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Sample records for anaphylatoxin c3a induced

  1. Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Tracy; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Reis, Edimara S; Echeverri Ruiz, Nancy P; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Tzekou, Apostolia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Lambris, John D; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the initiation signals for tissue regeneration in vertebrates is one of the major challenges in regenerative biology. Much of the research thus far has indicated that certain growth factors have key roles. Here we show that complement fragment C3a is sufficient to induce complete regeneration of the embryonic chick retina from stem/progenitor cells present in the eye, independent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Instead, C3a induces retina regeneration via STAT3 activation, which in turn activates the injury- and inflammation-responsive factors, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This activation sets forth regulation of Wnt2b, Six3 and Sox2, genes associated with retina stem and progenitor cells. Thus, our results establish a mechanism for retina regeneration based on injury and inflammation signals. Furthermore, our results indicate a unique function for complement anaphylatoxins that implicate these molecules in the induction and complete regeneration of the retina, opening new avenues of experimentation in the field. PMID:23942241

  2. Cardiac dysfunction caused by purified human C3a anaphylatoxin.

    PubMed Central

    del Balzo, U H; Levi, R; Polley, M J

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to define the cardiac effects of complement-derived C3a anaphylatoxin, in view of the possibility that cardiac dysfunction may occur as a result of complement activation. Purified human C3a was administered by intracoronary bolus injections into isolated guinea pig hearts. As a function of dose, C3a caused tachycardia, impairment of atrioventricular conduction, left ventricular contractile failure, coronary vasoconstriction, and histamine release. These effects were abolished by cleavage of the COOH-terminal arginine by carboxypeptidase B. The magnitude of C3a-induced tachycardia correlated with the amount of endogenous cardiac histamine released into the coronary effluent. Whereas the tachycardia was markedly reduced by the histamine H2 antagonist cimetidine, the contractile failure and the coronary vasoconstriction caused by C3a were antagonized by the leukotriene antagonist FPL 55712 and by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, respectively. This suggests that histamine, leukotrienes, and vasoactive prostanoates may mediate the various cardiac effects of C3a. Our findings indicate that C3a anaphylatoxin has marked cardiac effects at concentrations that are likely to be attained with a degree of C3 activation commonly seen in various disease states. Thus, our data are compatible with the hypothesis that generation of anaphylatoxins may induce cardiac dysfunction in clinical conditions. PMID:2579381

  3. Degradation of C3a anaphylatoxins by rat mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    Incubation of /sup 125/I-human C3a with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC) causes extensive degradation of the ligand. Both cell-bound and free /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) was degraded by RMC, even at 0/sup 0/C, based on SDS-PAGE analysis. The authors examined several protease inhibitors for their ability to prevent degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a (hu). Degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) by RMC was not inhibited by leupeptin, antipain, elastatinal, pepstatin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin or EDTA. TPCK and TLCK were only partially effective. PMSF, chymostatin and SBTI were most effective in preventing /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) degradation. These latter compounds are effective inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like enzyme chymase extracted from RMC, as is TPCK, based on hydrolysis of the substrate BTEE. Degradation of cell-bound ligand is totally prevented only by PMSF (or DFP). Therefore, /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) bound to the RMC appears to be degraded predominantly by chymase; however the cell-bound ligand is attacked by other surface proteases. Degradation of rat C3a by RMC was examined. After incubation with RMC, cell-bound and free /sup 125/I-C3a (rat) showed no evidence of degradation with or without inhibitors present. From these results, the authors conclude that chymase may not play a significant role in regulating anaphylatoxin activity. Furthermore, the authors propose that rat C3a is a preferred ligand for identifying receptors on mast cells because of its resistance to proteolysis.

  4. Complement anaphylatoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR are required in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingjun; Bell, Brent A; Yu, Minzhong; Chan, Chi-Chao; Peachey, Neal S; Fung, John; Zhang, Xiaoming; Caspi, Rachel R; Lin, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that reagents inhibiting complement activation could be effective in treating T cell mediated autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune uveitis. However, the precise role of the complement anaphylatoxin receptors (C3a and C5a receptors) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis remains elusive and controversial. We induced experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice deficient or sufficient in both C3a and C5a receptors and rigorously compared their retinal phenotype using various imaging techniques, including indirect ophthalmoscopy, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, topical endoscopic fundus imaging, and histopathological analysis. We also assessed retinal function using electroretinography. Moreover, we performed Ag-specific T cell recall assays and T cell adoptive transfer experiments to compare pathogenic T cell activity between wild-type and knockout mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis. These experiments showed that C3a receptor/C5a receptor-deficient mice developed much less severe uveitis than did control mice using all retinal examination methods and that these mice had reduced pathogenic T cell responses. Our data demonstrate that both complement anaphylatoxin receptors are important for the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis, suggesting that targeting these receptors could be a valid approach for treating patients with autoimmune uveitis. PMID:26394814

  5. Contribution of the anaphylatoxin receptors, C3aR and C5aR, to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongmei; Fisher, Amanda J; Mickler, Elizabeth A; Duerson, Frank; Cummings, Oscar W; Peters-Golden, Marc; Twigg, Homer L; Woodruff, Trent M; Wilkes, David S; Vittal, Ragini

    2016-06-01

    Complement activation, an integral arm of innate immunity, may be the critical link to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Whereas we have previously reported elevated anaphylatoxins-complement component 3a (C3a) and complement component 5a (C5a)-in IPF, which interact with TGF-β and augment epithelial injury in vitro, their role in IPF pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to determine the mechanistic role of the binding of C3a/C5a to their respective receptors (C3aR and C5aR) in the progression of lung fibrosis. In normal primary human fetal lung fibroblasts, C3a and C5a induces mesenchymal activation, matrix synthesis, and the expression of their respective receptors. We investigated the role of C3aR and C5aR in lung fibrosis by using bleomycin-injured mice with fibrotic lungs, elevated local C3a and C5a, and overexpression of their receptors via pharmacologic and RNA interference interventions. Histopathologic examination revealed an arrest in disease progression and attenuated lung collagen deposition (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline, collagen type I α 1 chain, and collagen type I α 2 chain). Pharmacologic or RNA interference-specific interventions suppressed complement activation (C3a and C5a) and soluble terminal complement complex formation (C5b-9) locally and active TGF-β1 systemically. C3aR/C5aR antagonists suppressed local mRNA expressions of tgfb2, tgfbr1/2, ltbp1/2, serpine1, tsp1, bmp1/4, pdgfbb, igf1, but restored the proteoglycan, dcn Clinically, compared with pathologically normal human subjects, patients with IPF presented local induction of C5aR, local and systemic induction of soluble C5b-9, and amplified expression of C3aR/C5aR in lesions. The blockade of C3aR and C5aR arrested the progression of fibrosis by attenuating local complement activation and TGF-β/bone morphologic protein signaling as well as restoring decorin, which suggests a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with

  6. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D.; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cad-herin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cad-herin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27041467

  7. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cadherin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cadherin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27041467

  8. Interplay between invertebrate C3a with vertebrate macrophages: functional characterization of immune activities of amphioxus C3a.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the structure and function of C3a comes from the study of vertebrate C3a anaphylatoxins, virtually nothing is known about the structure and function of C3a molecules in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that C3a from the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma japonicum, BjC3a, was similar to vertebrate C3a possessing potential antibacterial activity, as revealed by sequence analysis and computational modeling. The antibacterial activity of BjC3a was definitely confirmed by both antibacterial assay and TEM observation showing that recombinant BjC3a was directly bactericidal. Additionally, recombinant BjC3a, like vertebrate C3a, was capable of inducing sea bass macrophage migration and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and respiratory burst response. Moreover, recombinant BjC3a-desArg (generated by removal of the C-terminal arginine), like mammalian C3a-desArg, retained the immunological activities of BjC3a such as antibacterial and respiratory burst-stimulating activities, indicating that the immunological functions of C3a-desArg were conserved throughout chordate evolution. Altogether, our findings show that invertebrate (amphioxus) BjC3a is able to interact with vertebrate (sea bass) macrophages and mediate immune activities, suggesting the emergence of the inflammatory pathway of the complement system similar to that of vertebrates in the basal chordate amphioxus. PMID:23954696

  9. Experimental design of complement component 5a-induced acute lung injury (C5a-ALI): a role of CC-chemokine receptor type 5 during immune activation by anaphylatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Russkamp, Norman F.; Ruemmler, Robert; Roewe, Julian; Moore, Bethany B.; Ward, Peter A.; Bosmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of the complement system is detrimental in acute inflammatory disorders. In this study, we analyzed the role of complement-derived anaphylatoxins in the pathogenesis of experimental acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in C57BL/6J mice. Intratracheal administration of recombinant mouse complement component (C5a) caused alveolar inflammation with abundant recruitment of Ly6-G+CD11b+ leukocytes to the alveolar spaces and severe alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction (C5a-ALI; EC50[C5a] = 20 ng/g body weight). Equimolar concentrations of C3a or desarginated C5a (C5adesArg) did not induce alveolar inflammation. The severity of C5a-ALI was aggravated in C5-deficient mice. Depletion of Ly6-G+ cells and use of C5aR1−/− bone marrow chimeras suggested an essential role of C5aR1+ hematopoietic cells in C5a-ALI. Blockade of PI3K/Akt and MEK1/2 kinase pathways completely abrogated lung injury. The mechanistic description is that C5a altered the alveolar cytokine milieu and caused significant release of CC-chemokines. Mice with genetic deficiency of CC-chemokine receptor (CCR) type 5, the common receptor of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 3, CCL4, and CCL5, displayed reduced lung damage. Moreover, treatment with a CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc, was protective against C5a-ALI. In summary, our results suggest that the detrimental effects of C5a in this model are partly mediated through CCR5 activation downstream of C5aR1, which may be evaluated for potential therapeutic exploitation in ALI/ARDS.—Russkamp, N. F., Ruemmler, R., Roewe, J., Moore, B. B., Ward, P. A., Bosmann, M. Experimental design of complement component 5a-induced acute lung injury (C5a-ALI): a role of CC-chemokine receptor type 5 during immune activation by anaphylatoxin. PMID:25999468

  10. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1988-05-15

    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin.

  11. Adsorption of anaphylatoxins and platelet-specific proteins by filtration of platelet concentrates with a polyester leukocyte reduction filter.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Uchigiri, C; Mizuno, S; Kamiya, T; Kokubo, Y

    1994-01-01

    Anaphylatoxins generated during storage of platelet concentrates (PCs) may potentially have side effects on platelet transfusion. We evaluated the anaphylatoxin-scavenging abilities of white blood cell reduction filters. Among the commercially available filters for PCs, one made with polyester fiber (PL50) dramatically adsorbed C3a and C4a anaphylatoxins to the respective mean level of 1,721-208 ng/ml and 1,240-141 ng/ml in 3-day-old PCs. C3a and C4a were measured as the native and des Arg form of each complement by radioimmunoassay. C3a and C4a anaphylatoxins in the supernatant plasma fraction from 3-day-old PC again decreased from 1,136 to 114 ng/ml and from 1,086 to 65 ng/ml, respectively. The filter also adsorbed 85% of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and 31% of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG), which had been released from platelets into the plasma during storage. The plasma levels of adhesive proteins such as fibronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, and plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity did not decrease after filtration. Another polyester filter (PL5A), on the other hand, significantly increased C3a and C4a levels with filtration. In addition, there was no PF4 adsorption ability during the filtration. The filters for red cells (RC50, BPF4, and R500A) had no anaphylatoxin adsorption capabilities. The observed specific adsorption of anaphylatoxins might be attributed to the electrostatic force between the positively charged anaphylatoxins with high pI and the possibly negatively charged filter membranes. Since PF4 and beta-TG have positively charged moieties in the C-terminal position, the same adsorption mechanism might operate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8036783

  12. Coagulation induced by C3aR-dependent NETosis drives protumorigenic neutrophils during small intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Guglietta, Silvia; Chiavelli, Andrea; Zagato, Elena; Krieg, Carsten; Gandini, Sara; Ravenda, Paola Simona; Bazolli, Barbara; Lu, Bao; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Excessive activation of blood coagulation and neutrophil accumulation have been described in several human cancers. However, whether hypercoagulation and neutrophilia are linked and involved in cancer development is currently unknown. Here we show that spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis correlates with the accumulation of low-density neutrophils with a pro-tumorigenic N2 phenotype and unprompted neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation. We find that increased circulating lipopolysaccharide induces upregulation of complement C3a receptor on neutrophils and activation of the complement cascade. This leads to NETosis, induction of coagulation and N2 polarization, which prompts tumorigenesis, showing a novel link between coagulation, neutrophilia and complement activation. Finally, in a cohort of patients with small but not large intestinal cancer, we find a correlation between neutrophilia and hypercoagulation. This study provides a mechanistic explanation for the tumour-promoting effects of hypercoagulation, which could be used as a new biomarker or as a therapeutic target. PMID:26996437

  13. Coagulation induced by C3aR-dependent NETosis drives protumorigenic neutrophils during small intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guglietta, Silvia; Chiavelli, Andrea; Zagato, Elena; Krieg, Carsten; Gandini, Sara; Ravenda, Paola Simona; Bazolli, Barbara; Lu, Bao; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Excessive activation of blood coagulation and neutrophil accumulation have been described in several human cancers. However, whether hypercoagulation and neutrophilia are linked and involved in cancer development is currently unknown. Here we show that spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis correlates with the accumulation of low-density neutrophils with a pro-tumorigenic N2 phenotype and unprompted neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation. We find that increased circulating lipopolysaccharide induces upregulation of complement C3a receptor on neutrophils and activation of the complement cascade. This leads to NETosis, induction of coagulation and N2 polarization, which prompts tumorigenesis, showing a novel link between coagulation, neutrophilia and complement activation. Finally, in a cohort of patients with small but not large intestinal cancer, we find a correlation between neutrophilia and hypercoagulation. This study provides a mechanistic explanation for the tumour-promoting effects of hypercoagulation, which could be used as a new biomarker or as a therapeutic target. PMID:26996437

  14. The Role of the Anaphylatoxins in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klos, Andreas; Tenner, Andrea J.; Johswich, Kay-Ole; Ager, Rahasson R.; Reis, Edimara S.; Köhl, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The anaphylatoxins (AT) C3a, C5a and C5a-desArg are generally considered pro-inflammatory polypeptides generated after proteolytic cleavage of C3 and C5 in response to complement activation. Their well appreciated effector functions include chemotaxis and activation of granulocytes, mast cells and macrophages. Recent evidence suggests that ATs are also generated locally within tissues by pathogen-, cell-, or contact system-derived proteases. This local generation of ATs is important for their pleiotropic biologic effects beyond inflammation. The ATs exert most of the biologic activities through ligation of three cognate receptors, i.e. the C3a receptor, the C5a receptor and the C5a receptor-like, C5L2. Here, we will discuss recent findings suggesting that ATs regulate cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism as well as innate and adaptive immune responses through their impact on antigen-presenting cells and T cells. As we will outline, such regulatory functions of ATs and their receptors play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, autoimmunity, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and infections with intracellular pathogens. PMID:19477527

  15. Anaphylatoxins coordinate innate and adaptive immune responses in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Schmudde, Inken; Laumonnier, Yves; Köhl, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic disease of the airways in which maladaptive Th2 and Th17 immune responses drive airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction. Airway epithelial and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in concert with different resident and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) play critical roles in allergen sensing and consecutive activation of TH cells and their differentiation toward TH2 and TH17 effector or regulatory T cells (Treg). Further, myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) act on TH cells and either suppress or enhance their activation. The complement-derived anaphylatoxins (AT) C3a and C5a are generated during initial antigen encounter and regulate the development of maladaptive immunity at allergen sensitization. Here, we will review the complex role of ATs in activation and modulation of different DC populations, MDRCs and CD4⁺ TH cells. We will also discuss the potential impact of ATs on the regulation of the pulmonary stromal compartment as an important means to regulate DC functions. PMID:23694705

  16. Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Janus Asbjørn; Yatime, Laure; Larsen, Casper; Petersen, Steen Vang; Klos, Andreas; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2014-01-01

    Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8Δ71–73, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8Δ71–73 adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species. PMID:24914981

  17. Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Janus Asbjørn; Yatime, Laure Larsen, Casper; Petersen, Steen Vang; Klos, Andreas; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2014-06-01

    The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8{sup Δ71–73}, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8{sup Δ71–73} adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species.

  18. Methylation of the phosphate oxygen moiety of phospholipid-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) conjugate prevents PEGylated liposome-mediated complement activation and anaphylatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, S Moein; Hamad, Islam; Andresen, Thomas L; Jørgensen, Kent; Szebeni, Janos

    2006-12-01

    Methoxy(polyethylene glycol), mPEG, -grafted liposomes are known to exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood, but their infusion into a substantial percentage of human subjects triggers immediate non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. These reactions are strongly believed to arise from anaphylatoxin production through complement activation. Despite the general view that vesicle surface camouflaging with mPEG should dramatically suppress complement activation, here we show that bilayer enrichment of noncomplement activating liposomes [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles] with phospholipid-mPEG conjugate induces complement activation resulting in vesicle recognition by macrophage complement receptors. The extent of vesicle uptake, however, is dependent on surface mPEG density. We have delineated the likely structural features of phospholipid-mPEG conjugate responsible for PEGylated liposome-induced complement activation in normal as well as C1q-deficient human sera, using DPPC vesicles bearing the classical as well as newly synthesized lipid-mPEG conjugates. With PEGylated DPPC vesicles, the net anionic charge on the phosphate moiety of phospholipid-mPEG conjugate played a key role in activation of both classical and alternative pathways of complement and anaphylatoxin production (reflected in significant rises in SC5b-9, C4d, and C3a-desarg levels in normal human sera as well as SC5b-9 in EGTA-chelated/Mg2+ supplemented serum), since methylation of the phosphate oxygen of phospholipid-mPEG conjugate, and hence the removal of the negative charge, totally prevented complement activation. To further corroborate on the role of the negative charge in complement activation, vesicles bearing anionic phospholipid-mPEG conjugates, but not the methylated phospholipid-mPEG, were shown to significantly decrease serum hemolytic activity and increase plasma thromboxane B2 levels in rats. In contrast to liposomes, phospholipid-mPEG micelles had no effect on

  19. Complement, complement activation and anaphylatoxins in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Perricone, R; de Carolis, C; Moretti, C; Santuari, E; de Sanctis, G; Fontana, L

    1990-01-01

    Functionally active complement was sought and detected in human follicular fluids obtained during the pre-ovulatory period. All the functional complement activities tested, including total haemolytic complement, classical pathway activity and alternative pathway activity were present in nine fluids from four different donors with values within the normal serum range. The immunochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of complement factors from C1 to C9, of B and of C1 INH, H, I. Complement anaphylatoxins were found employing RIA techniques in amounts significantly higher than in human plasma, thus demonstrating that follicular fluid complement, at least during the pre-ovulatory period, is partially activated. A possible role for urokinase-like substances in such an activation was indicated by further in vitro experiments. The presence of active complement in follicular fluid can be relevant for the function of the enzymatic multi-factorial mechanism of ovulation. PMID:2242616

  20. C5a of Cynoglossus semilaevis has anaphylatoxin-like properties and promotes antibacterial and antiviral defense.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-Fei; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the complement system leads to the cleavage of component factor C5 into C5a and C5b. C5a can induce chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in mammals. The function of C5a in fish is poorly understood. In this study, we report the identification and analysis of a C5 homologue, CsC5, from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). CsC5 is composed of 1683 amino acid residues that include an anaphylatoxin homologous domain. Expression of CsC5 could be detected in a variety of tissues and was up-regulated by bacterial or viral pathogen infection. Purified recombinant CsC5a (rCsC5a) could bind to peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and stimulate PBL chemotaxis, proliferation, respiratory burst, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytosis. Tongue sole administered rCsC5a exhibited enhanced resistance against bacterial and viral infections. These results indicate that CsC5a is an anaphylatoxin with a role in innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:26934108

  1. Complement Peptide C3a Promotes Astrocyte Survival in Response to Ischemic Stress.

    PubMed

    Shinjyo, Noriko; de Pablo, Yolanda; Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are the most numerous cells in the central nervous system with a range of homeostatic and regulatory functions. Under normal conditions as well as after ischemia, astrocytes promote neuronal survival. We have previously reported that the complement-derived peptide C3a stimulates neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells and protects the immature brain tissue against hypoxic-ischemic injury. Here, we studied the effects of C3a on the response of mouse cortical astrocytes to ischemia. We have found that chemical ischemia, induced by combined inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, upregulates the expression of C3a receptor in cultured primary astrocytes. C3a treatment protected wild-type but not C3a receptor-deficient astrocytes from cell death induced by chemical ischemia or oxygen-glucose deprivation by reducing ERK signaling and caspase-3 activation. C3a attenuated ischemia-induced upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein; however, the protective effects of C3a were not dependent on the presence of the astrocyte intermediate filament system. Pre-treatment of astrocytes with C3a during recovery abrogated the ischemia-induced neuroprotective phenotype of astrocytes. Jointly, these results provide the first evidence that the complement peptide C3a modulates the response of astrocytes to ischemia and increases their ability to cope with ischemic stress. PMID:25972241

  2. Anaphylatoxin C5a creates a favorable microenvironment for lung cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Leticia; Ajona, Daniel; Rafail, Stavros; Lasarte, Juan J; Riezu-Boj, Jose I; Lambris, John D; Rouzaut, Ana; Pajares, Maria J; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2012-11-01

    The complement system contributes to various immune and inflammatory diseases, including cancer. In this study, we investigated the capacity of lung cancer cells to activate complement and characterized the consequences of complement activation on tumor progression. We focused our study on the production and role of the anaphylatoxin C5a, a potent immune mediator generated after complement activation. We first measured the capacity of lung cancer cell lines to deposit C5 and release C5a. C5 deposition, after incubation with normal human serum, was higher in lung cancer cell lines than in nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells. Notably, lung malignant cells produced complement C5a even in the absence of serum. We also found a significant increase of C5a in plasma from patients with non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that the local production of C5a is followed by its systemic diffusion. The contribution of C5a to lung cancer growth in vivo was evaluated in the Lewis lung cancer model. Syngeneic tumors of 3LL cells grew slower in mice treated with an antagonist of the C5a receptor. C5a did not modify 3LL cell proliferation in vitro but induced endothelial cell chemotaxis and blood-vessels formation. C5a also contributed to the immunosuppressive microenvironment required for tumor growth. In particular, blockade of C5a receptor significantly reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immunomodulators ARG1, CTLA-4, IL-6, IL-10, LAG3, and PDL1 (B7H1). In conclusion, lung cancer cells have the capacity to generate C5a, a molecule that creates a favorable tumor microenvironment for lung cancer progression. PMID:23028051

  3. Human complement C3 deficiency: Th1 induction requires T cell-derived complement C3a and CD46 activation.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Arije; Fauquert, Jean-Luc; Thomas, Caroline; Kemper, Claudia; Drouet, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Human T helper type 1 (Th1) responses are essential in defense. Although T cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulator engagement are indispensable for T cell activation, stimulation of additional receptor pathways are also necessary for effector induction. For example, engagement of the complement regulator CD46 by its ligand C3b generated upon TCR activation is required for IFN-γ production as CD46-deficient patients lack Th1 responses. Utilizing T cells from two C3-deficient patients we demonstrate here that normal Th1 responses also depend on signals mediated by the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR). Importantly, and like in CD46-deficient patients, whilst Th1 induction are impaired in C3-deficient patients in vitro, their Th2 responses are unaffected. Furthermore, C3-deficient CD4(+) T cells present with reduced expression of CD25 and CD122, further substantiating the growing notion that complement fragments regulate interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) assembly and that disturbance of complement-guided IL-2R assembly contributes to aberrant Th1 effector responses. Lastly, sustained intrinsic production of complement fragments may participate in the Th1 contraction phase as both C3a and CD46 engagement regulate IL-10 co-expression in Th1 cells. These data suggest that C3aR and CD46 activation via intrinsic generation of their respective ligands is an integral part of human Th1 (but not Th2) immunity. PMID:24321396

  4. Stabilization/solidification on chromium (III) wastes by C(3)A and C(3)A hydrated matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangguo; He, Chao; Bai, Yun; Ma, Baoguo; Wang, Guandong; Tan, Hongbo

    2014-03-15

    Hazardous wastes are usually used in the Portland cement production in order to save energy, costs and/or stabilize toxic substances and heavy metals inside the clinker. This work focus on the stabilization/solidification on chromium (III) wastes by C(3)A and C(3)A hydrated matrix. The immobilization rate of chromium in C(3)A and the leaching characteristics of the C(3)A hydrated matrixes containing chromium were investigated by ICP-AES. The results indicated that C(3)A had a good solidifying effect on chromium using the clinkering process, however, the Cr leaching content of Cr-doped C(3)A was higher than that of hydrated C(3)A matrix in Cr(NO(3))3 solution and was lower than that of the hydrated C(3)A matrix in K(2)CrO(4) solution, no matter the leachant was sulphuric acid & nitric acid or water. To explain this, C(3)A formation, chemical valence states of chromium in C(3)A, hydration products and Cr distribution in the C(3)A-gypsum hydrated matrixes were studied by XRD, XPS and FESEM-EDS. The investigation showed that part of Cr(3+) was oxidized to Cr(6+) in the clinkering process and identified as the chromium compounds Ca(4)Al(6)O(12)CrO(4) (3CaO·Al(20O(3)·CaCrO(4)), which resulted in the higher leaching of hydrated matrix of Cr-doped C(3)A. PMID:24468527

  5. Differential effects of complement activation products c3a and c5a on cardiovascular function in hypertensive pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Lillegard, Kathryn E; Loeks-Johnson, Alex C; Opacich, Jonathan W; Peterson, Jenna M; Bauer, Ashley J; Elmquist, Barbara J; Regal, Ronald R; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Regal, Jean F

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset pre-eclampsia is characterized by decreased placental perfusion, new-onset hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and endothelial dysfunction associated with excessive activation of the innate immune complement system. Although our previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of complement activation attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension using the rat reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, the important product(s) of complement activation has yet to be identified. We hypothesized that antagonism of receptors for complement activation products C3a and C5a would improve vascular function and attenuate RUPP hypertension. On gestational day (GD) 14, rats underwent sham surgery or vascular clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta (RUPP). Rats were treated once daily with the C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRA), PMX51 (acetyl-F-[Orn-P-(D-Cha)-WR]), the C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA), SB290157 (N(2)-[(2,2-diphenylethoxy)acetyl]-l-arginine), or vehicle from GD 14-18. Both the C3aRA and C5aRA attenuated placental ischemia-induced hypertension without affecting the decreased fetal weight or decreased concentration of free circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also present in this model. The C5aRA, but not the C3aRA, attenuated placental ischemia-induced increase in heart rate and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation. The C3aRA abrogated the acute pressor response to C3a peptide injection, but it also unexpectedly attenuated the placental ischemia-induced increase in C3a, suggesting nonreceptor-mediated effects. Overall, these results indicate that both C3a and C5a are important products of complement activation that mediate the hypertension regardless of the reduction in free plasma VEGF. The mechanism by which C3a contributes to placental ischemia-induced hypertension appears to be distinct from that of C5a, and management of pregnancy-induced hypertension is likely to require a broad anti

  6. A previously unrecognized role of C3a in proteinuric progressive nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Morigi, Marina; Locatelli, Monica; Rota, Cinzia; Buelli, Simona; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Mauro; Conti, Debora; Perico, Luca; Longaretti, Lorena; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Podocyte loss is the initial event in the development of glomerulosclerosis, the structural hallmark of progressive proteinuric nephropathies. Understanding mechanisms underlying glomerular injury is the key challenge for identifying novel therapeutic targets. In mice with protein-overload induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA), we evaluated whether the alternative pathway (AP) of complement mediated podocyte depletion and podocyte-dependent parietal epithelial cell (PEC) activation causing glomerulosclerosis. Factor H (Cfh−/−) or factor B-deficient mice were studied in comparison with wild-type (WT) littermates. WT+BSA mice showed podocyte depletion accompanied by glomerular complement C3 and C3a deposits, PEC migration to capillary tuft, proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These changes were more prominent in Cfh−/− +BSA mice. The pathogenic role of AP was documented by data that factor B deficiency preserved glomerular integrity. In protein-overload mice, PEC dysregulation was associated with upregulation of CXCR4 and GDNF/c-Ret axis. In vitro studies provided additional evidence of a direct action of C3a on proliferation and CXCR4-related migration of PECs. These effects were enhanced by podocyte-derived GDNF. In patients with proteinuric nephropathy, glomerular C3/C3a paralleled PEC activation, CXCR4 and GDNF upregulation. These results indicate that mechanistically uncontrolled AP complement activation is not dispensable for podocyte-dependent PEC activation resulting in glomerulosclerosis. PMID:27345360

  7. A previously unrecognized role of C3a in proteinuric progressive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Morigi, Marina; Locatelli, Monica; Rota, Cinzia; Buelli, Simona; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Mauro; Conti, Debora; Perico, Luca; Longaretti, Lorena; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Podocyte loss is the initial event in the development of glomerulosclerosis, the structural hallmark of progressive proteinuric nephropathies. Understanding mechanisms underlying glomerular injury is the key challenge for identifying novel therapeutic targets. In mice with protein-overload induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA), we evaluated whether the alternative pathway (AP) of complement mediated podocyte depletion and podocyte-dependent parietal epithelial cell (PEC) activation causing glomerulosclerosis. Factor H (Cfh(-/-)) or factor B-deficient mice were studied in comparison with wild-type (WT) littermates. WT+BSA mice showed podocyte depletion accompanied by glomerular complement C3 and C3a deposits, PEC migration to capillary tuft, proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These changes were more prominent in Cfh(-/-) +BSA mice. The pathogenic role of AP was documented by data that factor B deficiency preserved glomerular integrity. In protein-overload mice, PEC dysregulation was associated with upregulation of CXCR4 and GDNF/c-Ret axis. In vitro studies provided additional evidence of a direct action of C3a on proliferation and CXCR4-related migration of PECs. These effects were enhanced by podocyte-derived GDNF. In patients with proteinuric nephropathy, glomerular C3/C3a paralleled PEC activation, CXCR4 and GDNF upregulation. These results indicate that mechanistically uncontrolled AP complement activation is not dispensable for podocyte-dependent PEC activation resulting in glomerulosclerosis. PMID:27345360

  8. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Coulthard, Liam G; Wu, M C L; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M

    2013-03-01

    C5a is the paramount proinflammatory mediator of the complement cascade, and has been previously thought to act only through a single, G-protein-coupled, C5a receptor (C5aR; also termed CD88). In 2000, a second C5a receptor, C5L2 (previously known as GPR77), was discovered; yet, despite 12 yr of intensive research, its biological, or pathophysiological, function is both enigmatic and controversial. Unlike C5aR, this receptor does not couple to G proteins, and early studies promoted the hypothesis that C5L2 functions as a decoy receptor. However, recent data have provided other evidence for more complicated and conflicting interactions between C5L2 and other inflammatory mediators. C5L2 has been recently demonstrated to physically interact with both C5aR and β-arrestin to negatively regulate C5aR signaling toward an anti-inflammatory manner, and to reduce pathology, in several disease models in vivo. In direct contrast, other groups have demonstrated that C5L2 stimulation caused release of HMGB1 both in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced pathology in sepsis models, suggesting a clear proinflammatory signaling role. These astoundingly contradictory data challenge our precepts and complicate the foundational bases for the possible targeting of C5L2 as a therapeutic option in inflammatory disease. C5L2 may be the great masquerader in complement biology; its function dependent on the cell type, species, and disease context. Because of these unusual and unforeseen complexities, we present the current state of knowledge on C5L2 structure, expression and, most controversially, its putative functions.-Li, R., Coulthard, L.G., Wu, M. C. L., Taylor, S. M., Woodruff, T. M. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a. PMID:23239822

  9. Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boshra, Hani; Wang, Tiehui; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Hansen, John D.; Li, Jun; Matlapudi, Anjun; Secombes, Christopher J.; Tort, Lluis; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the structure, function, and evolutionary origins of the C3aR in nonmammalian species. Because C3aR and C5aR are thought to have arisen from the same common ancestor, the recent characterization of a C5aR in teleost fish implied the presence of a C3aR in this animal group. In this study we report the cloning of a trout cDNA encoding a 364-aa molecule (TC3aR) that shows a high degree of sequence homology and a strong phylogenetic relationship with mammalian C3aRs. Northern blotting demonstrated that TC3aR was expressed primarily in blood leukocytes. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Abs raised against TC3aR stained to a high degree all blood B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, all granulocytes. More importantly, these Abs inhibited trout C3a-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in trout leukocytes. A fascinating structural feature of TC3aR is the lack of a significant portion of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). In all C3aR molecules characterized to date, the ECL2 is exceptionally large when compared with the same region of C5aR. However, the exact function of the extra portion of ECL2 is unknown. The lack of this segment in TC3aR suggests that the extra piece of ECL2 was not necessary for the interaction of the ancestral C3aR with its ligand. Our findings represent the first C3aR characterized in nonmammalian species and support the hypothesis that if C3aR and C5aR diverged from a common ancestor, this event occurred before the emergence of teleost fish.

  10. Effects of the C5a anaphylatoxin and its relationship to cyclo-oxygenase metabolites in rabbit vascular strips.

    PubMed Central

    Hugli, T. E.; Marceau, F.

    1985-01-01

    Strips of rabbit blood vessels were suspended in vitro and responses to complement peptides C3a and C5a were recorded isotonically. Human C3a (up to 1.5 microM) was inactive on rabbit vascular strips. Human C5a (2.9-59 nM) decreased spontaneous activity of the rabbit portal vein under resting baseline tension. The C5a relaxed strips of portal vein and pulmonary artery that were precontracted with noradrenaline (NA, 200 nM). On the portal vein, C5a-induced relaxation was preceded by a transient contractile phase which decreased with repeated applications of C5a. The magnitude of C5a-induced relaxation of both vessels increased with repeated stimulation by C5a. Maximal levels of relaxation for the third application of C5a at 59 nM averaged 44% and 17% of the NA-induced contraction plateau in portal vein and pulmonary artery, respectively. Strips of rabbit aorta responded minimally to C5a. Indomethacin (5.6 microM) significantly inhibited C5a-induced relaxation of the portal vein and pulmonary artery but had no effect on the early contractile response of the portal vein. Mepyramine (10 microM) failed to modify the C5a response from either vessel, but it reduced the contractile phase of the C5a response on the portal vein when applied in conjunction with indomethacin. The drug SKF 88046, an end organ antagonist of thromboxane (TX) A2 and some contractile prostaglandins, reduced the contractile phase and increased relaxation of the portal vein to C5a but did not modify the response of the pulmonary artery. Radioimmunoassays for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and TXB2 were performed on the fluid bathing rabbit isolated blood vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3921089

  11. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.669(c)-3A - Information requirements with respect to beneficiary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information requirements with respect to beneficiary. 1.669(c)-3A Section 1.669(c)-3A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... respect to beneficiary. (a) Information to be supplied by beneficiary—(1) Use of exact method....

  13. C3aR inhibition reduces neurodegeneration in experimental lupus

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, A; Bao, L; Brorson, J; Quigg, RJ; Alexander, JJ

    2010-01-01

    Complement activation is an important aspect of systemic lupus erythematosus. In this study we investigated the role of C3a/C3a receptor (R) signaling in brains of the lupus model, MRL/lpr mice, by treating the mice with C3aR antagonist (a) from 13 to 19 weeks of age. C3aR mRNA (0.2 ± 0.027 versus 0.56 ± 0.19) and protein (0.16 ± 0.09 versus 0.63 ± 0.19) expression was increased in MRL/lpr brains compared with MRL+/+ controls. Apoptosis, a key feature in lupus brain, was significantly reduced by C3aRa treatment, as assessed by DNA laddering, TUNEL staining and caspase3 activity (48% of MRL/lpr mice). mRNA expression of proinflammatory molecules that cause apoptosis, TNFα (0.33 ± 0.07 versus 0.15 ± 0.1), MIP2 (3.8 ± 1.3 versus 1.7 ± 0.6), and INFγ (4.8 ± 1.0 versus 2.07 ± 1.28) are reduced in MRL/lpr brains with C3aRa treatment. In line with these results, Western blotting demonstrates the significant increase in phosphorylation of survival molecules Akt and Erk, decrease in PTEN and reduced iNOS expression. INFγ receptor (R) and AMPA-GluR1 co-localized, and concomitant with reduced INFγR expression, AMPA-GluR1 expression was also decreased by C3aR antagonist. All of these variables that modulate neuronal excitability and regulate synaptic plasticity are C3aR dependent in the MRL/lpr brains and suggest a potential therapeutic role for C3aR inhibition in CNS lupus. PMID:19900981

  14. Structural basis for the targeting of complement anaphylatoxin C5a using a mixed L-RNA/L-DNA aptamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatime, Laure; Maasch, Christian; Hoehlig, Kai; Klussmann, Sven; Andersen, Gregers R.; Vater, Axel

    2015-04-01

    L-Oligonucleotide aptamers (Spiegelmers) consist of non-natural L-configured nucleotides and are of particular therapeutic interest due to their high resistance to plasma nucleases. The anaphylatoxin C5a, a potent inflammatory mediator generated during complement activation that has been implicated with organ damage, can be efficiently targeted by Spiegelmers. Here, we present the first crystallographic structures of an active Spiegelmer, NOX-D20, bound to its physiological targets, mouse C5a and C5a-desArg. The structures reveal a complex 3D architecture for the L-aptamer that wraps around C5a, including an intramolecular G-quadruplex stabilized by a central Ca2+ ion. Functional validation of the observed L-aptamer:C5a binding mode through mutational studies also rationalizes the specificity of NOX-D20 for mouse and human C5a against macaque and rat C5a. Finally, our structural model provides the molecular basis for the Spiegelmer affinity improvement through positional L-ribonucleotide to L-deoxyribonucleotide exchanges and for its inhibition of the C5a:C5aR interaction.

