal conductivity enhancement and to distribute the void volume. Two canisters, one with a nickel foam insert, and one without, were thermally cycled in various orientations in a fluidized bed furnace. The only measurable impact of the nickel foam was seen when the back and short sides of the canister were insulated to simulate operation in the advanced receiver design. In tests with insulation, the furnace to back side delta T was larger in the canister with the nickel foam insert, probably due to the radiant absorptivity of the nickel. However, the differences in the temperature profiles of the two canisters were small, and in many cases the profiles matched fairly well. Computed Tomography (CT) was successfully used to nondestructively demarcate void locations in the canisters. Finally, canister dimensional stability, which was measured throughout the thermal cycling test program with an inspection fixture was satisfactory with a maximum change of 0.635 mm (0.025 in.).

  8. Crustal structure in the southern part of West Java based on analysis of teleseismic receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Anggono, Titi

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed teleseismic receiver functions from five broadband stations to determine the crustal thickness and Vp/vs ratios in the southern part of west Java. We observed that the study area is characterized by crustal thickness around 31-37 km with Vp/Vs varying between 1.66 and 1.87. We suggest that lower values of Vp/Vs obtained in some stations indicate more felsic crustal composition. The mid-crust low velocity zone is observed beneath a seismic station located near the volcanic zones with high values of Vp/Vs ratio suggesting the presence of partial melt due to geothermal activities in the upper mantle. Furthermore, a seismic station located near the active fault zone also has high Vp/Vs ratio, which may indicate the presence of fluid filled fracture zone. However, this station exhibits complicated receiver functions, thus it needs further research involving a larger dataset with good backazimuth coverage of the teleseismic data to resolve this issue.

  9. Analytical modeling and thermodynamic analysis of robust superhydrophobic surfaces with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures.

    PubMed

    Im, Maesoon; Im, Hwon; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Yoon, Jun-Bo; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2010-11-16

    A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer surface with perfectly ordered microstructures having an inverse-trapezoidal cross-sectional profile (simply PDMS trapezoids) showed superhydrophobic and transparent characteristics under visible light as reported in our previous work. The addition of a fluoropolymer (Teflon) coating enhances both features and provides oleophobicity. This paper focuses on the analytical modeling of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids structure and thermodynamic analysis based on the Gibbs free energy analysis. Additionally, the wetting characteristics of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids surface before and after the application of the Teflon coating are analytically explained. The Gibbs free energy analysis reveals that, due to the Teflon coating, the Cassie-Baxter state becomes energetically more favorable than the Wenzel state and the contact angle difference between the Cassie-Baxter state and the Wenzel state decreases. These two findings support the robustness of the superhydrophobicity of the fabricated Teflon-coated PDMS trapezoids. This is then verified via the impinging test of a water droplet at a high speed. The dependencies of the design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids on the hydrophobicity are also comprehensively studied through a thermodynamic analysis. Geometrical dependency on the hydrophobicity shows that overhang microstructures do not have a significant influence on the hydrophobicity. In contrast, the intrinsic contact angle of the structural material is most important in determining the apparent contact angle. On the other hand, the experimental results showed that the side angles of the overhangs are critical not for the hydrophobic but for the oleophobic property with liquids of a low surface tension. Understanding of design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids surface gives more information for implementation of superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:20879754

  10. Radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  11. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1958-09-01

    Improvements are described in isotope separation devices of the calutron type and, in particular, deals with a novel caiutron receiver which passes the optimum portions of the ion beam to a collecting chamber. In broad aspects the receiver provides means for pass delimited pontion of the beam and an elongated collecting pocket disposed to receive ions passed by the beam delimiting means. The collecting pocket is transversely partitioned into a plurality of ion receiving compartments respectively defined by a corresponding plurality of separately removable liner elements.

  12. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.H.; Stone, K.F.

    1958-09-01

    S>This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and, more specifically, describes a receiver fer collecting the ion curreot after it is formed into a beam of non-homogeneous isotropic cross-section. The invention embodies a calutron receiver having an ion receiving pocket for separately collecting and retaining ions traveling in a selected portion of the ion beam and anelectrode for intercepting ions traveling in another selected pontion of the ion beam. The electrode is disposed so as to fix the limit of one side of the pontion of the ion beam admitted iato the ion receiving pocket.

  13. Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Helffrich, G. R.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    The processes that formed, thickened and thinned the early Earth's crust remain poorly known. The onset of modern plate tectonics, for example, could be as far back as the Hadean or as late as the Neoproterozoic. In many cratons, vertical processes are believed to have been dominant (dome-and-keel tectonics, e.g. Pilbara craton), while others are hypothesised to have formed by the progressive accretion of different terranes (e.g. Superior craton). The Hudson Bay region represents one of the largest areas of Precambrian geology on the planet, with ages spanning 2 billion years (3.9-1.8 Ga). The western Churchill province contains the predominantly Paleo- to Mesoarchean Rae domain and the Neoarchean Hearne domain, and is welded to the Superior craton by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, a Himalayan scale feature which extends for more than 4500 km along strike. The Churchill has received comparatively little scientific investigation due to its remote location and harsh climate. In order to test hypotheses on crustal formation and evolution during the Precambrian, teleseismic receiver functions have been analysed for more than 30 stations located on the key geological features in the vicinity of Hudson Bay. Across the entire Rae domain, a dominantly felsic crust with a sharp Moho is observed. Little evidence exists to interpret the vast extent of the felsic crust in terms of subduction related processes. Within the granite-greenstone terranes of the Hearne domain, a more intermediate bulk composition and complex Moho signature may be representative of an oceanic affinity for the crust, suggesting accretionary processes acted there. In the Quebec-Baffin Island region, bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are dominated by effects associated with the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and appear to map out the first-order shape of the indenting lower-plate. Correlation between terrane age and receiver function-derived crustal structure suggests that the crust in northern Canada was

  14. Spine Radiosurgery: A Dosimetric Analysis in 124 Patients Who Received 18 Gy

    SciTech Connect

    Schipani, Stefano; Wen, Winston; Jin, Jain-Yue; Kim, Jin Koo; Ryu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To define the safely tolerated doses to organs at risk (OARs) adjacent to the target volume (TV) of spine radiosurgery (SRS) with 18-Gy in a single fraction. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 patient cases with 165 spine metastases were reviewed. An 18-Gy single-fraction regimen was prescribed to the 90% isodose line encompassing the TV. A constraint of 10 Gy to 10% of the spinal cord outlined 6 mm above and below the TV was used. Dosimetric data to OARs were analyzed. Results: A total of 124 patients (100%) were followed-up, and median follow-up time was 7 months (1-50 months). Symptoms and local control were achieved in 114 patients (92%). Acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 oral mucositis occurred in 11 of 11 (100%) patients at risk for oropharyngeal toxicity after cervical spine treatment. There were no RTOG grade 2-4 acute or late complications. Median TV was 43.2 cc (5.3-175.4 cc) and 90% of the TV received median dose of 19 Gy (17-19.8 Gy). Median (range) of spinal cord maximum dose (Dmax), dose to spinal cord 0.35 cc (Dsc0.35), and cord volume receiving 10 Gy (Vsc10) were 13.8 Gy (5.4-21 Gy), 8.9 Gy (2.6-11.4 Gy) and 0.33 cc (0-1.6 cc), respectively. Other OARs were evaluated when in proximity to the TV. Esophagus (n=58), trachea (n=28), oropharynx (n=11), and kidneys (n=34) received median (range) V10 and V15 of 3.1 cc (0-5.8 cc) and 1.2 cc (0-2.9 cc), 2.8 cc (0-4.9 cc), and 0.8 cc (0-2.1 cc), 3.4 cc (0-6.2 cc) and 1.6 cc (0-3.2 cc), 0.3 cc (0-0.8 cc) and 0.08 cc (0-0.1 cc), respectively. Conclusions: Cord Dmax of 14 Gy and D0.35 of 10 Gy are safe dose constraints for 18-Gy single-fraction SRS. Esophagus V10 of 3 cc and V15 of 1 cc, trachea V10 of 3 cc, and V15 of 1 cc, oropharynx V10 of 3.5 cc and V15 of 1.5 cc, kidney V10 of 0.3 cc, and V15 of 0.1 cc are planning guidelines when these OARs are in proximity to the TV.

  15. Preliminary performance analysis of a transverse flow spectrally selective two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A new volumetric receiver concept has been investigated, based on an adaptation of the spectrally selective, two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver concept of Flamant et al. Both slabs comprise spheres of identical size - borosilicate for the transparent slab 1 and SiC for the opaque slab 2 - which are ordered in a hexagonally close-packed bed. The flow direction has been changed from parallel to the incident radiation and perpendicular to the window, to parallel to the window and perpendicular to the incident radiation (transverse flow). The gap between the window and slab 1 has been removed, so the bed is held in place by the sidewalls, the floor and the window, allowing arbitrary orientation and dispensing with the need for beam-down operation. The receiver has been subjected to constant solar radiative load of approximately 70 suns, and the effect of variations in flowrate, the degree of air preheating as well as the thickness of slab 2 on the outlet air temperature distributions have been measured. The effect of reducing the flowrate for both slab 2 thicknesses is to increase temperature everywhere relative to the maximum temperature, having the effect of "flattening" the pattern factor and tending towards more uniform temperature distribution. The effect of preheating for both slab 2 thicknesses is to move the location of maximum temperature deeper into the bed (away from the window). No significant effect is observed on pattern factor in the transparent region of the bed (slab 1), but temperatures in the opaque region increase relative to the maximum temperature. The results are consistent with the increasing contribution of radiative heat transfer relative to convective and conductive heat transfer as the bed temperature rises. In all cases, the air temperature closest to the window is lower than the maximum temperature, demonstrating the volumetric heating effect. Increasing the outlet air temperature (either due to preheating or due to decreasing

  16. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). PMID:26873463

  17. Characterization of impulse noise and analysis of its effect upon correlation receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, R. C.; Moore, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    A noise model is formulated to describe the impulse noise in many digital systems. A simplified model, which assumes that each noise burst contains a randomly weighted version of the same basic waveform, is used to derive the performance equations for a correlation receiver. The expected number of bit errors per noise burst is expressed as a function of the average signal energy, signal-set correlation coefficient, bit time, noise-weighting-factor variance and probability density function, and a time range function which depends on the crosscorrelation of the signal-set basis functions and the noise waveform. A procedure is established for extending the results for the simplified noise model to the general model. Unlike the performance results for Gaussian noise, it is shown that for impulse noise the error performance is affected by the choice of signal-set basis functions and that Orthogonal signaling is not equivalent to On-Off signaling with the same average energy.

  18. Analysis of digital matched filtering schemes for digital receiver applications using simulation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevargiz, J. M.; Holmes, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The next generation of digital receivers for NASA's Deep Space Network is composed of in-phase and quadrature-phase channels. The authors have modeled and simulated a quadrature-phase baseband channel that includes a low-pass filter and a digital matched filter. The simulation is used to study the performance of the three schemes of digital matched filtering that use digital weighted integrate-and-dump filters. Using three methods for calculating the near-optimum matched filter weight coefficients, the simulation results are analyzed for the NRZ and Manchester data formats. The performances of the digital matched filters are studied in the presence of a timing error between the demodulated symbols and the integrate-and-dump filters.

  19. Multidimensional analysis of nanoparticles with highly disperse properties using multiwavelength analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Löhr, Konrad; Karabudak, Engin; Reis, Wieland; Mikhael, Jules; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wohlleben, Wendel; Cölfen, Helmut

    2014-09-23

    The worldwide trend in nanoparticle technology toward increasing complexity must be directly linked to more advanced characterization methods of size, shape and related properties, applicable to many different particle systems in science and technology. Available techniques for nanoparticle characterization are predominantly focused on size characterization. However, simultaneous size and shape characterization is still an unresolved major challenge. We demonstrate that analytical ultracentrifugation with a multiwavelength detector is a powerful technique to address multidimensional nanoparticle analysis. Using a high performance optical setup and data acquisition software, information on size, shape anisotropy and optical properties were accessible in one single experiment with unmatched accuracy and resolution. A dynamic rotor speed gradient allowed us to investigate broad distributions on a short time scale and differentiate between gold nanorod species including the precise evaluation of aggregate formation. We report how to distinguish between different species of single-wall carbon nanotubes in just one experiment using the wavelength-dependent sedimentation coefficient distribution without the necessity of time-consuming purification methods. Furthermore, CdTe nanoparticles of different size and optical properties were investigated in a single experiment providing important information on structure-property relations. Thus, multidimensional information on size, density, shape and optical properties of nanoparticulate systems becomes accessible by means of analytical ultracentrifugation equipped with multiwavelength detection. PMID:25130765

  20. Analysis of structural dynamic data from Skylab. Volume 2: Skylab analytical and test model data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demchak, L.; Harcrow, H.

    1976-01-01

    The orbital configuration test modal data, analytical test correlation modal data, and analytical flight configuration modal data are presented. Tables showing the generalized mass contributions (GMCs) for each of the thirty tests modes are given along with the two dimensional mode shape plots and tables of GMCs for the test correlated analytical modes. The two dimensional mode shape plots for the analytical modes and uncoupled and coupled modes of the orbital flight configuration at three development phases of the model are included.

  1. Risk factors influencing BRONJ staging in patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Nisi, M; La Ferla, F; Karapetsa, D; Gennai, S; Miccoli, M; Baggiani, A; Graziani, F; Gabriele, M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, retrospectively, the influence of various risk factors on the staging of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a population attending a department of dentistry and oral surgery in Italy. Data were collected from the electronic and paper medical records of 90 patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Two experienced and calibrated examiners used the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons updated 2009 classification to record the stage of BRONJ lesions. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to determine individual risk factors negatively affecting BRONJ staging. The factors associated with a worse BRONJ staging were high bisphosphonate cumulative dose (odds ratio (OR) 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.82; P=0.04), smoking (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.03-2.80; P=0.04), steroid intake (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00-2.87; P=0.05), and a maxillary location of the lesion (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.81-6.77; P<0.01). Tooth extraction was the event that most negatively influenced BRONJ staging (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.00-2.81; P=0.05), in comparison to other events such as prosthetic trauma, implant treatment, oro-dental infection, and periodontal disease. Certain clinical and medical risk factors may determine a more severe staging of BRONJ lesions. Future studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:25701305

  2. A simulation analysis of phase processing circuitry in the Ohio University Omega receiver prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palkovic, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV simulation study of the all-digital phase-processing circuitry is described. A digital phase-lock loop (DPLL) forms the heart of the Omega navigation receiver prototype, and through the DPLL, the phase of the 10.2 KHz Omega signal was estimated when the true signal phase is contaminated with noise. The DPLL uses a frequency synthesizer as the reference oscillator. The synthesizer is composed of synchronous rate multipliers (SRM's) driven by a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator, and the use of the SRM's in this application introduces phase jitter which degrades system performance. Simulation of the frequency synthesizer discussed was to analyze the circuits on a bit-by-bit level in order to evaluate the overall design, to see easily the effects of proposed design changes prior to actual breadboarding, to determine the optimum integration time for the DPLL in an environment typical of general aviation conditions, and to quantify the phase error introduced by the SRM synthesizer and examine its effect on the system.

  3. Crustal structure and composition beneath the northeastern Tibetan plateau from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinfu; Santosh, M.; Cheng, Suhua; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhong, Weixing

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed hundreds of P-wave receiver function data recorded by 53 portable seismic stations to investigate the crustal structure beneath the NE Tibetan plateau. The Moho depths identified by this study reveal that the crustal thickness decreases laterally from the Qilian Orogen (∼63 km) to east Kunlun fault (EKLF) area (∼44 km). The Moho depth becomes obviously deeper northeast of Songpan-Ganzi terrane and beneath the Qilian Orogen. A remarkable contrast is observed in the measured Poisson's ratio between the Qilian Orogen and EKLF area. The Qilian Orogen is characterized by lower Poisson's ratio. In general, the higher Poisson's ratios (υ > 0.30) in the EKLF area can be considered as the evidence for dominantly mafic rocks in the crust. The measured low Poisson's ratio and the negative correlations between VP/VS and the crustal thickness beneath the Qilian Orogen suggest dominantly felsic crust beneath the Qilian Orogen, which is in contrast with the mid-to-lower low-velocity crustal model beneath the NE margin of the Tibetan plateau indicating that the low velocity zone terminates beneath the east Kunlun area. The seismic evidence suggests that the thickened crust is probably resulted from superposition of the successive intracrustal thrusts. Our results reveal the lateral inhomogeneity of crustal structure in this area and are inconsistent with the scenario of an inflated crust due to extrusion of lower crust material from the central Tibetan plateau.

  4. Analysis of the extracts of Isatis tinctoria by new analytical approaches of HPLC, MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    The methods of extraction, separation and analysis of alkaloids and indole glucosinolates (GLs) ofIsatis tinctoria were reviewed. Different analytical approaches such as High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS), Electrospray Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to validate and identity of these constituents. These methods provide rapid separation, identification and quantitative measurements of alkaloids and GLs of Isatis tinctoria. By connection with different detectors to HPLC such as PDA, ELSD, ESI- and APCI-MS in positive and negative ion modes, complicated compounds could be detected with at least two independent detection modes. The molecular formula can be derived in a second step of ESI-TOF-MS data. But for some constituents, UV and MS cannot provide sufficient structure identification. After peak purification, NMR by semi-preparative HPLC can be used as a complementary method. PMID:22754056

  5. An Analytic Approximation to Very High Specific Impulse and Specific Power Interplanetary Space Mission Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    A simple, analytic approximation is derived to calculate trip time and performance for propulsion systems of very high specific impulse (50,000 to 200,000 seconds) and very high specific power (10 to 1000 kW/kg) for human interplanetary space missions. The approach assumed field-free space, constant thrust/constant specific power, and near straight line (radial) trajectories between the planets. Closed form, one dimensional equations of motion for two-burn rendezvous and four-burn round trip missions are derived as a function of specific impulse, specific power, and propellant mass ratio. The equations are coupled to an optimizing parameter that maximizes performance and minimizes trip time. Data generated for hypothetical one-way and round trip human missions to Jupiter were found to be within 1% and 6% accuracy of integrated solutions respectively, verifying that for these systems, credible analysis does not require computationally intensive numerical techniques.

  6. Regime Transition in Electromechanical Fluid Atomization and Implications to Analyte Ionization for Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes governing the transition from purely mechanical ejection to electromechanical ejection to electrospraying are investigated through complementary scaling analysis and optical visualization. Experimental characterization and visualization are performed with the ultrasonically-driven array of micromachined ultrasonic electrospray (AMUSE) ion source to decouple the electrical and mechanical fields. A new dimensionless parameter, the Fenn number, is introduced to define a transition between the spray regimes, in terms of its dependence on the characteristic Strouhal number for the ejection process. A fundamental relationship between the Fenn and Strouhal numbers is theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally in spraying liquid electrolytes of different ionic strength subjected to a varying magnitude electric field. This relationship and the basic understanding of the charged droplet generation physics have direct implications on the optimal ionization efficiency and mass spectrometric response for different types of analytes. PMID:20729096

  7. A Mur Type Analytical Absorbing Boundary Condition for Multidimensional Wave Analysis with the Directional Splitting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukihisa

    A Mur type analytical absorbing boundary condition (A-ABC), which is based on the one-dimensional one-way wave equation, is proposed for multidimensional wave analysis by introducing the directional splitting technique. This new absorbing boundary condition is expansion of the first-order Mur. The absorbing ability, required memory, and calculation speed of the Mur type A-ABC are evaluated by comparison with those of conventional ABCs. The result indicated that absorbing ability of the proposed ABC is higher than the first-order Mur and lower than the second-order Mur at large incident angle. While, our proposed ABC has advantage in both required memory and calculation speed by comparison with the second-order Mur. Thus, effectivity of the proposed Mur type A-ABC is shown.

  8. Dynamic Graph Analytic Framework (DYGRAF): greater situation awareness through layered multi-modal network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margitus, Michael R.; Tagliaferri, William A., Jr.; Sudit, Moises; LaMonica, Peter M.

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of networks are of vital importance to winning the global war on terror. To fully comprehend the network environment, analysts must be able to investigate interconnected relationships of many diverse network types simultaneously as they evolve both spatially and temporally. To remove the burden from the analyst of making mental correlations of observations and conclusions from multiple domains, we introduce the Dynamic Graph Analytic Framework (DYGRAF). DYGRAF provides the infrastructure which facilitates a layered multi-modal network analysis (LMMNA) approach that enables analysts to assemble previously disconnected, yet related, networks in a common battle space picture. In doing so, DYGRAF provides the analyst with timely situation awareness, understanding and anticipation of threats, and support for effective decision-making in diverse environments.

  9. A guide to genome-wide association analysis and post-analytic interrogation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Eric; Nunez, Sara; Kulp, David; Qian, Jing; Reilly, Muredach P; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2015-12-10

    This tutorial is a learning resource that outlines the basic process and provides specific software tools for implementing a complete genome-wide association analysis. Approaches to post-analytic visualization and interrogation of potentially novel findings are also presented. Applications are illustrated using the free and open-source R statistical computing and graphics software environment, Bioconductor software for bioinformatics and the UCSC Genome Browser. Complete genome-wide association data on 1401 individuals across 861,473 typed single nucleotide polymorphisms from the PennCATH study of coronary artery disease are used for illustration. All data and code, as well as additional instructional resources, are publicly available through the Open Resources in Statistical Genomics project: http://www.stat-gen.org. PMID:26343929

  10. NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

  11. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, K.R.

    1958-09-16

    A novel calutron receiver is described for collecting the constituent material of two closely adjacent selected portions of an ion beam in separate compartments. The receiver is so conntructed that ion scatter and intermixing of the closely adjacent beam portions do nnt occur when the ions strike the receiver structure, and the beam is sharply separated Into the two compartments. In essence, these desirable results are achieved by inclining the adjoining wall of one compartment with respect to the approaching ions to reduce possible rebounding of ions from the compartment into the adjacent compartment.

  12. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis.

  13. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: proposal for an analytical protocol.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis. PMID:22391225

  14. Design and analysis of multilevel analytic studies with applications to a study of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Navidi, W; Thomas, D; Stram, D; Peters, J

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a hybrid epidemiologic design that aims to combine two approaches to studying exposure-disease associations. The analytic approach is based on comparisons between individuals, e.g., case-control and cohort studies, and the ecologic approach is based on comparisons between groups. The analytic approach generally provides a stronger basis for inference, in part because of freedom from between-group confounding and better quality data, but the ecologic approach is less susceptible to attenuation bias from measurement error and may provide greater variability in exposure. The design we propose entails selection of a number of groups and enrollment of individuals within each group. Exposures, outcomes, confounders, and modifiers would be assessed on each individual; but additional exposure data might be available on the groups. The analysis would then combine the individual-level and the group-level comparisons, with appropriate adjustments for exposure measurement errors, and would test for compatibility between the two levels of analysis, e.g., to determine whether the associations at the individual level can account for the differences in disease rates between groups. Trade-offs between numbers of groups, numbers of individuals, and the extent of the individual and group measurement protocols are discussed in terms of design efficiency. These issues are illustrated in the context of an on-going study of the health effects of air pollution in southern California, in which 12 communities with different levels and types of pollution have been selected and 3500 school children are being enrolled in a ten-year cohort study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7851327

  15. Assessment of respirable crystalline silica analysis using Proficiency Analytical Testing results from 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Sarkisian, Khatchatur; Andrew, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) results between 2003 and 2013 suggest that the variation in respirable crystalline silica analysis is much smaller today than it was in the period 1990-1998, partly because of a change in sample production procedure and because the colorimetric method has been phased out, although quality improvements in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) or infrared (IR) methods may have also played a role. There is no practical difference between laboratories using XRD or IR methods or between laboratories which are accredited or those which are not. Reference laboratory means (assigned values) are not different from the means of all participants across the current range of mass loading, although there is a small difference in variance in the ratios of all participants to reference laboratory means based on method because the reference laboratories are much more likely to use XRD than are the others. Matrix interference does not lead to biases or substantially larger variances for either XRD or IR methods. Data from proficiency test sample analyses that include results from poorly performing laboratories should not be used to determine the validity of a method. PAT samples are not produced below 40 μg and variance may increase with lower masses, although this is not particularly predictable. PAT data from lower mass loadings will be required to evaluate analytical performance if exposure limits are lowered without change in sampling method. Task-specific exposure measurements for periods shorter than a full shift typically result in lower mass loadings and the quality of these analyses would also be better assured from being within the range of PAT mass loadings. High flow rate cyclones, whose performance has been validated, can be used to obtain higher mass loadings in environments of lower concentrations or where shorter sampling times are desired. PMID:25175284

  16. Assessment of Respirable Crystalline Silica Analysis Using Proficiency Analytical Testing Results from 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Sarkisian, Khatchatur; Andrew, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) results between 2003 and 2013 suggest that the variation in respirable crystalline silica analysis is much smaller today than it was in the period 1990–1998, partly because of a change in sample production procedure and because the colorimetric method has been phased out, although quality improvements in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) or infrared (IR) methods may have also played a role. There is no practical difference between laboratories using XRD or IR methods or between laboratories which are accredited or those which are not. Reference laboratory means (assigned values) are not different from the means of all participants across the current range of mass loading, although there is a small difference in variance in the ratios of all participants to reference laboratory means based on method because the reference laboratories are much more likely to use XRD than are the others. Matrix interference does not lead to biases or substantially larger variances for either XRD or IR methods. Data from proficiency test sample analyses that include results from poorly performing laboratories should not be used to determine the validity of a method. PAT samples are not produced below 40 μg and variance may increase with lower masses, although this is not particularly predictable. PAT data from lower mass loadings will be required to evaluate analytical performance if exposure limits are lowered without change in sampling method. Task-specific exposure measurements for periods shorter than a full shift typically result in lower mass loadings and the quality of these analyses would also be better assured from being within the range of PAT mass loadings. High flow rate cyclones, whose performance has been validated, can be used to obtain higher mass loadings in environments of lower concentrations or where shorter sampling times are desired. PMID:25175284

  17. A survey of probabilistic methods used in reliability, risk and uncertainty analysis: Analytical techniques 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an introduction to the various probabilistic methods developed roughly between 1956--1985 for performing reliability or probabilistic uncertainty analysis on complex systems. This exposition does not include the traditional reliability methods (e.g. parallel-series systems, etc.) that might be found in the many reliability texts and reference materials (e.g. and 1977). Rather, the report centers on the relatively new, and certainly less well known across the engineering community, analytical techniques. Discussion of the analytical methods has been broken into two reports. This particular report is limited to those methods developed between 1956--1985. While a bit dated, methods described in the later portions of this report still dominate the literature and provide a necessary technical foundation for more current research. A second report (Analytical Techniques 2) addresses methods developed since 1985. The flow of this report roughly follows the historical development of the various methods so each new technique builds on the discussion of strengths and weaknesses of previous techniques. To facilitate the understanding of the various methods discussed, a simple 2-dimensional problem is used throughout the report. The problem is used for discussion purposes only; conclusions regarding the applicability and efficiency of particular methods are based on secondary analyses and a number of years of experience by the author. This document should be considered a living document in the sense that as new methods or variations of existing methods are developed, the document and references will be updated to reflect the current state of the literature as much as possible. For those scientists and engineers already familiar with these methods, the discussion will at times become rather obvious. However, the goal of this effort is to provide a common basis for future discussions and, as such, will hopefully be useful to those more intimate with

  18. A qualitative analysis of a significant barrier to organ and tissue donation: receiving less-than-optimal medical care.

