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Sample records for analytical scanning electron

  1. Big Data Analytics for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Ptychography.

    PubMed

    Jesse, S; Chi, M; Belianinov, A; Beekman, C; Kalinin, S V; Borisevich, A Y; Lupini, A R

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy is undergoing a transition; from the model of producing only a few micrographs, through the current state where many images and spectra can be digitally recorded, to a new mode where very large volumes of data (movies, ptychographic and multi-dimensional series) can be rapidly obtained. Here, we discuss the application of so-called "big-data" methods to high dimensional microscopy data, using unsupervised multivariate statistical techniques, in order to explore salient image features in a specific example of BiFeO3 domains. Remarkably, k-means clustering reveals domain differentiation despite the fact that the algorithm is purely statistical in nature and does not require any prior information regarding the material, any coexisting phases, or any differentiating structures. While this is a somewhat trivial case, this example signifies the extraction of useful physical and structural information without any prior bias regarding the sample or the instrumental modality. Further interpretation of these types of results may still require human intervention. However, the open nature of this algorithm and its wide availability, enable broad collaborations and exploratory work necessary to enable efficient data analysis in electron microscopy. PMID:27211523

  2. Big Data Analytics for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, S.; Chi, M.; Belianinov, A.; Beekman, C.; Kalinin, S. V.; Borisevich, A. Y.; Lupini, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy is undergoing a transition; from the model of producing only a few micrographs, through the current state where many images and spectra can be digitally recorded, to a new mode where very large volumes of data (movies, ptychographic and multi-dimensional series) can be rapidly obtained. Here, we discuss the application of so-called “big-data” methods to high dimensional microscopy data, using unsupervised multivariate statistical techniques, in order to explore salient image features in a specific example of BiFeO3 domains. Remarkably, k-means clustering reveals domain differentiation despite the fact that the algorithm is purely statistical in nature and does not require any prior information regarding the material, any coexisting phases, or any differentiating structures. While this is a somewhat trivial case, this example signifies the extraction of useful physical and structural information without any prior bias regarding the sample or the instrumental modality. Further interpretation of these types of results may still require human intervention. However, the open nature of this algorithm and its wide availability, enable broad collaborations and exploratory work necessary to enable efficient data analysis in electron microscopy. PMID:27211523

  3. Big Data Analytics for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesse, S.; Chi, M.; Belianinov, A.; Beekman, C.; Kalinin, S. V.; Borisevich, A. Y.; Lupini, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    Electron microscopy is undergoing a transition; from the model of producing only a few micrographs, through the current state where many images and spectra can be digitally recorded, to a new mode where very large volumes of data (movies, ptychographic and multi-dimensional series) can be rapidly obtained. Here, we discuss the application of so-called “big-data” methods to high dimensional microscopy data, using unsupervised multivariate statistical techniques, in order to explore salient image features in a specific example of BiFeO3 domains. Remarkably, k-means clustering reveals domain differentiation despite the fact that the algorithm is purely statistical in nature and does not require any prior information regarding the material, any coexisting phases, or any differentiating structures. While this is a somewhat trivial case, this example signifies the extraction of useful physical and structural information without any prior bias regarding the sample or the instrumental modality. Further interpretation of these types of results may still require human intervention. However, the open nature of this algorithm and its wide availability, enable broad collaborations and exploratory work necessary to enable efficient data analysis in electron microscopy.

  4. Big Data Analytics for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Ptychography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jesse, S.; Chi, M.; Belianinov, A.; Beekman, C.; Kalinin, S. V.; Borisevich, A. Y.; Lupini, A. R.

    2016-05-23

    Electron microscopy is undergoing a transition; from the model of producing only a few micrographs, through the current state where many images and spectra can be digitally recorded, to a new mode where very large volumes of data (movies, ptychographic and multi-dimensional series) can be rapidly obtained. In this paper, we discuss the application of so-called “big-data” methods to high dimensional microscopy data, using unsupervised multivariate statistical techniques, in order to explore salient image features in a specific example of BiFeO3 domains. Remarkably, k-means clustering reveals domain differentiation despite the fact that the algorithm is purely statistical in nature andmore » does not require any prior information regarding the material, any coexisting phases, or any differentiating structures. While this is a somewhat trivial case, this example signifies the extraction of useful physical and structural information without any prior bias regarding the sample or the instrumental modality. Further interpretation of these types of results may still require human intervention. Finally, however, the open nature of this algorithm and its wide availability, enable broad collaborations and exploratory work necessary to enable efficient data analysis in electron microscopy.« less

  5. Endogenous pneumoconiosis: Analytical scanning electron microscopic analysis of a case.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Jonathan; Sporn, Thomas A; Ingram, Peter; Wahidi, Momen M; Roggli, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis is often considered a disease of the lung initiated by exposure to dust or other airborne particles, resulting in injury to the lungs. The term "endogenous pneumoconiosis" has been used in the literature to describe the deposition of compounds on the elastic fibers of the lung, usually in the setting of cardiac failure. In the case we present here, the patient aspirated a foreign body resulting in damage to the lung tissue and subsequent deposition of endogenous compounds on the elastic fibers of the pulmonary parenchyma and vasculature. We determined the composition of this mineral and mapped the distribution of elements using a combination of backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. PMID:27281119

  6. Scanning Electron Microanalysis and Analytical Challenges of Mapping Elements in Urban Atmospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental mapping with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) associated with scanning electron microscopy is highly useful for studying internally mixed atmospheric particles. Presented is a study of individual particles from urban airsheds and the analytical challenges in q...

  7. An in-situ analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigation of structure-property relationships in electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Andrew James

    As electronic and mechanical devices are scaled downward in size and upward in complexity, macroscopic principles no longer apply. Synthesis of three-dimensionally confined structures exhibit quantum confinement effects allowing, for example, silicon nanoparticles to luminesce. The reduction in size of classically brittle materials reveals a ductile-to-brittle transition. Such a transition, attributed to a reduction in defects, increases elasticity. In the case of silicon, elastic deformation can improve electronic carrier mobility by over 50%, a vital attribute of modern integrated circuits. The scalability of such principles and the changing atomistic processes which contribute to them presents a vitally important field of research. Beginning with the direct observation of dislocations and lattice planes in the 1950s, the transmission electron microscope has been a powerful tool in materials science. More recently, as nanoscale technologies have proliferated modern life, their unique ability to spatially resolve nano- and atomic-scale structures has become a critical component of materials research and characterization. Signals produced by an incident beam of high-energy electrons enables researchers to both image and chemically analyze materials at the atomic scale. Coherently and elastically-scattered electrons can be collected to produce atomic-scale images of a crystalline sample. New specimen stages have enabled routine investigation of samples heated up to 1000 °C and cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. MEMS-based transducers allow for sub-nm scale mechanical testing and ultrathin membranes allow study of liquids and gases. Investigation of a myriad of previously "unseeable" processes can now be observed within the TEM, and sometimes something new is found within the old. High-temperature annealing of pure a Si:H films leads to crystallization of the film. Such films provide higher carrier mobility compared to amorphous films, offering improved

  8. Analytical Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy of Laboratory Impacts on Stardust Aluminium Foils: Interpreting Impact Crater Morphology and the Composition of Impact Residues.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, A T; Graham, G A; Burchell, M J; Cole, M J; Dai, Z R; Teslich, N; Chater, R; Wozniakiewicz, P A; Spratt, J; Jones, G

    2006-10-19

    The known encounter velocity (6.1kms{sup -1}) between the Stardust spacecraft and the dust emanating from the nucleus of comet Wild 2 has allowed realistic simulation of dust collection in laboratory experiments designed to validate analytical methods for the interpretation of dust impacts on the aluminium foil components of the Stardust collector. In this report we present information on crater gross morphology, the pre-existing major and trace element composition of the foil, geometrical issues for energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the impact residues in scanning electron microscopes, and the modification of dust chemical composition during creation of impact craters as revealed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Together, these observations help to underpin the interpretation of size, density and composition for particles impacted upon the Stardust aluminium foils.

  9. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  10. Plop Plop Fizz Fizz: Identifying and Characterizing Microejecta From Oceanic Extraterrestrial Impacts Using Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, D.; Abbott, D.; Burckle, L.; Gerard-Little, P.; Elkinton, H.; Martos, S.

    2006-12-01

    Recent evidence gathered from multiple lines of investigation converges to postulate a higher than average incidence of catastrophic oceanic impacts in the Holocene that affected global climate and thereby the course of human history. Oceanic impacts further back in time are also being documented. One productive technological tool used in the process of these investigations is the combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS), with which we define and characterize impact-related (ultra)microscopic particles. In support of our Holocene and related impact investigations, this presentation of SEM images and EDS data illustrates the application of these technologies in the examination of microscopic and ultramicroscopic fragments, grains, microtektites, and other spherules associated with two oceanic extraterrestrial impact events. Secondary electron micrographs record the microejecta's shapes, sizes, structures, and textures. Our EDS data identify the elemental or compound/mineral compositions of heterogeneous specimens as well as of individual spots and areas in nonhomogeneous host particles as "mapped" by backscatter imaging. The source craters covered here include twin ca.1500 ybp craters in the Gulf of Carpentaria (Australia) as well as one in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) dated to the late Pliocene. Important results from the Gulf of Carpentaria include magnetite impact spherules, impact glass, and minerals with odd, potentially indicative, fractures. From the Ross Sea, we show melted KCl fragments and possible melted ilmenite grains, "onion- skin"-type layered tektites composed of pure SiO2, pseudotachylite-like veined rock fragments, a glass with possible shatter cone structures, and other microejecta particles whose structural and chemical natures we interpret as diagnostic of these impact events.

  11. Aluminum-induced pneumoconiosis confirmed by analytical scanning electron microscopy: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carney, John; McAdams, Page; McCluskey, James; Roggli, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum-induced lung injury is an uncommon, yet recognized pneumoconiosis capable of causing severe interstitial fibrosis. Important attention to the clinical history including occupational exposure is an essential component to making the correct diagnosis, despite which careful examination of the lung specimen is necessary to exclude other more common disease entities. We present a case of aluminum-induced pneumoconiosis in the setting of a bilateral lung transplant patient. Additionally, we review the literature on aluminum-induced pneumoconiosis and demonstrate the use of ancillary techniques including backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectrometry to aid in diagnosis. PMID:26895029

  12. Analytical transmission electron microscopy in materials science

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Microcharacterization of materials on a scale of less than 10 nm has been afforded by recent advances in analytical transmission electron microscopy. The factors limiting accurate analysis at the limit of spatial resolution for the case of a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are examined in this paper.

  13. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  14. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  15. Electronic scanning-slit fluorography.

    PubMed

    Plenkovich, D

    1989-01-01

    Scattered radiation degrades contrast and signal-to-noise ratio of an x-ray image. If an image intensifier is used as the image receptor, scattering of light photons and electrons within the image intensifier, optical system, and video camera produces veiling glare. anti-scatter grids, air gaps, and paired scanning slits have been used for rejection of scattered radiation. However, none of these methods is effective against veiling glare, because veiling glare is generated after the radiation has passed through any of these anti-scatter devices. In chapter 1 is introduced an innovative approach for highly efficient rejection of both scattered radiation and veiling glare in digital fluorography. This method has been named electronic collimation, and the x-ray imaging technique based upon it is called electronic scanning-slit fluorography. It involves replacing paired fore and aft slits for scatter rejection with only one beam-defining tantalum fore aperture. As this aperture scans across the portion of the patient to be imaged, pulsed x-ray exposures produce images which are digitized and stored in the computer memory. Since the video signal within the projection of the aperture on the image intensifier is much more intense than behind the tantalum, one can discriminate electronically between these two signals and thus eliminate the unwanted x-ray scatter and veiling glare. Such electronic collimation does not require synchronization between the slit scanning and detector readout, which makes it much simpler than alternative methods and potentially adaptable to any digital fluorography system. Theoretical considerations relevant for the construction and evaluation of a prototype unit for electronic scanning slit fluorography are presented in Chapter 2. This chapter consists of four sections. In the first section 'Principles of image detection' the concepts of quantum efficiency and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are introduced as the most meaningful way to

  16. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  17. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  18. Electronically-Scanned Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Instrument efficient, lightweight, and stable. Fourier-transform spectrometer configuration uses electronic, instead of mechanical, scanning. Configuration insensitive to vibration-induced sampling errors introduced into mechanically scanned systems.

  19. Phase multiplying electronic scanning array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, A. F.

    1969-01-01

    Scanning array was designed with properties of low RF loss and phase control. The array consists of a series of special waveguides, hybrids made up of two variable reactance branch arms for input signals, an edge slot for the difference port, and a sum arm for the unradiated signal.

  20. The Scanning Electron Microscope and the Archaeologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponting, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Images from scanning electron microscopy are now quite common and they can be of great value in archaeology. Techniques such as secondary electron imaging, backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis can reveal information such as the presence of weevils in grain in Roman Britain, the composition of Roman coins and the…

  1. Feature Adaptive Sampling for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Engstler, Michael; Pauly, Christoph; Trampert, Patrick; de Jonge, Niels; Mücklich, Frank; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the image acquisition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced. The method used adaptively increased pixel-dwell times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in areas of high detail. In areas of low detail, the electron dose was reduced on a per pixel basis, and a-posteriori image processing techniques were applied to remove the resulting noise. The technique was realized by scanning the sample twice. The first, quick scan used small pixel-dwell times to generate a first, noisy image using a low electron dose. This image was analyzed automatically, and a software algorithm generated a sparse pattern of regions of the image that require additional sampling. A second scan generated a sparse image of only these regions, but using a highly increased electron dose. By applying a selective low-pass filter and combining both datasets, a single image was generated. The resulting image exhibited a factor of ≈3 better SNR than an image acquired with uniform sampling on a Cartesian grid and the same total acquisition time. This result implies that the required electron dose (or acquisition time) for the adaptive scanning method is a factor of ten lower than for uniform scanning. PMID:27150131

  2. Feature Adaptive Sampling for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, Tim; Engstler, Michael; Pauly, Christoph; Trampert, Patrick; de Jonge, Niels; Mücklich, Frank; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the image acquisition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced. The method used adaptively increased pixel-dwell times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in areas of high detail. In areas of low detail, the electron dose was reduced on a per pixel basis, and a-posteriori image processing techniques were applied to remove the resulting noise. The technique was realized by scanning the sample twice. The first, quick scan used small pixel-dwell times to generate a first, noisy image using a low electron dose. This image was analyzed automatically, and a software algorithm generated a sparse pattern of regions of the image that require additional sampling. A second scan generated a sparse image of only these regions, but using a highly increased electron dose. By applying a selective low-pass filter and combining both datasets, a single image was generated. The resulting image exhibited a factor of ≈3 better SNR than an image acquired with uniform sampling on a Cartesian grid and the same total acquisition time. This result implies that the required electron dose (or acquisition time) for the adaptive scanning method is a factor of ten lower than for uniform scanning. PMID:27150131

  3. Feature Adaptive Sampling for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Tim; Engstler, Michael; Pauly, Christoph; Trampert, Patrick; de Jonge, Niels; Mücklich, Frank; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    A new method for the image acquisition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced. The method used adaptively increased pixel-dwell times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in areas of high detail. In areas of low detail, the electron dose was reduced on a per pixel basis, and a-posteriori image processing techniques were applied to remove the resulting noise. The technique was realized by scanning the sample twice. The first, quick scan used small pixel-dwell times to generate a first, noisy image using a low electron dose. This image was analyzed automatically, and a software algorithm generated a sparse pattern of regions of the image that require additional sampling. A second scan generated a sparse image of only these regions, but using a highly increased electron dose. By applying a selective low-pass filter and combining both datasets, a single image was generated. The resulting image exhibited a factor of ≈3 better SNR than an image acquired with uniform sampling on a Cartesian grid and the same total acquisition time. This result implies that the required electron dose (or acquisition time) for the adaptive scanning method is a factor of ten lower than for uniform scanning.

  4. Computerized analytical electron microscope for elemental imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlen, K. E.; Barden, L. K.; Del Priore, J. S.; Fiori, C. E.; Gibson, C. C.; Leapman, R. D.

    1984-06-01

    A computer system has been interfaced to an analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to form an integrated system for high-resolution mapping of the elemental constituents of a specimen. The system controls the electron beam position, acquires data from electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) detectors, and constructs elemental images by analyzing EELS and EDS spectra taken at each pixel. Data also are acquired and digitized from conventional STEM bright-field and dark-field detectors. Since image registration errors are eliminated by acquiring data from all detectors concurrently, elemental distribution images obtained from energy-loss and x-ray detectors can be correlated with morphological images taken from bright-field and dark-field detectors. Energy-loss and x-ray spectra of user-defined target areas can also be obtained. Data can be acquired, processed, and displayed at the same time because a satellite microcomputer interfaced to the microscope does much of the data acquisition, freeing the host computer to subtract the spectral background from the electron energy-loss and x-ray data ``on the fly,'' and also to display dynamically the background corrected energy-loss spectrum at each image pixel. Such a display is important for correct operation of the instrument and interpretation of the results. Images are displayed on a color display system equipped with a digital video array processor, where they can be enhanced, compared, measured, annotated, and photographed. Operation of the system is simplified by using menus for function selection and by filling out forms displayed on a video terminal to enter data-acquisition and processing parameters. The computer-controlled analytical electron microscope is used to provide elemental distributions from thin specimens in biology and materials science. Results show that concentrations of a few atomic percent can be mapped at a resolution of 10 to 20

  5. Analytical studies of coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2009-05-04

    Under certain assumptions and simplifications, we studied a few physics processes of Coherent Electron Cooling using analytical approach. In the modulation process, the effect due to merging the ion beam with the electron beam is studied under single kick approximation. In the free electron laser (FEL) amplifier, we studied the amplification of the electron density modulation using 1D analytical approach. Both the electron charge density and the phase space density are derived in the frequency domain. The solutions are then transformed into the space domain through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT).

  6. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  7. Analytical techniques of pilot scanning behavior and their application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.; Glover, B. J.; Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art of oculometric data analysis techniques and their applications in certain research areas such as pilot workload, information transfer provided by various display formats, crew role in automated systems, and pilot training are documented. These analytical techniques produce the following data: real-time viewing of the pilot's scanning behavior, average dwell times, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell histograms, and entropy rate measures. These types of data are discussed, and overviews of the experimental setup, data analysis techniques, and software are presented. A glossary of terms frequently used in pilot scanning behavior and a bibliography of reports on related research sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center are also presented.

  8. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS.

  9. Atomic sputtering in the analytical electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, C.R.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1988-08-01

    The advent of UHV medium voltage electron microscopes has brought the microanalyst to a regime of operating conditions in which electron beam induced damage can now be introduced to metallic specimens of medium to high atomic number. We report upon calculations of electron beam induced atomic sputtering which will have bearing upon the next generation of medium voltage analytical electron microscopes. The cross-section calculations reported herein have been completed for all solid elements of the periodic table for incident electron energies up to 1.5 MeV. All computer codes needed to duplicate these computations are available through the EMMPDL. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOGICAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A semi-quantitative scanning electron microscope (SEK) analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon (GAC) utilized as media for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment (combined processes). he procedure allows for the objective monitoring, com...

  11. EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about the environmental and public health effects of particulate matter (PM) have stimulated interest in analytical techniques capable of measuring the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSE...

  12. Scanning electron microscopy studies of bacterial cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinger, Tracy; Blust, Brittni; Calabrese, Joseph; Tzolov, Marian

    2012-02-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a powerful tool to study the morphology of bacteria. We have used conventional scanning electron microscope to follow the modification of the bacterial morphology over the course of the bacterial growth cycle. The bacteria were fixed in vapors of Glutaraldehyde and ruthenium oxide applied in sequence. A gold film of about 5 nm was deposited on top of the samples to avoid charging and to enhance the contrast. We have selected two types of bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Kocuria rhizophila. Their development was carefully monitored and samples were taken for imaging in equal time intervals during their cultivation. These studies are supporting our efforts to develop an optical method for identification of the Gram-type of bacterial cultures.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques E; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  14. Scanning electron microscopic autoradiography of lung

    SciTech Connect

    Lauhala, K.E.; Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.

    1988-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) autoradiography of the lung is being used to determine the distribution of inhaled, alpha particle-emitting, plutonium dioxide particles. SEM autoradiography provides high visual impact views of alpha activity. Particles irradiating the bronchiolar epithelium were detected both on the bronchiolar surface and in peribronchiolar alveoli. The technique is being used to obtain quantitative data on the clearance rates of plutonium particles from bronchi and bronchioles.