  15. Structural basis for the targeting of complement anaphylatoxin C5a using a mixed L-RNA/L-DNA aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Yatime, Laure; Maasch, Christian; Hoehlig, Kai; Klussmann, Sven; Andersen, Gregers R.; Vater, Axel

    2015-01-01

    L-Oligonucleotide aptamers (Spiegelmers) consist of non-natural L-configured nucleotides and are of particular therapeutic interest due to their high resistance to plasma nucleases. The anaphylatoxin C5a, a potent inflammatory mediator generated during complement activation that has been implicated with organ damage, can be efficiently targeted by Spiegelmers. Here, we present the first crystallographic structures of an active Spiegelmer, NOX-D20, bound to its physiological targets, mouse C5a and C5a-desArg. The structures reveal a complex 3D architecture for the L-aptamer that wraps around C5a, including an intramolecular G-quadruplex stabilized by a central Ca2+ ion. Functional validation of the observed L-aptamer:C5a binding mode through mutational studies also rationalizes the specificity of NOX-D20 for mouse and human C5a against macaque and rat C5a. Finally, our structural model provides the molecular basis for the Spiegelmer affinity improvement through positional L-ribonucleotide to L-deoxyribonucleotide exchanges and for its inhibition of the C5a:C5aR interaction. PMID:25901944

  16. High Level of Anaphylatoxin C5a Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome in Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wei; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiajun; Xia, Yu; Bai, Qi; Long, Qilai; Wang, Yiwei; Xu, Jiejie; Guo, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylatoxin C5a, a potent pro-inflammatory peptide produced in the process of complement activation, was proved to have a vital role in tumor initiation and progession by previous investigations. However whether it could act as a prognostic marker remains unknown. Here we retrospectively enrolled 272 ccRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy in Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai between 2005 and 2007. C5a level was assessed by immunohistochemistry and its association with clinicopathologic features and prognosis were evaluated. Our results indicated that high tumoral C5a level was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 1.753, 95% CI 1.068–2.878, P = 0.026). In addition, tumoral C5a could significantly stratify patients’ prognosis both in advanced stage (TNM III + IV) and intermediate/high risk group (SSIGN score ≥4) (P < 0.001 and = 0.008, respectively). Furthermore, incorporating tumoral C5a with other parameters could improve the predicting accuracy, compared with TNM and SSIGN system (c-index = 0.789, 0.713 and 0.727, respectively). In conclusion, tumoral C5a is an independent adverse prognostic biomarker for clinical outcome of ccRCC patients after nephectomy. PMID:27381421

  17. An Anti-C1s Monoclonal, TNT003, Inhibits Complement Activation Induced by Antibodies Against HLA.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K A; Valenzuela, N M; Gjertson, D; Mulder, A; Fishbein, M C; Parry, G C; Panicker, S; Reed, E F

    2015-08-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants (SOT) is characterized by damage triggered by donor-specific antibodies (DSA) binding donor Class I and II HLA (HLA-I and HLA-II) expressed on endothelial cells. While F(ab')2 portions of DSA cause cellular activation and proliferation, Fc regions activate the classical complement cascade, resulting in complement deposition and leukocyte recruitment, both hallmark features of AMR. We characterized the ability of an anti-C1s monoclonal antibody, TNT003, to inhibit HLA antibody (HLA-Ab)-induced complement activation. Complement deposition induced by HLA-Ab was evaluated using novel cell- and bead-based assays. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were cultured with HLA-Ab and human complement; production of activated complement proteins was measured by flow cytometry. Additionally, C3d deposition was measured on single antigen beads (SAB) mixed with HLA-Ab and human complement. TNT003 inhibited HLA-Ab mediated complement deposition on HAEC in a concentration-dependent manner; C3a, C4a and C5a anaphylatoxin production was also diminished by TNT003. Finally, TNT003 blocked C3d deposition induced by Class I (HLAI-Ab)- and Class II (HLAII-Ab)-specific antibodies on SAB. These data suggest TNT003 may be useful for modulating the effects of DSA, as TNT003 inhibits complement deposition and split product formation generated by HLA-I/II-Ab in vitro. PMID:25904443

  18. Calculation of the C3A Percentage in High Sulfur Clinker

    PubMed Central

    Horkoss, Sayed; Lteif, Roger; Rizk, Toufic

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the influence of the clinker SO3 on the amount of C3A. The calculation of the cement phases percentages is based on the research work, Calculation of the Compounds in Portland Cement, published by Bogue in 1929 .The usage of high sulphur fuels, industrial wastes, and tires changes completely the working condition of Bogue because the assumed phase compositions may change. The results prove that increasing the amount of SO3 in the low alkali clinker decreases the percentages of C3A due to the high incorporation of alumina in the clinker phases mainly C2S and C3S. The correlation is linear till the clinker SO3 reaches the 2%. Over that the influence of the clinker SO3 became undetectable. A new calculation method for the determination of the C3A in the high sulphur and low alkali clinker was proposed. PMID:20689732

  19. Calculation of the c(3)a percentage in high sulfur clinker.

    PubMed

    Horkoss, Sayed; Lteif, Roger; Rizk, Toufic

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the influence of the clinker SO(3) on the amount of C(3)A. The calculation of the cement phases percentages is based on the research work, Calculation of the Compounds in Portland Cement, published by Bogue in 1929 .The usage of high sulphur fuels, industrial wastes, and tires changes completely the working condition of Bogue because the assumed phase compositions may change. The results prove that increasing the amount of SO(3) in the low alkali clinker decreases the percentages of C(3)A due to the high incorporation of alumina in the clinker phases mainly C(2)S and C(3)S. The correlation is linear till the clinker SO(3) reaches the 2%. Over that the influence of the clinker SO(3) became undetectable. A new calculation method for the determination of the C(3)A in the high sulphur and low alkali clinker was proposed. PMID:20689732

  20. Complement Fragment C3a Controls Mutual Cell Attraction during Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Theveneau, Eric; Tzekou, Apostolia; Tada, Masazumi; Woods, Mae; Page, Karen M.; Parsons, Maddy; Lambris, John D.; Mayor, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Collective cell migration is a mode of movement crucial for morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. However, little is known about how migratory cells coordinate collectively. Here we show that mutual cell-cell attraction (named here coattraction) is required to maintain cohesive clusters of migrating mesenchymal cells. Coattraction can counterbalance the natural tendency of cells to disperse via mechanisms such as contact inhibition and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Neural crest cells are coattracted via the complement fragment C3a and its receptor C3aR, revealing an unexpected role of complement proteins in early vertebrate development. Loss of coattraction disrupts collective and coordinated movements of these cells. We propose that coattraction and contact inhibition act in concert to allow cell collectives to self-organize and respond efficiently to external signals, such as chemoattractants and repellents. PMID:22118769

  1. The TLQP-21 Peptide Activates the G-protein-coupled receptor C3aR1 via a Folding-upon-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Severini, Cinzia; Gopinath, Tata; Braun, Patrick D.; Sassano, Maria F.; Gurney, Allison; Roth, Bryan L.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Possenti, Roberta; Veglia, Gianluigi; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY TLQP-21, a VGF-encoded peptide is emerging as a novel target for obesity-associated disorders. TLQP-21 is found in the sympathetic nerve terminals in the adipose tissue and targets the G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR) Complement-3a-Receptor1 (C3aR1). So far, the mechanisms of TLQP-21-induced receptor activation remained unexplored. Here, we report that TLQP-21 is intrinsically disordered and undergoes a disorder-to-order transition, adopting an α-helical conformation, upon targeting cells expressing the C3aR1. We determined that the hot spots for TLQP-21 are located at the C-terminus, with mutations in the last four amino acids progressively reducing the bioactivity and, a single site mutation (R21A) or C-terminal amidation abolishing its function completely. Interestingly, the human TLQP-21 sequence carrying a S20A substitution activates the human C3aR1 receptor with lower potency compared to the rodent sequence. These studies reveal the mechanism of action of TLQP-21 and provide molecular templates for designing agonists and antagonists to modulate C3aR1 functions. PMID:25456411

  2. The TLQP-21 peptide activates the G-protein-coupled receptor C3aR1 via a folding-upon-binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cero, Cheryl; Vostrikov, Vitaly V; Verardi, Raffaello; Severini, Cinzia; Gopinath, Tata; Braun, Patrick D; Sassano, Maria F; Gurney, Allison; Roth, Bryan L; Vulchanova, Lucy; Possenti, Roberta; Veglia, Gianluigi; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    TLQP-21, a VGF-encoded peptide is emerging as a novel target for obesity-associated disorders. TLQP-21 is found in the sympathetic nerve terminals in the adipose tissue and targets the G-protein-coupled receptor complement-3a receptor1 (C3aR1). The mechanisms of TLQP-21-induced receptor activation remain unexplored. Here, we report that TLQP-21 is intrinsically disordered and undergoes a disorder-to-order transition, adopting an α-helical conformation upon targeting cells expressing the C3aR1. We determined that the hot spots for TLQP-21 are located at the C terminus, with mutations in the last four amino acids progressively reducing the bioactivity and, a single site mutation (R21A) or C-terminal amidation abolishing its function completely. Additionally, the human TLQP-21 sequence carrying a S20A substitution activates the human C3aR1 receptor with lower potency compared to the rodent sequence. These studies reveal the mechanism of action of TLQP-21 and provide molecular templates for designing agonists and antagonists to modulate C3aR1 functions. PMID:25456411

  3. The Complement C3a Receptor Contributes to Melanoma Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Neutrophil and CD4+ T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, Jamileh A; Manthey, Helga D; Steyn, Frederik J; Chen, Weiyu; Widiapradja, Alexander; Md Akhir, Fazrena N; Boyle, Glen M; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M; Rolfe, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    The complement peptide C3a is a key component of the innate immune system and a major fragment produced following complement activation. We used a murine model of melanoma (B16-F0) to identify a hitherto unknown role for C3a-C3aR signaling in promoting tumor growth. The results show that the development and growth of B16-F0 melanomas is retarded in mice lacking C3aR, whereas growth of established melanomas can be arrested by C3aR antagonism. Flow cytometric analysis showed alterations in tumor-infiltrating leukocytes in the absence of C3aR. Specifically, neutrophils and CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations were increased, whereas macrophages were reduced. The central role of neutrophils was confirmed by depletion experiments that reversed the tumor inhibitory effects observed in C3aR-deficient mice and returned tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells to control levels. Analysis of the tumor microenvironment showed upregulation of inflammatory genes that may contribute to the enhanced antitumor response observed in C3aR-deficient mice. C3aR deficiency/inhibition was also protective in murine models of BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma and colon and breast cancer, suggesting a tumor-promoting role for C3aR signaling in a range of tumor types. We propose that C3aR activation alters the tumor inflammatory milieu, thereby promoting tumor growth. Therapeutic inhibition of C3aR may therefore be an effective means to trigger an antitumor response in melanoma and other cancers. PMID:27183625

  4. Derivation of ligands for the complement C3a receptor from the C-terminus of C5a

    PubMed Central

    Halai, Reena; Bellows-Peterson, Meghan L; Branchett, Will; Smadbeck, James; Kieslich, Chris A; Croker, Daniel E; Cooper, Matthew A; Morikis, Dimitrios; Woodruff, Trent M; Floudas, Christodoulos A; Monk, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    The complement cascade is a highly sophisticated network of proteins that are well regulated and directed in response to invading pathogens or tissue injury. Complement C3a and C5a are key mediators produced by this cascade, and their dysregulation has been linked to a plethora of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, this has stimulated interest in the development of ligands for the receptors for these complement peptides, C3a receptor, and C5a1 (C5aR/CD88). In this study we used computational methods to design novel C5a1 receptor ligands. However, functional screening in human monocyte-derived macrophages using the xCELLigence label-free platform demonstrated altered specificity of our ligands. No agonist/antagonist activity was observed at C5a1, but we instead saw that the ligands were able to partially agonize the closely related complement receptor C3a receptor. This was verified in the presence of C3a receptor antagonist SB 290157 and in a stable cell line expressing either C5a1 or C3a receptor alone. C3a agonism has been suggested to be a potential treatment of acute neutrophil-driven traumatic pathologies, and may have great potential as a therapeutic avenue in this arena. PMID:25446428

  5. Solution structure of RicC3, a 2S albumin storage protein from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Bruix, Marta; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Rico, Manuel; Santoro, Jorge

    2003-12-01

    The three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution of recombinant (15)N labeled RicC3, a 2S albumin protein from the seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis), has been determined by NMR methods. The computed structures were based on 1564 upper limit distance constraints derived from NOE cross-correlation intensities measured in the 2D-NOESY and 3D-HSQC-NOESY experiments, 70 phi torsion angle constraints obtained from (3)J(HNH)(alpha) couplings measured in the HNHA experiment, and 30 psi torsion angle constraints derived from (3)J(H)(alpha)(Ni+1) couplings measured in the HNHB experiment. The computed structures showed a RMSD radius of 0.64 A for the structural core. The resulting structure consists of five amphipatic helices arranged in a right-handed super helix, a folding motif first observed in nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. Different than the latter, RicC3 does have not an internal cavity, a fact that can be related to the exchange in the pairing of disulfide bridges in the segment.CXC. Previous attempts to determine high resolution structures of a 2S albumin protein by either X-ray crystallography or NMR methods failed because of the heterogeneity of the protein prepared from natural sources. Both 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins belong to the prolamine superfamily, some of whose members are food allergens. The solution structure for recombinant RicC3 determined here is a suitable representative structure for the broad family of seed 2S albumin proteins, which may help to establish meaningful relationships between structure and allergenicity. RicC3 is also the peptidic component of the immunomodulator Inmunoferon, a widely used pharmaceutical product, and its structure is expected to help understand its pharmaceutical activity. PMID:14636051

  6. Sulfated Tyrosines Contribute to the Formation of the C5a Docking Site of the Human C5a Anaphylatoxin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Michael; Schnitzler, Christine E.; Vasilieva, Natalya; Leung, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma P.; Choe, Hyeryun

    2001-01-01

    The complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its seven-transmembrane segment (7TMS) receptor play an important role in host defense and in a number of inflammation-associated pathologies. The NH2-terminal domain of the C5a receptor (C5aR/CD88) contributes substantially to its ability to bind C5a. Here we show that the tyrosines at positions 11 and 14 of the C5aR are posttranslationally modified by the addition of sulfate groups. The sulfate moieties of each of these tyrosines are critical to the ability of the C5aR to bind C5a and to mobilize calcium. A C5aR variant lacking these sulfate moieties efficiently mobilized calcium in response to a small peptide agonist, but not to C5a, consistent with a two-site model of ligand association in which the tyrosine-sulfated region of the C5aR mediates the initial docking interaction. A peptide based on the NH2 terminus of the C5aR and sulfated at these two tyrosines, but not its unsulfated analogue or a doubly sulfated control peptide, partially inhibited C5a association with its receptor. These observations clarify structural and mutagenic studies of the C5a/C5aR association and suggest that related 7TMS receptors are also modified by functionally important sulfate groups on their NH2-terminal tyrosines. PMID:11342590

  7. Sex hormone modulation of both induction and inhibition of CYP1A by genistein in HepG2/C3A cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Santillo, Michael F; Flynn, Thomas J; Ferguson, Martine S

    2015-04-01

    Genistein is a widely consumed phytoestrogen in dietary supplements and has been reported to play roles in both cancer prevention and promotion. These conflicting effects may be complicated by sex differences. Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) participates in carcinogen activation and detoxification, and the enzyme may interact with genistein. Therefore, modulation of CYP1A by a combination of genistein and sex hormones could be responsible for sex differences related to cancer prevention and promotion. In the current study, a human liver cell line, HepG2/C3A, cultured in sex hormone-supplemented media was used to investigate the modulatory effect of genistein on CYP1A gene expression and activity. Genistein exerted both long-term (72 h) induction and short-term (immediate) inhibition of CYP1A activity in HepG2/C3A cells. In the long-term study, CYP1A gene expression and enzyme activity were induced to a greater extent in male hormone-supplemented cells than female ones. In the short-term study, CYP1A activity was inhibited more strongly by genistein in the male hormone-supplemented cells than in the female hormone-supplemented cells. These significant differences suggest that male hormones can modulate the effects of genistein on CYP1A gene expression and activity. PMID:25479735

  8. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.; Naoumova, Rossitza P.; Jones, Bethan; Gau, Brian; Seed, Mary; Betteridge,D. John; Galton, David J.; Rubin, Edward M.; Scott, James; Shoulders,Carol C.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2002-09-15

    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage data producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.

  9. Simulation of oxygen carrier mediated oxygen transport to C3A hepatoma cells housed within a hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jesse P; Gordon, Jason E; Palmer, Andre F

    2006-02-01

    A priori knowledge of the dissolved oxygen (O2) concentration profile within a hepatic hollow fiber (HF) bioreactor is important in developing an effective bioartificial liver assist device (BLAD). O2 provision is limiting within HF bioreactors and we hypothesize that supplementing a hepatic HF bioreactor's circulating media with bovine red blood cells (bRBCs), which function as an O2 carrier, will improve oxygenation. The dissolved O2 concentration profile within a single HF (lumen, membrane, and representative extra capillary space (ECS)) was modeled with the finite element method, and compared to experimentally measured data obtained on an actual HF bioreactor with the same dimensions housing C3A hepatoma cells. Our results (experimental and modeling) indicate bRBC supplementation of the circulating media leads to an increase in O2 consumed by C3A cells. Under certain experimental conditions (pO2,IN) = 95 mmHg, Q = 8.30 mL/min), the addition of bRBCs at 5% of the average in vivo human red blood cell concentration (% hRBC) results in approximately 50% increase in the O2 consumption rate (OCR). By simply adjusting the operating conditions (pO2,IN) = 25 mmHg, Q = 1.77 mL/min) and increasing bRBC concentration to 25% hRBC the OCR increase is approximately 10-fold. However, the improved O2 concentration profile experienced by the C3A cells could not duplicate the full range of in vivo O2 tensions (25-70 mmHg) typically experienced within the liver sinusoid with this particular HF bioreactor. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the O2 transport model accurately predicts O2 consumption within a HF bioreactor, thus setting up the modeling framework for improving the design of future hepatic HF bioreactors. PMID:16161160

  10. Eggshell membrane ameliorates hepatic fibrogenesis in human C3A cells and rats through changes in PPARγ-Endothelin 1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Saito, Kenji; Hanate, Manaka; Hasebe, Yukio; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    Our previous nutrigenomic findings indicate that eggshell membrane (ESM) may prevent liver fibrosis. Here we investigated the effects and mechanisms underlying ESM intervention against liver injury by using DNA microarray analysis and comparative proteomics. In vitro hydrolyzed ESM attenuated the TGFβ1-induced procollagen production of human hepatocyte C3A cells and inhibited the expression of Endothelin 1 (EDN1) and its two receptors, and extracellular matrix components. In vivo male Wistar rats were allocated into a normal control group, a CCl4 group (hypodermic injection of 50% CCl4 2×/wk) and an ESM group (20 g ESM/kg diet with CCl4 injection) for 7 wks. Dietary ESM ameliorated the elevated activity of ALT/AST, oxidative stress and collagen accumulation in liver, accompanied by the down-regulated expression of Edn1 signaling and notable profibrogenic genes and growth factors as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Concomitantly, the decreased expressions of Galectin-1 and Desmin protein in the ESM group indicated the deactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Through a multifaceted integrated omics approach, we have demonstrated that ESM can exert an antifibrotic effect by suppressing oxidative stress and promoting collagen degradation by inhibiting HSCs' transformation, potentially via a novel modulation of the PPARγ-Endothelin 1 interaction signaling pathway. PMID:25503635

  11. The APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster and markers of allostatic load in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster encodes key regulators of plasma lipids. Interactions between dietary factors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cluster have been reported. Allostatic load, or physiological dysregulation in response to stress, has been implicated in shaping health disparit...

  12. Effects of variations in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on different parameters of postprandial lipid metabolism in healthy young men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster encodes important regulators of fasting lipids, but the majority of lipid metabolism takes place in the postprandial state, and knowledge about gene regulation in this state is scarce. With the aim of characterizing possible regulators of lipid metabolism...

  13. C5a-induced hemodynamic and hematologic changes in the rabbit. Role of cyclooxygenase products and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, C.; Marceau, F.; Hugli, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hematologic changes occurring after intravascular complement activation have implicated the anaphylatoxins in this response. In this study, the hemodynamic and hematologic effects of purified C5a were investigated in rabbits; and involvement of prostanoids, histamine, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were examined. The anaphylatoxin C5a induces a reversible systemic arterial hypotension which coincides with an increase in central venous pressure (CVP), decreased cardiac output (CO), increased plasma prostanoid levels, as well as neutropenia. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) remained unchanged. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin abolished the C5a-induced hypotension and normalized plasma prostanoid levels without altering the C5a-induced neutropenia. The thromboxane (Tx) A2 synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben reduced TxB2 plasma levels and increased 6-keto-prostaglandin PGF1 alpha and PGE2 levels without altering the hypotensive response. However, with dazoxiben treatment both TPR and CVP decreased. The H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine reduced C5a-induced hypotension and diminished prostanoid release. Both the hypotensive response and elevated prostanoid release were observed after C5a challenge in animals rendered neutropenic prior to challenge. It is concluded that C5a-induced arterial hypotension in the rabbit is a PMN-independent reaction, mediated through cyclooxygenase products and, to some degree, by histamine. The mechanism producing systemic arterial hypotension does not seem to involve peripheral vasodilation but appears to be a secondary effect of pulmonary vasoconstriction, possibly mediated by TxA2. PMID:3115110

  14. C5a anaphylatoxin as a product of complement activation up-regulates the complement inhibitory factor H in rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Schlaf, Gerald; Nitzki, Frauke; Heine, Ines; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Schieferdecker, Henrike L; Götze, Otto

    2004-11-01

    The 155-kDa complement regulator factor H (FH) is the predominant soluble regulatory protein of the complement system. It acts as a cofactor for the factor I-mediated conversion of the component C3b to iC3b, competes with factor B for a binding site on C3b and C3(H2O) and promotes the dissociation of the C3bBb complex. The primary site of synthesis is the liver, i.e. FH-specific mRNA and protein were identified in both hepatocytes (HC) and Kupffer cells (KC). Previous studies in rat primary HC and KC had shown that the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma influences the balance between activation and inhibition of the complement system through up-regulation of the inhibitory FH. In this study we show that C5a, as a product of complement activation, stimulates the expression of FH-specific mRNA and protein in KC and thus induces a negative feedback. Quantitative-competitive RT-PCR showed an approximate threefold C5a-induced up-regulation of FH. ELISA analyses revealed a corresponding increase in FH protein in the supernatants of KC. The up-regulation of FH was completely inhibited by the C5a-blocking monoclonal antibody 6-9F. Furthermore, an involvement of LPS and IFN-gamma was excluded, which strongly indicates a direct effect of C5a on the expression of FH in KC. PMID:15376195

  15. Connecting the innate and adaptive immune responses in mouse choroidal neovascularization via the anaphylatoxin C5a and γδT-cells

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Beth; Schnabolk, Gloriane; Joseph, Kusumam; Raikwar, Himanshu; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Johnson, Krista; Moore, Kristi; Wang, Yi; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2016-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). An overactive complement system is associated with AMD pathogenesis, and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17, are elevated in AMD patients. IL-17 is produced by complement C5a-receptor-expressing T-cells. In murine CNV, infiltrating γδT- rather than Th17-cells produce the IL-17 measurable in lesioned eyes. Here we asked whether C5a generated locally in response to CNV recruits IL-17-producing T-cells to the eye. CNV lesions were generated using laser photocoagulation and quantified by imaging; T-lymphocytes were characterized by QRT-PCR. CNV resulted in an increase in splenic IL-17-producing γδT- and Th17-cells; yet in the CNV eye, only elevated levels of γδT-cells were observed. Systemic administration of anti-C5- or anti-C5a-blocking antibodies blunted the CNV-induced production of splenic Th17- and γδT-cells, reduced CNV size and eliminated ocular γδT-cell infiltration. In ARPE-19 cell monolayers, IL-17 triggered a pro-inflammatory state; and splenocyte proliferation was elevated in response to ocular proteins. Thus, we demonstrated that CNV lesions trigger a systemic immune response, augmenting local ocular inflammation via the infiltration of IL-17-producing γδT-cells, which are presumably recruited to the eye in a C5a-dependent manner. Understanding the complexity of complement-mediated pathological mechanisms will aid in the development of an AMD treatment. PMID:27029558

  16. Identification of the C3a Receptor (C3AR1) as the Target of the VGF-derived Peptide TLQP-21 in Rodent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hannedouche, Sebastien; Beck, Valerie; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Beibel, Martin; Roma, Guglielmo; Oakeley, Edward J.; Lannoy, Vincent; Bernard, Jerome; Hamon, Jacques; Barbieri, Samuel; Preuss, Inga; Lasbennes, Marie-Christine; Sailer, Andreas W.; Suply, Thomas; Seuwen, Klaus; Parker, Christian N.; Bassilana, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    TLQP-21, a peptide derived from VGF (non-acronymic) by proteolytic processing, has been shown to modulate energy metabolism, differentiation, and cellular response to stress. Although extensively investigated, the receptor for this endogenous peptide has not previously been described. This study describes the use of a series of studies that show G protein-coupled receptor-mediated biological activity of TLQP-21 signaling in CHO-K1 cells. Unbiased genome-wide sequencing of the transcriptome from responsive CHO-K1 cells identified a prioritized list of possible G protein-coupled receptors bringing about this activity. Further experiments using a series of defined receptor antagonists and siRNAs led to the identification of complement C3a receptor-1 (C3AR1) as a target for TLQP-21 in rodents. We have not been able to demonstrate so far that this finding is translatable to the human receptor. Our results are in line with a large number of physiological observations in rodent models of food intake and metabolic control, where TLQP-21 shows activity. In addition, the sensitivity of TLQP-21 signaling to pertussis toxin is consistent with the known signaling pathway of C3AR1. The binding of TLQP-21 to C3AR1 not only has effects on signaling but also modulates cellular functions, as TLQP-21 was shown to have a role in directing migration of mouse RAW264.7 cells. PMID:23940034

  17. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O'Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent with haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.

  18. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A A; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; Hendriks, Erik J; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on applicability in BALs and to identify possible strategies for further improvement. We tested both cell lines in monolayer- and BAL cultures on growth characteristics, hepatic differentiation, nitrogen-, carbohydrate-, amino acid- and xenobiotic metabolism. Interestingly, both cell lines adapted the hepatocyte phenotype more closely when cultured in BALs; e.g. monolayer cultures produced lactate, while BAL cultures showed diminished lactate production (C3A) or conversion to elimination (HepaRG), and urea cycle activity increased upon BAL culturing in both cell lines. HepaRG-BALs outperformed C3A-BALs on xenobiotic metabolism, ammonia elimination and lactate elimination, while protein synthesis was comparable. In BAL cultures of both cell lines ammonia elimination correlated positively with glutamine production and glutamate consumption, suggesting ammonia elimination was mainly driven by the balance between glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activity. Both cell lines lacked significant urea cycle activity and both required multiple culture weeks before reaching optimal differentiation in BALs. In conclusion, culturing in BALs enhanced hepatic functionality of both cell lines and from these, the HepaRG cells are the most promising proliferative cell source for BAL application. PMID:27489500

  19. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A.A.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B.M.; Hendriks, Erik J.; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Chamuleau, Robert A.F.M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on applicability in BALs and to identify possible strategies for further improvement. We tested both cell lines in monolayer- and BAL cultures on growth characteristics, hepatic differentiation, nitrogen-, carbohydrate-, amino acid- and xenobiotic metabolism. Interestingly, both cell lines adapted the hepatocyte phenotype more closely when cultured in BALs; e.g. monolayer cultures produced lactate, while BAL cultures showed diminished lactate production (C3A) or conversion to elimination (HepaRG), and urea cycle activity increased upon BAL culturing in both cell lines. HepaRG-BALs outperformed C3A-BALs on xenobiotic metabolism, ammonia elimination and lactate elimination, while protein synthesis was comparable. In BAL cultures of both cell lines ammonia elimination correlated positively with glutamine production and glutamate consumption, suggesting ammonia elimination was mainly driven by the balance between glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activity. Both cell lines lacked significant urea cycle activity and both required multiple culture weeks before reaching optimal differentiation in BALs. In conclusion, culturing in BALs enhanced hepatic functionality of both cell lines and from these, the HepaRG cells are the most promising proliferative cell source for BAL application. PMID:27489500

  20. Multiendpoint mechanistic profiling of hepatotoxicants in HepG2/C3A human hepatoma cells and novel statistical approaches for development of a prediction model for acute hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Thomas J; Ferguson, Martine S

    2008-09-01

    HepG2/C3A human hepatoma cells were exposed to serial concentrations of seven known hepatotoxicants for 48h. Six endpoint assays were selected to model different mechanisms of acute hepatotoxicity. Each compound produced a unique concentration-response pattern across all endpoints. The endpoints did not correlate strongly, suggesting that each endpoint monitored an independent cellular process. Prediction models were developed using five statistical methods. The models used only known hepatotoxicants for the training set. The zero concentration (control) and all concentrations not significantly different from control were programmed as non-toxic levels and concentrations significantly different from control as toxic levels. So, rather than a binary classification of each compound (i.e., toxic or non-toxic), the models gave a prediction of the concentration, if any, at which a compound showed behavior similar to liver toxicants at their toxic concentrations. The discriminant analysis model gave the best overall performance with positive and negative predictive values of 1.00 and 0.83, respectively. Ten additional compounds were tested using this prediction model. The model predicted liver active concentrations for each compound that were consistent with their known biologically active concentrations. This model system may be useful for predicting concentration levels at which unknown compounds would display undesirable liver activity. PMID:18539427

  1. Characterization of Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) hydroperoxide lyase (CYP74C3), a water-soluble detergent-free cytochrome P450 monomer whose biological activity is defined by monomer–micelle association

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Richard K.; Belfield, Eric J.; Muthusamay, Mylrajan; Khan, Anuja; Rowe, Arthur; Harding, Stephen E.; Fairhurst, Shirley A.; Bornemann, Stephen; Ashton, Ruth; Thorneley, Roger N. F.; Casey, Rod

    2006-01-01

    We describe the detailed biochemical characterization of CYP74C3 (cytochrome P450 subfamily 74C3), a recombinant plant cytochrome P450 enzyme with HPL (hydroperoxide lyase) activity from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic). Steady-state kinetic parameters, substrate and product specificities, RZ (Reinheitszahl or purity index), molar absorption coefficient, haem content, and new ligands for an HPL are reported. We show on the basis of gel filtration, sedimentation velocity (sedimentation coefficient distribution) and sedimentation equilibrium (molecular mass) analyses that CYP74C3 has low enzyme activity as a detergent-free, water-soluble, monomer. The enzyme activity can be completely restored by re-activation with detergent micelles, but not detergent monomers. Corresponding changes in the spin state equilibrium, and probably co-ordination of the haem iron, are novel for cytochrome P450 enzymes and suggest that detergent micelles have a subtle effect on protein conformation, rather than substrate presentation, which is sufficient to improve substrate binding and catalytic-centre activity by an order of magnitude. The kcat/Km of up to 1.6×108 M−1·s−1 is among the highest recorded, which is remarkable for an enzyme whose reaction mechanism involves the scission of a C–C bond. We carried out both kinetic and biophysical studies to demonstrate that this effect is a result of the formation of a complex between a protein monomer and a single detergent micelle. Association with a detergent micelle rather than oligomeric state represents a new mechanism of activation for membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzymes. Highly concentrated and monodispersed samples of detergent-free CYP74C3 protein may be well suited for the purposes of crystallization and structural resolution of the first plant cytochrome P450 enzyme. PMID:16454766

  2. Differential effects of the complement peptides, C5a and C5a des Arg on human basophil and lung mast cell histamine release.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, E S; Post, T J; Henson, P M; Giclas, P C

    1988-01-01

    The ability of purified anaphylatoxins to induce human lung mast cell mediator release was investigated. In eight anti-IgE responsive (histamine release = 22 +/- 5%, mean +/- SEM) mast cell preparations of 1-96% purity, C5a and C5a des Arg (0.55 pg/ml to 55 micrograms/ml), failed to elicit or potentiate histamine release; lung fragments were similarly unresponsive. The related peptide C3a was also inactive. All anaphylatoxins failed to induce mast cell leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release. LTC4 release was also negligible from basophils where C5a was a potent histamine release stimulus. Supernatants from C5a-challenged mast cells remained fully active on basophils, excluding carboxypeptidase inactivation of C5a as an explanation for the lung mast cell results. In contrast to lung, skin mast cells were C5a-responsive (histamine release = 8 +/- 1%, at 55 micrograms/ml, n = 2). We conclude that C5a, though devoid of activity on the human lung mast cell, is a human basophil and skin mast cell secretagogue. These findings demonstrate significant organ-specific heterogeneity in mast cell responsiveness. PMID:2449462

  3. TNT003, an inhibitor of the serine protease C1s, prevents complement activation induced by cold agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ju; Rose, Eileen L; Singh, Andrew; Hussain, Sami; Stagliano, Nancy E; Parry, Graham C; Panicker, Sandip

    2014-06-26

    Activation of the classical pathway (CP) of complement is often associated with autoimmune disorders in which disease pathology is linked to the presence of an autoantibody. One such disorder is cold agglutinin disease (CAD), an autoimmune hemolytic anemia in which autoantibodies (cold agglutinins) bind to red blood cells (RBCs) at low temperatures. Anemia occurs as a result of autoantibody-mediated CP activation on the surface of the erythrocyte, leading to the deposition of complement opsonins that drive extravascular hemolysis in the liver. Here we test the effects of TNT003, a mouse monoclonal antibody targeting the CP-specific serine protease C1s, on CP activity induced by cold agglutinins on human RBCs. We collected 40 individual CAD patient samples and showed that TNT003 prevented cold agglutinin-mediated deposition of complement opsonins that promote phagocytosis of RBCs. Furthermore, we show that by preventing CP activation, TNT003 also prevents cold agglutinin-driven generation of anaphylatoxins. Finally, we provide evidence that CP activity in CAD patients terminates prior to activation of the terminal cascade, supporting the hypothesis that the primary route of RBC destruction in these patients occurs via extravascular hemolysis. Our results support the development of a CP inhibitor for the treatment of CAD. PMID:24695853

  4. Small Molecule-Induced Complement Factor D (Adipsin) Promotes Lipid Accumulation and Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Kim, Suji; Jang, Byung-Hyun; Chang, Seo-Hyuk; Yun, Ui Jeong; Park, Ki-Moon; Waki, Hironori; Li, Dean Y; Tontonoz, Peter; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Adipocytes are differentiated by various transcriptional cascades integrated on the master regulator, Pparγ. To discover new genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, preadipocytes were treated with three newly identified pro-adipogenic small molecules and GW7845 (a Pparγ agonist) for 24 hours and transcriptional profiling was analyzed. Four genes, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), human complement factor D homolog (Cfd), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9 (Ccl9), and GIPC PDZ Domain Containing Family Member 2 (Gipc2) were induced by at least two different small molecules but not by GW7845. Cfd and Ccl9 expressions were specific to adipocytes and they were altered in obese mice. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated knockdown of Cfd in preadipocytes inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of Cfd promoted adipocyte differentiation, increased C3a production, and led to induction of C3a receptor (C3aR) target gene expression. Similarly, treatments with C3a or C3aR agonist (C4494) also promoted adipogenesis. C3aR knockdown suppressed adipogenesis and impaired the pro-adipogenic effects of Cfd, further suggesting the necessity for C3aR signaling in Cfd-mediated pro-adipogenic axis. Together, these data show the action of Cfd in adipogenesis and underscore the application of small molecules to identify genes in adipocytes. PMID:27611793

  5. Intratracheal myriocin enhances allergen‐induced Th2 inflammation and airway hyper‐responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Rehn, Kira Lee; Liu, Bo; McAlees, Jaclyn W.; Hershey, Gurjit K.; Wang, Yui Hsi; Lewkowich, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ceramide is the central substrate of sphingolipid metabolism and plays a key role in cellular signal transduction pathways, regulating apoptosis, differentiation, and chemotaxis. Alterations in airway ceramide levels are observed in multiple pulmonary diseases and recent human genetic association studies have linked dysregulation of sphingolipid regulatory genes with asthma pathogenesis. Methods Utilizing myriocin, a potent inhibitor of sphingolipid synthesis, we evaluated the immune regulatory role of de novo ceramide generation in vitro and in vivo. Intratracheal myriocin was administered alone or during house dust mite sensitization (HDM) of BALB/C mice and airway hyper‐responsiveness (AHR) was evaluated by invasive plethysmography followed by bronchial lavage (BAL) cytology and cytokine quantification. Results Myriocin inhibits and HDM exposure activates de novo ceramide synthesis in bone marrow‐derived dendritic cells. Mice receiving intratracheal myriocin developed a mild airway neutrophilic infiltrate without inducing a significant increase in AHR. CXCL1 was elevated in the BAL fluid of myriocin‐treated mice while the neutrophilic chemotactic factors anaphylatoxin C5a, leukotriene B4, and IL‐17 were unaffected. HDM treatment combined with myriocin led to a dramatic enhancement of AHR (63% increase over HDM alone, p < 0.001) and increased granulocyte pulmonary infiltrates versus HDM or myriocin alone. Elevated Th2 T cell counts and Th2 cytokines/chemokines (IL5, IL13, CCL17) were observed in mice treated with combined HDM/myriocin compared to HDM alone. Myriocin‐treated pulmonary CD11c+ cells stimulated with HDM secreted significantly more CXCL1 than cells stimulated with HDM alone while HDM stimulated airway epithelial cells showed no change in CXCL1 secretion following myriocin treatment. Conclusions Intratracheal myriocin, likely acting via ceramide synthesis inhibition, enhances allergen‐induced airway inflammation

  6. C3: A Collaborative Web Framework for NASA Earth Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foughty, E.; Fattarsi, C.; Hardoyo, C.; Kluck, D.; Wang, L.; Matthews, B.; Das, K.; Srivastava, A.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a new collaboration platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing. NEX combines NASA advanced supercomputing resources, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data archives, and a collaborative communication platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. NEX is designed primarily for use by the NASA Earth science community to address scientific grand challenges. The NEX web portal component provides an on-line collaborative environment for sharing of Eearth science models, data, analysis tools and scientific results by researchers. In addition, the NEX portal also serves as a knowledge network that allows researchers to connect and collaborate based on the research they are involved in, specific geographic area of interest, field of study, etc. Features of the NEX web portal include: Member profiles, resource sharing (data sets, algorithms, models, publications), communication tools (commenting, messaging, social tagging), project tools (wikis, blogs) and more. The NEX web portal is built on the proven technologies and policies of DASHlink.arc.nasa.gov, (one of NASA's first science social media websites). The core component of the web portal is a C3 framework, which was built using Django and which is being deployed as a common framework for a number of collaborative sites throughout NASA.