    PubMed

    Denvir, Paul; Pomerantz, Anita

    2009-10-01

    A key reason for the shortage of transplantable organs and tissue in the United States is the degree of resistance among the public to donating organs and tissue after death. In this article, we explore a single barrier to donation: the concern that medical personnel might provide "less-than-optimal" care to intended donors. Using 2 qualitative methodologies-analysis of family discussions about donation and analysis of in-depth interviews about donation-we explore what participants' discourse reveals about the variations and texture of this concern. The analysis revealed 4 aspects of this concern: (a) Participants expressed different versions of less-than-optimal care, each reflecting different assumptions about how medical personnel may approach the treatment of potential donors. (b) Participants expressed their concerns by describing hypothetical scenarios of medical treatment. These scenarios were designed to play up the plausibility of receiving less-than-optimal care and situated the speaker as the victim in the scenario. (c) Participants' uncertainty about the quality of medical treatment was sufficient grounds for not donating. (d) Participants expressed their concerns about medical treatment in terms of the perceived corruptibility of sociocultural institutions, including medical institutions. This analysis also revealed the lines of reasoning through which participants overcame a concern about receiving less-than-optimal-care. In our view, the most promising line of reasoning expressed by participants was to trust the legal and procedural protections built into the recovery process. PMID:20183368

  19. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  20. High resolution Moho topography map beneath Iberia and Northern Morocco from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Diaz, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Crustal thickness maps at regional scales are typically compiled using estimations inferred from different geophysical datasets providing a variable coverage of the investigated area. Consequently, spurious effects related to changes in data resolution or artifacts in grid interpolation may affect significant zones of those maps. The TopoIberia-IberArray broad-band seismic network, covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco with stations distributed on a regular 60 × 60 km grid provides a unique opportunity to avoid such technical problems and to obtain a crustal thickness map derived from a same method sampling evenly all the region. Data from more than 340 stations has been gathered and analyzed using the P-to-S conversion phases at the Moho discontinuity (receiver functions). The crustal thickness has been inferred applying the classical H-κ stacking technique, though in regions of complex crustal structure, we have preferred to estimate the thickness directly from the arrival time of the converted phase at some sites. The topography of the Moho discontinuity is strongly correlated with tectonic processes. The investigated area, extending from the Sahara platform to the Bay of Biscay, has a great geodynamic diversity, including, North to South, crustal imbrication in the Pyrenean and Cantabrian range, a large and relatively undisturbed Variscan Massif in the center of Iberia and areas of complex and still not completely understood geodynamics in the Alboran crust domain and the Atlas range. The crustal thickness map reflects this diversity, showing variations reaching 30 km between the thickest and thinnest zones of continental crust. The final map has an overall similarity with previous estimations of the crustal thickness using independent data, as those coming from more sparse deep seismic sounding profiles, but provides further constraints at regional scale.

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling-Yun; Yang, Liu; He, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Ming; Xu, Jin-Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Increasing scientific evidences suggest that aerobic exercise may improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients, but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from inception through July 1, 2013 without language restrictions. Crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Twelve comparative studies were assessed with a total of 1,014 breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, including 522 patients in the aerobic exercise group (intervention group) and 492 patients in the usual care group (control group). The meta-analysis results revealed that the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) scores of breast cancer patients in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (SMD=-0.82, 95% CI=-1.04 ∼ -0.60, P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Treatment-Fatigue scale (FACIT-F) scores between the intervention and control groups (SMD=0.09, 95% CI=-0.07 ∼ 0.25, P=0.224). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that there were significant differences in RPFS and FACIT-F scores between the intervention and control groups among Asian populations (RPFS: SMD=-1.08, 95% CI=-1.35 ∼ -0.82, P<0.001; FACIT-F: SMD=1.20, 95 % CI=0.70 ∼1.71, P<0.001), but not among Caucasian populations (all P>0.05). The current meta-analysis indicates that aerobic exercise may improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, especially among Asian populations. PMID:24570186

  2. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-05-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine.

  3. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  4. Analysis of the flexible receiver lifting yoke and blast shield assembly. Tank 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-03-02

    The analysis of the lifting yoke and blast shield assembly considers the bending stress, weld strength, and resistance of the lug hole to tear out. The bending stress of the lifting lugs is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). Also considered in the calculations is the capability of the thick lugs to withstand the weight of the pump together with that of the container and strongback during rotation to the horizontal position.

  5. Proteomics analysis of liver tissues from C57BL/6J mice receiving low-dose 137Cs radiation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lan; Li, Linwei; Yin, Jie; Hu, Nan; Li, Guangyue; Ding, Dexin

    2016-02-01

    Differentially expressed proteins in liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice receiving low-dose (137)Cs radiation were examined by proteomics analysis. Compared with the control group, 80 proteins were differentially expressed in the irradiated group. Among the 40 randomly selected proteins used for peptide mass fingerprinting analysis and bioinformatics, 24 were meaningful. These proteins were related to antioxidant defense, amino acid metabolism, detoxification, anti-tumor development, amino acid transport, anti-peroxidation, and composition of respiratory chain. Western blot analysis showed that catalase (CAT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) were up-regulated in the irradiated group; these results were in agreement with qPCR results. These results show that CAT, GNMT, and GSTP1 may be related to stress response induced by low-dose irradiation in mice liver. The underlying mechanism however requires further investigation. PMID:26429139

  6. Development of Soil Compaction Analysis Software (SCAN) Integrating a Low Cost GPS Receiver and Compactometer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Kim, Juhyong; Suh, Yongcheol; Hong, Sungnam; Lee, Dongha

    2012-01-01

    A software for soil compaction analysis (SCAN) has been developed for evaluating the compaction states using the data from the GPS as well as a compactometer attached on the roller. The SCAN is distinguished from other previous software for intelligent compaction (IC) in that it can use the results from various types of GPS positioning methods, and it also has an optimal structure for remotely managing the large amounts of data gathered from numerous rollers. For this, several methods were developed: (1) improving the accuracy of low cost GPS receiver’s positioning results; (2) modeling the trajectory of a moving roller using a GPS receiver’s results and linking it with the data from the compactometer; and (3) extracting the information regarding the compaction states of the ground from the modeled trajectory, using spatial analysis methods. The SCAN was verified throughout various field compaction tests, and it has been confirmed that it can be a very effective tool in evaluating field compaction states. PMID:22736955

  7. The use of child drawings to explore the dual↔group analytic field in child analysis.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Awareness that the child is part of a complex relational system has ensured that all child analysts agree on the necessity of establishing a therapeutic alliance with the parents. Unconscious conflictual dynamics involve the child analyst and include him, from the time of the initial consultation, in an analytic field that is closer to that of a group than to the bi-personal set-up of therapy with adults. Through a clinical example, the author hypothesizes that the child's drawings and play can be viewed as tools capable of mapping the unconscious emotions present in an analytic field that extends beyond the analyst-child couple. Play and drawings can be used in the relationship with the parents not in an explanatory sense, but as a probe with which to explore the universe of unconscious emotions present in the group field. The images or the story of the play used with this particular modality prove to be an attractive pathway that is effective in facilitating the alpha function of each of the members of the group. Furthermore, in this sense, they create the conditions for an occasion through which the parents can become more aware of their own unconscious emotions that have been entrusted to the child and expressed through his symptomatology. The possibility for the little group of subjects involved in a child analysis for oscillation in a dual-group field permits not only a shared experience of knowledge, but also a shared creativity aimed at knowledge of emotional truth (O). PMID:23560904

  8. An analytical approach to computing biomolecular electrostatic potential. I. Derivation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Andrew T; Gordon, John C; Onufriev, Alexey

    2008-08-21

    Analytical approximations to fundamental equations of continuum electrostatics on simple shapes can lead to computationally inexpensive prescriptions for calculating electrostatic properties of realistic molecules. Here, we derive a closed-form analytical approximation to the Poisson equation for an arbitrary distribution of point charges and a spherical dielectric boundary. The simple, parameter-free formula defines continuous electrostatic potential everywhere in space and is obtained from the exact infinite-series (Kirkwood) solution by an approximate summation method that avoids truncating the infinite series. We show that keeping all the terms proves critical for the accuracy of this approximation, which is fully controllable for the sphere. The accuracy is assessed by comparisons with the exact solution for two unit charges placed inside a spherical boundary separating the solute of dielectric 1 and the solvent of dielectric 80. The largest errors occur when the source charges are closest to the dielectric boundary and the test charge is closest to either of the sources. For the source charges placed within 2 A from the boundary, and the test surface located on the boundary, the root-mean-square error of the approximate potential is less than 0.1 kcal/mol/mid R:emid R: (per unit test charge). The maximum error is 0.4 kcal/mol/mid R:emid R:. These results correspond to the simplest first-order formula. A strategy for adopting the proposed method for realistic biomolecular shapes is detailed. An extensive testing and performance analysis on real molecular structures are described in Part II that immediately follows this work as a separate publication. Part II also contains an application example. PMID:19044802

  9. Simultaneous analysis of hydrodynamic and optical properties using analytical ultracentrifugation equipped with multiwavelength detection.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Sherwood, Peter J; Lin, Wei; Segets, Doris; Stafford, Walter F; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-03-17

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has proven to be a powerful tool for the study of particle size distributions, particle shapes, and interactions with high accuracy and unrevealed resolution. In this work we show how the analysis of sedimentation velocity data from the AUC equipped with a multiwavelength detector (MWL) can be used to gain an even deeper understanding of colloidal and macromolecular mixtures. New data evaluation routines have been integrated in the software SEDANAL to allow for the handling of MWL data. This opens up a variety of new possibilities because spectroscopic information becomes available for individual components in mixtures at the same time using MWL-AUC. For systems of known optical properties information on the hydrodynamic properties of the individual components in a mixture becomes accessible. For the first time, the determination of individual extinction spectra of components in mixtures is demonstrated via MWL evaluation of sedimentation velocity data. In our paper we first provide the informational background for the data analysis and expose the accessible parameters of our methodology. We further demonstrate the data evaluation by means of simulated data. Finally, we give two examples which are highly relevant in the field of nanotechnology using colored silica and gold nanoparticles of different size and extinction properties. PMID:25679871

  10. Analysis of structural dynamic data from Skylab. Volume 2: Skylab analytical and test modal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demchak, L.; Harcrow, H.

    1976-01-01

    A compendium is presented of orbital configuration test modal data, analytical test modal data, analytical test correlation modal data and analytical flight configuration 1.2 modal data. Section A presents tables showing the generalized mass contributions for each of the thirty test modes. Section B presents the two dimensional mode shape plots for the thirty test modes. Tables of GMC's for the test correlated analytical modes are presented in Section C. These analytical modes were generated from a model that was adjusted to match test results by use of the methodology discussed in Sections 2.3 and 5.4 of Volume I of this report. Section D presents the two dimensional mode shape plots for the analytical modes. Sections E and F contain the uncoupled and coupled modes of the orbital flight configuration 1.2 at three development phases of the model.

  11. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU-based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant pancreas

  12. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU–based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1–7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–6.2, respectively). Grade 3–4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant pancreas

  13. Analysis of the Uncertainty in the Computation of Receiver Functions and Improvement in the Estimation of Receiver, PP and SS functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Gurrola, H.

    2013-12-01

    There are many methods used to produce receiver functions (RFs) that are referred to as deconvolution but some are based on cross-correlation methods. We produced a set of realistic synthetics to test four commonly used methods to produce RFs. These are the frequency domain 'water level deconvolution (FWLD), the time domain iterative deconvolution (TID), the least square matrix inversion (MID) and the log-spectral method of deconvolution (LSD). We also test a hybrid of the FWLD and TID methods that we refer to as the frequency domain iterative deconvolution (FID). Synthetics were produced by windowing a P recordings from real seismograms and convolving them with synthetic seismograms, and then adding samples of pre-event noise. We made synthetics with nose levels of 2, 4, 8 and 16 percent [defined as stdev(noise)/max(signal)]. For the synthetics all methods of receiver function were accurate in estimating arrival times of the P, Ps, PPs and PSs phase to within one sample (at 40 sps). But there was a strong bias toward low values in the estimation of amplitudes of these phases (even when compared as ratios, i.e. Ps/P). The larger the noise levels the larger the bias. For 2% noise all methods preformed well. As noise increased there was a wide range in bias. The LSD and FID method produced the smallest standard deviation (stdev) of the group in bootstrap estimates from 92 different synthetic. If these RFs were from real data, where we did not know the right answers, LSD and FID would have been considered to work equally well. However, knowing the correct answer, the LSD methods had tremendous bias toward underestimating the amplitude especially for smaller phases. In tests using real data from Arti, Russia (ARU), we found that all these methods preformed equally well in estimating the arrival times for larger phases (such as Pms) but for smaller phases (such as P410s) the FID and TID had half as much error in estimating the arrival times as compared to the other

  14. Analytical/Operational Requirements for the In Situ Chemical Analysis of Cometary and Planetary Environments Using GC-IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for the in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. The miniCIDEX instrument was developed for the chemical analysis of a cemetery environment. It combined a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a helium based Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) to fulfill the analytical requirements of a cemetery exobiology mission: universal response; ppb sensitivity; low mass, volume and consumable MiniCIDEX is now a candidate for the chemical analysis instrument of a Titan Aero-rover Mission. The complexity of the analyses will be similar to the comet application with a heavier emphasis on organic molecules. Because the Titan Aero-Rover will be a balloon powered rover, much more attention is placed on the total mass of the instrument package. The GC will likely be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) design, smaller than the initial miniCIDEX GC by a factor of ten (with a similar reduction in consumable use). Similar miniaturization of the helium-based IMS will be necessary while maintaining the analytical capabilities. The two mission applications, the analytical requirements, and the evolution of the IMS design to accommodate these requirements will be presented.

  15. Morphological analysis of the primary center receiving spatial information transferred by the waggle dance of honeybees.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Hagio, Hiromi

    2013-08-01

    The waggle dancers of honeybees encodes roughly the distance and direction to the food source as the duration of the waggle phase and the body angle during the waggle phase. It is believed that hive-mates detect airborne vibrations produced during the waggle phase to acquire distance information and simultaneously detect the body axis during the waggle phase to acquire direction information. It has been further proposed that the orientation of the body axis on the vertical comb is detected by neck hairs (NHs) on the prosternal organ. The afferents of the NHs project into the prothoracic and mesothoracic ganglia and the dorsal subesophageal ganglion (dSEG). This study demonstrates somatotopic organization within the dSEG of the central projections of the mechanosensory neurons of the NHs. The terminals of the NH afferents in dSEG are in close apposition to those of Johnston's organ (JO) afferents. The sensory axons of both terminate in a region posterior to the crossing of the ventral intermediate tract (VIT) and the maxillary dorsal commissures I and III (MxDCI, III) in the subesophageal ganglion. These features of the terminal areas of the NH and JO afferents are common to the worker, drone, and queen castes of honeybees. Analysis of the spatial relationship between the NH neurons and the morphologically and physiologically characterized vibration-sensitive interneurons DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 demonstrated that several branches of DL-Int-1 are in close proximity to the central projection of the mechanosensory neurons of the NHs in the dSEG. PMID:23297020

  16. Studies of the analyte carrier interface in flow injection analysis: Project report, June 1, 1987-February 1, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this project is the study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media. Application of methods developed for multicomponent analysis is aimed at the investigation of dispersion-controlled chemical reactions at an analyte bolus-carrier solution interface, and the study of the effects of competition between analyte species on the distribution of products in chemical reactions. To meet these goals, study of new methods for the analysis of three-dimensional data resulting from measurement of transient species by sensor arrays or by rapid-scan (or multiplex) detection has commenced. Research has concentrated on three areas during the past year. These areas are (1) flow reaction analysis, (2) modeling of complex reaction kinetics, and (3) new methods for multicomponent analysis of inadequately modeled systems. Progress in each area is evaluated. 3 figs.

  17. Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes an experiment that can be used in an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. It allows the student analyst to measure the moisture content of various hand and body lotions using the coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) technique, providing a modern alternative to the traditional electrochemical experiments usually explored in introductory analytical chemistry courses. The experiment introduces students to an important technique in industry and commerce, which is highly sensitive, accurate, and precise, and which can be used to study a wide range of samples. The measurement times are short, allowing students to experience the analytical problem-solving process from start to finish in a single 3-hour laboratory period. One KF coulometer can adequately service even a large analytical chemistry class (>80 students). In spring 2000, students identified the KF experiment as the most popular, most useful, and most educational experiment in our analytical chemistry laboratory curriculum.

  18. Tools for the Quantitative Analysis of Sedimentation Boundaries Detected by Fluorescence Optical Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Casillas, Ernesto; Shroff, Hari; Patterson, George H.; Schuck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence optical detection in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation allows the study of macromolecules at nanomolar concentrations and below. This has significant promise, for example, for the study of systems of high-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe adaptations of the direct boundary modeling analysis approach implemented in the software SEDFIT that were developed to accommodate unique characteristics of the confocal fluorescence detection system. These include spatial gradients of signal intensity due to scanner movements out of the plane of rotation, temporal intensity drifts due to instability of the laser and fluorophores, and masking of the finite excitation and detection cone by the sample holder. In an extensive series of experiments with enhanced green fluorescent protein ranging from low nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, we show that the experimental data provide sufficient information to determine the parameters required for first-order approximation of the impact of these effects on the recorded data. Systematic deviations of fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity data analyzed using conventional sedimentation models developed for absorbance and interference optics are largely removed after these adaptations, resulting in excellent fits that highlight the high precision of fluorescence sedimentation velocity data, thus allowing a more detailed quantitative interpretation of the signal boundaries that is otherwise not possible for this system. PMID:24204779

  19. Shape Analysis of DNA-Au Hybrid Particles by Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Urban, Maximilan J; Holder, Isabelle T; Schmid, Marius; Fernandez Espin, Vanesa; Garcia de la Torre, Jose; Hartig, Jörg S; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-08-23

    Current developments in nanotechnology have increased the demand for nanocrystal assemblies with well-defined shapes and tunable sizes. DNA is a particularly well-suited building block in nanoscale assemblies because of its scalable sizes, conformational variability, and convenient self-assembly capabilities via base pairing. In hybrid materials, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be assembled into nanoparticle structures with programmable interparticle distances by applying appropriate DNA sequences. However, the development of stoichiometrically defined DNA/NP structures is still challenging since product mixtures are frequently obtained and their purification and characterization is the rate-limiting step in the development of DNA-NP hybrid assemblies. Improvements in nanostructure fractionation and characterization techniques offer great potential for nanotechnology applications in general. This study reports the application of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for the characterization of anisotropic DNA-linked metal-crystal assemblies. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy data and the DNA primary sequence, hydrodynamic bead models are set up for the interpretation of the measured frictional ratios and sedimentation coefficients. We demonstrate that the presence of single DNA strands on particle surfaces as well as the shape factors of multiparticle structures in mixtures can be quantitatively described by AUC. This study will significantly broaden the possibilities to analyze mixtures of shape-anisotropic nanoparticle assemblies. By establishing insights into the analysis of nanostructure mixtures based on fundamental principles of sedimentation, a wide range of potential applications in basic research and industry become accessible. PMID:27459174

  20. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  1. Structural damage localization by outlier analysis of signal-processed mode shapes - Analytical and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulriksen, M. D.; Damkilde, L.

    2016-02-01

    Contrary to global modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies, mode shapes inherently provide structural information on a local level. Therefore, this particular modal parameter and its derivatives are utilized extensively for damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical methods are employed to identify damage-induced discontinuities in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby, potentially, facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement noise. In the present paper, a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement noise is proposed. The method is based on signal processing of a spatial mode shape by means of continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) and subsequent application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact damage-induced, outlier analysis is conducted by applying the Mahalanobis metric to major principal scores of the sensor-located bands of the signal-processed mode shape. The method is tested analytically and benchmarked with other mode shape-based damage localization approaches on the basis of a free-vibrating beam and validated experimentally in the context of a residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected to an impulse load.

  2. Network Traffic Analysis With Query Driven VisualizationSC 2005HPC Analytics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Campbell, Scott; Lau, Stephen; Fisk, Mike; Gavrilov, Eugene; Kent, Alex; Davis, Christopher E.; Olinger,Rick; Young, Rob; Prewett, Jim; Weber, Paul; Caudell, Thomas P.; Bethel,E. Wes; Smith, Steve

    2005-09-01

    Our analytics challenge is to identify, characterize, and visualize anomalous subsets of large collections of network connection data. We use a combination of HPC resources, advanced algorithms, and visualization techniques. To effectively and efficiently identify the salient portions of the data, we rely on a multi-stage workflow that includes data acquisition, summarization (feature extraction), novelty detection, and classification. Once these subsets of interest have been identified and automatically characterized, we use a state-of-the-art-high-dimensional query system to extract data subsets for interactive visualization. Our approach is equally useful for other large-data analysis problems where it is more practical to identify interesting subsets of the data for visualization than to render all data elements. By reducing the size of the rendering workload, we enable highly interactive and useful visualizations. As a result of this work we were able to analyze six months worth of data interactively with response times two orders of magnitude shorter than with conventional methods.

  3. Improved analytic extreme-mass-ratio inspiral model for scoping out eLISA data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave detector eLISA has been selected as the ESA L3 mission, and the mission design will be finalized by the end of this decade. To prepare for mission formulation over the next few years, several outstanding and urgent questions in data analysis will be addressed using mock data challenges, informed by instrument measurements from the LISA Pathfinder satellite launching at the end of 2015. These data challenges will require accurate and computationally affordable waveform models for anticipated sources such as the extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. Previous data challenges have made use of the well-known analytic EMRI waveforms of Barack and Cutler, which are extremely quick to generate but dephase relative to more accurate waveforms within hours, due to their mismatched radial, polar and azimuthal frequencies. In this paper, we describe an augmented Barack-Cutler model that uses a frequency map to the correct Kerr frequencies, along with updated evolution equations and a simple fit to a more accurate model. The augmented waveforms stay in phase for months and may be generated with virtually no additional computational cost.