  15. Cryogenic Multichannel Pressure Sensor With Electronic Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, Purnell, Jr.; Chapman, John J.; Kruse, Nancy M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Array of pressure sensors operates reliably and repeatably over wide temperature range, extending from normal boiling point of water down to boiling point of nitrogen. Sensors accurate and repeat to within 0.1 percent. Operate for 12 months without need for recalibration. Array scanned electronically, sensor readings multiplexed and sent to desktop computer for processing and storage. Used to measure distributions of pressure in research on boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers, achieved by low temperatures.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  17. Immunogold Labeling for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Martin W; Fišerová, Jindřiška

    2016-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes are useful biological tools that can be used to image the surface of whole organisms, tissues, cells, cellular components, and macromolecules. Processes and structures that exist at surfaces can be imaged in pseudo, or real 3D at magnifications ranging from about 10× to 1,000,000×. Therefore a whole multicellular organism, such as a fly, or a single protein embedded in one of its cell membranes can be visualized. In order to identify that protein at high resolution, or to see and quantify its distribution at lower magnifications, samples can be labeled with antibodies. Any surface that can be exposed can potentially be studied in this way. Presented here is a generic method for immunogold labeling for scanning electron microscopy, using two examples of specimens: isolated nuclear envelopes and the cytoskeleton of mammalian culture cells. Various parameters for sample preparation, fixation, immunogold labeling, drying, metal coating, and imaging are discussed so that the best immunogold scanning electron microscopy results can be obtained from different types of specimens. PMID:27515090

  18. Characterization of uniform scanning proton beams with analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demez, Nebi

    Tissue equivalent phantoms have an important place in radiation therapy planning and delivery. They have been manufactured for use in conventional radiotherapy. Their tissue equivalency for proton beams is currently in active investigation. The Bragg-Kleeman rule was used to calculate water equivalent thickness (WET) for available tissue equivalent phantoms from CIRS (Norfolk, VA, USA). WET's of those phantoms were also measured using proton beams at Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute (HUPTI). WET measurements and calculations are in good agreement within ˜1% accuracy except for high Z phantoms. Proton beams were also characterized with an analytical proton dose calculation model, Proton Loss Model (PLM) [26], to investigate protons interactions in water and those phantoms. Depth-dose and lateral dose profiles of protons in water and in those phantoms were calculated, measured, and compared. Water Equivalent Spreadness (WES) was also investigated for those phantoms using the formula for scattering power ratio. Because WES is independent of incident energy of protons, it is possible to estimate spreadness of protons in different media by just knowing WES. Measurements are usually taken for configuration of the treatment planning system (TPS). This study attempted to achieve commissioning data for uniform scanning proton planning with analytical methods, PLM, which have been verified with published measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Depth doses and lateral profiles calculated by PLM were compared with measurements via the gamma analysis method. While gamma analysis shows that depth doses are in >90% agreement with measured depth doses, the agreement falls to <80% for some lateral profiles. PLM data were imported into the TPS (PLM-TPS). PLM-TPS was tested with different patient cases. The PLM-TPS treatment plans for 5 prostate cases show acceptable agreement. The Planning Treatment Volume (PTV) coverage was 100 % with PLM-TPS except for one case in

  19. [Pili annulati. A scanning electron microscopy study].

    PubMed

    Lalević-Vasić, B; Polić, D

    1988-01-01

    A case of ringed hair studied by light and electron microscopy is reported. The patient, a 20-year old girl, had been presenting with the hair abnormality since birth. At naked eye examination the hairs were dry, 6 to 7 cm long, and they showed dull and shining areas giving the scalp hair a scintillating appearance (fig. 1). Several samples of hair were taken and examined by light microscopy under white and polarized light. Hair shafts and cryo-fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS. 1. Light microscopy. Lesions were found in every hair examined. There were abnormal, opaque and fusiform areas alternating with normal areas all along the hair shaft (fig. 2). The abnormal areas resulted from intracortical air-filled cavities. Fractures similar to those of trichorrhexis nodosa were found in the opaque areas of the distal parts of the hairs. 2. Scanning electron microscopy. A. Hair shaft surface. The abnormal areas showed a longitudinal, "curtain-like" folding of the cuticular cells which had punctiform depressions on their surface and worn free edges (fig. 4, 5, 6); trichorrhexis-type fractures were seen in the distal parts of the hair shafts (fig. 7, 8). Normal areas regularly presented with longitudinal, superficial, short and non-systematized depressions (fig. 9); the cuticular cells were worn, and there were places where the denuded cortex showed dissociated cortical fibres (fig. 10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3415147

  20. Characterizing wear with the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.H.

    1991-07-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used extensively to characterize and analyze wear mechanisms and coatings on material. Wear mechanisms and severity can be identified by the characteristic scars on sample surfaces and by examining wear debris. Backscattered electron imaging is very useful in identifying oxidized materials and locations where coatings have worn thin. These images are compared with spectra from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy or wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy data to verify the identifications. Micrographs of typical wear mechanisms are presented and techniques for analysis of wear surfaces are discussed. Examples of the evaluation of coatings are also presented and an ultramicrohardness tester installed in the SEM to evaluate coating hardness and fracture toughness is described. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Hexamethyldisilazane for scanning electron microscopy of Gastrotricha.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, R; Litvaitis, M K

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated treatment with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as an alternative to critical-point drying (CPD) for preparing microscopic Gastrotricha for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We prepared large marine (2 mm) and small freshwater (100 microm) gastrotrichs using HMDS as the primary dehydration solvent and compared the results to earlier investigations using CPD. The results of HMDS dehydration are similar to or better than CPD for resolution of two important taxonomic features: cuticular ornamentation and patterns of ciliation. The body wall of both sculpted (Lepidodermella) and smooth (Dolichodasys) gastrotrichs retained excellent morphology as did the delicate sensory and locomotory cilia. The only unfavorable result of HMDS dehydration was an occasional coagulation of gold residue when the solvent had not fully evaporated before sputter-coating. We consider HMDS an effective alternative for preparing of gastrotrichs for SEM because it saves time and expense compared to CPD. PMID:10810982

  2. A cryogenic multichannel electronically scanned pressure module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Adcock, Edward E.; Kahng, Seun K.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a cryogenic multichannel electronically scanned pressure (ESP) module developed and tested over an extended temperature span from -184 to +50 C and a pressure range of 0 to 5 psig. The ESP module consists of 32 pressure sensor dice, four analog 8 differential-input multiplexers, and an amplifier circuit, all of which are packaged in a physical volume of 2 x 1 x 5/8 in with 32 pressure and two reference ports. Maximum nonrepeatability is measured at 0.21 percent of full-scale output. The ESP modules have performed consistently well over 15 times over the above temperature range and continue to work without any sign of degradation. These sensors are also immune to repeated thermal shock tests over a temperature change of 220 C/sec.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of tinea nigra*

    PubMed Central

    Guarenti, Isabelle Maffei; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Leitão, Aline Hatzenberger; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2014-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a rare superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. This infection presents as asymptomatic brown to black maculae mostly in palmo-plantar regions. We performed scanning electron microscopy of a superficial shaving of a tinea nigra lesion. The examination of the outer surface of the sample showed the epidermis with corneocytes and hyphae and elimination of fungal filaments. The inner surface of the sample showed important aggregation of hyphae among keratinocytes, which formed small fungal colonies. The ultrastructural findings correlated with those of dermoscopic examination - the small fungal aggregations may be the dark spicules seen on dermoscopy - and also allowed to document the mode of dissemination of tinea nigra, showing how hyphae are eliminated on the surface of the lesion. PMID:24770516

  4. Electric fields in Scanning Electron Microscopy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arat, K. T.; Bolten, J.; Klimpel, T.; Unal, N.

    2016-03-01

    The electric field distribution and charging effects in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were studied by extending a Monte-Carlo based SEM simulator by a fast and accurate multigrid (MG) based 3D electric field solver. The main focus is on enabling short simulation times with maintaining sufficient accuracy, so that SEM simulation can be used in practical applications. The implementation demonstrates a gain in computation speed, when compared to a Gauss-Seidel based reference solver is roughly factor of 40, with negligible differences in the result (~10-6 𝑉). In addition, the simulations were compared with experimental SEM measurements using also complex 3D sample, showing that i) the modelling of e-fields improves the simulation accuracy, and ii) multigrid method provide a significant benefit in terms of simulation time.

  5. Analytical electron microscopy study of radioactive ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.; Sinkler, W.; Moschetti, T. L.; Johnson, S. G.; Goff, K. M.

    1999-11-11

    A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the halide high-level waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. Analytical electron microscopy studies, using both scanning and transmission instruments, have been performed to characterize the microstructure of this material. The microstructure consists primarily of sodalite granules (containing the bulk of the halides) bonded together with glass. The results of these studies are discussed in detail. Insight into the waste form fabrication process developed as a result of these studies is also discussed.

  6. From 3D Scanning to Analytical Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaich, M.

    During the last few years, the number of historical and archaeological items recorded using innovative, three dimensional surveying technologies has increased considerably. Comprehensive digital, photo-realistic 3D recording and modelling yields a huge range of new possibilities for documenting, analysing and safeguarding items of cultural importance. ArcTron GmbH has specialised in electronic surveying and the development of CAD and database information systems for heritage and archaeology for over 12 years employing total stations, laser pantographs and photogrammetry, as well as a variety of laser scanning systems, to generate 3D recordings. Innovative complementary combinations of these technologies allow their respective strengths to be fully exploited. The data resulting from recording techniques of these kinds can be used as a basis for producing documentation of outstanding quality. 3D digital models with photo-realistic texturing, orthophotos, coloured point clouds, 3D damage mapping, rapid prototyping models and multi-media presentations are just some of the potential resulting forms of documentation. Historical monuments and items ranging from huge sections of terrain down to the smallest artefact can be reproduced with such accuracy and to such a high level of realism that documentation of this kind is not only extremely useful for archaeologists, conservators and architectural historians etc. but practically indispensable.

  7. STEM electron tomography in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferroni, M.; Signoroni, A.; Sanzogni, A.; Sberveglieri, G.; Migliori, A.; Ortolani, L.; Christian, M.; Masini, L.; Morandi, V.

    2015-10-01

    The scanning-transmission imaging mode in the SEM allows for the threedimensional tomographic reconstruction of a specimen, starting from a set of projection images. Compressed sensing was used to solve the undetermined problem of structure reconstruction and was proven capable of overcoming the limitations arising from the sampling scheme. Reconstructions of cobalt particles within a carbon nanotube and collagen fibrils in a dermal tissue are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technique in the set of 3-D electron microscopy methods for both physical and biological science.

  8. The trajectories of secondary electrons in the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Konvalina, Ivo; Müllerová, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of the trajectories of secondary electrons (SE) in the scanning electron microscope have been performed for plenty of real configurations of the specimen chamber, including all its basic components. The primary purpose was to evaluate the collection efficiency of the Everhart-Thornley detector of SE and to reveal fundamental rules for tailoring the set-ups in which efficient signal acquisition can be expected. Intuitive realizations about the easiness of attracting the SEs towards the biased front grid of the detector have shown themselves likely as false, and all grounded objects in the chamber have been proven to influence the spatial distribution of the signal-extracting field. The role of the magnetic field penetrating from inside the objective lens is shown to play an ambiguous role regarding possible support for the signal collection. PMID:17063762

  9. Analytical electron microscopy in mineralogy; exsolved phases in pyroxenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy has been successfully used to characterize the structure and composition of lamellar exsolution products in pyroxenes. At operating voltages of 100 and 200 keV, microanalytical techniques of x-ray energy analysis, convergent-beam electron diffraction, and lattice imaging have been used to chemically and structurally characterize exsolution lamellae only a few unit cells wide. Quantitative X-ray energy analysis using ratios of peak intensities has been adopted for the U.S. Geological Survey AEM in order to study the compositions of exsolved phases and changes in compositional profiles as a function of time and temperature. The quantitative analysis procedure involves 1) removal of instrument-induced background, 2) reduction of contamination, and 3) measurement of correction factors obtained from a wide range of standard compositions. The peak-ratio technique requires that the specimen thickness at the point of analysis be thin enough to make absorption corrections unnecessary (i.e., to satisfy the "thin-foil criteria"). In pyroxenes, the calculated "maximum thicknesses" range from 130 to 1400 nm for the ratios Mg/Si, Fe/Si, and Ca/Si; these "maximum thicknesses" have been contoured in pyroxene composition space as a guide during analysis. Analytical spatial resolutions of 50-100 nm have been achieved in AEM at 200 keV from the composition-profile studies, and analytical reproducibility in AEM from homogeneous pyroxene standards is ?? 1.5 mol% endmember. ?? 1982.

  10. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  11. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2009-06-23

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  12. System and method for compressive scanning electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W

    2015-01-13

    A scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) system is disclosed. The system may make use of an electron beam scanning system configured to generate a plurality of electron beam scans over substantially an entire sample, with each scan varying in electron-illumination intensity over a course of the scan. A signal acquisition system may be used for obtaining at least one of an image, a diffraction pattern, or a spectrum from the scans, the image, diffraction pattern, or spectrum representing only information from at least one of a select subplurality or linear combination of all pixel locations comprising the image. A dataset may be produced from the information. A subsystem may be used for mathematically analyzing the dataset to predict actual information that would have been produced by each pixel location of the image.

  13. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method. PMID:26716724

  15. Quantitative Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.

    Electronic and nanostructured materials have been investigated using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques. The first topic is the microstructure of Ga and Sb-doped ZnO. Ga-doped ZnO is a candidate transparent conducting oxide material. The microstructure of GZO thin films grown by MBE under different growth conditions and different substrates were examined using various electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The microstructure, prevalent defects, and polarity in these films strongly depend on the growth conditions and substrate. Sb-doped ZnO nanowires have been shown to be the first route to stable p-type ZnO. Using Z-contrast STEM, I have showed that an unusual microstructure of Sb-decorated head-to-head inversion domain boundaries and internal voids contain all the Sb in the nanowires and cause the p-type conduction. InGaN thin films and InGaN / GaN quantum wells (QW) for light emitting diodes are the second topic. Low-dose Z-contrast STEM, PACBED, and EDS on InGaN QW LED structures grown by MOCVD show no evidence for nanoscale composition variations, contradicting previous reports. In addition, a new extended defect in GaN and InGaN was discovered. The defect consists of a faceted pyramid-shaped void that produces a threading dislocation along the [0001] growth direction, and is likely caused by carbon contamination during growth. Non-rigid registration (NRR) and high-precision STEM of nanoparticles is the final topic. NRR is a new image processing technique that corrects distortions arising from the serial nature of STEM acquisition that previously limited the precision of locating atomic columns and counting the number of atoms in images. NRR was used to demonstrate sub-picometer precision in STEM images of single crystal Si and GaN, the best achieved in EM. NRR was used to measure the atomic surface structure of Pt nanoacatalysts and Au nanoparticles, which revealed new bond length variation phenomenon of surface atoms. In

  16. Electronic Single Molecule Measurements with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jong One

    Richard Feynman said "There's plenty of room at the bottom". This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured conductance by STM-BJ shows that Nitrogen induces molecular twist of phenyl distal substituents and conductivity increasing rather than Carbon. Also, the conductivity is adjustable by replacing the sort of residues at phenyl substituents. Next, amino acids and peptides were identified through STM-RT. The distribution of the intuitive features (such as amplitude or width) are mostly overlapped and gives only a little bit higher separation probability than random separation. By generating some features in frequency and cepstrum domain, the classification accuracy was dramatically increased. Because of large data size and many features, supporting vector machine (machine learning algorithm for big data) was used to identify the analyte from a data pool of all analytes RT data. The STM-RT opens a possibility of molecular sequencing in single molecule level. Similarly, carbohydrates were studied by STM-RT. Carbohydrates are difficult to read the sequence, due to their huge number of possible isomeric configurations. This study shows that STM-RT can identify not only isomers of mono-saccharides and disaccharides, but also various mono-saccharides from a data pool of eleven analytes. In addition, the binding affinity between recognition molecule and analyte was investigated by comparing with

  17. Electron tomography of HEK293T cells using scanning electron microscope-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    You, Yun-Wen; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Liao, Hua-Yang; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yen, Guo-Ji; Chang, Chi-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2012-10-01

    Based on a scanning electron microscope operated at 30 kV with a homemade specimen holder and a multiangle solid-state detector behind the sample, low-kV scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is presented with subsequent electron tomography for three-dimensional (3D) volume structure. Because of the low acceleration voltage, the stronger electron-atom scattering leads to a stronger contrast in the resulting image than standard TEM, especially for light elements. Furthermore, the low-kV STEM yields less radiation damage to the specimen, hence the structure can be preserved. In this work, two-dimensional STEM images of a 1-μm-thick cell section with projection angles between ±50° were collected, and the 3D volume structure was reconstructed using the simultaneous iterative reconstructive technique algorithm with the TomoJ plugin for ImageJ, which are both public domain software. Furthermore, the cross-sectional structure was obtained with the Volume Viewer plugin in ImageJ. Although the tilting angle is constrained and limits the resulting structural resolution, slicing the reconstructed volume generated the depth profile of the thick specimen with sufficient resolution to examine cellular uptake of Au nanoparticles, and the final position of these nanoparticles inside the cell was imaged. PMID:23026379

  18. Electron energy distribution in a dusty plasma: analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Denysenko, I B; Kersten, H; Azarenkov, N A

    2015-09-01

    Analytical expressions describing the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a dusty plasma are obtained from the homogeneous Boltzmann equation for electrons. The expressions are derived neglecting electron-electron collisions, as well as transformation of high-energy electrons into low-energy electrons at inelastic electron-atom collisions. At large electron energies, the quasiclassical approach for calculation of the EEDF is applied. For the moderate energies, we account for inelastic electron-atom collisions in the dust-free case and both inelastic electron-atom and electron-dust collisions in the dusty plasma case. Using these analytical expressions and the balance equation for dust charging, the electron energy distribution function, the effective electron temperature, the dust charge, and the dust surface potential are obtained for different dust radii and densities, as well as for different electron densities and radio-frequency (rf) field amplitudes and frequencies. The dusty plasma parameters are compared with those calculated numerically by a finite-difference method taking into account electron-electron collisions and the transformation of high-energy electrons at inelastic electron-neutral collisions. It is shown that the analytical expressions can be used for calculation of the EEDF and dusty plasma parameters at typical experimental conditions, in particular, in the positive column of a direct-current glow discharge and in the case of an rf plasma maintained by an electric field with frequency f=13.56MHz. PMID:26465570

  19. UAVSAR Active Electronically-Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Chamberlain, Neil; Figueroa, Harry; Fisher, Charlie; Grando, Maurio; Hamilton, Gary; Vorperian, Vatche; Zawadzki, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) repeat pass, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Using complex radar images collected during separate passes on time scales of hours to years, changes in surface topography can be measured. The repeat-pass InSAR technique requires that the radar look angle be approximately the same on successive passes. Due to variations in aircraft attitude between passes, antenna beam steering is required to replicate the radar look angle. This paper describes an active, electronically steered array (AESA) that provides beam steering capability in the antenna azimuth plane. The array contains 24 transmit/receive modules generating 2800 W of radiated power and is capable of pulse-to-pulse beam steering and polarization agility. Designed for high reliability as well as serviceability, all array electronics are contained in single 178cm x 62cm x 12 cm air-cooled panel suitable for operation up 60,000 ft altitude.

  20. Visualizing bone porosities using a tabletop scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, D.; DaPonte, J.; Broadbridge, C. C.; Daniel, D.; Alter, L.

    2010-04-01

    Pores are naturally occurring entities in bone. Changes in pore size and number are often associated with diseases such as Osteoporosis and even microgravity during spaceflight. Studying bone perforations may yield great insight into bone's material properties, including bone density and may contribute to identifying therapies to halt or potentially reverse bone loss. Current technologies used in this field include nuclear magnetic resonance, micro-computed tomography and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) 2, 5. However, limitations in each method limit further advancement. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a new generation of analytical instruments, the TM-1000 tabletop, SEM with back-scatter electron (BSE) detector, to analyze cortical bone porosities. Hind limb unloaded and age-based controlled mouse femurs were extracted and tested in vitro for changes in pores on the periosteal surface. An important advantage of using the tabletop is the simplified sample preparation that excludes extra coatings, dehydration and fixation steps that are otherwise required for conventional SEM. For quantitative data, pores were treated as particles in order to use an analyze particles feature in the NIH ImageJ software. Several image-processing techniques for background smoothing, thresholding and filtering were employed to produce a binary image suitable for particle analysis. It was hypothesized that the unloaded bones would show an increase in pore area, as the lack of mechanical loading would affect bone-remodeling processes taking place in and around pores. Preliminary results suggest only a slight different in frequency but not in size of pores between unloaded and control femurs.

  1. Progress on Analytical Modeling of Coherent Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.; Webb, S.

    2010-05-23

    We report recent progresses on analytical studies of Coherent Electron Cooling. The phase space electron beam distribution obtained from the 1D FEL amplifier is applied to an infinite electron plasma model and the electron density evolution inside the kicker is derived. We also investigate the velocity modulation in the modulator and obtain a closed form solution for the current density evolution for infinite homogeneous electron plasma.

  2. A new clustering algorithm for scanning electron microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Amr; Duraisamy, Prakash; Karim, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the sample atoms, producing various signals that are collected by detectors. The gathered signals contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. The most common configuration for an SEM produces a single value per pixel, with the results usually rendered as grayscale images. The captured images may be produced with insufficient brightness, anomalous contrast, jagged edges, and poor quality due to low signal-to-noise ratio, grained topography and poor surface details. The segmentation of the SEM images is a tackling problems in the presence of the previously mentioned distortions. In this paper, we are stressing on the clustering of these type of images. In that sense, we evaluate the performance of the well-known unsupervised clustering and classification techniques such as connectivity based clustering (hierarchical clustering), centroid-based clustering, distribution-based clustering and density-based clustering. Furthermore, we propose a new spatial fuzzy clustering technique that works efficiently on this type of images and compare its results against these regular techniques in terms of clustering validation metrics.

  3. Analytical electron microscopy of LDEF impactor residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Barrett, Ruth A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    The LDEF contained 57 individual experiment trays or tray portions specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to characterize impact features from the entire surface of the LDEF. With this in mind particular interest has focused on common materials facing in all 26 LDEF facing directions; among the most important of these materials has been the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature and flux of particulates in LEO, and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This paper summarizes all data from 79 clamps located on Bay A & B of the LDEF. We also describe current efforts to characterize impactor residues recovered from the impact craters, and we have found that a low, but significant, fraction of these residues have survived in a largely unmelted state. These residues can be characterized sufficiently to permit resolution of the impactor origin. We have concentrated on the residue from chondritic interplanetary dust particles (micrometeoroids), as these represent the harshest test of our analytical capabilities.