  7. Isolation of a thiol-dependent serine protease in peanut and investigation of its role in the complement and the allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Javaux, Cédric; Stordeur, Patrick; Azarkan, Mohamed; Mascart, Françoise; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    A serine protease activity was detected in aqueous peanuts seeds extracts, partially purified and characterized as a thiol-dependent serine protease. The potential role of this proteolytic activity on allergic reaction to peanuts was prospected through complement activation studies in human plasma and serum, and MDCK cells to investigate a possible occludin degradation in tight junctions. The peanut protease activity induced the production of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, and of the terminal membrane attack complex SC5b-9 whatever the complement activation pathway. The protease activity was also involved in the partial digestion of occludin within tight junctions, with for result, an increase of the epithelial permeability to antigen absorption. PMID:27280846

  8. Effective suppression of C5a-induced proinflammatory response using anti-human C5a repebody.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Da-Eun; Choi, Jung-Min; Yang, Chul-Su; Lee, Joong-Jae; Heu, Woosung; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-09-01

    The strongest anaphylatoxin, C5a, plays a critical role in the proinflammatory responses, causing the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases including sepsis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibitors of C5a thus have great potential as therapeutics for various inflammatory disorders. Herein, we present the development of a high-affinity repebody against human C5a (hC5a), which effectively suppresses the proinflammatory response. A repebody scaffold composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules was previously developed as an alternative protein scaffold. A repebody specifically binding to hC5a was selected through a phage display, and its affinity was increased up to 5 nM using modular engineering. The repebody was shown to effectively inhibit the production of C5a-induced proinflammatory cytokines by human monocytes. To obtain insight into a mode of action by the repebody, we determined its crystal structure in complex with hC5a. A structural analysis revealed that the repebody binds to the D1 and D3 regions of hC5a, overlapping several epitope residues with the hC5a receptor (hC5aR). It is thus likely that the repebody suppresses the hC5a-mediated immune response in monocytes by blocking the binding of hC5a to its receptor. The anti-hC5a repebody can be developed as a potential therapeutic for C5a-involved inflammatory diseases. PMID:27416759

  9. Biocompatibility of surfactant-templated polyurea-nanoencapsulated macroporous silica aerogels with plasma platelets and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Venkitachalam, Subramaniam M; Jarrett, Ellen; Staggs, Sarah; Leventis, Nicholas; Lu, Hongbing; Rubenstein, David A

    2010-03-15

    The recently synthesized polyurea-nanoencapsulated surfactant-templated aerogels (X-aerogels) are porous materials with significantly improved mechanical strengths. Surface-wise they resemble polyurethane, a common biocompatible material, but their biocompatibility has never been investigated. As lightweight and strong materials, if X-aerogels also have acceptable biocompatibility, they may be used in many implantable devices. The goal of this study was to investigate their biocompatibility toward platelets, blood plasma, and vascular endothelial cells, in terms of cell activation and inflammatory responses. Platelets were incubated with X-aerogel and platelet activation was measured through CD62P and phosphatidylserine expression. Platelet aggregation was also measured. Contact with X-aerogel did not induce platelet activation or impair aggregation. To determine X-aerogel-induced inflammation, plasma anaphylatoxin C3a level was measured after incubation with X-aerogel. Results showed that X-aerogel induced no changes in plasma C3a levels. SEM and SDS-PAGE were used to examine cellular/protein deposition on X-aerogel samples after plasma incubation. No structural change or organic deposition was detected. Furthermore, X-aerogel samples did not induce any significant changes in vascular endothelial cell culture parameters after 5 days of incubation. These observations suggest that X-aerogels have a suitable biocompatibility toward platelets, plasma, and vascular endothelial cells, and they have potential for use in blood implantable devices. PMID:19358258

  10. Polyglycolic acid induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ceonzo, Kathleen; Gaynor, Anne; Shaffer, Lisa; Kojima, Koji; Vacanti, Charles A.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Tissue and organ replacement have quickly outpaced available supply. Tissue bioengineering holds the promise for additional tissue availability. Various scaffolds are currently used, whereas polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is currently used in absorbable sutures and orthopedic pins, provides an excellent support for tissue development. Unfortunately, PGA can induce a local inflammatory response following implantation, so we investigated the molecular mechanism of inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Degraded PGA induced an acute peritonitis, characterized by neutrophil (PMN) infiltration following intraperitoneal injection in mice. Similar observations were observed using the metabolite of PGA, glycolide. Dissolved PGA or glycolide, but not native PGA, activated the classical complement pathway in human sera, as determined by classical complement pathway hemolytic assays, C3a and C5a production, C3 and immunoglobulin deposition. To investigate whether these in vitro observations translated to in vivo findings, we used genetically engineered mice. Intraperitoneal administration of glycolide or dissolved PGA in mice deficient in C1q, factor D, C1q and factor D or C2 and factor B demonstrated significantly reduced PMN infiltration compared to congenic controls (WT). Mice deficient in C6 also demonstrated acute peritonitis. However, treatment of WT or C6 deficient mice with a monoclonal antibody against C5 prevented the inflammatory response. These data suggest that the hydrolysis of PGA to glycolide activates the classical complement pathway. Further, complement is amplified via the alternative pathway and inflammation is induced by C5a generation. Inhibition of C5a may provide a potential therapeutic approach to limit the inflammation associated with PGA derived materials following implantation. PMID:16548688

  11. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  12. Complement activation in the context of stem cells and tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstatter, Ingrid U; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia K; DiScipio, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    The complement pathway is best known for its role in immune surveillance and inflammation. However, its ability of opsonizing and removing not only pathogens, but also necrotic and apoptotic cells, is a phylogenetically ancient means of initiating tissue repair. The means and mechanisms of complement-mediated tissue repair are discussed in this review. There is increasing evidence that complement activation contributes to tissue repair at several levels. These range from the chemo-attraction of stem and progenitor cells to areas of complement activation, to increased survival of various cell types in the presence of split products of complement, and to the production of trophic factors by cells activated by the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. This repair aspect of complement biology has not found sufficient appreciation until recently. The following will examine this aspect of complement biology with an emphasis on the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. PMID:26435769

  13. A Serine Protease Isolated from the Bristles of the Amazonic Caterpillar, Premolis semirufa, Is a Potent Complement System Activator

    PubMed Central

    Villas Boas, Isadora Maria; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M.; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa, commonly named pararama, is found in the Brazilian Amazon region. Accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles causes an intense itching sensation, followed by symptoms of an acute inflammation, which last for three to seven days after the first incident. After multiple accidents a chronic inflammatory reaction, called “Pararamose”, characterized by articular synovial membrane thickening with joint deformities common to chronic synovitis, frequently occurs. Although complement mediated inflammation may aid the host defense, inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system and generation of anaphylatoxins can lead to inflammatory disorder and pathologies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, whether the Premolis semirufa’s bristles extract could interfere with the human complement system. Results The bristles extract was able to inhibit the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway, as well as the activation of the lectin pathway, but had no effect on the classical pathway, and this inhibition seemed to be caused by activation and consumption of complement components. The extract induced the production of significant amounts of all three anaphylatoxins, C3a, C4a and C5a, promoted direct cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and induced a significant generation of terminal complement complexes in normal human serum. By using molecular exclusion chromatography, a serine protease of 82 kDa, which activates complement, was isolated from P. semirufa bristles extract. The protease, named here as Ps82, reduced the haemolytic activity of the alternative and classical pathways and inhibited the lectin pathway. In addition, Ps82 induced the cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and the generation of C3a and C4a in normal human serum and it was capable to cleave human purified C5 and generate C5a. The use of Phenanthroline, metalloprotease inhibitor, in the reactions did not significantly

  14. The complement receptor C5aR1 contributes to renal damage but protects the heart in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sebastian; Rosendahl, Alva; Czesla, Daniel; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Stahl, Rolf A K; Ehmke, Heimo; Kurts, Christian; Zipfel, Peter F; Köhl, Jörg; Wenzel, Ulrich O

    2016-06-01

    Adaptive and innate immune responses contribute to hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage. Here, we determined the role of anaphylatoxin C5a, a major inflammatory effector of the innate immune system that is generated in response to complement activation, in hypertensive end-organ damage. For this purpose, we assessed the phenotype of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1)-deficient mice in ANG II-induced renal and cardiac injury. Expression of C5aR1 on infiltrating and resident renal as well as cardiac cells was determined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-C5aR1 reporter knockin mouse. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes isolated from the kidney of GFP-C5aR1 reporter mice showed that 28% of CD45-positive cells expressed C5aR1. Dendritic cells were identified as the major C5aR1-expressing population (88.5%) followed by macrophages and neutrophils. Using confocal microscopy, we detected C5aR1 in the kidney mainly on infiltrating cells. In the heart, only infiltrating cells stained C5aR1 positive. To evaluate the role of C5aR1 deficiency in hypertensive injury, an aggravated model of hypertension was used. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed followed by infusion of ANG II (1.5 ng·g(-1)·min(-1)) and salt in wild-type (n = 34) and C5aR1-deficient mice (n = 32). C5aR1-deficient mice exhibited less renal injury, as evidenced by significantly reduced albuminuria. In contrast, cardiac injury was accelerated with significantly increased cardiac fibrosis and heart weight in C5aR1-deficient mice after ANG II infusion. No effect was found on blood pressure. In summary, the C5a:C5aR1 axis drives end-organ damage in the kidney but protects from the development of cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in experimental ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:27053686

  15. Anticomplementary activity of horse IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ribeiro da Cunha, Luiz Eduardo; Gutiérrez, José María; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2014-03-01

    Envenomation by poisonous animals is a neglected condition according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Antivenoms are included in the WHO Essential Medicines List. It has been assumed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antivenoms could activate the complement system through Fc and induce early adverse reactions (EARs). However, data in the literature indicate that F(ab')2 fragments can also activate the complement system. Herein, we show that several batches of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms from the Butantan, Vital Brazil, and Clodomiro Picado Institutes activated the complement classical pathway and induced the production of C3a; however, only those antivenoms from Clodomiro Picado generated C5a. Different protein profiles (IgG heavy chain, protein contaminants, and aggregates) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analyses. Our results show that various antivenoms from different producers are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system and generate anaphylatoxins, and these findings suggest that factors, such as composition, contaminant proteins, and aggregates, may influence the anticomplementary activity of antivenoms in vitro. Therefore, there is a need to further improve antivenom production methods to reduce their anticomplementary activity and potential to cause EARs. PMID:24445201

  16. Anticomplementary Activity of Horse IgG and F(ab')2 Antivenoms

    PubMed Central

    Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ribeiro da Cunha, Luiz Eduardo; Gutiérrez, José María; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2014-01-01

    Envenomation by poisonous animals is a neglected condition according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Antivenoms are included in the WHO Essential Medicines List. It has been assumed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antivenoms could activate the complement system through Fc and induce early adverse reactions (EARs). However, data in the literature indicate that F(ab')2 fragments can also activate the complement system. Herein, we show that several batches of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms from the Butantan, Vital Brazil, and Clodomiro Picado Institutes activated the complement classical pathway and induced the production of C3a; however, only those antivenoms from Clodomiro Picado generated C5a. Different protein profiles (IgG heavy chain, protein contaminants, and aggregates) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analyses. Our results show that various antivenoms from different producers are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system and generate anaphylatoxins, and these findings suggest that factors, such as composition, contaminant proteins, and aggregates, may influence the anticomplementary activity of antivenoms in vitro. Therefore, there is a need to further improve antivenom production methods to reduce their anticomplementary activity and potential to cause EARs. PMID:24445201

  17. Cutting edge: the NLRP3 inflammasome links complement-mediated inflammation and IL-1β release.

    PubMed

    Laudisi, Federica; Spreafico, Roberto; Evrard, Maximilien; Hughes, Timothy R; Mandriani, Barbara; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Morgan, B Paul; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Mortellaro, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    The complement system is a potent component of the innate immune response, promoting inflammation and orchestrating defense against pathogens. However, dysregulation of complement is critical to several autoimmune and inflammatory syndromes. Elevated expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β is often linked to such diseases. In this study, we reveal the mechanistic link between complement and IL-1β secretion using murine dendritic cells. IL-1β secretion occurs following intracellular caspase-1 activation by inflammasomes. We show that complement elicits secretion of both IL-1β and IL-18 in vitro and in vivo via the NLRP3 inflammasome. This effect depends on the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC, as well as caspase-1 activity. Interestingly, sublethal complement membrane attack complex formation, but not the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. These findings provide insight into the molecular processes underlying complement-mediated inflammation and highlight the possibility of targeting IL-1β to control complement-induced disease and pathological inflammation. PMID:23817414

  18. Animal models of complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, János; Alving, Carl R; Rosivall, László; Bünger, Rolf; Baranyi, Lajos; Bedöcs, Péter; Tóth, Miklós; Barenholz, Yezheckel

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous injection of some liposomal drugs, diagnostic agents, micelles and other lipid-based nanoparticles can cause acute hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a high percentage (up to 45%) of patients, with hemodynamic, respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. The phenomenon can be explained with activation of the complement (C) system on the surface of lipid particles, leading to anaphylatoxin (C5a and C3a) liberation and subsequent release reactions of mast cells, basophils and possibly other inflammatory cells in blood. These reactions can be reproduced and studied in pigs, dogs and rats, animal models which differ from each other in sensitivity and spectrum of symptoms. In the most sensitive pig model, a few miligrams of liposome (phospholipid) can cause anaphylactoid shock, characterized by pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, decreased cardiac output and major cardiac arrhythmias. Pigs also display cutaneous symptoms, such as flushing and rash. The sensitivity of dogs to hemodynamic changes is close to that of pigs, but unlike pigs, dogs also react to micellar lipids (such as Cremophor EL) and their response includes pronounced blood cell and vegetative neural changes (e.g., leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, fluid excretions). Rats are relatively insensitive inasmuch as hypotension, their most prominent response to liposomes, is induced only by one or two orders of magnitude higher phospholipid doses (based on body weight) compared to the reactogenic dose in pigs and dogs. It is suggested that the porcine and dog models are applicable for measuring and predicting the (pseudo)allergic activity of particulate "nanodrugs". PMID:17613700

  19. Cutting Edge: The NLRP3 Inflammasome Links Complement-Mediated Inflammation and IL-1β Release

    PubMed Central

    Laudisi, Federica; Spreafico, Roberto; Evrard, Maximilien; Hughes, Timothy R.; Mandriani, Barbara; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Morgan, B. Paul; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is a potent component of the innate immune response, promoting inflammation and orchestrating defense against pathogens. However, dysregulation of complement is critical to several autoimmune and inflammatory syndromes. Elevated expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β is often linked to such diseases. In this study, we reveal the mechanistic link between complement and IL-1β secretion using murine dendritic cells. IL-1β secretion occurs following intracellular caspase-1 activation by inflammasomes. We show that complement elicits secretion of both IL-1β and IL-18 in vitro and in vivo via the NLRP3 inflammasome. This effect depends on the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC, as well as caspase-1 activity. Interestingly, sublethal complement membrane attack complex formation, but not the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. These findings provide insight into the molecular processes underlying complement-mediated inflammation and highlight the possibility of targeting IL-1β to control complement-induced disease and pathological inflammation. PMID:23817414

  20. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... surrounds your baby in the womb. It contains membranes or layers of tissue. One method of inducing ... break the bag of waters" or rupture the membranes. Your health care provider will do a pelvic ...

  1. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein Stimulates Complement C3 Expression and Secretion via Liver X Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation in Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Mogilenko, Denis A.; Kudriavtsev, Igor V.; Trulioff, Andrey S.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Missyul, Boris V.; Zhakhov, Alexander V.; Ischenko, Alexander M.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.; Orlov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. C3 is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism of C3 accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is not well elucidated. We show that acetylated low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increase C3 gene expression and protein secretion by human macrophages. Modified LDL (mLDL)-mediated activation of C3 expression mainly depends on liver X receptor (LXR) and partly on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas C3 secretion is increased due to TLR4 activation by mLDL. LXR agonist TO901317 stimulates C3 gene expression in human monocyte-macrophage cells but not in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We find LXR-responsive element inside of the promoter region of the human C3 gene, which binds to LXRβ in macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. We show that C3 expression and secretion is decreased in IL-4-treated (M2) and increased in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated (M1) human macrophages as compared with resting macrophages. LXR agonist TO901317 potentiates LPS-induced C3 gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages, whereas oxLDL differently modulates LPS-mediated regulation of C3 in M1 or M2 macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with anaphylatoxin C3a results in stimulation of C3 transcription and secretion as well as increased oxLDL accumulation and augmented oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of the C3 gene. These data provide a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and suggest new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22194611

  2. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  3. Intestinal CYP3A4 protects against lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in intestine-specific VDR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Chiang, John Y L; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D signaling involved in bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, cardiovascular function, and bile acid regulation. Mice with an intestine-specific disruption of VDR (Vdr(ΔIEpC)) have abnormal body size, colon structure, and imbalance of bile acid metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid that activates VDR, is among the most toxic of the bile acids that when overaccumulated in the liver causes hepatotoxicity. Because cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a target gene of VDR-involved bile acid metabolism, the role of CYP3A4 in VDR biology and bile acid metabolism was investigated. The CYP3A4 gene was inserted into Vdr(ΔIEpC) mice to produce the Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 line. LCA was administered to control, transgenic-CYP3A4, Vdr(ΔIEpC), and Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 mice, and hepatic toxicity and bile acid levels in the liver, intestine, bile, and urine were measured. VDR deficiency in the intestine of the Vdr(ΔIEpC) mice exacerbates LCA-induced hepatotoxicity manifested by increased necrosis and inflammation, due in part to over-accumulation of hepatic bile acids including taurocholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid. Intestinal expression of CYP3A4 in the Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 mouse line reduces LCA-induced hepatotoxicity through elevation of LCA metabolism and detoxification, and suppression of bile acid transporter expression in the small intestine. This study reveals that intestinal CYP3A4 protects against LCA hepatotoxicity. PMID:24343899

  4. Deciphering the Regulon of Streptomyces coelicolor AbrC3, a Positive Response Regulator of Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Sergio; Santamaría, Ramón I.; Yepes, Ana; Rodríguez, Héctor; Laing, Emma; Bucca, Giselda; Smith, Colin P.

    2014-01-01

    The atypical two-component system (TCS) AbrC1/C2/C3 (encoded by SCO4598, SCO4597, and SCO4596), comprising two histidine kinases (HKs) and a response regulator (RR), is crucial for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor and for morphological differentiation under certain nutritional conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of the RR-encoding gene, abrC3 (SCO4596), results in a dramatic decrease in actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodiginine (RED) production and delays morphological development. In contrast, the overexpression of abrC3 in the parent strain leads to a 33% increase in ACT production in liquid medium. Transcriptomic analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis of the ΔabrC3 mutant and the parent strain revealed that AbrC3 directly controls ACT production by binding to the actII-ORF4 promoter region; this was independently verified by in vitro DNA-binding assays. This binding is dependent on the sequence 5′-GAASGSGRMS-3′. In contrast, the regulation of RED production is not due to direct binding of AbrC3 to either the redZ or redD promoter region. This study also revealed other members of the AbrC3 regulon: AbrC3 is a positive autoregulator which also binds to the promoter regions of SCO0736, bdtA (SCO3328), absR1 (SCO6992), and SCO6809. The direct targets share the 10-base consensus binding sequence and may be responsible for some of the phenotypes of the ΔabrC3 mutant. The identification of the AbrC3 regulon as part of the complex regulatory network governing antibiotic production widens our knowledge regarding TCS involvement in control of antibiotic synthesis and may contribute to the rational design of new hyperproducer host strains through genetic manipulation of such systems. PMID:24509929

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Replication in the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2/C3A

    PubMed Central

    Shier, Medhat K.; El-Wetidy, Mohammad S.; Ali, Hebatallah H.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The lack of a reliable cell culture system allowing persistent in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) propagation is still restraining the search for novel antiviral strategies. HepG2 cells transfection with HCV allows for viral replication. However, the replication is weak presumably because of HepG2 lack of miRNA-122, which is essential for viral replication. Other agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been shown to increase the efficiency of infection with other viruses. This study included comparison of HCV genotype 4 5′UTR and core RNA levels and HCV core protein expression at different time intervals in the absence or presence of PEG and/or DMSO postinfection. Materials and Methods: We used serum with native HCV particles in infecting HepG2 cells in vitro. HCV replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of HCV RNA and immunofluorescence and flow cytometry for detection of HCV core protein. Results: HCV 5′UTR and core RNA expression was evident at different time intervals after viral infection, especially after cells were treated with PEG. HCV core protein was also evident at different time intervals using both immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. PEG, not DMSO, has increased the HCV core protein expression in the treated cells, similar to its effect on viral RNA expression. Conclusions: These expression profiles suggest that the current model of cultured HepG2 cells allows the study of HCV genotype 4 replication and different stages of the viral life cycle. PMID:27184644

  6. Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922

  7. Intestinal CYP3A4 protects against lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in intestine-specific VDR-deficient mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Tanaka, Naoki; Chiang, John Y. L.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D signaling involved in bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, cardiovascular function, and bile acid regulation. Mice with an intestine-specific disruption of VDR (VdrΔIEpC) have abnormal body size, colon structure, and imbalance of bile acid metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid that activates VDR, is among the most toxic of the bile acids that when overaccumulated in the liver causes hepatotoxicity. Because cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a target gene of VDR-involved bile acid metabolism, the role of CYP3A4 in VDR biology and bile acid metabolism was investigated. The CYP3A4 gene was inserted into VdrΔIEpC mice to produce the VdrΔIEpC/3A4 line. LCA was administered to control, transgenic-CYP3A4, VdrΔIEpC, and VdrΔIEpC/3A4 mice, and hepatic toxicity and bile acid levels in the liver, intestine, bile, and urine were measured. VDR deficiency in the intestine of the VdrΔIEpC mice exacerbates LCA-induced hepatotoxicity manifested by increased necrosis and inflammation, due in part to over-accumulation of hepatic bile acids including taurocholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid. Intestinal expression of CYP3A4 in the VdrΔIEpC/3A4 mouse line reduces LCA-induced hepatotoxicity through elevation of LCA metabolism and detoxification, and suppression of bile acid transporter expression in the small intestine. This study reveals that intestinal CYP3A4 protects against LCA hepatotoxicity. PMID:24343899

  8. Drug-induced hypoglycemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000310.htm Drug-induced hypoglycemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drug-induced hypoglycemia is low blood sugar that results from medication. ...

  9. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  10. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Subbaraman, Maria R.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

  11. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  12. Induced pluripotency with endogenous and inducible genes

    SciTech Connect

    Duinsbergen, Dirk; Eriksson, Malin; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Frisen, Jonas; Mikkers, Harald

    2008-10-15

    The recent discovery that two partly overlapping sets of four genes induce nuclear reprogramming of mouse and even human cells has opened up new possibilities for cell replacement therapies. Although the combination of genes that induce pluripotency differs to some extent, Oct4 and Sox2 appear to be a prerequisite. The introduction of four genes, several of which been linked with cancer, using retroviral approaches is however unlikely to be suitable for future clinical applications. Towards developing a safer reprogramming protocol, we investigated whether cell types that express one of the most critical reprogramming genes endogenously are predisposed to reprogramming. We show here that three of the original four pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc or MYCER{sup TAM}) induced reprogramming of mouse neural stem (NS) cells exploiting endogenous SoxB1 protein levels in these cells. The reprogrammed neural stem cells differentiated into cells of each germ layer in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to mouse development in vivo. Thus a combinatorial approach taking advantage of endogenously expressed genes and inducible transgenes may contribute to the development of improved reprogramming protocols.

  13. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  14. Mania Induced by Opipramol

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, Kazhungil; Khaleel, Asfia; Rajmohan, V; Kumar, Manoj; Raghuram, TM

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants have propensity to induce manic switch in patients with bipolar disorder. Opipramol is an atypical anxiolytic and antidepressant drug which predominantly acts on sigma receptors. Although structurally resembles tricyclic antidepressant imipramine it does not have inhibitory action on the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and hence it is not presumed to cause manic switch in bipolar depression. Here, we describe a case of mania induced by opipramol, in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who was treated for moderate depressive episode with lithium and opipramol and we discuss neurochemical hypothesis of opipramol-induced mania. PMID:25722522

  15. Mania induced by opipramol.

    PubMed

    Firoz, Kazhungil; Khaleel, Asfia; Rajmohan, V; Kumar, Manoj; Raghuram, Tm

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants have propensity to induce manic switch in patients with bipolar disorder. Opipramol is an atypical anxiolytic and antidepressant drug which predominantly acts on sigma receptors. Although structurally resembles tricyclic antidepressant imipramine it does not have inhibitory action on the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and hence it is not presumed to cause manic switch in bipolar depression. Here, we describe a case of mania induced by opipramol, in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who was treated for moderate depressive episode with lithium and opipramol and we discuss neurochemical hypothesis of opipramol-induced mania. PMID:25722522

  16. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound in our environment, ...

  17. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

  18. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are a common cause of liver inflammation. These ... problem. However, if you took high doses of acetaminophen , treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  19. Gasoline-induced mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.L.; Swanson, B.Z. Jr.; Lutins, N.D.

    1980-02-01

    Gasoline-induced mucositis may become more common because of fuel shortages or increased fuel cost. Dentists should, therefore, consider this oral irritant in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions.

  20. Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    MedlinePlus

    ... and a seizure medicine called valproic acid may lead to this problem. Other medicines that cause drug-induced thrombocytopenia include: Furosemide Gold, used to treat arthritis Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( ...

  1. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  2. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  3. Drug-induced nightmares.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    (1) A wide variety of drugs have been implicated in nightmares, often on inadequate evidence. (2) Recurrent nightmares can be induced by many drugs, and not only agents with psychotropic or neurological effects. PMID:11475499

  4. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally occurs as a result of medications, as is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains the normal skin texture.

  5. Loxoprofen sodium induces the production of complement C5a in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Kodani, Yoshiko; Hashiguchi, Akihiko; Haida, Michiko; Nakamura, Masataka

    2016-04-01

    Basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro allergy test that is useful to identify allergens that cause IgE-dependent allergies. The test has been used to detect not only food allergies and allergies caused by environmental factors but also to detect drug hypersensitivity, which has been known to include IgE-independent reactions. In our preliminary studies in which BAT was applied to detect hypersensitivity of loxoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), conventional BAT with incubation for 30min did not show basophil activation by means of increased CD203c expression. In this study, we extended the incubation time to 24h on the basis of the hypothesis that loxoprofen indirectly activates basophils. Basophils from healthy control donors as well as allergic patients showed up-regulation of CD203c after incubation with loxoprofen for 24h. Activation was induced using loxoprofen-treated serum. Proteomic and pharmacologic analyses revealed that serum incubation with loxoprofen generated an active complement component C5a, which induced CD203c expression via binding to the C5a receptor on basophils. Because C3a production was also detected after incubation for 24h, loxoprofen is likely to stimulate the complement classical pathway. Our findings suggest that the complement activation is involved in drug hypersensitivity and the suppression of this activation may contribute to the elimination of false positive of BAT for drug allergies. PMID:26854577

  6. Moderate exercise training attenuates aging-induced cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis injuries of rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Po-Hsiang; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Ray-Jade; Padma, V. Vijaya

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the most important risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading causes of death worldwide and the second major cause of death in Taiwan. The major factor in heart failure during aging is heart remodeling, including long-term stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Exercise is good for aging heart health, but the impact of exercise training on aging is not defined. This study used 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats and randomly divided each age group into no exercise training control groups (C3, A12 and A18) and moderate gentle swimming exercise training groups (E3, AE12 and AE18). The protocol of exercise training was swimming five times weekly with gradual increases from the first week from 20 to 60 min for 12 weeks. Analyses of protein from rat heart tissues and sections revealed cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis pathway increases in aged rat groups (A12 and A18), which were improved in exercise training groups (AE12 and AE18). There were no heart injuries in young rat hearts in exercise group E3. These data suggest that moderate swimming exercise training attenuated aging-induced cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis injuries of rat hearts. PMID:26496028

  7. Ethionamide-induced Pellagra.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yashashree; Shah, Ira

    2015-08-01

    Pellagra is a disorder characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death, resulting from a deficiency of niacin or its precursor tryptophan. Ethionamide (a second-line antituberculosis agent)-induced pellagra is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with nicotinamide can prevent life-threatening complications. To date, only three cases have been reported. We report a 13-year-old girl presenting with ethionamide-induced pellagra that resolved after the administration of niacin. PMID:25828829

  8. Isoniazid-induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, K. B.; Kumar, V.; Vishvkarma, S.; Shandily, R.

    2011-01-01

    Isoniazid is a safe and very effective antituberculosis drug. Antimitotic agents routinely cause alopecia. Drug-induced alopecia is usually reversible upon withdrawal of the drug. Isoniazid, thiacetazone and ethionamide are the antituberculosis drugs which have been associated with alopecia. Isoniazid-induced alopecia was observed in one case and confirmed by the finding that hair growth resumed when drug removed from the regimen. PMID:21654989

  9. Induced polarization response of microbial induced sulfideprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Slater, Lee; Hubbard, Susan

    2004-06-04

    A laboratory scale experiment was conducted to examine the use of induced polarization and electrical conductivity to monitor microbial induced sulfide precipitation under anaerobic conditions in sand filled columns. Three columns were fabricated; one for electrical measurements, one for geochemical sampling and a third non-inoculated column was used as a control. A continual upward flow of nutrients and metals in solution was established in each column. Desulfovibrio vulgaris microbes were injected into the middle of the geochemical and electrical columns. Iron and zinc sulfides precipitated along a microbial action front as a result of sulfate reduction due by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The precipitation front initially developed near the microbial injection location, and subsequently migrated towards the nutrient inlet, as a result of chemotaxis by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Sampling during and subsequent to the experiment revealed spatiotemporal changes in the biogeochemical measurements associated with microbial sulfate reduction. Conductivity measurements were insensitive to all biogeochemical changes occurred within the column. Changes in the IP response (of up to 14 mrad)were observed to coincide in place and in time with the active microbe respiration/sulfide precipitation front as determined from geochemical sampling. The IP response is correlated with the lactate concentration gradient, an indirect measurement of microbial metabolism, suggesting the potential of IP as a method for monitoring microbial respiration/activity. Post experimental destructive sample analysis and SEM imaging verified the geochemical results and supported our hypothesis that microbe induced sulfide precipitation is directly detectable using electrical methods. Although the processes not fully understood, the IP response appears to be sensitive to this anaerobic microbial precipitation, suggesting a possible novel application for the IP method.

  10. Neutrophil Depletion Attenuates Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Lillegard, Kathryn E; Bauer, Ashley J; Elmquist, Barbara J; Loeks-Johnson, Alex C; Gilbert, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced placental perfusion with placental ischemia and hypertension during pregnancy. Preeclamptic women also exhibit a heightened inflammatory state and greater number of neutrophils in the vasculature compared to normal pregnancy. Since neutrophils are associated with tissue injury and inflammation, we hypothesized that neutrophils are critical to placental ischemia-induced hypertension and fetal demise. Using the reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension in the rat, we determined the effect of neutrophil depletion on blood pressure and fetal resorptions. Neutrophils were depleted with repeated injections of polyclonal rabbit anti-rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) antibody (antiPMN). Rats received either antiPMN or normal rabbit serum (Control) on 13.5, 15.5, 17.5, and 18.5 days post conception (dpc). On 14.5 dpc, rats underwent either Sham surgery or clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta to reduce uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). On 18.5 dpc, carotid arterial catheters were placed and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured on 19.5 dpc. Neutrophil-depleted rats had reduced circulating neutrophils from 14.5 to 19.5 dpc compared to Control, as well as decreased neutrophils in lung and placenta on 19.5 dpc. MAP increased in RUPP Control vs Sham Control rats, and neutrophil depletion attenuated this increase in MAP in RUPP rats without any effect on Sham rats. The RUPP-induced increase in fetal resorptions and complement activation product C3a were not affected by neutrophil depletion. Thus, these data are the first to indicate that neutrophils play an important role in RUPP hypertension and that cells of the innate immune system may significantly contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension. PMID:26135305

  11. Drug-induced panniculitides.

    PubMed

    Borroni, G; Torti, S; D'Ospina, R M; Pezzini, C

    2014-04-01

    A substantial number of all panniculitides fails to recognize a specific etiology, and that is true also for a relatively frequent type of panniculitis, such as erythema nodosum (EN). Between the recognized causative factors of panniculitides, infectious, physical agents, autoimmune mechanisms and neoplastic disorders are well known. On the contrary, the role of drugs as inducers of panniculitides is marginally considered, and their report limited to anecdotal observations, often without due histopathological support. Since the clinical and histopathological features of drug-induced panniculitides are indistinguishable from those caused by other agents, the causative relationship may be demonstrated by the history of previous drug intake and by clinical improvement after drug discontinuation. We reviewed the currently reported descriptions of drug-induced panniculitis, including a few exemplificative original observations. EN results as the most frequently reported drug-induced panniculitis. Among the causative drugs of EN a variety of medications, with disparate, or even opposite, mechanisms of action are reported, thus limiting the understanding of the pathogenesis. Common causative drugs include oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiobiotics and leukotriene-modifying agents. Unfortunately, in several cases, the diagnosis of drug-induced EN is done on clinical findings alone. In those cases, the lack of histopathological support does not allow to define a precise clinicopathological correlation on etiologic grounds. Drug-induced lobular and mixed panniculitides, including eosinophilic panniculitis, are even more rarely described. Reported causative agents are glatiramer acetate, interferon beta and heparin (at sites of injections), and systemic steroids, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BRAF with subcutaneous fat involvement at distance. In view of the recent introduction of new classes of drugs, attention should be paid to disclose their

  12. Radiation-induced gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neuro-oncologic literature. Extensive retrospective cohort data in pediatric populations after therapeutic intracranial radiation show a clearly increased risk in glioma incidence that is both patient age- and radiation dose/volume-dependent. Data in adults are more limited but show heightened risk in certain groups exposed to radiation. In both populations, there is no evidence linking increased risk associated with routine exposure to diagnostic radiation. At the molecular level, recent studies have found distinct genetic differences between radiation-induced gliomas and their spontaneously-occurring counterparts. Clinically, there is understandable reluctance on the part of clinicians to re-treat patients due to concern for cumulative neurotoxicity. However, available data suggest that aggressive intervention can lead to improved outcomes in patients with radiation-induced gliomas. PMID:19831840

  13. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  14. Crystalglobulin-Induced Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinay; El Ters, Mireille; Kashani, Kianoush; Leung, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Crystalline nephropathy refers to renal parenchymal deposition of crystals leading to kidney damage. The most common forms of crystalline nephropathy encountered in renal pathology are nephrocalcinosis and oxalate nephropathy. Less frequent types include urate nephropathy, cystinosis, dihydroxyadeninuria, and drug-induced crystalline nephropathy (e.g., caused by indinavir or triamterene). Monoclonal proteins can also deposit in the kidney as crystals and cause tissue damage. This occurs in conditions such as light chain proximal tubulopathy, crystal-storing histiocytosis, and crystalglobulinemia. The latter is a rare complication of multiple myeloma that results from crystallization of monoclonal proteins in the systemic vasculature, leading to vascular injury, thrombosis, and occlusion. In this report, we describe a case of crystalglobulin-induced nephropathy and discuss its pathophysiology and the differential diagnosis of paraprotein-induced crystalline nephropathy. PMID:25190731

  15. Methacholine induced headache.

    PubMed Central

    Carratala, C.; Gea, J. G.; Aguar, M. C.; Grau, S.; Espadaler-Medina, J. M.; Broquetas, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    A lung function technician developed episodes of headache, probably related to the use of methacholine. The headache disappeared with breathing 100% oxygen. Cholinergic agents are known to induce headaches but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular factors could be implicated. PMID:7660351

  16. Methacholine induced headache.

    PubMed

    Carratala, C; Gea, J G; Aguar, M C; Grau, S; Espadaler-Medina, J M; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    A lung function technician developed episodes of headache, probably related to the use of methacholine. The headache disappeared with breathing 100% oxygen. Cholinergic agents are known to induce headaches but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular factors could be implicated. PMID:7660351

  17. DRUG INDUCED CHOLESTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Padda, Manmeet S.; Sanchez, Mayra; Akhtar, Abbasi J.; Boyer, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bile formation and cholestasis have led to new insights into the pathogenesis of drug induced cholestasis. This review summarizes their variable clinical presentations, examines the, role of transport proteins in hepatic drug clearance and toxicity and addresses the increasing importance of genetic determinants, as well as practical aspects of diagnosis and management. PMID:21480339

  18. Does formaldehyde induce aneuploidy?

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Kühner, Stefanie; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Schütz, Petra

    2011-11-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) was tested for a potential aneugenic activity in mammalian cells. We employed tests to discriminate between aneugenic and clastogenic effects in accordance with international guidelines for genotoxicity testing. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMNT) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with a pan-centromeric probe was performed with cultured human lymphocytes and the human A549 lung cell line. FA induced micronuclei (MN) in binuclear cells of both cell types under standard in vitro test conditions following the OECD guideline 487. FISH analysis revealed that the vast majority of induced MN were centromere negative, thus indicating a clastogenic effect. A similar result was obtained for MN induced by γ-irradiation, whereas the typical aneugens colcemid (COL) and vincristine (VCR) predominantly induced centromere-positive MN. Furthermore, COL and VCR clearly enhanced the MN frequency in mononuclear lymphocytes in the CBMNT, whereas such an effect was not observed for γ-irradiation and FA. In experiments with the Chinese hamster V79 cell line, the aneugens COL and VCR clearly increased the frequency of tetraploid second division metaphases, whereas FA did not cause such an effect. Altogether, our results confirm the clastogenicity of FA in cultured mammalian cells but exclude a significant aneugenic activity. PMID:21804075

  19. Ethionamide-induced gynecomastia

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ramakant; George, Jacob; Sharma, Arun K.; chhabra, Naveen; Jangir, Suresh K.; Mishra, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Gynecomastia is very rare during antituberculosis chemotherapy. We describe a 38-year-old male patient who developed a painful gynecomastia following second-line drug therapy for multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Gynecomastia disappeared after stopping the ethionamide. A published literature on antituberculosis-induced gynecomastia is also briefly discussed. PMID:22629101

  20. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  1. Shrouded inducer pump

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in a pump including a shrouded inducer, the improvement comprising first and second sealing means 32,36 which cooperate with a first vortex cell 38 and a series of secondary vortex cells 40 to remove any tangential velocity components from the recirculation flow.