  4. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.G.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  5. Advanced qualification of pharmaceutical excipient suppliers by multiple analytics and multivariate analysis combined.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, A; Müller, H; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2015-11-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients have different functions within a drug formulation, consequently they can influence the manufacturability and/or performance of medicinal products. Therefore, critical to quality attributes should be kept constant. Sometimes it may be necessary to qualify a second supplier, but its product will not be completely equal to the first supplier product. To minimize risks of not detecting small non-similarities between suppliers and to detect lot-to-lot variability for each supplier, multivariate data analysis (MVA) can be used as a more powerful alternative to classical quality control that uses one-parameter-at-a-time monitoring. Such approach is capable of supporting the requirements of a new guideline by the European Parliament and Council (2015/C-95/02) demanding appropriate quality control strategies for excipients based on their criticality and supplier risks in ensuring quality, safety and function. This study compares calcium hydrogen phosphate from two suppliers. It can be assumed that both suppliers use different manufacturing processes. Therefore, possible chemical and physical differences were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy, laser diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. Afterwards MVA was used to extract relevant information from each analytical technique. Both CaHPO4 could be discriminated by their supplier. The gained knowledge allowed to specify an enhanced strategy for second supplier qualification. PMID:26342249

  6. Stable isotope ratio analysis: A potential analytical tool for the authentication of South African lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Sara Wilhelmina; Muller, Magdalena; van der Rijst, Marieta; Hoffman, Louwrens Christiaan

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) of South African Dorper lambs from farms with different vegetation types were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), to evaluate it as a tool for the authentication of origin and feeding regime. Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of lambs from seven different farms was assessed. The δ(13)C values were affected by the origin of the meat, mainly reflecting the diet. The Rûens and Free State farms had the lowest (p ⩽ 0.05) δ(15)N values, followed by the Northern Cape farms, with Hantam Karoo/Calvinia having the highest δ(15)N values. Discriminant analysis showed δ(13)C and δ(15)N differences as promising results for the use of IRMS as a reliable analytical tool for lamb meat authentication. The results suggest that diet, linked to origin, is an important factor to consider regarding region of origin classification for South African lamb. PMID:26304440

  7. Analytical model and stability analysis of the leading edge spar of a passively morphing ornithopter wing.

    PubMed

    Wissa, Aimy; Calogero, Joseph; Wereley, Norman; Hubbard, James E; Frecker, Mary

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the stability analysis of the leading edge spar of a flapping wing unmanned air vehicle with a compliant spine inserted in it. The compliant spine is a mechanism that was designed to be flexible during the upstroke and stiff during the downstroke. Inserting a variable stiffness mechanism into the leading edge spar affects its structural stability. The model for the spar-spine system was formulated in terms of the well-known Mathieu's equation, in which the compliant spine was modeled as a torsional spring with a sinusoidal stiffness function. Experimental data was used to validate the model and results show agreement within 11%. The structural stability of the leading edge spar-spine system was determined analytically and graphically using a phase plane plot and Strutt diagrams. Lastly, a torsional viscous damper was added to the leading edge spar-spine model to investigate the effect of damping on stability. Results show that for the un-damped case, the leading edge spar-spine response was stable and bounded; however, there were areas of instability that appear for a range of spine upstroke and downstroke stiffnesses. Results also show that there exist a damping ratio between 0.2 and 0.5, for which the leading edge spar-spine system was stable for all values of spine upstroke and downstroke stiffnesses. PMID:26502210

  8. A Big Data Analytics Pipeline for the Analysis of TESS Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Pierce Doty, John

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel method for producing a catalogue of extra-solar planets and transients using the full frame image data from TESS. Our method involves (1) creating a fast Monte Carlo simulation of the TESS science instruments, (2) using the simulation to create a labeled dataset consisting of exoplanets with various orbital durations as well as transients (such as tidal disruption events), (3) using supervised machine learning to find optimal matched filters, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and statistical classifiers (i.e. naïve Bayes and Markov Random Fields) to detect astronomical objects of interest and (4) “Big Data” analysis to produce a catalogue based on the TESS data. We will apply the resulting methods to all stars in the full frame images. We hope that by providing libraries that conform to industry standards of Free Open Source Software we may invite researchers from the astronomical community as well as the wider data-analytics community to contribute to our effort.

  9. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improvement in a calutron receiver for collecting the isotopes ts described. The electromagnetic separation of the isotopes produces a mass spectrum of closely adjacent beams of ions at the foci regions, and a dividing wall between the two pockets is arranged at an angle. Substantially all of the tons of the less abundant isotope enter one of the pockets and strike one side of the wall directly, while substantially none of the tons entering the other pocket strikes the wall directly.

  10. moocRP: Enabling Open Learning Analytics with an Open Source Platform for Data Distribution, Analysis, and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Whyte, Anthony; Kao, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of transparency, modularity, and privacy with the introduction of an open source, web-based data repository and analysis tool tailored to the Massive Open Online Course community. The tool integrates data request/authorization and distribution workflow features as well as provides a simple analytics module upload…

  11. A Systematic Mapping on the Learning Analytics Field and Its Analysis in the Massive Open Online Courses Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moissa, Barbara; Gasparini, Isabela; Kemczinski, Avanilde

    2015-01-01

    Learning Analytics (LA) is a field that aims to optimize learning through the study of dynamical processes occurring in the students' context. It covers the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about students and their contexts. This study aims at surveying existing research on LA to identify approaches, topics, and needs for…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Instruction on the Analytical Proficiency of Physical Education Teachers and Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Sandy K.; Gangstead, Sandy K.

    The relationships among teaching experience, gender, and selected factors involved in qualitative skill analysis were explored in addition to the effects of systematic analytical instruction. Prior to and after 30 hours of instruction, 31 experienced physical education teachers and 29 physical education undergraduates were administered the Utah…

  13. Imaging the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Using Iterative Method of Receiver Function Analysis: A Synthetic Seismogram Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, T.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Liu, Q.; Sales de Andrade, E.

    2014-12-01

    Our study is based on the receiver-function (RF) analysis of a hypothetical regional geological model that extends from oceanic to thick cratonic lithosphere. RF techniques are used to study the interior of Earth. Teleseismic P waves are followed by a series of scattered waves, which occur due to P-to-S converted phases. The sequence of these scattered waves on a time series can be represented by receiver function (RF) for the station and may vary with the incidence angle and azimuth of the incoming P-wave. Here we use iterative deconvolution method to study receiver functions, which provides RF estimates with low noise levels. This method is based on least-squares minimization of the difference between the observed horizontal seismogram and a predicted signal generated by the convolution of an iterative spike train with the vertical-component of seismogram. The study is based on a hypothetical model (800x800x400km) on a mesh with 10 km grid spacing that is smoothly embedded within a standard global Earth model. Physical properties of the regional model match with prescribed surface heat-flow and geoid boundary conditions computed using an approach based on thermodynamics, mineral physics, and solid-Earth geophysics. The model also incorporates seismic anisotropy in the mantle beneath the hypothetical continent. A three dimensional model is computed that approximates the mantle flow around the hypothetical continental lithospheric keel. The anisotropy is computed from the flow model and is incorporated to the model. Synthetic seismograms are computed using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, which provides full wave-equation modelling of seismic wave propagation incorporating material properties such as anisotropy, attenuation and fluid-solid interfaces. To ensure a realistic (non-ideal) azimuthal distribution, the event locations are based on a subset of a ten-year global catalog from 2001 to 2010 within the magnitude range from 6.0 to 7.0.

  14. Analytical analysis and implementation of a low-speed high-torque permanent magnet vernier in-wheel motor for electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangui; Wang, Junhua; Zhigang, Zhao; Yan, Weili

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, analytical analysis of the permanent magnet vernier (PMV) is presented. The key is to analytically solve the governing Laplacian/quasi-Poissonian field equations in the motor regions. By using the time-stepping finite element method, the analytical method is verified. Hence, the performances of the PMV machine are quantitatively compared with that of the analytical results. The analytical results agree well with the finite element method results. Finally, the experimental results are given to further show the validity of the analysis.

  15. Total cyanide analysis of tank core samples: Analytical results and supporting investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.

    1994-03-01

    The potential for a ferrocyanide explosion in Hanford site single-shelled waste storage tanks (SSTS) poses a serious safety concern. This potential danger developed in the 1950s when {sup 137}Cs was scavenged during the reprocessing of uranium recovery process waste by co-precipitating it along with sodium in nickel ferrocyanide salt. Sodium or potassium ferrocyanide and nickel sulfate were added to the liquid waste stored in SSTs. The tank storage space resulting from the scavenging process was subsequently used to store other waste types. Ferrocyanide salts in combinations with oxidizing agents, such as nitrate and nitrite, are known to explode when key parameters (temperature, water content, oxidant concentration, and fuel [cyanide]) are in place. Therefore, reliable total cyanide analysis data for actual SST materials are required to address the safety issue. Accepted cyanide analysis procedures do not yield reliable results for samples containing nickel ferrocyanide materials because the compounds are insoluble in acidic media. Analytical chemists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have developed a modified microdistillation procedure (see below) for analyzing total cyanide in waste tank matrices containing nickel ferrocyanide materials. Pacific Northwest Laboratory analyzed samples from Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-112 cores 34, 35, and 36 for total cyanide content using technical procedure PNL-ALO-285 {open_quotes}Total Cyanide by Remote Microdistillation and Agrentometric Titration,{close_quotes} Rev. 0. This report summarizes the results of these analyses along with supporting quality control data, and, in addition, summarizes the results of the test to check the efficacy of sodium nickel ferrocyanide solubilization from an actual core sample by aqueous EDTA/en to verify that nickel ferrocyanide compounds were quantitatively solubilized before actual distillation.

  16. Evidence for the contemporary magmatic system beneath Long Valley Caldera from local earthquake tomography and receiver function analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seccia, D.; Chiarabba, C.; De Gori, P.; Bianchi, I.; Hill, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new P wave and S wave velocity model for the upper crust beneath Long Valley Caldera obtained using local earthquake tomography and receiver function analysis. We computed the tomographic model using both a graded inversion scheme and a traditional approach. We complement the tomographic I/P model with a teleseismic receiver function model based on data from broadband seismic stations (MLAC and MKV) located on the SE and SW margins of the resurgent dome inside the caldera. The inversions resolve (1) a shallow, high-velocity P wave anomaly associated with the structural uplift of a resurgent dome; (2) an elongated, WNW striking low-velocity anomaly (8%–10 % reduction in I/P) at a depth of 6 km (4 km below mean sea level) beneath the southern section of the resurgent dome; and (3) a broad, low-velocity volume (–5% reduction in I/P and as much as 40% reduction in I/S) in the depth interval 8–14 km (6–12 km below mean sea level) beneath the central section of the caldera. The two low-velocity volumes partially overlap the geodetically inferred inflation sources that drove uplift of the resurgent dome associated with caldera unrest between 1980 and 2000, and they likely reflect the ascent path for magma or magmatic fluids into the upper crust beneath the caldera.

  17. Analytical Analysis and Case Study of Transient Behavior of Inrush Current in Power Transformer for Designing of Efficient Circuit Breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmanpreet, Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Parneet

    2010-11-01

    Stability & security are main aspects in electrical power systems. Transformer protection is major issue of concern to system operation. There are many mall-trip cases of transformer protection are caused by inrush current problems. The phenomenon of transformer inrush current has been discussed in many papers since 1958. In this paper analytical analysis of inrush current in a transformer switched on dc and ac supply has been done. This analysis will help in design aspects of circuit breakers for better performance.

  18. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  19. Analytic Drag Controller guidance gains evaluation. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treybig, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a study to optimize the guidance gains for the analytical drag control entry guidance system are presented. The guidance gains were optimized for study points chosen in all phases of entry.

  20. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — KClO3 (as received)/Icing Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorenson, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Whipple, Richard E.; Reynolds, John G.

    2011-05-23

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 as received from the manufacturer mixed with icing sugar, sized through a 100-mesh sieve—KClO3/icing sugar (AR) mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be more sensitive to impact than RDX, similar to PETN, 2) be the same or less sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) to be less sensitive to spark than RDX. The thermal analysis showed that the mixture has thermally stability similar to RDX and is perhaps more energetic upon decomposition but variable results indicate sampling issues. Compared to the 100-mesh sieved counter part, the KClO3/icing sugar (-100) mixture, the AR mixture was found to be about the same sensitivity towards impact, friction and ESD.

  1. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Scott R.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Hartman, Mary J.; Venedam, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. A groundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River through the gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployed for the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations at more frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methods employed a the Site.

  2. Analytical and numerical approaches of a solar array thermal analysis in a low-earth orbit satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hui Kyung; Han, Cho Young

    2010-12-01

    This paper researches the thermal analysis of a fixed-type solar array in a low-earth orbit satellite through both an analytical method with a simplified thermal model and a numerical method with a detailed thermal model. An analytical solution is derived from the simplified one-dimensional thermal governing equation. Because the current solar array is thermally decoupled from the spacecraft bus, its thermal analysis can be performed independently. The worst hot temperature of the current solar array can be predicted using an analytical solution of a single-lumped mass node. For better solar cell efficiency, a thermal surface finish of the backside of a solar array is required to ensure that the solar array temperature remains as low as possible in orbit. There are four ideal thermal surface types for a thermal surface finish. Based on the analytical solutions of the solar array temperature under the worst hot condition corresponding to each ideal thermal surface type, a solar reflector type gives the lowest temperature. Thus, SG121FD white paint was selected as an actual application of a thermal surface finish. A detailed solar array thermal model included in the system-level satellite thermal model was developed and solved numerically. From the detailed thermal analysis, in-orbit thermal characteristics of the solar array were determined and the thermal safety of the current solar array was verified with satisfying the allowable temperature limits. And the usefulness of the analytical approach to predict the worst hot temperature of the current solar array was also confirmed in comparison with the numerical analysis result of the detailed thermal model.

  3. Real-time analysis for intensive care: development and deployment of the artemis analytic system.

    PubMed

    Blount, Marion; Ebling, Maria R; Eklund, J Mikael; James, Andrew G; McGregor, Carolyn; Percival, Nathan; Smith, Kathleen P; Sow, Daby

    2010-01-01

    The lives of many thousands of children born premature or ill at term around the world have been saved by those who work within neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Modern-day neonatologists, together with nursing staff and other specialists within this domain, enjoy modern technologies for activities such as financial transactions, online purchasing, music, and video on demand. Yet, when they move into their workspace, in many cases, they are supported by nearly the same technology they used 20 years ago. Medical devices provide visual displays of vital signs through physiological streams such as electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), and respiratory rate. Electronic health record initiatives around the world provide an environment for the electronic management of medical records, but they fail to support the high-frequency interpretation of streaming physiological data. We have taken a collaborative research approach to address this need to provide a flexible platform for the real-time online analysis of patients' data streams to detect medically significant conditions that precede the onset of medical complications. The platform supports automated or clinician-driven knowledge discovery to discover new relationships between physiological data stream events and latent medical conditions as well as to refine existing analytics. Patients benefit from the system because earlier detection of signs of the medical conditions may lead to earlier intervention that may potentially lead to improved patient outcomes and reduced length of stays. The clinician benefits from a decision support tool that provides insight into multiple streams of data that are too voluminous to assess with traditional methods. The remainder of this article summarizes the strengths of our research collaboration and the resulting environment known as Artemis, which is currently being piloted within the NICU of The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto

  4. Analytical (mathematical) predictive modeling in fiber optics structural analysis (FOSA): review and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-03-01

    An updated version of the paper with revised references has been published The review part of the paper addresses analytical (mathematical) modeling in structural analysis in fiber optics engineering, mostly fiber optics interconnects, and deals with optical fibers subjected to thermal and/or mechanical loading (stresses) in bending, tension, compression, or to the combinations of such loadings. Attributes and significance of predictive modeling are indicated and discussed. The review is based mostly on the author's research conducted at Bell Laboratories, Physical Sciences and Engineering Research Division, Murray Hill, NJ, USA, during his tenure with this company, and, to a lesser extent, on his recent work in the field. The addressed structures include, but are not limited to, optical fibers of finite length: bare fibers; jacketed and dual-coated fibers; fibers experiencing thermal loading; fibers soldered into ferrules or adhesively bonded into capillaries; as well as the roles of geometric and material non-linearity; dynamic response to shocks and vibrations; and possible applications of nano-materials in new generations of coating and cladding systems. The extension part is concerned with a novel, fruitful and challenging directionprobabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) of opto-electronic and photonic products, including optical fibers and interconnects. The rationale behind the PDfR concept is that there is no such thing as zero probability of failure, that the difference between a highly reliable product and an insufficiently reliable product is "merely" in the level of the never zero probability of its failure and that when the operational performance of the product is imperative, the ability to predict, quantify, assure and, if possible and appropriate, even specify its reliability is highly desirable. Accordingly, the objective of the PDfR effort is to quantify the likelihood of an operational failure of a material, device or a system, including the

  5. A lunar-based analytical laboratory and contamination problems in analysis of Moon and Mars samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.

    1997-07-01

    A summary follows of our experiences and techniques used in the analysis of samples from Apollo Missions 11 to 17. The studies were conducted at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and the University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 1969 - 1974. Our search was directed to water-extractable compounds with emphasis on amino acids. Gas chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry were used for the analysis. It is our conclusion that amino acids are not present in the lunar regolith above the background levels of our investigation (ca. 1 - 3 ng/g). The scientific debate has become heated that primitive life existed on Mars 3.6 billion years ago as reported by the NASA-Stanford team led to David McKay. Mars is destined to receive humans early in the 21st Century, preceded by many international missions to Space Station Freedom and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. First, we must `learn to live in space'. The Moon presents a base that provides the opportunities and challenges to assemble the international interdisciplinary intellectual scientific teams and partners with many disciplines to make the next step before human exploration of Mars and the search for evidence in Martian soil and samples returned to Earth laboratories. Our experiences learned in Moon analysis will be useful in Mars exploration and returned sample study. Sensitivity at the nanogram/gram level and selectivity of analysis are highly essential. As these figures show contamination of samples is a most serious problem. However with the use of ultraclean techniques in a 100 clean room contamination can be avoided. Our speck of dust, a tiny fragment of cigarette smoke, a particle of dandruff, a droplet of saliva, all can make your results questionable. In addition, the extraction of life molecules as amino acids from the Lunar samples was a difficult process and I am sure the same difficulties

  6. Concentration-response relationship for fluvoxamine using remission as an endpoint: a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis in major depression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaro; Fukui, Naoki; Sawamura, Kazushi; Sugai, Takuro; Watanabe, Junzo; Ono, Shin; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Ozdemir, Vural; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2008-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants thus far failed to identify a clear concentration-response relationship in major depression. Majority of the previous studies defined clinical response as 50% or greater reduction from baseline in depression rating scale scores. Because many patients who meet these criteria still present symptoms associated with functional impairment, there is a need to consider "remission" as an alternative end point in concentration-response analyses of SSRIs. The present 12-week prospective study investigated the relationship between fluvoxamine (an SSRI) plasma concentration and remission in outpatients with depression. We used a flexible dose titration study designed to mimic clinical practice within the therapeutic dose range of fluvoxamine (25-200 mg/d). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was computed to determine the optimal fluvoxamine plasma concentration for remission using 269 concentration data obtained from 80 patients. Analysis of the ROC curve from the entire study sample did not reveal a fluvoxamine concentration significantly predicting remission. By contrast, ROC analysis specifically in patients with moderate to severe depression (N = 51; baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score > or = 20) found a fluvoxamine concentration of 61.4 ng/mL as a significant predictor of remission. In conclusion, therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful for rational titration and individualization of fluvoxamine dose and predicting remission in patients with moderate to severe depression, who may presumably display lesser placebo component in pharmacodynamic response. PMID:18480690

  7. Analytic estimation of statistical significance maps for support vector machine based multi-variate image analysis and classification

    PubMed Central

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods such as support vector machines (SVMs) have been increasingly applied to fMRI and sMRI analyses, enabling the detection of distinctive imaging patterns. However, identifying brain regions that significantly contribute to the classification/group separation requires computationally expensive permutation testing. In this paper we show that the results of SVM-permutation testing can be analytically approximated. This approximation leads to more than a thousand fold speed up of the permutation testing procedure, thereby rendering it feasible to perform such tests on standard computers. The speed up achieved makes SVM based group difference analysis competitive with standard univariate group difference analysis methods. PMID:23583748

  8. Analytical Chemistry in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Ullman, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    Clarifies the roles of a practicing analytical chemist in industry: quality control, methods and technique development, troubleshooting, research, and chemical analysis. Lists criteria for success in industry. (ML)

  9. Big Data Geo-Analytical Tool Development for Spatial Analysis Uncertainty Visualization and Quantification Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, K.; Bauer, J. R.; Baker, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    As big data computing capabilities are increasingly paired with spatial analytical tools and approaches, there is a need to ensure uncertainty associated with the datasets used in these analyses is adequately incorporated and portrayed in results. Often the products of spatial analyses, big data and otherwise, are developed using discontinuous, sparse, and often point-driven data to represent continuous phenomena. Results from these analyses are generally presented without clear explanations of the uncertainty associated with the interpolated values. The Variable Grid Method (VGM) offers users with a flexible approach designed for application to a variety of analyses where users there is a need to study, evaluate, and analyze spatial trends and patterns while maintaining connection to and communicating the uncertainty in the underlying spatial datasets. The VGM outputs a simultaneous visualization representative of the spatial data analyses and quantification of underlying uncertainties, which can be calculated using data related to sample density, sample variance, interpolation error, uncertainty calculated from multiple simulations. In this presentation we will show how we are utilizing Hadoop to store and perform spatial analysis through the development of custom Spark and MapReduce applications that incorporate ESRI Hadoop libraries. The team will present custom 'Big Data' geospatial applications that run on the Hadoop cluster and integrate with ESRI ArcMap with the team's probabilistic VGM approach. The VGM-Hadoop tool has been specially built as a multi-step MapReduce application running on the Hadoop cluster for the purpose of data reduction. This reduction is accomplished by generating multi-resolution, non-overlapping, attributed topology that is then further processed using ESRI's geostatistical analyst to convey a probabilistic model of a chosen study region. Finally, we will share our approach for implementation of data reduction and topology generation

  10. Analytical solution of the time-dependent Bloch NMR flow equations: a translational mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awojoyogbe, O. B.

    2004-08-01

    Various biological and physiological properties of living tissue can be studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Unfortunately, the basic physics of extracting the relevant information from the solution of Bloch nuclear magnetic resource (NMR) equations to accurately monitor the clinical state of biological systems is still not yet fully understood. Presently, there are no simple closed solutions known to the Bloch equations for a general RF excitation. Therefore the translational mechanical analysis of the Bloch NMR equations presented in this study, which can be taken as definitions of new functions to be studied in detail may reveal very important information from which various NMR flow parameters can be derived. Fortunately, many of the most important but hidden applications of blood flow parameters can be revealed without too much difficulty if appropriate mathematical techniques are used to solve the equations. In this study we are concerned with a mathematical study of the laws of NMR physics from the point of view of translational mechanical theory. The important contribution of this study is that solutions to the Bloch NMR flow equations do always exist and can be found as accurately as desired. We shall restrict our attention to cases where the radio frequency field can be treated by simple analytical methods. First we shall derive a time dependant second-order non-homogeneous linear differential equation from the Bloch NMR equation in term of the equilibrium magnetization M0, RF B1( t) field, T1 and T2 relaxation times. Then, we would develop a general method of solving the differential equation for the cases when RF B1( t)=0, and when RF B1( t)≠0. This allows us to obtain the intrinsic or natural behavior of the NMR system as well as the response of the system under investigation to a specific influence of external force to the system. Specifically, we consider the case where the RF B1 varies harmonically with time. Here the complete

  11. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 2. Task 2: Theoretical and analytical development. Task 3: Experimental verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, V. C.; Storace, A. S.; Gaffney, E. F.; Bach, L. J.; Stallone, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The component element method was used to develop a transient dynamic analysis computer program which is essentially based on modal synthesis combined with a central, finite difference, numerical integration scheme. The methodology leads to a modular or building-block technique that is amenable to computer programming. To verify the analytical method, turbine engine transient response analysis (TETRA), was applied to two blade-out test vehicles that had been previously instrumented and tested. Comparison of the time dependent test data with those predicted by TETRA led to recommendations for refinement or extension of the analytical method to improve its accuracy and overcome its shortcomings. The development of working equations, their discretization, numerical solution scheme, the modular concept of engine modelling, the program logical structure and some illustrated results are discussed. The blade-loss test vehicles (rig full engine), the type of measured data, and the engine structural model are described.

  12. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  13. Analysis of the Essential Nutrient Strontium in Marine Aquariums by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Pelichy, Laurent D.; Adam, Carl; Smith, Eugene T.

    1997-10-01

    An undergraduate atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) laboratory experiment is presented involving the analysis of the essential nutrient strontium in a real-life sample, sea water. The quantitative analysis of strontium in sea water is a problem well suited for an undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. Sea water contains numerous components which prevent the direct quantitative determination of strontium. Students learn first hand about the role of interferences in analytical measurements, and about the method of standard addition which is used to minimize these effects. This laboratory exercise also introduces undergraduate students to practical problems associated with AAS. We encourage students as a part of this experiment to collect and analyze marine water samples from local pet shops.