  4. Orientation mapping of semicrystalline polymers using scanning electron nanobeam diffraction.

    PubMed

    Panova, Ouliana; Chen, X Chelsea; Bustillo, Karen C; Ophus, Colin; Bhatt, Mahesh P; Balsara, Nitash; Minor, Andrew M

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a scanning electron nanobeam diffraction technique that can be used for mapping the size and distribution of nanoscale crystalline regions in a polymer blend. In addition, it can map the relative orientation of crystallites and the degree of crystallinity of the material. The model polymer blend is a 50:50w/w mixture of semicrystalline poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and amorphous polystyrene (PS). The technique uses a scanning electron beam to raster across the sample and acquires a diffraction image at each probe position. Through image alignment and filtering, the diffraction image dataset enables mapping of the crystalline regions within the scanned area and construction of an orientation map. PMID:27323282

  5. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    PubMed

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made. PMID:1659857

  6. Improved coating and fixation methods for scanning electron microscope autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R L

    1984-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emulsion coating is described. The apparatus is inexpensive and easily assembled in a standard glass shop. Emulsion coating for scanning electron microscope autoradiography with this apparatus consistently yields uniform layers. When used in conjunction with newly described fixation methods, this new approach produces reliable autoradiographs of undamaged specimens. PMID:6234956

  7. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of corrosion degradation on tinplate substrates.

    PubMed

    Zumelzu, E; Cabezas, C; Vera, A

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of electrolytic tinplate used in food containers was analysed and evaluated, using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements of microcorrosion and ion dissolution by atomic absorption to prevent food contamination caused by metal traces and to increase the durability of such tinplates. PMID:12627896

  8. 'GIARDIA MURIS': SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF IN VITRO EXCYSTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed in vitro excystation procedure results in almost total excystation of Giardia muris, an intestinal parasite of mice. The present experiment examines the G. muris cyst morphology by scanning electron microscopy and evaluates the efficacy of the excystation pro...

  9. Development of scanning electron and x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Tomokazu; Hirano, Tomohiko; Suyama, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new type of microscope possessing a unique feature of observing both scanning electron and X-ray images under one unit. Unlike former X-ray microscopes using SEM [1, 2], this scanning electron and X-ray (SELX) microscope has a sample in vacuum, thus it enables one to observe a surface structure of a sample by SEM mode, to search the region of interest, and to observe an X-ray image which transmits the region. For the X-ray observation, we have been focusing on the soft X-ray region from 280 eV to 3 keV to observe some bio samples and soft materials. The resolutions of SEM and X-ray modes are 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively, at the electron energy of 7 keV.

  10. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 report

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1994-10-01

    A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 {mu}m in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

  11. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  12. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  13. Low-Temperature Scanning Capacitance Probe for Imaging Electron Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, S.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Novel techniques to probe electronic properties at the nanoscale can shed light on the physics of nanoscale devices. In particular, studying the scattering of electrons from edges and apertures at the nanoscale and imaging the electron profile in a quantum dot, have been of interest [1]. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a cooled scanning capacitance probe that operates at liquid He temperatures to image electron waves in nanodevices. The conducting tip of a scanned probe microscope is held above the nanoscale structure, and an applied sample-to-tip voltage creates an image charge that is measured by a cooled charge amplifier [2] adjacent to the tip. The circuit is based on a low-capacitance, high- electron-mobility transistor (Fujitsu FHX35X). The input is a capacitance bridge formed by a low capacitance pinched-off HEMT transistor and tip-sample capacitance. We have achieved low noise level (0.13 e/VHz) and high spatial resolution (100 nm) for this technique, which promises to be a useful tool to study electronic behavior in nanoscale devices.

  14. Scanning-probe Single-electron Capacitance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kathleen A.; Romanowich, Megan E.; Gasseller, Morewell; Kuljanishvili, Irma; Ashoori, Raymond; Tessmer, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The integration of low-temperature scanning-probe techniques and single-electron capacitance spectroscopy represents a powerful tool to study the electronic quantum structure of small systems - including individual atomic dopants in semiconductors. Here we present a capacitance-based method, known as Subsurface Charge Accumulation (SCA) imaging, which is capable of resolving single-electron charging while achieving sufficient spatial resolution to image individual atomic dopants. The use of a capacitance technique enables observation of subsurface features, such as dopants buried many nanometers beneath the surface of a semiconductor material1,2,3. In principle, this technique can be applied to any system to resolve electron motion below an insulating surface. As in other electric-field-sensitive scanned-probe techniques4, the lateral spatial resolution of the measurement depends in part on the radius of curvature of the probe tip. Using tips with a small radius of curvature can enable spatial resolution of a few tens of nanometers. This fine spatial resolution allows investigations of small numbers (down to one) of subsurface dopants1,2. The charge resolution depends greatly on the sensitivity of the charge detection circuitry; using high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) in such circuits at cryogenic temperatures enables a sensitivity of approximately 0.01 electrons/Hz½ at 0.3 K 5. PMID:23929222

  15. Scanning electron microscope study of Pseudomonas putida colonies.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J A

    1985-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida colonies were examined by scanning electron microscope. A variety of cell morphologies, multicellular arrangements, and extracellular materials were observed in the fixed material. Different regions of a single colony showed characteristic organizations of these architectural elements. In some cases, the detailed microstructure of the fixed colony surfaces observed by scanning electron microscopy could be correlated with macroscopic patterns visualized by histochemical staining and surface relief photography of live colonies. Extracellular materials were seen to extend onto the agar surface beyond the boundaries of the cell mass, and the final structures of these materials, after fixation and desiccation, were colony specific. The significance of these features of colony microstructure for formulating hypotheses about the control of colony morphogenesis is discussed. Images PMID:4066611

  16. Influence of mechanical noise inside a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudenzi de Faria, Marcelo; Haddab, Yassine Le Gorrec, Yann; Lutz, Philippe

    2015-04-15

    The scanning electron microscope is becoming a popular tool to perform tasks that require positioning, manipulation, characterization, and assembly of micro-components. However, some of these applications require a higher level of performance with respect to dynamics and precision of positioning. One limiting factor is the presence of unidentified noises and disturbances. This work aims to study the influence of mechanical disturbances generated by the environment and by the microscope, identifying how these can affect elements in the vacuum chamber. To achieve this objective, a dedicated setup, including a high-resolution vibrometer, was built inside the microscope. This work led to the identification and quantification of main disturbances and noise sources acting on a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, the effects of external acoustic excitations were analysed. Potential applications of these results include noise compensation and real-time control for high accuracy tasks.

  17. Local dynamic range compensation for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Huang, Y H

    2015-01-01

    This is the extended project by introducing the modified dynamic range histogram modification (MDRHM) and is presented in this paper. This technique is used to enhance the scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging system. By comparing with the conventional histogram modification compensators, this technique utilizes histogram profiling by extending the dynamic range of each tile of an image to the limit of 0-255 range while retains its histogram shape. The proposed technique yields better image compensation compared to conventional methods. PMID:25969945

  18. A fast iterative technique for restoring scanning electron microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahira, Kenji; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Honda, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a fast new technique for restoring scanning electron microscope images to improve their sharpness. The images with our approach are sharpened by deconvolution with the point spread function modeled as the intensity distribution of the electron beam at the specimen's surface. We propose an iterative technique that employs a modified cost function based on the Richardson-Lucy method to achieve faster processing. The empirical results indicate significant improvements in image quality. The proposed approach speeds up deconvolution by about 10-50 times faster than that with the conventional Richardson-Lucy method.

  19. Imaging Nanobubbles in Water with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Edward R.; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Singer, Scott B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, Brian Christopher

    2011-05-01

    We present a technique based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that is capable of probing nanobubble dynamics with nanometer spatial resolution. A vacuum-tight vessel holds a sub-micrometer layer of water between two electron-transparent dielectric membranes. Electrical current pulses passing through a platinum wire on one of the membranes inject sufficient heat locally to initiate single bubble formation. In the absence of power input, all bubbles are observed to be unstable against collapse, but the STEM beam alone can cause a shrinking bubble to grow.

  20. Time-resolved scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frömter, Robert; Kloodt, Fabian; Rößler, Stefan; Frauen, Axel; Staeck, Philipp; Cavicchia, Demetrio R.; Bocklage, Lars; Röbisch, Volker; Quandt, Eckhard; Oepen, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of investigating periodically driven magnetization dynamics in a scanning electron microscope with polarization analysis based on spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction. With the present setup, analyzing the time structure of the scattering events, we obtain a temporal resolution of 700 ps, which is demonstrated by means of imaging the field-driven 100 MHz gyration of the vortex in a soft-magnetic FeCoSiB square. Owing to the efficient intrinsic timing scheme, high-quality movies, giving two components of the magnetization simultaneously, can be recorded on the time scale of hours.

  1. Surface morphology of Trichinella spiralis by scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.W.; Ledbetter, M.C.

    1980-02-01

    The surface morphology of larval and adult Trichinella spiralis was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fixed, dried, and metal-coated specimens. The results are compared with those found earlier by various investigators using light and transmission electron microscopy. Some morphological features reported here are revealed uniquely by SEM. These include the pores of the cephalic sense organs, the character of secondary cuticular folds, variations of the hypodermal gland cell openings or pores, and the presence of particles on the copulatory bell.

  2. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jason; Keller, Robert R

    2016-08-01

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. PMID:27179301

  3. Scanning electron microscope studies of human metaphase chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shemilt, L. A.; Estandarte, A. K. C.; Yusuf, M.; Robinson, I. K.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to evaluate potential chromosome preparations and staining methods for application in high-resolution three-dimensional X-ray imaging. Our starting point is optical fluorescence microscopy, the standard method for chromosomes, which only gives structural detail at the 200 nm scale. In principle, with suitable sample preparation protocols, including contrast enhancing staining, the surface structure of the chromosomes can be viewed at the 1 nm level by SEM. Here, we evaluate a heavy metal nucleic-acid-specific stain, which gives strong contrast in the backscattered electron signal. This study uses SEM to examine chromosomes prepared in different ways to establish a sample preparation protocol for X-rays. Secondary electron and backscattered electron signals are compared to evaluate the effectiveness of platinum-based stains used to enhance the contrast. PMID:24470422

  4. Environmental scanning electron microscopy gold immunolabeling in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Francesco; Papale, Ferdinando; Barbarisi, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Immunogold labeling (IGL) technique has been utilized by many authors in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain the identification/localization of receptors and antigens, both in cells and tissues. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) represents an important tool in biomedical research, since it does not require any severe processing of the sample, lowering the risk of generating artifacts and interfere with the IGL procedure. The absence of metal coating could yield further advantages for our purpose as the labeling detection is based on the atomic number difference between nanogold spheres and the biological material. Using the gaseous secondary electron detector, compositional contrast is easily revealed by the backscattered electron component of the signal. In spite of this fact, only few published papers present a combination of ESEM and IGL. Hereby we present our method, optimized to improve the intensity and the specificity of the labeling signal, in order to obtain a semiquantitative evaluation of the labeling signal.In particular, we used a combination of IGL and ESEM to detect the presence of a protein on the cell surface. To achieve this purpose, we chose as an experimental system 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts and galectin-3. PMID:23027021

  5. Analytical Chemistry of Surfaces: Part II. Electron Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two surface techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Focuses on fundamental aspects of each technique, important features of instrumentation, and some examples of how ESCA and AES have been applied to analytical surface problems. (JN)

  6. Low-pass secondary electron detector for outlens scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Takashi; Iwai, Hideo

    2015-08-01

    A low-pass secondary electron detector has been invented for outlens scanning electron microscopy. This detector is composed of a bias grid above and an electron detector below the specimen. The upward low-energy electrons emitted from the specimen are reflected downward by the bias grid and reach the secondary electron detector. The high-energy electrons penetrate the grid and are not detected. This detector has an advantage of quantitative analysis because the secondary electron trajectories are easily traced with simple parabolic motion. The energy-filtered images of the GaN/Si sample are obtained using this detector.

  7. Advantages of environmental scanning electron microscopy in studies of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Pope, R K; Scheetz, R W; Ray, R I; Wagner, P A; Little, B J

    1993-08-01

    Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microalgae, are composed predominantly of water which prohibits direct observation in a traditional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Preparation for SEM requires that microorganisms be fixed, frozen or dehydrated, and coated with a conductive film before observation in a high vacuum environment. Sample preparation may mechanically disturb delicate samples, compromise morphological information, and introduce other artifacts. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) provides a technology for imaging hydrated or dehydrated biological samples with minimal manipulation and without the need for conductive coatings. Sporulating cultures of three fungi, Aspergillus sp., Cunninghamella sp., and Mucor sp., were imaged in the ESEM to assess usefulness of the instrument in the direct observation of delicate, uncoated, biological specimens. Asexual sporophores showed no evidence of conidial displacement or disruption of sporangia. Uncoated algal cells of Euglena gracilis and Spirogyra sp. were examined using the backscatter electron detector (BSE) and the environmental secondary electron detector (ESD) of the ESEM. BSE images had more clearly defined intracellular structures, whereas ESD gave a clearer view of the surface E. gracilis cells fixed with potassium permanganate, Spirogyra sp. stained with Lugol's solution, and Saprolegnia sp. fixed with osmium tetroxide were compared using BSE and ESD to demonstrate that cellular details could be enhanced by the introduction of heavy metals. The effect of cellular water on signal quality was evaluated by comparing hydrated to critical point dried specimens. PMID:8400431

  8. Simulation and Characterization of a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Abbott, Terry O.; Sampson, Allen R.

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (mSEM) for in-situ lunar investigations is being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center with colleagues from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Advanced Research Systems (ARS), the University of Tennessee in Knoxville (UTK) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). This effort focuses on the characterization of individual components of the mSEM and simulation of the complete system. SEMs can provide information on the size, shape, morphology and chemical composition of lunar regolith. Understanding these basic properties will allow us to better estimate the challenges associated with In-Situ Resource Utilization and to improve our basic science knowledge of the lunar surface (either precluding the need for sample return or allowing differentiation of unique samples to be returned to Earth.) The main components of the mSEM prototype includes: a cold field emission electron gun (CFEG), focusing lens, deflection/scanning system and backscatter electron detector. Of these, the electron gun development is of particular importance as it dictates much of the design of the remaining components. A CFEG was chosen for use with the lunar mSEM as its emission does not depend on heating of the tungsten emitter (lower power), it offers a long operation lifetime, is orders of magnitude brighter than tungsten hairpin guns, has a small source size and exhibits low beam energy spread.

  9. Non-monotonic material contrast in scanning ion and scanning electron images.

    PubMed

    Giannuzzi, L A; Utlaut, M

    2011-11-01

    30keV Ga(+) focused ion beam induced secondary electron (iSE) imaging was used to determine the relative contrast between several materials. The iSE signal compared from C, Si, Al, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ag, and W metal layers does not decrease with an increase in target atomic number Z(2), and shows a non-monotonic relationship between contrast and Z(2). The non-monotonic relationship is attributed to periodic fluctuations of the stopping power and sputter yield inherent to the ion-solid interactions. In addition, material contrast from electron-induced secondary electron (eSE) and backscattered electron (BSE) images using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also shows non-monotonic contrast as a function of Z(2), following the periodic behavior of the stopping power for electron-solid interactions. A comparison of the iSE and eSE results shows similar relative contrast between the metal layers, and not complementary contrast as conventionally understood. These similarities in the contrast behavior can be attributed to similarities in the periodic and non-monotonic function defined by incident particle-solid interaction theory. PMID:21939622

  10. Low-loss electron images of uncoated photoresist in the scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Oliver C.

    1986-09-01

    Low voltage scanning electron microscopy is an important part of microelectronic inspection technique. This makes it possible to examine devices without changing the electrical properties, and to examine nonconducting samples such as photoresist without the use of a surface metal layer. The secondary electron imaging method suffers, however, from the difficulty that the image can be spoiled by slight charging of the specimen by the incident electron beam. This problem can be solved by the use of the low-loss electron image.

  11. Response function and optimum configuration of semiconductor backscattered-electron detectors for scanning electron microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, E. I.; Orlikovskiy, N. A.; Ivanova, E. S.

    2012-06-15

    A new highly efficient design for semiconductor detectors of intermediate-energy electrons (1-50 keV) for application in scanning electron microscopes is proposed. Calculations of the response function of advanced detectors and control experiments show that the efficiency of the developed devices increases on average twofold, which is a significant positive factor in the operation of modern electron microscopes in the mode of low currents and at low primary electron energies.

  12. Effects of instrument imperfections on quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Florian F; Schowalter, Marco; Grieb, Tim; Müller-Caspary, Knut; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several instrumental imperfections of transmission electron microscopes are characterized and their effects on the results of quantitative scanning electron microscopy (STEM) are investigated and quantified using simulations. Methods to either avoid influences of these imperfections during acquisition or to include them in reference calculations are proposed. Particularly, distortions inflicted on the diffraction pattern by an image-aberration corrector can cause severe errors of more than 20% if not accounted for. A procedure for their measurement is proposed here. Furthermore, afterglow phenomena and nonlinear behavior of the detector itself can lead to incorrect normalization of measured intensities. Single electrons accidentally impinging on the detector are another source of error but can also be exploited for threshold-less calibration of STEM images to absolute dose, incident beam current determination and measurement of the detector sensitivity. PMID:26686661

  13. In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Nicholas A.; Magel, Gregory A.; Hartfield, Cheryl D.; Moore, Thomas M.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D.

    2012-07-15

    Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {mu}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

  14. In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Nicholas; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Prof. Philip; Moore, Tom; Magel, Greg; Hartfield, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {micro}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

  15. The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Measuring electron-phonon coupling with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Vidya

    Electron-boson interactions are ubiquitous in systems ranging from simple metals to novel materials such as graphene, high-temperature superconductors and topological insulators. Of particular interest is the coupling between electrons and phonons. In general, electron-phonon coupling gives rise to quasiparticles of decreased mobility and increased effective mass. Nearly all information about electron-phonon coupling is contained in the Eliashberg function (α2 F (ω k , E)) of the material. In this talk I discuss the various methods by which the effects of electron-phonon coupling can be measured by scanning tunneling microscopy. I will present STM data on a variety of systems ranging from metals to topological insulators and discuss the signatures of electron-phonon interactions in different types of STM data. In particular I discuss how high resolution measurements allow us to measure the dispersion and obtain the real part of the self-energy, which can in principle be inverted to obtain the Eliashberg function.

  17. Electronic scanning pressure measuring system and transducer package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F. (Inventor); Parra, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    An electronic scanning pressure system that includes a plurality of pressure transducers is examined. A means obtains an electrical signal indicative of a pressure measurement from each of the plurality of pressure transducers. A multiplexing means is connected for selectivity supplying inputs from the plurality of pressure transducers to the signal obtaining means. A data bus connects the plurality of pressure transducers to the multiplexing means. A latch circuit is connected to supply control inputs to the multiplexing means. An address bus is connected to supply an address signal of a selected one of the plurality of pressure transducers to the latch circuit. In operation, each of the pressure transducers is successively scanned by the multiplexing means in response to address signals supplied on the address bus to the latch circuit.

  18. A scanning transmission electron microscopy study of two dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R

    1983-10-01

    Two fully aged amalgam alloys were examined using a scanning transmission electron microscope both in the transmission and scanning mode. The dispersed type amalgam containing a distribution of silver-copper spheres in addition to the Ag3Sn powder showed a markedly reduced gamma 1 grain size compared to a conventional Ag3Sn type amalgam. It is suggested that the increased compressive creep strength of the dispersed type material is a direct result of the reduced gamma 1 grain size and not due to a dispersion hardening effect from the cores of the remaining Ag-Cu spheres. Similarly, the formation of complex Cu-Sn intermediate phases at the Ag-Cu sphere surfaces are unlikely to lead to a dispersion strengthening effect. It is postulated that the reduced grain size in high copper amalgams is a consequence of the enhanced nucleating effect of a copper based phase on gamma 1. PMID:6640049

  19. Examination of Surveyor 3 parts with the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chodos, A. A.; Devaney, J. R.; Evens, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Two screws and two washers, several small chips of tubing, and a fiber removed from a third screw were examined with the scanning electron microscope and the electron microprobe. The purpose of the examination was to determine the nature of the material on the surface of these samples and to search for the presence of meteoritic material.

  20. Scanning electron microscopic analyses of Ferrocyanide tank wastes for the Ferrocyanide safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, W.S.

    1995-09-01

    This is Fiscal Year 1995 Annual Report on the progress of activities relating to the application of scanning electron microscopy in addressing the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks. The status of the FY 1995 activities directed towards establishing facilities capable of providing SEM based micro-characterization of ferrocyanide tank wastes is described. A summary of key events in the SEM task over FY 1995 and target activities in FY 1996 are presented. A brief overview of the potential applications of computer controlled SEM analytical data in light of analyses of ferrocyanide simulants performed by an independent contractor is also presented

  1. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.

  2. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-01-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments. PMID:26235517

  3. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S. Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-07-22

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  4. Dynamic-pressure measurements using an electronically scanned pressure module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    Frequency response was measured for different lengths and diameters of tubing between a sinusoidal pressure source and a pressure sensing module from an electronically scanned pressure measuring system. Measurements were made for straight runs of both steel and vinyl tubing. For steel tubing, measured results are compared with results calculated by using equations developed by Tijdeman and Bergh. Measurements were also made with a bend in the vinyl tubing at the module. In addition, measurements were made with two coils placed in the tubing near the middle of the run.

  5. Controller for the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zomberg, Brian G.; Chren, William A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype controller for the ESTAR (electronically scanned thinned array radiometer) instrument has been designed and tested. It manages the operation of the digital data subsystem (DDS) and its communication with the Small Explorer data system (SEDS). Among the data processing tasks that it coordinates are FEM data acquisition, noise removal, phase alignment and correlation. Its control functions include instrument calibration and testing of two critical subsystems, the output data formatter and Walsh function generator. It is implemented in a Xilinx XC3064PC84-100 field programmable gate array (FPGA) and has a maximum clocking frequency of 10 MHz.