  2. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  3. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  4. Schedule-Induced Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Howard, Denise

    1992-01-01

    The phenomena of the induction and entrainment of adjunctive behaviors was investigated in 8 people (ages 5-51) with severe or profound mental retardation who exhibited stereotypic behaviors. Seven of the eight demonstrated evidence of schedule-induced stereotypic behavior, whereas five also showed evidence of the entrainment of these behaviors by…

  5. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  6. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia. PMID:25047526

  7. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

  8. A complement-microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Vasek, Michael J; Garber, Charise; Dorsey, Denise; Durrant, Douglas M; Bollman, Bryan; Soung, Allison; Yu, Jinsheng; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Frouin, Arnaud; Wilton, Daniel K; Funk, Kristen; DeMasters, Bette K; Jiang, Xiaoping; Bowen, James R; Mennerick, Steven; Robinson, John K; Garbow, Joel R; Tyler, Kenneth L; Suthar, Mehul S; Schmidt, Robert E; Stevens, Beth; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-06-23

    Over 50% of patients who survive neuroinvasive infection with West Nile virus (WNV) exhibit chronic cognitive sequelae. Although thousands of cases of WNV-mediated memory dysfunction accrue annually, the mechanisms responsible for these impairments are unknown. The classical complement cascade, a key component of innate immune pathogen defence, mediates synaptic pruning by microglia during early postnatal development. Here we show that viral infection of adult hippocampal neurons induces complement-mediated elimination of presynaptic terminals in a murine WNV neuroinvasive disease model. Inoculation of WNV-NS5-E218A, a WNV with a mutant NS5(E218A) protein leads to survival rates and cognitive dysfunction that mirror human WNV neuroinvasive disease. WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice (recovery defined as survival after acute infection) display impaired spatial learning and persistence of phagocytic microglia without loss of hippocampal neurons or volume. Hippocampi from WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice with poor spatial learning show increased expression of genes that drive synaptic remodelling by microglia via complement. C1QA was upregulated and localized to microglia, infected neurons and presynaptic terminals during WNV neuroinvasive disease. Murine and human WNV neuroinvasive disease post-mortem samples exhibit loss of hippocampal CA3 presynaptic terminals, and murine studies revealed microglial engulfment of presynaptic terminals during acute infection and after recovery. Mice with fewer microglia (Il34(-/-) mice with a deficiency in IL-34 production) or deficiency in complement C3 or C3a receptor were protected from WNV-induced synaptic terminal loss. Our study provides a new murine model of WNV-induced spatial memory impairment, and identifies a potential mechanism underlying neurocognitive impairment in patients recovering from WNV neuroinvasive disease. PMID:27337340

  9. Exercise-induced purpura.

    PubMed

    Ramelet, Albert-Adrien

    2004-01-01

    Exercise-induced purpura (EIP) occurs on the lower legs after unusual or major muscular activity, as in marathon runners or as after long walks, especially in the mountains in hot weather. In leisure walkers, patients are otherwise healthy females. There is no relation with chronic venous disorder. Erythematous, urticarial or purpuric plaques arise on the lower leg, usually sparing the skin compressed by socks. Symptoms include itch, pain and a burning sensation. Histopathology demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The lesions fade after some days, with frequent relapses at further muscular exercises and may be prevented in some cases by compression, intake of venoactive drugs and local application of steroids. EIP is not uncommon, even if very few descriptions have yet been published. It appears to be consecutive to venous stasis induced by an acute failure of the muscle pump of the calf and thermoregulation decompensation, after a prolonged and unusual exercise, such as running or walking in hot weather. PMID:15178910

  10. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  11. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  12. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  13. Sepsis-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailen, Manuel; Gil-Cebrian, Julián; Huertos-Ranchal, María J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is one of the main predictors of poor outcome in septic patients, with mortality rates next to 70%. During the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, both ventricles can dilate and diminish its ejection fraction, having less response to fluid resuscitation and catecholamines, but typically is assumed to be reversible within 7-10 days. In the last 30 years, It´s being subject of substantial research; however no explanation of its etiopathogenesis or effective treatment have been proved yet. The aim of this manuscript is to review on the most relevant aspects of the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, discuss its clinical presentation, pathophysiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies proposed in recent years. PMID:22758615

  14. Asthma induced by enkephalin.

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, R D; Bellamy, D; Pyke, D A

    1980-01-01

    A total of 291 diabetics were studied to see whether an asthmatic reaction was associated with facial flushing induced by chlorpropamide and alcohol. Of these patients, 191 reported facial flushing, of whom 12 reported breathlessness as well. Of these 12, five also described wheezing, and respiratory function tests showed them to have asthma. Three of these five patients underwent further tests, which showed that the asthmatic reaction could be prevented by giving disodium cromoglycate and the specific opiate antagonist naloxone. One patient developed wheezing when given an enkephalin analogue with opiate-like activity. Asthma induced by chlorpropamide and alcohol was concluded to be mediated by endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity such as enkephalin. PMID:7357255

  15. Drug-induced Photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Koronowska, Sandra; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is considered the main environmental physical hazard to the skin. It is responsible for photoaging, sunburns, carcinogenesis, and photodermatoses, including drug-induced photosensitivity. Drug-induced photosensitivity is an abnormal skin reaction either to sunlight or to artificial light. Drugs may be a cause of photoallergic, phototoxic, and photoaggravated dermatitis. There are numerous medications that can be implicated in these types of reactions. Recently, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to be a common cause of photosensitivity. As both systemic and topical medications may promote photosensitive reactions, it is important to take into consideration the potential risk of occurrence such reactions, especially in people chronically exposed to ultraviolet radiation. PMID:27149132

  16. Anesthetic-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Norred, Carol L

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this course is to update nurse anesthetists about anesthetic-induced anaphylaxis. This course discusses the pathophysiologic process of anaphylaxis with descriptions of the allergic immune response and the mediators and mechanisms of mast cell activation. The preoperative identification of patients at high risk and the assessment of potential anesthetic triggers of a hypersensitivity and/or allergic reaction are prudent strategies to minimize the risk of anaphylaxis. Other practices recommended for clinicians include suggestions for anesthetic management to decrease threat of an allergic response in high-risk patients. Furthermore, the identification of the severity grade of hypersensitivity reactions and the appropriate treatment of perioperative anaphylaxis is discussed. In addition, postoperative and follow-up interventions, including testing for patients who have had an anesthetic-induced hypersensitivity reaction, are considered. PMID:22586882

  17. Radiation-induced schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Reichenthal, E.; Borohov, H.

    1989-06-01

    The histopathology and clinical course of three patients with schwannomas of the brain and high cervical cord after therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancy and for ringworm of the scalp are described. Earlier reports in the literature indicated that radiation of the scalp may induce tumors in the head and neck. It is therefore suggested that therapeutic irradiation in these instances was a causative factor in the genesis of these tumors.

  18. Levetiracetam-induced pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Talal; Kay, Dana; Alqahtani, Saeed A; Makke, Yamane; Lesky, Linda; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2015-01-01

    Pancytopenia is a rare side effect of levetiracetam (LEV) that is associated with severe morbidity that requires hospitalization. Here, we report a patient with a right temporoparietal tumor who underwent a temporal craniotomy with resection of the mass and was started on LEV for seizure prophylaxis per the neurosurgery local protocol. The patient developed LEV-induced pancytopenia, which was successfully managed by discontinuation of this medication. Our report aims to increase awareness of this rare cause of pancytopenia among clinicians. PMID:26744695

  19. Radiation-induced osteochondromas

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; Cohen, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    Radiation-induced osteochondromas, either single or multiple, occur more commonly than is generally recognized. The incidence following irradiation for childhood malignancy is approximately 12%. Any open epiphysis is vulnerable. Age at irradiation, time of appearance following therapy, dose and type of radiation, and clinical course in 14 cases are dicussed. Due to growth of the lesion and/or pain, 3 tumors were excised. None revealed malignant degeneration.

  20. [Induced autotetraploid grape mutants].

    PubMed

    Kuliev, V M

    2011-01-01

    The methods of experimental mitotic and meiotic polyploidy in grapes are represented in the article. Results of cytological, histo-anatomical, biomorphological researches of induced autotetraploids are shown. Genetic characteristics, parameters of generative organs, quantitative and structural genome changes were studied. Comparative quantitative changes in the content of chloroplast and mitochondrion DNAs and RNAs in diploids and autotetraploids were defined. Also are shown. The biology-economic evaluation of autotetraploids on comparison with the initial grape variety is represented. PMID:21774401

  1. Fluoroscopy-induced radionecrosis.

    PubMed

    Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Kamangar, Faranak; Ho, Baran; Chang, Shurong; Dahle, Sara E; Schulman, Joshua M; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2016-01-01

    Complications from radiation exposure during fluoroscopic guidance of cardiac catheterization may occur. With repeated procedures, the risk for cutaneous injuries increases. Herein, we describe a 59-year-old man with extensive coronary artery disease, who had undergone multiple revascularization procedures and developed a non-healing ulcer on his left inferior scapula. The patient's medical history, physical exam findings, and histopathology gave clues to a case of radiation-induced dermatitis and necrosis. PMID:27617939

  2. Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Muraleedharan, Anupama; Gangadhar, Reneega; Das, Soumitra

    2015-01-01

    Sodium valproate induced hyperammonaemic delirium with normal liver function tests is a relatively uncommon adverse effect. It may be mistaken for psychosis or worsening of mania leading to wrong diagnosis and improper management. Plasma ammonia levels should be monitored in all patients developing altered mental status after receiving valproate therapy. This is a case series of hyperammonaemic delirium due to valproate reported to the Department of Pharmacology from Department of Psychiatry over a period of one year. PMID:26816916

  3. Remotely induced atmospheric lasing

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, Phillip; Penano, Joseph; Gordon, Daniel; Hafizi, Bahman; Scully, Marlan

    2011-05-23

    We propose and analyze a remote atmospheric lasing configuration which utilizes a combination of an ultrashort pulse laser to form a plasma filament (seed electrons) by tunneling ionization and a heater pulse which thermalizes the seed electrons. Electrons collisionally excite nitrogen molecules and induce lasing in the ultraviolet. The lasing gain is sufficiently high to reach saturation within the length of the plasma filament. A remotely generated ultraviolet source may have applications for standoff detection of biological and chemical agents.

  4. Polarization induced doped transistor

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  5. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  6. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  7. Sildenafil induced priapism.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, T; Hayakawa, K; Miyaji, K; Ishikawa, H; Hata, M

    1999-11-01

    A 53 year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for persistent priapism, which had been induced by 200 mg (usual dose 25-50 mg) of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) three days earlier. He had a history of erectile dysfunction and had undergone penile injection therapy elsewhere; however, he had not used injection therapy this time. He obtained sildenafil personally without a doctor's prescription. He had not taken any other drugs that affect the metabolism of sildenafil, nor did he have any medical complications that might induce priapism. Since needle aspiration and irrigation were ineffective as first line therapy, surgical treatment was indicated to relieve the condition; a incision of tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa was made, and vigorous irrigation of saline washed out the blood clots. This is the first case report of priapism induced by sildenafil. Although this drug can be obtained through private commerce, it should be used under professional guidance as its abuse may lead to severe morbidity. PMID:11933312

  8. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  9. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Briot, Karine; Roux, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the first cause in young people. Bone loss and increased rate of fractures occur early after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy, and are then related to dosage and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurements, as it is also related to alteration of bone quality and increased risk of falls. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a treat-to-target strategy focusing on low disease activity including through the use of low dose of prednisone, is a key determinant of bone loss prevention. Bone loss magnitude is variable and there is no clearly identified predictor of the individual risk of fracture. Prevention or treatment of osteoporosis should be considered in all patients who receive prednisone. Bisphosphonates and the anabolic agent parathyroid hormone (1–34) have shown their efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Recent international guidelines are available and should guide management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Duration of antiosteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the underlying inflammation evolution. PMID:26509049

  10. Immune receptors and adhesion molecules in human pulmonary leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Del Carlo Bernardi, Fabiola; Ctenas, Bruno; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Mauad, Thais

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis has been increasingly reported in the last 20 years, being related to the severity and mortality of the disease. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis is not understood. Lung endothelial cells have been proposed as targets in the pathogenesis of lung involvement in leptospirosis through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 or the complement system, which stimulates the release of cytokines that lead to the activation of adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of immune pathways and of the intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule and vascular cell adhesion molecule, respectively) in the lungs of patients with pulmonary involvement of leptospirosis. We studied the lungs of 18 patients who died of leptospirosis and compared them with 2 groups of controls: normal and noninfectious hemorrhagic lungs. Using immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we quantified the expression of the C3a anaphylatoxin receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and Toll-like receptor 2 in small pulmonary vessels and in the alveolar septa. There was an increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (P < .03) and C3a anaphylatoxin receptor (P < .008) in alveolar septa in the leptospirosis group compared with the normal and hemorrhagic controls. In the vessels of the leptospirosis group, there was an increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (P = .004), vascular cell adhesion molecule (P = .030), and Toll-like receptor 2 (P = .042) compared with the normal group. Vascular cell adhesion molecule expression in vessels was higher in the leptospirosis group compared with the hemorrhagic group (P = .015). Our results indicate that immune receptors and adhesion molecules participate in the phenomena leading to pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis. PMID:22436623

  11. Cloning, expression, cellular distribution, and role in chemotaxis of a C5a receptor in rainbow trout: the first identification of a C5a receptor in a nonmammalian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boshra, Hani; Li, Jun; Peters, Rodney; Hansen, John; Matlapudi, Anjan; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2004-01-01

    C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins generated during complement activation play a key role in inflammation. C5a is the most potent of the three anaphylatoxins in eliciting biological responses. The effects of C5a are mediated by its binding to C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88). To date, C5aR has only been identified and cloned in mammalian species, and its evolutionary history remains ill-defined. To gain insights into the evolution, conserved structural domains, and functions of C5aR, we have cloned and characterized a C5aR in rainbow trout, a teleost fish. The isolated cDNA encoded a 350-aa protein that showed the highest sequence similarity to C5aR from other species. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of one continuous exon encoding the entire open reading frame. Northern blot analysis showed significant expression of the trout C5a receptor (TC5aR) message in PBLs and kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed that two Abs generated against two different areas of the extracellular N-terminal region of TC5aR positively stained the same leukocyte populations from PBLs. B lymphocytes and granulocytes comprised the majority of cells recognized by the anti-TC5aR. More importantly, these Abs inhibited chemotaxis of PBLs toward a chemoattractant fraction purified from complement-activated trout serum. Our data suggest that the split between C5aR and C3aR from a common ancestral molecule occurred before the emergence of teleost fish. Moreover, we demonstrate that the overall structure of C5aR as well as its role in chemotaxis have remained conserved for >300 million years.

  12. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  13. Iron-induced Local Complement Component 3 (C3) Up-regulation via Non-canonical Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Signaling in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W.; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-β signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. PMID:25802332

  14. Iron-induced Local Complement Component 3 (C3) Up-regulation via Non-canonical Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Signaling in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2015-05-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-β signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. PMID:25802332

  15. Study of cavitating inducer instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. E.; Murphy, R.; Reddecliff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analytic and experimental investigation into the causes and mechanisms of cavitating inducer instabilities was conducted. Hydrofoil cascade tests were performed, during which cavity sizes were measured. The measured data were used, along with inducer data and potential flow predictions, to refine an analysis for the prediction of inducer blade suction surface cavitation cavity volume. Cavity volume predictions were incorporated into a linearized system model, and instability predictions for an inducer water test loop were generated. Inducer tests were conducted and instability predictions correlated favorably with measured instability data.

  16. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  17. -induced continental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  18. Fission induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments was investigated, as well as the probability of utilizing the energy of these particles to create population inversion leading to laser action. Eventually, it is hoped that the same medium could be used for both fissioning and lasing, thus avoiding inefficiences in converting one form of energy to the other. A central problem in understanding a fission induced plasma is to obtain an accurate model of the electron behavior; some calculations are presented to this end. The calculations are simple, providing a compendium of processes for reference.

  19. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes. PMID:7652089

  20. Bupropion-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Krenz, Sonia; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2003-09-01

    Whereas there are some case reports of bupropion-induced vivid dreaming and nightmares, until now it has not been associated with somnambulism. A case is reported of a patient treated with bupropion as a smoking cessation medication, who developed somnambulism during nicotine withdrawal. Furthermore, the sleepwalking episodes were associated with eating behaviour. Amnesia was reported for all episodes. As, on one hand,bupropion is a noradrenergic and dopaminergic drug and nicotine withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with alterations in monoaminergic functions, an interaction at the level of these neurotransmitters is suggested as the underlying mechanism. PMID:13129839

  1. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cleva; Kross, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. PMID:22408440

  2. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. PMID:26520167

  3. Cephalexin induced cholestatic jaundice.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Rao, Mana; Jasdanwala, Sarfaraz; Mathur, Ajay; Eng, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Cephalexin is a very commonly prescribed orally administered antibiotic which has many potential side effects. Amongst these cholestatic jaundice has been infrequently reported as an adverse reaction. We present a case of a 57-year-old male who exhibited features of cholestatic jaundice including elevated liver function tests (LFTs) after taking cephalexin and showed improvement on removal of the offending agent. During this time he was symptomatically treated with cholestyramine. Complete resolution of LFTs was seen in four weeks. Cephalexin induced cholestasis is rare and hence requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25180107

  4. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  5. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  6. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  7. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  8. Transient induced drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weihs, D.; Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    In the present treatment of the calculation of forces on a wing that is suddenly brought into motion at a constant speed, attention is given to the unsteady potential's contribution to the force balance. Total bound vorticity is produced at the initial impulse. The results obtained are independent of wing aspect ratio; as time increases, this effect on the drag force becomes smaller as the vortex emanating from the trailing edge is left behind. The second contributor to induced drag is the spanwise vorticity shedding that results from the spanwise load distribution of three-dimensional wings. This contribution grows with time as the length of the wake grows.

  9. Induced drag of multiplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1924-01-01

    The most important part of the resistance or drag of a wing system,the induced drag, can be calculated theoretically, when the distribution of lift on the individual wings is known. The calculation is based upon the assumption that the lift on the wings is distributed along the wing in proportion to the ordinates of a semi-ellipse. Formulas and numerical tables are given for calculating the drag. In this connection, the most favorable arrangements of biplanes and triplanes are discussed and the results are further elucidated by means of numerical examples.

  10. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously.

  11. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-31

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously. PMID:26274420

  12. Induced superconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heersche, Hubert B.; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Oostinga, Jeroen B.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2007-07-01

    Graphene layers, prepared by mechanical exfoliation, were contacted by superconducting electrodes consisting of a titanium-aluminium bilayer. Quantum hall measurements in the normal state confirmed the single layer nature of the graphene samples. Proximity induced supercurrents were observed in all samples, below 1 K. Using a backgate, the Fermi energy could be swept from valence to conduction band via the Charge neutrality point, demonstrating supercurrents carried by holes and electrons, respectively. Interestingly, a finite supercurrent was also observed at the charge neutrality (or Dirac) point, where the density of carrier states vanishes. Our results demonstrate phase coherence in graphene.

  13. Nd8Co4-xAlxGe2C3: A case study in flux growth of lanthanide-rich intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sixuan; Latturner, Susan E.

    2016-04-01

    The intermetallic Nd8Co4-xAlxGe2C3 (x≈0.65) was prepared from reaction of germanium and carbon in Nd/Co eutectic flux in an alumina crucible. This phase exhibits a new structure type in orthorhombic space group Pbcm, with unit cell parameters a=8.001(1) Å, b=11.696(2) Å, c=15.020(3) Å (Z=4; R1=0.0234). The structure features germanium-centered neodymium clusters Ge@Nd9 which share faces to form layers separated by zigzag chains of cobalt atoms capped by carbon. Density of states calculations confirm that this compound is metallic, and indicate that the cobalt should not have a magnetic moment. This is supported by magnetic susceptibility measurements which show a low temperature ferromagnetic ordering at TC=50 K due to the Nd3+ ions. Magnetization field dependence studies on single crystals indicate this compound is a strong ferromagnet with large anisotropy; the Nd3+ magnetic moments align along the a-axis.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 and Sediminibacterium sp. Strain C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ayarza, Joaquín M.; Figuerola, Eva L. M.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 (NBRC 103935) and Sediminibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation. PMID:24435857

  15. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  16. Disorder-induced amorphization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Li, Mo

    1997-03-01

    Many crystalline materials undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) phase transition when subjected to energetic particle irradiation at low temperatures. By focusing on the mean-square static atomic displacement as a generic measure of chemical and topological disorder, we are led quite naturally to a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion as a conceptual framework for a unified thermodynamic approach to solid-state amorphizing transformations. In its simplest form, the generalized Lindemann criterion assumes that the sum of the static and dynamic mean-square atomic displacements is constant along the polymorphous melting curve so that c-a transformations can be understood simply as melting of a critically-disordered crystal at temperatures below the glass transition temperature where the supercooled liquid can persist indefinitely in a configurationally-frozen state. Evidence in support of the generalized Lindemann melting criterion for amorphization is provided by a large variety of experimental observations and by molecular dynamics simulations of heat-induced melting and of defect-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds.

  17. Statin-induced myopathies.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Michał; Stępień, Karolina M; Tomaszewska, Joanna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2011-01-01

    Statins are considered to be safe, well tolerated and the most efficient drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, one of the main risk factor for atherosclerosis, and therefore they are frequently prescribed medications. The most severe adverse effect of statins is myotoxicity, in the form of myopathy, myalgia, myositis or rhabdomyolysis. Clinical trials commonly define statin toxicity as myalgia or muscle weakness with creatine kinase (CK) levels greater than 10 times the normal upper limit. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe adverse effect of statins, which may result in acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and death. The exact pathophysiology of statin-induced myopathy is not fully known. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute to statin myotoxicity. This review focuses on a number of them. The prevention of statin-related myopathy involves using the lowest statin dose required to achieve therapeutic goals and avoiding polytherapy with drugs known to increase systemic exposure and myopathy risk. Currently, the only effective treatment of statin-induced myopathy is the discontinuation of statin use in patients affected by muscle aches, pains and elevated CK levels. PMID:22001973

  18. Inducible fluorescent speckle microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Paulo; Belsley, Michael; Maiato, Helder

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of cytoskeleton dynamics has benefited from the capacity to generate fluorescent fiducial marks on cytoskeleton components. Here we show that light-induced imprinting of three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent speckles significantly improves speckle signal and contrast relative to classic (random) fluorescent speckle microscopy. We predict theoretically that speckle imprinting using photobleaching is optimal when the laser energy and fluorophore responsivity are related by the golden ratio. This relation, which we confirm experimentally, translates into a 40% remaining signal after speckle imprinting and provides a rule of thumb in selecting the laser power required to optimally prepare the sample for imaging. This inducible speckle imaging (ISI) technique allows 3D speckle microscopy to be performed in readily available libraries of cell lines or primary tissues expressing fluorescent proteins and does not preclude conventional imaging before speckle imaging. As a proof of concept, we use ISI to measure metaphase spindle microtubule poleward flux in primary cells and explore a scaling relation connecting microtubule flux to metaphase duration. PMID:26783303

  19. Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jinglei; Ohsaki, Yuki; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujimoto, Toyoshi . E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  20. Inducible fluorescent speckle microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, António J; Aguiar, Paulo; Belsley, Michael; Maiato, Helder

    2016-01-18

    The understanding of cytoskeleton dynamics has benefited from the capacity to generate fluorescent fiducial marks on cytoskeleton components. Here we show that light-induced imprinting of three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent speckles significantly improves speckle signal and contrast relative to classic (random) fluorescent speckle microscopy. We predict theoretically that speckle imprinting using photobleaching is optimal when the laser energy and fluorophore responsivity are related by the golden ratio. This relation, which we confirm experimentally, translates into a 40% remaining signal after speckle imprinting and provides a rule of thumb in selecting the laser power required to optimally prepare the sample for imaging. This inducible speckle imaging (ISI) technique allows 3D speckle microscopy to be performed in readily available libraries of cell lines or primary tissues expressing fluorescent proteins and does not preclude conventional imaging before speckle imaging. As a proof of concept, we use ISI to measure metaphase spindle microtubule poleward flux in primary cells and explore a scaling relation connecting microtubule flux to metaphase duration. PMID:26783303

  1. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-08-01

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.

  2. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing. PMID:26314514

  3. [Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Terms exercise-induced asthma (EIA) or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are used to describe transient bronchoconstriction occurring during or immediately after vigorous exercise in some subjects. For the diagnosis of EIB it is necessary to show at least 10% decrease in FEV1 from baseline following physical exercise. The prevalence of EIB has been reported to be 12-15% in general population, 10-20% in summer olympic athletes, affecting up to 50-70% of winter athletes (particularly ski runners and skaters). There are two key theories explaining EIB: thermal and osmotic. Differential diagnosis of EIB should include chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases, vocal cord dysfunction, hyperventilation syndrome and poor physical fitness or overtraining. According to the ATS guidelines from 1999 for the diagnosis of EIB a standardized exercise on a treadmill or cycle ergometer test with stable environmental conditions regarding temperature and humidity of inhaled air, should be employed. Other laboratory tests assessing bronchial hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli including eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), mannitol, hypertonic saline, AMP or measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) are also successfully used. In the prevention of EIB include both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment. In patients with poorly controlled asthma intensification of anti-inflammatory treatment can decrease the frequency and severity of EIB. Short and long acting beta2-agonists, antileukotriene drugs can be used prior to exercise to prevent EIB. PMID:21190152

  4. [Drug-induced laryngospasm].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Munakata, K

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of drug-induced laryngospasm due to Chlorpromazine. A drug-induced laryngospasm has not been previously reported in the literature. A 70-year-old male with the proximal end fracture of the femur was scheduled for the operative fixation. He had a past history of alcoholism and had underwent a long-term chlorpromazine therapy for 45 years until admission to our hospital. There have been a few reports on unexplained sudden deaths of patients receiving long-term treatment with chlorpromazine. Caution was therefore needed in general anesthesia, which was thought to be safer than epidural or spinal anesthesia in this case. Accordingly for the preparation of an emergency operation, the central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein was performed under subcutaneous injection of lidocaine. Severe dyspnea and cyanosis occurred a few minutes after the administration of lidocaine. The specific diagnosis of laryngospasm was made by inspection of the vocal cords. Immediate oral intubation was performed and no complications ensued during and after the operation. This episode strongly suggests that one reason of the unexplained sudden deaths of patients receiving long term treatment with chlorpromazine could be laryngospasm. In conclusion, anesthesiologists should be aware of the possibility of laryngospasm under similar conditions. PMID:9071116

  5. [Radiation-induced neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Kieszko, Dariusz; Cisek, Paweł; Patyra, Krzysztof Ireneusz; Surdyka, Dariusz; Dobrzyńska-Rutkowska, Aneta; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Burdan, Franciszek

    2013-12-01

    Radiation-induced neuropathy is commonly observed among oncological patients. Radiation can affect the nervous tissue directly or indirectly by inducing vasculopathy or dysfunction of internal organs. Symptoms may be mild and reversible (e.g., pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, drowsiness, fatigue, paresthesia) or life-threatening (cerebral oedema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures). Such complications are clinically divided into peripheral (plexopathies, neuropathies of spinal and cranial nerves) and central neuropathy (myelopathy, encephalopathy, cognitive impairment). The degree of neuronal damages primarily depends on the total and fractional radiation dose and applied therapeutic methods. The conformal and megavoltage radiotherapy seems to be the safeties ones. Diagnostic protocol includes physical examination, imaging (in particular magnetic resonance), electromyography, nerve conduction study and sometimes histological examination. Prevention and early detection of neurological complications are necessary in order to prevent a permanent dysfunction of the nervous system. Presently their treatment is mostly symptomatic, but in same cases a surgical intervention is required. An experimental and clinical data indicates some effectiveness of different neuroprotective agents (e.g. anticoagulants, vitamin E, hyperbaric oxygen, pentoxifylline, bevacizumab, methylphenidate, donepezil), which should be administered before and/or during radiotherapy. PMID:24490474

  6. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  7. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  8. Cytokinin activity induced by thidiazuron.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J C; Katterman, F R

    1986-06-01

    The diphenylurea derivative thidiazuron induces a variety of cytokinin responses. Levels above 5 x 10(-9) molar and 4 x 10(-7) molar stimulate maximum soybean callus growth and radish cotyledon expansion, respectively. A wider range of dose response related effects follows thidiazuron induced tobacco plant regeneration. Analysis of soybean callus extracts strongly suggests that thidiazuron treatment creates an accumulation and/or synthesis of purine cytokinins, able to induce the growth, expansion and regeneration, mentioned above. PMID:16664878

  9. Uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the skew information, we present a quantity, uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality (UIN) to measure the quantum correlation. It can be considered as the updated version of the original measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) preserving the good computability but eliminating the non-contractivity problem. For 2×d-dimensional state, it is shown that UIN can be given by a closed form. In addition, we also investigate the maximal uncertainty-induced nonlocality.

  10. [Radiation-induced cancers].

    PubMed

    Dutrillaux, B

    1998-01-01

    The induction of malignant diseases is one of the most concerning late effects of ionising radiation. A large amount of information has been collected form atomic bomb survivors, patients after therapeutic irradiation, occupational follow-up and accidentally exposed populations. Major uncertainties persist in the (very) low dose range i.e., population and workers radioprotection. A review of the biological mechanisms leading to cancer strongly suggests that the vast majority of radiation-induced malignancies arise as a consequence of recessive mutations of tumour-suppressor genes. These mutations can be unveiled by ageing, this process being possibly furthered by constitutional or acquired genomic instability. The individual risk is likely to be very low, probably because of the usual dose level. However, the magnitude of medical exposure and the reliance of our societies on nuclear industry are so high that irreproachable decision-making processes and standards for practice are inescapable. PMID:9868399

  11. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-12-16

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that {mu}Ci of {sup 62}Cu can be generated via the ({gamma},n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2}.

  12. [Designer drug induced psychosis].

    PubMed

    Fullajtar, Mate; Ferencz, Csaba

    2012-06-01

    3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular designer drug in Hungary, known as MP4. We present a case of a 34-year-old man, whose first psychotic episode was observed in the presence of MP4 use. The paranoid ideas of reference and the dereistic thinking could be the consequence of drug-induced psychosis. Within 24 hours after the intoxication was over delirium set in. The patient's history included only the use of MP4, use of other kinds of drugs was negated. The drug tests were negative, amphetamine derivates were not detectable in the urine sample. It is most likely that the MP4 pill contained an amount of MDPV less than detectable. In conclusion we suggest that the clinical picture could be the consequence of regular MDPV use. PMID:22710853

  13. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  14. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  15. Trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guglin, Maya; Cutro, Raymond; Mishkin, Joseph D

    2008-06-01

    Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. It improves survival and increases response to chemotherapy. The major side effect of trastuzumab is cardiotoxicity manifesting as a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, either asymptomatic or with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Although reversible in most cases, cardiotoxicity frequently results in the discontinuation of trastuzumab. The objective of this review is to summarize facts about trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and to highlight the areas of future investigations. We searched PubMed for trials involving trastuzumab used as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, including the metastatic breast cancer setting, and focused on cardiotoxicity. PMID:18514938

  16. Discreteness induced extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  17. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

    This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

  18. Laser-induced bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Lynch, R.V. III

    1981-01-01

    A project has been initiated to determine the feasibility of developing a complete airborne remote sensing system for rapidly mapping high concentration patches of bioluminescent organisms in the world's oceans. Conceptually, this system would be composed of a laser illuminator to induce bioluminescence and a low light level image intensifier for detection of light. Initial laboratory measurements consisted of using a 2-J flash lamp pulsed optical dye laser to excite bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate Pyrocustis lunula at ambient temperature using Rhodamine 6G as the lasing dye (585 nm) and a laser pulse width of 1 microsec. After a latency period of 15-20 msec, the bioluminescence maximum occurred in the blue (480 nm is the wavelength maximum for most dinoflagellate bioluminescence) with the peaking occurring approximately 65 msec after the laser pulse. Planned experiments will investigate the effect of different excitation wavelengths and energies at various temperatures and salinities of the cultures.

  19. Sport-induced lipoma.

    PubMed

    Copcu, E

    2004-04-01

    Lipoma is the most common benign soft tissue tumour in human beings. It can be seen in all parts of the body and occupies the subcutaneous compartment predominantly. The pathogenesis of lipoma is still unknown, but trauma is one of the most implicated etiological factors. We report about two athletes with a very quickly grown lipoma on their right scapular area. One was a professional volleyball player and the other one was a table-tennis player. Both patients were right-handed. To our knowledge, there has been no report on sport-induced lipoma in the literature. We speculate that chronically minor traumas especially to the scapular area, in which fat tissue is located between the bone and the firm skin, may trigger the formation and enlargement of lipoma. PMID:15088241

  20. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF. PMID:26768242

  1. Baboon syndrome induced by hydroxyzine.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Hayet; Belhadjali, Hichem; Youssef, Monia; Mokni, Sana; Zili, Jamelediine

    2013-05-01

    Hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions are very rare. We report here a typical case of drug-related Baboon syndrome or symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) which was induced by hydroxyzine in a 60-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive patch and oral accidental provocation tests with hydroxyzine. Patch tests and oral provocation tests with cetirizine and levocetirizine were negative. A review of the literature identified only 17 reported cases of hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of hydroxyzine-induced SDRIFE. PMID:23723506

  2. Baboon Syndrome Induced by Hydroxyzine

    PubMed Central

    Akkari, Hayet; Belhadjali, Hichem; Youssef, Monia; Mokni, Sana; Zili, Jamelediine

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions are very rare. We report here a typical case of drug-related Baboon syndrome or symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) which was induced by hydroxyzine in a 60-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive patch and oral accidental provocation tests with hydroxyzine. Patch tests and oral provocation tests with cetirizine and levocetirizine were negative. A review of the literature identified only 17 reported cases of hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of hydroxyzine-induced SDRIFE. PMID:23723506

  3. Deficiency of the Complement Component 3 but Not Factor B Aggravates Staphylococcus aureus Septic Arthritis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Na, Manli; Jarneborn, Anders; Ali, Abukar; Welin, Amanda; Magnusson, Malin; Stokowska, Anna; Pekna, Marcela; Jin, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The complement system plays an essential role in the innate immune response and protection against bacterial infections. However, detailed knowledge regarding the role of complement in Staphylococcus aureus septic arthritis is still largely missing. In this study, we elucidated the roles of selected complement proteins in S. aureus septic arthritis. Mice lacking the complement component 3 (C3(-/-)), complement factor B (fB(-/-)), and receptor for C3-derived anaphylatoxin C3a (C3aR(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) control mice were intravenously or intra-articularly inoculated with S. aureus strain Newman. The clinical course of septic arthritis, as well as histopathological and radiological changes in joints, was assessed. After intravenous inoculation, arthritis severity and frequency were significantly higher in C3(-/-)mice than in WT controls, whereas fB(-/-)mice displayed intermediate arthritis severity and frequency. This was in accordance with both histopathological and radiological findings. C3, but not fB, deficiency was associated with greater weight loss, more frequent kidney abscesses, and higher bacterial burden in kidneys. S. aureus opsonized with C3(-/-)sera displayed decreased uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages compared with bacteria opsonized with WT or fB(-/-)sera. C3aR deficiency had no effect on the course of hematogenous S. aureus septic arthritis. We conclude that C3 deficiency increases susceptibility to hematogenous S. aureus septic arthritis and impairs host bacterial clearance, conceivably due to diminished opsonization and phagocytosis of S. aureus. PMID:26787717

  4. Biocompatibility of blood tubings.

    PubMed

    Branger, B; Garreau, M; Baudin, G; Gris, J C

    1990-10-01

    We studied hemocompatibility of various blood tubings with C3a anaphylatoxin measurement and comparative electron scanning microscopy. The following tubing materials were tested: polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticised with phthalate (PVC), pvc plasticised with phthalate coextruded with polyurethane (PIV), and two phthalate-free lines: pvc plasticised with trimellitate coextruded with polyurethane (TRI) and pvc plasticised with LT 360 (LTP). Results of C3a generation rate showed a significant activation by all blood tubings, with a reduced rate with PIV when compared to all others. Electron scanning microscopy showed marked alterations of PIV surface on tubings stored for 6 months. Protein deposits on internal surfaces after dialysis were similar whatever tubing material was tested, but adhesive cell number was greater with TRI when compared to PVC and LTP. Hemocompatibility is unchanged with phthalate-free tubings when compared to phthalate plasticised ones. In contrast with phthalate plasticised PVC there is no beneficial effect of polyurethane coextrusion with trimellitate plasticised PVC in regard to C3a generation. PMID:2254048

  5. Bellows flow-induced vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tygielski, P. J.; Smyly, H. M.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The bellows flow excitation mechanism and results of comprehensive test program are summarized. The analytical model for predicting bellows flow induced stress is refined. The model includes the effects of an upstream elbow, arbitrary geometry, and multiple piles. A refined computer code for predicting flow induced stress is described which allows life prediction if a material S-N diagram is available.

  6. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  7. Captopril-induced cholestatic jaundice.