  14. GeneAnalytics: An Integrative Gene Set Analysis Tool for Next Generation Sequencing, RNAseq and Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari Fuchs, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Mazor, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Kaplan, Sergey; Bogoch, Yoel; Plaschkes, Inbar; Shitrit, Alina; Rappaport, Noa; Kohn, Asher; Edgar, Ron; Shenhav, Liraz; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postgenomics data are produced in large volumes by life sciences and clinical applications of novel omics diagnostics and therapeutics for precision medicine. To move from “data-to-knowledge-to-innovation,” a crucial missing step in the current era is, however, our limited understanding of biological and clinical contexts associated with data. Prominent among the emerging remedies to this challenge are the gene set enrichment tools. This study reports on GeneAnalytics™ (geneanalytics.genecards.org), a comprehensive and easy-to-apply gene set analysis tool for rapid contextualization of expression patterns and functional signatures embedded in the postgenomics Big Data domains, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), RNAseq, and microarray experiments. GeneAnalytics' differentiating features include in-depth evidence-based scoring algorithms, an intuitive user interface and proprietary unified data. GeneAnalytics employs the LifeMap Science's GeneCards suite, including the GeneCards®—the human gene database; the MalaCards—the human diseases database; and the PathCards—the biological pathways database. Expression-based analysis in GeneAnalytics relies on the LifeMap Discovery®—the embryonic development and stem cells database, which includes manually curated expression data for normal and diseased tissues, enabling advanced matching algorithm for gene–tissue association. This assists in evaluating differentiation protocols and discovering biomarkers for tissues and cells. Results are directly linked to gene, disease, or cell “cards” in the GeneCards suite. Future developments aim to enhance the GeneAnalytics algorithm as well as visualizations, employing varied graphical display items. Such attributes make GeneAnalytics a broadly applicable postgenomics data analyses and interpretation tool for translation of data to knowledge-based innovation in various Big Data fields such as precision medicine, ecogenomics, nutrigenomics

  15. GeneAnalytics: An Integrative Gene Set Analysis Tool for Next Generation Sequencing, RNAseq and Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari Fuchs, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Stelzer, Gil; Mazor, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Kaplan, Sergey; Bogoch, Yoel; Plaschkes, Inbar; Shitrit, Alina; Rappaport, Noa; Kohn, Asher; Edgar, Ron; Shenhav, Liraz; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

    2016-03-01

    Postgenomics data are produced in large volumes by life sciences and clinical applications of novel omics diagnostics and therapeutics for precision medicine. To move from "data-to-knowledge-to-innovation," a crucial missing step in the current era is, however, our limited understanding of biological and clinical contexts associated with data. Prominent among the emerging remedies to this challenge are the gene set enrichment tools. This study reports on GeneAnalytics™ ( geneanalytics.genecards.org ), a comprehensive and easy-to-apply gene set analysis tool for rapid contextualization of expression patterns and functional signatures embedded in the postgenomics Big Data domains, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), RNAseq, and microarray experiments. GeneAnalytics' differentiating features include in-depth evidence-based scoring algorithms, an intuitive user interface and proprietary unified data. GeneAnalytics employs the LifeMap Science's GeneCards suite, including the GeneCards®--the human gene database; the MalaCards-the human diseases database; and the PathCards--the biological pathways database. Expression-based analysis in GeneAnalytics relies on the LifeMap Discovery®--the embryonic development and stem cells database, which includes manually curated expression data for normal and diseased tissues, enabling advanced matching algorithm for gene-tissue association. This assists in evaluating differentiation protocols and discovering biomarkers for tissues and cells. Results are directly linked to gene, disease, or cell "cards" in the GeneCards suite. Future developments aim to enhance the GeneAnalytics algorithm as well as visualizations, employing varied graphical display items. Such attributes make GeneAnalytics a broadly applicable postgenomics data analyses and interpretation tool for translation of data to knowledge-based innovation in various Big Data fields such as precision medicine, ecogenomics, nutrigenomics, pharmacogenomics, vaccinomics

  16. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  17. Publication Bias in Studies of an Applied Behavior-Analytic Intervention: An Initial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an…

  18. Analytical model for crosstalk analysis of optoelectronic transmitter modules for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukaegbu, Ikechi Augustine; Sangirov, Jamshid; Cho, Mu Hee; Lee, Tae-Woo; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a crosstalk expression and equivalent circuit model have been proposed based on RLC line model and interconnect parameters for wire-bonded and flip-chip bonded multichannel optoelectronic modules. The analytical expression and model are accurate for computing crosstalk of interconnects used in chip packaging. In addition, full-wave simulation and experimental results from total crosstalk measurement are discussed.

  19. Band structure analysis of an analytically solvable Hill equation with continuous potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, G. V.; Sprung, D. W. L.

    2015-03-01

    This paper concerns analytically solvable cases of Hill’s equation containing a continuously differentiable periodic potential. We outline a procedure for constructing the Floquet-Bloch fundamental system, and analyze the band structure of the system. The similarities to, and differences from, the cases of a piecewise constant periodic potential and the Mathieu potential, are illuminated.

  20. Analytic models of ducted turbomachinery tone noise sources. Volume 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. L.; Ganz, U. W.; Graf, G. A.; Westall, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The analytic models developed for computing the periodic sound pressure of subsonic fans and compressors in an infinite, hardwall annular duct with uniform flow are described. The basic sound-generating mechanism is the scattering into sound waves of velocity disturbances appearing to the rotor or stator blades as a series of harmonic gusts. The models include component interactions and rotor alone.

  1. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  2. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  3. Classification of a target analyte in solid mixtures using principal component analysis, support vector machines, and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Howley, Tom; Ryder, Alan G.; Leger, Marc N.; Madden, Michael G.

    2005-06-01

    The quantitative analysis of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of widespread interest for law enforcement and healthcare applications. One of the difficulties faced when analysing illicit mixtures is the fact that the narcotic can be mixed with many different cutting agents. This obviously complicates the development of quantitative analytical methods. In this work we demonstrate some preliminary efforts to try and account for the wide variety of potential cutting agents, by discrimination between the target substance and a wide range of excipients. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (785 nm excitation) was employed to analyse 217 samples, a number of them consisting of a target analyte (acetaminophen) mixed with excipients of different concentrations by weight. The excipients used were sugars (maltose, glucose, lactose, sorbitol), inorganic materials (talcum powder, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulphate), and food products (caffeine, flour). The spectral data collected was subjected to a number of pre-treatment statistical methods including first derivative and normalisation transformations, to make the data more suitable for analysis. Various methods were then used to discriminate the target analytes, these included Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Support Vector Machines.

  4. Screening for depressive disorders using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item subscales, in relation to both current and lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, Neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the Neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as are possible cutoff scores for use in research. PMID:20822283

  5. Bayesian decision analysis as a tool for defining monitoring needs in the field of effects of CSOs on receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Korving, H; Clemens, F

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, decision analysis has become an important technique in many disciplines. It provides a methodology for rational decision-making allowing for uncertainties in the outcome of several possible actions to be undertaken. An example in urban drainage is the situation in which an engineer has to decide upon a major reconstruction of a system in order to prevent pollution of receiving waters due to CSOs. This paper describes the possibilities of Bayesian decision-making in urban drainage. In particular, the utility of monitoring prior to deciding on the reconstruction of a sewer system to reduce CSO emissions is studied. Our concern is with deciding whether a price should be paid for new information and which source of information is the best choice given the expected uncertainties in the outcome. The influence of specific uncertainties (sewer system data and model parameters) on the probability of CSO volumes is shown to be significant. Using Bayes' rule, to combine prior impressions with new observations, reduces the risks linked with the planning of sewer system reconstructions. PMID:11902469

  6. Halfway between receiving and giving: a relational analysis of doctorate-prepared nurse-scholars' first 5 years after graduation.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Kathleen T

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal, phenomenological study described in this article is unique in exploring doctorally prepared nurses' lives during their first 5 years after graduation. Despite individual differences, there was a definite pattern in the way the 16 female participants internalized a doctoral identity. During the first year, the women asked themselves, "How big do I want my world to be?" In the second year, they were overwhelmed by trying to prove themselves because they equated doctoral identity with conducting research and scholarship. During the third year, they prioritized gradually focusing and determining the direction of their professional endeavors. In the fourth year, they "spent a lot of time creating my piece of the world." By the fifth year, they valued their accomplishments, "This is my world and I am proud of it." In between receiving and giving, most participants developed a network of colleagues who mentored them as scholars. Given that relationship and scholarly identity are linked in the nursing literature, this relational feminist analysis suggests the need for doctoral nurse educators and students to replace the single mentor-mentee model with a collegial one that allows them to mentor one another as scholars during and after doctoral studies. PMID:16179243

  7. A Single and a Dual-Fractal Analysis of Analyte-Receptor Binding Kinetics for Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan; Sadana

    1999-05-15

    The diffusion-limited binding kinetics of analyte in solution to either a receptor immobilized on a surface or to a receptorless surface is analyzed within a fractal framework for a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. The data is adequately described by a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. Initially, the data was modeled by a single-fractal analysis. If an inadequate fit was obtained then a dual-fractal analysis was utilized. The regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot (32) was used to determine if a single fractal analysis is sufficient or if a dual-fractal analysis is required. In general, it is of interest to note that the binding rate coefficient and the fractal dimension exhibit changes in the same direction (except for a single example) for the analyte-receptor systems analyzed. Binding rate coefficient expressions as a function of the fractal dimension developed for the analyte-receptor binding systems indicate, in general, the high sensitivity of the binding rate coefficient on the fractal dimension when both a single- and a dual-fractal analysis is used. For example, for a single-fractal analysis and for the binding of human endothelin-1 (ET-1) antibody in solution to ET-115-21.BSA immobilized on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) surface (33), the order of dependence of the binding rate coefficient, k, on the fractal dimension, Df, is 6.4405. Similarly, for a dual-fractal analysis and for the binding of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M bSA in solution to a receptorless surface (direct binding to SPR surface) (41) the order of dependence of k1 and k2 on Df1 and Df2 were -2.356 and 6.241, respectively. Binding rate coefficient expressions are also developed as a function of the analyte concentration in solution. The binding rate coefficient expressions developed as a function of the fractal dimension(s) are of particular value since they provide a means to better control SPR biosensor performance by linking it to the degree of heterogeneity that exists on the SPR

  8. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence

    2013-06-01

    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  9. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismeal; Basuyau, Clemence

    2013-04-01

    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure, and bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ~35 km; (2) this thins to ~22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high velocity lower crust (HVLC) is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ~1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ~130 km wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which at the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs)_and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower-crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point toward a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  10. Responder Analysis of the Effects of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density in Men Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Egerdie, Blair; Saad, Fred; Smith, Matthew R; Tammela, Teuvo LJ; Heracek, Jiri; Sieber, Paul; Ke, Chunlei; Leder, Benjamin; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Men with prostate cancer are at risk of experiencing accelerated bone loss and fractures as a result of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Objective We evaluated the effects of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on preservation of BMD at 3 key skeletal sites (lumbar spine [LS], femoral neck [FN], and total hip [TH]) and the distal radius at 36 months both by responder category and individual responses in a waterfall plot analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants This phase 3, randomized, double-blind study of men with non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving ADT investigated the effects of denosumab on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Patients were treated for 36 months. Intervention Subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg (n=734) or placebo (n=734) every 6 months for up to 36 months. Patients were instructed to take supplemental Calcium and vitamin D. Measurements Primary outcome measure: The percentage change from baseline to month 36 in LS, FN, and TH BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. BMD at the distal 1/3 radius at 36 months was measured in a sub-study of 309 patients. Results and Limitations At 36 months, significantly more patients in the denosumab arm had increases of >3% BMD from baseline at each site studied compared with placebo (LS, 78% vs 17%; TH, 48% vs 6%; FN, 48% vs 13%; distal 1/3 radius, 40% vs 7%). The percentage of denosumab patients with bone loss at all 3 key BMD sites at month 36 was 1%, as opposed to 42% in placebo arm. At 36 months 69% of denosumab-treated patients had BMD increases at all three sites (LS, TH or FN) compared with 8% of placebo-treated patients. Lower baseline BMD was associated with higher magnitude lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip BMD responses to denosumab. Conclusions In men with prostate cancer receiving ADT significantly higher BMD response rates were observed with denosumab vs. placebo. Trial Registration This study is registered with Clinical

  11. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  12. Analytical determination of orbital elements using Fourier analysis. I. The radial velocity case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisle, J.-B.; Ségransan, D.; Buchschacher, N.; Alesina, F.

    2016-05-01

    We describe an analytical method for computing the orbital parameters of a planet from the periodogram of a radial velocity signal. The method is very efficient and provides a good approximation of the orbital parameters. The accuracy is mainly limited by the accuracy of the computation of the Fourier decomposition of the signal which is sensitive to sampling and noise. Our method is complementary with more accurate (and more expensive in computer time) numerical algorithms (e.g. Levenberg-Marquardt, Markov chain Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms). Indeed, the analytical approximation can be used as an initial condition to accelerate the convergence of these numerical methods. Our method can be applied iteratively to search for multiple planets in the same system.

  13. Multi-analyte analysis system using an antibody-based biochip.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Bondi, Maria Cruz; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    A multi-analyte detection system using a unique antibody (Ab) biochip is described. The Ab-based biochip, also referred to as the protein biochip, uses a sensor array based on a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit. The Ab-biochip has a sampling platform of four-by-four microarrays of antibodies deposited onto a Nylon membrane substrate. The micro-arrayed antibodies can be interrogated simultaneously or sequentially using the biochip sensing array detector with the use of a diffractive optical element illuminating each antibody spot individually. The usefulness of the Ab biochip is illustrated by the measurements of immunoglobulin G (IgG) used as the model analyte system. The detection limit for Cy5-labeled IgG molecules was 13 pg. PMID:12520447

  14. Analytical and numerical analysis of the slope of von Mises planar trusses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, M.; Frantík, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, there are presented post-critical stress states which will occur at loading by vertical shift of the top joint in the direction downwards. The formation of certain stress states depends on the size of the angle formed by a straight beam of the von Mises planar truss with horizontal plane. Numerical and analytical methods and their problems with finding the angle were described. The numerical solution applies the method of searching for a minimum of potential energy.

  15. Analytical and numerical analysis of frictional damage in quasi brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q. Z.; Zhao, L. Y.; Shao, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Frictional sliding and crack growth are two main dissipation processes in quasi brittle materials. The frictional sliding along closed cracks is the origin of macroscopic plastic deformation while the crack growth induces a material damage. The main difficulty of modeling is to consider the inherent coupling between these two processes. Various models and associated numerical algorithms have been proposed. But there are so far no analytical solutions even for simple loading paths for the validation of such algorithms. In this paper, we first present a micro-mechanical model taking into account the damage-friction coupling for a large class of quasi brittle materials. The model is formulated by combining a linear homogenization procedure with the Mori-Tanaka scheme and the irreversible thermodynamics framework. As an original contribution, a series of analytical solutions of stress-strain relations are developed for various loading paths. Based on the micro-mechanical model, two numerical integration algorithms are exploited. The first one involves a coupled friction/damage correction scheme, which is consistent with the coupling nature of the constitutive model. The second one contains a friction/damage decoupling scheme with two consecutive steps: the friction correction followed by the damage correction. With the analytical solutions as reference results, the two algorithms are assessed through a series of numerical tests. It is found that the decoupling correction scheme is efficient to guarantee a systematic numerical convergence.

  16. IoT Big-Data Centred Knowledge Granule Analytic and Cluster Framework for BI Applications: A Case Base Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Mishra, Nilamadhab; Lin, Chung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    The current rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) in various commercial and non-commercial sectors has led to the deposition of large-scale IoT data, of which the time-critical analytic and clustering of knowledge granules represent highly thought-provoking application possibilities. The objective of the present work is to inspect the structural analysis and clustering of complex knowledge granules in an IoT big-data environment. In this work, we propose a knowledge granule analytic and clustering (KGAC) framework that explores and assembles knowledge granules from IoT big-data arrays for a business intelligence (BI) application. Our work implements neuro-fuzzy analytic architecture rather than a standard fuzzified approach to discover the complex knowledge granules. Furthermore, we implement an enhanced knowledge granule clustering (e-KGC) mechanism that is more elastic than previous techniques when assembling the tactical and explicit complex knowledge granules from IoT big-data arrays. The analysis and discussion presented here show that the proposed framework and mechanism can be implemented to extract knowledge granules from an IoT big-data array in such a way as to present knowledge of strategic value to executives and enable knowledge users to perform further BI actions. PMID:26600156

  17. IoT Big-Data Centred Knowledge Granule Analytic and Cluster Framework for BI Applications: A Case Base Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Mishra, Nilamadhab; Lin, Chung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    The current rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) in various commercial and non-commercial sectors has led to the deposition of large-scale IoT data, of which the time-critical analytic and clustering of knowledge granules represent highly thought-provoking application possibilities. The objective of the present work is to inspect the structural analysis and clustering of complex knowledge granules in an IoT big-data environment. In this work, we propose a knowledge granule analytic and clustering (KGAC) framework that explores and assembles knowledge granules from IoT big-data arrays for a business intelligence (BI) application. Our work implements neuro-fuzzy analytic architecture rather than a standard fuzzified approach to discover the complex knowledge granules. Furthermore, we implement an enhanced knowledge granule clustering (e-KGC) mechanism that is more elastic than previous techniques when assembling the tactical and explicit complex knowledge granules from IoT big-data arrays. The analysis and discussion presented here show that the proposed framework and mechanism can be implemented to extract knowledge granules from an IoT big-data array in such a way as to present knowledge of strategic value to executives and enable knowledge users to perform further BI actions. PMID:26600156

  18. Receiver Design, Performance Analysis, and Evaluation for Space-Borne Laser Altimeters and Space-to-Space Laser Ranging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report consists of two separate reports. The first one describes our work on the use of variable gain amplifiers to increase the receiver dynamic range of space borne laser altimeters such as NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter Systems (GLAS). The requirement of the receiver dynamic range was first calculated. A breadboard variable gain amplifier circuit was made and the performance was fully characterized. The circuit will also be tested in flight on board the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA-02) next year. The second report describes our research on the master clock oscillator frequency calibration for space borne laser altimeter systems using global positioning system (GPS) receivers.

  19. Analysis of the anomalous scale-dependent behavior of dispersivity using straightforward analytical equations: Flow variance vs. dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Scott, M.T.

    1988-12-31

    Recent field and laboratory data have confirmed that apparent dispersivity is a function of the flow distance of the measurement. This scale effect is not consistent with classical advection dispersion modeling often used to describe the transport of solutes in saturated porous media. Many investigators attribute this anomalous behavior to the fact that the spreading of solute is actually the result of the heterogeneity of subsurface materials and the wide distribution of flow paths and velocities available in such systems. An analysis using straightforward analytical equations confirms this hypothesis. An analytical equation based on a flow variance approach matches available field data when a variance description of approximately 0.4 is employed. Also, current field data provide a basis for statistical selection of the variance parameter based on the level of concern related to the resulting calculated concentration. While the advection dispersion approach often yielded reasonable predictions, continued development of statistical and stochastic techniques will provide more defendable and mechanistically descriptive models.

  20. Quantum analytical modeling and simulation of CNT on insulator (COI) and CNT on nothing (CON) FET: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudipta; Bandyopadhyay, Dipan; Dutta, Pranab Kishore; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive performance analysis by quantum analytical modeling of CNT on insulator (COI) and CNT on nothing (CON) FET having channel length 20 nm has been proposed and investigated on the basis of 2D Poisson's Equation and solution of 1-D Schrodinger's Equation and validated using ATLAS 2D simulator. As classical approximations fail to describe carrier quantization, charge inversion and potential profile of a device at sub-100 nm regime, here for the first time an analytical model in quantum mechanical aspect for COI/CON devices has been derived. Effects of high-k dielectrics in place of conventional SiO2 over the device characteristics have been thoroughly discussed. Moreover, all noticeable benefits of our device to the so called SOI/SON architecture have also been vividly justified.

  1. Teleseismic receiver function analysis in Tierra del Fuego Island: an estimation of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs velocity ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffoni, C.; Sabbione, N. C.; Schimmel, M.; Rosa, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    Tierra del Fuego Island (TdF) is situated in the southern part of South America, where the transform tectonic boundary between the Scotia and South America plates divides the island into two continental blocks. This boundary is represented by a mainly strike-slip lineament known as Magallanes-Fagnano fault system that runs from the western part of the north Scotia ridge to the Chile trench south of 50° S. This fault system is composed of many splays and diverse subparallel faults that overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and are the responsible for the complex tectonic setting that has TdF. Only a few studies have been carried out to constrain the crustal structure and Moho depth in TdF. We present the preliminary estimations on Moho depth and Vp/Vs velocity ratio in TdF Argentinian Island, from teleseismic receiver function analysis with data recorded at five permanent seismic stations. We analyzed data and selected among 40 and 120 events for each seismic station, according to data availability and quality. Earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.5 mb and epicentral distances between 30° and 90° were selected. We used Seismic Analysis Code software to pre-process the seismograms. After removing the mean and trend, the data were band-pass filtered using different ranges of frequencies: 0.5-2Hz, 0.08-2Hz and 0.02-1Hz. We applied an iterative deconvolution technique in order to isolate the P-to-S converted waves and obtain the Receiver Functions (RFs). A Gaussian factor of a= 2.5 ( ~1Hz) was selected to reduce the noise and improve the signal coherence in the RFs. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio were estimated using the H-K stacking method. Since our RFs were not as clear as those typically obtained for simple tectonic settings, we performed different resample techniques to asses the robustness of our results. RFs from clustered events were stacked to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. For this purpose we divided the events into three clusters according event

  2. Analysis of plant gums and saccharide materials in paint samples: comparison of GC-MS analytical procedures and databases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saccharide materials have been used for centuries as binding media, to paint, write and illuminate manuscripts and to apply metallic leaf decorations. Although the technical literature often reports on the use of plant gums as binders, actually several other saccharide materials can be encountered in paint samples, not only as major binders, but also as additives. In the literature, there are a variety of analytical procedures that utilize GC-MS to characterize saccharide materials in paint samples, however the chromatographic profiles are often extremely different and it is impossible to compare them and reliably identify the paint binder. Results This paper presents a comparison between two different analytical procedures based on GC-MS for the analysis of saccharide materials in works-of-art. The research presented here evaluates the influence of the analytical procedure used, and how it impacts the sugar profiles obtained from the analysis of paint samples that contain saccharide materials. The procedures have been developed, optimised and systematically used to characterise plant gums at the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, USA (GCI) and the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy (DCCI). The main steps of the analytical procedures and their optimisation are discussed. Conclusions The results presented highlight that the two methods give comparable sugar profiles, whether the samples analysed are simple raw materials, pigmented and unpigmented paint replicas, or paint samples collected from hundreds of centuries old polychrome art objects. A common database of sugar profiles of reference materials commonly found in paint samples was thus compiled. The database presents data also from those materials that only contain a minor saccharide fraction. This database highlights how many sources of saccharides can be found in a paint sample, representing an important step forward in the problem of

  3. Analysis of the Endogenous Deoxynucleoside Triphosphate Pool in HIV-Positive and -Negative Individuals Receiving Tenofovir-Emtricitabine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinhui; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R; Seifert, Sharon M; McAllister, Kevin B; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Bushman, Lane R; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    2016-09-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC), two nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA), are coformulated as an anti-HIV combination tablet for treatment and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). TDF/FTC may have effects on the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pool due to their similar structures and similar metabolic pathways. We carried out a comprehensive clinical study to characterize the effects of TDF/FTC on the endogenous dNTP pool, from baseline to 30 days of TDF/FTC therapy, in both treatment-naive HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and TTP were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology. Forty individuals (19 HIV-positive) were enrolled and underwent a baseline visit and then received TDF/FTC for at least 30 days. Longitudinal measurements were analyzed using mixed-model segmented linear regression analysis. The dNTPs were reduced by 14% to 37% relative to the baseline level within 3 days in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals (P ≤ 0.003). These reductions persisted to various degrees at day 30. These findings indicate that dNTP pools are influenced by TDF/FTC therapy. This may alter cellular homeostasis and could increase the antiviral effect through a more favorable analog/dNTP ratio. Further work is needed to elucidate mechanisms, to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings, and to further probe differences between HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01040091.). PMID:27353267

  4. The Five Planets in the Kepler-296 Binary System All Orbit the Primary: A Statistical and Analytical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa V.; Adams, Fred C.; Ciardi, David R.; Huber, Daniel; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Montet, Benjamin T.; Caldwell, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Kepler-296 is a binary star system with two M-dwarf components separated by 0.″2. Five transiting planets have been confirmed to be associated with the Kepler-296 system; given the evidence to date, however, the planets could in principle orbit either star. This ambiguity has made it difficult to constrain both the orbital and physical properties of the planets. Using both statistical and analytical arguments, this paper shows that all five planets are highly likely to orbit the primary star in this system. We performed a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulation using a five transiting planet model, leaving the stellar density and dilution with uniform priors. Using importance sampling, we compared the model probabilities under the priors of the planets orbiting either the brighter or the fainter component of the binary. A model where the planets orbit the brighter component, Kepler-296A, is strongly preferred by the data. Combined with our assertion that all five planets orbit the same star, the two outer planets in the system, Kepler-296 Ae and Kepler-296 Af, have radii of 1.53 ± 0.26 and 1.80 ± 0.31 {R}\\oplus , respectively, and receive incident stellar fluxes of 1.40 ± 0.23 and 0.62 ± 0.10 times the incident flux the Earth receives from the Sun. This level of irradiation places both planets within or close to the circumstellar habitable zone of their parent star.