  6. Microcircuit failure analysis using the SEM. [Scanning Electron Microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope adds a new dimension to the knowledge that can be obtained from a failed microcircuit. When used with conventional techniques, SEM assists and clarifies the analysis, but it does not replace light microscopy. The most advantageous features for microcircuit analysis are long working distances and great depth of field. Manufacturer related failure modes of microcircuits are metallization defects, poor bonding, surface and particle contamination, and design and fabrication faults. User related failure modes are caused by abuse, such as overstress. The Physics of Failure Procedure followed by the Astrionics Laboratory in failure analysis is described, which is designed to obtain maximum information available from each step.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscope Characterization of Erosive Enamel in Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Worawongvasu, Ratthapong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the surface characteristics of erosive enamel in extracted human teeth by scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic changes in naturally eroded enamel depend on the stages of dental erosion. In its early stages, the enamel surfaces show a honeycomb appearance due to the dissolution of enamel rod ends. In its advanced stages, the erosive process involves the underlying dentin and the eroded dentin shows exposed dentinal tubules and the dentinal matrix may be exposed due to the dissolution of the peri- and intertubular dentin. Evidence of remineralization is seen at the early stage of natural dental erosion. PMID:26214120

  8. A new apparatus for electron tomography in the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, V. Maccagnani, P.; Masini, L.; Migliori, A.; Ortolani, L.; Pezza, A.; Del Marro, M.; Pallocca, G.; Vinciguerra, P.; Rossi, M.; Ferroni, M.; Sberveglieri, G.; Vittori-Antisari, M.

    2015-06-23

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of a microscopic specimen has been obtained by applying the tomographic algorithm to a set of images acquired in a Scanning Electron Microscope. This result was achieved starting from a series of projections obtained by stepwise rotating the sample under the beam raster. The Scanning Electron Microscope was operated in the scanning-transmission imaging mode, where the intensity of the transmitted electron beam is a monotonic function of the local mass-density and thickness of the specimen. The detection strategy has been implemented and tailored in order to maintain the projection requirement over the large tilt range, as required by the tomographic workflow. A Si-based electron detector and an eucentric-rotation specimen holder have been specifically developed for the purpose.

  9. Atomic scale characterization of materials using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Jeffery Andrew

    Coupling the development of emerging experimental techniques in STEM and EELS with a fundamental understanding of atomic electronic structure afforded by DFT represents the unique approach and intention of this thesis. Scanning transmission electron microscopes equipped with high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) detectors and Gatan image filters (GIF) provide images and spectra, where the image brightness is interpreted as a function of atomic mass and thickness, and elemental specific spectra provide a means for the exploration of electronic and chemical structure of materials at the angstrom size scale. Over the past 20 years, the application of EELS in STEM has enabled more accurate elemental identification and exploration of electronic and chemical structure on angstrom-length scales, and arguably has provided an unprecedented wealth of materials characterization compared to other available techniques. Many materials issues related to specific novel properties that cannot be analyzed using the traditional techniques of the past, however, still remain unanswered. These concepts require a married approach of experiment and theory to fully explain. The intent of this dissertation is the development of improved analysis techniques that derive quantitative atomic scale information in connection with unraveling the origins of materials properties linked to the electronic structure and chemistry of materials.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy: preparation and imaging for SEM.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris G

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been almost universally applied for the surface examination and characterization of both natural and man-made objects. Although an invasive technique, developments in electron microscopy over the years has given the microscopist a much clearer choice in how invasive the technique will be. With the advent of low vacuum SEM in the 1970s (The environmental cold stage, 1970) and environmental SEM in the late 1980s (J Microsc 160(pt. 1):9-19, 1989), it is now possible in some circumstances to examine samples without preparation. However, for the examination of biological tissue and cells it is still advisable to chemically fix, dehydrate, and coat samples for SEM imaging and analysis. This chapter aims to provide an overview of SEM as an imaging tool, and a general introduction to some of the methods applied for the preparation of samples. PMID:22907399

  11. Scanning Tunneling Electron Transport into a Kondo Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fu-Bin; Wu, Hua

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically present the results for a scanning tunneling transport between a metallic tip and a Kondo lattice. We calculate the density of states (DOS) and the tunneling current and differential conductance (DC) under different conduction-fermion band hybridization and temperature in the Kondo lattice. It is found that the hybridization strength and temperature give asymmetric coherent peaks in the DOS separated by the Fermi energy. The corresponding current and DC intensity depend on the temperature and quantum interference effect among the c-electron and f-electron states in the Kondo lattice. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11547203, and the Research Project of Education Department in Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 15ZB0457

  12. Sample heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kohashi, Teruo; Motai, Kumi

    2013-08-01

    A sample-heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed and used for microscopic magnetization analysis at temperatures up to 500°C. In this system, a compact ceramic heater and a preheating operation keep the ultra-high vacuum conditions while the sample is heated during spin SEM measurement. Moreover, the secondary-electron collector, which is arranged close to the sample, was modified so that it is not damaged at high temperatures. The system was used to heat a Co(1000) single-crystal sample from room temperature up to 500°C, and the magnetic-domain structures were observed. Changes of the domain structures were observed around 220 and 400°C, and these changes are considered to be due to phase transitions of this sample. PMID:23349241

  13. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  14. Applications of the Analytical Electron Microscope to Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the analytical electron microscope (AEM) as allowed investigators to obtain chemical and structural information from less than 50 nanometer diameter regions in thin samples of materials and to explore problems where reactions occur at boundaries and interfaces or within small particles or phases in bulk samples. Examples of the application of the AEM to materials science problems are presented in this paper and demonstrate the usefulness and the future potential of this instrument.

  15. Acquisition of a High Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for the Analysis of Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nittler, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    This grant furnished funds to purchase a state-of-the-art scanning electron microscope (SEM) to support our analytical facilities for extraterrestrial samples. After evaluating several instruments, we purchased a JEOL 6500F thermal field emission SEM with the following analytical accessories: EDAX energy-dispersive x-ray analysis system with fully automated control of instrument and sample stage; EDAX LEXS wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for high sensitivity light-element analysis; EDAX/TSL electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system with software for phase identification and crystal orientation mapping; Robinson backscatter electron detector; and an in situ micro-manipulator (Kleindiek). The total price was $550,000 (with $150,000 of the purchase supported by Carnegie institution matching funds). The microscope was delivered in October 2002, and most of the analytical accessories were installed by January 2003. With the exception of the wavelength spectrometer (which has been undergoing design changes) everything is working well and the SEM is in routine use in our laboratory.

  16. Dopant profiling based on scanning electron and helium ion microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chee, Augustus K W; Boden, Stuart A

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and compare doping contrast generated inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and scanning helium ion microscope (SHIM). Specialised energy-filtering techniques are often required to produce strong doping contrast to map donor distributions using the secondary electron (SE) signal in the SEM. However, strong doping contrast can be obtained from n-type regions in the SHIM, even without energy-filtering. This SHIM technique is more sensitive than the SEM to donor density changes above its sensitivity threshold, i.e. of the order of 10(16) or 10(17)donorscm(-3) respectively on specimens with or without a p-n junction; its sensitivity limit is well above 2×10(17)acceptorscm(-3) on specimens with or without a p-n junction. Good correlation is found between the widths and slopes of experimentally measured doping contrast profiles of thin p-layers and the calculated widths and slopes of the potential energy distributions across these layers, at a depth of 1 to 3nm and 5 to 10nm below the surface in the SHIM and the SEM respectively. This is consistent with the mean escape depth of SEs in silicon being about 1.8nm and 7nm in the SHIM and SEM respectively, and we conclude that short escape depth, low energy SE signals are most suitable for donor profiling. PMID:26624515

  17. Morphological classification of bioaerosols from composting using scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tamer Vestlund, A.; Al-Ashaab, R.; Tyrrel, S.F.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Drew, G.H.

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Bioaerosols were captured using the filter method. • Bioaerosols were analysed using scanning electron microscope. • Bioaerosols were classified on the basis of morphology. • Single small cells were found more frequently than aggregates and larger cells. • Smaller cells may disperse further than heavier aggregate structures. - Abstract: This research classifies the physical morphology (form and structure) of bioaerosols emitted from open windrow composting. Aggregation state, shape and size of the particles captured are reported alongside the implications for bioaerosol dispersal after release. Bioaerosol sampling took place at a composting facility using personal air filter samplers. Samples were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Particles were released mainly as small (<1 μm) single, spherical cells, followed by larger (>1 μm) single cells, with aggregates occurring in smaller proportions. Most aggregates consisted of clusters of 2–3 particles as opposed to chains, and were <10 μm in size. No cells were attached to soil debris or wood particles. These small single cells or small aggregates are more likely to disperse further downwind from source, and cell viability may be reduced due to increased exposure to environmental factors.

  18. Simultaneous Correlative Scanning Electron and High-NA Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liv, Nalan; Zonnevylle, A. Christiaan; Narvaez, Angela C.; Effting, Andries P. J.; Voorneveld, Philip W.; Lucas, Miriam S.; Hardwick, James C.; Wepf, Roger A.; Kruit, Pieter; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a unique method for investigating biological structure-function relations. With CLEM protein distributions visualized in fluorescence can be mapped onto the cellular ultrastructure measured with electron microscopy. Widespread application of correlative microscopy is hampered by elaborate experimental procedures related foremost to retrieving regions of interest in both modalities and/or compromises in integrated approaches. We present a novel approach to correlative microscopy, in which a high numerical aperture epi-fluorescence microscope and a scanning electron microscope illuminate the same area of a sample at the same time. This removes the need for retrieval of regions of interest leading to a drastic reduction of inspection times and the possibility for quantitative investigations of large areas and datasets with correlative microscopy. We demonstrate Simultaneous CLEM (SCLEM) analyzing cell-cell connections and membrane protrusions in whole uncoated colon adenocarcinoma cell line cells stained for actin and cortactin with AlexaFluor488. SCLEM imaging of coverglass-mounted tissue sections with both electron-dense and fluorescence staining is also shown. PMID:23409024

  19. Solar cell evaluation using electron beam induced current with the large chamber scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Tara; Kintzel, Edward; Marienhoff, Peter; Klein, Martin

    2012-02-01

    An initial study using electron beam induced current (EBIC) to evaluate solar cells has been carried out with the large chamber scanning electron microscope (LC-SEM) at the Western Kentucky University Nondestructive Analysis Center. EBIC is a scanning electron microscope technique used for the characterization of semiconductors. To facilitate our studies, we developed a Solar Amplification System (SASY) for analyzing current distribution and defects within a solar cell module. Preliminary qualitative results will be shown for a solar cell module that demonstrates the viability of the technique using the LC-SEM. Quantitative EBIC experiments will be carried out to analyze defects and minority carrier properties. Additionally, a well-focused spot of light from an LED mounted at the side of the SEM column will scan the same area of the solar cell using the LC-SEM positioning system. SASY will then output the solar efficiency to be compared with the minority carrier properties found using EBIC.

  20. Ultrahigh vacuum scanning electron microscope system combined with wide-movable scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, A.; Homma, Y.; Hibino, H.; Ogino, T.

    2005-08-15

    A surface analysis system has been newly developed with combination of ultrahigh vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM) and wide-movable scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The basic performance is experimentally demonstrated. These SEM and STM images are clear enough to obtain details of surface structures. The STM unit moves horizontally over several millimeters by sliding motion of PZT actuators. The motion resolution is proved to be submicrometers. The STM tip mounted on another PZT scanner can be guided to a specific object on the sample surface during SEM observation. In the observation of a Si(111) surface rapidly cooled from high temperature, the STM tip was accurately guided to an isolated atomic step and slightly moved along it during SEM observation. The STM observation shows an asymmetry of the (7x7)-transformed region along the step between the upper and lower terraces. (7x7) bands continuously formed along the edge of terraces, while (7x7) domains distributed on the terraces slightly far from the step. These experiments show the wide-movable STM unit resolves a gap of observation area between SEM and STM and the system enables a specific object found in the SEM image to be observed easily by STM.

  1. Creating and Probing Graphene Electron Optics with Local Scanning Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroscio, Joseph

    Ballistic propagation and the light-like dispersion of graphene charge carriers make graphene an attractive platform for optics-inspired graphene electronics where gate tunable potentials can control electron refraction and transmission. In analogy to optical wave propagation in lenses, mirrors and metamaterials, gate potentials can be used to create a negative index of refraction for Veselago lensing and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In circular geometries, gate potentials can induce whispering gallery modes (WGM), similar to optical and acoustic whispering galleries albeit on a much smaller length scale. Klein scattering of Dirac carriers plays a central role in determining the coherent propagation of electron waves in these resonators. In this talk, I examine the probing of electron resonators in graphene confined by linear and circular gate potentials with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tip in the STM tunnel junction serves both as a tunable local gate potential, and as a probe of the graphene states through tunneling spectroscopy. A combination of a back gate potential, Vg, and tip potential, Vb, creates and controls a circular pn junction that confines the WGM graphene states. The resonances are observed in two separate channels in the tunneling spectroscopy experiment: first, by directly tunneling into the state at the bias energy eVb, and, second, by tunneling from the resonance at the Fermi level as the state is gated by the tip potential. The second channel produces a fan-like set of WGM peaks, reminiscent of the fringes seen in planar geometries by transport measurements. The WGM resonances split in a small applied magnetic field, with a large energy splitting approaching the WGM spacing at 0.5 T. These results agree well with recent theory on Klein scattering in graphene electron resonators. This work is done in collaboration with Y. Zhao, J. Wyrick, F.D. Natterer, J. F. Rodriquez-Nieva, C. Lewandoswski, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. B

  2. A radial mirror analyzer for scanning electron/ion microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Hung Quang; Khursheed, Anjam

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a high-resolution transmittance electron energy analyzer suitable for use as an attachment inside the specimen chambers of scanning electron/ion microscopes. The analyzer uses a rotationally symmetric electric field distribution to transport electrons/ions emitted from a central point source in a radial direction on to a ring-shaped collection/detection area. The analyzer is designed to fit around a conical shaped objective lens pole-piece/electrode, allowing for a relatively short minimum working distance, 5 mm or less. Simulation results for the analyzer design predict that it will have a relative energy resolution of 0.025% for an entrance angular spread of ±6°, around an order of magnitude better then the well-known Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA). The analyzer design allows for a parallel mode of operation in which the energy bandwidth on a conical shaped detection plane is predicted to be as high as 32% (±16%) of the central-band energy. On a flat ring-shaped detection plane, the energy bandwidth is predicted to be around 12% (±6%) of the central-band energy, over which the simulated relative energy resolution remains below 0.06% for angular spreads of ±6°.

  3. Three-Dimensional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Northan, Brian M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2–3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. PMID:20082729

  4. Atomic-scale mapping of electronic structures across heterointerfaces by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Ping; Huang, Bo-Chao; Shih, Min-Chuan; Huang, Po-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Interfacial science has received much attention recently based on the development of state-of-the-art analytical tools that can create and manipulate the charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom at interfaces. Motivated by the importance of nanoscale interfacial science that governs device operation, we present a technique to probe the electronic characteristics of heterointerfaces with atomic resolution. In this work, the interfacial characteristics of heteroepitaxial structures are investigated and the fundamental mechanisms that pertain in these systems are elucidated through cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM). The XSTM technique is employed here to directly observe epitaxial interfacial structures and probe local electronic properties with atomic-level capability. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy experiments with atomic precision provide insight into the origin and spatial distribution of electronic properties across heterointerfaces. The first part of this report provides a brief description of the cleavage technique and spectroscopy analysis in XSTM measurements. The second part addresses interfacial electronic structures of several model heterostructures in current condensed matter research using XSTM. Topics to be discussed include high-κ's/III-V's semiconductors, polymer heterojunctions, and complex oxide heterostructures, which are all material systems whose investigation using this technique is expected to benefit the research community. Finally, practical aspects and perspectives of using XSTM in interface science are presented. PMID:26202580

  5. Atomic-scale mapping of electronic structures across heterointerfaces by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ya-Ping; Huang, Bo-Chao; Shih, Min-Chuan; Huang, Po-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Interfacial science has received much attention recently based on the development of state-of-the-art analytical tools that can create and manipulate the charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom at interfaces. Motivated by the importance of nanoscale interfacial science that governs device operation, we present a technique to probe the electronic characteristics of heterointerfaces with atomic resolution. In this work, the interfacial characteristics of heteroepitaxial structures are investigated and the fundamental mechanisms that pertain in these systems are elucidated through cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM). The XSTM technique is employed here to directly observe epitaxial interfacial structures and probe local electronic properties with atomic-level capability. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy experiments with atomic precision provide insight into the origin and spatial distribution of electronic properties across heterointerfaces. The first part of this report provides a brief description of the cleavage technique and spectroscopy analysis in XSTM measurements. The second part addresses interfacial electronic structures of several model heterostructures in current condensed matter research using XSTM. Topics to be discussed include high-κ‘s/III-V’s semiconductors, polymer heterojunctions, and complex oxide heterostructures, which are all material systems whose investigation using this technique is expected to benefit the research community. Finally, practical aspects and perspectives of using XSTM in interface science are presented.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW Electronic states of graphene nanoribbons and analytical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2010-10-01

    Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of graphite, where low-energy electronic states are described by the massless Dirac fermion. The orientation of the graphene edge determines the energy spectrum of π-electrons. For example, zigzag edges possess localized edge states with energies close to the Fermi level. In this review, we investigate nanoscale effects on the physical properties of graphene nanoribbons and clarify the role of edge boundaries. We also provide analytical solutions for electronic dispersion and the corresponding wavefunction in graphene nanoribbons with their detailed derivation using wave mechanics based on the tight-binding model. The energy band structures of armchair nanoribbons can be obtained by making the transverse wavenumber discrete, in accordance with the edge boundary condition, as in the case of carbon nanotubes. However, zigzag nanoribbons are not analogous to carbon nanotubes, because in zigzag nanoribbons the transverse wavenumber depends not only on the ribbon width but also on the longitudinal wavenumber. The quantization rule of electronic conductance as well as the magnetic instability of edge states due to the electron-electron interaction are briefly discussed.

  7. Application of ESEM to environmental colloids. [Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, H.E.; Kale, R. . Dept. of Chemical/Nuclear Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Environmental colloids are toxic or radioactive particles suspended in ground or surface water. These hazardous particles can facilitate and accelerate the transport of toxicants and enhance the threat to humans by exposure to pathogenic substances. The chemical and physical properties of hazardous colloids have not been well characterized nor are there standard colloid remediation technologies to prevent their deleterious effects. Colloid characterization requires measurement of their size distribution, zeta potential, chemical composition, adsorption capacity and morphology. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) by ElectroScan, Inc., analyzes particle sizes, composition, and morphology. It is also used in this study to identify the attachment of colloids onto packing or rock surfaces in the development of a colloid remediation process. The ESEM has confirmed the composition of groundwater colloids in these studies to be generally the same material as the surrounding rock. The morphology studies have generally shown that colloids are simply small pieces of the rock surface that have exfoliated into the surrounding water. However, in general, the source and chemical composition of groundwater colloids is site dependent. The authors have found that an ESEM works best as a valuable analysis tool within a suite of colloid characterization instruments.

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher L.; Oliver, Frederick W.; Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Meteorites provide a wealth of information about the solar system's formation, since they have similar building blocks as the Earth's crust but have been virtually unaltered since their formation. Some stony meteorites contain minerals and silicate inclusions, called chondrules, in the matrix. Utilizing Moessbauer spectroscopy, we identified minerals in the Murchison meteorite, a carbonaceous chondritic meteorite, by the gamma ray resonance lines observed. Absorption patterns of the spectra were found due to the minerals olivine and phyllosilicate. We used a scanning electron microscope to describe the structure of the chondrules in the Murchison meteorite. The chondrules were found to be deformed due to weathering of the meteorite. Diameters varied in size from 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Further enhancement of the microscopic imagery using a digital image processor was used to describe the physical characteristics of the inclusions.

  9. Scanning electron microscopic observations of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Chavez, B; Orozco, A; Loyola, E G; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-05-01

    To investigate the existence of subspecies of Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman in southern Mexico, the egg morphology of specimens obtained from several field populations and from insectary-adapted colonies of uniform pupal phenotype was examined. Scanning electron microscopic observations have shown that the eggs of An. albimanus are polymorphic in respect to the size and shape of their floats, but not in their ornamentation. Four types of eggs were found. Differences in the proportion of the various morphological types were statistically significant, although proportions of egg types were variable among individuals within the same population. These observations are suggestive of distinctive populations and warrant further studies using more sensitive methods to investigate sibling species in An. albimanus sensu lato. PMID:1625289

  10. [Using of scanning electron microscopy for detection of gunshot residue].

    PubMed

    Havel, J; Vajtr, D; Starý, V; Vrána, J; Zelenka, K; Adámek, T

    2006-07-01

    Scanning electron microscope improves the possibility of investigation of surroundings near of gunshot wounds in forensic medicine, it is the next subsequent method for differentiating of area of entrance and exit wound, supplemental method for determination of firing distance, permit of detection (GSR) on the hand of shooter and ensured describing of samples and their stored. Detection of GSR provides many information about composition of bullet and primer. Authors are demonstrating the possibility of detection of GSR on experimental shooting to the krupon (pigs' skin) in different situation (such as in a room and in outside area) and using of different weapon (hand gun CZ No.75 and machine gun No.58). PMID:16948447

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system. PMID:9001936

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of Purkinje fibres of the pig heart.