    PubMed

    Hagley, M T

    1991-01-01

    I have reported a case of captopril-induced cholestatic jaundice. This drug is being used with increasing frequency, so it is important that physicians recognize this adverse effect. Captopril-induced jaundice resolves after cessation of captopril therapy. PMID:1986415

  8. Laser induced ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines and other combustion processes play an overwhelming and important role in everyday life. As a result, ignition of combustion processes is of great importance, too. Usually, ignition of a combustible material is defined in such a way that an ignition initiates a self-sustained reaction which propagates through the inflammable material even in the case that the ignition source has been removed. In most cases, a well defined ignition location and ignition time is of crucial importance. Spark plugs are well suited for such tasks but suffer from some disadvantages, like erosion of electrodes or restricted positioning possibilities. In some cases, ignition of combustible materials by means of high power laser pulses could be beneficial. High power lasers offer several different possibilities to ignite combustible materials, like thermal ignition, resonant ignition or optical breakdown ignition. Since thermal and resonant ignitions are not well suited on the requirements mentioned previously, only optical breakdown ignition will be discussed further. Optical breakdown of a gas within the focal spot of a high power laser allows a very distinct localization of the ignition spot in a combustible material. Since pulse duration is usually in the range of several nanoseconds, requirements on the ignition time are fulfilled easily, too. Laser peak intensities required for such an optical breakdown are in the range of 10 11 W/cm2. The hot plasma which forms during this breakdown initiates the following self-propagating combustion process. It has been shown previously that laser ignition of direct injection engines improves the fuel consumption as well as the exhaust emissions of such engines significantly. The work presented here gives a brief overview on the basics of laser induced ignition. Flame propagation which follows a successful ignition event can be distinguished into two diffrent regimes. Combustion processes within an engine are usually

  9. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  10. Clofibrate-Induced Antidiuresis

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Arnold M.; Howanitz, Joan; Gemert, Marcia Van; Miller, Myron

    1973-01-01

    Normal subjects and patients with antidiuretic hormone (ADH) deficiency were studied to determine the mechanism of the antidiuretic action of clofibrate. Before clofibrate treatment, the patients' ability to concentrate urine with a standardized dehydration procedure correlated with the amount of ADH which was excreted. During clofibrate administration all six patients with ADH deficiency developed an antidiuresis which was like that of ADH, since there was no change in sodium, potassium, total solute, or creatinine excretion. There was a correlation between the patients' ability to concentrate urine during dehydration and the subsequent response to clofibrate, and the excretion of ADH during dehydration correlated with the excretion of ADH on clofibrate therapy. Clofibrate-induced antidiuresis in these patients was partially overcome by ethanol and by water loading. Clofibrate interfered with the ability of patients and subjects to excrete a water load and prevented the water load from inhibiting ADH excretion in the normal subjects. These studies suggested that clofibrate was acting through endogenous ADH and this thesis was supported by the failure of clofibrate to produce an antidiuresis when injected into rats with total ADH deficiency (Brattleboro strain) although an antidiuresis was produced in water-loaded normal rats. When the drug was injected into Brattleboro rats with exogenous ADH, clofibrate either did not alter or it inhibited the action of the ADH. The data demonstrate that clofibrate has a significant ADH-like action. This action appears to be mediated through the release of endogenous ADH. Images PMID:4685079

  11. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Waterflood-induced fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, B.J.; Niko, H.

    1987-01-01

    Fracturing occurs quite often in water injection wells, with sometimes unforeseen consequences on waterflood sweep efficiency. One of the causes of fracturing is often the cooling of hot formations by cold injection water. A special version of a thermal reservoir simulator for prototype applications has thus been constructed that is capable of dealing with propagating waterflood-induces hydraulic fractures. With this simulator, fracture propagation and the effect of growing fractures on the sweep efficiency are studied. Infinite fracture conductivity is assumed. The limitation to a very high leak-off fractures justifies disregarding the changes in fracture volume. Fracture growth is calculated using the concept of a critical stress intensity factor. Both poro- and thermo-elastic changes in the horizontal stresses are calculated numerically and their influence on the fracture initiation/propagation is continuously taken into account. In addition, a model of fracture wall impairment because of filter-cake build-up due to poor quality injection water is included. Results are presented for both thermal and isothermal situations. It is observed in isothermal cases that the voidage replacement ratio (volume balance during injection) determined to a great extent the length to which the fracture eventually may grow.

  13. Opioid-induced constipation.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Bishal; Hayashi, Naomi; Tsukuura, Hiroaki; Honda, Kazunori; Shimokata, Tomoya; Ando, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a very troublesome, difficult to manage and a nearly universal complication of chronic opioid use to control pain associated with advanced illness. Some studies have reported that OIC is so intolerable in some patients that they skip their opioid medications and bear pain instead of OIC. Laxatives have commonly been used as a prophylaxis and treatment of OIC but they are frequently ineffective because the commonly available laxatives do not target the underlying mechanism of OIC, which is the blockade of peripheral mu-receptors. Recently, there have been a number of advances in the treatment of OIC, which any physician involved with opioid-prescribing discipline should be aware of. This review will update the new options and strategies available for treating OIC along with the relevant clinical trials. Finally, this review also provides a recommendation on the preferred way to approach a patient with OIC in the modern era as well as highlight on the importance of doctor-patient communication in this setting. PMID:26061717

  14. Laxative-induced rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Merante, Alfonso; Gareri, Pietro; Marigliano, Norma Maria; De Fazio, Salvatore; Bonacci, Elvira; Torchia, Carlo; Russo, Gaetano; Lacroce, Pasquale; Lacava, Roberto; Castagna, Alberto; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ruotolo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes a case of laxative-induced rhabdomyolysis in an elderly patient. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for the onset of confusion, tremors, an inability to walk, and a fever that she had been experiencing for 36 hours. She often took high dosages of lactulose and sorbitol syrup as a laxative (about 70 g/day). During her physical examination, the patient was confused, drowsy, and she presented hyposthenia in her upper and lower limbs, symmetric and diffuse moderate hyporeflexia, and her temperature was 37.8°C. Laboratory tests revealed severe hyponatremia with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis. Moreover, rhabdomyolysis markers were found. The correction of hydroelectrolytic imbalances with saline, potassium and sodium chlorure, calcium gluconate was the first treatment. During her hospitalization the patient presented acute delirium, treated with haloperidol and prometazine chloridrate intramuscularly. She was discharged 12 days later, after resolution of symptoms, and normalized laboratory tests. Over-the-counter drugs such as laxatives are usually not considered dangerous; on the other hand, they may cause serum electrolytic imbalance and rhabdomyolysis. A careful monitoring of all the drugs taken by the elderly is one of the most important duties of a physician since drug interactions and their secondary effects may be fatal. PMID:20396636

  15. Undulator induced resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.; Morton, P.; Spencer, J.; Winick, H.

    1983-08-01

    Undulators appear to be nearly ideal radiation sources for use in storage rings because of their high brightness and small perturbation on stored beam characteristics. We consider the effects of higher-order magnetic field errors and show how they increase beam size and may lead to unstable growth of betatron oscillations. We have observed such effects in SPEAR at betatron tunes satisfying the equations: 3nu/sub x/ + nu/sub y/ = 21 and nu/sub x/ + 3nu/sub y/ = 21. The widths of these resonances were measured to be GAMMA = 0.008 +- 0.004. They are clearly visible on the synchrotron light monitors with a very dynamic and characteristic beam blow-up pattern (reminiscent of a Miller beer label). A model is developed which predicts the locations of resonances, their widths and the projected shapes observed on the light monitors. By inducing such high-order coupling resonances one could study such things as the beam distribution in electron rings or possibly turbulent motion in proton rings.

  16. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Brieger, D B; Mak, K H; Kottke-Marchant, K; Topol, E J

    1998-06-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially serious complication of heparin therapy and is being encountered more frequently in patients with cardiovascular disease as use of anticoagulant therapy becomes more widespread. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of this immune-mediated condition has improved in recent years, with heparin-platelet factor 4 complex as the culprit antigen in most patients. New sensitive laboratory assays for the pathogenic antibody are now available and should permit an earlier, more reliable diagnosis, but their optimal application remains to be defined. For patients in whom HIT is diagnosed, immediate discontinuation of heparin infusions and elimination of heparin from all flushes and ports are mandatory. Further management of patients with HIT is problematic at present, as there are no readily available alternative anticoagulant agents in the United States with proven efficacy in acute coronary disease. The direct thrombin inhibitors appear to be the most promising alternatives to heparin, when continued use of heparin is contraindicated, and the results of several multicenter trials evaluating their application in patients with HIT are awaited. PMID:9626819

  17. Dialysis induced hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Habte, B; Carter, R; Shamebo, M; Veicht, J; Boulton Jones, J M

    1982-09-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which hypoxemia is produced in patients on dialysis by studying changes in neutrophil count, blood gases and pulmonary function in a patient with only trace amounts of circulating C3 associated with Type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis and a control group of 6 patients with normal C3 levels during a 4 hour hemodialysis. Fifteen minutes after the start of dialysis the neutrophil count fell to 13% of pre-dialysis values in the control group while it only fell to 71% in the study patient. A further fall to 47% occurred in the patient at 30 minutes. A drop in PaO2 by 15% of initial values occurred at 15 and 30 minutes in the controls and the patient respectively matching the trend of fall in the neutrophil count. PaCO2 fell sharply across the dialysis membrane with reciprocol changes in the dialysis bath. Alveolar oxygen tension showed a significant reduction starting at 15 minutes correlating with the reduction in PaO2. The A-a O2 gradient was not altered significantly. These data strongly suggest that the principal mechanism leading to hypoxemia during dialysis is hypoventilation resulting from CO2 loss into the dialysis bath. Complement mediated pulmonary leucostasis may play a secondary role in inducing a quicker fall in PaO2 in the early part of dialysis. PMID:7140022

  18. Coffee-induced Hypokalaemia

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Taking an excess amount of caffeine (e.g. overdrinking caffeinated beverages) sometimes causes hypokalaemia. Although the detailed mechanism has not been clarified yet, an increased loss of potassium via the urine stream caused by the diuretic action of caffeine is proposed as one of the possibilities. We report the case of a 50-year-old female outpatient who rapidly developed severe generalized muscle weakness and fatigue. Her symptoms were considered to be principally due to hypokalaemia. Since her blood urea nitrogen concentration decreased greatly, it was suggested that she had massive polyuria due to overhydration (i.e. dilution of her body fluids). Initially, we considered that a urinary tract infection might have caused her illness. However, we found that she was a heavy coffee drinker and had constantly experienced massive diuresis. After a course of oral antibiotics, potassium replacement and stopping coffee (caffeine) ingestion, her symptoms resolved quickly. In conclusion, it was considered that overdrinking coffee (caffeine) induced her hypokalaemia. Probably, loss of potassium via the urine stream with secondary aldosteronism was the main cause of the hypokalaemia. PMID:21769248

  19. Carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anisha; Joseph, Siby; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Murali, Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    A 47 year old lady with hyperthyroidism for past 1½ years was initially on Carbimazole 20 mg orally then changed to 30 mg (during Hysterectomy) but was taking 10 mg for last 1 year. She had intermittent fever with severe B/L bifrontal headache since 3 weeks. Routine investigations showed anaemia, neutropenia, leucopenia and CRP elevation. Peripheral smear showed normocytic normochromic anaemia with Rouleaux formation, leucopenia with 2% atypical cells and mild thrombocytosis. Widal test, RA factor (Rheumatoid factor) test, Ig M (Immunoglobulin M) dengue, Ig M Lepto, TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Other (Syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Cytomegalovirus and Herpes infections), ANA (Antinuclear antibody) screen cANCA (Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) and pANCA (Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies) tests were negative. Bone marrow aspiration showed normo to hypercellular marrow with 15% atypical cells and plasma cells. Multiple myeloma workup was done. Carbimazole was withheld. Conclusion: Drug induced agranulocytosis occurs with in 1-2 months of taking the antithyroid medication but onset delayed by 1½ year. De-challenge resulted normalization of blood parameters. PMID:26813922

  20. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  1. Calmodulin antagonists induce platelet apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhicheng; Li, Suping; Shi, Quanwei; Yan, Rong; Liu, Guanglei; Dai, Kesheng

    2010-04-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) antagonists induce apoptosis in various tumor models and inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis, thus some of which have been extensively used as anti-cancer agents. In platelets, CaM has been found to bind directly to the cytoplasmic domains of several platelet receptors. Incubation of platelets with CaM antagonists impairs the receptors-related platelet functions. However, it is still unknown whether CaM antagonists induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that CaM antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W7), tamoxifen (TMX), and trifluoperazine (TFP) induce apoptotic events in human platelets, including depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. CaM antagonists did not incur platelet activation as detected by P-selectin surface expression and PAC-1 binding. However, ADP-, botrocetin-, and alpha-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor surface were significantly reduced in platelets pre-treated with CaM antagonists. Furthermore, cytosolic Ca(2+) levels were obviously elevated by both W7 and TMX, and membrane-permeable Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM significantly reduced apoptotic events in platelets induced by W7. Therefore, these findings indicate that CaM antagonists induce platelet apoptosis. The elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels may be involved in the regulation of CaM antagonists-induced platelet apoptosis. PMID:20172594

  2. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs’ characteristics. PMID:26918138

  3. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:24881644

  4. Seizures induced by playing music.

    PubMed

    Sutherling, W W; Hershman, L M; Miller, J Q; Lee, S I

    1980-09-01

    A 67-year-old organist and minister with diabetes mellitus had stereotyped focal seizures of the left lower face, jaw, and neck. Attacks occurred spontaneously or were induced when he played a specific hymn on the organ. The seizures were not induced by reading, singing, hearing, or playing the hymn silently. The patient had interictal weakness of the left lower face and left side of the tongue. Focal seizures were recorded on an electroencephalogram (EEG) at the right temporofrontal area. This patient illustrates partial seizures induced by playing music. PMID:6775246

  5. Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

  6. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs' characteristics. PMID:26918138

  7. Drug-induced visceral angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Thalanayar, Prashanth M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Lubin, Fritz; Karnik, Reena; Bhasin, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema. PMID:25317271

  8. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  9. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. ... Complications that may develop include: Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis Hypoxemia (low blood oxygen) Respiratory failure

  10. Fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Shiekh, Abdul Gaffar; Hussain, Waleed M; Miamini, Wail Al; Khoujah, Amer M; Zayyani, Najah R

    2011-01-01

    Pill-induced oesophagitis is well reported in people of all ages (range 3–98 years), with females outnumbering males by 1.5:1. Antibiotic pills, cardiac pills and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and alendronate are the most common culprits. We report a case of fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis in a young adult without any underlying pathological abnormalities of the oesophagus. PMID:22693306

  11. Irradiation Induced Creep of Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Murty, Prof K.L.; Eapen, Dr. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The current status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and the major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need for improved creep models across multi-scales is highlighted.

  12. Complement and cytokine response in acute Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, John-Paul; Langley, Kathryn; Heelas, Edward; Machin, Samuel J; Scully, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Complement dysregulation is key in the pathogenesis of atypical Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (aHUS), but no clear role for complement has been identified in Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). We aimed to assess complement activation and cytokine response in acute antibody-mediated TTP. Complement C3a and C5a and cytokines (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor, interferon-γ and IL-17a) were measured in 20 acute TTP patients and 49 remission cases. Anti-ADAMTS13 immunoglobulin G (IgG) subtypes were measured in acute patients in order to study the association with complement activation. In acute TTP, median C3a and C5a were significantly elevated compared to remission, C3a 63·9 ng/ml vs. 38·2 ng/ml (P < 0·001) and C5a 16·4 ng/ml vs. 9·29 ng/ml (P < 0·001), respectively. Median IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the acute vs. remission groups, IL-6: 8 pg/ml vs. 2 pg/ml (P = 0·003), IL-10: 6 pg/ml vs. 2 pg/ml (P < 0·001). C3a levels correlated with both anti-ADAMTS13 IgG (rs = 0·604, P = 0·017) and IL-10 (rs = 0·692, P = 0·006). No anti-ADAMTS13 IgG subtype was associated with higher complement activation, but patients with the highest C3a levels had 3 or 4 IgG subtypes present. These results suggest complement anaphylatoxin levels are higher in acute TTP cases than in remission, and the complement response seen acutely may relate to anti-ADAMTS13 IgG antibody and IL-10 levels. PMID:24372446

  13. Vection and induced visual motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Ian P.

    1991-12-01

    When exposed to a large moving visual display, a person experiences illusory self motion (vection). Specialized devices were used to investigate the relation between illusory visual motion of stationary objects and illusory self motion induced by motion of a visual scene. In a first set of experiments, two distinct components of induced visual motion were measured: exocentric induced motion which causes a stationary object to appear to move with the self, and egocentric induced motion which causes an object to seem to move relative to the self. Another set of experiments was designed to reveal the extent to which vection depends on the presence of stationary objects in the field of view and to explore what types of relative motion between the moving display and the stationary objects most strongly induce vection. It was observed that when all stationary objects were removed, vection had a long latency and was very weak when it occurred. A third set of experiments was designed to reveal the extent to which illusory body tilt induced by viewing a tilted or rotating scene depends on the motion of a visual stimulus and on the geometrical features of the stimulus. The results reveal the relative contributions of visual polarity and visual motion to illusory body tilt and the extent to which visual stimuli can override conflicting stimuli arising from the otolith organs.

  14. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  15. Drug-Induced Itch Management.

    PubMed

    Ebata, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Drugs may cause itching as a concomitant symptom of drug-induced skin reactions or in the form of pruritus without skin lesions. Drug-induced itch is defined as generalized itching without skin lesions, caused by a drug. Itching associated with drug-induced cholestasis is among the common dermatologic adverse events (dAEs) that induce itching. Some drugs such as opioids, antimalarials, and hydroxyethyl starch are known to induce itching without skin lesions. The clinical features and underlying proposed mechanisms of itching caused by these drugs have been specifically investigated. The recent application of targeted anticancer drugs has increased the survival rate of cancer patients. These new agents cause significant dAEs such as acneiform rashes, dry skin, hand-foot syndrome, paronychia, and itching. Itching is a common side effect of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Though not life-threatening, these dAEs have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life, leading to dose reduction and possibly less effective cancer therapy. It is important to provide an effective supportive antipruritic treatment without interruption of the administration of these drugs. This chapter concludes by describing basic measures to be taken for diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced itch. The principle of treatment is discontinuation of suspected causative drugs in general except for anticancer medications. In case itching lasts long after drug withdrawal or the causative drug cannot be stopped, vigorous symptomatic antipruritic treatment and specific therapies for different types of drug-induced itch should be undertaken. PMID:27578085

  16. Phase modulation induced by cooperative effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischhaker, Robert; Evers, Joerg; Dey, Tarak N.

    2010-07-15

    We analyze the influence of dipole-dipole interactions in an electromagnetically induced transparency set up for a density at the onset of cooperative effects. To this end, we include mean-field models for the influence of local-field corrections and radiation trapping into our calculation. We show both analytically and numerically that the polarization contribution to the local field strongly modulates the phase of a weak pulse. We give an intuitive explanation for this local-field-induced phase modulation and demonstrate that it distinctively differs from the nonlinear self-phase-modulation that a strong pulse experiences in a Kerr medium.

  17. Clindamycin-induced hypersensitivity reaction.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Baccas, Jonathan T; Arnold, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced anaphylaxis is an unpredictable adverse reaction. Although it may occur with any medication, antibiotics induce more cases of anaphylaxis than any other medication class with most cases being induced by β-lactam antibiotics. Clindamycin is an antibiotic with good gram-positive and anaerobe coverage which is often used in patients with β-lactam allergies. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who experienced anaphylaxis after a dose of intravenous (IV) clindamycin. Following treatment with methylprednisolone, epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol, the patient stabilized. The patient's score on the Naranjo's algorithm was 8 (probable); a score of 9 (definite) limited only by absence of drug re-challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clindamycin-induced anaphylaxis where the patient was not exposed to any other agent that may have triggered the response, the first case in the United States, and only the third documented case in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug-induced anaphylaxis in all medications. PMID:26216470

  18. Flash photography-induced maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Veugelen, Tim; Coutteel, Carine; Leys, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report a flash photography-induced maculopathy. Methods: A professional photographer blinded himself accidentally and he consulted 3 days after the event with a scotoma in his dominant left eye. A unilateral acute light-induced maculopathy with hemorrhage was observed. The lesion was studied with colour photography, fluorescein and indocyanin angiography, autofluorescence imaging and repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Results: At age 43, this professional photographer was blinded by the flash light of his camera and subsequently realized he had a scotoma in his dominant eye. Three days after the event visual acuity (VA) was 20/70 and an acute light-induced maculopathy was noted. Another three days later, VA was 20/50 and the lesions were less prominent. After one month, the photographer still had problems making sharp pictures, VA was 20/25 and a macular scar was observed. During further follow-up, he regained full vision and experienced no professional problems. Conclusions: This case illustrates that the light of flash photography can accidentally hit an eye and induce a light-induced maculopathy.

  19. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  20. Psychotropic drug-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Harpreet S; Singh, Ira

    2005-08-01

    Psychotropic medications have been known to cause blood dyscrasias, including neutropenia, and since the advent of clozapine, this side effect is now increasingly being recognized. Almost all the major classes of psychotropic medications have been associated with neutropenia. Operational definitions for blood dyscrasias have allowed us to create an epidemiological database on this rare side effect of psychotropic medications. With increased awareness of drug-induced neutropenia among physicians, methods of early detection and treatment of this side effect have also been the focus of recent literature. Another area of active research has been identifying the risk factors and mechanism of drug-induced neutropenia. This article attempts to synthesize our current understanding of psychotropic drug-induced neutropenia and also provide insights into future research in this realm. PMID:16234875

  1. The surgically induced stress response.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A; Herndon, David N

    2013-09-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes that induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Burn injuries provide an extreme model of trauma induced stress responses that can be used to study the long-term effects of a prolonged stress response. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to confer improved chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  2. Persistent nicorandil induced oral ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Healy, C M; Smyth, Y; Flint, S R

    2004-01-01

    Four patients with nicorandil induced ulceration are described, and the literature on the subject is reviewed. Nicorandil induced ulcers are very painful and distressing for patients. Clinically they appear as large, deep, persistent ulcers that have punched out edges. They are poorly responsive to topical steroids and usually require alteration of nicorandil treatment. The ulceration tends to occur at high doses of nicorandil and all four cases reported here were on doses of 40 mg per day or greater. In these situations reduction of nicorandil dose may be sufficient to promote ulcer healing and prevent further recurrence. However, nicorandil induced ulcers have been reported at doses as low as 10 mg daily and complete cessation of nicorandil may be required. PMID:15201264

  3. Drug-induced renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations. PMID:26468475

  4. Jet-Induced Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Fragile, C; Anninos, P; Murray, S

    2003-12-16

    Jets from radio galaxies can have dramatic effects on the medium through which they propagate. We review observational evidence for jet-induced star formation in low ('FR-I') and high ('FR-II') luminosity radio galaxies, at low and high redshifts respectively. We then discuss numerical simulations which are aimed to explain a jet-induced starburst ('Minkowski's Object') in the nearby FR-I type radio galaxy NGC 541. We conclude that jets can induce star formation in moderately dense (10 cm{sup -3}), warm (10{sup 4} K) gas; that this may be more common in the dense environments of forming, active galaxies; and that this may provide a mechanism for 'positive' feedback from AGN in the galaxy formation process.

  5. Late Onset Clozapine Induced Agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Kakkan, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported. PMID:25336778

  6. Induced abortion and contraception use

    PubMed Central

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of

  7. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  8. Coating-induced wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-12-01

    The coatings which are used on telescope mirrors and other optical interfaces can have a profound effect on the image quality formed by an optical system. This paper evaluates the defocus and astigmatism which are caused by the s- and p-phase shifts of coatings. These coating-induced wavefront aberrations are usually insignificant, but can, under certain circumstances, overshadow the geometric wavefront aberrations of the system. The wavefront aberrations induced by reflection-enhanced coatings on an f/1.5 Cassegrain telescope are numerically evaluated as an example.

  9. Induced piezoelectricity in isotropic biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R L

    1976-12-01

    Isotropic material can be made to exhibit piezoelectric effects by the application of a constant electric field. For insulators, the piezoelectric strain constant is proportional to the applied electric field and for semiconductors, an additional out-of-phase component of piezoelectricity is proportional to the electric current density in the sample. The two induced coefficients are proportional to the strain-dependent dielectric constant (depsilon/dS + epsilon) and resistivity (drho/dS - rho), respectively. The latter is more important at frequencies such that rhoepsilonomega less than 1, often the case in biopolymers. Signals from induced piezoelectricity in nature may be larger than those from true piezoelectricity. PMID:990389

  10. Plasma rotation induced by RF

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V. S.; Chiu, S. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698; Omelchenko, Y. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698

    1999-09-20

    Plasma rotation has many beneficial effects on tokamak operation including stabilization of MHD and microturbulence to improve the beta limit and confinement. Contrary to present-day tokamaks, neutral beams may not be effective in driving rotation in fusion reactors; hence the investigation of radiofrequency (RF) induced plasma rotation is of great interest and potential importance. This paper reviews the experimental results of RF induced rotation and possible physical mechanisms, suggested by theories, to explain the observations. This subject is only in the infancy of its research and many challenging issues remained to be understood and resolved. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  12. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  13. Anaphylaxis induced by lentil inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ayşenur, Kaya; Akan, Ayşegül; Mustafa, Erkoçoğlu; Müge, Toyran; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2012-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset serious allergic reaction which may be fatal. Foods are the most common allergens leading to anaphylaxis especially for childhood. Most of the food-induced anaphylactic reactions take place after ingestion of the allergic food and only a few cases exist with anaphylactic reactions induced by inhalation of foods such as peanut, soybean and lupine. The case we present is unusual in that an 8 1/2-year-old boy developed anaphylaxis with the inhalation of steam from boiling lentils. PMID:22830298

  14. Key aspects governing induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buijze, Loes; Wassing, Brecht; Fokker, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In the past decades numerous examples of earthquakes induced by human-induced changes in subsurface fluid pressures have been reported. This poses a major threat to the future development of some of these operations and calls for an understanding and quantification of the seismicity generated. From geomechanical considerations and insights from laboratory experiments the factors controlling induced seismicity may be grouped into 4 categories; the magnitude of the stress disturbance, the pre-existing stress conditions, the reservoir/fault rock properties and the local geometry. We investigated whether the (relative) contributions of these factors and their influence on magnitudes generated could be recognized by looking at the entire dataset of reported cases of induced seismicity as a whole, and what this might imply for future developments. An extensive database has been built out of over a 160 known cases of induced seismicity worldwide, incorporating the relevant geological, seismological and fluid-related parameters. The cases studied include hydrocarbon depletion and secondary recovery, waste water injection, (enhanced) geothermal systems and hydraulic fracturing with observed magnitudes ranging from less than -1.5 to 7. The parameters taken into account were based on the theoretical background of the mechanisms of induced seismicity and include the injection/depletion-related parameters, (spatial) characteristics of seismicity, lithological properties and the local stress situation. Correlations between the seismic response and the geological/geomechanical characteristics of the various sites were investigated. The injected/depleted volumes and the scale of the activities are major controlling factors on the maximum magnitudes generated. Spatial signatures of seismicity such as the depth and lateral spread of the seismicity were observed to be distinct for different activities, which is useful when considering future operations. Where available the local

  15. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the geometrical description of the spatio-temporal patterns of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope and provides an alternative physical approach to poroelasticity for the modelling of induced seismicity. The applicability of the proposed geometrical approach is illustrated for the case of the 2006, Basel enhanced geothermal system stimulation experiment. Applicability to more problematic cases where the stress field may be spatially heterogeneous is also discussed.

  16. INDUCED SECONDARY COMBUSTION IN WOODSTOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides information useful for woodstove designers concerned with reducing emissions. A dual-chamber woodstove was modified to induce secondary combustion by utilizing an ignition source and forced flow of secondary air. The ignition source was an electric glow plug in...

  17. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Photo-induced isotopic fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for the analysis of photo-induced isotopic fractionation. The physical basis for this fractionation mechanism centers on the fact that isotopic substitution alters the energy levels, molecular symmetries, spin statistical weights and other fundamental molecular properties, producing spectroscopic signatures distinguishable from that of the parent isotopomer. These mass-dependent physical properties are identical to those invoked by Urey to explain stable isotope fractionation in chemical systems subject to thermodynamic equilibrium. Photo-induced isotopic fractionation is a completely general phenomenon and should be observable in virtually all gas phase photochemical systems. Water photo-induced isotopic fractionation has been examined in detail using experimental and theoretical data. These results illustrate the salient features of this fractionation mechanism for molecules possessing continuous UV absorption spectra and unit photodissociation quantum yields. Using the photo-induced isotopic fractionation methodology in conjunction with standard photochemical models, we predict substantial deuterium enrichment of water vapor in the planetary atmospheres of Earth and Mars.

  19. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  20. Noncoercive Inducements in International Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriesberg, Louis

    This paper examines noncoercion in international struggles, reviews instances in which positive inducements were combined with or used instead of coercion, and analyzes conditions affecting the utilization and effectiveness of noncoercive means in conducting international relations. Coercion refers to actual and threatened violent and nonviolent…

  1. Foscarnet-induced penile ulceration.

    PubMed

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Sanches, M; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    Foscarnet is used to treat herpes viruses, including drug-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). There are some reports of intravenous foscarnet-induced penile and vulvar ulceration. The authors report a case of the development of severe penile ulcers after the initiation of intravenous foscarnet therapy. PMID:21879205

  2. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  3. MECHANISMS OF ARSENICAL INDUCED MALFORMATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research uses the whole embryo culture system to expose mouse embryos to arsenic at the neurulation stage of development (This stage of development is most susceptible to arsenical-induced defects). This includes studies to assess the distribution of cells in the cell cycle a...

  4. Palatine perforation induced by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Rosas, Miguel; Jimenez-Santos, Cecilia Irene; García-González, Claudia Lorena

    2006-05-01

    Worldwide, the use of cocaine has an increased over the years, various secondary effects have been described. Here we present a 48 years old female with a 2-month evolution bucconasal ulcer in the hard palate induced by cocaine usage accompanied by swallow and phonation dysfunctions. Ethiopathogenesis, differential diagnoses and treatment are discussed. PMID:16648760

  5. Adrafinil-induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Thobois, Stéphane; Xie, Jing; Mollion, Helena; Benatru, Isabelle; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2004-08-01

    We describe the first case of orofacial abnormal movements induced by adrafinil, a vigilance promoting agent of the same pharmacological class as modafinil. The dyskinesias did not spontaneously recover despite adrafinil withdrawal for a 4-month period. They were secondly dramatically improved by tetrabenazine, a presynaptic dopaminergic depleting drug which was introduced after the 4-month adrafinil-free period. PMID:15300665

  6. Rowell's syndrome induced by terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Murad, Aizuri; Shudell, Emma; Mulligan, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine, a systemic antifungal commonly prescribed for onychomycosis (fungal infection involving the nails) has been reported to cause various cutaneous adverse effects. We describe an overlap syndrome between cutaneous lupus and erythaema multiforme induced by this medication with a review of other reported cases. PMID:26021384

  7. Hyperglycemia inhibits complement-mediated immunological control of S. aureus in a rat model of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, Clifford T; Hair, Pamela S; Rohn, Reuben D; Rister, Nicholas S; Krishna, Neel K; Cunnion, Kenji M

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia from diabetes is associated with increased risk of infection from S. aureus and increased severity of illness. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that elevated glucose (>6 mM) dramatically inhibited S. aureus-initiated complement-mediated immune effectors. Here we report in vivo studies evaluating the extent to which a hyperglycemic environment alters complement-mediated control of S. aureus infection in a rat peritonitis model. Rats were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes or sham-treated and then inoculated i.p. with S. aureus. Rats were euthanized and had peritoneal lavage at 2 or 24 hours after infection to evaluate early and late complement-mediated effects. Hyperglycemia decreased the influx of IgG and complement components into the peritoneum in response to S. aureus infection and decreased anaphylatoxin generation. Hyperglycemia decreased C4-fragment and C3-fragment opsonization of S. aureus recovered in peritoneal fluids, compared with euglycemic or insulin-rescued rats. Hyperglycemic rats showed decreased phagocytosis efficiency compared with euglycemic rats, which correlated inversely with bacterial survival. These results suggest that hyperglycemia inhibited humoral effector recruitment, anaphylatoxin generation, and complement-mediated opsonization of S. aureus, suggesting that hyperglycemic inhibition of complement effectors may contribute to the increased risk and severity of S. aureus infections in diabetic patients. PMID:25610878

  8. Hyperglycemia Inhibits Complement-Mediated Immunological Control of S. aureus in a Rat Model of Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Hair, Pamela S.; Rohn, Reuben D.; Rister, Nicholas S.; Krishna, Neel K.; Cunnion, Kenji M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia from diabetes is associated with increased risk of infection from S. aureus and increased severity of illness. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that elevated glucose (>6 mM) dramatically inhibited S. aureus-initiated complement-mediated immune effectors. Here we report in vivo studies evaluating the extent to which a hyperglycemic environment alters complement-mediated control of S. aureus infection in a rat peritonitis model. Rats were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes or sham-treated and then inoculated i.p. with S. aureus. Rats were euthanized and had peritoneal lavage at 2 or 24 hours after infection to evaluate early and late complement-mediated effects. Hyperglycemia decreased the influx of IgG and complement components into the peritoneum in response to S. aureus infection and decreased anaphylatoxin generation. Hyperglycemia decreased C4-fragment and C3-fragment opsonization of S. aureus recovered in peritoneal fluids, compared with euglycemic or insulin-rescued rats. Hyperglycemic rats showed decreased phagocytosis efficiency compared with euglycemic rats, which correlated inversely with bacterial survival. These results suggest that hyperglycemia inhibited humoral effector recruitment, anaphylatoxin generation, and complement-mediated opsonization of S. aureus, suggesting that hyperglycemic inhibition of complement effectors may contribute to the increased risk and severity of S. aureus infections in diabetic patients. PMID:25610878

  9. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  10. Distinguishing warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the warming-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the warming is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced warming. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.

  11. An inducible offense: carnivore morph tadpoles induced by tadpole carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Nicholas A; de la Serna Buzón, Sofia; Pfennig, David W

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace, and plasticity theory predicts that organisms should often evolve mechanisms to detect and respond to environmental cues that accurately predict future environmental conditions. Here, we test this prediction in tadpoles of spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata. These tadpoles develop into either an omnivore ecomorph, which is a dietary generalist, or a carnivore ecomorph, which specializes on anostracan shrimp and other tadpoles. We investigated a novel proximate cue – ingestion of Scaphiopus tadpoles – and its propensity to produce carnivores by rearing tadpoles on different diets. We found that diets containing tadpoles from the genus Scaphiopus produced more carnivores than diets without Scaphiopus tadpoles. We discuss why Scaphiopus tadpoles are an excellent food source and why it is therefore advantageous for S. multiplicata tadpoles to produce an inducible offense that allows them to better utilize this resource. In general, such inducible offenses provide an excellent setting for investigating the proximate and evolutionary basis of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:25897380

  12. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  13. Smoke Exposure Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Lipid Accumulation in Retinal Pigment Epithelium through Oxidative Stress and Complement Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease caused by genetic and environmental factors, including genetic variants in complement components and smoking. Smoke exposure leads to oxidative stress, complement activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and lipid dysregulation, which have all been proposed to be associated with AMD pathogenesis. Here we examine the effects of smoke exposure on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 6 months. RPE cells grown as stable monolayers were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Effects of smoke were determined by biochemical, molecular, and histological measures. Effects of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement and complement C3a anaphylatoxin receptor signaling were analyzed using knock-out mice or specific inhibitors. ER stress markers were elevated after smoke exposure in RPE of intact mice, which was eliminated in AP-deficient mice. To examine this relationship further, RPE monolayers were exposed to CSE. Short term smoke exposure resulted in production and release of complement C3, the generation of C3a, oxidative stress, complement activation on the cell membrane, and ER stress. Long term exposure to CSE resulted in lipid accumulation, and secretion. All measures were reversed by blocking C3a complement receptor (C3aR), alternative complement pathway signaling, and antioxidant therapy. Taken together, our results provide clear evidence that smoke exposure results in oxidative stress and complement activation via the AP, resulting in ER stress-mediated lipid accumulation, and further suggesting that oxidative stress and complement act synergistically in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:24711457

  14. Gyromagnetically induced transparency of metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents. PMID:24702414

  15. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to improve chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  16. Molecular mechanisms of induced pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Joanna; Mazurek, Sylwia; Liszewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Growing knowledge concerning transcriptional control of cellular pluripotency has led to the discovery that the fate of differentiated cells can be reversed, which has resulted in the generation, by means of genetic manipulation, of induced pluripotent stem cells. Overexpression of just four pluripotency-related transcription factors, namely Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (Yamanaka factors, OKSM), in fibroblasts appears sufficient to produce this new cell type. Currently, we know that these factors induce several changes in genetic program of differentiated cells that can be divided in two general phases: the initial one is stochastic, and the subsequent one is highly hierarchical and organised. This review briefly discusses the molecular events leading to induction of pluripotency in response to forced presence of OKSM factors in somatic cells. We also discuss other reprogramming strategies used thus far as well as the advantages and disadvantages of laboratory approaches towards pluripotency induction in different cell types. PMID:25691818

  17. Coherent-state-induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.

    2016-04-01

    We examine electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an ensemble of cold Λ -type atoms induced by a quantum control field in multimode coherent states and compare it with the transparency created by the classical light of the same intensity. We show that the perfect coincidence is achieved only in the case of a single-mode coherent state, whereas the transparency sharply decreases, when the number of the modes exceeds the mean number of control photons in the medium. The origin of the effect is the modification of photon statistics in the control field with increasing the number of the modes that weakens its interaction with atoms resulting in a strong probe absorption. For the same reason, the probe pulse transforms from EIT-based slow light into superluminal propagation caused by the absorption.

  18. Resistance-induced antibiotic substitution.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2004-06-01

    In many cases, physicians prescribe antibiotics without knowing whether an individual patient is infected with a susceptible or resistant pathogen. As the proportion of resistant organisms in a community increases, physicians substitute away from older-inexpensive drugs to newer, more expensive agents as first line therapy. This paper explores the implications of resistance-induced antibiotic substitution for epidemiological models to predict future resistance levels, efforts to measure the health care costs associated with resistance, and policies to improve physicians' antibiotic prescribing decisions. The extent of resistance-induced substitution in outpatient settings is documented using a data set consisting of observations on initial physician office visits for otitis media in the US controlling for new product introductions and price increases, per prescription antibiotic spending increased by 22% between 1980 and 1996, corresponding to a steep increase in resistance levels over the same period. PMID:15185388

  19. Gyromagnetically Induced Transparency of Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents.

  20. Chlorine-induced cardiopulmonary injury.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Matthew; Lam, Adam; Svendsen, Erik R; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Matalon, Sadis

    2016-06-01

    Chlorine (Cl2 ) is utilized worldwide for a diverse range of industrial applications, including pulp bleaching, sanitation, and pharmaceutical development. Though Cl2 has widespread use, little is known regarding the mechanisms of toxicity associated with Cl2 exposure, which occurs during industrial accidents or acts of terrorism. Previous instances of Cl2 exposure have led to reported episodes of respiratory distress that result in high morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, studies suggest that acute Cl2 exposure also results in systemic vascular injury and subsequent myocardial contractile dysfunction. Here, we review both lung and cardiac pathology associated with acute Cl2 inhalation and discuss recently published data that suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of Cl2 -induced toxicity. Last, we discuss our findings that suggest that upregulation of autophagy protects against Cl2 -induced lung inflammation and can be a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating the toxic effects of Cl2 exposure. PMID:27303906

  1. Severe amiodarone induced pulmonary toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nacca, Nicholas; Yuhico, Luke S; Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Szombathy, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    A known complication of Amiodarone therapy is Amiodarone induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). Several features of this adverse effect make it difficult to diagnosis and treat. The case of a 63-year-old male with classic radiographic and histologic findings of APT is discussed. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic findings, and treatment strategies are reviewed. The patient was successfully managed with pulse high dose steroid therapy. PMID:23205299

  2. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, [le][approximately][ovr J] [times] [approximately][ovr B][ge], has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  3. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, {le}{approximately}{ovr J} {times} {approximately}{ovr B}{ge}, has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  4. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25680964

  5. Etanercept-induced cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Maria; Caretti, Katherine; Kado, Jessica

    2014-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α antagonists are potent biologics used to treat a variety of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn disease, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. These medications are known to have many side effects (eg, infusion reactions, cytopenia, risk for infection, heart failure); however, only a few cases of acne vulgaris have been associated with the use of these biologics, particularly infliximab and adalimumab. We report a rare case of etanercept-induced cystic acne. PMID:25101341

  6. Flow-induced vibrations-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Acoustic resonance in heat exchanger tube bundles--Part 1. Physical nature of the phenomenon; Theoretical and experimental studies on heat exchanger U-bend tube bundle vibration characteristics; Experimental model analysis of metallic pipeline conveying fluid; Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint; and A study on the vibrations of pipelines caused by internal pulsating flows.