  5. 3D imaging of the Corinth rift from a new passive seismic tomography and receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Gesret, Alexandrine; Noble, Mark; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Gautier, Stéphanie; Deschamps, Anne

    2016-04-01

    model and earthquake location. In addition to the tomographic imaging, we perform a preliminary receiver function analysis of teleseismic data recorded by the broadband stations of the CRL network. The RF analysis should provide the interface depths beneath seismometers and increase the imaging resolution of the upper crustal structures provided by the 3D tomography. In this first attempt, we adjust the 1D velocity model that produces a synthetic RF as similar as possible to the observed RF for a subset of data. We compare the identified interfaces with structures imaged by the tomography.

  6. A semi-automated method for the detection of seismic anisotropy at depth via receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, A.; Piana Agostinetti, N.

    2016-06-01

    Information about seismic anisotropy is embedded in the variation of the amplitude of the Ps pulses as a function of the azimuth, on both the Radial and the Transverse components of teleseismic receiver functions (RF). We develop a semi-automatic method to constrain the presence and the depth of anisotropic layers beneath a single seismic broad-band station. An algorithm is specifically designed to avoid trial and error methods and subjective crustal parametrizations in RF inversions, providing a suitable tool for large-size data set analysis. The algorithm couples together information extracted from a 1-D VS profile and from a harmonic decomposition analysis of the RF data set. This information is used to determine the number of anisotropic layers and their approximate position at depth, which, in turn, can be used to, for example, narrow the search boundaries for layer thickness and S-wave velocity in a subsequent parameter space search. Here, the output of the algorithm is used to invert an RF data set by means of the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA). To test our methodology, we apply the algorithm to both synthetic and observed data. We make use of synthetic RF with correlated Gaussian noise to investigate the resolution power for multiple and thin (1-3 km) anisotropic layers in the crust. The algorithm successfully identifies the number and position of anisotropic layers at depth prior the NA inversion step. In the NA inversion, strength of anisotropy and orientation of the symmetry axis are correctly retrieved. Then, the method is applied to field measurement from station BUDO in the Tibetan Plateau. Two consecutive layers of anisotropy are automatically identified with our method in the first 25-30 km of the crust. The data are then inverted with the retrieved parametrization. The direction of the anisotropic axis in the uppermost layer correlates well with the orientation of the major planar structure in the area. The deeper anisotropic layer is associated with

  7. A semi-automated method for the detection of seismic anisotropy at depth via receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, A.; Agostinetti, N. Piana

    2016-03-01

    Information about seismic anisotropy is embedded in the variation of the amplitude of the Ps pulses as a function of the azimuth, on both the Radial and the Transverse components of teleseismic receiver functions (RF). We develop a semi-automatic method to constrain the presence and the depth of anisotropic layers beneath a single seismic broadband station. An algorithm is specifically designed to avoid trial and error methods and subjective crustal parameterizations in RF inversions, providing a suitable tool for large size dataset analysis. The algorithm couples together information extracted from a 1D VS profile and from an harmonic decomposition analysis of the RF dataset. This information is used to determine the number of anisotropic layers and their approximate position at depth, which, in turn, can be used to, e.g. narrow the search boundaries for layer thickness and S-wave velocity in a subsequent parameter space search. Here, the output of the algorithm is used to invert a RF dataset by means of the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA). To test our methodology, we apply the algorithm to both synthetic and observed data. We make use of synthetic RF with correlated Gaussian noise to investigate the resolution power for multiple and thin (1-3 km) anisotropic layers in the crust. The algorithm successfully identifies the number and position of anisotropic layers at depth prior the NA inversion step. In the NA inversion, strength of anisotropy and orientation of the symmetry axis are correctly retrieved. Then, the method is applied to field measurement from station BUDO in the Tibetan Plateau. Two consecutive layers of anisotropy are automatically identified with our method in the first 25-30 km of the crust. The data are then inverted with the retrieved parameterization. The direction of the anisotropic axis in the uppermost layer correlates well with the orientation of the major planar structure in the area. The deeper anisotropic layer is associated with an older

  8. Analytical performance of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence instrumentation for multielemental analysis of wine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalipi, Rogerta; Marguí, Eva; Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Depero, Laura E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent technological improvements have led to a widespread adoption of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence systems (TXRF) for analysis of liquid samples. However, benchtop TXRF systems usually present limited sensitivity compared with high-scale instrumentation which can restrict its application in some fields. The aim of the present work was to evaluate and compare the analytical capabilities of two TXRF systems, equipped with low power Mo and W target X-ray tubes, for multielemental analysis of wine samples. Using the Mo-TXRF system, the detection limits for most elements were one order of magnitude lower than those attained using the W-TXRF system. For the detection of high Z elements like Cd and Ag, however, W-TXRF remains a very good option due to the possibility of K-Lines detection. Accuracy and precision of the obtained results have been evaluated analyzing spiked real wine samples and comparing the TXRF results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In general, good agreement was obtained between ICP-OES and TXRF results for the analysis of both red and white wine samples except for light elements (i.e., K) which TXRF concentrations were underestimated. However, a further achievement of analytical quality of TXRF results can be achieved if wine analysis is performed after dilution of the sample with de-ionized water.

  9. Multifractal Analysis of Some Inhomogeneous Multinomial Measures with Distinct Analytic Olsen's and Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shuang

    2015-06-01

    We construct exact dimensional measures whose support is the whole interval and whose Olsen's multifractal functions and are real analytic and agree at two points only. These measures satisfy an extended multifractal formalism in the sense that, for in some interval, the Hausdorff dimension of the level sets of the local Hölder exponent of is the Legendre transform of whereas their packing dimension is the Legendre transform of . We first construct such measures on a symbolic space. Then we obtain the measures by projecting on after composition with a Gray code.

  10. Matrix perturbation for analytical model improvement. [for modal analysis of structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A matrix perturbation method is proposed to calculate the Jacobian matrix and to compute the new eigendata for the parameter estimation procedure. The advantages of the method are the applicability to large complex structures without knowing the analytical expressions for the mass and stiffness matrices, and a cost effective approach for the re-computation of the eigendata. This method also allows the use of other measurements such as modal forces, kinetic energy distribution, and strain energy distributions in the estimation procedure. A realistic sample problem is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Analytical analysis of longitudinal space charge effects for a bunched beam with radial dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Huang, Zhirong; Emma, Paul; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The longitudinal space-charge (LSC) force can be a major cause of the microbunching instability in the linac for an x-ray free-electron laser. In this paper, the LSC-induced beam modulation is studied using an integral equation approach that takes into account the transverse (radial) variation of the LSC field for both the coasting-beam limit and a bunched beam. Variation of the beam energy and the transverse beam size is also incorporated. We discuss the validity of this approach and compare it with other analytical analyses as well as numerical simulations.

  12. Predictors of Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury: New Insight Using Receiver Operating Curve Indices and Bayesian Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zador, Zsolt; Sperrin, Matthew; King, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury remains a global health problem. Understanding the relative importance of outcome predictors helps optimize our treatment strategies by informing assessment protocols, clinical decisions and trial designs. In this study we establish importance ranking for outcome predictors based on receiver operating indices to identify key predictors of outcome and create simple predictive models. We then explore the associations between key outcome predictors using Bayesian networks to gain further insight into predictor importance. Methods We analyzed the corticosteroid randomization after significant head injury (CRASH) trial database of 10008 patients and included patients for whom demographics, injury characteristics, computer tomography (CT) findings and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GCS) were recorded (total of 13 predictors, which would be available to clinicians within a few hours following the injury in 6945 patients). Predictions of clinical outcome (death or severe disability at 6 months) were performed using logistic regression models with 5-fold cross validation. Predictive performance was measured using standardized partial area (pAUC) under the receiver operating curve (ROC) and we used Delong test for comparisons. Variable importance ranking was based on pAUC targeted at specificity (pAUCSP) and sensitivity (pAUCSE) intervals of 90–100%. Probabilistic associations were depicted using Bayesian networks. Results Complete AUC analysis showed very good predictive power (AUC = 0.8237, 95% CI: 0.8138–0.8336) for the complete model. Specificity focused importance ranking highlighted age, pupillary, motor responses, obliteration of basal cisterns/3rd ventricle and midline shift. Interestingly when targeting model sensitivity, the highest-ranking variables were age, severe extracranial injury, verbal response, hematoma on CT and motor response. Simplified models, which included only these key predictors, had similar performance (pAUCSP = 0

  13. Eliciting and Receiving Online Support: Using Computer-Aided Content Analysis to Examine the Dynamics of Online Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Kraut, Robert E; Levine, John M

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many people with serious diseases participate in online support communities, little research has investigated how participants elicit and provide social support on these sites. Objective The first goal was to propose and test a model of the dynamic process through which participants in online support communities elicit and provide emotional and informational support. The second was to demonstrate the value of computer coding of conversational data using machine learning techniques (1) by replicating results derived from human-coded data about how people elicit support and (2) by answering questions that are intractable with small samples of human-coded data, namely how exposure to different types of social support predicts continued participation in online support communities. The third was to provide a detailed description of these machine learning techniques to enable other researchers to perform large-scale data analysis in these communities. Methods Communication among approximately 90,000 registered users of an online cancer support community was analyzed. The corpus comprised 1,562,459 messages organized into 68,158 discussion threads. Amazon Mechanical Turk workers coded (1) 1000 thread-starting messages on 5 attributes (positive and negative emotional self-disclosure, positive and negative informational self-disclosure, questions) and (2) 1000 replies on emotional and informational support. Their judgments were used to train machine learning models that automatically estimated the amount of these 7 attributes in the messages. Across attributes, the average Pearson correlation between human-based judgments and computer-based judgments was .65. Results Part 1 used human-coded data to investigate relationships between (1) 4 kinds of self-disclosure and question asking in thread-starting posts and (2) the amount of emotional and informational support in the first reply. Self-disclosure about negative emotions (beta=.24, P<.001), negative

  14. Bifurcation analysis of a simple analytic model of self-propagating star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukirch, Thomas; Hesse, Michael

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the structure and stability of rotationally symmetric nonhomogeneous time-independent solutions derived from a simple analytic model of self-propagating star formation. For this purpose we employ two methodologies: We use bifurcation theoretical methods to prove the existence of nonhomogeneous axisymmetric stationary solutions of an appropriate nonlinear evolution equation for the stellar density. We show that the nonhomogeneous solution branch bifurcates from the homogeneous one at a critical parameter value of the star formation rate. Further, the analytical theory allows us to show that the new solution set is stable in the weakly nonlinear regime near the bifurcation point. To follow the solution branch further, we use numerical methods. The numerical calculation shows the structure and stability of these solutions. We conclude that no periodic time-dependent solutions of this special model exist, and no further bifurcations can be found. The same results have been found in simulations of stochastic self-propagating star formation based on similar models. Therefore, our findings provide a natural explanation, why long-lived large-scale structure have not been found in those simulations.

  15. An analysis of a developmentally delayed young girl. Coordinating analytic and developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Olesker, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Clinical material is presented from a multi-year treatment of a five-year-old girl with a variety of developmental interferences, making it necessary to consider whether standard technique would suffice. History includes the fact that she was adopted five days after birth and told as early as possible about her adoption; she was placed in a restrictive brace from four months to twenty months because of congenital hip displasia. Sandy's ability to let in the outside world was limited by her intense denial, not looking, not taking in, and by her detachment. Her passivity--whether a defense (modeled on her experience of physical restraint) or an arrest--was a formidable obstacle to the development of active transference moments. I use this case as an opportunity to look at the role of developmental sequences in the context of the analytic process. While I consciously did not do anything different than I would with any child analytic patient, I intuitively stressed certain kinds of interventions. PMID:14982015

  16. Evaluation of FTIR-based analytical methods for the analysis of simulated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Cash, R.J.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Meacham, J.E.; Winkelman, W.D.

    1994-09-30

    Three FTIR-based analytical methods that have potential to characterize simulated waste tank materials have been evaluated. These include: (1) fiber optics, (2) modular transfer optic using light guides equipped with non-contact sampling peripherals, and (3) photoacoustic spectroscopy. Pertinent instrumentation and experimental procedures for each method are described. The results show that the near-infrared (NIR) region of the infrared spectrum is the region of choice for the measurement of moisture in waste simulants. Differentiation of the NIR spectrum, as a preprocessing steps, will improve the analytical result. Preliminary data indicate that prominent combination bands of water and the first overtone band of the ferrocyanide stretching vibration may be utilized to measure water and ferrocyanide species simultaneously. Both near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra must be collected, however, to measure ferrocyanide species unambiguously and accurately. For ease of sample handling and the potential for field or waste tank deployment, the FTIR-Fiber Optic method is preferred over the other two methods. Modular transfer optic using light guides and photoacoustic spectroscopy may be used as backup systems and for the validation of the fiber optic data.

  17. Analysis of low molecular weight metabolites in tea using mass spectrometry-based analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Karl; Harrison, Scott J; Lane, Geoff A; Otter, Don E; Hemar, Yacine; Quek, Siew-Young; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water and there are numerous reported health benefits as a result of consuming tea, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and many types of cancer. Thus, there is much interest in the chemical composition of teas, for example; defining components responsible for contributing to reported health benefits; defining quality characteristics such as product flavor; and monitoring for pesticide residues to comply with food safety import/export requirements. Covered in this review are some of the latest developments in mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques for measuring and characterizing low molecular weight components of tea, in particular primary and secondary metabolites. The methodology; more specifically the chromatography and detection mechanisms used in both targeted and non-targeted studies, and their main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, we comment on the latest techniques that are likely to have significant benefit to analysts in the future, not merely in the area of tea research, but in the analytical chemistry of low molecular weight compounds in general. PMID:24499071

  18. Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process multicriteria and Geographical information system for coastal vulnerability analysis in Morocco: The case of Mohammedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahri, Meryem; Maanan, Mohamed; Hakdaoui, Mustapha

    2016-04-01

    This paper shows a method to assess the vulnerability of coastal risks such as coastal erosion or submarine applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and spatial analysis techniques with Geographic Information System (GIS). The coast of the Mohammedia located in Morocco was chosen as the study site to implement and validate the proposed framework by applying a GIS-FAHP based methodology. The coastal risk vulnerability mapping follows multi-parametric causative factors as sea level rise, significant wave height, tidal range, coastal erosion, elevation, geomorphology and distance to an urban area. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process methodology enables the calculation of corresponding criteria weights. The result shows that the coastline of the Mohammedia is characterized by a moderate, high and very high level of vulnerability to coastal risk. The high vulnerability areas are situated in the east at Monika and Sablette beaches. This technical approach is based on the efficiency of the Geographic Information System tool based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to help decision maker to find optimal strategies to minimize coastal risks.

  19. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1995-01-01

    Laser altimeters measure the time of flight of the laser pulses to determine the range of the target. The simplest altimeter receiver consists of a photodetector followed by a leading edge detector. A time interval unit (TIU) measures the time from the transmitted laser pulse to the leading edge of the received pulse as it crosses a preset threshold. However, the ranging error of this simple detection scheme depends on the received, pulse amplitude, pulse shape, and the threshold. In practice, the pulse shape and the amplitude are determined by the target target characteristics which has to be assumed unknown prior to the measurement. The ranging error can be improved if one also measures the pulse width and use the average of the leading and trailing edges (half pulse width) as the pulse arrival time. The ranging error becomes independent of the received pulse amplitude and the pulse width as long as the pulse shape is symmetric. The pulse width also gives the slope of the target. The ultimate detection scheme is to digitize the received waveform and calculate the centroid as the pulse arrival time. The centroid detection always gives unbiased measurement even for asymmetric pulses. In this report, we analyze the laser altimeter ranging errors for these three detection schemes using the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) as an example.

  20. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1995-05-01

    Laser altimeters measure the time of flight of the laser pulses to determine the range of the target. The simplest altimeter receiver consists of a photodetector followed by a leading edge detector. A time interval unit (TIU) measures the time from the transmitted laser pulse to the leading edge of the received pulse as it crosses a preset threshold. However, the ranging error of this simple detection scheme depends on the received, pulse amplitude, pulse shape, and the threshold. In practice, the pulse shape and the amplitude are determined by the target target characteristics which has to be assumed unknown prior to the measurement. The ranging error can be improved if one also measures the pulse width and use the average of the leading and trailing edges (half pulse width) as the pulse arrival time. The ranging error becomes independent of the received pulse amplitude and the pulse width as long as the pulse shape is symmetric. The pulse width also gives the slope of the target. The ultimate detection scheme is to digitize the received waveform and calculate the centroid as the pulse arrival time. The centroid detection always gives unbiased measurement even for asymmetric pulses. In this report, we analyze the laser altimeter ranging errors for these three detection schemes using the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) as an example.

  1. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-01-01

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects. PMID:26343728

  2. Analysis of accuracy of approximate, simultaneous, nonlinear confidence intervals on hydraulic heads in analytical and numerical test cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Inaccuracies in parameter values, parameterization, stresses, and boundary conditions of analytical solutions and numerical models of groundwater flow produce errors in simulated hydraulic heads. These errors can be quantified in terms of approximate, simultaneous, nonlinear confidence intervals presented in the literature. Approximate confidence intervals can be applied in both error and sensitivity analysis and can be used prior to calibration or when calibration was accomplished by trial and error. The method is expanded for use in numerical problems, and the accuracy of the approximate intervals is evaluated using Monte Carlo runs. Four test cases are reported. -from Author

  3. Bragg-cell receiver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lonnie A.

    1987-01-01

    Bragg-cell receivers are employed in specialized Electronic Warfare (EW) applications for the measurement of frequency. Bragg-cell receiver characteristics are fully characterized for simple RF emitter signals. This receiver is early in its development cycle when compared to the IFM receiver. Functional mathematical models are derived and presented in this report for the Bragg-cell receiver. Theoretical analysis is presented and digital computer signal processing results are presented for the Bragg-cell receiver. Probability density function analysis are performed for output frequency. Probability density function distributions are observed to depart from assumed distributions for wideband and complex RF signals. This analysis is significant for high resolution and fine grain EW Bragg-cell receiver systems.

  4. Experimental analysis of the pressure drop and heat transfer through metal foams used as volumetric receivers under concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Albanakis, C.; Missirlis, D.; Yakinthos, K.; Goulas, A.; Michailidis, N.; Omar, H.; Tsipas, D.; Granier, B.

    2009-01-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of porous materials, when treated as volumetric receivers under concentrated solar radiation. For this reason various porous metallic and ceramic materials have been tested as potential receivers for concentrated solar radiation. The experimental investigation showed that their efficiency was depending on both materials parameters and flow conditions. In this work, a variety of foam materials such as Ni and Ni alloy, inconel, copper, aluminum and SiC with different open cell porosity were tested as potential media to be used as volumetric receivers and heat exchangers. However, since the results were similar, for space economy, only the results of two of them, nickel and inconel were presented in detail and compared with each other. (author)

  5. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community composition and antibiotic resistance genes in a wastewater treatment plant and its receiving surface water.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Shan, Zhengjun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may pose big risks to the rivers that receive the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigated the changes of bacterial community and ARGs along treatment processes of one WWTP, and examined the effects of the effluent discharge on the bacterial community and ARGs in the receiving river. Pyrosequencing was applied to reveal bacterial community composition including potential bacterial pathogen, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used for profiling ARGs. The results showed that the WWTP had good removal efficiency on potential pathogenic bacteria (especially Arcobacter butzleri) and ARGs. Moreover, the bacterial communities of downstream and upstream of the river showed no significant difference. However, the increase in the abundance of potential pathogens and ARGs at effluent outfall was observed, indicating that WWTP effluent might contribute to the dissemination of potential pathogenic bacteria and ARGs in the receiving river. PMID:27340885

  6. Some Comments on Analytic Traditions in EFA As against CFA: An Analysis of Selected Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.

    Factor analysis has historically been used for myriad purposes in the social and behavioral sciences, but an especially important application of this technique has been to evaluate construct validity. Since in the present milieu both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are readily available to the researcher,…

  7. Nonlinear waveform analysis for water-layer response and its application to high-frequency receiver function analysis using OBS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuhara, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2016-07-01

    Determination of a response of the seawater column to teleseismic plane wave is important to suppress adverse effects of water reverberations in calculating receiver functions (RFs) using ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) records. We present a novel nonlinear-waveform analysis method using the simulated annealing algorithm to determine such a water-layer response recorded by an OBS array. We then demonstrate its usefulness for the RF estimation through its application to synthetic and observed data. Synthetic experiments suggest that the water-layer response constrained in this way has a potential to improve RFs of OBS records drastically even in the high-frequency range (to 4 Hz). By applying it to data observed by the OBS array around the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, we identified a low-velocity zone at the top of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. This zone may represent the incoming fluid-rich sediment layer that has been reported by active source seismic survey.

  8. Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigourd, D.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Matton, S.; Bocquet, R.; Mouret, G.; Cazier, F.; Dewaele, D.; Nouali, H.

    2007-03-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy and photomixing have been used alongside one another for the detection and the quantification of small polar species in mainstream cigarette smoke. The broadband submillimeter source used in time domain spectroscopy allowed a rapid and simultaneous detection of several pure rotational transitions of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) in realistic conditions of pressure and temperature. The spectral purity of the continuous wave terahertz source produced by photomixing, permitted the concentrations of these molecules to be measured at pressures of tens of hPa. Moreover, at lower pressure, traces of formaldehyde (H2CO) have been unambiguously identified at frequencies above 1 THz. A comparison with chemical analytical methods has been completed for each molecule highlighting the advantages of the direct measurement by THz spectroscopy.

  9. Numerical stability analysis of the pseudo-spectral analytical time-domain PIC algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Brendan B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2014-02-01

    The pseudo-spectral analytical time-domain (PSATD) particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm solves the vacuum Maxwell's equations exactly, has no Courant time-step limit (as conventionally defined), and offers substantial flexibility in plasma and particle beam simulations. It is, however, not free of the usual numerical instabilities, including the numerical Cherenkov instability, when applied to relativistic beam simulations. This paper derives and solves the numerical dispersion relation for the PSATD algorithm and compares the results with corresponding behavior of the more conventional pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) and finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms. In general, PSATD offers superior stability properties over a reasonable range of time steps. More importantly, one version of the PSATD algorithm, when combined with digital filtering, is almost completely free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for time steps (scaled to the speed of light) comparable to or smaller than the axial cell size.

  10. Intracavity Optogalvanic Spectroscopy, A New Ultra-sensitive Analytical Technique for 14C Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Murnick, Daniel E.; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    We show a new ultra-sensitive laser based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy, allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C labeled carbon dioxide. Capable of replacing large accelerator mass spectrometers, the technique quantifies attomoles of 14C in submicrogram samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10-15 14C:12C ratios are obtained. Using a 15W 14CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 10-15 to >2 × 10-12 in 14C:12C ratios, as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, is demonstrated. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub-therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. PMID:18533685

  11. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459

  12. Biomarker analysis of stored blood products: emphasis on pre-analytical issues.

    PubMed

    Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459

  13. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to the MAPSEP organization and a detailed analytical description of all models and algorithms are given. These include trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes. Earth orbital MAPSEP contains the capability of analyzing almost any currently projected low thrust mission from low earth orbit to super synchronous altitudes. Furthermore, MAPSEP is sufficiently flexible to incorporate extended dynamic models, alternate mission strategies, and almost any other system requirement imposed by the user. As in the interplanetary version, earth orbital MAPSEP represents a trade-off between precision modeling and computational speed consistent with defining necessary system requirements. It can be used in feasibility studies as well as in flight operational support. Pertinent operational constraints are available both implicitly and explicitly. However, the reader should be warned that because of program complexity, MAPSEP is only as good as the user and will quickly succumb to faulty user inputs.