    PubMed

    Bytzer, P

    1979-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Purkinje fibres (P-fibres) from the septal walls and the septomarginal trabecula was performed on deparaffinized sections, the identification in SEM made possible by comparative light microscopy. The myofibrils in P-fibres from the septal walls were arranged in a cart-wheel fashion, whereas P-fibres from the septomarginal trabecula showed a nearly parallel alignment of the contractile material. Z-line ridges resembling the T-tubules of the myocardial fibres were observed in both kinds of P-fibres. The myofibrillar arrangements are discussed in relation to the expected mechanical stress put upon P-fibres in the 2 locations during systolic-diastolic activity. An adaptive function of the contractile material to the mechanical stress is suggested and the possible need of a T-tubular system is discussed. PMID:507370

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of a liver cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Itoshima, T; Ito, T; Ukida, M; Ogawa, H; Kitadai, M; Hattori, S; Mizutani, S; Nagashima, H

    1983-02-01

    A 39-year-old female with a large cavernous hemangioma of the liver was successfully treated by ligation of the left hepatic artery. A wedge biopsy specimen of the hemangioma was obtained after the ligation and was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The hemangioma was demarcated from the surrounding normal liver parenchyma and had a labyrinth of caves 50-150 microns in diameter. The caves were separated by fibrous septa 20-40 microns in width. Endothelial cells of the caves were spindle-shaped and arranged in parallel. The surface property of the caves resembled that of the hepatic artery and differed from that of the portal vein or hepatic vein. These findings support that the cavernous hemangioma of the liver was supplied by the hepatic artery. The labyrinthine structure of the cavernous hemangioma may explain the long standing contrast enhancement of the hemangioma after hepatic arteriography. PMID:6832546

  14. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cells Using Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of cells can reveal valuable information about their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to provide high-resolution images from the surface of biological samples. However, samples need to be dehydrated and coated with conductive materials for SEM imaging. Besides, immobilizing non-adherent cells during processing and analysis is challenging and requires complex fixation protocols. In this work, we developed a novel dielectrophoresis based microfluidic platform for interfacing non-adherent cells with high-resolution SEM at low vacuum mode. The system enables rapid immobilization and dehydration of samples without deposition of chemical residues over the cell surface. Moreover, it enables the on-chip chemical stimulation and fixation of immobilized cells with minimum dislodgement. These advantages were demonstrated for comparing the morphological changes of non-budding and budding yeast cells following Lyticase treatment. PMID:25089528

  15. [Scanning electron microscopy study of experimental chorioretinitis in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Usui, M; De Kozak, Y; Faure, J P

    1976-04-01

    Retinal lesions are described with the scanning electron microscope in the uveo retinitis induced in guinea pigs by immunization with rod outer segments of bovine retina. The two surfaces in contact of the pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors are separated from each other and observed on flat preparations. On the epithelial side, the evolution of the degenerescence of epithelial cells is observed, from the early disappearance of villosities until the total destruction of the cells. Through lacks in the epithelial layer where the choroid appears, inflammatory cells migrate towards the retina. The impairement of the visual cells is characterized by progressive destruction of outer then inner segments, with preservation of the external limiting membrane. In some areas the degenerative process reaches the layer of visual cells nuclei. Macrophages, and local clusters of lymphocytes are seen in contact with the retinal surface. PMID:135548

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of Strongylus spp. in zebra.

    PubMed

    Els, H J; Malan, F S; Scialdo-Krecek, R C

    1983-12-01

    The external ultrastructure of the anterior and posterior extremities of the nematodes, Strongylus asini , Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus and Strongylus edentatus, was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fresh specimens of S. asini were collected from the caecum, ventral colon and vena portae of Equus burchelli and Equus zebra hartmannae ; S. vulgaris from the caecum, colon and arteria ileocolica of E. burchelli ; S. equinus from the ventral colon of E. z. hartmannae and S. edentatus from the caecum and ventral colon of both zebras , during surveys of parasites in zebras in the Etosha Game Reserve, South West Africa/Namibia, and the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. The worms were cleaned, fixed and mounted by standard methods and photographed in a JEOL JSM - 35C scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating at 12kV . The SEM showed the following differences: the tips of the external leaf-crowns varied and were fine and delicate in S. asini , coarse and broad in S. vulgaris and, in S. equinus and S. edentatus, closely adherent, separating into single elements for half their length. The excretory pores showed only slight variation, and the morphology of the copulatory bursae did not differ from those seen with light microscopy. The genital cones differed markedly: S. asini had a ventral triangular projection and laterally 2 finger-like projections: in S. vulgaris there were numerous bosses on the lateral and ventral aspects of the cone; in S. equinus 2 finger-like processes projected laterocaudally ; and in S. edentatus 2 pairs of papilla-like processes projected laterally on the ventral aspects, and a pair of rounded projections and a pair of hair-like structures adorned the dorsal aspects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6676687

  17. Determination of molecular weights of humic substances by analytical (UV scanning) ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, P.M.; Wilkinson, A.E.; Tipping, E.; Jones, M.N. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria )

    1990-01-01

    Samples of peat humic acid (PHA) and surface water humic (WBHA) and fulvic (WBFA) acids have been extracted from Whitray Beck in North Yorkshire, U.K. The molecular weights of the extracts have been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium using an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with a UV scanning system. The system allows measurements to be made at low concentrations of humic substances, comparable to those existing in natural humic-rich water. A method is described for correcting UV scanning data for changes in the optical properties of the materials with changing molecular weight. Measurements have also been made on reference samples of Suwannee river humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The weight-average moleuclar weights of the extracted samples range from approximately 2,000 to 17,000 and follow a series PHA > WBHA > WBFA. Apparent specific volumes of these materials were in a range from 0.45 to 0.58 cm{sup 3} g{sup {minus}1} as measured by digital densimetry. Al the samples studied were analysed by gel filtration, but the molecular weights determined by this method based on a globular protein calibration are not in good accord with the absolute determinations by the sedimentation-equilibrium technique. The molecular weight of the SRHA determined by sedimentation equilibrium is in good agreement with that reported by BECKETT (1987) et al., based on flow field-flow fractionation.

  18. Determination of molecular weights of humic substances by analytical (UV scanning) ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Patrick M.; Wilkinson, Alan E.; Tipping, Edward; Jones, Malcolm N.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of peat humic acid (PHA) and surface water humic (WBHA) and fulvic (WBFA) acids have been extracted from Whitray Beck in North Yorkshire, U.K. The molecular weights of the extracts have been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium using an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with a UV scanning system. The system allows measurements to be made at low concentrations of humic substances, comparable to those existing in natural humic-rich water. A method is described for correcting UV scanning data for changes in the optical properties of the materials with changing molecular weight. Measurements have also been made on reference samples of Suwannee river humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The weight-average molecular weights of the extracted samples range from approximately 2000 to 17000 and follow a series PHA > WBHA > WBFA. Apparent specific volumes of these materials were in a range from 0.45 to 0.58 cm 3 g -1 as measured by digital densimetry. All the samples studied were analysed by gel filtration, but the molecular weights determined by this method based on a globular protein calibration are not in good accord with the absolute determinations by the sedimentation-equilibrium technique. The molecular weight of the SRHA determined by sedimentation equilibrium is in good agreement with that reported by BECKETT (1987) et al., based on flow field-flow fractionation.

  19. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Barnaby D.A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M.C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  20. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  1. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D; Robinson, Richard D; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  2. Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of electron transport in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the electron transport in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the electron mobility down to about 400 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ∼100 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  4. Molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy: intermolecular electron tunneling for single-molecule recognition and electronics.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Molecular tips offer many advantages: first is their ability to perform chemically selective imaging because of chemical interactions between the sample and the molecular tip, thus improving a major drawback of conventional STM. Rational design of the molecular tip allows sophisticated chemical recognition; e.g., chiral recognition and selective visualization of atomic defects in carbon nanotubes. Another advantage is that they provide a unique method to quantify electron transfer between single molecules. Understanding such electron transfer is mandatory for the realization of molecular electronics. PMID:24420248

  5. Implementing electronic health care predictive analytics: considerations and challenges.

    PubMed

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Patzer, Rachel E; Huesch, Marco; Nguyen, Nam Q; Xie, Bin

    2014-07-01

    The use of predictive modeling for real-time clinical decision making is increasingly recognized as a way to achieve the Triple Aim of improving outcomes, enhancing patients' experiences, and reducing health care costs. The development and validation of predictive models for clinical practice is only the initial step in the journey toward mainstream implementation of real-time point-of-care predictions. Integrating electronic health care predictive analytics (e-HPA) into the clinical work flow, testing e-HPA in a patient population, and subsequently disseminating e-HPA across US health care systems on a broad scale require thoughtful planning. Input is needed from policy makers, health care executives, researchers, and practitioners as the field evolves. This article describes some of the considerations and challenges of implementing e-HPA, including the need to ensure patients' privacy, establish a health system monitoring team to oversee implementation, incorporate predictive analytics into medical education, and make sure that electronic systems do not replace or crowd out decision making by physicians and patients. PMID:25006140

  6. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  7. Probing Individual Ice Nucleation Events with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup; Knopf, Daniel; Gilles, Mary; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is one of the processes of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and the applied science and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by particles proceeds where microscopic properties of particle surfaces essentially control nucleation mechanisms. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere on particles governs the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds, which in turn influence the Earth's radiative budget and climate. Heterogeneous ice nucleation is still insufficiently understood and poses significant challenges in predictive understanding of climate change. We present a novel microscopy platform allowing observation of individual ice nucleation events at temperature range of 193-273 K and relative humidity relevant for ice formation in the atmospheric clouds. The approach utilizes a home built novel ice nucleation cell interfaced with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM system). The IN-ESEM system is applied for direct observation of individual ice formation events, determining ice nucleation mechanisms, freezing temperatures, and relative humidity onsets. Reported microanalysis of the ice nucleating particles (INP) include elemental composition detected by the energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (EDX), and advanced speciation of the organic content in particles using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The performance of the IN-ESEM system is validated through a set of experiments with kaolinite particles with known ice nucleation propensity. We demonstrate an application of the IN-ESEM system to identify and characterize individual INP within a complex mixture of ambient particles.

  8. Analytic Validation of the Automated Bone Scan Index as an Imaging Biomarker to Standardize Quantitative Changes in Bone Scans of Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Aseem; Morris, Michael J.; Kaboteh, Reza; Båth, Lena; Sadik, May; Gjertsson, Peter; Lomsky, Milan; Edenbrandt, Lars; Minarik, David; Bjartell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible and quantitative imaging biomarker is needed to standardize the evaluation of changes in bone scans of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis. We performed a series of analytic validation studies to evaluate the performance of the automated bone scan index (BSI) as an imaging biomarker in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Methods Three separate analytic studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the automated BSI. Simulation study: bone scan simulations with predefined tumor burdens were created to assess accuracy and precision. Fifty bone scans were simulated with a tumor burden ranging from low to high disease confluence (0.10–13.0 BSI). A second group of 50 scans was divided into 5 subgroups, each containing 10 simulated bone scans, corresponding to BSI values of 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 10.0. Repeat bone scan study: to assess the reproducibility in a routine clinical setting, 2 repeat bone scans were obtained from metastatic prostate cancer patients after a single 600-MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate injection. Follow-up bone scan study: 2 follow-up bone scans of metastatic prostate cancer patients were analyzed to determine the interobserver variability between the automated BSIs and the visual interpretations in assessing changes. The automated BSI was generated using the upgraded EXINI boneBSI software (version 2). The results were evaluated using linear regression, Pearson correlation, Cohen κ measurement, coefficient of variation, and SD. Results Linearity of the automated BSI interpretations in the range of 0.10–13.0 was confirmed, and Pearson correlation was observed at 0.995 (n = 50; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–0.99; P < 0.0001). The mean coefficient of variation was less than 20%. The mean BSI difference between the 2 repeat bone scans of 35 patients was 0.05 (SD = 0.15), with an upper confidence limit of 0.30. The interobserver agreement in the automated BSI

  9. Scanning transmission electron microscopy strain measurement from millisecond frames of a direct electron charge coupled device

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas; Ryll, Henning; Ordavo, Ivan; Ihle, Sebastian; Soltau, Heike; Strueder, Lothar; Volz, Kerstin; Zweck, Josef

    2012-11-19

    A high-speed direct electron detection system is introduced to the field of transmission electron microscopy and applied to strain measurements in semiconductor nanostructures. In particular, a focused electron probe with a diameter of 0.5 nm was scanned over a fourfold quantum layer stack with alternating compressive and tensile strain and diffracted discs have been recorded on a scintillator-free direct electron detector with a frame time of 1 ms. We show that the applied algorithms can accurately detect Bragg beam positions despite a significant point spread each 300 kV electron causes during detection on the scintillator-free camera. For millisecond exposures, we find that strain can be measured with a precision of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, enabling, e.g., strain mapping in a 100 Multiplication-Sign 100 nm{sup 2} region with 0.5 nm resolution in 40 s.

  10. A differentially pumped secondary electron detector for low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jacka, M; Zadrazil, M; Lopour, F

    2003-01-01

    A new design of secondary electron (SE) detector is described for use in low-vacuum scanning electron microscopes. Its distinguishing feature is a separate detector chamber, which can be maintained at a pressure independent of the pressure in the specimen chamber. The two chambers are separated by a perforated membrane or mesh across which an electric field is applied, making it relatively transparent to low-energy electrons but considerably less so to the gas molecules. The benefits of this arrangement are discussed. The final means of detecting the electrons can be a conventional scintillator and photomultiplier arrangement or any of the methods using the ambient gas as an amplifying medium. Images obtained with the detector show good SE contrast and low backscattered electron contribution. PMID:14748387

  11. Quantifying the cellular uptake of semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles by analytical electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hondow, Nicole; Brown, M Rowan; Starborg, Tobias; Monteith, Alexander G; Brydson, Rik; Summers, Huw D; Rees, Paul; Brown, Andy

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles are in demand as optical biomarkers yet the cellular uptake process is not fully understood; quantification of numbers and the fate of internalized particles are still to be achieved. We have focussed on the characterization of cellular uptake of quantum dots using a combination of analytical electron microscopies because of the spatial resolution available to examine uptake at the nanoparticle level, using both imaging to locate particles and spectroscopy to confirm identity. In this study, commercially available quantum dots, CdSe/ZnS core/shell particles coated in peptides to target cellular uptake by endocytosis, have been investigated in terms of the agglomeration state in typical cell culture media, the traverse of particle agglomerates across U-2 OS cell membranes during endocytosis, the merging of endosomal vesicles during incubation of cells and in the correlation of imaging flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy to measure the final nanoparticle dose internalized by the U-2 OS cells. We show that a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and serial block face scanning electron microscopy can provide a comprehensive description of the internalization of an initial exposure dose of nanoparticles by an endocytically active cell population and how the internalized, membrane bound nanoparticle load is processed by the cells. We present a stochastic model of an endosome merging process and show that this provides a data-driven modelling framework for the prediction of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles in general. PMID:25762522

  12. Evaluation of anisotropic chitosan hydrogels using analytical Mueller matrix method and scanned laser pico-projector.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Ling; Chuang, Chin-Ho; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-07-25

    Chitosan has excellent biodegradable, biocompatible and bio-absorbable properties and has been found increasing use in the biomedical field in recent decades. The linear birefringence (LB), linear diattenuation (LD), circular birefringence (CB), circular diattenuation (CD), and depolarization properties of chitosan hydrogel films crosslinked in citrate acid buffer solution (CBS) are extracted using an analytical Mueller matrix method. It is shown that the optical phase retardance property of the hydrogel films provides a reliable indication of both the chitosan concentration of the film and the pH value of the CBS crosslinking environment. In addition, chitosan hydrogel suspension with low-concentration crosslinked in CBS environments with various pH values are studied by the speckle contrast of the projected images obtained when illuminating the suspension with a scanned laser pico-projector (SLPP). It is found that for the samples crosslinked in an acidic environment, the speckle contrast decreases with an increasing pH value. By contrast, for the samples crosslinked in an alkaline CBS environment, the speckle contrast increases as the pH value increases. It is concluded that both the phase retardance and the speckle contrast enable the pH value of the CBS crosslinking solution to be reliably determined. However, of the two methods, the SLPP method yields improved measurement sensitivity. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the analytical Mueller matrix method and SLPP method provide an effective means of characterizing the optical properties, concentration and crosslinking environment of chitosan hydrogel films and suspensions. PMID:23768591

  13. Electron spin resonance scanning probe spectroscopy for ultrasensitive biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jason P; Ryan, Jason T; Shrestha, Pragya R; Liu, Zhanglong; Vaz, Canute; Kim, Ji-Hong; Georgiou, Vasileia; Cheung, Kin P

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy's affinity for detecting paramagnetic free radicals, or spins, has been increasingly employed to examine a large variety of biochemical interactions. Such paramagnetic species are broadly found in nature and can be intrinsic (defects in solid-state materials systems, electron/hole pairs, stable radicals in proteins) or, more often, purposefully introduced into the material of interest (doping/attachment of paramagnetic spin labels to biomolecules of interest). Using ESR to trace the reactionary path of paramagnetic spins or spin-active proxy molecules provides detailed information about the reaction's transient species and the label's local environment. For many biochemical systems, like those involving membrane proteins, synthesizing the necessary quantity of spin-labeled biomolecules (typically 50 pmol to 100 pmol) is quite challenging and often limits the possible biochemical reactions available for investigation. Quite simply, ESR is too insensitive. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach that greatly enhances ESR's sensitivity (>20000× improvement) by developing a near-field, nonresonant, X-band ESR spectrometric method. Sensitivity improvement is confirmed via measurement of 140 amol of the most common nitroxide spin label in a ≈593 fL liquid cell at ambient temperature and pressure. This experimental approach eliminates many of the typical ESR sample restrictions imposed by conventional resonator-based ESR detection and renders the technique feasible for spatially resolved measurements on a wider variety of biochemical samples. Thus, our approach broadens the pool of possible biochemical and structural biology studies, as well as greatly enhances the analytical power of existing ESR applications. PMID:25867553

  14. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  15. Search space scanning with planar electronically-controlled array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanle, E.

    The demands which radar installations have to satisfy are rising with increasing traffic density in the case of civil applications and a growing threat level in the case of the military sector. In many instances, these demands can only be met by adapting the value of the transmitted power to the traffic density or the magnitude of the threat. Such an approach requires the employment of computer-aided radar systems with electronically-controlled antennas. The considered systems have currently also advantages with respect to reliability and cost effectiveness. The present investigation is concerned with suitable procedures for the improvement of the energy management, taking into account mainly aspects of radar control and signal processing. The discussion is based on the consideration of a planar array antenna. Differences arising in connection with the use of other types of antennas are also briefly examined. The employment of an immobile radar antenna for ground-based airspace observation is considered. Attention is given to the appropriate selection of the width of the lobe, the scanning, the tilt of the antenna, and antenna performance characteristics.

  16. Life Cycle of Neurospora crassa Viewed by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the major stages of the life cycle of two wild-type strains of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge (St. Lawrence 3.1a and 74A): mycelia, protoperithecium formation, perithecia, ascospores, ascospore germination and outgrowth, macro and microconidia, and germination and outgrowth of macroconidia. Structures seen at the limit of resolution of bright-field and phase-contrast microscopes, e.g., the ribbed surface of ascospores, are well resolved. New details of conidial development and surface structure are revealed. There appears to be only one distinguishable morphological difference between the two strains. The pattern of germination and outgrowth which seems relatively constant for strain 74A or strain 3.1a, appears to be different for each. Conidia from strain 3.1a almost always germinate from a site between interconidial attachment points; whereas the germ tubes of strain 74A usually emerge from or very near the interconidial attachment site. These germination patterns usually do not segregate 2:2 in asci dissected in order. This observation suggests that conidial germination pattern is not under the control of a single gene. Images PMID:4266170

  17. In-vivo Candida biofilms in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paulitsch, Astrid Helga; Willinger, Birgit; Zsalatz, Benedikt; Stabentheiner, Edith; Marth, Egon; Buzina, Walter

    2009-11-01

    Candida biofilms on indwelling devices are an increasing problem in patients treated at intensive care units. The goal of this study was to examine the occurrence and frequency of these biofilms. A total of 172 catheters were collected from 105 male and 67 female patients (the age range of both patient groups was from 3 weeks to 98 years old). The catheters were incubated on blood agar plates and the resulting yeast colonies were subsequently identified. Furthermore, pieces of catheters were fixed, dried and sputter coated with gold for investigation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Yeasts were recovered from significantly more catheters obtained from men than from women (chi(2): n = 67; P < 0.01). In SEM, 56.4% catheters turned out to be positive for biofilm formation. Again catheters from male patients were statistically significant (chi(2): n = 40; P < 0.01) more often positive than those from women. Candida albicans (71.1%) was the most common species isolated from the catheters, followed by C. glabrata (10.3%), C. parapsilosis (8.2%) and C. tropicalis (5.2%). Based on the results of this investigation, the epidemiology of Candida biofilms on indwelling devices seems to be a promising target for future investigations. PMID:19888801

  18. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Jäger, A.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.; Dejneka, A.

    2015-02-01

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained rat skin sections from plasma-treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.

  19. Semiautomatic classification of cementitious materials using scanning electron microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumetz, Lucas; Mura, Mauro Dalla; Meulenyzer, Samuel; Lombard, Sébastien; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2015-11-01

    Segmentation and classification are prolific research topics in the image processing community. These topics have been increasingly used in the context of analysis of cementitious materials on images acquired with a scanning electron microscope. Indeed, there is a need to be able to detect and to quantify the materials present in a cement paste in order to follow the chemical reactions occurring in the material even days after the solidification. We propose a new approach for segmentation and classification of cementitious materials based on the denoising of the data with a block-matching three-dimensional (3-D) algorithm, binary partition tree (BPT) segmentation, support vector machines (SVM) classification, and interactivity with the user. The BPT provides a hierarchical representation of the spatial regions of the data, allowing a segmentation to be selected among the admissible partitions of the image. SVMs are used to obtain a classification map of the image. This approach combines state-of-the-art image processing tools with user interactivity to allow a better segmentation to be performed, or to help the classifier discriminate the classes better. We show that the proposed approach outperforms a previous method when applied to synthetic data and several real datasets coming from cement samples, both qualitatively with visual examination and quantitatively with the comparison of experimental results with theoretical ones.