  7. Light-induced liquid crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Tamas; Sukhomlinova, Ludmila; Su, Linli; Taheri, Bahman; White, Timothy J; Bunning, Timothy J

    2012-05-17

    Liquid crystals are traditionally classified as thermotropic, lyotropic or polymeric, based on the stimulus that governs the organization and order of the molecular system. The most widely known and applied class of liquid crystals are a subset of thermotropic liquid crystals known as calamitic, in which adding heat can result in phase transitions from or into the nematic, cholesteric and smectic mesophases. Photoresponsive liquid-crystal materials and mixtures can undergo isothermal phase transitions if light affects the order parameter of the system within a mesophase sufficiently. In nearly all previous examinations, light exposure of photoresponsive liquid-crystal materials and mixtures resulted in order-decreasing photo-induced isothermal phase transitions. Under specialized conditions, an increase in order with light exposure has been reported, despite the tendency of the photoresponsive liquid-crystal system to reduce order in the exposed state. A direct, photo-induced transition from the isotropic to the nematic phase has been observed in a mixture of spiropyran molecules and a nematic liquid crystal. Here we report a class of naphthopyran-based materials that exhibit photo-induced conformational changes in molecular structure capable of yielding order-increasing phase transitions. Appropriate functionalization of the naphthopyran molecules leads to an exceedingly large order parameter in the open form, which results in a clear to strongly absorbing dichroic state. The increase in order with light exposure has profound implications in optics, photonics, lasing and displays and will merit further consideration for applications in solar energy harvesting. The large, photo-induced dichroism exhibited by the material system has been long sought in ophthalmic applications such as photochromic and polarized variable transmission sunglasses. PMID:22596158

  8. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  9. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  10. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  11. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    PubMed

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  12. Propulsion Induced Effects Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark; Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane and design variations through computational analysis and experimental subsonic through supersonic wind tunnel testing. The Milestone will generate a comprehensive CFD and wind tunnel data base of the baseline, and design variations. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the Technology Concept Airplane with all appropriate wind tunnel corrections.

  13. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  14. Inducible defenses, phenotypic variability and biotic environments.

    PubMed

    Adler, F R; Drew Harvell, C

    1990-12-01

    Defensive morphologies, chemicals and behaviors induced by cues from consumers or competitors have been described in numerous organisms. Much work has focused on the costs of defenses and the actual cues used. Here, we review recent progress in determining the effects of inducible defenses on consumers and the cues implicated in inducing defenses against consumers and competitors, thereby laying the groundwork for studying the implications of inducible defenses for the dynamics of foraging, population size and evolution. PMID:21232402

  15. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles.

    PubMed

    Simmonett, Andrew C; Pickard, Frank C; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-08-21

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the "direct" approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123

  16. Rosiglitazone-induced immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Huang, Tao; Sahud, Mervyn A

    2006-05-01

    Rosiglitazone is one of the members in the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of anti-diabetic agents that have proven efficacy in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied serum from a patient who developed acute, severe thrombocytopenia after exposure to rosiglitazone maleate (Avandia) and proposed the mechanisms for rosiglitazone-induced thrombocytopenia. Tested by flow cytometry, the patient's serum was positive for rosiglitazone-induced antibody with the binding ratio of 5.93 (mean fluorescence intensity, MFI) in the presence of the patient's serum and rosiglitazone in a final concentration of 0.53 mmol/l. The antibody was found to bind both glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex and GP Ib/IX complex by MAIPA assay using five different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against GP complexes Ib/IX, GPIIb/IIIa or GPIa/IIa. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that both GPIIb/IIIa and GP Ib/IX complex were precipitated by antibody in the presence, but not in the absence of rosiglitazone. These findings provide evidence that immune thrombocytopenia can be caused by sensitivity to the antidiabetic agent rosiglitazone maleate. This report documents the first case of rosiglitazone-induced immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:16702039

  17. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    PubMed

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer. PMID:8994803

  18. Chromium-induced kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeen, R.P. ); Qian, Lifen )

    1991-05-01

    Kidney disease is often cited as one of the adverse effects of chromium, yet chronic renal disease due to occupational or environmental exposure to chromium has not been reported. Occasional cases of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following massive absorption of chromate have been described. Chromate-induced ATN has been extensively studied in experimental animals following parenteral administration of large doses of potassium chromate (hexavalent). The chromate is selectively accumulated in the convoluted proximal tubule where necrosis occurs. An adverse long-term effect of low-dose chromium exposure on the kidneys is suggested by reports of low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria in chromium workers. Excessive urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, a specific proximal tubule brush border protein, and retinol-binding protein has been reported among chrome palters and welders. However, LMW proteinuria occurs after a variety of physiologic stresses, is usually reversible, and cannot by itself be considered evidence of chromic renal disease. Chromate-induced ATN and LMW proteinuria in chromium workers, nevertheless, raise the possibility that low-level, long-term exposure may produce persistent renal injury. The absence of evidence of chromate-induced chromic renal disease cannot be interpreted as evidence of the absence of such injury.

  19. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  20. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles

    PubMed Central

    Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-01

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the “direct” approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123

  1. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W; Stevens, Markus F; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  2. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common in patients receiving anticancer treatment and can affect survivability and long-term quality of life of the patient following treatment. The symptoms of CIPN primarily include abnormal sensory discrimination of touch, vibration, thermal information, and pain. There is currently a paucity of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat CIPN. The lack of efficacious therapeutics is due, at least in part, to an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapies alter the sensitivity of sensory neurons. Although the clinical presentation of CIPN can be similar with the various classes of chemotherapeutic agents, there are subtle differences, suggesting that each class of drugs might induce neuropathy via different mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathy; however, most pharmacological agents generated from preclinical experiments have failed to alleviate the symptoms of CIPN in the clinic. Further research is necessary to identify the specific mechanisms by which each class of chemotherapeutics induces neuropathy. PMID:25744683

  3. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The systematics of induced radioactivity on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied in a wide range of materials using low level background facilities for detection of gamma rays. Approx. 400 samples of materials processed from structural parts of the spacecraft, as well as materials from onboard experiments, were analyzed at national facilities. These measurements show the variety of radioisotopes that are produced with half-lives greater than 2 wks, most of which are characteristic of proton induced reactions above 20 MeV. For the higher activity, long lived isotopes, it was possible to map the depth and directional dependences of the activity. Due to the stabilized configuration of the LDEF, the induced radioactivity data clearly show contributions from the anisotropic trapped proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly. This effect is discussed, along with evidence for activation by galactic protons and thermal neutrons. The discovery of Be-7 was made on leading side parts of the spacecraft, although this was though not to be related to the in situ production of radioisotopes from external particle fluxes.

  4. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-08-01

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the "direct" approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey.

  5. Field induced gap infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, C. Thomas (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

  6. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  7. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. PMID:24067547

  8. Toxin-induced hyperthermic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rusyniak, Daniel E; Sprague, Jon E

    2005-11-01

    Toxin-induced hyperthermic syndromes are important to consider in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with fever and muscle rigidity. If untreated, toxin-induced hyperthermia may result in fatal hyperthermia with multisystem organ failure. All of these syndromes have at their center the disruption of normal thermogenic mechanisms, resulting in the activation of the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous systems.The result of this thermogenic dysregulation is excess heat generation combined with impaired heat dissipation. Although many similarities exist among the clinical presentations and pathophysiologies of toxin-induced hyperthermic syndromes, important differences exist among their triggers and treatments. Serotonin syndrome typically occurs within hours of the addition ofa new serotonergic agent or the abuse of stimulants such as MDMA or methamphetamine. Treatment involves discontinuing the offending agent and administering either a central serotonergic antagonist, such as cyproheptadine or chlorpromazine, a benzodiazepine, or a combination of the two. NMS typically occurs over hours to days in a patient taking a neuroleptic agent; its recommended treatment is generally the combination of a central dopamine agonist, bromocriptine or L-dopa, and dantrolene. In those patients in whom it is difficult to differentiate between serotonin and neuroleptic malignant syndromes, the physical examination may be helpful:clonus and hyperreflexia are more suggestive of serotonin syndrome,whereas lead-pipe rigidity is suggestive of NMS. In patients in whom serotonin syndrome and NMS cannot be differentiated, benzodiazepines represent the safest therapeutic option. MH presents rapidly with jaw rigidity, hyperthermia, and hypercarbia. Although it almost always occurs in the setting of surgical anesthesia, cases have occurred in susceptible individuals during exertion. The treatment of MH involves the use of dantrolene. Future improvements in understanding the

  9. High homocysteine induces betaine depletion

    PubMed Central

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Esse, Ruben; Gupta, Sapna; Lebon, Sophie; de Vriese, An S; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; Kruger, Warren; Schiff, Manuel; Blom, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is the substrate of the liver- and kidney-specific betaine-homocysteine (Hcy) methyltransferase (BHMT), an alternate pathway for Hcy remethylation. We hypothesized that BHMT is a major pathway for homocysteine removal in cases of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Therefore, we measured betaine in plasma and tissues from patients and animal models of HHcy of genetic and acquired cause. Plasma was collected from patients presenting HHcy without any Hcy interfering treatment. Plasma and tissues were collected from rat models of HHcy induced by diet and from a mouse model of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), methionine, betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by ESI—LC–MS/MS. mRNA expression was quantified using quantitative real-time (QRT)-PCR. For all patients with diverse causes of HHcy, plasma betaine concentrations were below the normal values of our laboratory. In the diet-induced HHcy rat model, betaine was decreased in all tissues analysed (liver, brain, heart). In the mouse CBS deficiency model, betaine was decreased in plasma, liver, heart and brain, but was conserved in kidney. Surprisingly, BHMT expression and activity was decreased in liver. However, in kidney, BHMT and SLC6A12 expression was increased in CBS-deficient mice. Chronic HHcy, irrespective of its cause, induces betaine depletion in plasma and tissues (liver, brain and heart), indicating a global decrease in the body betaine pool. In kidney, betaine concentrations were not affected, possibly due to overexpression of the betaine transporter SLC6A12 where betaine may be conserved because of its crucial role as an osmolyte. PMID:26182429

  10. Snoring-Induced Vibratory Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Kalathoor, Ipe

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 70 Final Diagnosis: Snoring induced vibratory angioedema Symptoms: Swelling of tongue • roof of mouth and throat • multiple episodes at night Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Continuous positive airway pressure therapy Specialty: Allergology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vibratory angioedema (VA) is a rare physical urticaria, with symptoms of itching and swelling of the skin or mucosa when it is exposed to vibration. Avoidance of vibration is the best way to manage this condition. This case report will assist physicians to diagnose this rare condition. Here, a previously unpublished potential successful treatment modality is being presented, with good symptom control, along with some photographs taken during an acute attack. A literature review points towards potential undiagnosed cases. Case Report: A 70-year-old woman had multiple emergency department visits for tongue and throat swelling over 3 years. The episodes always happened at night. Detailed history elicited some episodes of itching and swelling of hands when driving as well as significant snoring while sleeping. Physical examination was unremarkable except for morbid obesity. Complement factor 4 and C1esterase inhibitor level were within normal limits. A tentative diagnosis of angioedema induced by oropharyngeal vibration from snoring was made. A sleep study confirmed sleep apnea with severe snoring. After CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) treatment, she had successful symptom control. Conclusions: Snoring-induced VA is very likely an under-diagnosed condition in the community. The typical history is the key to the diagnosis. This condition could be confirmed by vibration test or by the resolution of symptoms with elimination of vibration. Effective symptom control is possible by avoidance of oropharyngeal vibration from snoring with the administration of CPAP therapy, making it a potential novel indication for this condition. PMID:26437464

  11. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

  12. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  13. Toxin-induced respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    McKay, Charles A

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the impact of various toxic substances on the airway and pulmonary system. Pulmonary anatomy and physiology provide the basis for understanding the response to toxin-induced injury. Simple asphyxiants displace oxygen from the inspired air. Respiratory irritants include water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Several inhaled agents produce direct airway injury, which may be mediated by caustic, thermal, and hydrocarbon exposures. Unique pulmonary toxins and toxicants are discussed, as well as inhaled toxin mixtures. Several inhaled toxins may also impair oxygen transport. The pulmonary system may also provide a mechanism for systemic toxin delivery on respiratory exposure. PMID:24275172

  14. Nilotinib-Induced Keratosis Pilaris

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Wai Mun Sean; Aw, Chen Wee Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia expressing the Bcr-Abl mutation. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions occur more frequently in patients using this medication. We present a case of nilotinib-induced keratosis pilaris that did not have accompanying symptoms of alopecia or pruritus. Greater recognition of this association is needed so that appropriate treatment can be instituted to ensure a good oncologic outcome. PMID:27194977

  15. Fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Tam, P K; Ho, Carmen T K

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Achilles tendinitis after intake of ciprofloxacin for treatment of respiratory tract infection. Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy is an uncommon but increasingly recognised adverse effect of this antibiotic class. Most of the cases occur in the Achilles tendon and may lead to tendon rupture. Possible predisposing risk factors include use of steroid, patients with renal impairment or renal transplant, old age, and being an athlete. The drug should be stopped once this condition is suspected. Symptomatic treatment should be given and orthopaedic referral is desirable if tendon rupture occurs. PMID:25488035

  16. HYPOGLYCEMIA INDUCED BY ANTIDIABETIC SULFONYLUREAS.

    PubMed

    Confederat, Luminiţa; Constantin, Sandra; Lupaşcu, Florentina; Pânzariu, Andreea; Hăncianu, Monica; Profire, Lenuţa

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem due to its increasing prevalence and life-threatening complications. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas represent the first-line drugs in type 2 diabetes even though the most common associated risk is pharmacologically-induced hypoglycemia. In the development of this side effect are involved several factors including the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the drug, patient age and behavior, hepatic or renal dysfunctions, or other drugs associated with a high risk of interactions. If all these are controlled, the risk-benefit balance can be equal to other oral antidiabetic drugs. PMID:26204670

  17. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  18. Sertraline induced acute mandibular dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Rao, Swaminath Gopala

    2015-01-01

    Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been linked with the occurrence of drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, and akathisia. Here, we describe a patient with a diagnosis of emotionally unstable personality disorder and depression who developed severe mandibular dystonia with sertraline in the absence of concurrent prescription of medications, which have potential action on the dopaminergic system. This case highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of this alarming acute adverse effect with sertraline, which is conventionally considered to be well-tolerated and safe. PMID:26752908

  19. Metronidazole-Induced Cerebellar Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Sabat, Shyam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Metronidazole is a very common antibacterial and antiprotozoal with wide usage across the globe, including the least developed countries. It is generally well-tolerated with a low incidence of serious side-effects. Neurological toxicity is fairly common with this drug, however majority of these are peripheral neuropathy with very few cases of central nervous toxicity reported. We report the imaging findings in two patients with cerebellar dysfunction after Metronidazole usage. Signal changes in the dentate and red nucleus were seen on magnetic resonance imaging in these patients. Most of the cases reported in literature reported similar findings, suggesting high predilection for the dentate nucleus in metronidazole induced encephalopathy. PMID:27127600

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a major hazard in many workplaces and in society. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimates that more than 30 million workers (almost 1 in 10) are exposed to unsafe noise levels on the job. Helicopter emergency medical services crews work in an environment in which exposure to aviation noise makes the issue of hearing loss and prevention strategies salient. Applying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard for a regulated hearing conservation program through controlling noise exposure will benefit helicopter emergency medical services professionals. PMID:15741953

  1. Stress-induced cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1992-05-01

    The increasing occurrence of dental lesions at the cervical surfaces requires more knowledge of the causes of the process. Acidic and abrasive mechanisms have clearly been documented as causes but the stress theory by Lee and Eakle is still controversial. This report describes several incidences of possible stress-induced lesions according to the characteristics described by Lee and Eakle. The occurrences of subgingival lesions lend credence to the stress-induction theory by exclusion of other superimposing etiologic factors. With the current concepts, a perceptive approach to the treatment of cervical lesions can be executed. PMID:1527763

  2. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinespring, Charter D.; Freedman, Andrew

    1990-02-01

    Studies of the thermal and photon-induced surface chemistry of dimethyl cadmium (DMCd) and dimethyl tellurium (DMTe) on GaAs(100) substrates under ultrahigh vacuum conditions have been performed for substrate temperatures in the range of 123 K to 473 K. Results indicate that extremely efficient conversion of admixtures of DMTe and DMCd to CdTe can be obtained using low power (5 - 10 mJ cm-2) 193 nm laser pulses at substrate temperatures of 123 K. Subsequent annealing at 473 K produces an epitaxial film.

  3. Bathtub vortex induced by instability.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic. PMID:25375427

  4. Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

  5. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  6. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-08-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16234878

  7. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2016-05-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  8. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3-5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was <0.2 ng/dL (nl. 0.8-1.8 ng/dL). He received intravenous fluids, vasopressor therapy and stress dose steroids; he was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. He received 500 μg of intravenous levothyroxine in the first 18 h of therapy, and 150 µg intravenous daily thereafter. Haemodynamic improvement, along with complete recovery of mental status, occurred after 48 h. Twelve hours after the initiation of therapy, FT4 was 0.96 ng/dL. The patient was maintained on levothyroxine 175 (g POorally daily. A thyroid ultrasound showed diffuse heterogeneity. The 24 hour excretion of iodine was 3657 (mcg (25-756 ( mcg). The only two cases of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease. PMID:24729111

  9. Wind-induced ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  10. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst. PMID:26052419

  11. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  12. Neutrino-induced nuclear excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    We present an improved, compared to that of Belusevic and Rein, theoretical value of the cross section for the neutrino-induced nuclear excitation of iron. This result is based on a measurement of the photoabsorption cross section on the same nucleus, which can be related to the transverse part of the neutrino cross section via the conserved vector current hypothesis. The longitudinal part is related to the pion absorption cross section through the partial conservation of the axial-vector current, and thus reflects the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. A general formula for the excitation cross section is derived, which is valid for both low and high incident neutrino energies. When caused by a weak neutral current, this process may play an important role in core-collapse supernovae. It can also be detected using low-temperature techniques with the purpose of cosmological and weak-interaction studies. A new estimate of the cross sections for neutrino-induced nonscaling processes described by Belusevic and Rein is discussed in the context of two experiments using iron targets, but at very different beam energies.

  13. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kaswala, DH; Shah, S; Patel, N; Raisoni, S; Swaminathan, S

    2014-01-01

    In the recent era, use of various nutritional supplements is highly encouraged amongst the people of United States. Weight loss supplements are major part of the nutritional supplements and their usage is unregulated in the US. Obesity is a major health concern in the US and Americans spend around $30 billion a year for weight loss supplements. At times, these supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The health consequences related to these supplements are often overlooked by the general public, even though FDA issues advisories regarding them. One common supplement used for weight loss was Hydroxycut (Iovate Health Sciences Research, Oakville, Ontario, Canada). Hydroxycut was recalled from the market after a FDA warning in May 2009 because of 23 reports of serious health problems ranging from jaundice and elevated liver enzymes to liver damage. 1 This case report adds evidence for Hydroxycut - induced hepatotoxicity. A 27 year old man with right upper quadrant pain and jaundice was found to have elevated liver enzymes and was taking Hydroxycut along with other supplements. Liver biopsy showed drug induced hepatotoxicity. Discontinuation of Hydroxycut dramatically improved liver functions and related symptoms. PMID:24669349

  14. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    PubMed

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27131947

  15. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Ryan; Shah, Nina; Lewin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD) with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary. PMID:26491581

  16. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  17. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  18. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  19. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70(S6K), as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP-LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  20. Shear-Induced Reactive Gelation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Soos, Miroslav

    2015-11-24

    In this work, we describe a method for the production of porous polymer materials in the form of particles characterized by narrow pore size distribution using the principle of shear-induced reactive gelation. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) primary particles with diameter ranging from 80 to 200 nm are used as building blocks, which are assembled into fractal-like clusters when exposed to high shear rates generated in a microchannel. It was found that independent of the primary particle size, it is possible to modulate the internal structure of formed fractal-like aggregates having fractal dimension ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 by varying the residence time in the microchannel. Thermally induced postpolymerization was used to increase the mechanical resilience of such formed clusters. Primary particle interpenetration was observed by SEM and confirmed by light scattering resulting in an increase of fractal dimension. Nitrogen sorption measurements and mercury porosimetry confirmed formation of a porous material with surface area ranging from 20 to 40 m(2)/g characterized by porosity of 70% and narrow pore size distribution with an average diameter around 700 nm without the presence of any micropores. The strong perfusive character of the synthesized material was confirmed by the existence of a plateau of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate measured at high reduced velocities using a chromatographic column packed with the synthesized microclusters. PMID:26488233

  1. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  2. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  3. Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that mechanical ventilation can injure the lung, producing an entity known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). There are various forms of VILI, including volutrauma (i.e., injury caused by overdistending the lung), atelectrauma (injury due to repeated opening/closing of lung units), and biotrauma (release of mediators that can induce lung injury or aggravate pre-existing injury, potentially leading to multiple organ failure). Experimental data in the pediatric context are in accord with the importance of VILI, and appear to show age-related susceptibility to VILI, although a conclusive link between use of large Vts and mortality has not been demonstrated in this population. The relevance of VILI in the pediatric intensive care unit population is thus unclear. Given the physiological and biological differences in the respiratory systems of infants, children, and adults, it is difficult to directly extrapolate clinical practice from adults to children. This Critical Care Perspective analyzes the relevance of VILI to the pediatric population, and addresses why pediatric patients might be less susceptible than adults to VILI. PMID:25003705

  4. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  5. Prolactin-induced prostate tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Goffin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of prolactin (PRL) in the prostate gland is not clearly understood. Genetically-modified mouse models that have invalidated actors of the PRL signaling axis failed to identify an essential regulatory function on this tissue. However, a large body of evidence suggests an important role for PRL in prostate tumorigenesis. Mainly through the activation of its downstream target STAT5, PRL can induce growth and survival of prostate cancer cells and tissues in several experimental settings. In the clinic, PRL expression and STAT5 activation in human prostate tumors correlate with disease severity. Available data point to a role of local (autocrine/paracrine) rather than circulating (endocrine) PRL in the induction of disease progression. In mice, transgenic expression of PRL in the prostate leads to enhanced epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia, with amplification of basal/stem cells which have been recently identified as prostate cancer-initiating cells. Thus, targeting PRL receptor (PRLR)/STAT5 signaling may provide an alternative therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Corresponding targeted therapies currently in preclinical development include antagonists or blocking antibodies for the PRLR and small molecule inhibitors directed against the tyrosine kinase JAK2 upstream of STAT5. Present efforts are aimed at validating these therapies for the treatment of prostate cancer, while understanding the mechanisms of disease progression induced by PRL/STAT5. PMID:25472541

  6. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3–5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was <0.2 ng/dL (nl. 0.8–1.8 ng/dL). He received intravenous fluids, vasopressor therapy and stress dose steroids; he was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. He received 500 μg of intravenous levothyroxine in the first 18 h of therapy, and 150 µg intravenous daily thereafter. Haemodynamic improvement, along with complete recovery of mental status, occurred after 48 h. Twelve hours after the initiation of therapy, FT4 was 0.96 ng/dL. The patient was maintained on levothyroxine 175 (g POorally daily. A thyroid ultrasound showed diffuse heterogeneity. The 24 hour excretion of iodine was 3657 (mcg (25–756 ( mcg). The only two cases of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease. PMID:24729111

  7. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  8. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  9. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Vedove, Camilla Dalle; Del Giglio, Micol; Schena, Donatella; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) is defined as a lupus-like syndrome temporally related to continuous drug exposure which resolves after discontinuation of the offending drug. There are currently no standard diagnostic criteria for DILE and the pathomechanisms are still unclear. Similarly to idiopathic lupus, DILE can be diveded into systemic (SLE), subacute cutaneous (SCLE) and chronic cutaneous lupus (CCLE). Systemic DILE is characterized by typical lupus-like symptoms including skin signs, usually mild systemic involvement and a typical laboratory profile with positive antinuclear and anti-histone antibodies, while anti-double strand (ds) DNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigens antibodies are rare. High risk drugs include hydralazine, procainamide and isoniazid. Drug-induced SCLE is very similar to idiopathic SCLE in terms of clinical and serologic characteristic, and it is more common than the systemic form of DILE. Drugs associated with SCLE include calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, interferons, thiazide diuretics and terbinafine. Drug-induced CCLE is very rarely reported in the literature and usually refers to fluorouracile agents or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, cases of DILE have been reported with anti-TNFalpha agents. These cases present with disparate clinical features including arthritis/arthralgia, skin rash, serositis, cytopenia and variable laboratory abnormalities. DILE to anti-TNFalpha agents differs in several ways to classic DILE. The incidence of rashes is higher compared to classical systemic DILE. In most cases of classic DILE visceral involvement is rare, whereas several cases of anti-TNFalpha DILE with evidence of renal disease have been reported. Low serum complement levels as well as anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies are rarely present in classic DILE, whereas they are reported in half the cases of anti-TNFalpha DILE; in contrast, anti

  10. Numerical calculation for cavitation flow of inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, C.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, Z. T.; Xie, S. F.; Zhao, L. F.; Liu, Z. C.

    2015-01-01

    Inducer has significant effect on improving the cavitation characteristic of centrifugal pump. Several inducers were designed and modeled by Pro/E software. The mesh of flow field was done by ICEM and then was imported to ANSYS CFX to analyze the inducer's cavitation characteristic. Effects of the blade number on the performance of an inducer are investigated in the present paper. The inducers were designed on the basis of identical design flow rate and identical pressure elevation at nominal flow rate. The study focuses on the steady behavior of the inducers in cavitating conditions. Evolutions of performance, torque, mass flow rate, and amplitude of radial forces on the shaft according to the inlet pressure are considered. Furthermore, cavitation instabilities are analyzed in the study. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the pressure distribution and vapour volume fraction distribution through numerical simulations using the Navier-stokes solver with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code.

  11. Immunoregulation of passively induced allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, D O; Sjollema, P; Danta, G

    1986-03-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be readily induced passively by transfer of lymphocytes from neuroantigen immunized rats to naive recipients. This passively induced disease runs an acute, monophasic, self-limiting course, much the same as is usually seen in actively induced diseases. Here we examine the mechanisms regulating passive EAE. We report that splenectomy, thymectomy, and increasing age of recipients, manipulations which have been reported to influence recovery from actively induced EAE, have no effect on passively induced disease. EAE effector cells are not inactivated when transferred into recipients that have been actively sensitized and are beginning their recovery from clinical signs; this being a time when recovery associated suppressor cells are thought to be present. Finally, in the absence of suppressor T cells in both the recipient and in the transfer cell population, recovery from passive EAE still occurs. We conclude that suppressor T cells play no role in regulating passively induced EAE. PMID:2936807

  12. Canagliflozin-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jessica; Begum, Tahmina; Smalligan, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit. She was changed to long- and short-acting insulins and instructed to avoid canagliflozin. Conclusion: Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective at lowering a patient’s hemoglobin A1C, physicians must be aware of the rare but dangerous potential adverse effect of inducing DKA. This article reports an illustrative case and presents a review of the literature.

  13. Regeneration inducers in limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki

    2015-08-01

    Limb regeneration ability, which can be observed in amphibians, has been investigated as a representative phenomenon of organ regeneration. Recently, an alternative experimental system called the accessory limb model was developed to investigate early regulation of amphibian limb regeneration. The accessory limb model contributed to identification of limb regeneration inducers in urodele amphibians. Furthermore, the accessory limb model may be applied to other species to explore universality of regeneration mechanisms. This review aims to connect the insights recently gained to emboss universality of regeneration mechanisms among species. The defined molecules (BMP7 (or2) + FGF2 + FGF8) can transform skin wound healing to organ (limb) regeneration responses. The same molecules can initiate regeneration responses in some species. PMID:26100345

  14. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  15. Tenofovir induced lichenoid drug eruption

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Gupta, Heena; Gupta, Anish

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse reactions are a common complication of anti-retroviral therapy. Tenofovir is a newer anti-retroviral drug belonging to the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor group. Systemic adverse effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity are common with tenofovir but cutaneous adverse effects are rare. Lichenoid drug eruptions are a common adverse effect seen with a large variety of drugs including antimalarials, antihypertensives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and diuretics. Lichenoid drug eruption is a rare cutaneous adverse effect of tenofovir with only a single case reported till date. Here, we report a case of tenofovir induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 54-year-old human immunodeficiency virus affected male who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption after 6 weeks of initiation of tenofovir and complete clearance on cessation of the drug. PMID:26229762

  16. Induced Pluripotency for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Menghua; Chen, Guilai; Hu, Baoyang

    2013-01-01

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the concept of cellular reprogramming and potentially will solve the immunological compatibility issues that have so far hindered the application of human pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recent findings showed that pluripotency is defined by a state of balanced lineage potency, which can be artificially instated through various procedures, including the conventional Yamanaka strategy. As a type of pluripotent stem cell, iPSCs are subject to the usual concerns over purity of differentiated derivatives and risks of tumor formation when used for cell-based therapy, though they provide certain advantages in translational research, especially in the areas of personalized medicine, disease modeling and drug screening. iPSC-based technology, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and direct lineage conversion each will play distinct roles in specific aspects of translational medicine, and continue yielding surprises for scientists and the public. PMID:24056061

  17. Severe Hypothyroidism-Induced Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafay; Ahmed, Amar; Tulpule, Sunil; Regeti, Kalyani; Sen, Shuvendu; Mathew, Teena

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid disorders have been found to be associated with multiple organ systems and thus have a broad spectrum of presenting symptoms and clinical conditions. Certain aspects of the gastrointestinal (GI) system have yet to be fully understood and documented. Hypothyroidism and even hyperthyroidism have been identified in patients with motility symptoms involving the GI tract. These symptoms can vary and can be a complication of undertreated or undiagnosed condition involving the thyroid. Unfortunately, the mechanism in which these hormones can impact intestinal motility remains poorly understood and not well documented. In this case report, we discuss the presentation of a 71-year-old female with poorly managed hypothyroidism presenting with significant abdominal distention and pain secondary to underlying volvulus formation. By better understanding the complications induced by hypothyroidism, physicians may be able to prevent further life-threatening outcomes with early management and intervention. PMID:26566414

  18. Electromagnetically induced angular Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian

    2015-12-01

    The discrete angular spectrum (angular Talbot effect) of a periodic grating illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front has been observed recently (Azaña and Chatellus 2104 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 213902). In this paper we study the possibility of such a phenomenon being realized with a medium that has no macroperiodic structure itself. Tunable electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) could be such a kind of medium. We obtain an EIG based on the periodically modulated strong susceptibility due to the third-order nonlinear effect generated in a double Λ-type four-level atomic system, and show the angular Talbot effect of an amplitude EIG, as well as a hybrid EIG, as the condition of the discrete phase-modulation shift of the illumination light front is satisfied. EIG parameters are tunable and the EIG-based angular Talbot effect may have the same potential applications as its periodic grating counterpart has.

  19. Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Iain P; Al Shahrani, Mesfer; Wainwright, Luke; Heales, Simon J R

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and ATP synthase (complex V) play an essential role in cellular energy production by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition to inborn errors of metabolism, as well as secondary causes from disease pathophysiology, an impairment of oxidative phosphorylation can result from drug toxicity. These 'off-target' pharmacological effects can occur from a direct inhibition of MRC enzyme activity, an induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress, an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, an impairment of mitochondrial membrane structure or a disruption in the replication of mitochondrial DNA. The purpose of this review is to focus on the off-target mitochondrial toxicity associated with both commonly used pharmacotherapies and a topical 'weight loss' agent. The mechanisms of drug-induced mitochondrial impairment will be discussed together with putative therapeutic strategies to counteract the adverse effects of the pharmacotherapy. PMID:26992920

  20. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  1. Phonon-induced topological insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kush; Garate, Ion

    2014-05-01

    We develop an approximate theory of phonon-induced topological insulation in Dirac materials. In the weak-coupling regime, long-wavelength phonons may favor topological phases in Dirac insulators with direct and narrow band gaps. This phenomenon originates from electron-phonon matrix elements, which change qualitatively under a band inversion. A similar mechanism applies to weak Coulomb interactions and spin-independent disorder; however, the influence of these on band topology is largely independent of temperature. As applications of the theory, we evaluate the temperature dependence of the critical thickness and the critical stoichiometric ratio for the topological transition in CdTe/HgTe quantum wells and in BiTl(S1-δSeδ)2, respectively.

  2. Induced Smith-Purcell radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D. N.; Artemyev, A. I.; Oganesyan, K. B.; Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Hu, C.-K.

    2010-11-01

    Excitation of induced coherent Smith-Purcell (SP) radiation by relativistic magnetized electron beam in the absence of the resonator is considered within the framework of the dispersion equation. We have found that the dispersion equation for the SP instability is a quadratic equation for frequency. The first-step approximation for solution of the dispersion equation, giving the SP-spectrum of frequency, corresponds to the mirror boundary case, when the electron beam propagates above a plane metal surface (mirror). It was found that the conditions for both the Thompson and the Raman regimes of excitation do not depend on beam current and depend on the height of the beam above the grating surface. The growth rate of the instability in both cases is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current. No feedback is needed to provide the coherent emission.

  3. Fibrinogen induces endothelial cell permeability

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Neetu; Roberts, Andrew M.; Dean, William L.; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2010-01-01

    Many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders are accompanied by an increased blood content of fibrinogen (Fg), a high molecular weight plasma adhesion protein. Fg is a biomarker of inflammation and its degradation products have been associated with microvascular leakage. We tested the hypothesis that at pathologically high levels, Fg increases endothelial cell (EC) permeability through extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and by inducing F-actin formation. In cultured ECs, Fg binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and to α5β1 integrin, caused phosphorylation of ERK. Subsequently, F-actin formation increased and coincided with formation of gaps between ECs, which corresponded with increased permeability of ECs to albumin. Our data suggest that formation of F-actin and gaps may be the mechanism for increased albumin leakage through the EC monolayer. The present study indicates that elevated un-degraded Fg may be a factor causing microvascular permeability that typically accompanies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:17849175

  4. Load-induced inattentional deafness.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Dana; Lavie, Nilli

    2015-02-01

    High perceptual load in a task is known to reduce the visual perception of unattended items (e.g., Lavie, Beck, & Konstantinou, 2014). However, it remains an open question whether perceptual load in one modality (e.g., vision) can affect the detection of stimuli in another modality (e.g., hearing). We report four experiments that establish that high visual perceptual load leads to reduced detection sensitivity in hearing. Participants were requested to detect a tone that was presented during performance of a visual search task of either low or high perceptual load (varied through item similarity). The findings revealed that auditory detection sensitivity was consistently reduced with higher load, and that this effect persisted even when the auditory detection response was made first (before the search response) and when the auditory stimulus was highly expected (50 % present). These findings demonstrate a phenomenon of load-induced deafness and provide evidence for shared attentional capacity across vision and hearing. PMID:25287617

  5. Finnish geomagnetically induced currents project

    SciTech Connect

    Vilianen, A.; Pirjola, R. . Dept. of Geophysics)

    1995-01-01

    This article is a summary of Results of the Finnish Project on Geomagnetically Induced Currents,'' published in Surveys in Geophysics 15:383-408, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1994. IVO and FMI carried out a 1-year GIC project from June 1991 to May 1992. The time of the project was a little after the sunspot maximum, and the geomagnetic activity was high; there were 34 major or severe magnetic storm days (A[sub k] index at least 50). The main aim was to derive reliable statistics of the occurrences of GICs at different sites of the Finnish 400 and 220 kV power systems. Besides the practical engineering purpose, the project is also geophysically relevant by providing a GIC data set usable for large-scale investigations of auroral ionospheric-magnetospheric processes and of the earth's structure.