  14. Surface Modified Thread-Based Microfluidic Analytical Device for Selective Potassium Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erenas, Miguel M; de Orbe-Payá, Ignacio; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis Fermin

    2016-05-17

    This paper presents a thread-based microfluidic device (μTAD) that includes ionophore extraction chemistry for the optical recognition of potassium. The device is 1.5 cm × 1.0 cm and includes a cotton thread to transport the aqueous sample via capillary wicking to a 5 mm-long detection area, where the recognition chemistry is deposited that reaches equilibrium in 60 s, changing its color between blue and magenta. A complete characterization of the cotton thread used as well as the sensing element has been carried out. The imaging of the μTAD with a digital camera and the extraction of the H coordinate of the HSV color space used as the analytical parameter make it possible to determine K(I) between 2.4 × 10(-5) and 0.95 M with a precision better than 1.3%. PMID:27077212

  15. Dynamical analysis of the avian-human influenza epidemic model using the semi-analytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Azizeh; Kheiri, Hossein; Bekir, Ahmet

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present a dynamic behavior of the avian-human influenza epidemic model by using efficient computational algorithm, namely the multistage differential transform method(MsDTM). The MsDTM is used here as an algorithm for approximating the solutions of the avian-human influenza epidemic model in a sequence of time intervals. In order to show the efficiency of the method, the obtained numerical results are compared with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4M) and differential transform method(DTM) solutions. It is shown that the MsDTM has the advantage of giving an analytical form of the solution within each time interval which is not possible in purely numerical techniques like RK4M.

  16. Treaty verification sample analysis program analytical results: UNSCOM 65 samples. Final report, December 1993-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.; Bossle, P.C.; Durst, H.D.; Ellzy, M.W.

    1994-07-01

    Nineteen samples from the United Nations Special Commission 65 on Iraq (UNSCOM 65) were analyzed for chemical warfare (CW) related compounds using a variety of highly sophisticated spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The samples consisted of six water, six soil, two vegetation, one cloth, one wood, and two mortar shell crosscut sections. No sulfur or nitrogen mustards, Lewsite, or any of their degradation products were detected. No nerve agents were observed, and no tin was detected precluding the presence of stannic chloride, a component of NC, a World War I choking agent. Diethyl phosphoric acid was unambiguously identified in three water samples, and ethyl phosphoric acid was tentatively identified, at very low levels, in one water sample. These phosphoric acids are degradation products of Amiton, many commercially available pesticides, as well as Tabun, and impurities in munitions-grade Tabun. No definitive conclusions concerning the source of these two chemicals could be drawn from the analytical results.

  17. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. PMID:26206364

  18. Hard Data Analytics Problems Make for Better Data Analysis Algorithms: Bioinformatics as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Paweł; Lazzarini, Nicola; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Data mining and knowledge discovery techniques have greatly progressed in the last decade. They are now able to handle larger and larger datasets, process heterogeneous information, integrate complex metadata, and extract and visualize new knowledge. Often these advances were driven by new challenges arising from real-world domains, with biology and biotechnology a prime source of diverse and hard (e.g., high volume, high throughput, high variety, and high noise) data analytics problems. The aim of this article is to show the broad spectrum of data mining tasks and challenges present in biological data, and how these challenges have driven us over the years to design new data mining and knowledge discovery procedures for biodata. This is illustrated with the help of two kinds of case studies. The first kind is focused on the field of protein structure prediction, where we have contributed in several areas: by designing, through regression, functions that can distinguish between good and bad models of a protein's predicted structure; by creating new measures to characterize aspects of a protein's structure associated with individual positions in a protein's sequence, measures containing information that might be useful for protein structure prediction; and by creating accurate estimators of these structural aspects. The second kind of case study is focused on omics data analytics, a class of biological data characterized for having extremely high dimensionalities. Our methods were able not only to generate very accurate classification models, but also to discover new biological knowledge that was later ratified by experimentalists. Finally, we describe several strategies to tightly integrate knowledge extraction and data mining in order to create a new class of biodata mining algorithms that can natively embrace the complexity of biological data, efficiently generate accurate information in the form of classification/regression models, and extract valuable

  19. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Fear of Receiving Negative Criticism and of Taking Academic Risk through Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Ilhan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ferat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the fear of receiving negative criticism and taking academic risk through canonical correlation analysis-in which a relational model was used. The participants of the study consisted of 215 university students enrolled in various programs at Dicle University's Ziya Gökalp Faculty of…

  20. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  1. Optimization in the design of a 12 gigahertz low cost ground receiving system for broadcast satellites. Volume 1: System design, performance, and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkubo, K.; Han, C. C.; Albernaz, J.; Janky, J. M.; Lusignan, B. B.

    1972-01-01

    The technical and economical feasibility of using the 12 GHz band for broadcasting from satellites were examined. Among the assigned frequency bands for broadcast satellites, the 12 GHz band system offers the most channels. It also has the least interference on and from the terrestrial communication links. The system design and analysis are carried out on the basis of a decision analysis model. Technical difficulties in achieving low-cost 12 GHz ground receivers are solved by making use of a die cast aluminum packaging, a hybrid integrated circuit mixer, a cavity stabilized Gunn oscillator and other state-of-the-art microwave technologies for the receiver front-end. A working model was designed and tested, which used frequency modulation. A final design for the 2.6 GHz system ground receiver is also presented. The cost of the ground-terminal was analyzed and minimized for a given figure-of-merit (a ratio of receiving antenna gain to receiver system noise temperature). The results were used to analyze the performance and cost of the whole satellite system.

  2. An Analysis of Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Consumers with Hearing Impairments Who Received College or University Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Daniel L.; Wilson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive ability of vocational rehabilitation services for deaf and hard of hearing consumers who received college and university training. The RSA-911 database for fiscal year 2004 was analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of 21 services in leading to competitive employment. A model predicting…

  3. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Percentage of Enrolled Students Receiving Special Education and High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Janice Bonner

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in the percentage of enrolled students receiving special education services to the high school graduation rates of the campus and students in sub-group (White, African American, and Hispanic) populations. Educators are faced with concerns regarding special education and high school…

  4. The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist Predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudziak, James J.; Althoff, Robert R.; Stanger, Catherine; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis…

  5. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  6. A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ...

  7. Simplified analytical procedures for representing material cyclic response. [for high temperature gas turbine engine analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.; Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for increased durability of gas turbine hot section structural components have made it necessary to place greater emphasis on accurate structural analysis and life prediction. Linear finite-element analysis is generally sufficient for structural analysis applications. However, for structures in the hot part of the engine, nonlinear structural analysis may be required under certain conditions for the accurate prediction of the local stress-strain response. Nonlinear finite element analysis represents a costly effort which is generally incompatible with the iterative nature of the design process. The present investigation is, therefore, concerned with two simplified procedures for estimating the local hysteretic response produced by cyclic thermal loading. These procedures reduce the need for nonlinear finite-element analysis.

  8. Studies of the analyte-carrier interface in flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical analysis in flowing solution is popular for automation of classical methods. However, most of the classical methods are not specific enough for direct multicomponent analysis of simple mixtures. This research project has the goals of study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media, and investigations of chemical reactions at interfaces and of effects of competition on distribution of products from interfacial reaction. This report summarizes work done over the past 4.5 years; support has been terminated.

  9. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry — An analytical and diagnostic tool for trace analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welz, Bernhard; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Lepri, Fábio G.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Heitmann, Uwe

    2007-09-01

    The literature about applications of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) with electrothermal atomization is reviewed. The historic development of HR-CS AAS is briefly summarized and the main advantages of this technique, mainly the 'visibility' of the spectral environment around the analytical line at high resolution and the unequaled simultaneous background correction are discussed. Simultaneous multielement CS AAS has been realized only in a very limited number of cases. The direct analysis of solid samples appears to have gained a lot from the special features of HR-CS AAS, and the examples from the literature suggest that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standards. Low-temperature losses of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins could be detected and avoided in the analysis of crude oil due to the superior background correction system. The visibility of the spectral environment around the analytical line revealed that the absorbance signal measured for phosphorus at the 213.6 nm non-resonance line without a modifier is mostly due to the PO molecule, and not to atomic phosphorus. The future possibility to apply high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption for the determination of non-metals is discussed.

  10. Content Analysis of Meta-Analytic Studies from I/O Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, John M.

    The use of meta-analysis in industrial and organizational psychology has become quite common. Unfortunately, the understanding and research necessary to ensure appropriate application of the technique have not been as widespread. As part of a larger study, a content analysis of meta-analyses from the industrial and organizational psychological…

  11. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  12. Teaching the Analytical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  13. Thermal susceptibility of the Planck-LFI receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenzi, L.; Salmon, M. J.; Colin, A.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Tomasi, M.; Battaglia, P.; Lapolla, M.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davis, R.; Franceschet, C.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Hughes, N.; Jukkala, P.; Kettle, D.; Laaninen, M.; Leutenegger, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Miccolis, M.; Roddis, N.; Sambo, L.; Sandri, M.; Silvestri, R.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Villa, F.; Wilkinson, A.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the impact of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument front end physical temperature fluctuations on the output signal. The origin of thermal instabilities in the instrument are discussed, and an analytical model of their propagation and impact on the receivers signal is described. The experimental test setup dedicated to evaluate these effects during the instrument ground calibration is reported together with data analysis methods. Finally, main results obtained are discussed and compared to the requirements.

  14. Seismic velocity discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area inferred from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    We apply receiver function (RF) analyses to estimate the seismic velocity structure and seismic velocity discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, central Japan. Destructive earthquakes often occurred at various places including the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PSP), the subducting Pacific plate (PAP), and inland earthquake in this area. Investigation on the crustal structure and configurations of the subducting plates is the key to understanding the stress and strain concentration process and important to mitigate future earthquake disasters. A RF analysis is widely used to estimate velocity discontinuities in the crust and mantle beneath each seismic station. However, crustal structure beneath the Kanto plain could not be analyzed for lack of applicable seismic stations. Recently, comprehensive surveys are conducted as the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area from 2007. The Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) is constructed under this project. In this study, we searched for the best correlated velocity structure model between an observed RF at each station and synthetic ones by using a grid search method. Synthetic RFs calculated from assumed many one-dimensional velocity structures which consisting of four layers. We further constructed the vertical cross-sections of depth converted RF images transformed the lapse time of time series to depth by using the estimated structure models. MeSO-net data and telemetric seismographic network data operated by NIED, JMA and ERI are used. We used events with magnitudes greater or equal to 5.0 and epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees based on USGS catalogues. As a result, we clarify spatial distributions of the crustal S-wave velocities. The Boso Peninsula and Kanto plain are covered in the thick low-velocity sediment layers. We image standard velocity distributions in the deep crust of the Boso Peninsula

  15. Nonlinear effects in Paul traps operated in the second stability region: analytical analysis and numerical verification.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; Zhan, Lingpeng; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu

    2014-11-01

    Paul trap working in the second stability region has long been recognized as a possible approach for achieving high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), which however is still far away from the experimental implementations because of the narrow working area and inefficient ion trapping. Full understanding of the ion motional behavior is helpful for solving the problem. In this article, the ion motion in a superimposed octopole field, which was characterized by the nonlinear Mathieu equation, was solved analytically using Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. This method equivalently described the nonlinear disturbance by an effective quadrupole field with perturbed Mathieu parameters, a(u) and q(u), which would bring huge convenience in the studies of nonlinear ion dynamics and was, therefore, used for rapid evaluation of the nonlinear effects of ion motion. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (4th R-K) indicated the error of PLK for characterizing the frequency shift of ion motion was within 15%. PMID:25183226

  16. An analytical oscillating-flow thermal analysis of the heat exchangers and regenerator in Stirling machines

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, F. de; Galli, G.; Marcotullio, F.

    1996-12-31

    A closed form-expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchangers and regenerator of a Stirling cycle machine is given. This result may be used in a simple way in order to evaluate their effect on the machine performance. The proposed method, indeed, allows the actual cycle gas temperatures in the heater and cooler to be obtained readily, once the geometry of the heater, cooler and regenerator is known and some quantities characterizing the engine dynamics (strokes, frequency and phase angle of the moving elements) and its heat-exchange processes (inlet temperatures of the heating and cooling fluids, and their volumetric flow rates) are measured. Thus, an immediate indication about the effectiveness of the heat exchangers and regenerator as well as about the machine thermal efficiency may be obtained. The availability of a closed-form expression for the heater, regenerator and cooler effectiveness is useful especially for those engines, like the free-piston Stirling engines, whose design requires the application of analytically based optimization criteria.

  17. Analytical expressions for chatter analysis in milling operations with one dominant mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Munoa, J.; Ciurana, J.; Dombovari, Z.; Stepan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In milling, an accurate prediction of chatter is still one of the most complex problems in the field. The presence of these self-excited vibrations can spoil the surface of the part and can also cause a large reduction in tool life. The stability diagrams provide a practical selection of the optimum cutting conditions determined either by time domain or frequency domain based methods. Applying these methods parametric or parameter traced representations of the linear stability limits can be achieved by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problems. In this work, new analytical formulae are proposed related to the parameter domains of both Hopf and period doubling type stability boundaries emerging in the regenerative mechanical model of time periodical milling processes. These formulae are useful to enrich and speed up the currently used numerical methods. Also, the destabilization mechanism of double period chatter is explained, creating an analogy with the chatter related to the Hopf bifurcation, considering one dominant mode and using concepts established by the Pioneers of chatter research.

  18. Ambient aerodynamic ionization source for remote analyte sampling and mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R Brent; Sampson, Jason S; Hawkridge, Adam M; Muddiman, David C

    2008-07-01

    The use of aerodynamic devices in ambient ionization source development has become increasingly prevalent in the field of mass spectrometry. In this study, an air ejector has been constructed from inexpensive, commercially available components to incorporate an electrospray ionization emitter within the exhaust jet of the device. This novel aerodynamic device, herein termed remote analyte sampling, transport, and ionization relay (RASTIR) was used to remotely sample neutral species in the ambient and entrain them into an electrospray plume where they were subsequently ionized and detected using a linear ion trap Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Two sets of experiments were performed in the ambient environment to demonstrate the device's utility. The first involved the remote (approximately 1 ft) vacuum collection of pure sample particulates (i.e., dry powder) from a glass slide, entrainment and ionization at the ESI emitter, and mass spectrometric detection. The second experiment involved the capture (vacuum collection) of matrix-assisted laser desorbed proteins followed by entrainment in the ESI emitter plume, multiple charging, and mass spectrometric detection. This approach is in principle a RASTIR-assisted matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization source (Sampson, J. S.; Hawkridge, A. M.; Muddiman, D. C. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2006, 17, 1712-1716; Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2007, 21, 1150-1154.). A detailed description of the device construction, operational parameters, and preliminary small molecule and protein data are presented. PMID:18529018

  19. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    SciTech Connect

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  20. Material degradation due to moisture and temperature. Part 1: mathematical model, analysis, and analytical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical response, serviceability, and load-bearing capacity of materials and structural components can be adversely affected due to external stimuli, which include exposure to a corrosive chemical species, high temperatures, temperature fluctuations (i.e., freezing-thawing), cyclic mechanical loading, just to name a few. It is, therefore, of paramount importance in several branches of engineering—ranging from aerospace engineering, civil engineering to biomedical engineering—to have a fundamental understanding of degradation of materials, as the materials in these applications are often subjected to adverse environments. As a result of recent advancements in material science, new materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers and multi-functional materials that exhibit high ductility have been developed and widely used, for example, as infrastructural materials or in medical devices (e.g., stents). The traditional small-strain approaches of modeling these materials will not be adequate. In this paper, we study degradation of materials due to an exposure to chemical species and temperature under large strain and large deformations. In the first part of our research work, we present a consistent mathematical model with firm thermodynamic underpinning. We then obtain semi-analytical solutions of several canonical problems to illustrate the nature of the quasi-static and unsteady behaviors of degrading hyperelastic solids.

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the receiver domain of Staphylococcus aureus LytR protein

    PubMed Central

    Shala, Agnesa; Patel, Kevin H.; Golemi-Kotra, Dasantila; Audette, Gerald F.

    2013-01-01

    The response-regulatory protein LytR belongs to a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of important virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. The protein consists of a receiver domain and an effector domain, which play an important role in controlled cell death and lysis. The LytR receiver domain (LytRN) has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop and hanging-drop vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals grew as needles, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 84.82, c = 157.3 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. LytRN crystallized in space group P6122 and the crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.34 Å. Based on the Matthews coefficient (V M = 5.44 Å3 Da−1), one molecule is estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24316844

  2. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Syuhada; Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina; Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi; Anggono, Titi

    2015-04-24

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  3. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Hananto, Nugroho D.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Anggono, Titi; Handayani, Lina; Yudistira, Tedi

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  4. Pyrosequencing Analysis Reveals Changes in Intestinal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Who Received a Daily Dose of Immunomodulatory Probiotic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Fernández-Caballero, Jose Ángel; Chueca, Natalia; García, Federico; Gómez-Llorente, Carolina; Sáez-Lara, María José; Fontana, Luis; Gil, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The colon microbiota plays a crucial role in human gastrointestinal health. Current attempts to manipulate the colon microbiota composition are aimed at finding remedies for various diseases. We have recently described the immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, and Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035). The goal of the present study was to analyze the compositions of the fecal microbiota of healthy adults who received one of these strains using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Bacteroides was the most abundant genus in the groups that received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 or L. paracasei CNCM I-4034. The Shannon indices were significantly increased in these two groups. Our results also revealed a significant increase in the Lactobacillus genus after the intervention with L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The initially different colon microbiota became homogeneous in the subjects who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. While some orders that were initially present disappeared after the administration of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, other orders, such as Sphingobacteriales, Nitrospirales, Desulfobacterales, Thiotrichales, and Synergistetes, were detected after the intervention. In summary, our results show that the intake of these three bacterial strains induced changes in the colon microbiota. PMID:26016655

  5. MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE ANALYSIS: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, the multielemental techniques of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP), x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been compared for the determination of antimony, a...

  6. Copper and tin isotopic analysis of ancient bronzes for archaeological investigation: development and validation of a suitable analytical methodology.

    PubMed

    Balliana, Eleonora; Aramendía, Maite; Resano, Martin; Barbante, Carlo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Although in many cases Pb isotopic analysis can be relied on for provenance determination of ancient bronzes, sometimes the use of "non-traditional" isotopic systems, such as those of Cu and Sn, is required. The work reported on in this paper aimed at revising the methodology for Cu and Sn isotope ratio measurements in archaeological bronzes via optimization of the analytical procedures in terms of sample pre-treatment, measurement protocol, precision, and analytical uncertainty. For Cu isotopic analysis, both Zn and Ni were investigated for their merit as internal standard (IS) relied on for mass bias correction. The use of Ni as IS seems to be the most robust approach as Ni is less prone to contamination, has a lower abundance in bronzes and an ionization potential similar to that of Cu, and provides slightly better reproducibility values when applied to NIST SRM 976 Cu isotopic reference material. The possibility of carrying out direct isotopic analysis without prior Cu isolation (with AG-MP-1 anion exchange resin) was investigated by analysis of CRM IARM 91D bronze reference material, synthetic solutions, and archaeological bronzes. Both procedures (Cu isolation/no Cu isolation) provide similar δ (65)Cu results with similar uncertainty budgets in all cases (±0.02-0.04 per mil in delta units, k = 2, n = 4). Direct isotopic analysis of Cu therefore seems feasible, without evidence of spectral interference or matrix-induced effect on the extent of mass bias. For Sn, a separation protocol relying on TRU-Spec anion exchange resin was optimized, providing a recovery close to 100 % without on-column fractionation. Cu was recovered quantitatively together with the bronze matrix with this isolation protocol. Isotopic analysis of this Cu fraction provides δ (65)Cu results similar to those obtained upon isolation using AG-MP-1 resin. This means that Cu and Sn isotopic analysis of bronze alloys can therefore be carried out after a single chromatographic

  7. Reflux solar receiver design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diver, R. B.

    Reflux heat-pipe and pool-boiler receivers are being developed to improve upon the performance and life of directly-illuminated tube receiver technology used in previous successful demonstrations of dish-Stirling systems. The design of a reflux receiver involves engineering tradeoffs. In this paper, on-sun performance measurements of the Sandia pool-boiler receiver are compared with results from the reflux receiver thermal analysis model, AEETES. Flux and performance implications of various design options are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    PubMed

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

  9. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  10. An Integrated Geovisual Analytics Framework for Analysis of Energy Consumption Data and Renewable Energy Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kramer, Ian S; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Steed, Chad A; Karthik, Rajasekar; Nugent, Philip J; Myers, Aaron T

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated geovisual analytics framework for utility consumers to interactively analyze and benchmark their energy consumption. The framework uses energy and property data already available with the utility companies and county governments respectively. The motivation for the developed framework is the need for citizens to go beyond the conventional utility bills in understanding the patterns in their energy consumption. There is also a need for citizens to go beyond one-time improvements that are often not monitored and measured over time. Some of the features of the framework include the ability for citizens to visualize their historical energy consumption data along with weather data in their location. The quantity of historical energy data available is significantly more than what is available from utility bills. An overlay of the weather data provides users with a visual correlation between weather patterns and their energy consumption patterns. Another feature of the framework is the ability for citizens to compare their consumption on an aggregated basis to that of their peers other citizens living in houses of similar size and age and within the same or different geographical boundaries, such as subdivision, zip code, or county. The users could also compare their consumption to others based on the size of their family and other attributes. This feature could help citizens determine if they are among the best in class . The framework can also be used by the utility companies to better understand their customers and to plan their services. To make the framework easily accessible, it is developed to be compatible with mobile consumer electronics devices.

  11. Analytical and Computational Aspects of Collaborative Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    Bilevel problem formulations have received considerable attention as an approach to multidisciplinary optimization in engineering. We examine the analytical and computational properties of one such approach, collaborative optimization. The resulting system-level optimization problems suffer from inherent computational difficulties due to the bilevel nature of the method. Most notably, it is impossible to characterize and hence identify solutions of the system-level problems because the standard first-order conditions for solutions of constrained optimization problems do not hold. The analytical features of the system-level problem make it difficult to apply conventional nonlinear programming algorithms. Simple examples illustrate the analysis and the algorithmic consequences for optimization methods. We conclude with additional observations on the practical implications of the analytical and computational properties of collaborative optimization.

  12. Key analytic considerations in design and analysis of randomized controlled trials in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Ranstam, Jonas; Collins, Jamie; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To highlight methodologic challenges pertinent to design, analysis, and reporting of results of randomized clinical trials in OA and offer practical suggestions to overcome these challenges. Design The topics covered in this paper include subject selection, randomization, approaches to handling missing data, subgroup analysis, sample size, and issues related to changing design mid-way through the study. Special attention is given to standardizing the reporting of results and economic analyses. Results Key findings include the importance of blinding and concealment, the distinction between superiority and non-inferiority trials, the need to minimize missing data, and appropriate analysis and interpretation of subgroup effects. Conclusion Investigators may use the findings and recommendations advanced in this paper to guide design and conduct of randomized controlled trials of interventions for osteoarthritis. PMID:25952341

  13. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Boain, R. J.; Huling, K. R.; Wilson, T.

    1974-01-01

    The mission analysis program for solar electric propulsion (MAPSEP) is comprised of the basic modes: TOPSEP (trajectory generation), GODSEP (linear error analysis), and SIMSEP (simulation). The program is designed to analyze any low thrust mission with respect to trajectory performance, guidance and navigation, and to provide system related requirements for the purpose of vehicle design. The MAPSEP organization is described along with all models and algorithms. Topics discussed include: trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes.

  14. PASCO: Structural panel analysis and sizing code, capability and analytical foundations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Anderson, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer code denoted PASCO which can be used for analyzing and sizing uniaxially-stiffened composite panels is described. Buckling and vibration analyses are carried out with a linked-plate analysis computer code denoted VIPASA, which is incorporated in PASCO. Sizing is based on nonlinear mathematical programming techniques and employs a computer code denoted CONMIN, also incorporated in PASCO. Design requirements considered are initial buckling, material strength, stiffness, and vibration frequency. The capability of the PASCO computer code and the approach used in the structural analysis and sizing are described.

  15. Analytical solutions in R + qRn cosmology from singularity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Leach, P. G. L.

    2016-08-01

    The integrability of higher-order theories of gravity is of importance in the determining the properties of these models and so their viability as models of reality. An important tool in the establishment of integrability is the singularity analysis. We apply this analysis to the case of fourth-order theory of gravity f (R) = R + qRn to establish those values of the free parameters q and n for which integrability in this sense exists. As a preliminary we examine the well-known case of n = 4 / 3.