  20. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lunov, O. Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Jäger, A.; Dejneka, A.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.

    2015-02-02

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin–stained rat skin sections from plasma–treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of lung following alpha irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; McDonald, K.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Pulmonary aggregation of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles leads to a cellular evolution of focal inflammation, fibrosis, epithelial dysplasia and lung tumor formation. Female Wistar rats were exposed to an aerosol of high-fired {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} (initial lung burden, 3.9 kBq) and the lungs examined at intervals from 1 day to 700 days after exposure by light and scanning electron microscopy and autoradiography. Peribronchiolar Pu particle aggregation increased with time, resulting in well-defined focal inflammatory lesions after 120 days and fibrotic lesions after 180 days. A generalized hypertrophy and hyperplasia of nonciliated bronchiolar cells was seen at 15 days and type II cell hyperplasia by 30 days after exposure. Focal dysplastic changes in type II alveolar epithelium and terminal nonciliated bronchiolar epithelium preceded carcinoma formation. Alveolar bronchiolarization was first noted at 120 days, squamous metaplasia at 210 days, squamous carcinoma at 270 days and adenocarcinoma at 600 days after exposure.

  2. Surface treatment of feldspathic porcelain: scanning electron microscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Valian, Azam

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Topographic analysis of treated ceramics provides qualitative information regarding the surface texture affecting the micromechanical retention and locking of resin-ceramics. This study aims to compare the surface microstructure following different surface treatments of feldspathic porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS This in-vitro study was conducted on 72 porcelain discs randomly divided into 12 groups (n=6). In 9 groups, feldspathic surfaces were subjected to sandblasting at 2, 3 or 4 bar pressure for 5, 10 or 15 seconds with 50 µm alumina particles at a 5 mm distance. In group 10, 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) gel was applied for 120 seconds. In group 11, specimens were sandblasted at 3 bar pressure for 10 seconds and then conditioned with HF. In group 12, specimens were first treated with HF and then sandblasted at 3 bar pressure for 10 seconds. All specimens were then evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different magnifications. RESULTS SEM images of HF treated specimens revealed deep porosities of variable sizes; whereas, the sandblasted surfaces were more homogenous and had sharper peaks. Increasing the pressure and duration of sandblasting increased the surface roughness. SEM images of the two combined techniques showed that in group 11 (sandblasted first), HF caused deeper porosities; whereas in group 12 (treated with HF first) sandblasting caused irregularities with less homogeneity. CONCLUSION All surface treatments increased the surface area and caused porous surfaces. In groups subjected to HF, the porosities were deeper than those in sandblasted only groups. PMID:25352961

  3. Electron Microscopy: an Analytical Tool for Solid State Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-03-01

    For too long the electron microscope has been considered as ``a big magnifying glass.'' Modern electron microscopy however has evolved into an analytical technique, able to provide quantitative data on structure, composition, chemical bonding and magnetic properties. Using lens corrected instruments it is now possible to determine atom shifts at interfaces with a precision of a few picometer; chemical diffusion at these interfaces can be imaged down to atomic scale. The chemical nature of the surface atoms can be visualized and even the bonding state of the elements (e.g. Mn2+ versus Mn3+) can be detected on an atomic scale. Electron microscopy is by principle a projection technique, but the final dream is to obtain atomic info of materials in three dimensions. We will show that this is no longer a dream, but that it is possible using advanced microscopy. We will show evidence of determining the valence change Ce4+ versus Ce3+ at the surface of a CeO2 nanocrystal; the atomic shifts at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 and the 3D relaxation of a Au nanocrystal.

  4. The Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW): a Platform for Analytics using Electronic Health Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Kurc, Tahsin; Cholleti, Sharath; Gao, Jingjing; Lin, Xia; Bornstein, William; Cantrell, Dedra; Levine, David; Hohmann, Sam; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To create an analytics platform for specifying and detecting clinical phenotypes and other derived variables in electronic health record (EHR) data for quality improvement investigations. Materials and Methods We have developed an architecture for an Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW). It supports transforming data represented in different physical schemas into a common data model, specifying derived variables in terms of the common model to enable their reuse, computing derived variables while enforcing invariants and ensuring correctness and consistency of data transformations, long-term curation of derived data, and export of derived data into standard analysis tools. It includes software that implements these features and a computing environment that enables secure high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Results We have implemented and deployed the architecture in production locally. The software is available as open source. We have used it as part of hospital operations in a project to reduce rates of hospital readmission within 30 days. The project examined the association of over 100 derived variables representing disease and co-morbidity phenotypes with readmissions in five years of data from our institution’s clinical data warehouse and the UHC Clinical Database (CDB). The CDB contains administrative data from over 200 hospitals that are in academic medical centers or affiliated with such centers. Discussion and Conclusion A widely available platform for managing and detecting phenotypes in EHR data could accelerate the use of such data in quality improvement and comparative effectiveness studies. PMID:23402960

  5. High bandwidth secondary electron detection in variable pressure scanning electron microscopy using a Frisch grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, S. W.; Phillips, M. R.

    2008-03-01

    The bandwidth and contrast of secondary electron (SE) images obtained using variable pressure scanning electron microscopy are enhanced when a grounded Frisch grid is placed between the SE detecting anode and the negatively biased stage. The improvement in SE image quality occurs as a consequence of the grounded Frisch grid electrostatically screening the 'slow' induced ion current signal, generated below the grid, from the induced current detected above the grid by the anode. Ion induced artefacts, such as image smearing at fast scan rates, are virtually eliminated using a Frisch grid. Gas amplification data are presented to illustrate that gas gain can be optimized by varying the Frisch grid-stage (amplification region) separation Frisch grid-anode (drift region) separation and stage bias.

  6. Electron channeling contrast imaging studies of nonpolar nitrides using a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Naresh-Kumar, G.; Kraeusel, S.; Bruckbauer, J.; Edwards, P. R.; Hourahine, B.; Trager-Cowan, C.; Mauder, C.; Heuken, M.; Wang, K. R.; Trampert, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.; Giesen, C.; Day, A. P.

    2013-04-08

    Threading dislocations, stacking faults, and associated partial dislocations significantly degrade the optical and electrical properties of materials such as non-polar III-nitride semiconductor thin films. Stacking faults are generally difficult to detect and quantify with existing characterization techniques. We demonstrate the use of electron channeling contrast imaging in the scanning electron microscope to non-destructively reveal basal plane stacking faults terminated by partial dislocations in m-plane GaN and InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures grown on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy.

  7. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  8. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  9. Semi-analytical model of cosmic ray electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascenko, A.; Spanier, F.

    2011-07-01

    We present a numerical extension to the analytical propagation model introduced in Hein and Spanier (2008) to describe the leptonic population in the galactic disc. The model is used to derive a possible identification of the components that contribute to the leptonic cosmic ray spectrum, as measured by PAMELA, Fermi and HESS, with an emphasis on secondary e+-e- production in collisions of cosmic ray particles with ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We find that besides secondaries, an additional source symmetric in e+ and e- production is needed to explain both the PAMELA anomaly and the Fermi bump, assuming a power-law primary electron spectrum. Our model also allows us to derive constraints for some properties of the ISM.

  10. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  11. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A; Vick, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices. PMID:27586090

  12. Ultra low-K shrinkage behavior when under electron beam in a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lorut, F.; Imbert, G.; Roggero, A.

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we investigate the tendency of porous low-K dielectrics (also named Ultra Low-K, ULK) behavior to shrink when exposed to the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. Various experimental electron beam conditions have been used for irradiating ULK thin films, and the resulting shrinkage has been measured through use of an atomic force microscope tool. We report the shrinkage to be a fast, cumulative, and dose dependent effect. Correlation of the shrinkage with incident electron beam energy loss has also been evidenced. The chemical modification of the ULK films within the interaction volume has been demonstrated, with a densification of the layer and a loss of carbon and hydrogen elements being observed.

  13. Single-Molecule Electronics: Chemical and Analytical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    It is now possible to measure the electrical properties of single molecules using a variety of techniques including scanning probe microcopies and mechanically controlled break junctions. Such measurements can be made across a wide range of environments including ambient conditions, organic liquids, ionic liquids, aqueous solutions, electrolytes, and ultra high vacuum. This has given new insights into charge transport across molecule electrical junctions, and these experimental methods have been complemented with increasingly sophisticated theory. This article reviews progress in single-molecule electronics from a chemical perspective and discusses topics such as the molecule-surface coupling in electrical junctions, chemical control, and supramolecular interactions in junctions and gating charge transport. The article concludes with an outlook regarding chemical analysis based on single-molecule conductance. PMID:26048551

  14. Single-Molecule Electronics: Chemical and Analytical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    It is now possible to measure the electrical properties of single molecules using a variety of techniques including scanning probe microcopies and mechanically controlled break junctions. Such measurements can be made across a wide range of environments including ambient conditions, organic liquids, ionic liquids, aqueous solutions, electrolytes, and ultra high vacuum. This has given new insights into charge transport across molecule electrical junctions, and these experimental methods have been complemented with increasingly sophisticated theory. This article reviews progress in single-molecule electronics from a chemical perspective and discusses topics such as the molecule-surface coupling in electrical junctions, chemical control, and supramolecular interactions in junctions and gating charge transport. The article concludes with an outlook regarding chemical analysis based on single-molecule conductance.

  15. Microstructural studies of dental amalgams using analytical transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooghan, Tejpal Kaur

    Dental amalgams have been used for centuries as major restorative materials for decaying teeth. Amalgams are prepared by mixing alloy particles which contain Ag, Sn, and Cu as the major constituent elements with liquid Hg. The study of microstructure is essential in understanding the setting reactions and improving the properties of amalgams. Until the work reported in this dissertation, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used commonly to analyze amalgam microstructures. No previous systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has been performed due to sample preparation difficulties and composite structure of dental amalgams. The goal of this research was to carry out detailed microstructural and compositional studies of dental amalgams. This was accomplished using the enhanced spatial resolution of the TEM and its associated microanalytical techniques, namely, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and micro-microdiffraction (mumuD). A new method was developed for thinning amalgam samples to electron transparency using the "wedge technique." Velvalloy, a low-Cu amalgam, and Tytin, a high-Cu amalgam, were the two amalgams characterized. Velvalloy is composed of a Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1)/HgSnsb{7-9}\\ (gammasb2) matrix surrounding unreacted Agsb3Sn (gamma) particles. In addition, hitherto uncharacterized reaction layers between Agsb3Sn(gamma)/Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb2)\\ and\\ Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1)/HgSnsb{7-9}\\ (gammasb2) were observed and analyzed. An Ag-Hg-Sn (betasb1) phase was clearly identified for the first time. In Tytin, the matrix consists of Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1) grains. Fine precipitates of Cusb6Snsb5\\ (etasp') are embedded inside the gammasb1 and at the grain boundaries. These precipitates are responsible for the improved creep resistance of Tytin compared to Velvalloy. The additional Cu has completely eliminated the gammasb

  16. SCAN+

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  17. Raman spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic analysis of a novel biological colonisation of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge Villar, Susana E.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Benning, Liane G.

    2006-09-01

    A novel type of colonisation of a basaltic rock, collected on the Arctic island of Svalbard, Norway, during the AMASE expedition in 2004, was characterised using Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The sample contains two different types of extremophile communities, one occurring behind a radial white crystallisation and the other occurring inside a dark vacuole. Several types of minerals and microbial colonies have been identified by both Raman spectroscopy and SEM analyses. It is the first time that photosynthetic communities have been documented to colonise the inside of dark basaltic rocks. Our discovery has important implications for planetary exploration because it extends the analytical capability and our understanding of microbial rock colonisations to subaerial volcanic outcrops and has wide implications towards the search for life in extraterrestrial planets. In this work we also demonstrate that the use of different laser wavelengths for Raman spectroscopic studies and complementary microscopic analysis are critical for a comprehensive organic and inorganic compound identification.

  18. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suhyun; Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-01

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi2 source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of ds at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing dl (ds ˜ ndl, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  19. Optical microscopy versus scanning electron microscopy in urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Stone analysis is incompletely done in many clinical centers. Identification of the stone component is essential for deciding future prophylaxis. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) still remains a distant dream for routine hospital work. It is in this context that optical microscopy is suggested as an alternate procedure. The objective of this article was to assess the utility of an optical microscope which gives magnification of up to 40x and gives clear picture of the surface of the stones. In order to authenticate the morphological analysis of urinary stones, SEM and elemental distribution analysis were performed. A total of 250 urinary stones of different compositions were collected from stone clinic, photographed, observed under an optical microscope, and optical photographs were taken at different angles. Twenty-five representative samples among these were gold sputtered to make them conductive and were fed into the SEM machine. Photographs of the samples were taken at different angles at magnifications up to 4,000. Elemental distribution analysis (EDAX) was done to confirm the composition. The observations of the two studies were compared. The different appearances of the stones under optical illuminated microscopy were mostly standardized appearances, namely bosselations of pure whewellite, spiculations of weddellite, bright yellow colored appearance of uric acid, and dirty white amorphous appearance of phosphates. SEM and EDAX gave clearer pictures and gave added confirmation of the stone composition. From the references thus obtained, it was possible to confirm the composition by studying the optical microscopic pictures. Higher magnification capacity of the SEM and the EDAX patterns are useful to give reference support for performing optical microscopy work. After standardization, routine analysis can be performed with optical microscopy. The advantage of the optical microscope is that, it

  20. [High resolution scanning electron microscopy of isolated outer hair cells].

    PubMed

    Koitschev, A; Müller, H

    1996-11-01

    Isolated hair cell preparations have gained wide acceptance as a model for studying physiological and molecular properties of the sensory cells involved in the hearing process. Ultrastructural details, such as stereocilia links, lateral membrane substructure or synaptic links are of crucial importance for normal sensory transduction. For this reason, we developed a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) procedure to study the surface of isolated hair cells. Cells were mechanically and/or enzymatically separated, isolated and immobilized on cover slips by alcian blue and fixed by 2% glutardialdehyde or 1% OsO4. After dehydration, preparations were critical point-dried and sputter-coated with gold-palladium (2-4 nm). Up to 5 nm resolution was achieved. Optimal fixation kept the cells in their typical cylindrical forms. Preservation of the stereocilia and the apical plates of the outer hair cells depended strongly on the fixation process. Tip- and side-links were observed only sporadically because of the aggressive preparation procedure. The lateral plasma membranes of the cell bodies showed regular granular structures of 5-7 nm diameter at maximal magnification. The granular structure of the cell membrane seemed to correspond to putative transmembrane proteins believed to generate membrane-based motility. The remnants of the nerve endings and/or supporting cells usually covered the cell base. The preservation of the cells was better when enzymatic isolation was omitted. The technique used allowed for high resolution ultrastructural examination of isolated hair cells and, when combined with immunological labeling, may permit the identification of proteins at a molecular level. PMID:9064297

  1. Visualization of Microbial Biomarkers by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainwright, Norman R.; Allen, Carlton C.; Child, Alice

    2001-01-01

    . Fortunately, many antimicrobial defense systems of higher organisms require sensitive detection to combat microbial pathogens. We employ here the primitive immune system of the evolutionarily ancient horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. This species relies on multi-enzyme signal amplification detection of cell wall molecules and they can be applied to the development of useful detectors of life. An extension of this work includes the visualization of microbial signatures by labeling LAL components with chromogenic or electron dense markers. The protein Limulus Anti-LPS Factor (LALF) has an extremely high affinity for LPS. By coupling LALF binding with colloidal gold labels we demonstrate a correlation of the structures visible by electron microscopy with biochemical evidence of microbial cell wall materials. Pure silica particles were mixed with cultures of E. coli (10(exp 6) cfu/mL). Samples were washed sequentially with buffered saline, LALF, antibody to LALF and finally colloidal gold-labeled Protein A. Negative controls were not exposed to E. coli but received identical treatment otherwise. Samples were coated with carbon and imaged on a JEOL JSM-840 scanning electron microscope with LaB6 source in the back scatter mode with the JEOL annular back scatter detector. 20 nm-scale black spots in this contrast-reversed image originate from electrons back-scattered by gold atoms. Negative controls did not give any signal. Future work will expand application of this technique to soil simulants and mineralized rock samples.

  2. The characterization of nanoparticles using analytical electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Whitney B.

    2011-06-01

    Nanoparticles are often overlooked during routine trace evidence analyses because of their small size and the degree of difficulty needed to efficiently characterize them. However, analytical electron microscopy (AEM) enables the characterization and/or identification of nanoparticles because of its high magnification capability, the ability to gather elemental data and also the ability to determine the internal structure of a single nanoparticles(1). There is a wide variety of natural and manufactured nanoparticles that are prominent within the environment and their presence becomes very valuable in the absence of larger particles. The combustion of materials produces by-products such as nano-sized carbon soot, fumes, fly ash and gun-shot residue (GSR). Using AEM, nano-sized carbon soot, fumes, fly ash and GSR can not only be distinguished from other nanoparticles within the environment but can also be distinguished from each other because of differences in morphology, elemental composition, and internal structure. The elemental information gathered from combustion by-products during AEM analysis can also give an indication of the original source material. Other nanoparticles such as paint pigments and fillers can also be characterized by AEM using morphology, electron diffraction and elemental composition.

  3. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  4. Systematic analytical and numerical studies of highly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shan-Wen

    Strong electron correlations in condensed matter systems give rise to a wide range of striking physical properties, producing phenomena as varied as high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions and the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. Quantum critical systems also exhibit strong correlations between a large number of degrees of freedom. In this thesis we study these complicated systems using a combination of analytical and numerical approaches. We perform systematic investigations, which adds to the robustness of our results. We develop a new method, based on the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm combined with finite-size scaling analysis, to study critical behavior in quantum spin chains and extract critical exponents. Accurate results are obtained for spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chains and the spin-1 chain at the critical point separating the Haldane and the dimerized phases. Disorder in a system can change its properties drastically. Plateau transitions in the integer quantum Hall effect provide the clearest example of quantum critical behavior in a disordered system. We provide analytical proof that the Chalker-Coddington model, which is used to describe the plateau transitions, is quantum critical. Starting from a field theory based on this model, equivalent to a non-Hermitian supersymmetric spin chain, we prove quantum criticality by a Lieb-Schultz-Mattis type theorem. This approach was motivated by numerical results obtained using the DMRG/finite-size scaling method. Our generalized LSM theorem also applies to the spin quantum Hall effect, which can appear in disordered d-wave superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry. The last part of the thesis is a renormalization-group study of two dimensional interacting electron systems. We obtain results relevant to high-temperature superconductors and also to the family of kappa - (BEDT - TTF)2X organic superconductors. At half filling, the fully nested

  5. Subsurface examination of a foliar biofilm using scanning electron- and focused-ion-beam microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB is capable of removing small cross sections to view the subsurface features and may be s...

  6. Analytical electron microscopy of biogenic and inorganic carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.

    1989-01-01

    In the terrestrial sedimentary environment, the mineralogically predominant carbonates are calcite-type minerals (rhombohedral carbonates) and aragonite-type minerals (orthorhombic carbonates). Most common minerals precipitating either inorganically or biogenically are high magnesium calcite and aragonite. High magnesium calcite (with magnesium carbonate substituting for more than 7 mole percent of the calcium carbonate) is stable only at temperatures greater than 700 C or thereabouts, and aragonite is stable only at pressures exceeding several kilobars of confining pressure. Therefore, these carbonates are expected to undergo chemical stabilization in the diagenetic environment to ultimately form stable calcite and dolomite. Because of the strong organic control of carbonate deposition in organisms during biomineralization, the microchemistry and microstructure of invertebrate skeletal material is much different than that present in inorganic carbonate cements. The style of preservation of microstructural features in skeletal material is therefore often quite distinctive when compared to that of inorganic carbonate even though wholesale recrystallization of the sediment has taken place. Microstructural and microchemical comparisons are made between high magnesium calcite echinoderm skeletal material and modern inorganic high magnesium calcite inorganic cements, using analytical electron microscopy and related techniques. Similar comparisons are made between analogous materials which have undergone stabilization in the diagenetic environment. Similar analysis schemes may prove useful in distinguishing between biogenic and inorganic carbonates in returned Martian carbonate samples.

  7. Investigations on CMOS photodiodes using scanning electron microscopy with electron beam induced current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, A.; Roger, F.; Loeffler, B.; Faccinelli, M.; Kirnstoetter, S.; Minixhofer, R.; Hadley, P.

    2014-09-01

    In this work the characterization of CMOS diodes with Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) measurements in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) are presented. Three-dimensional Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations of the EBIC measurement were performed for the first time to help interpret the experimental results. The TCAD simulations provide direct access to the spatial distribution of physical quantities (like mobility, lifetime etc.) which are very difficult to obtain experimentally. For the calibration of the simulation to the experiments, special designs of vertical p-n diodes were fabricated. These structures were investigated with respect to doping concentration, beam energy, and biasing. A strong influence of the surface preparation on the measurements and the extracted diffusion lengths are shown.