  6. Phenytoin-induced Lyell's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lobão, Bárbara; Martins, Claúdio; Sousa, Manuel; Marques, Susana; Pedroso, Ermelinda

    2012-01-01

    Lyell's syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare dermatological disease that causes serious morbidity and mortality. It is most commonly drug induced. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital with severe rash all over the body. She had been previously submitted to brain surgery for total resection of a large meningioma and medicated with phenytoin for seizures prophylaxis. During this treatment, erythematous lesions and blisters were observed first on her face and trunk and then spreading to the entire body. Detachment of the skin, as well as mucous involvement especially of mouth and conjunctiva, was also observed. TEN was diagnosed, and phenytoin was discontinued. Intravenous fluids, systemic steroids and tightened infection control measures were implemented. After 10 days, skin recovery and re-epithelialisation were established, temperature decreased and mucosal complications stabilised. The patient was discharged after 1 month of hospitalisation. PMID:23230258

  7. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  8. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  9. Radiocontrast-induced renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Misson, R.T.; Cutler, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretical advantages over the presently used agents. 58 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  10. Propylthiouracil-induced autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Paiaulla, Santosh; Venkategowda, Pradeep Marur; Rao, S. Manimala; Balaraju, Banda

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a condition characterized by excessive production of thyroid hormones. Propylthiouracil (PTU) is commonly used as first line drug in the management of hyperthyroidism. This is a case report of 24-year-old female, a known case of hyperthyroidism since 4 years, who came with a history of fever and myalgia since 3 days and dyspnea with coughing out of blood since 1 day. Patient was taking PTU (100 mg per day) since 4 years for hyperthyroidism. Patient was immediately intubated for type-II respiratory failure. Diagnosed to be having PTU-induced autoimmune disease. PTU was stopped and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Clinical features improved over a period of 8 days and discharged home successfully. Having a high suspicion for the onset of autoimmune disease in hyperthyroidism patients who are on PTU therapy and timely treatment with immunosuppressants and supportive care along with the withdrawal of the drug can make a difference in morbidity and mortality. PMID:26321810

  11. The induced magnetosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.

    1982-03-01

    No evidence was found for an intrinsic magnetic field, nor for the development of a bow shock wave, as the corotating Saturnian magnetoplasma convected past Titan during the Voyager 1 close encounter of November 12, 1980. The observation of a well-developed, induced bipolar magnetic tail is evidence, however, of a strong electrodynamic interaction. Three thin, current-carrying regions were crossed which correspond to the inbound and outbound tail magnetopause and an imbedded tail neutral sheet. The interaction is unique among those observed to date in the solar system, in that it is intermediate with respect to sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers by comparison with Titan in the solar wind and Io in the Jovian magnetosphere. The draping of the Saturnian magnetic field around the ionosphere of Titan is suggested by results of the analysis of magnetic field data.

  12. [Drug-induced Cognitive Impairment].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    Elderly people are more likely than young people to develop cognitive impairments associated with medication use. One of the reasons for this is that renal and liver functions are often impaired in elderly people. Dementia and delirium (an acute confused state) are known to be associated with drug toxicity. Anticholinergic medications are common causes of both acute and chronic cognitive impairment. Psychoactive drugs, antidepressants and anticonvulsants can cause dementia and delirium. In addition, non-psychoactive drugs such as histamine H2 receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and cardiac medications, may cause acute or chronic cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent are essential for the prevention of drug-induced dementia and delirium. PMID:27056860

  13. Characterization of retinoic acid-induced neurobehavioral effects in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujiang; Chen, Jiangfei; Du, Changchun; Li, Chunqi; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic signaling plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Disruption of retinoic signaling via excessive or deficient retinoic acid can cause teratogenic effects on developing embryos. Similar to retinoic acid, many xenobiotic environmental pollutants have been found to disrupt retinoic signaling through binding and eliciting agonistic activity on retinoic acid receptors. Currently, studies of retinoic acid or retinoic acid-like compounds in aquatic organisms have mainly focused on teratogenicity and few studies have explored their neurobehavioral toxicity. In the present study, the authors used retinoic acid as an example to explore the neurobehavioral toxicity associated with developmental exposure of retinoic acid-like compounds in zebrafish. The findings confirmed retinoic acid's teratogenic effects such as bent spine, malformed tail, and pericardial edema in developing zebrafish with a median effective concentration of 2.47 nM. Retinoic acid-induced cell apoptosis at 24 h postfertilization was consistently found in the eye and tail regions of embryos. Spontaneous movement as characterized by tail bend frequency was significantly increased in zebrafish embryos following exposure to 2 nM and 8 nM retinoic acid. Relatively low-dose retinoic acid exposure of 2 nM led to fast locomotion behavior in the dark period and hyperactivity during light-dark photoperiod stimulation. The 2-nM retinoic acid exposure also led to alterations of neurobehavior- and optic nerve-related genes, with the transforming growth factor-β signal transduction inhibitor noggin (nog) and the spinal cord marker homeobox c3a (hox) being underexpressed and the retinal G protein-coupled receptor a (rgr), the photoreceptor cell marker rhodopsin (rho), and the short wave-sensitive cone pigment opsin 1 (opn1sw1) being overexpressed. Increased expression of opn1sw1 and rho was confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Whether the misexpression of these genes leads

  14. Induced activation study of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is continuing with extraction of specific activities for various spacecraft materials. Data and results of activation measurements from eight facilities are being collected for interpretation at Eastern Kentucky University and NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The major activation mechanism in LDEF components is the proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). This flux is highly anisotropic, and could be sampled by taking advantage of the gravity-gradient stabilization of the LDEF. The directionally-dependent activation due to these protons was clearly observed in the data from aluminum experiment tray clamps (reaction product Na-22), steel trunnions (reaction product Mn-54 and others) and is also indicated by the presence of a variety of nuclides in other materials. A secondary production mechanism, thermal neutron capture, was observed in cobalt, indium, and tantalum, which are known to have large capture cross sections. Experiments containing samples of these metals and significant amounts of thermalizing low atomic number (Z) material showed clear evidence of enhanced activation of Co-60, In-114m, and Ta-182. Other mechanisms which activate spacecraft material that are not as easily separable from SAA proton activation, such as galactic proton bombardment and secondary production by fast neutrons, are being investigated by comparison to radiation environmental calculations. Deviations from one-dimensional radiation models indicate that these mechanisms are more important at greater shielding depths. The current status of the induced radioactivity measurements as of mid-year 1992 are reviewed. Specific activities for a number of materials which show SAA effects and thermal neutron capture are presented. The results for consistency by combining data from the participating institutions is also examined.

  15. Flow-induced vibration: 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1992-09-01

    A joint program on flow-induced vibration (FIV) as established in July 1988 between Taiwan Power Company (Taipower or TPC) and ANL. The main objectives of the program are to provide a technology transfer program on FIV for Taipower staff and to assist Taipower with various aspects of FIV including evaluation of reports and proposals, review of designs, resolution of design issues, recommendation for design modifications, and selected research studies. During the first two years, the following tasks were accomplished: A technology transfer program on FIV was completed and key Taipower staff members were prepared to handle future problems in the subject area. The modified component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers were assessed and the basis for a license from the Taiwan Atomic Energy Council (AEC) was established. The seismic reanalysis of Chin Shan spent-fuel racks was assessed and a report was submitted to the Taiwan AEC. Fluid/structure interaction activities were coordinated and provided a list of potential bidders for a fluid transient project and related publications and a recommendation for purchasing technical data on fluid coupling. Flow-induced vibration of tube arrays was reviewed and the needs of Taipower in the area of fluid/structure interaction were identified as were the procedures necessary for Taipower to accomplish its goals. A computer program, ARRAY, was established to compute the added-mass matrices for tube arrays. Taipower expressed interest in extending the joint program so that ANL could provide continuing assistance. The program was extended for several years (May 1, 1991, to June 30, 1994). Work from May 1, 1991, through June 30, 1992, summarized in this report, included technology transfer, assessment of sensing line and valve vibrations, literature survey, and tests on motion-dependent fluid forces acting on tube arrays in crossflow.

  16. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible. PMID:27012985

  17. Induced radioactivity from industrial radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lone, M. A.

    1990-12-01

    Analytic expressions are developed for quantitative analysis of radioactivity induced by radiation processing of products with electrons or photons. These expressions provide reasonable estimates of induced activity much faster than Monte Carlo simulations. Analysis of radioactivity from processing of meat with 10 MeV electrons shows an induced activity of less than 10 mBq/(kgkGy) just after irradiation. This is 4 orders of magnitude less than the natural background activity of about 100 Bq/kg found in meat. Five days after processing the induced activity will reduce by a factor of 300.

  18. An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

  19. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the leading cause of occupationally induced hearing loss in industrialized countries. It discusses causes of NIHL and compelling evidence that reactive oxygen metabolites and cochlear hypoprefusion are responsible for the destruction of cochlear hair cells. Prevention is also…

  20. Dynamically Induced Zeeman Effect in Massless QED

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Efrain J.; Incera, Vivian de la

    2009-02-06

    It is shown that in nonperturbative massless QED an anomalous magnetic moment is dynamically induced by an applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic moment produces a Zeeman splitting for electrons in Landau levels higher than l=0. The expressions for the nonperturbative Lande g factor and Bohr magneton are obtained. Possible applications of this effect are outlined.

  1. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss The importance of hearing Hearing allows you to ... surround the soft tissue of the inner ear. Hearing loss occurs when the inner ear is damaged. What ...

  2. Mechanisms of Metal-Induced Centrosome Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here, we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide. PMID:21118148

  3. Topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone-induced vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Songur, Abdullah; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2016-08-01

    Topical immunotherapy made by diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is an alternative treatment that can be used safely and efficaciously in recalcitrant alopecia areata patients. DPCP-induced vitiligo is a rare, but documented, unwanted side effect. The real mechanism of DPCP-induced vitiligo is not well known. PMID:26963903

  4. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  5. SEU induced errors observed in microprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Asenek, V.; Underwood, C.; Oldfield, M.; Velazco, R.; Rezgui, S.; Cheynet, P.; Ecoffet, R.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, the authors present software tools for predicting the rate and nature of observable SEU induced errors in microprocessor systems. These tools are built around a commercial microprocessor simulator and are used to analyze real satellite application systems. Results obtained from simulating the nature of SEU induced errors are shown to correlate with ground-based radiation test data.

  6. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  7. Cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Howaizi, Mehran; Chahine, Mouhamad; Haydar, Fadi; Jemaa, Yassine; Lapoile, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a large number of causes. Major causes are alcohol and gallstones. Toxic causes, mainly represented by medication-induced pancreatitis account for less than 2% of the cases. Cannabis is an anecdotally reported cause of acute pancreatitis. Six cases have previously been reported. Herein we report a new case of cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:23402090

  8. Cholestasis and pneumonitis induced by gold therapy.

    PubMed

    Farre, J M; Perez, T; Hautefeuille, P; Tonnel, F; Colombel, J F; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1989-12-01

    The authors describe the association of gold salt-induced cholestasis and lymphocytic alveolitis proved by liver biopsy and broncho-alveolar lavage. To our knowledge this is the third case report on the combination of liver disease and pulmonary infiltration induced by gold compounds. PMID:2612124

  9. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there…

  10. Induced topological pressure for topological dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Zhitao; Chen, Ercai

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, inspired by the article [J. Jaerisch et al., Stochastics Dyn. 14, 1350016, pp. 1-30 (2014)], we introduce the induced topological pressure for a topological dynamical system. In particular, we prove a variational principle for the induced topological pressure.

  11. Molecular fragmentation induced by a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmidis, Constantine E.; Ledingham, Kenneth W. D.; Kilic, H. S.; McCanny, T.; Singhal, Raghunandan P.; Smith, D.; Langley, Andrew J.

    1998-07-01

    The 90 femtosecond laser induced fragmentation at 375 nm for a number of different nitro-molecules is compared to that induced by a nanosecond laser at the same wavelength by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The potential of femtosecond laser mass spectrometry for analytical purposes is discussed.

  12. Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

  13. Inflammation-inducing Factors of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which causes mycoplasmal pneumonia in human, mainly causes pneumonia in children, although it occasionally causes disease in infants and geriatrics. Some pathogenic factors produced by M. pneumoniae, such as hydrogen peroxide and Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin have been well studied. However, these factors alone cannot explain this predilection. The low incidence rate of mycoplasmal pneumonia in infants and geriatrics implies that the strong inflammatory responses induced by M. pneumoniae coordinate with the pathogenic factors to induce pneumonia. However, M. pneumoniae lacks a cell wall and does not possess an inflammation-inducing endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In M. pneumoniae, lipoproteins were identified as an inflammation-inducing factor. Lipoproteins induce inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2. Because Mycoplasma species lack a cell wall and lipoproteins anchored in the membrane are exposed, lipoproteins and TLR2 have been thought to be important for the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae. However, recent reports suggest that M. pneumoniae also induces inflammatory responses also in a TLR2-independent manner. TLR4 and autophagy are involved in this TLR2-independent inflammation. In addition, the CARDS toxin or M. pneumoniae cytadherence induces inflammatory responses through an intracellular receptor protein complex called the inflammasome. In this review, the inflammation-inducing factors of M. pneumoniae are summarized. PMID:27065977

  14. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deavall, Damian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Judith M.; Roberts, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:22919381

  15. Diet-induced obesity attenuates endotoxin-induced cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Sharay E.; Littlefield, Alyssa M.; Johnson, Samantha W.; Kohman, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the immune system can impair cognitive function, particularly on hippocampus dependent tasks. Several factors such as normal aging and prenatal experiences can modify the severity of these cognitive deficits. One additional factor that may modulate the behavioral response to immune activation is obesity. Prior work has shown that obesity alters the activity of the immune system. Whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) influences the cognitive deficits associated with inflammation is currently unknown. The present study explored whether DIO alters the behavioral response to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for a total of five months. After consuming their respective diets for four months, mice received an LPS or saline injection and were assessed for alterations in spatial learning. One month later, mice received a second injection of LPS or saline and tissue samples were collected to assess the inflammatory response within the periphery and central nervous system (CNS). Results showed that LPS administration impaired spatial learning in the control diet mice, but had no effect in DIO mice. This lack of a cognitive deficit in the DIO female mice is likely due to a blunted inflammatory response within the brain. While cytokine production within the periphery (i.e., plasma, adipose, and spleen) was similar between the DIO and control mice, the DIO mice failed to show an increase in IL-6 and CD74 in the brain following LPS administration. Collectively, these data indicate that DIO can reduce aspects of the neuroinflammatory response as well as blunt the behavioral reaction to an immune challenge. PMID:25542778

  16. What induces watts in WAT?

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Claude; Joffin, Nolwenn; Jaubert, Anne-Marie; Noirez, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Excess calories stored in white adipose tissue (WAT) could be reduced either through the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the development of brown-like cells (“beige” or “brite”) in WAT, a process named “browning.” Calorie dissipation in brown and beige adipocytes might rely on the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is absent in white fat cells. Any increase in UCP1 is commonly considered as the trademark of energy expenditure. The intracellular events involved in the recruitment process of beige precursors were extensively studied lately, as were the effectors, hormones, cytokines, nutrients and drugs able to modulate the route of browning and theoretically affect fat mass in rodents and in humans. The aim of this review is to update the characterization of the extracellular effectors that induce UCP1 in WAT and potentially provoke calorie dissipation. The potential influence of metabolic cycling in energy expenditure is also questioned. PMID:27386158

  17. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. PMID:2938482

  18. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. B.; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.; Bruus, H.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2012-09-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by “current-induced membrane discharge” (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length. Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal) but could be exploited for current-assisted ion exchange and pH control. CIMD also suppresses the extended space charge that leads to electro-osmotic instability, so it should be reconsidered in both models and experiments on OLC.

  19. Current-induced membrane discharge.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M B; van Soestbergen, M; Mani, A; Bruus, H; Biesheuvel, P M; Bazant, M Z

    2012-09-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge" (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length. Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H(+) ions, and OH(-) ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal) but could be exploited for current-assisted ion exchange and pH control. CIMD also suppresses the extended space charge that leads to electro-osmotic instability, so it should be reconsidered in both models and experiments on OLC. PMID:23005334

  20. Piperazine-induced occupational asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmar, L.; Bellander, T.; Bergoeoe, B.; Simonsson, B.G.

    1982-03-01

    Asthmatic reactions were studied among some 130 factory workers who handled amines and other chemicals. Among present employees, we found 15 cases of asthma associated with occupational exposure to chemicals; among former employees there were at least 18. The inducing agent was judged to be piperazine in 29 persons and ethylenediamine (EDA) in three. The asthma was of the late or dual type; immediate reactions alone were to seen. No one had attacks of asthma before employment, and atopic subjects were not preferentially affected. Routine spirometry revealed airway obstruction in fewer than half of the recent cases. Tests of nonspecific bronchial reactivity with methacholine in six subjects with recent asthma showed hyperactivity in five, while tow subjects with earlier asthma did not have hyperactivity. Bronchial provocation tests with piperazine in one subject were positive both in the factory and in the laboratory. The level of piperazine was 1.2 mg/m3 time-weighted average (TWA) in a work place associated with induction of the asthmatic state, and 0.3 mg/m3 in a place connected with attacks in ''sensitized'' subjects.

  1. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  2. Solitons induced by boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although soliton phenomena have attracted wide attention since 1965, there are still not enough efforts paid to mixed-boundary - initial-value problems that are important in real physical cases. The main purpose of this thesis is to study carefully the various boundary-induced soliton under different initial conditions. The author states with three sets of nonlinear equations: KdV equations and Boussinesq equations (for water); two-fluid equations for cold-ion plasma. He was interested in four types of problems involved with water solitons: excitation by different time-dependent boundary conditions under different initial conditions; head-on and over-taking collisions; reflection at a wall and the excitation by pure initial conditions. For KdV equations, only cases one and four are conducted. The results from two fully nonlinear KdV and Boussinesq equations are compared, and agree extremely well. The Boussinesq equations permit solition head-on collisions and reflections, studied the first time. The results from take-over collision agree with KdV results. For the ion-acoustic plasma, a set of Boussinesq-type equations was derived from the standard two-fluid equations for the ion-acoustic plasma. It theoretically proves the essential nature of the solitary wave solutions of the cold-ion plasma. The ion acoustic solitons are also obtained by prescribing a potential phi/sub 0/ at one grid point.

  3. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  4. Dimethyl ethanolamine-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Vallieres, M; Cockcroft, D W; Taylor, D M; Dolovich, J; Hargreave, F E

    1977-05-01

    Progressively severe sneezing, rhinorrhea, cough, wheezing, and dyspnea developed in a spray-painter, apparently in relation to exposure to a particular spray paint. A monitoring of exposure at work revealed the development of symptoms and a decrease in peak flow rates. Subsequent challenges in the laboratory performed under conditions resembling occupational exposure resulted in dual asthmatic responses on exposure to the whole paint (98 per cent methyl methacrylate emulsion and 2 per cent dimethyl ethanolamine solution) and to dimethyl ethanolamine solution (2 per cent) alone. Water, methyl methacrylate emulsion, and 1,4 dioxane (0.6 per cent) used as a thinner in the dimethyl ethanolamine did not produce a response in the airways. Allergy skin tests with dimethyl ethanolamine and a mixture of dimethyl ethanolamine and human serum albumin were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of asthma and/or rhinitis induced specifically by dimethyl ethanolamine. The mechanism of the specific reactivity is not known. PMID:857720

  5. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2015-07-01

    We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs), and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  6. Static-field-induced states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gets, Artem V.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2013-01-01

    Considering an electron interacting with an atomic or molecular potential and an external static electric field, one usually focuses on narrow resonances at negative energies originating from the bound states in the absence of the field; we call them tunneling states (TSs). Meanwhile, there also exist relatively broad resonances at positive energies having no counterparts in the absence of the field; we call them static-field-induced states (SFISs). In this paper, the recently developed weak-field asymptotic theory of TSs [O. I. Tolstikhin , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.053423 84, 053423 (2011)] is extended to SFISs. An asymptotic quantization condition defining the energies of SFISs in an arbitrary potential in the three-dimensional case is derived. The parabolic scattering amplitudes appearing in this quantization condition are defined. The theory is illustrated by calculations for the zero-range and Coulomb potentials. The SFISs in these potentials are found and their energies are shown to be in good agreement with the asymptotic results over a wide interval of the values of the field.

  7. [Drug-induced ventricular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Fauchier, J P; Fauchier, L; Babuty, D; Breuillac, J C; Cosnay, P; Rouesnel, P

    1993-05-01

    Certain drugs can induce ventricular tachycardia (VT) by creating reentry, ventricular after potentials or exaggerating the slope of phase 4. These may or may not be symptomatic, sustained or non-sustained and have variable ECG appearances: monomorphic or polymorphic, bidirectional, torsades de pointes. They risk degenerating into ventricular flutter of fibrillation and have been held responsible for the increased mortality observed unexpectedly in some long-term treatments. The drugs responsible are mainly those used in cardiology, probably due to predisposing circumstances (cardiomegaly, cardiac failure, previous severe ventricular arrhythmias, therapeutic associations, metabolic abnormalities). These include primarily the antiarrhythmic drugs (IA, IC, sotalol and bepridil), digitalis, sympathomimetics and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. These complications may be toxic or idiosyncratic, in patients with or without cardiac disease, and may also occur with other drugs: vasodilators and anti-anginal drugs (lidoflazine, vincamine, fenoxedil), psychotropic agents (phenothiazine and imipramine), antimitotics, antimalarials (chloroquine) or antibiotics (erythromycin, pentamidine). The prognosis is severe and the treatment is often difficult which makes prevention, helped by repeated surface ECG (or Holter monitoring), very important with careful assessment of patients at risk. PMID:8267504

  8. Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.

  9. Hyskon-induced pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Mangar, D

    1993-12-01

    Hyskon (32 percent dextran-70) (Hyskon Division, Pharmacia) is used during hysteroscopy to help visualization of the uterine surfaces. Pulmonary edema of an uncertain cause has occurred in many patients. Because this study could not be conducted in humans, we determined if Hyskon caused cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema in a dog model. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an infusion of Hyskon or whole blood to sustain left ventricular end-diastolic pressure between 20 and 23 millimeters of mercury for 60 minutes. In dogs receiving blood, there was no protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage before or after blood was given. In the Hyskon group, there was no protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage before Hyskon and 0.6 +/- 1.4 milligrams per deciliter (range of 0.1 to 3.7 milligram per deciliter) after Hyskon. The ratio of bronchoalveolar lavage protein to plasma protein after Hyskon was 8.0 +/- 18.0 percent compared with zero percent in the blood group. Hyskon altered pulmonary microvascular membrane permeability, causing alveolar flooding with plasma proteins and possibly accounting for the deterioration of oxygenation and pulmonary compliance seen in patients. These results suggest a significant noncardiogenic component of Hyskon induced pulmonary edema. PMID:7505487

  10. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Evison, Matthew; Holme, Jayne; Alaloul, Mohamed; Doran, Helen; Bishop, Paul; Booton, Richard; Chaudhry, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    An elderly patient, with a history of depression with psychosis, presented with breathlessness, a right exudative pleural effusion and a peripheral eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was eosinophil-rich (10% of leucocytes). Olanzapine therapy had been commenced 12 months previously. There was a family history of TB and the patient was of African origin. A full diagnostic work-up ensued including computed tomography of the thorax and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy. The pleura was unremarkable on CT and displayed bland smooth thickening at visual inspection during thoracoscopy. Pleural biopsies demonstrated chronic inflammation with eosinophils but no evidence of granulomatous inflammation or malignancy. Pleural tissue culture did not yield mycobacteria. A diagnosis of olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis was suspected and the pleural disease resolved with withdrawal of olanzapine. Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:26029571

  11. Radiation induced estane polymer crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, M.; Foster, P.

    1997-12-01

    The exposure of polymeric materials to radiation has been known to induce the effects of crosslinking and degradation. The crosslinking phenomena comes about when two long chain polymers become linked together by a primary bond that extends the chain and increases the viscosity, molecular weight and the elastic modules of the polymer. This process has been observed in relatively short periods of time with fairly high doses of radiation, on the order of several megarads/hour. This paper address low dose exposure over long periods of time to determine what the radiation effects are on the polymeric binder material in PBX 9501. An experimental sample of binder material without explosives will be placed into a thermal and radiation field produced from a W-48 put mod 0. Another sample will be placed in a thermal environment without the radiation. The following is the test plan that was submitted to the Pantex process. The data presented here will be from the first few weeks of exposure and this test will be continued over the next few years. Subsequent data will hopefully be presented in the next compatibility and aging conference.

  12. [Psychological consequences of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Schleiss, L; Mygind, K A; Borre, R V; Petersson, B H

    1997-06-01

    One hundred and thirty consecutive women were interviewed about the development of psychological symptoms related to induced abortion two days before and four months after the abortion. Sixty-one (47%) participated in the second interview. Of the 61 women, 52% were psychologically influenced before the abortion to an extent which indicated severe crisis or actual psychiatric illness. Four months after the abortion 13 of these women were still psychologically affected. Furthermore, five women who were not affected before the abortion had developed psychological problems. Among ten of these women (16%) the physiological problems could only be related to the circumstance in connection with the abortion. For a number of women (30%) the abortion had a negative influence on their relationships and their sex lives, whereas other claimed that their relationship had become closer because of their reactions towards the abortions. In spite of these conditions all women indicated that their decision about the abortion had been the correct one under the given circumstances. PMID:9206861

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fan; Barbi, Joseph; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2012-01-01

    Naïve T cells activated by antigen-presenting cells (APC) can be differentiated into at least four major types of T-helper (TH) cells: TH1, TH2, TH17 and inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) based on their unique cytokine production profiles and characteristic functions.1 TH1 produce interferon-γ (IFNγ) and are important for protective immune responses to intracellular viral, bacterial and parasitic infection. TH2 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-23 and are critical for controlling extracellular parasites such as helminthes. TH17 cells are responsible for expelling extracellular bacteria and fungi through secretion of IL-17a, IL-17f and IL-22.2 These cells however are perhaps better known for their propensity to drive autoimmune responses. Tregs including naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg) play important roles in the suppressive control of both innate and adaptive immunity in vivo.3,4 PMID:22754770

  14. Methylphenidate Actively Induces Emergence from General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Ken; Cotten, Joseph F.; Cimenser, Aylin; Wong, Kin F.K.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methods Using adult rats we tested the effect of methylphenidate IV on time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then performed experiments to test separately for methylphenidate-induced changes in arousal and changes in minute ventilation. A dose-response study was performed to test for methylphenidate–induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. Surface electroencephalogram recordings were performed to observe neurophysiological changes. Plethysmography recordings and arterial blood gas analysis were performed to assess methylphenidate-induced changes in respiratory function. Droperidol IV was administered to test for inhibition of methylphenidate's actions. Results Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence from 280 to 91 s. The median difference in time to emergence without compared to with methylphenidate was 200 [155, 331] s (median, [95% confidence interval]). During continuous inhalation of isoflurane, methylphenidate induced return of righting in a dose-dependent manner, induced a shift in electroencephalogram power from delta to theta, and induced an increase in minute ventilation. Administration of droperidol (0.5 mg/kg IV) prior to methylphenidate (5 mg/kg IV) largely inhibited methylphenidate-induced emergence behavior, electroencephalogram changes, and changes in minute ventilation. Conclusions Methylphenidate actively induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia by increasing arousal and respiratory drive, possibly through activation of dopaminergic and adrenergic arousal circuits. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be clinically

  15. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R.; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphine-induced reductions in tidal volume, minute volume, inspiratory force and expiratory force, but did not affect morphine-induced reductions in respiratory rate. Minocycline attenuation of respiratory depression was also paralleled with significant attenuation by minocycline of morphine-induced reductions in blood oxygen saturation. Minocycline also attenuated morphine conditioned place preference. Minocycline did not simply reduce all actions of morphine, as morphine analgesia was significantly potentiated by minocycline co-administration. Lastly, morphine dose-dependently increased cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression in a rat microglial cell line, an effect that was dose-dependently blocked by minocycline. Together, these data support that morphine can directly activate microglia in a minocycline-suppressible manner and suggest a pivotal role for minocycline-sensitive processes in the mechanisms of morphine-induced respiration depression, reward, and pain modulation. PMID:18706994

  16. Deficiency of the Complement Component 3 but Not Factor B Aggravates Staphylococcus aureus Septic Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Na, Manli; Jarneborn, Anders; Ali, Abukar; Welin, Amanda; Magnusson, Malin; Stokowska, Anna; Pekna, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The complement system plays an essential role in the innate immune response and protection against bacterial infections. However, detailed knowledge regarding the role of complement in Staphylococcus aureus septic arthritis is still largely missing. In this study, we elucidated the roles of selected complement proteins in S. aureus septic arthritis. Mice lacking the complement component 3 (C3−/−), complement factor B (fB−/−), and receptor for C3-derived anaphylatoxin C3a (C3aR−/−) and wild-type (WT) control mice were intravenously or intra-articularly inoculated with S. aureus strain Newman. The clinical course of septic arthritis, as well as histopathological and radiological changes in joints, was assessed. After intravenous inoculation, arthritis severity and frequency were significantly higher in C3−/− mice than in WT controls, whereas fB−/− mice displayed intermediate arthritis severity and frequency. This was in accordance with both histopathological and radiological findings. C3, but not fB, deficiency was associated with greater weight loss, more frequent kidney abscesses, and higher bacterial burden in kidneys. S. aureus opsonized with C3−/− sera displayed decreased uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages compared with bacteria opsonized with WT or fB−/− sera. C3aR deficiency had no effect on the course of hematogenous S. aureus septic arthritis. We conclude that C3 deficiency increases susceptibility to hematogenous S. aureus septic arthritis and impairs host bacterial clearance, conceivably due to diminished opsonization and phagocytosis of S. aureus. PMID:26787717

  17. Vibration-Induced Droplet Atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. K.; James, A.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal management is critical to a number of technologies used in a microgravity environment and in Earth-based systems. Examples include electronic cooling, power generation systems, metal forming and extrusion, and HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) systems. One technique that can deliver the large heat fluxes required for many of these technologies is two-phase heat transfer. This type of heat transfer is seen in the boiling or evaporation of a liquid and in the condensation of a vapor. Such processes provide very large heat fluxes with small temperature differences. Our research program is directed toward the development of a new, two-phase heat transfer cell for use in a microgravity environment. In this paper, we consider the main technology used in this cell, a novel technique for the atomization of a liquid called vibration-induced droplet atomization. In this process, a small liquid droplet is placed on a thin metal diaphragm that is made to vibrate by an attached piezoelectric transducer. The vibration induces capillary waves on the free surface of the droplet that grow in amplitude and then begin to eject small secondary droplets from the wave crests. In some situations, this ejection process develops so rapidly that the entire droplet seems to burst into a small cloud of atomized droplets that move away from the diaphragm at speeds of up to 50 cm/s. By incorporating this process into a heat transfer cell, the active atomization and transport of the small liquid droplets could provide a large heat flux capability for the device. Experimental results are presented that document the behavior of the diaphragm and the droplet during the course of a typical bursting event. In addition, a simple mathematical model is presented that qualitatively reproduces all of the essential features we have seen in a burst event. From these two investigations, we have shown that delayed droplet bursting results when the system passes through a resonance

  18. Research on cavitation characteristic of inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, N.; Wang, L. Q.; Y Kong, F.; Wu, D. Z.

    2013-12-01

    The inducer has significant effect on improving the cavitation characteristic of a centrifugal pump. The fact which can not be neglected is that the inducer itself is a kind of axial pump. Research on inducer's cavitation characteristic is very important. Several inducers were designed and modeled by Pro/E software. The mesh of flow field was done by ICEM and imported to ANSYS CFX to analyze the inducer's cavitation characteristic. The relationship between cavity length and head breakdown was discussed. With the decrease of NPSH, there is a slight increase in the head just prior to the decrease associated with head breakdown. This conclusion coincides with experimental results. The influence of backflow eddy on the inducer's cavitation characteristic was analyzed, and the change of backflow eddy in the process of cavitation was illustrated. It can be concluded that the correlation between the inducer head breakdown and the relative cavity length is very close which agrees well with the theoretical and experimental results. As the inlet pressure is decreased, inception almost always occurs in the tip vortex generated by the corner where the leading edge meets the tip. And backflow vortex gradually disappears in the process of cavitation.

  19. Bubble-Induced Cave Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned “natural” instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a “collapse”. We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor. PMID:25849088

  20. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    PubMed

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor. PMID:25849088

  1. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment. PMID:23257577

  2. Mitochondrial Rejuvenation After Induced Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Tjong, Jonathan; Alcasid, Nathan; Perkins, Guy A.; Goissis, Marcelo D.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Perez, Gloria I.; Cibelli, Jose B.

    2010-01-01

    Background As stem cells of the early embryo mature and differentiate into all tissues, the mitochondrial complement undergoes dramatic functional improvement. Mitochondrial activity is low to minimize generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species during pre-implantation development and increases following implantation and differentiation to meet higher metabolic demands. It has recently been reported that when the stem cell type known as induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) are re-differentiated for several weeks in vitro, the mitochondrial complement progressively re-acquires properties approximating input fibroblasts, suggesting that despite the observation that IPSC conversion “resets” some parameters of cellular aging such as telomere length, it may have little impact on other age-affected cellular systems such as mitochondria in IPSC-derived cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have examined the properties of mitochondria in two fibroblast lines, corresponding IPSCs, and fibroblasts re-derived from IPSCs using biochemical methods and electron microscopy, and found a dramatic improvement in the quality and function of the mitochondrial complement of the re-derived fibroblasts compared to input fibroblasts. This observation likely stems from two aspects of our experimental design: 1) that the input cell lines used were of advanced cellular age and contained an inefficient mitochondrial complement, and 2) the re-derived fibroblasts were produced using an extensive differentiation regimen that may more closely mimic the degree of growth and maturation found in a developing mammal. Conclusions/Significance These results — coupled with earlier data from our laboratory — suggest that IPSC conversion not only resets the “biological clock”, but can also rejuvenate the energetic capacity of derived cells. PMID:21124794

  3. Continental subduction induced tremor activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, H. J.; Chen, K. H.; Ide, S.; Mouyen, M.; Byrne, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Central Range of Taiwan, a place where deep-seated tectonic tremors (a proxy of slow slip) and earthquake swarms are closely located in space and highly correlated in time, provides rare opportunity towards the understanding of physical mechanisms governing different style of slip. To identify tremor events, we used the identification scheme similar to Ide et al. (2015) but applied slightly different techniques: (1) Higher waveform cross-correlation coefficient (>0.6) (2) careful visual inspection for excluding local earthquakes and short-lasted event (duration < 60 s) (3) Signal to noise ratio higher than 1.2 and lower than 30 (4) No spatio-temporal clustering technique used. During the study period of 2007-2012, we identified 2320 tremor events with duration ranging from 60 s to 1550 s. They are located underneath southern Central Range, forming a NS-striking and SE-dipping pipe-like structure at a depth of 20-40 km. The up-dip extension of this tremor structure reaches an aseismic zone under the western flank of Central Range at shallow depths, where is an area characterized by high heat flow, low Vp and Vs anomaly. Such seismic gap was explained by the buoyancy induced crust detachment during continental subduction of Eurasian Plate. This detachment may open a new channel for hot and ductile material ascending to shallow depth, producing high temperatures along the way. This provides a common mechanism for down-dip tremor and up-dip shallow seismic gap along the same eastern dipping channel. In addition, the tremor events are found to be mostly occurred in high tides and exhibit higher correlation with tide data from west coast of Taiwan. This may again imply the association between tremor activity and subduction of Eurasian Plate.

  4. Self-induced polarization anisoplanatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James B.

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests that the astronomical science data recorded with low F# telescopes for applications requiring a known point spread function shape and those applications requiring instrument polarization calibration may be compromised unless the effects of vector wave propagation are properly modeled and compensated. Exoplanet coronagraphy requires "matched filter" masks and explicit designs for the real and imaginary parts for the mask transmittance. Three aberration sources dominate image quality in astronomical optical systems: amplitude, phase and polarization. Classical ray-trace aberration analysis used today by optical engineers is inadequate to model image formation in modern low F# highperformance astronomical telescopes. We show here that a complex (real and imaginary) vector wave model is required for high performance, large aperture, very wide-field, low F# systems. Self-induced polarization anisoplanatism (SIPA) reduces system image quality, decreases contrast and limits the ability of image processing techniques to restore images. This paper provides a unique analysis of the image formation process to identify measurements sensitive to SIPA. Both the real part and the imaginary part of the vector complex wave needs to be traced through the entire optical system, including each mirror surface, optical filter, and all masks. Only at the focal plane is the modulus squared taken to obtain an estimate of the measured intensity. This paper also discusses the concept of the polarization conjugate filter, suggested by the author to correct telescope/instrument corrupted phase and amplitude and thus mitigate6, in part the effects of phase and amplitude errors introduced by reflections of incoherent white-light from metal coatings.

  5. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  6. Spiderweb deformation induced by electrostatically charged insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Capture success of spider webs has been associated with their microstructure, ornamentation, and wind-induced vibrations. Indirect evidence suggests that statically charged objects can attract silk thread, but web deformations induced by charged insects have not yet been described. Here, we show under laboratory conditions that electrostatically charged honeybees, green bottle flies, fruit flies, aphids, and also water drops falling near webs of cross-spiders (Araneus diadematus) induce rapid thread deformation that enhances the likelihood of physical contact, and thus of prey capture.

  7. [Study on diabetes-induced cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhijie; Lu, Chengbiao; Luo, Jianping; Cui, Dong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-08-01

    The diabetes-induced cognitive impairment complications have serious effects on the patients' lives, and there is an enormous and financial burden on patients, their families and society as a whole. This review investigates the current research status of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment from different view points including molecular, models, clinics and electrophysiology. The relationship between diabetes and cognitive function and developments of research are hereby summarized. And finally, future issues of diabetes-induced cognitive impairments are pointed out, and the effective rehabilitation methods should be considered. PMID:24059075

  8. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage.

    PubMed

    Roness, Hadassa; Kashi, Oren; Meirow, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impact of cytotoxic drugs on the ovary have opened up new directions for the protection of the ovary from chemotherapy-induced damage. These advances have spurred the investigation of pharmacological agents to prevent ovarian damage at the time of treatment. Prevention of ovarian damage and follicle loss would provide significant advantages over existing fertility preservation techniques. This manuscript reviews new methods for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage, including agents that act on the PI3K/PTEN/Akt follicle activation pathway, apoptotic pathways, the vascular system, and other potential methods of reducing chemotherapy-induced ovotoxicity. PMID:26677788

  9. Flow induced force of labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.; Motooka, N.; Kawai, R.

    1982-01-01

    Flow induced instability force due to a labyrinth seal is analyzed. An approximate solution is given for the partial differential equation representing the flow in labyrinth seal and it is compared with the finite difference method in order to verify the accuracy of both methods. The effects of difference of inlet and outlet pressures of the seal, deflection of pressure and mass flow from the steady state, rotor diameter, seal clearance, seal interval and seal number on the flow induced force of the seal are investigated and it is known that some of these factors are very influential on the flow induced force.