  16. Development of sensitive and rapid analytical methodology for food analysis of 18 mycotoxins included in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Ripollés, Cristina; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Yusà, Vicent; Marín, Silvia; Hernández, Félix

    2013-06-14

    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of 18 mycotoxins in 24 different food matrices has been developed and validated. With the exception of beverages and oil samples, a simple extraction with acetonitrile:water 80:20 (0.1% formic acid) was applied. Fruit juice, wine and beer samples were simply diluted with water containing 0.1% formic acid. Oil samples were partitioned with acetonitrile/hexane in order to remove fats. Analyses were made by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. Validation was carried out in all selected matrices using blank samples spiked at two analyte concentrations. Extraction recoveries between 70 and 120% and relative standard deviations lower than 20% were obtained for the wide majority of analyte-matrix combinations. Matrix-matched calibration was used for a correct quantification in order to compensate for matrix effects. Limits of quantification were lower than maximum permitted levels for every regulated mycotoxin-matrix combination. The acquisition of three SRM transitions per compound allowed the unequivocal confirmation of positive samples, supported by the accomplishment of ion intensity ratios and retention time when compared with reference standards. The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of 240 samples within a total diet study performed at Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). The most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone at low μg kg(-1) levels, mainly in bread, breakfast cereals and beer. PMID:23726098

  17. The magnetic particle in a box: Analytic and micromagnetic analysis of probe-localized spin wave modes

    SciTech Connect

    Adur, Rohan Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-07

    The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.

  18. A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes in patients with hepatitis C related systemic vasculitis receiving intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Amira A; El Desouky, Soha M; Zayed, Hania S

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the outcome of a series of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related vasculitis who were treated with corticosteroids and I.V. cyclophosphamide without receiving any antiviral therapy. The data of 16 patients with HCV infection and vasculitis were retrospectively analyzed for the treatment outcome in the present study. Eleven patients were females (68.8%) with a mean age of 49.6 ± 10.0 years. Nine patients (56.2%) had medium-sized vessel vasculitis (group A) and seven patients (43.8%) had small vessel vasculitis (group B). Disease activity was assessed using the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS 2003) and organ damage was assessed by the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI). HCV infection was confirmed in all patients by the detection of antibodies to HCV in serum by ELISA and HCV RNA using qualitative PCR. Quantitative PCR was done using the branched DNA technique. None of our study patients had received antiviral therapy, but they all received I.V.-pulsed cyclophosphamide monthly for 6 months, then every 3 months for six times if needed, preceded by I.V. methylprednisolone. Twelve patients (75%) had undetectable viral load by the quantitative technique. The drop in mean BVAS recorded at different intervals was highly significant. Although there was a drop in the VDI mean between the first and second reading, it was not statistically significant. All patients responded to treatment. Seven patients (43.8%) had relapse. Two patients died (12.5%). One patient died from renal failure (group B) and another died from sepsis (group A). The treatment outcomes were not statistically significant between the two vasculitis groups. A subset of patients with HCV-related vasculitis and with low levels of viremia can be safely treated with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide alone. Despite successful treatment, a significant proportion of patients relapse and some develop severe complications and death. PMID:20924628

  19. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  20. Structure of the crust and upper mantle in the Southern External Dinarides as derived from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipcevic, J.; Vucic, Lj.; Herak, M.; Herak, D.

    2012-04-01

    One of the key factors in the structural evolution of the Mediterranean is the interaction between Adria microplate and the stable Eurasian mainland. The western and northern collision boundaries (i.e. Alps and Apennines) have been fairly well investigated while the eastern margin (the Dinarides) is still undersampled and present geodynamic processes are still unresolved. One of the most intriguing questions to be solved is the nature of the interaction between Adria fragment and Eurasia beneath the Dinarides, especially in their southern part (southeastern Croatia and Montenegro). Flysch units in the coastal part of Montenegro signify still active (or very recently ended) subduction process. This study seeks to better understand the current tectonic system and geodynamical process at the eastern margin of the Adria-Eurasia collision zone. We employ receiver function method to investigate crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the seven broadband stations of the Croatian and Montenegrin seismic networks. Preliminary results point to very thick crust (more than 50 km) for the stations near the coast with slight thinning towards the interior of the Dinaric Mountains. Thickening of the crust can be associated with the shortening process related to the orogenic belt. The complexity of receiver functions under all stations used in this research marks effects of the ongoing geological processes such as the active collision of the Adria fragment and the Eurasian plate. Furthermore, analyses of receiver functions in the southern Dinarides hint to the possible existence of double Mohorovičić discontinuity which agrees with the proposed subduction process.

  1. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  2. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  3. Researcher Effects on Mortality Salience Research: A Meta-Analytic Moderator Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chih-Long; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 164 terror management theory (TMT) papers indicated that mortality salience (MS) yields substantial effects (r = 0.35) on worldview and self-esteem-related dependent variables (B. L. Burke, A. Martens, & E. H. Faucher, 2010). This study reanalyzed the data to explore the researcher effects of TMT. By cluster-analyzing…

  4. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  5. Analysis of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding. I - Analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.; Bryan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    This is the first part of a study of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding. This part discusses analysis of two-dimensional thermal stresses and metal movement during bead-on-plate and butt welding. A finite-element formulation has been derived, based on the variational principle. The formulation includes temperature dependence of material properties as well as the yield criterion.

  6. A Discourse Analytic Approach to Video Analysis of Teaching: Aligning Desired Identities with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa; Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study of an experience that supports teacher candidates to use discourse analysis and positioning theory to analyze videos of their practice during student teaching. The research relies on the theoretical concept that learning to teach is an identity process. In particular, teachers construct and…

  7. The Effect of Gender on Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta Analytic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender on the organizational commitment of teachers. In this respect, the levels of organizational commitment were also investigated with organizational commitment. Fifteen master and doctorate theses done between 2005-2009 were analyzed using meta analysis. At the end of the research study,…

  8. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  9. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1995-01-01

    This Interim report consists of a manuscript, 'Receiver Design for Satellite to Satellite Laser Ranging Instrument,' and copies of two papers we co-authored, 'Demonstration of High Sensitivity Laser Ranging System' and 'Semiconductor Laser-Based Ranging Instrument for Earth Gravity Measurements. ' These two papers were presented at the conference Semiconductor Lasers, Advanced Devices and Applications, August 21 -23, 1995, Keystone Colorado. The manuscript is a draft in the preparation for publication, which summarizes the theory we developed on space-borne laser ranging instrument for gravity measurements.

  10. Lithosphere/Asthenosphere Structure beneath the Mendocino Triple Junction from the Analysis of Surface Wave, Ambient Noise, and Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Zhai, Y.; Levander, A.; Porritt, R. W.; Allen, R. M.; Schmandt, B.; Humphreys, E.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a 3-D shear velocity model using finite-frequency Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion, PdS receiver functions, and ambient noise tomography to better understand the complex lithosphere/asthenosphere structures in the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ) region. Using approximately 100 events (July 2007-December 2008) recorded by the stations of the Flexible Array Mendocino Experiment (FAME), the USArray Transportable Array (TA) network, and the Berkeley Digital Seismograph network, we have obtained the phase velocities (20-100s) from the finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography, which agrees well with the ambient noise tomography results (7-40 s, Porritt & Allen, 2010) in the overlapping period range. We subsequently inverted for a 3-D Vs model on a 0.25°x0.25° grid from the combined dispersion datasets, constrained by interface depths from the PdS receiver functions (Zhai & Levander, 2010). The resulting crustal and upper mantle Vs model (~150 km) reveals strong lateral heterogeneity in the subduction and transform regimes of the Mendocino Triple Junction region where the Gorda, Pacific, and North American plates intersect. The subducting Gorda slab is well-imaged as an eastward-dipping high-velocity anomaly to ~100 km depth. At the same depth to the east we observe a large-scale low velocity zone, which is the mantle wedge beneath the North American Plate. The southern edge of the Gorda plate (SEDGE) is imaged at 80-100 km depth and is in excellent agreement with measurements made from PdS receiver functions, body-wave tomography (Schmandt & Humphreys, 2010; Obrebski et al., 2010), and active source studies. At depths greater than 80 km, we interpret low velocities under the Cascadia subduction zone as the asthenosphere below the Gorda plate, in agreement with measured LAB depths from RFs. South of the SEDGE shallow strong low-velocities appear beneath the transform region, which we interpret as the asthenosphere in the slab-gap region left by

  11. Comparison of five different C18 HPLC analytical columns for the analysis of ochratoxin A in different matrices.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Y; Magan, N; Medina, A

    2014-11-15

    The performance of five different C18 chromatography analytical columns with different lengths, particle sizes and porosities were compared for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in fungal cultures and raisin samples. Chromatographic parameters including retention time, limit of detection, limit of quantification, number of theoretical plates and reduced plate height were obtained and compared. This showed that, compared with traditional columns, shorter ones (100 and 75mm×4.6mm) with 2.7μm solid core particles are suitable for analysis of OTA in different matrices and allows a reduction of the total analysis time by approximately 50% without any detrimental effect on performance. This leads to significant reduction in analysis costs by savings in use of organic solvents and increasing the total number of analyses per day. The capability of these columns for analyzing samples, from different matrices, was assessed by analyzing OTA-contaminated samples from cultures of Aspergillus westerdijkiae and Aspergillus niger grown on a defined nutritional media (yeast extract sucrose agar) and from natural and OTA spiked raisins. PMID:25270057

  12. An analytical framework for the design and comparative analysis of galloping energy harvesters under quasi-steady aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibo, Amin; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation, analysis, and optimization of energy harvesters subjected to galloping and base excitations. The harvester consists of a cantilever beam with a bluff body attached at the free end. A nondimensional lumped-parameter model which accounts for the combined loading and different electro-mechanical transduction mechanisms is presented. The aerodynamic loading is modeled using the quasi-steady assumption with polynomial approximation. A nonlinear analysis is carried out and an approximate analytical solution is obtained. A dimensional analysis is performed to identify the important parameters that affect the system's response. The analysis of the response is divided into two parts. The first treats a harvester subjected to only galloping excitations. It is shown that, for a given shape of the bluff body and under quasi-steady flow conditions, the harvester's dimensionless response can be described by a single universal curve irrespective to the geometric, mechanical, and electrical design parameters of the harvester. In the second part, a harvester under concurrent galloping and base excitations is analyzed. It is shown that, the total output power depends on three dimensionless loading parameters; wind speed, base excitation amplitude, and excitation frequency. The response curves of the harvester are generated in terms of the loading parameters. These curves can serve as a complete design guide for scaling and optimizing the performance of galloping-based harvesters.

  13. Time-to-event analysis with artificial neural networks: an integrated analytical and rule-based study for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Paulo J G; Etchells, Terence A; Jarman, Ian H; Hane Aung, M S; Chabaud, Sylvie; Bachelot, Thomas; Perol, David; Gargi, Thérèse; Bourdès, Valérie; Bonnevay, Stéphane; Négrier, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of censored survival data for breast cancer specific mortality and disease-free survival. There are three stages to the process, namely time-to-event modelling, risk stratification by predicted outcome and model interpretation using rule extraction. Model selection was carried out using the benchmark linear model, Cox regression but risk staging was derived with Cox regression and with Partial Logistic Regression Artificial Neural Networks regularised with Automatic Relevance Determination (PLANN-ARD). This analysis compares the two approaches showing the benefit of using the neural network framework especially for patients at high risk. The neural network model also has results in a smooth model of the hazard without the need for limiting assumptions of proportionality. The model predictions were verified using out-of-sample testing with the mortality model also compared with two other prognostic models called TNG and the NPI rule model. Further verification was carried out by comparing marginal estimates of the predicted and actual cumulative hazards. It was also observed that doctors seem to treat mortality and disease-free models as equivalent, so a further analysis was performed to observe if this was the case. The analysis was extended with automatic rule generation using Orthogonal Search Rule Extraction (OSRE). This methodology translates analytical risk scores into the language of the clinical domain, enabling direct validation of the operation of the Cox or neural network model. This paper extends the existing OSRE methodology to data sets that include continuous-valued variables. PMID:18304780

  14. An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Nobe, Yuko; Masaki, Shunpei; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platform of RNA, which combines direct nano-flow reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) on a spray tip column and a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Operating RPLC under a very low flow rate with volatile solvents and MS in the negative mode, we could estimate highly accurate mass values sufficient to predict the nucleotide composition of a ∼21-nucleotide small interfering RNA, detect post-transcriptional modifications in yeast tRNA, and perform collision-induced dissociation/tandem MS-based structural analysis of nucleolytic fragments of RNA at a sub-femtomole level. Importantly, the method allowed the identification and chemical analysis of small RNAs in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, such as the pre-spliceosomal RNP complex, which was pulled down from cultured cells with a tagged protein cofactor as bait. We have recently developed a unique genome-oriented database search engine, Ariadne, which allows tandem MS-based identification of RNAs in biological samples. Thus, the method presented here has broad potential for automated analysis of RNA; it complements conventional molecular biology-based techniques and is particularly suited for simultaneous analysis of the composition, structure, interaction, and dynamics of RNA and protein components in various cellular RNP complexes. PMID:19740761

  15. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  16. Determination of shear wave velocity structure in the Rio Grande rift through receiver function and surface wave analysis, appendix B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian P.

    1991-08-01

    Waveform modeling of radial component receiver functions from ANMO (Albuquerque, New Mexico Observatory) for three source back azimuths (northwest, southeast, and southwest) was performed. The receiver functions were derived through source equalization deconvolution of merged long period and short period digital three component seismograms. Derived S-wave velocity models reflect dominantly intermediate composition granitic rock in the upper crust (above 15 km depth, Vs 3.5 km/sec) and middle crust (15-25 km depth, Vs 3.5-3.7 km/sec). Lower crustal shear velocities of approximately 3.75-3.85 km/sec may be representative of intermediate-to-mafic granulite facies, possibly together with previously underplated mafic material and other precursor crustal rocks. Shear wave attenuation between about 30-34 km may indicate a lower crustal partial melt zone. A 3-to-6 km thick interval is interpreted as a partial melt zone in the upper mantle leading into less depleted spinel peridotite (Vs = 4.25-4.35 km/sec) near 37 km. Inversion of EPT-ALQ interstation dispersion data for average S-wave velocity structure produces a satisfactory velocity tie to the middle and lower crust portions of the southwest back azimuth model.

  17. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  18. Application of personal computers in the analytical laboratory-III ASV analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D; Raphaeli, D; Ben-Yaakov, S

    1987-08-01

    Automatic operation and data-processing of ASV analysis is achieved by interfacing a general-purpose polarograph to a personal computer. The software package, written in SUPER BASIC, includes graphic routines that are used to display the voltamperograms and calibration curve, and as an interface with the operator. Data-processing can be done manually, interactively or automatically. In the last of these modes, peak position and height are evaluated by first correcting for baseline drift and then fitting the peaks to a Gaussian function. It is found that this procedure is relatively insensitive to noise. The system is used routinely in the analysis of treated domestic wastewater and soils irrigated by effluents. The flexibility of the programming and the feature of interactive work are important in this connection, which calls for careful examination of peaks distorted by matrix interferences. PMID:18964391

  19. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  20. The MRBT model: an analytical dispersion model in a finite mixing layer. Sensitivity analysis and validation against tracer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andretta, Massimo; Bianconi, Roberto; Flospergher, Walter; Tamponi, Matteo

    This paper describes the characteristics of the MRBT model for studying the dispersion of a pollutant in the lower atmosphere under conditions of spatial homogeneity. The MRBT is shown to be a simple and efficient model based upon a non-stationary analytical solution of the atmospheric dispersion equation in a finite mixing layer. The results of the sensitivity analysis and of validation testing, made with field measurements of tracers carried out at the Nuclear Research Centre in Karlsruhe (Germany), demonstrate the superiority of MRBT with respect to traditional Gaussian models. The model is currently implemented in FORTRAN 77 for the personal computer and is suitable for an initial assessment of short-term atmospheric dispersion with limited computing resources.

  1. Probing primordial non Gaussianity in the BOOMERanG CMB maps: an analysis based on analytical Minkowski functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, M.; Natoli, P.; De Troia, G.; Hikage, C.; Komatsu, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Di Stefano, G.; Hivon, E.; Kisner, T. S.; Jones, W. C.; Lange, A. E.; Masi, S.; Mauskopf, P. D.; MacTavish, C. J.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T. E.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Polenta, G.; Ricciardi, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J. E.; Tegmark, M.; Veneziani, M.; Vittorio, N.

    2009-10-01

    Minkowski functionals are a powerful tool to constrain the Gaussianity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the limit of a weakly non Gaussian field, a perturbative approach can be derived [Hikage C., Komatsu E., & Matsubara T., 2006, ApJ, 653, 11] that is completely based on analytical formulae without requiring computationally intensive, dedicated Monte Carlo non Gaussian simulations of the CMB anisotropy. We apply this machinery to an intensity map derived from the 1998 and 2003 flights of BOOMERanG, analyzed here together for the first time. We set limits on the non-linear coupling parameter f as -1020analysis was limited to the BOOMERanG 2003 dataset. These limits are the most stringent ever set among suborbital experiments.

  2. Analysis of dissolved organic carbon concentration and 13C isotopic signature by TOC-IRMS - assessment of analytical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cerli, Chiara; Federherr, Eugen; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopes provide a powerful tool to assess carbon pools and their dynamics. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized to play an important role in ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling and has therefore gained increased research interest. However, direct measurement of 13C isotopic signature of carbon in the dissolved phase is technically challenging particularly using high temperature combustion. Until recently, mainly custom-made systems existed which were modified for coupling of TOC instruments with IRMS for simultaneous assessment of C content and isotopic signature. The variety of coupled systems showed differences in their analytical performances. For analysis of DOC high temperature combustion is recognized as best performing method, owing to its high efficiency of conversion to CO2 also for highly refractory components (e.g. humic, fulvic acids) present in DOC and soil extracts. Therefore, we tested high temperature combustion TOC coupled to IRMS (developed by Elementar Group) for bulk measurements of DOC concentration and 13C signature. The instruments are coupled via an Interface to exchange the carrier gas from O2 to He and to concentrate the derived CO2 for the isotope measurement. Analytical performance of the system was assessed for a variety of organic compounds characterized by different stability and complexity, including humic acid and DOM. We tested injection volumes between 0.2-3 ml, thereby enabling measurement of broad concentration ranges. With an injection volume of 0.5 ml (n=3, preceded by 1 discarded injection), DOC and 13C signatures for concentrations between 5-150 mg C/L were analyzed with high precision (standard deviation (SD) predominantly <0.1‰), good accuracy and linearity (overall SD <0.9‰). For the same settings, slightly higher variation in precision was observed among the lower concentration range and depending upon specific system conditions. Differences in 13C signatures of about 50‰ among

  3. Break-up processes for the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden from a receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A. A.; Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Sholan, J.; Kanbari, K.; Al-Ganad, I.; Rolandone, F.

    2010-12-01

    The influence of the Afar hotspot on the break-up and incipient spreading of Red sea and Gulf of Aden is still not well understood. The presence of thick pre-rift volcanic strata (on the Ethiopian Plateau and on the western part of the northern margin of the Gulf of Aden) and its lack on the eastern part suggests hotspot tectonism may be spatially restricted. However, lithospheric low velocity zones have been recently evidenced in the Dhofar area of the eastern Gulf of Aden, which could question this thought. In order to quantify the influence of anomalously warm mantle beneath the northern margin of the Gulf of Aden on the lithospheric break-up and structure, we use a temporary seismological network deployed in 2009 on the southern part of continental Yemen to study crustal structure using teleseismic receiver functions. About 50 broadband stations were deployed from March 2009 to February 2010 on continental Yemen to record local and teleseismic events to provide an insight of the crustal and mantle structures of the east and north margin of Red Sea rift and Gulf of Aden, respectively (YOCMAL experiment). The stations were organized in 3 profiles roughly perpendicular to the main tectonic features, in order to study the lateral evolution of the structures accordingly to the Afar hotspot distance. We present here the first receiver function study from recordings on the YOCMAL network. The results first show the crust to thin from about 37 km on the northern plateau to 23 km near the coast for the western profile. As previously seen in other part of passive margins, the most extreme crustal thinning is probably located off-shore. A number of the receiver functions exhibit a typical signal coming from anisotropy, dipping interfaces, sedimentary basins and underplating. The presence of these features sometimes altogether interacts to produce a complex signal we treated with various methods in order to distinguish the different effects and to clearly identify them. We

  4. Analytical Methods for Malachite Green : Completion Report : Malachite Green Analysis in Water.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, Jane E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1991-06-01

    Malachite green is a known teratogen and therefore its use is limited to nonfood fish under an Investigational New Animal Drug permit (INAD), number 2573. Although a charcoal adsorption column was developed to remove malachite green from hatchery water, INAD compliance requires that the malachite green residue concentrations in any effluent from hatcheries using the chemical be quantified. Therefore, we developed a method for the analysis of malachite green residues in water. Enrichment of the residues of malachite green in water on a diol column followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis gives a minimum sensitivity of less than 10 ppb for the chemical. When combined with post-column oxidation using a lead oxide post-column reactor, the procedure can be used for the simultaneous analysis of malachite green in its leuco form, a decomposition product of the dye, as well as its chromatic form. Recovery of the leuco form is pH dependent and water samples should be adjusted to pH 6 to optimize recovery of this form. Water samples spiked with malachite green were concentrated on a diol column followed by elution with 0.05 M p-toluene sulfonic acid in methanol. The methanol elutes were analyzed by HPLC. Pond water samples spiked with malachite green and leuco malachite green yielded average recoveries of 95.4% for malachite green and 57.3% for leuco malachite green. Tap water samples spiked with the carbinol form of malachite green gave average recoveries of 98.6%. The method is very sensitive and is capable of detecting malachite green residues in water at less than 10 ppb. Fish culturists, who cannot find an effective replacement for malachite green, can utilize the method to ensure that their effluents comply with INAD regulations. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Prognostic Role of BRAF Mutation in Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer Receiving Curative Resection and Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis Based on Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ying; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Studies examining the prognostic value of the BRAF mutation on relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy so far showed discrepant results. Therefore, a meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed for clarification. Methods Randomized trials of stage II/III colorectal cancer treated with curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy were selected to conduct a meta-analysis. The necessary descriptive and statistical information such as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from published survival data. Results Seven phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) including 1,035 BRAF mutation stage II/III CRC patients receiving curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Overall, BRAF mutation resulted in poorer OS (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25–1.60; P < 0.00001), and poorer DFS (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07–1.48, P = 0.006) compared with BRAF wild-type CRC. The prognostic role on RFS could not be elucidated in the meta-analysis because of limited data. Conclusions BRAF mutation was significantly related with shorter DFS and OS among stage II/III CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection. Its prognostic role for RFS needs to be further analyzed when more data is available. PMID:27138801

  6. A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 1: Analysis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. A digital computer program is used to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft, and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

  7. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  8. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Francisco J.; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process. PMID:26251906

  9. An analysis of 1505 consecutive patients receiving continuous interscalene analgesia at home: a multicentre prospective safety study.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, M J; Leightley, P; Wong, A; Chaddock, M; Abeysekera, A; Frampton, C

    2016-04-01

    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block has been shown to be the most effective analgesic technique following shoulder surgery; however, its use is uncommon due to logistical and safety concerns related to ambulatory administration. We prospectively studied 1505 consecutive patients undergoing shoulder surgery who received continuous interscalene analgesia at home. Catheter removal was by the patient between postoperative days two and five. There were no major complications although 27% of patients reported mild dyspnoea, 13% hoarseness and 7% dysphagia. Twelve percent sought medical advice and 2% reported technical issues with the pump or tubing. Complications and technical issues were associated with patient age; weight; use of ultrasound or concomitant nerve stimulation as the endpoint for final needle tip position; local anaesthetic placement via the catheter or needle; whether a catheter-related intervention for pain relief was required in the recovery area; and the type of ambulatory pump. We conclude that this study supports the safety of this underused analgesic technique. PMID:26849172

  10. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casas, Francisco J; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process. PMID:26251906

  11. SASfit: a tool for small-angle scattering data analysis using a library of analytical expressions

    PubMed Central

    Breßler, Ingo; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Thünemann, Andreas F.