  8. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  9. Unveiling nanometric plasmons optical properties with advanced electron spectroscopy in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociak, Mathieu

    Since the pioneering work of Yamamoto, the use of electron spectroscopy such as Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in a Scanning (Transmission) Electron Microscope (STEM) has considerably helped improving our understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles. The resemblance of spectroscopic signals from electron and pure optical techniques leads to the intuition that both types of techniques are very close, an idea theoretically discussed by F.J. Garcia de Abajo and coworkers. However, it is also quite intuitive that CL and EELS should be different. For example, EELS helps detecting any sort of modes while CL can only detect radiative ones. On the other hand, even between optical spectroscopy techniques, clear differences such as energy shifts or spectral shapes changes are expected in the case of plasmons. The lack of adapted instrumentation capable of performing combined EELS and CL, as well as theoretical developments allowing to account for the generic difference between EELS and CL and their optical counterparts impeached a comprehensive understanding of plasmons physics with the otherwise amazing electron spectroscopies. In this talk, I will present recent experimental results showing combined EELS and CL spectral mapping of plasmonic properties for nanoparticles with several shapes (triangles, cubes, stars...) and composition (gold, silver, aluminum...). Helped with different theoretical tools, I will try to show how these results can be related to their optical counterparts (extinction, scattering), and what type of physical insights can be gained from these combined measurements. Finally, if time allows, pointing the weaknesses of state-of-the-art CL and EELS (in terms of spectral range and/or spectral resolution), I will present EELS results obtained on highly monochromated electron beams that could cope with these limitations

  10. Evolutionary developments in x ray and electron energy loss microanalysis instrumentation for the analytical electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaluzec, Nester J.

    Developments in instrumentation for both X ray Dispersive and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (XEDS/EELS) over the last ten years have given the experimentalist a greatly enhanced set of analytical tools for characterization. Microanalysts have waited for nearly two decades now in the hope of getting a true analytical microscope and the development of 300 to 400 kV instruments should have allowed us to attain this goal. Unfortunately, this has not generally been the case. While there have been some major improvements in the techniques, there has also been some devolution in the modern AEM (Analytical Electron Microscope). In XEDS, the majority of today's instruments are still plagued by the hole count effect, which was first described in detail over fifteen years ago. The magnitude of this problem can still reach the 20 percent level for medium atomic number species in a conventional off-the-shelf intermediate voltage AEM. This is an absurd situation and the manufacturers should be severely criticized. Part of the blame, however, also rests on the AEM community for not having come up with a universally agreed upon standard test procedure. Fortunately, such a test procedure is in the early stages of refinement. The proposed test specimen consists of an evaporated Cr film approx. 500 to 1000A thick supported upon a 3mm diameter Molybdenum 200 micron aperture.

  11. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ∼ nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  12. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  13. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  14. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  15. The effect of beam diameter on the electron skirt in a high pressure scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Belkorissat, R; Kadoun, A; Khelifa, B; Mathieu, C

    2004-01-01

    Helium gas and air are commonly used in the high pressure scanning electron microscope (HPSEM). The presence of a gaseous environment in the specimen chamber modifies the electron beam profile. In order to fully understand the beam-gas interaction, we have investigated the beam-diameter effect for two gases (helium and air) by Monte Carlo simulation. In this calculation, we have assumed that the electron beam is Gaussian and we have explored the influence of the nature of the gas at low voltage. When the beam diameter varies between 1 and 100 nm, there is no influence on the beam profile for these two gases. The resolving power of the HPSEM is not affected by the beam-gas interaction. These theoretical results have been compared with experimental images obtained at low voltage under air and helium gases. The variation of image quality at low voltage has confirmed the interest of helium for use in a Field Emission Gun SEM (FEGSEM) in high pressure (or low vacuum) conditions. PMID:15219900

  16. Scanning image detection (SID) system for conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) images.

    PubMed

    Tanji, T; Tomita, M; Kobayashi, H

    1990-08-01

    A new image detection system has been developed to display transmission electron microscope (TEM) images on a CRT without a video camera system. Deflection coils placed in both the upper space of an objective lens and in the lower space of the first intermediate lens scan a small electron probe simultaneously. The electrical signal acquired through an improved scintillator and a photomultiplier is synchronized with the scanning signal and displayed in a similar fashion to a conventional scanning TEM (STEM) instrument. A preliminary system using a 100 kV conventional TEM (CTEM) equipped with a hairpin-type electron gun, produced an image with a spatial resolution of 1 nm. PMID:2391565

  17. Correcting for 3D distortion when using backscattered electron detectors in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    A variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) can produce a topographic surface relief of a physical object under examination, in addition to its two-dimensional (2D) image. This topographic surface relief is especially helpful when dealing with porous rock because it may elucidate the pore-space structure as well as grain shape and size. Whether the image accurately reproduces the physical object depends on the management of the hardware, acquisition, and postprocessing. Two problems become apparent during testing: (a) a topographic surface relief of a precision ball bearing is distorted and does not correspond to the physical dimensions of the actual sphere and (b) an image of a topographic surface relief of a Berea sandstone is geometrically tilted and topographically distorted even after standard corrections are applied. The procedure presented here is to ensure the veracity of the image, and includes: (a) adjusting the brightness and contrast levels originally provided by the manufacturer and (b) tuning the amplifiers of the backscatter detector plates to be equal to each other, and producing zero voltage when VPSEM is idle. This procedure is tested and verified on the said two physical samples. SCANNING 31: 59-64, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:19204999

  18. Electron sputtering in the analytical electron microscope: Calculations and experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzec, N.J.; Mansfield, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    The environment of the electron microscope is particularly severe when one considers the energy deposited in a specimen during typical experimental conditions. Conventional imaging experiments tend to employ electron current densities ranging from approx.0.1 to 1 A/cm/sup 2/ while during microanalysis conditions probe current densities can range from 10 to values as high as 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/. At 100 kV this corresponds to power densities from 100 Kilowatts/cm/sup 2/ to 10/sup 4/ Megawatts/cm/sup 2/. These energy deposition rates can result in electron irradiation damage which can substantially alter the structure and composition of a specimen through either ionization damage in organics or by displacement damage in inorganics and/or combinations thereof. For the most part materials scientists operating an analytical electron microscope (AEM) in the 100 to 200 kV regime studying metallic and/or ceramic specimens have been spared the need to consider either of these effects as their specimens have tended to be sufficiently resilient. However, the advent of the new medium voltage microscopes operating in the 300 to 400 kV regime with high brightness guns and clean or ultrahigh vacuum systems has necessitated a reevaluation of the effects of higher voltage operation in light of the destructive nature of the electron beam particularly under microanalysis conditions.

  19. Automatic determination of recrystallization parameters in metals by electron backscatter pattern line scans

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Axel W.; Jensen, Dorte Juul

    2003-11-15

    In this paper, a new automatic procedure for determining critical recrystallization parameters, which are important when studying recrystallization kinetics, is presented. The method is based on electron backscatter patterns (EBSP) line scans using a scanning electron microscope, where three parallel lines are scanned. The concepts of equivalence and connectivity are used to group the data points into those originating in recrystallized grains and those originating in the deformed matrix. The computer program implementing the automatic procedure is tested in three different ways: three short scans are performed, where the calculations are also done by hand; the results of two long scans are compared to the direct observation of the microstructure seen in orientation image maps (OIMs) [Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 166 (1993) 59], and the results of scans from a series of samples are compared to statistical results obtained manually. A good correlation was achieved in all three cases.

  20. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    de Jonge, Niels [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  1. Electronic linearization of piezoelectric actuators and noise budget in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, G.; Santucci, A.; Carlà, M.; Dolci, D.; Lanzi, L.

    2006-07-01

    The maximum resolution achievable with a scanning probe microscope is limited by the probe size, by the mechanism of interaction with the sample, as is widely known, and by the electronic noise in the instrument. The evaluation of this noise for the three motion axes of a linearized high resolution scanning electrochemical microscope has been carried through and the intrinsic maximum resolution is discussed.

  2. SEM (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY) EVIDENCE FOR A NEW SPECIES, 'GIARDIA PSITTACI' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia trophozoites were isolated from the small intestine of budgerigars (parakeets) and examined morphologically with light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of a claw-hammer shape median body suggested classification of these trophozoites as G. duodenalis. Howeve...

  3. Stochastic Micro-Pattern for Automated Correlative Fluorescence - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Begemann, Isabell; Viplav, Abhiyan; Rasch, Christiane; Galic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Studies of cellular surface features gain from correlative approaches, where live cell information acquired by fluorescence light microscopy is complemented by ultrastructural information from scanning electron micrographs. Current approaches to spatially align fluorescence images with scanning electron micrographs are technically challenging and often cost or time-intensive. Relying exclusively on open-source software and equipment available in a standard lab, we have developed a method for rapid, software-assisted alignment of fluorescence images with the corresponding scanning electron micrographs via a stochastic gold micro-pattern. Here, we provide detailed instructions for micro-pattern production and image processing, troubleshooting for critical intermediate steps, and examples of membrane ultra-structures aligned with the fluorescence signal of proteins enriched at such sites. Together, the presented method for correlative fluorescence – scanning electron microscopy is versatile, robust and easily integrated into existing workflows, permitting image alignment with accuracy comparable to existing approaches with negligible investment of time or capital. PMID:26647824

  4. Stochastic Micro-Pattern for Automated Correlative Fluorescence - Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Begemann, Isabell; Viplav, Abhiyan; Rasch, Christiane; Galic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Studies of cellular surface features gain from correlative approaches, where live cell information acquired by fluorescence light microscopy is complemented by ultrastructural information from scanning electron micrographs. Current approaches to spatially align fluorescence images with scanning electron micrographs are technically challenging and often cost or time-intensive. Relying exclusively on open-source software and equipment available in a standard lab, we have developed a method for rapid, software-assisted alignment of fluorescence images with the corresponding scanning electron micrographs via a stochastic gold micro-pattern. Here, we provide detailed instructions for micro-pattern production and image processing, troubleshooting for critical intermediate steps, and examples of membrane ultra-structures aligned with the fluorescence signal of proteins enriched at such sites. Together, the presented method for correlative fluorescence - scanning electron microscopy is versatile, robust and easily integrated into existing workflows, permitting image alignment with accuracy comparable to existing approaches with negligible investment of time or capital. PMID:26647824

  5. Electronically scanned multichannel pressure transducer system for cryogenic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Research into the application of custom doped piezoresistive silicon pressure sensors has led to a multichannel pressure sensor design that will operate accurately and reliably at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal effects upon multichannel pressure sensors are mapped by thermal calibrations and are represented by sets of nth order coefficients specific to each sensor. The thermal offset and sensitivity variations are corrected by computer algorithms which scan the sensors, recall correction coefficients from thermally induced sensor variations, and apply these to correct the sensor's output measurement uncertainty to within 0.5 percent of full scale output for combined offset and sensitivity. A prototype sensor system has been fabricated, and performance test data are presented.

  6. Analytical distance distributions in systems of spherical symmetry with applications to double electron-electron resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattnig, Daniel R.; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2013-05-01

    Based on a simple geometrical approach, we derive analytical expression of the probability density functions (pdfs) of distance of probe molecules distributed homogeneously in spherical aggregates with shell structure. These distance distributions can be utilized in the investigation of double electron-electron resonance (DEER) data of disordered nanometer-sized spin clusters. Structural insights and geometrical parameters of the aggregates can be extracted by modeling the DEER time traces based on the analytical pdfs. This approach is efficient and avoids difficulties of the model-free solution of the inverse problem that are related to multi-spin effects, limited excitation bandwidth, bias introduced by the regularization scheme, or ambiguity resulting from broad distance distributions. The derived pdfs can serve as building blocks, from which the distance distributions in arbitrary spherically symmetric objects can be assembled. The scenario of the pumped species being chemically distinct from the observed species is covered as well as that of a single type of probe molecules. We demonstrate the merits of analytical distance distributions by studying the distribution of three different spin probes in SDS micelles. By simultaneously analyzing DEER data corresponding to different spin probe concentrations, the distribution of the spin probes over the micelle can be determined. Employing Bayesian inference it is found that for all probes studied, a spherical shell model is most appropriate among the studied models and by orders of magnitude more likely than a homogeneous distribution in a ball. This statement also applies to probes that are deemed nonpolar. We envisage that the spin probe distributions in disordered soft and hard matter systems can now be quantified using DEER spectroscopy with greater precision and reduced ambiguity.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis studies of human pineal concretions.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, T; Mori, R; Debari, K; Yamada, M

    1994-10-01

    The calcareous concretions of human pineal bodies were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The initial concretions measuring 5-7 microns in diameter may have started at the calcified pinealocytes. They grew appositionally forming concentric laminations, and then the simple calcospherulites over 20 microns occasionally aggregated with each other. Some of them became numerous spherulite-aggregated concretions. Others individually grew with scallop-shaped concentric laminations at intervals of 0.05-1 microns and became lobated calcospherulites up to 0.5 mm. The concretions over 0.5 mm were formed by their attachments. The major elements were Ca and P, while traces of S, Mg, and Na were detected. In the calcification and crystallization values, the center of the concretions over 50 microns was significantly higher than the periphery, while there were no differences among the centers and also among the peripheries. The Ca and P amounts in the center were 30.8% and 14.2% by weight and the Ca/P molar ratio was 1.68; thereby the sand-grain-shaped crystals may be nearly hydroxyapatite, as reported previously. PMID:7699308

  8. Nondestructive determination of the depth of planar p-n junctions by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, J.-Y.; Gatos, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring nondestructively the depth of planar p-n junctions in simple devices as well as in integrated-circuit structures with the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) by scanning parallel to the junction in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by the commonly used destructive method of lapping at an angle to the junction and staining to reveal the junction.

  9. Nanoscale 3D cellular imaging by axial scanning transmission electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Azari, Afrouz A.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Guofeng; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Leapman, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional structural information about supramolecular assemblies and organelles in a cellular context but image degradation, caused by scattering of transmitted electrons, limits applicability in specimens thicker than 300 nm. We show that scanning transmission electron tomography of 1000 nm thick samples using axial detection provides resolution comparable to conventional electron tomography. The method is demonstrated by reconstructing a human erythrocyte infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:19718033

  10. Large area fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticle grating structure by conventional scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheer, Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukharjee, C.

    2015-06-24

    Plasmonic nanoparticle grating (PNG) structure of different periods has been fabricated by electron beam lithography using silver halide based transmission electron microscope film as a substrate. Conventional scanning electron microscope is used as a fabrication tool for electron beam lithography. Optical microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been used for its morphological and elemental characterization. Optical characterization is performed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique.

  11. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  12. Xylem feeding by spittlebug nymphs: some observations by optical and cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Crews, L; McCully, M; Canny, M; Huang, C; Ling, L

    1998-04-01

    The feeding of spittlebug nymphs (Philaenus spumarius) from mature xylem vessels was studied by optical and cryo-analytical scanning electron microscopy. Feeding did not produce xylem embolisms and vessels remained liquid-filled during the day. Saliva secreted by the insect forms a hardened lining (salivary sheath) between the stylet bundle and the plant tissues. This sheath is continuous through the hole made by the stylets as they enter a vessel, and it extends into the vessel and along its periphery beyond the breach. The sheath is heterogeneous, with a thin outer layer adjoining the plant tissues and a thicker layer that contacts the stylet bundle. Both layers give positive histochemical reactions for proteins and, in fresh tissues, contain a red, strongly autofluorescent pigment, possibly condensed tannin derived from the plant (which is lost during tissue preparation), and other phenyl propanoid compounds, which are retained and which may produce the intense reaction of the periodic-acid-Schiff's-positive inner layer. It is concluded that the salivary sheath allows the insects to feed from functioning vessels without embolizing them or losing xylem fluid to the surrounding tissues. These findings and others in the entomological literature indicate low daytime tensions in the xylem conduits of the host plants. PMID:21684926

  13. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium. PMID:26739864

  14. Photoemission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum’s magnetosome chains

    SciTech Connect

    Keutner, Christoph; von Bohlen, Alex; Berges, Ulf; Espeter, Philipp; Schneider, Claus M.; Westphal, Carsten

    2014-10-07

    Magnetotactic bacteria are of great interdisciplinary interest, since a vast field of applications from magnetic recording media to medical nanorobots is conceivable. A key feature for a further understanding is the detailed knowledge about the magnetosome chain within the bacteria. We report on two preparation procedures suitable for UHV experiments in reflective geometry. Further, we present the results of scanning electron microscopy, as well as the first photoemission electron microscopy experiments, both accessing the magnetosomes within intact magnetotactic bacteria and compare these to scanning electron microscopy data from the literature. From the images, we can clearly identify individual magnetosomes within their chains.

  15. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  16. Some strategies for quantitative scanning Auger electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R.; Peacock, D. C.; Prutton, M.

    1985-01-01

    The general applicability of power law forms of the background in electron spectra is pointed out and exploited for background removal from under Auger peaks. This form of B(E) is found to be extremely sensitive to instrumental alignment and to fault-free construction - an observation which can be used to set up analyser configurations in an accurate way. Also, differences between N(E) and B(E) can be used to derive a spectrometer transmission function T(E). The questions of information density in an energy-analysing spatially-resolving instrument are addressed after reliable instrumental characterization has been established. Strategies involving ratio histograms, showing the population distribution of the ratio of a pair of Auger peak heights, composition scatter diagrams and windowed imaging are discussed and illustrated.

  17. Electron detection characteristics of a slow-scan CCD camera, imaging plates and film, and electron image restoration.

    PubMed

    Zuo, J M

    2000-05-01

    Electron detection characteristics are summarized for the slow scan CCD (SSC) camera, imaging plates, and film. The advantage of each detector is demonstrated with the selected examples of electron diffraction and imaging. The Richardson-Lucy algorithm for image restoration is described and tested for images recorded with the SSC camera. The effectiveness of image restoration is demonstrated for the recorded high-resolution lattice image, energy-loss spectrum, and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern. PMID:10816266

  18. Imaging interactions of metal oxide nanoparticles with macrophage cells by ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques†

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Starr, Clarise R.; Armstrong, Linda S.; Ponce, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Use of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles in a plethora of biological applications and custom products has warned about some possible dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. Macrophages are key components of the innate immune system used to study possible toxic effects and internalization of different nanoparticulate materials. In this work, ultra-high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to offer new insights into the dynamical processes of interaction of nanomaterials with macrophage cells dosed with different concentrations of metal oxide nanoparticles (CeO2, TiO2 and ZnO). The versatility of FE-SEM has allowed obtaining a detailed characterization of processes of adsorption and endocytosis of nanoparticles, by using advanced analytical and imaging techniques on complete unstained uncoated cells, including secondary electron imaging, high-sensitive backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and stereoimaging. Low voltage BF/DF-STEM confirmed nanoparticle adsorption and internalization into endosomes of CeO2 and TiO2, whereas ZnO develop apoptosis after 24 h of interaction caused by dissolution and invasion of cell nucleus. Ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques provided new insights into interactions of inorganic nanoparticles with macrophage cells with high spatial resolution. PMID:23023106

  19. Structural examination of lithium niobate ferroelectric crystals by combining scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, P. V.; Ped'ko, B. B.; Kuznecova, Yu. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure of lithium niobate single crystals is studied by a complex technique that combines scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. By implementing the piezoresponse force method on an atomic force microscope, the domain structure of lithium niobate crystals, which was not revealed without electron beam irradiation, is visualized

  20. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy of High Temperature Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Software and hardware updates to further extend the capability of the electron microscope were carried out. A range of materials such as intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix composites, ceramics and intermetallic compounds, based on refractory elements were examined under this research. Crystal structure, size, shape and volume fraction distribution of various phases which constitute the microstructures were examined. Deformed materials were studied to understand the effect of interfacial microstructure on the deformation and fracture behavior of these materials. Specimens tested for a range of mechanical property requirements, such as stress rupture, creep, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, etc. were examined. Microstructural and microchemical stability of these materials exposed to simulated operating environments were investigated. The EOIM Shuttle post-flight samples were also examined to understand the influence of low gravity processing on microstructure. In addition, fractographic analyses of Nb-Zr-W, titanium aluminide, molybdenum silicide and silicon carbide samples were carried out. Extensive characterization of sapphire fibers in the fiber-reinforced composites made by powder cloth processing was made. Finally, pressure infiltration casting of metal-matrix composites was carried out.

  1. The material dependence of temperature measurement resolution in thermal scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaowei; Hull, Robert

    2013-03-18

    Thermal scanning electron microscopy is a recently developed temperature mapping technique based on thermal diffuse scattering in electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope. It provides nano-scale and non-contact temperature mapping capabilities. Due to the specific temperature sensitive mechanism inherent to this technique, the temperature resolution is highly material dependent. A thorough investigation of what material properties affect the temperature resolution is important for realizing the inherent temperature resolution limit for each material. In this paper, three material dependent parameters-the Debye-Waller B-factor temperature sensitivity, backscatter yield, and lattice constant-are shown to control the temperature resolution.

  2. New methods for cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Reid, S A

    1983-01-01

    Experiments using the CL imaging mode to recognise osteoid in the polished, cut surfaces of bone biopsies embedded in PMMA led to the development of a number of new methods for contrast formation in CL images in the SEM. These involve: (1) enhancing or (2) reducing the CL signal by staining the specimen, (3) utilising the cathodoluminescence of glass microscope slides to produce images of histological sections mounted on glass so that features in the section which scatter the electron beam appear dark against a light background, and (4) enhancing the CL signal from PMMA so that features which are less penetrated by the scintillator show up dark against a bright background. Efforts to increase the efficiency of light collection resulted in the development of a new means for manufacturing reflector-cum-light guide CL detectors by wrapping aluminum foil around a wooden former. These detectors enshroud the specimen so that CL light can only escape to the photomultiplier window (or back up the final lens). A variety of such designs have proved more efficient than the conventional plastic light guides used as CL detectors. By enlarging the beam entry aperture, other SE and BSE detectors can be used simultaneously. Examples of the value of the CL mode in mineralised tissue research include the use of enhanced CL plastic embedding media to detect marrow space and of enhanced osteoid CL to detect unmineralised bone matrix; the use of tetracycline as a growth marker in pathological studies of bone and experimental studies with bone, dentine and enamel; the use of bisbenzamid to locate and count nuclei in osteoclasts, the hard tissue resorbtive cells; and the use of superficial stain absorption of auto-CL to locate stained material on tooth surfaces, with the view to monitor the efficiency of periodontal therapy. PMID:6669948

  3. Customized patterned substrates for highly versatile correlative light-scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Lorena; Sogne, Elisa; Rodighiero, Simona; Marchesi, Davide; Milani, Paolo; Francolini, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the advantages of light and electron microscopy, thus making it possible to follow dynamic events in living cells at nanometre resolution. Various CLEM approaches and devices have been developed, each of which has its own advantages and technical challenges. We here describe our customized patterned glass substrates, which improve the feasibility of correlative fluorescence/confocal and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25391455

  4. Customized patterned substrates for highly versatile correlative light-scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Lorena; Sogne, Elisa; Rodighiero, Simona; Marchesi, Davide; Milani, Paolo; Francolini, Maura

    2014-11-01

    Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the advantages of light and electron microscopy, thus making it possible to follow dynamic events in living cells at nanometre resolution. Various CLEM approaches and devices have been developed, each of which has its own advantages and technical challenges. We here describe our customized patterned glass substrates, which improve the feasibility of correlative fluorescence/confocal and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Analytic image reconstruction from partial data for a single-scan cone-beam CT with scatter correction

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Jonghwan; Pua, Rizza; Cho, Seungryong; Kim, Insoo; Han, Bumsoo

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: A beam-blocker composed of multiple strips is a useful gadget for scatter correction and/or for dose reduction in cone-beam CT (CBCT). However, the use of such a beam-blocker would yield cone-beam data that can be challenging for accurate image reconstruction from a single scan in the filtered-backprojection framework. The focus of the work was to develop an analytic image reconstruction method for CBCT that can be directly applied to partially blocked cone-beam data in conjunction with the scatter correction. Methods: The authors developed a rebinned backprojection-filteration (BPF) algorithm for reconstructing images from the partially blocked cone-beam data in a circular scan. The authors also proposed a beam-blocking geometry considering data redundancy such that an efficient scatter estimate can be acquired and sufficient data for BPF image reconstruction can be secured at the same time from a single scan without using any blocker motion. Additionally, scatter correction method and noise reduction scheme have been developed. The authors have performed both simulation and experimental studies to validate the rebinned BPF algorithm for image reconstruction from partially blocked cone-beam data. Quantitative evaluations of the reconstructed image quality were performed in the experimental studies. Results: The simulation study revealed that the developed reconstruction algorithm successfully reconstructs the images from the partial cone-beam data. In the experimental study, the proposed method effectively corrected for the scatter in each projection and reconstructed scatter-corrected images from a single scan. Reduction of cupping artifacts and an enhancement of the image contrast have been demonstrated. The image contrast has increased by a factor of about 2, and the image accuracy in terms of root-mean-square-error with respect to the fan-beam CT image has increased by more than 30%. Conclusions: The authors have successfully demonstrated that the

  6. Monte Carlo modelling of the low-loss electron signal in scanning electron microscopy and comparison with the BSE signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, C.; El-Gomati, M. M.; Matthew, J. A. D.; Tear, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Nanotechnology places increasing demands on techniques for sample characterisation on the sub-100 nm length scale, and the low-loss electron (LLE) signal may provide one possible way of addressing this need. Simulations of the LLE signal from a line-scan across a semiconductor superlattice structure have been performed using two different Monte Carlo models in order to assess their effectiveness in predicting spatial resolution for compositional imaging. Additionally, experimental measurements of LLE data using a detector added to a scanning electron microscope were made to investigate compositional contrast.

  7. Analytic procedures for determining dimensional redundancies in electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herskowitz, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Methods for ascertaining dimensional redundancies in mathematical functions related to electronic phenomena and for removal of redundancies are presented. Two computer programs, one to determine a complete B-matrix and the other to optimize the matrix, are discussed. Three subroutines are analyzed.

  8. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  9. Imaging of Nitroxides at 250 MHz using Rapid-Scan Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Biller, Joshua R.; Tseitlin, Mark; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Weismiller, Hilary A.; Elajaili, Hanan; Rosen, Gerald M.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    Projections for 2D spectral-spatial images were obtained by continuous wave and rapid-scan electron paramagnetic resonance using a bimodal cross-loop resonator at 251 MHz. The phantom consisted of three 4 mm tubes containing different 15N,2H-substituted nitroxides. Rapid-scan and continuous wave images were obtained with 5 min total acquisition times. For comparison, images also were obtained with 29 s acquisition time for rapid scan and 15 min for continuous wave. Relative to continuous wave projections obtained for the same data acquisition time, rapid-scan projections had significantly less low-frequency noise and substantially higher signal-to-noise at higher gradients. Because of the improved image quality for the same data acquisition time, linewidths could be determined more accurately from the rapid-scan images than from the continuous wave images. PMID:24650729

  10. Probing electron transport and structural properties of nanostructures on Si with a quadraprobe scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Wendelken, J F; Li, An-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport and structural properties of nanostructured materials have been examined with a newly developed low temperature quadraprobe scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system. The quadraprobe STM system, as a "nano" version of a four-probe station provides an integrated research platform with a low temperature four-probe STM, a molecular-beam epitaxy growth chamber, a high resolution scanning electron microscope, and a scanning Auger microscope. The four STM probes can be driven independently with sub-nanometer precision, enabling conventional STM imaging and four-point electrical transport study of surface electronic systems and nanostructured materials at temperatures down to 10 K. Self-assembled nanostructures grown on Si by doping with metal atoms (Au, Gd, Ag) have been fabricated and characterized in situ.

  11. Volumetric LiDAR scanning of a wind turbine wake and comparison with a 3D analytical wake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    A correct estimation of the future power production is of capital importance whenever the feasibility of a future wind farm is being studied. This power estimation relies mostly on three aspects: (1) a reliable measurement of the wind resource in the area, (2) a well-established power curve of the future wind turbines and, (3) an accurate characterization of the wake effects; the latter being arguably the most challenging one due to the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of extensive full-scale data sets that could be used to validate analytical or numerical models. The current project addresses the problem of obtaining a volumetric description of a full-scale wake of a 2MW wind turbine in terms of velocity deficit and turbulence intensity using three scanning wind LiDARs and two sonic anemometers. The characterization of the upstream flow conditions is done by one scanning LiDAR and two sonic anemometers, which have been used to calculate incoming vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, wind direction and an approximation to turbulence intensity, as well as the thermal stability of the atmospheric boundary layer. The characterization of the wake is done by two scanning LiDARs working simultaneously and pointing downstream from the base of the wind turbine. The direct LiDAR measurements in terms of radial wind speed can be corrected using the upstream conditions in order to provide good estimations of the horizontal wind speed at any point downstream of the wind turbine. All this data combined allow for the volumetric reconstruction of the wake in terms of velocity deficit as well as turbulence intensity. Finally, the predictions of a 3D analytical model [1] are compared to the 3D LiDAR measurements of the wind turbine. The model is derived by applying the laws of conservation of mass and momentum and assuming a Gaussian distribution for the velocity deficit in the wake. This model has already been validated using high resolution wind-tunnel measurements

  12. Three-dimensional imaging of carbon nanostructures by scanning confocal electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Shimojo, Masayuki; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2009-10-01

    Although scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) shows a promise for optical depth sectioning with high resolution, practical and theoretical problems have prevented its application to three-dimensional (3D) imaging. We employed a stage-scanning system in which only the specimen is moved three dimensionally under a fixed lens configuration, and an annular dark-field (ADF) aperture which blocks direct beams and selects only the scattered electrons. This ADF-SCEM improved depth resolution sufficiently to perform optical depth sectioning. Finally, we succeeded in demonstrating the 3D reconstruction of carbon nanocoils using ADF-SCEM.

  13. Analytical transmission electron microscopy in the third dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudfeld, Daniela; Lourie, Oleg; Kujawa, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    For researchers in metallurgy, energy storage or functional nanomaterials, where elemental distribution is crucial to performance, full characterization is more difficult by decreasing feature sizes and increasingly complex architectures. Two-dimensional imaging and analytical techniques often cannot characterize nanostructures completely. A new three-dimensional (3D) tomography technique for STEM XEDS, namely ChemiSTEMTM Technology [1], reveals the true microstructure of materials offering high X-ray collection efficiency via its windowless detector design, and fast XEDS mapping with tilt response at all angles. ChemiSTEM features the X-FEG and Super X, containing four symmetric detectors for 3D chemical imaging at 0 degree tilt, with significant EDX signal collected under all tilt conditions. The EDS signal of STEM XEDS image tilt series can be processed like normal z-contrast images, because of the monotonic relationship between the EDS signal and the thickness of the TEM foil. Four symmetrically arranged silicon drift detectors (SDD) provide extreme high output count rates (300 kcps) required for acquisition of EDX maps of thick samples, especially on 3 mm disk samples for 3D tomography studies. Examples of 3D chemical mapping using XEDS are given on (InGa)N Nanopyramid LEDs, Ni based super alloy material for turbine blades, dielectric transistor, and catalytic particles. In lithium ion batteries, the elemental segregation of manganese and nickel, which is responsible for the aging of electrode materials made from lithium-nickel-manganese oxide layered nanoparticles was analyzed in 3D XEDS mapping [2].

  14. Morphology and deflection properties of bat wing sensory hairs: scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning vibrometry, and mechanics model.

    PubMed

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, S J; Liu, H; Yu, M; Moss, C F

    2016-01-01

    Bat wings are highly adaptive airfoils that enable demanding flight maneuvers, which are performed with astonishing robustness under turbulent conditions, and stability at slow flight velocities. The bat wing is sparsely covered with microscopically small, sensory hairs that are associated with tactile receptors. In a previous study we demonstrated that bat wing hairs are involved in sensing airflow for improved flight maneuverability. Here, we report physical measurements of these hairs and their distribution on the wing surface of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, based on scanning electron microscopy analyses. The wing hairs are strongly tapered, and are found on both the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces. Laser scanning vibrometry tests of 43 hairs from twelve locations across the wing of the big brown bat revealed that their natural frequencies inversely correlate with length and range from 3.7 to 84.5 kHz. Young's modulus of the average wing hair was calculated at 4.4 GPa, which is comparable with rat whiskers or arthropod airflow-sensing hairs. PMID:27545727

  15. Scanning Transmission X-Ray, Laser Scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscopy Mapping of the Exopolymeric Matrix of Microbial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J. R.; Swerhone, G. D. W.; Leppard, G. G.; Araki, T.; Zhang, X.; West, M. M.; Hitchcock, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to map the distribution of macromolecular subcomponents (e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) of biofilm cells and matrix. The biofilms were developed from river water supplemented with methanol, and although they comprised a complex microbial community, the biofilms were dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. TEM provided the highest-resolution structural imaging, CLSM provided detailed compositional information when used in conjunction with molecular probes, and STXM provided compositional mapping of macromolecule distributions without the addition of probes. By examining exactly the same region of a sample with combinations of these techniques (STXM with CLSM and STXM with TEM), we demonstrate that this combination of multimicroscopy analysis can be used to create a detailed correlative map of biofilm structure and composition. We are using these correlative techniques to improve our understanding of the biochemical basis for biofilm organization and to assist studies intended to investigate and optimize biofilms for environmental remediation applications. PMID:12957944

  16. Watching Domains Grow: In-situ studies of polarization switching by combined Scanning Probe and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hye Jung; Kalinin, Sergei V; Yang, S.Y; Yu, P; Bhattacharya, S.; Wu, P; Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Chen, Long-Qing; Ramesh, R.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric domain nucleation and growth in multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} films is observed directly by applying a local electric field with a conductive tip inside a scanning transmission electron microscope. The nucleation and growth of a ferroelastic domain and its interaction with pre-existing 71{sup o} domain walls are observed and compared with the results of phase-field modeling. In particular, a preferential nucleation site and direction-dependent pinning of domain walls are observed due to slow kinetics of metastable switching in the sample without a bottom electrode. These in situ spatially resolved observations of a first-order bias-induced phase transition reveal the mesoscopic mechanisms underpinning functionality of a wide range of multiferroic materials.

  17. Semi-empirical model for the generation of dose distributions produced by a scanning electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, R.; Gignac, C.E.; Agostinelli, A.G.; Rothberg, S.; Schulz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    There are linear accelerators (Sagittaire and Saturne accelerators produced by Compagnie Generale de Radiologie (CGR/MeV) Corporation) which produce broad, flat electron fields by magnetically scanning the relatively narrow electron beam as it emerges from the accelerator vacuum system. A semi-empirical model, which mimics the scanning action of this type of accelerator, was developed for the generation of dose distributions in homogeneous media. The model employs the dose distributions of the scanning electron beams. These were measured with photographic film in a polystyrene phantom by turning off the magnetic scanning system. The mean deviation calculated from measured dose distributions is about 0.2%; a few points have deviations as large as 2 to 4% inside of the 50% isodose curve, but less than 8% outside of the 50% isodose curve. The model has been used to generate the electron beam library required by a modified version of a commercially-available computerized treatment-planning system. (The RAD-8 treatment planning system was purchased from the Digital Equipment Corporation. It is currently available from Electronic Music Industries (EMI), Ltd.)

  18. Feynman Path Integral Approach to Electron Diffraction for One and Two Slits: Analytical Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beau, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an analytic solution of the famous problem of diffraction and interference of electrons through one and two slits (for simplicity, only the one-dimensional case is considered). In addition to exact formulae, various approximations of the electron distribution are shown which facilitate the interpretation of the results.…

  19. X-Ray Microanalysis in the Variable Pressure (Environmental) Scanning Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Dale E.

    2002-01-01

    Electron-excited x-ray microanalysis performed in the variable pressure and environmental scanning electron microscopes is subject to additional artifacts beyond those encountered in the conventional scanning electron microscope. Gas scattering leads to direct contributions to the spectrum from the environmental gas, as well as remote generation of x rays by electrons scattered out of the focussed beam. The analyst can exert some degree of control over these artifacts, but depending on the exact situation, spurious elements can appear at the trace (< 0.01 mass fraction), minor (0.01 mass fraction to 0.1 mass fraction), or even major (> 0.1 mass fraction) levels. Dispersed particle samples give the least compromised results, while fine scale microstructures are the most severely compromised. Procedures to optimize the situation based upon specimen preparation as well as spectral processing are described. PMID:27446754

  20. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam. PMID:27587179

  1. Scanning precession electron tomography for three-dimensional nanoscale orientation imaging and crystallographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eggeman, Alexander S; Krakow, Robert; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from electron tomography provide important morphological, compositional, optical and electro-magnetic information across a wide range of materials and devices. Precession electron diffraction, in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy, can be used to elucidate the local orientation of crystalline materials. Here we show, using the example of a Ni-base superalloy, that combining these techniques and extending them to three dimensions, to produce scanning precession electron tomography, enables the 3D orientation of nanoscale sub-volumes to be determined and provides a one-to-one correspondence between 3D real space and 3D reciprocal space for almost any polycrystalline or multi-phase material. PMID:26028514

  2. Scanning precession electron tomography for three-dimensional nanoscale orientation imaging and crystallographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eggeman, Alexander S.; Krakow, Robert; Midgley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from electron tomography provide important morphological, compositional, optical and electro-magnetic information across a wide range of materials and devices. Precession electron diffraction, in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy, can be used to elucidate the local orientation of crystalline materials. Here we show, using the example of a Ni-base superalloy, that combining these techniques and extending them to three dimensions, to produce scanning precession electron tomography, enables the 3D orientation of nanoscale sub-volumes to be determined and provides a one-to-one correspondence between 3D real space and 3D reciprocal space for almost any polycrystalline or multi-phase material. PMID:26028514

  3. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  4. Micro-column Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray Spectrometer (MSEMS) for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribaya, B.; Niemann, D.; Makarewicz, J.; Clevenson, H.; McKenzie, C.; Nguyen, C.; Blake, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with electron-induced X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) is one of the most powerful techniques for characterizing sub-µm surface morphology and composition. In terrestrial laboratories, SEM-EDX is used to elucidate natural processes such as low-temperature diagenesis, thermal or pressure induced metamorphism, volcanism/magmatism, atmosphere/crust interaction and biological activity. Such information would be highly useful for investigating the natural history of the terrestrial planets, satellites and primitive bodies, providing morphological and elemental information that is 2 orders of magnitude higher in resolution than optical techniques. Below we describe the development of a Micro-column Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray Spectrometer (MSEMS) for flight. The enabling technology of the MSEMS is a carbon nanotube field emission (CNTFE) electron source that is integrated with micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) - based electron gun and electron optical structures. A hallmark of CNTFE electron sources is their low chromatic aberration, which reduces the need for high accelerating voltages to obtain small spot size. The CNTFE also offers exceptional brightness and nanometer source size, eliminating the need for condenser lenses, making simple electrostatic focusing optics possible. Moreover, the CNT field emission gun (CFEG) at low operating voltage dissipates 103 less power than thermally-assisted Schottky emitters. A key feature of the MSEMS design is the lack of scanning coils. Rather, a piezoelectric sample stage capable of sub-nanometer resolution scans the sample past the fixed crossover of the MSEMS electron beam. We will describe a MEMS-based templating technique for fabricating mechanically and electrically stable miniature CFEGs. Using existing silicon (Si) technology, we fabricated highly controlled and precise MEMS structures for both the CNT cathode and focusing optics for the micro-column. The

  5. The scanning electron microscope in microbiology and diagnosis of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Golding, Christine G; Lamboo, Lindsey L; Beniac, Daniel R; Booth, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an excellent tool for investigating ultrastructure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is less frequently used than transmission electron microscopy for microbes such as viruses or bacteria. Here we describe rapid methods that allow SEM imaging of fully hydrated, unfixed microbes without using conventional sample preparation methods. We demonstrate improved ultrastructural preservation, with greatly reduced dehydration and shrinkage, for specimens including bacteria and viruses such as Ebola virus using infiltration with ionic liquid on conducting filter substrates for SEM. PMID:27212232

  6. The scanning electron microscope in microbiology and diagnosis of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Christine G.; Lamboo, Lindsey L.; Beniac, Daniel R.; Booth, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an excellent tool for investigating ultrastructure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is less frequently used than transmission electron microscopy for microbes such as viruses or bacteria. Here we describe rapid methods that allow SEM imaging of fully hydrated, unfixed microbes without using conventional sample preparation methods. We demonstrate improved ultrastructural preservation, with greatly reduced dehydration and shrinkage, for specimens including bacteria and viruses such as Ebola virus using infiltration with ionic liquid on conducting filter substrates for SEM. PMID:27212232

  7. Probing core-electron orbitals by scanning transmission electron microscopy and measuring the delocalization of core-level excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2016-04-01

    By recording low-noise energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps from crystalline specimens using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to probe core-level electron orbitals in real space. Both the 1 s and 2 p orbitals of Sr and Ti atoms in SrTi O3 are probed, and their projected excitation potentials are determined. This paper also demonstrates experimental measurement of the electronic excitation impact parameter and the delocalization of an excitation due to Coulombic beam-orbital interaction.

  8. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-02-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80-200 keV electron beams. PMID:26750260

  9. Evaluation of gas chromatography - electron ionization - full scan high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Mol, Hans G J; Tienstra, Marc; Zomer, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gas chromatography with electron ionization and full scan high resolution mass spectrometry with an Orbitrap mass analyzer (GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS) was evaluated for residue analysis. Pesticides in fruit and vegetables were taken as an example application. The relevant aspects for GC-MS based residue analysis, including the resolving power (15,000 to 120,000 FWHM at m/z 200), scan rate, dynamic range, selectivity, sensitivity, analyte identification, and utility of existing EI-libraries, are assessed and discussed in detail. The optimum acquisition conditions in full scan mode (m/z 50-500) were a resolving power of 60,000 and an automatic-gain-control target value of 3E6. These conditions provided (i) an optimum mass accuracy: within 2 ppm over a wide concentration range, with/without matrix, enabling the use of ±5 ppm mass extraction windows (ii) adequate scan speed: minimum 12 scans/peak, (iii) an intra-scan dynamic range sufficient to achieve LOD/LOQs ≤0.5 pg in fruit/vegetable matrices (corresponding to ≤0.5 μg kg(-1)) for most pesticides. EI-Orbitrap spectra were consistent over a very wide concentration range (5 orders) with good match values against NIST (EI-quadrupole) spectra. The applicability for quantitative residue analysis was verified by validation of 54 pesticides in three matrices (tomato, leek, orange) at 10 and 50 μg/kg. The method involved a QuEChERS-based extraction with a solvent switch into iso-octane, and 1 μL hot splitless injection into the GC-HRMS system. A recovery between 70 and 120% and a repeatability RSD <10% was obtained in most cases. Linearity was demonstrated for the range ≤5-250 μg kg(-1). The pesticides could be identified according to the applicable EU criteria for GC-HRMS (SANTE/11945/2015). GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS was found to be highly suited for quantitative pesticide residue analysis. The potential of qualitative screening to extend the scope makes it an attractive alternative to GC

  10. Scanning electron microscope image enhancement using spread spectrum through dither signal imposition.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Oh; Joo, Wonjong; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2011-12-01

    Noise is a primary issue in obtaining an image in a scanning microscope. This noise needs to be minimized in order to have a clear image of the sample in case of a nanosize level measurement. In this work, we propose a method to improve the image quality by applying dither signal injection to the scanning signal. This method involves minimizing the noise that occurs in scan control circuits, which results in a blurry or distorted image. The collected secondary electrons are first multiplied through a photomultiplier tube and are then converted into digital form using an analog/digital (A/D) converter. We propose a solution for the noise from the scan control circuit that appears on the image by adopting the spread spectrum method. PMID:21990426