    2015-01-01

    SASfit is one of the mature programs for small-angle scattering data analysis and has been available for many years. This article describes the basic data processing and analysis workflow along with recent developments in the SASfit program package (version 0.94.6). They include (i) advanced algorithms for reduction of oversampled data sets, (ii) improved confidence assessment in the optimized model parameters and (iii) a flexible plug-in system for custom user-provided models. A scattering function of a mass fractal model of branched polymers in solution is provided as an example for implementing a plug-in. The new SASfit release is available for major platforms such as Windows, Linux and MacOS. To facilitate usage, it includes comprehensive indexed documentation as well as a web-based wiki for peer collaboration and online videos demonstrating basic usage. The use of SASfit is illustrated by interpretation of the small-angle X-ray scattering curves of monomodal gold nanoparticles (NIST reference material 8011) and bimodal silica nanoparticles (EU reference material ERM-FD-102). PMID:26500467

  12. Gray Matter Features of Reading Disability: A Combined Meta-Analytic and Direct Analysis Approach1234

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Tsu, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry dyslexia studies and direct analysis of 293 reading disability and control cases from six different research sites were performed to characterize defining gray matter features of reading disability. These analyses demonstrated consistently lower gray matter volume in left posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus regions and left orbitofrontal gyrus/pars orbitalis regions. Gray matter volume within both of these regions significantly predicted individual variation in reading comprehension after correcting for multiple comparisons. These regional gray matter differences were observed across published studies and in the multisite dataset after controlling for potential age and gender effects, and despite increased anatomical variance in the reading disability group, but were not significant after controlling for total gray matter volume. Thus, the orbitofrontal and posterior superior temporal sulcus gray matter findings are relatively reliable effects that appear to be dependent on cases with low total gray matter volume. The results are considered in the context of genetics studies linking orbitofrontal and superior temporal sulcus regions to alleles that confer risk for reading disability. PMID:26835509

  13. Development of Analytical Protocols For Organics and Isotopes Analysis on the 2009 MARS Science Laboratory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory, under development for launch in 2009, is designed explore and quantitatively asses a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Its ambitious goals are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize the geology and geochemistry at the MSL landing site, and (3) to investigate planetary processes that influence habitability. The planned capabilities of the rover payload will enable a comprehensive search for organic molecules, a determination of definitive mineralogy of sampled rocks and fines, chemical and isotopic analysis of both atmospheric and solid samples, and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. A range of contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for these measurements and will facilitate sample identification and selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. It includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. These instruments will be designed to analyze either atmospheric samples or gases extracted from solid phase samples such as rocks and fines. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and study by the SAM engineering and science teams for use on the surface of Mars.

  14. Space Trajectory Error Analysis Program (STEAP) for halo orbit missions. Volume 1: Analytic and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.

    1974-01-01

    Development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system is reported. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs (STEAP). The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from Earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty. Execution errors at injection, midcourse correction and orbit insertion maneuvers are analyzed along with the navigation uncertainty to determine trajectory control uncertainties and fuel-sizing requirements. The program is also capable of generalized covariance analyses.

  15. Erosion of the continental lithosphere at the cusps of the Calabrian arc: Evidence from S receiver functions analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Mediterranean tectonics has been characterized by an irregular, complex temporal evolution with episodic rollback and retreat of the subducted plate followed by period of slow trench-migration. To provide insight into the geodynamics of the Calabrian arc, we image the characteristics and lithospheric structure of the convergent, Apulian and Hyblean forelands at the cusps of the arc. Specifically we investigate the crustal and lithospheric thicknesses using teleseismic S-to-p converted phases, applied to the Adria-Africa plate margin for the first time. We find that the Moho in the Apulian foreland is nearly flat at ˜30 km depth, consistent with previous P receiver functions results, and that the Hyblean crustal thickness is more complex, which can be understood in terms of the nature of the individual pieces of carbonate platform and pelagic sediments that make up the Hyblean platform. The lithospheric thicknesses range between 70-120 km beneath Apulia and 70-90 km beneath Sicily. The lithosphere of the forelands at each end of the Calabrian arc are continental in nature, buoyant compared to the subducting oceanic lithosphere and have previously been interpreted as mostly undeformed carbonate platforms. Our receiver function images also show evidence of lithospheric erosion and thinning close to Mt. Etna and Mt. Vulture, two volcanoes which have been associated with asthenospheric upwelling and mantle flow around of the sides the slab. We suggest that as the continental lithosphere resists being subducted it is being thermo-mechanically modified by toroidal flow around the edges of the subducting oceanic lithosphere of the Calabrian arc.

  16. A theoretical analysis of the free vibrations of ring- and/or stringer-stiffened elliptical cylinders with arbitrary end conditions. Volume 1: Analytical derivation and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. E.; Rao, C. K. P.

    1973-01-01

    The derivation and application of a Rayleigh-Ritz modal vibration analysis are presented for ring and/or stringer stiffened noncircular cylindrical shells with arbitrary end conditions. Comparisons with previous results from experimental and analytical studies showed this method of analysis to be accurate for a variety of end conditions. Results indicate a greater effect of rings on natural frequencies than of stringers.

  17. Double-sided Microfluidic Device for Speciation Analysis of Iron in Water Samples: Towards Greener Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Thanurak, Porapichcha; Chaida, Thanatcha; Jukmunee, Jaroon; Alsuhaimi, Awadh

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics minimize the amounts of reagents and generate less waste. While microdevices are commonly single-sided, producing a substrate with microchannels on multiple surfaces would increase their usefulness. Herein, a polymethymethacrylate substrate incorporating microchannel structures on two sides was sandwiched between two polydimethylsiloxane sheets to create a multi-analysis device, which was used for the spectrophotometric analysis of the ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) and the ferric ion (Fe(3+)), by utilizing colorimetric detection. To monitor the signals from both channel networks, dual optical sensors were integrated into the system. The linear ranges for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) analyses were 0.1 - 20 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9988) and 1.0 - 40 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9974), respectively. The detection limits for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were 0.1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively. The percent recoveries of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were 93.5 - 104.3 with an RSD < 8%. The microdevice demonstrated capabilities for simultaneous analysis, low waste generation (7.2 mL h(-1)), and high sample throughput (180 h(-1)), making it ideal for greener analytical chemistry applications. PMID:25958864

  18. Analytical simulation of water system capacity reliability, 1. Modified frequency-duration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Beim, Gina K.

    1988-09-01

    The problem addressed is the computation of the unavailability and expected unserved demand of a water supply system having random demand, finished water storage, and unreliable capacity components. Examples of such components include pumps, treatment plants, and aqueducts. Modified frequency-duration analysis estimates these reliability statistics by, first, calculating how often demand exceeds available capacity and, second, comparing the amount of water in storage with how long such capacity deficits last. This approach builds upon frequency-duration methods developed by the power industry for analyzing generation capacity deficits. Three versions of the frequency-duration approach are presented. Two yield bounds to system unavailability and unserved demand and the third gives an estimate of their true values between those bounds.

  19. Objective analysis of preparations in dental training: development of analytical software.

    PubMed

    Hey, Jeremias; Kupfer, Philipp; Urbannek, Michael; Beuer, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Objective analysis of the quality of a stump preparation by conventional methods is complex and expensive. In this regard digitalization has created new possibilities. The high resolution of modern scanners permits visual representation of the most minute preparation parameters. Virtual rulers permit measurement of distances in many construction programs; however, the use of such measuring instruments is too time-consuming for scientific studies. The computer program presented here permits measurement of the preparation angle, calculation of the width of the preparation margin, and determination of the horizontal path of the preparation shoulder. It runs on the Windows XP operating system independently of a CAD construction program. The program analyzes datasets in the STL file format. PMID:24555407

  20. Preliminary results of receiver function analysis of seismic data recorded from a broadband deployment across the Gulf Coast Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrola, H.; Pratt, K. W.; Pulliam, J.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    -wave, (with local PPp reverberations averaged out). This is essentially beam forming for the optimal teleseismic ray path. The clean P-wave will then be deconvolved from the vertical components at each station to produce a vertical component receiver function that will enable us to model and stack local P-wave reverberations to produce a 2-D image of lithospheric structure. To produce traditional receiver functions from time periods where one component is lost from several stations, we will treat neighboring stations as arrays and recover an "array averaged three-component seismogram" for each loacation. These "beamed" seismograms will allow imaging of the crust, lithospheric mantle, and transition zone beneath the broadband array using traditional receiver function stacking or migration.

  1. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  2. Receiver function analysis of the crust and upper mantle from the North German Basin to the Archaean Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinaghi, A.; Bock, G.; Kind, R.; Hanka, W.; Wylegalla, K.

    2003-11-01

    Two passive seismic experiments have been carried out across the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ) from northern Germany to southern Sweden (TOR) and across the Proterozoic-Archaean suture in Finland (SVEKALAPKO) to improve our understanding of the processes involved in the creation of the European continent. Teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the two networks and stations of the GRSN and GEOFON permanent networks have been used for studies of the crust-mantle, and upper mantle seismic discontinuities with the receiver function method. Along the TOR network the depth to the Moho increases from 30 km at the southern edge of the profile to 40 km at the Elbe Line. Between the Elbe Line and TESZ the Moho branches off and whereas the deeper branch continues at 40 km depth to the TESZ a second branch appears at 30-35 km depth. The upper branch descends north of the TESZ to below 55 km under the northern end of the TOR profile. The crustal thickening north of the TESZ is accompanied by an increase in average Vp/Vs values, appearance of intracrustal conversion zones and north dipping features which we interpret as remnants of the subduction and subsequent collision between Avalonia and Baltica. In southern Finland beneath the SVEKALAPKO network the Moho starts in the south at the depth of 40-45 km, plunges to about 65 km depth south of the Archaean-Proterozoic suture. This deepening of the Moho is coincident with a north dipping intracrustal structure apparently related to the subduction and collision and of the Proterozoic and Archaean provinces in Proterozoic. North of the line of the suture the Moho rises smoothly to 45-50 km depth in the Archaean province. Along the TOR profile, 410 and 660 discontinuities were hard to detect. However, manyfold stacking of receiver functions revealed that the conversions from the two discontinuities arrive more or less according to IASP91 predicted time. Across the SVEKALAPKO network 410 and 660 discontinuities arrive markedly earlier

  3. A novel four-dimensional analytical approach for analysis of complex samples.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Susanne; Jakob, Cornelia; Hippler, Jörg; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-05-01

    A two-dimensional LC (2D-LC) method, based on the work of Erni and Frei in 1978, was developed and coupled to an ion mobility-high-resolution mass spectrometer (IM-MS), which enabled the separation of complex samples in four dimensions (2D-LC, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and mass spectrometry (MS)). This approach works as a continuous multiheart-cutting LC system, using a long modulation time of 4 min, which allows the complete transfer of most of the first - dimension peaks to the second - dimension column without fractionation, in comparison to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Hence, each compound delivers only one peak in the second dimension, which simplifies the data handling even when ion mobility spectrometry as a third and mass spectrometry as a fourth dimension are introduced. The analysis of a plant extract from Ginkgo biloba shows the separation power of this four-dimensional separation method with a calculated total peak capacity of more than 8700. Furthermore, the advantage of ion mobility for characterizing unknown compounds by their collision cross section (CCS) and accurate mass in a non-target approach is shown for different matrices like plant extracts and coffee. Graphical abstract Principle of the four-dimensional separation. PMID:27038056

  4. Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Clive B

    2013-01-01

    Venous abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions. This paper reviews the literature regarding venous abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS), leukoaraiosis, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The review is supplemented with hydrodynamic analysis to assess the effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of venous hypertension in general, and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in particular.CCSVI-like venous anomalies seem unlikely to account for reduced CBF in patients with MS, thus other mechanisms must be at work, which increase the hydraulic resistance of the cerebral vascular bed in MS. Similarly, hydrodynamic changes appear to be responsible for reduced CBF in leukoaraiosis. The hydrodynamic properties of the periventricular veins make these vessels particularly vulnerable to ischemia and plaque formation.Venous hypertension in the dural sinuses can alter intracranial compliance. Consequently, venous hypertension may change the CSF dynamics, affecting the intracranial windkessel mechanism. MS and NPH appear to share some similar characteristics, with both conditions exhibiting increased CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius.CCSVI appears to be a real phenomenon associated with MS, which causes venous hypertension in the dural sinuses. However, the role of CCSVI in the pathophysiology of MS remains unclear. PMID:23724917

  5. Elemental analysis of marble used in Saudi Arabia by different nuclear analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Ibraheem, Awad A; Abdelkawy, Salah

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and HPGe detector γ-spectroscopy were used to determine a total of 22 elements qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time from marble rock samples collected from local markets in Saudi Arabia. The elements determined are Mg, Ca, V, Na, Mn, As, La, Sm, U, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Sn, Ba, Ce, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, and Th. The samples were properly prepared together with their standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 10(11) n/cm(2) s. XRF was also used. The concentrations of natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were also determined by gamma ray spectroscopy to estimate the radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, and the external hazard index was calculated to estimate the exposure risk from usage of marble as raw materials in construction. For the sake of comparison the results of concentration levels and radium equivalent activities are compared with similar studies carried out in other countries. PMID:23262125

  6. Mode analysis for a microwave driven plasma discharge: A comparison between analytical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeremley, Daniel; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Zimmermanns, Marc; Rolfes, Ilona; Eremin, Denis; Ruhr-University Bochum, Theoretical Electrical Engineering Team; Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Microwave Systems Team

    2015-09-01

    The market shows in recent years a growing demand for bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Therefore, fast and efficient sterilization processes as well as barrier coatings to decrease gas permeation are required. A specialized microwave plasma source - referred to as the plasmaline - has been developed to allow for depositing thin films of e.g. silicon oxid on the inner surface of such PET bottles. The plasmaline is a coaxial waveguide combined with a gas-inlet which is inserted into the empty bottle and initiates a reactive plasma. To optimize and control the different surface processes, it is essential to fully understand the microwave power coupling to the plasma and the related heating of electrons inside the bottle and thus the electromagnetic wave propagation along the plasmaline. In this contribution, we present a detailed dispersion analysis based on a numerical approach. We study how modes of guided waves are propagating under different conditions, if at all. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the framework of the collaborative research centre TRR87.

  7. Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Venous abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions. This paper reviews the literature regarding venous abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS), leukoaraiosis, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The review is supplemented with hydrodynamic analysis to assess the effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of venous hypertension in general, and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in particular. CCSVI-like venous anomalies seem unlikely to account for reduced CBF in patients with MS, thus other mechanisms must be at work, which increase the hydraulic resistance of the cerebral vascular bed in MS. Similarly, hydrodynamic changes appear to be responsible for reduced CBF in leukoaraiosis. The hydrodynamic properties of the periventricular veins make these vessels particularly vulnerable to ischemia and plaque formation. Venous hypertension in the dural sinuses can alter intracranial compliance. Consequently, venous hypertension may change the CSF dynamics, affecting the intracranial windkessel mechanism. MS and NPH appear to share some similar characteristics, with both conditions exhibiting increased CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius. CCSVI appears to be a real phenomenon associated with MS, which causes venous hypertension in the dural sinuses. However, the role of CCSVI in the pathophysiology of MS remains unclear. PMID:23724917

  8. Cryoplasty Versus Conventional Angioplasty in Femoropopliteal Arterial Recanalization: 3-Year Analysis of Reintervention-Free Survival by Treatment Received

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Maria Lourdes; Urtasun, Fermin Barberena, Javier; Aranzadi, Carlos; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To compare long-term efficacy of cryoplasty therapy versus conventional angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic stenosis on the basis of our 3-year clinical experience. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to December 2008, a total of 155 patients with 192 lesions of the femoropopliteal sector were randomized to receive either cryoplasty or conventional balloon angioplasty. The primary study end point was lesion target patency. Follow-up with clinical evaluation of patient's symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at 1, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: For the cryoplasty group (n = 86), technical immediate success was achieved in 74.4% of lesions. Rate of significant dissection was 13.5% and rate of stent placement of 22%. In the long term, target lesion patency rate at 6 months was 59.4%, with rates of 55.9, 52.6, and 49.1% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. For the conventional angioplasty group (n = 69), the immediate technical success rate was 83.7%. Rate of significant dissection was 19%, and rate of stent placement was 72.9%. Patency rates at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years were 71.5, 61.2, 60, and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional angioplasty, cryoplasty showed good immediate success rates with lower stent placement rates. During the 3-year follow-up, patency rates tended to equalize between the two modalities.

  9. Error and Performance Analysis of MEMS-based Inertial Sensors with a Low-cost GPS Receiver

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minha; Gao, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), have been widely utilized and their applications are becoming popular, not only in military or commercial applications, but also for everyday life. Although GPS measurements are the essential information for currently developed land vehicle navigation systems (LVNS), GPS signals are often unavailable or unreliable due to signal blockages under certain environments such as urban canyons. This situation must be compensated in order to provide continuous navigation solutions. To overcome the problems of unavailability and unreliability using GPS and to be cost and size effective as well, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based inertial sensor technology has been pushing for the development of low-cost integrated navigation systems for land vehicle navigation and guidance applications. This paper will analyze the characterization of MEMS based inertial sensors and the performance of an integrated system prototype of MEMS based inertial sensors, a low-cost GPS receiver and a digital compass. The influence of the stochastic variation of sensors will be assessed and modeled by two different methods, namely Gauss-Markov (GM) and AutoRegressive (AR) models, with GPS signal blockage of different lengths. Numerical results from kinematic testing have been used to assess the performance of different modeling schemes.

  10. Proteomic analysis of synovial fluid as an analytical tool to detect candidate biomarkers for knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Weixiong; Li, Zhongli; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ji; Wang, Ketao; Yang, Yimeng

    2015-01-01

    We conducted research to detect the proteomic profiles in synovial fluid (SF) from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients to better understand the pathogenesis and aetiology of OA. Our long-term goal is to identify reliable candidate biomarkers for OA in SF. The SF proteins obtained from 10 knee OA patients and 10 non-OA patients (9 of whom were patients with a meniscus injury in the knee; 1 had a discoid meniscus in the knee, and all exhibited intact articular cartilage) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The repeatability of the obtained protein spots regarding their intensity was tested via triplicate 2-DE of selected samples. The observed protein expression patterns were subjected to statistical analysis, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Our analyses showed low intrasample variability and clear intersample variation. Among the protein spots observed on the gels, there were 29 significant differences, of which 22 corresponded to upregulation and 7 to downregulation in the OA group. One of the upregulated protein spots was confirmed to be haptoglobin by mass spectrometry, and the levels of haptoglobin in SF are positively correlated with the severity of OA (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). This study showed that 2-DE could be used under standard conditions to screen SF samples and identify a small subset of proteins in SF that are potential markers associated with OA. Spots of interest identified by mass spectrometry, such as haptoglobin, may be associated with OA severity. PMID:26617706

  11. High throughput LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple vitamin D analytes in serum.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Adams, John S; Stewart, Paul M; Hewison, Martin; Keevil, Brian G

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D 'status' most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220μL of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease. PMID:26874878

  12. Radionuclide migration through fractured rock for arbitrary-length decay chain: Analytical solution and global sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahkarami, Pirouz; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an analytical approach to simulate nuclide migration through a channel in a fracture accounting for an arbitrary-length decay chain. The nuclides are retarded as they diffuse in the porous rock matrix and stagnant zones in the fracture. The Laplace transform and similarity transform techniques are applied to solve the model. The analytical solution to the nuclide concentrations at the fracture outlet is governed by nine parameters representing different mechanisms acting on nuclide transport through a fracture, including diffusion into the rock matrices, diffusion into the stagnant water zone, chain decay and hydrodynamic dispersion. Furthermore, to assess how sensitive the results are to parameter uncertainties, the Sobol method is applied in variance-based global sensitivity analyses of the model output. The Sobol indices show how uncertainty in the model output is apportioned to the uncertainty in the model input. This method takes into account both direct effects and interaction effects between input parameters. The simulation results suggest that in the case of pulse injections, ignoring the effect of a stagnant water zone can lead to significant errors in the time of first arrival and the peak value of the nuclides. Likewise, neglecting the parent and modeling its daughter as a single stable species can result in a significant overestimation of the peak value of the daughter nuclide. It is also found that as the dispersion increases, the early arrival time and the peak time of the daughter decrease while the peak value increases. More importantly, the global sensitivity analysis reveals that for time periods greater than a few thousand years, the uncertainty of the model output is more sensitive to the values of the individual parameters than to the interaction between them. Moreover, if one tries to evaluate the true values of the input parameters at the same cost and effort, the determination of priorities should follow a certain

  13. Accuracy analysis on C/A code and P(Y) code pseudo-range of GPS dual frequency receiver and application in point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiuying; Fan, Shijie; Guo, Jiming

    2008-10-01

    When the Anti-Spoofing (A-S) is active, the civilian users have some difficulties in using the P(Y) code for precise navigation and positioning. Z-tracking technique is one of the effective methods to acquire the P(Y) code. In this paper, the accuracy of pseudoranges from C/A code and P(Y) code for dual frequency GPS receiver is discussed. The principle of measuring the encrypted P(Y) code is described firstly, then a large data set from IGS tracking stations is utilized for analysis and verification with the help of a precise point positioning software developed by authors. Especially, P(Y) code pseudoranges of civilian GPS receivers allow eliminating/reducing the effect of ionospheric delay and improve the precision of positioning. The point positioning experiments for this are made in the end.

  14. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  15. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Wiratomo, Yogi E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com

    2014-03-24

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  16. Uncertainty Quantification for the Reliability of the Analytical Analysis for the Simplified Model of CO2 Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2015-04-01

    A hydro-mechanical model with analytical solutions including pressure evolution and geomechanical deformation for geological CO2 injection and sequestration were introduced in our previous work. However, the reliability and accuracy of the hydro-mechanical model and the companion analytical solution are uncertain because of the assumptions and simplifications in the analytical model, though it was validated by a few example cases. This study introduce the method to efficiently measure the accuracy of the analytical model, and specify the acceptable input parameters range that can guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solution. A coupled hydro-geomechanical subsurface transport simulator STOMP was adopted as a reference to justify the reliability of the hydro-mechanical model and the analytical solution. A quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method was applied to efficiently sample the input parameter space.

  17. International proficiency testing of analytical laboratories for foods and feeds from 1990 to 1996: the experiences of the United Kingdom Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme.

    PubMed

    Key, P E; Patey, A L; Rowling, S; Wilbourn, A; Worner, F M

    1997-01-01

    The Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) organized by a Secretariat of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food has checked the proficiency of analytical laboratories for foods and feeds from 1990 to 1996. FAPAS was started for UK laboratories but was expanded worldwide at the request of analysts in other countries who did not have a home-based scheme. Thirteen thousand homogeneity-checked test materials were issued, covering a very wide range of analytes, including pesticides, toxins, veterinary drug residues, trace and nutritional elements, food colors, preservatives, sweeteners, alcohol congeners, fatty acids, nitrate, and proximate analysis. Participants returned 85% of requested data, and 47,000 z-score proficiency assessments were made, of which 81% were satisfactory. Evidence is presented of improvements in overall analytical ability with increased participation in proficiency testing in the areas of proximate analysis; organochlorine pesticide analysis; and lead, mercury, and acesulfame-K analyses. Little improvement was shown in other analytical areas such as calcium analysis. Overall accuracies for analysis of specific pesticides and specific trace elements in the circulated test materials were compared. PMID:9241851

  18. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Fecal Lactobacillus Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, diarrhea and atopy. However, the Lactobacillus species distribution in breast-fed or formula-fed infants has not yet been determined in great detail. For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5′ nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The designed and validated assays were used to determine the amounts of different Lactobacillus species in fecal samples of infants receiving a standard formula (SF) or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in a 9:1 ratio (OSF). A breast-fed group (BF) was studied in parallel as a reference. During the 6-week intervention period a significant increase was shown in total percentage of fecal lactobacilli in the BF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.1% ± 1.5%) and the OSF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.4% ± 1.4%). The Lactobacillus species distribution in the OSF group was comparable to breast-fed infants, with relatively high levels of L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, and L. casei. The SF-fed infants, on the other hand, contained more L. delbrueckii and less L. paracasei compared to breast-fed infants and OSF-fed infants. An infant milk formula containing a specific mixture of prebiotics is able to induce a microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of BF infants. PMID:16597930

  19. An Analysis of the Origins, Subjects, and Awards Received for Presentations at the Annual IASG Conferences (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Soni, Subhash; Sahni, Peush; Nundy, Samiran

    2015-12-01

    s presented at scientific meetings are important for making ongoing research more widely known and may also reflect the quality of the parent institution's standard of patient care. We analyzed the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of IASG for the past 5 years for (i) medium of presentation (oral/poster/videos), (ii) subjects discussed, (iii) institution of origin, (iv) whether a prospective/ retrospective study or a case report, (v) changing trends, and (vi) awards received. Of the 1340 abstracts analyzed, there were 18.5 % oral, 74.9 % posters, and 6.5 % videos presented from 205 in 2009 to 388 in 2012. The main organs discussed were the liver (19.3 %) pancreas (18.8 %), and biliary system (14.4 %). Sixty percent was from the private sector with Sir Ganga Ram, SGRH (95) and the Apollo Hospital, New Delhi (60), being the most prolific. From public institutes, the abstracts were predominantly from PGIMER, Chandigarh (39) and GB Pant Hospital (37). Thirty-three percent was from DNB and 25 % from M.Ch GI Surgery centres and 42 % was from others (most of these were as posters). There were 1016 (75.8 %) prospective/retrospective studies and 324 (24.2 %) case reports. Presentations, especially those related to liver transplantation, showed an increase. The main awards were won by SGRH (8); AIIMS, New Delhi (7); and JIPMER, Puducherry (6). Over the last 5 years, abstracts presented at the IASG have increased in number especially those dealing with the hepato-pancreatico-biliary system and liver transplantation. Most presentations were from "academic" departments, and similar analyses may inform us where we are heading and stimulate healthy competition. PMID:26884655

  20. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.