  10. Spiderweb deformation induced by electrostatically charged insects

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Capture success of spider webs has been associated with their microstructure, ornamentation, and wind-induced vibrations. Indirect evidence suggests that statically charged objects can attract silk thread, but web deformations induced by charged insects have not yet been described. Here, we show under laboratory conditions that electrostatically charged honeybees, green bottle flies, fruit flies, aphids, and also water drops falling near webs of cross-spiders (Araneus diadematus) induce rapid thread deformation that enhances the likelihood of physical contact, and thus of prey capture. PMID:23828093

  11. Observation of density-induced tunneling.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Meinert, Florian; Mark, Manfred J; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of bosonic atoms in a tilted one-dimensional optical lattice and report on the first direct observation of density-induced tunneling. We show that the interaction affects the time evolution of the doublon oscillation via density-induced tunneling and pinpoint its density and interaction dependence. The experimental data for different lattice depths are in good agreement with our theoretical model. Furthermore, resonances caused by second-order tunneling processes are studied, where the density-induced tunneling breaks the symmetric behavior for attractive and repulsive interactions predicted by the Hubbard model. PMID:25415904

  12. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Eric Bryant

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a new technique for remote nonintrusive measurement of thermophysical gas properties. LITA involves forming, via opto-acoustic effects, grating-shaped perturbations of gas properties by the use of intersecting beams from a short-pulse laser. A third beam scatters coherently into a signal beam off the perturbation grating via acousto-optical effects. The evolution of the gas perturbations modulates the scattered signal beam. Accurate values of the sound speed, transport properties, and composition of the gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal beam. An analytical expression for the spectrum, absolute magnitude, and time history of the LITA signal is derived. The optoacoustic effects of thermalization and electrostriction are treated. Finite beam-diameter, beam-duration, and thermalization-rate effects are included in the analysis. The expression accurately models experimental signals over a wide range of gas conditions. Experimental tests using LITA have been conducted on pure and NO_2-seeded air and helium at pressures ranging from {~ }0.1 kPa-14 MPa. Carbon dioxide has been explored near its liquid-vapor critical point. Accuracies of 0.1% in sound speed measurements have been achieved in these tests. Accuracies of {~}1% have been achieved in measurements of thermal diffusivity, although beam misalignment effects have typically degraded this accuracy by a factor of {~} 10-20. Using LITA, susceptibility spectra have been taken of approximately a femtogram of NO_2 . The effects of fluid motion and turbulence have been explored. LITA velocimetry has been demonstrated, in which the Doppler shift of light scattered from a flowing fluid is measured. LITA velocimetry requires no particle seeding, has a coherent signal beam, and can be applied to pulsed flows. LITA has also been applied to measure single-shot |chi^{(1) }|^2 or "Rayleigh scattering" spectra of a gas by the use of a technique of wavelength -division multiplexing

  13. Laser-induced thermal acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Eric B.

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a new technique for remote nonintrusive measurement of thermophysical gas properties. LITA involves forming, via opto-acoustic effects, grating-shaped perturbations of gas properties using intersecting beams from a short-pulse laser. A third beam scatters coherently into a signal beam off the perturbation grating via acousto-optical effects. The evolution of the gas perturbations modulates the scattered signal beam. Accurate values of the sound speed, transport properties, and composition of the gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal beam.An analytical expression for the spectrum, absolute magnitude, and time history of the LITA signal is derived. The optoacoustic effects of thermalization and electrostriction are treated. Finite beam-diameter, beam-duration, and thermalization-rate effects are included in the analysis. The expression accurately models experimental signals over a wide range of gas conditions.Experimental tests using LITA have been conducted on pure and [...]-seeded air and helium at pressures ranging from ~0.1 kPa-14 MPa. Carbon dioxide has been explored near its liquid-vapor critical point. Accuracies of 0.1% in sound speed measurements have been achieved in these tests. Accuracies of ~1% have been achieved in measurements of thermal diffusivity, although beam misalignment effects have typically degraded this accuracy by a factor of ~10-20. Using LITA, susceptibility spectra have been taken of approximately a femtogram of [...]. The effects of fluid motion and turbulence have been explored. LITA velocimetry has been demonstrated, in which the Doppler shift of light scattered from a flowing fluid is measured. LITA velocimetry requires no particle seeding, has a coherent signal beam, and can be applied to pulsed flows. LITA has also been applied to measure single-shot [...] or "Rayleigh scattering" spectra of a gas using a technique of wavelength-division multiplexing, called multiplex LITA. The LITA

  14. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani When ...

  15. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-10-15

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  16. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.

  17. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  18. Autophagy in light-induced retinal damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Perusek, Lindsay; Maeda, Akiko

    2016-03-01

    Vision is reliant upon converting photon signals to electrical information which is interpreted by the brain and therefore allowing us to receive information about our surroundings. However, when exposed to excessive light, photoreceptors and other types of cells in the retina can undergo light-induced cell death, termed light-induced retinal damage. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding molecular events in the retina after excessive light exposure and mechanisms of light-induced retinal damage. We also introduce works which investigate potential roles of autophagy, an essential cellular mechanism required for maintaining homeostasis under stress conditions, in the illuminated retina and animal models of light-induced retinal damage. PMID:26325327

  19. Bioelectromagnetic effects measurements - SAR and induced current.

    PubMed

    Dlugosz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses several theoretical and practical aspects of the application of currents flowing through the body of a radiotelephone operator and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR is known as the physical quantity which is a perfect solution for biological experiments. Unfortunately, SAR cannot be measured directly. Contrary to SAR, which is limited to the penetration depth, a current induced in a point of a body is measurable in any other point of the body. The main objective of this paper is to show that the current induced in a human body when using a radiotelephone or mobile phone is significant and should be analyzed as widely as SAR is. Computer simulations of a human's hand with a radiotelephone were made. Experiments were also conducted. The results of the experiments show that induced current is also as important as SAR and it cannot be omitted in bioelectromagnetic experiments. In biomedical studies both parameters: induced current and SAR play a major role. PMID:25585976

  20. Charge Induced by Displacement of an Ion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokas, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Tries to clarify and explain some inaccuracies that appeared in a recent article dealing with a current induced in an external circuit due to charges moving within a device, an ionization chamber of planar geometry, in the circuit. (GA)

  1. Sotalol-induced torsade de pointes

    PubMed Central

    Kontopoulos, A.; Manoudis, F.; Filindris, A.; Metaxas, P.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report a case of torsade de pointes atypical ventricular tachycardia in a patient with chronic renal failure and hypertension treated with sotalol hydrochloride which they believe induced the arrhythmia. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7301675

  2. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    PubMed

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history. PMID:4610534

  3. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

  4. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in essential thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Murawaki, Ayumi; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Doi, Mitsuru; Suzuki-Kinoshita, Kaori; Asai, Yasumasa; Omura, Hiromi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    We report a 67-year-old woman with essential thrombocytosis who developed cerebral infarction and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia during treatment for the cerebral infarction. She developed additional cerebral infarcts, acute femoral artery occlusion, and thrombophlebitis of her lower extremities. She was successfully treated with argatroban. This is the first report of a patient with essential thrombocytosis who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and serious conditions, which included multiple thromboembolisms and coagulation disorders mimicking disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:22425438

  5. Induced gravity from curvature density preserving diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We construct not only an induced gravity model with restricted diffeomorphisms, that is, transverse diffeomorphisms that preserve the curvature density, but also with full diffeomorphisms. By solving the equations of motion, it turns out that these models produce Einstein's equations with a certain Newton constant in addition to the constraint for the curvature density. In the limit of the infinite Newton constant, the models give rise to induced gravity. Moreover, we discuss cosmological solutions on the basis of the gravitational models at hand.

  6. A case of trimebutine-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Song, Woo-Jung; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2011-12-01

    Trimebutine maleate [2-dimethylamino-2-phenylbutyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid] has been demonstrated to be active for relieving abdominal pain and it is widely used for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Adverse drug reactions are mostly mild and well-tolerated. To our knowledge, only two cases of trimebutine induced hypersensitivity have been reported, and both were delayed type reactions. Here, we report the first case of trimebutine maleate-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:22113162

  7. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis and Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Glucocorticoid administration is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis and the leading cause of nontraumatic osteonecrosis. In patients receiving long-term therapy, glucocorticoids induce fractures in 30 to 50% and osteonecrosis in 9 to 40%. This article reviews glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and osteonecrosis addressing the risk factors, pathogenesis, evaluation, treatment, and uncertainties in the clinical management of these disorders. PMID:22877431

  8. Novel C Induced Structures on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Häberle, P.

    2003-12-01

    We report thermally induced roughness at the nanometer scale, formed in the process of obtaining the (7×7) reconstruction on Si(111). C contamination seems to be the precursor in the formation of the different structures associated to this roughness. The large scale rearrangements, observed after the SiO2 high temperature induced desorption, show various shapes, namely: pyramids, raspberry shapes and tori.

  9. Means for controlling aerodynamically induced twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A control mechanism which provides active compensation for aerodynamically induced twist deformation of high aspect ratio wings consists of a torque tube, internal to each wing and rigidly attached near the tip of each wing, which is moved by an actuator located in the aircraft fuselage. As changes in the aerodynamic loads on the wings occur the torque tube is rotated to compensate for the induced wing twist.

  10. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hao; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Molière limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  11. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Omi, Tsubasa; Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Takada, Hiromune; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  12. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  13. Field-induced confined states in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Satoshi; Morita, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Tsuya, Daiju

    2014-02-03

    We report an approach to confine the carriers in single-layer graphene, which leads to quantum devices with field-induced quantum confinement. We demonstrated that the Coulomb-blockade effect evolves under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene device. Our experimental results show that field-induced quantum dots are realized in graphene, and a quantum confinement-deconfinement transition is switched by the magnetic field.

  14. Induced murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Zeumer, Leilani; Reeves, Westley H; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Induced mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been developed to complement the spontaneous models. This chapter describes the methods used in the pristane-induced model and the chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) model, both of which have been extensively used. We will also outline the specific mechanisms of systemic autoimmunity that can be best characterized using each of these models. PMID:24497358

  15. Electromagnetically induced classical and quantum Lau effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian; Xiong, Jun; Xu, Deqin

    2016-07-01

    We present two schemes of Lau effect for an object, an electromagnetically induced grating generated based on the electromagnetically induced effect. The Lau interference pattern is detected either directly in the way of the traditional Lau effect measurement with a classical thermal light being the imaging light, or indirectly and nonlocally in the way of two-photon coincidence measurement with a pair of entangled photons being the imaging light.

  16. An observation of proton-induced latchup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Donald K.; Coss, James R.; Watson, R. K.; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Pease, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Proton-induced latchup in a CMOS microprocessor known to have a very low heavy-ion-induced latchup threshold LET was observed. The latchup cross section vs. proton energy for three different bias conditions is displayed. Average measures of latchup current within an 11-ms window following the onset of latchup are provided, as a function of bias and incident proton energy. These data can be interpreted in terms of the present understanding of SEE phenomena.

  17. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    PubMed

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description. PMID:26243659

  18. Radiation-induced neoplasms of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.P.; Good, R.R.; Skultety, F.M.; Leibrock, L.G.; Severson, G.S.

    1987-04-01

    The histopathology of two patients with radiation-induced neoplasms of the brain following therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancies is described. The second neoplasms were an atypical meningioma and a polymorphous cell sarcoma, respectively. They occurred 12 and 23 years after irradiation (4000 rad), within the original field of irradiation. In both cases, the radiation-induced tumors were histologically distinct from the initial medulloblastomas. Both patients were retreated with local irradiation using permanent implantation of radioactive iodine-125 seeds.

  19. Inducer Design to Avoid Cavitation Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Donghyuk; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yonezawa, Koichi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Kawata, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu

    2010-06-01

    Three inducers were designed to avoid cavitation instabilities. This was accomplished by avoiding the interaction of tip cavity with the leading edge of the opposing blade. The first one applied extremely larger leading edge sweep, the second and third ones applied smaller incidence angle by reducing the inlet blade angle or increasing the design flow rate, respectively. The inducer with larger design flow rate has larger outlet blade angle to obtain sufficient pressure rise. The inducer with larger sweep could suppress the cavitation instabilities in wide ranges of cavitation number and flow rate, owing to weaker tip leakage vortex cavity with stronger disturbance by backflow vortices. The inducer with larger outlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at higher flow rates owing to the extension of the tip cavity along the suction surface of the blade. The inducer with smaller inlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at the flow rates larger than the design flow coefficient, owing to the occurrence of the cavity first in the blade passage and its extension upstream. The cavity shape and suction performance were reasonably simulated by three dimensional CFD computations under the steady cavitating condition, except for the backflow vortex cavity. The difference in the growth of cavity for each inducer is explained from the difference of the pressure distribution on the suction side of the blades.

  20. UV-induced immunosuppression in the balance.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, Frank R

    2008-01-01

    Around 1980, experiments with hairless mice showed us that UV-induced actinic keratoses (AK) and ensuing skin carcinomas did not arise independently: the rate of occurrence in one skin area was increased considerably if AKs had already been induced separately in another distant skin area, i.e. a systemic effect. The ground laying work of Margaret Kripke in the 1970s provided a fitting explanation: UV-induced immunosuppression and tolerance toward the UV-induced tumors. From Kripke's work a new discipline arose: "Photoimmunology." Enormous strides were made in exploring and expanding the effects from UV carcinogenesis to infectious diseases, and in elucidating the mechanisms involved. Stemming from concerns about a depletion of the ozone layer and the general impact of ambient UV radiation, the groups I worked in and closely collaborated with explored the anticipated adverse effects of UV-induced immunosuppression on healthy individuals. An important turning point was brought about in 1992 when the group of Kevin Cooper reported that immunosuppression could be induced by UV exposure in virtually all human subjects tested, suggesting that this is a normal and sound physiological reaction to UV exposure. This reaction could actually protect us from illicit immune responses against our UV-exposed skin, such as observed in idiopathic polymorphic light eruption. This premise has fruitfully rekindled the research on this common "sun allergy," affecting to widely varying degrees about one in five Europeans with indoor professions. PMID:18173695

  1. Method for inducing saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Rach, J.J.; Olson, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to uniformly and systematically induce saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Three different methods for inducing saprolegniasis were evaluated in waters containing known zoospore concentrations of Saprolegnia parasitica (1) low-temperature shock to induce immunosuppression: (2) physical abrasion stress; and (3) a combination of both low temperature shock and abrasion stress. Low-temperature shock or abrasion stress alone were not effective for inducing saprolegniasis. Only 10% of fish stressed by low-temperature shock alone became infected. No fish receiving abrasion stress treatments alone became infected even though these fish were subject to significant abrasion and dewatering stress. A combination of low-temperature and abrasion stress, however, was sufficient to induce saprolegniasis in 100% of fish tested and resulted in 90% mortality. No fish became infected in the positive control group (exposed to zoospores of S. Parasitica without stress) or in the negative control group. The combined-stress method should enable researchers to induce saprolegniasis in channel catfish at will to study its pathogenesis or to test the efficacy of candidate antifungal treatments. In conducting efficacy studies, therapeutic treatments must begin immediately when the first signs of saprolegniasis are observed because the disease progresses quickly and is deadly.

  2. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  3. Cardiomyocyte death in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Shi, Jianjian; Li, Yuan-Jian; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most widely used and successful antitumor drugs, but its cumulative and dose-dependent cardiac toxicity has been the major concern of oncologists in cancer therapeutic practice for decades. With the increasing population of cancer survivals, there is a growing need to develop preventive strategies and effective therapies against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, in particular, the late onset cardiomyopathy. Although intensive investigations on the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have been continued for decades, the underlying mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have not been completely elucidated. A rapidly expanding body of evidence supports that cardiomyocyte death by apoptosis and necrosis is a primary mechanism of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy and other types of cell death, such as autophagy and senescence/aging, may participate in this process. In this review, we will focus on the current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death, including the major primary mechanism of excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other recently discovered ROS-independent mechanisms. Different sensitivity to DOX-induced cell death signals between adult and young cardiomyocytes will also be discussed. PMID:19866340

  4. Analog of microwave-induced resistance oscillations induced in GaAs heterostructures by terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, T.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Kozlov, D. A.; Schneider, M.; Jentzsch, B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Olbrich, P.; Bel'kov, V. V.; Bayer, A.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Kuczmik, T.; Oltscher, M.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the study of terahertz radiation-induced MIRO-like oscillations of magnetoresistivity in GaAs heterostructures. Our experiments provide an answer on two most intriguing questions—effect of radiation helicity and the role of the edges—yielding crucial information for an understanding of the MIRO (microwave-induced resistance oscillations) origin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the range of materials exhibiting radiation-induced magneto-oscillations can be largely extended by using high-frequency radiation.

  5. Stanniocalcin-1 inhibits thrombin-induced signaling and protects from bleomycin-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Luping; Zhang, Lin; Ju, Huiming; Li, Qingtian; Pan, Jenny Szu-Chin; Al-Lawati, Zahraa; Sheikh-Hamad, David

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin-induced and proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated signaling increases ROS production, activates ERK, and promotes inflammation and fibroblast proliferation in bleomycin-induced lung injury. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) activates anti-oxidant pathways, inhibits inflammation and provides cytoprotection; hence, we hypothesized that STC1 will inhibit thrombin/PAR1 signaling and protect from bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. We determined thrombin level and activity, thrombin-induced PAR-1-mediated signaling, superoxide generation and lung pathology after intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin to WT and STC1 Tg mice. Lungs of bleomycin-treated WT mice display: severe pneumonitis; increased generation of superoxide; vascular leak; increased thrombin protein abundance and activity; activation of ERK; greater cytokine/chemokine release and infiltration with T-cells and macrophages. Lungs of STC1 Tg mice displayed none of the above changes. Mechanistic analysis in cultured pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) suggests that STC1 inhibits thrombin-induced and PAR1-mediated ERK activation through suppression of superoxide. In conclusion, STC1 blunts bleomycin-induced rise in thrombin protein and activity, diminishes thrombin-induced signaling through PAR1 to ERK, and inhibits bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Moreover, our study identifies a new set of cytokines/chemokines, which play a role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung injury. These findings broaden the array of potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung diseases characterized by thrombin activation, oxidant stress and inflammation. PMID:26640170

  6. Drug-Induced Hyperglycaemia and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Larif, Sofien; Hmouda, Houssem; Ben Salem, Chaker

    2015-12-01

    Drug-induced hyperglycaemia and diabetes is a global issue. It may be a serious problem, as it increases the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications, infections, metabolic coma and even death. Drugs may induce hyperglycaemia through a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in insulin secretion and sensitivity, direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cells and increases in glucose production. Antihypertensive drugs are not equally implicated in increasing serum glucose levels. Glycaemic adverse events occur more frequently with thiazide diuretics and with certain beta-blocking agents than with calcium-channel blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. Lipid-modifying agents may also induce hyperglycaemia, and the diabetogenic effect seems to differ between the different types and daily doses of statins. Nicotinic acid may also alter glycaemic control. Among the anti-infectives, severe life-threatening events have been reported with fluoroquinolones, especially when high doses are used. Protease inhibitors and, to a lesser extent, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors have been reported to induce alterations in glucose metabolism. Pentamidine-induced hyperglycaemia seems to be related to direct dysfunction in pancreatic cells. Phenytoin and valproic acid may also induce hyperglycaemia. The mechanisms of second-generation antipsychotic-associated hyperglycaemia, diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis are complex and are mainly due to insulin resistance. Antidepressant agents with high daily doses seem to be more frequently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Ketoacidosis may occur in patients receiving beta-adrenergic stimulants, and theophylline may also induce hyperglycaemia. Steroid diabetes is more frequently associated with high doses of glucocorticoids. Some chemotherapeutic agents carry a higher risk of hyperglycaemia, and calcineurin inhibitor-induced hyperglycaemia is mainly due to a decrease in insulin secretion

  7. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheim,, A. P.; Dal Molin, D.C.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Provis, J.L.; Fischer, P.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2010-12-01

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C{sub 3}A or 3CaO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C{sub 3}A or Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 8}Al{sub 6}O{sub 18}), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C{sub 3}A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C{sub 3}A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C{sub 3}A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C{sub 3}A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping.

  8. SILEN-C3, a Phase 2 Randomized Trial with Faldaprevir plus Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin in Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O.; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143–2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  9. SILEN-C3, a phase 2 randomized trial with faldaprevir plus pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Douglas; Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143-2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  10. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I(serotype 1/2a, 1/2c,3a, and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparisons and e...

  11. Leptin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy reveals both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent/RhoA-dependent calcineurin activation and NFAT nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Izaddoustdar, Farzad; Martinez-Abundis, Eduardo; Karmazyn, Morris

    2012-12-01

    Leptin, a product of the obesity gene, has been shown to produce cardiac hypertrophy. Although leptin's mechanism of action is poorly understood activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been proposed as a contributing mechanism. The Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase calcineurin plays a critical role in the hypertrophic program although it is not known whether leptin can activate this signaling pathway or whether there is a relationship between RhoA activation and calcineurin. Accordingly, we determined the effect of leptin on calcineurin activation and assessed the possible role of RhoA. Experiments were performed using cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes exposed to 50 ng/ml leptin for 24h which resulted in a robust hypertrophic response. Moreover, leptin significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) concentrations which was associated with significantly reduced activity of the 3Na(+)-2K(+)ATPase. The hypertrophic response to leptin were completely abrogated by both C3 exoenzyme (C3), a RhoA inhibitor as well as the reverse mode 3Na(+)-1Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor KB-R7943 ((2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl] ethyl]isothiourea methanesulfonate), however only the effect of the latter was associated with attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations whereas Ca(2+) concentrations were unaffected by C3. Similarly, C3 and KB-R7943 significantly attenuated early leptin-induced increase in calcineurin activity as well as the increase in nuclear translocation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor of activated T cells. The hypertrophic response to leptin was also associated with increased p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation and increased p38, but not ERK1/2, translocation into nuclei. Both p38 responses as well as hypertrophy were abrogated by KB-R7943 as well as the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 although ERK1/2 phosphorylation was unaffected. Our study therefore demonstrates a critical role for the calcineurin pathway in mediating leptin-induced

  12. Mastication-induced vertigo and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Koo, Ja-Won; Oh, Seo Won; Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Joon-Tae; Welgampola, Miriam; Deriu, Franca

    2014-03-01

    Even though trigeminovestibular connections are well established in animals, mastication-induced dizziness has been described only as a vascular steal phenomenon in humans. We determined induction or modulation of nystagmus in two index patients with mastication-induced vertigo, 12 normal controls, and 52 additional patients with peripheral (n = 38, 26 with vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis and 12 with Meniere's disease) or central (n = 14, 11 with Wallenberg syndrome, two with cerebellar infarction, and one with pontine infarction) vestibulopathy during their acute or compensated phase. Both index patients developed mastication-induced vertigo after near complete resolution of the spontaneous vertigo from presumed acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. The nystagmus and vertigo gradually built up during mastication and dissipated slowly after cessation of mastication. Brain MRI and cerebral angiography were normal in these patients. Mastication did not induce nystagmus in normal controls. However, mastication induced nystagmus in five (24 %) of the 21 patients without spontaneous nystagmus (SN) but with a previous history of a vestibular syndrome, and either increased (21/31, 68 %) or decreased (7/31, 23 %) the SN in almost all the patients (28/31, 90 %) with SN. Mastication may induce significant vertigo and nystagmus in patients with a prior history of acute vestibulopathy. The induction or modulation of nystagmus by mastication in both peripheral and central vestibulopathies supports trigeminal modulation of the vestibular system in human. The gradual build-up and dissipation suggest a role of the velocity storage mechanism in the generation of mastication-induced vertigo and nystagmus. PMID:24379040

  13. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  14. Induced Sputum Proteome in Health and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Lai, Ying; Plampin, Jessica D.; Goodlett, David R.; Hallstrand, Teal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormal airway pathophysiology and susceptibility to different stimuli, as exemplified by a subset of individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Induced sputum provides a noninvasive method to sample airway biofluids that are enriched in proteins. Objective We hypothesized that novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of asthma may be revealed by studying the patterns of protein expression in induced sputum. Methods We used shotgun proteomics to analyze induced sputum from 5 normal individuals and 10 asthmatics, including 5 with EIB. Differential protein expression between asthmatics, asthma subphenotypes and control subjects was determined using spectral counting and computational methods. Results Using Gene Ontology analysis, we defined the functional landscape of induced sputum proteome and applied network analysis to construct a protein interaction map for this airway compartment. Shotgun proteomics analysis identified a number of proteins whose differential enrichment or depletion robustly distinguishedasthmatics from normal controls, and captured the effects of exercise on induced sputum proteome. Functional and network analysis identified key processes, including proteolytic activity that are known contributors to airway remodeling. Importantly, this approach highlighted previously unrecognized roles for differentially expressed proteins in pathways implicated in asthma, such as modulation of phospholipase A2 by secretoglobin, a putative role for S100A8/9 in human asthma, and selective upregulation of complement 3a in response to exercise in asthmatics. Conclusion Computationally-intensive analysis of induced sputum proteome is a powerful approach to understand the pathophysiology of asthma and a promising methodology to investigate other diseases of the airways. PMID:21906793

  15. Neuroinflammation in overnutrition-induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a biological response mounted by the immune system against dangerous assaults that threaten the integrity and normal physiology of an organism. During the past decades, cross-disciplinary research from immunology and endocrinology has much broadened this knowledge by demonstrating that chronic conditions of nutritional excess constitute an independent category of inflammatory activators, and the resulting chronic and low-grade inflammation is an important characteristic of overnutrition-induced diseases. A large body of research has demonstrated that these diseases are pathogenically associated with the local, negative actions of inflammation in peripheral tissues predominantly including the liver, muscle, and fat. In this research background, more recent research has advanced to a new level, with the important discoveries showing that overnutrition-induced inflammation occurs in the brain and thus plays a broad and leadership role in overnutrition-induced diseases. While much more research establishments are expected in this emerging and quickly expanding research, the appreciated understandings have been mainly based on proinflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB pathway and related molecules in the hypothalamus. In this chapter, the author focuses on describing IKKβ/NF-κB-induced neural inflammation in the context of overnutrition-induced metabolic inflammation and especially the central roles of this neural inflammation in the development of a spectrum of overnutrition-related diseases. PMID:23374717

  16. Olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mangsuo; Geng, Tongchao; Qiao, Liyan; Zhang, Mingjie; Shi, Jie; Huang, Fangjie; Lin, Xianzhong; Wang, Jing; Zuo, Huancong

    2014-09-01

    Only nine patients with olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been reported in the literature to our knowledge. We describe two patients with olanzapine-induced RLS treated at our hospital and review the nine reported patients. There were five women and six men aged between 28 and 62 years in the overall group. RLS symptoms emerged at olanzapine doses between 2.5 and 20mg. The symptoms improved in all patients when the dose was reduced and immediately disappeared when the medication was stopped. International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) scores ranged from 10 to 35. Three patients had a family history of idiopathic RLS. Supplemental drugs were administered to control RLS symptoms in five patients. Ropinirole was effective in one patient, while two patients did not respond to the drug. Propoxyphene effectively relieved symptoms in one patient who did not respond to ropinirole or clonazepam. RLS symptoms did not recur following substitution of other antipsychotic drugs for olanzapine. In conclusion, olanzapine can induce RLS, particularly in patients with a family history of idiopathic RLS. More than half of the patients experienced severe to very severe symptoms. A dose-dependent relationship was observed between olanzapine and RLS symptoms. A gradual increase in dose may prevent olanzapine-induced RLS. The optimal treatment for olanzapine-induced RLS is discontinuation of olanzapine. PMID:24874697

  17. Phenotype Standardization for Drug Induced Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ravindra L; Awdishu, Linda; Davenport, Andrew; Murray, Patrick; Macedo, Etienne; Cerda, Jorge; Chakaravarthi, Raj; Holden, Arthur; Goldstein, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced kidney disease is a frequent cause of renal dysfunction; however, there are no standards to identify and characterize the spectrum of these disorders. We convened a panel of international, adult and pediatric, nephrologists and pharmacists to develop standardized phenotypes for drug induced kidney disease as part of the phenotype standardization project initiated by the International Serious Adverse Events Consortium. We propose four phenotypes of drug induced kidney disease based on clinical presentation: acute kidney injury, glomerular, tubular and nephrolithiasis, along with primary and secondary clinical criteria to support the phenotype definition, and a time course based on the KDIGO/AKIN definitions of acute kidney injury, acute kidney disease and chronic kidney disease. Establishing causality in drug induced kidney disease is challenging and requires knowledge of the biological plausibility for the specific drug, mechanism of injury, time course and assessment of competing risk factors. These phenotypes provide a consistent framework for clinicians, investigators, industry and regulatory agencies to evaluate drug nephrotoxicity across various settings. We believe that this is first step to recognizing drug induced kidney disease and developing strategies to prevent and manage this condition. PMID:25853333

  18. Inducing cellular senescence using defined genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Opitz, Oliver G

    2007-01-01

    Cellular senescence is generally defined as an irreversible state of G1 cell cycle arrest in which cells are refractory to growth factor stimulation. Cellular senescence can be induced through several different mechanisms. Primary mammalian cells display a finite life span, suggesting a mechanism that counts cell divisions. Those cells initially proliferate but eventually enter a state of permanent growth arrest, called replicative senescence. Erosion of telomeric DNA has emerged as a key factor in replicative senescence, which is antagonized during cell immortalization. Nevertheless, besides telomere shortening, there are other mechanisms inducing a growth arrest similar to the replicative senescencent phenotype. Oncogenic or mitogenic signals as well as DNA damage can induce such a phenotype of cellular senescence. All forms of cellular senescence share common signaling pathways and morphological features. Thereby, p53 seems to be essential for the senescence response. Many of these senescence inducing mechanisms can be experimentally recapitulated by the introduction of defined genetic elements. Replicative senescence due to telomere shortening can, for example, be induced by a dominant negative version of telomerase, premature senescence by the overexpression of oncogenic ras, or p16. PMID:17634581

  19. Nutritional Interventions for Cancer-induced Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Gullett, Norleena P.; Mazurak, Vera; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-induced cachexia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development continues at an aggressive pace and yet a degree of cancer-induced cachexia is experienced by up to 80% of advanced stage cancer patients. Unfortunately, there are no established treatment regimens for this condition. Weight loss and fatigue consistently appear in patient oncologic histories and progress notes. However, few oncologists fully understand the pathologic mechanisms causing cachexia resulting in well-meaning advice to increase caloric intake with minimal results. Our goal is to describe the pathologic basis of cancer-induced cachexia and to detail accompanying metabolic derangements. Understanding the causes of cachexia sheds light on the subsequent need for multi-modality therapy including clinical intervention with specialized nutrition support, drug therapy, lifestyle and diet changes. In addition to nutrition support modalities, practicing oncologists may prescribe medical therapies designed to increase body weight and lean body mass, including megestrol acetate, tetrahydrocannibinol, oxandrolone, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A variety of experimental therapies are also being investigated for cancer-induced cachexia including tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors and ghrelin infusions. We review the available data to support nutrition-oriented interventions in cancer-induced cachexia, including omega-3 fatty acids, amino-acid loading/protein supplementation, parenteral and enteral nutrition support, and food-derived compounds such as curcumin, reservatrol, and pomegranate. PMID:21420558

  20. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb

  1. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2011-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.

  2. Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome and side effects of a new drug protocol to induce abortion. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: An urban primary care practice. PATIENTS: One hundred consecutive patients who requested elective termination of pregnancies of less than 8 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTION: Subjects received methotrexate (50 mg/m2 body surface area, administered intramuscularly) and, 3 days afterward, misoprostol (800 micrograms, given vaginally). OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of abortions induced within 24 hours and within 10 days of misoprostol administration, number of surgical aspirations conducted because of incomplete abortion, mean amount of bleeding and pain and the number of women who, if faced with the same situation, said they would again choose a drug-induced abortion over a surgical one. RESULTS: Abortion occurred within 24 hours of misoprostol administration among 48 women and within 10 days among 69 women. In total, 89 women had an abortion without surgical aspiration. Of these women, 71 said they would choose a drug-induced abortion if faced with the choice again. CONCLUSION: Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol appears to be a feasible alternative to surgical abortion and deserves further study. PMID:8548705

  3. Lysosomal destabilization in p53-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xi-Ming; Li, Wei; Dalen, Helge; Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2002-01-01

    The tumor suppressor wild-type p53 can induce apoptosis. M1-t-p53 myeloid leukemic cells have a temperature-sensitive p53 protein that changes its conformation to wild-type p53 after transfer from 37°C to 32°C. We have now found that these cells showed an early lysosomal rupture after transfer to 32°C. Mitochondrial damage, including decreased membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, and the appearance of apoptotic cells occurred later. Lysosomal rupture, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis were all inhibited by the cytokine IL-6. Some other compounds can also inhibit apoptosis induced by p53. The protease inhibitor N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited only cytochrome c release, and the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole inhibited only the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast to IL-6, these other compounds that inhibited some of the later occurring mitochondrial damage did not inhibit the earlier p53-induced lysosomal damage. The results indicate that apoptosis is induced by p53 through a lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway that is initiated by lysosomal destabilization, and that this pathway can be dissected by using different apoptosis inhibitors. These findings on the induction of p53-induced lysosomal destabilization can also help to formulate new therapies for diseases with apoptotic disorders. PMID:11959917

  4. Insulin-Inducible SMILE Inhibits Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Min; Seo, Woo-Young; Han, Hye-Sook; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Don-Kyu; Choi, Seri; Choi, Byeong Hun; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The role of a glucagon/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-inducible coactivator PGC-1α signaling pathway is well characterized in hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, an opposing protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-inducible corepressor signaling pathway is unknown. A previous report has demonstrated that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) regulates the nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors that control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we show that hepatic SMILE expression was induced by feeding in normal mice but not in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, SMILE expression was induced by insulin in mouse primary hepatocyte and liver. Hepatic SMILE expression was not altered by refeeding in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) or PKB β-deficient (PKBβ(-/-)) mice. At the molecular level, SMILE inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activity via direct competition with PGC-1α. Moreover, ablation of SMILE augmented gluconeogenesis and increased blood glucose levels in mice. Conversely, overexpression of SMILE reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, SMILE is an insulin-inducible corepressor that suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Small molecules that enhance SMILE expression would have potential for treating hyperglycemia in diabetes. PMID:26340929

  5. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark R.; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of drug-induced pancreatitis cases are mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Management of drug-induced pancreatitis requires withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Methods This review focuses on differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, drug-mediated effects, treatments, and mechanisms of pancreatitis, with an emphasis on drug-induced pancreatitis. Results Although only a minority of cases associated with acute pancreatitis are linked to drugs, clinical presentation and mechanisms of injury to the pancreas are not well understood by clinicians in terms of individual drug effects in the mediation or modulation of injury to the pancreas. In recent years, a large number of commonly prescribed medications has been linked to drug-induced pancreatitis pathogenesis. Although mechanisms are proposed, the exact cause of injury is either not well understood or controversial. Conclusion Future investigation into the mechanisms of pancreatitis and an appreciation by clinicians of the drugs commonly linked to the condition will help establish earlier diagnosis and quicker cessation of offending drugs in the treatment of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:25829880

  6. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates hyperthermia-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Baik-Lin; Abraham, Jayne; Mlsna, Lauren; Kim, Min Jung; Koh, Sookyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. Methods The innate immune activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to postnatal day 14 rat (200 μg/kg) and mouse (100 μg/kg) pups 2–2.5 h prior to hyperthermic seizures (HT) induced by hair dryer or heat lamp. To determine whether simulation of infection enhances neuronal excitability, latency to seizure onset, threshold temperature and total number of seizures were quantified. Behavioral seizures were correlated with electroencephalographic changes in rat pups. Seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was assessed in blood samples at various time points after HT. Seizure-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus was quantified using Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice. Results Lipopolysaccharide priming increased susceptibility of rats and mice to hyperthemic seizures and enhanced seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation. Conclusions Peripheral inflammation appears to work synergistically with hyperthermia to potentiate seizures and to exacerbate seizure-induced immune responses. By simulating fever, a regulated increase in body temperature from an immune challenge, we developed a more clinically relevant animal model of prolonged FS. PMID:26357586

  7. [Drug-induced acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Derungs, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Due to their physiological function, the kidneys are exposed to high concentrations of numerous drugs and their metabolites, making them vulnerable to drug-related injuries. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in nephrotoxicity, the most common nephrotoxic drugs, and the risk factors for the occurrence of drug-induced acute kidney injuries. NSAIDs, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs} are the most frequent prerenal causes of an acute elevation in creatinine levels. Primary vascular damage arises from thrombotic microangiopathy (e. g. due to cic/osporin, tacrolimus, muromonab-CD3, mitomycin C, quinine, ticlopidine, clopidogrel}. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic medications lead to secondary blood vessel damage by cholesterol emboli, embolism of thrombus material into the periphery or bleeding. Tubulopathies can be observed on treatment with ifosfamide and cisplatin (rarely with cyclophosphamide or carboplatin), aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and radiocontrast agents. Immunological mechanisms underlie interstitial nephritides, which are induced by drugs in about 85% of cases. In drug-induced glomerulopathies;- renal biopsy allows closer identification of the triggering medication. Drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE} represents a special form of immune complex glomerulonephritis and can be triggered by procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, methyldopa, quinidine, chlorpromazine, and propylthiouracil. Crystal-induced kidney injury is caused by precipitation of drugs (e. g. aciclovir, sulfonamide antibiotics, methotrexate, indinavir) in the renal tubules and the urine-conducting organs with consecutive obstruction thereof. PMID:26654816

  8. Neutron induced bystander effect among zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Kong, E. Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Uchihori, Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Konishi, T.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper reported the first-ever observation of neutron induced bystander effect (NIBE) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as the in vivo model. The neutron exposure in the present work was provided by the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. Two different strategies were employed to induce NIBE, namely, through directly partnering and through medium transfer. Both results agreed with a neutron-dose window (20-50 mGy) which could induce NIBE. The lower dose limit corresponded to the threshold amount of neutron-induced damages to trigger significant bystander signals, while the upper limit corresponded to the onset of gamma-ray hormesis which could mitigate the neutron-induced damages and thereby suppress the bystander signals. Failures to observe NIBE in previous studies were due to using neutron doses outside the dose-window. Strategies to enhance the chance of observing NIBE included (1) use of a mono-energetic high-energy (e.g., between 100 keV and 2 MeV) neutron source, and (2) use of a neutron source with a small gamma-ray contamination. It appeared that the NASBEE facility used in the present study fulfilled both conditions, and was thus ideal for triggering NIBE.

  9. Shock-induced defects in bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper examples of the shock-induced defects produced during shock compression which correlate with microstructure/mechanical property changes induced in materials due to shock prestraining are discussed. The characteristics of the shock impulse(peak shock pressure, pulse duration, and rarefaction rate) imparted to the material under investigation and the shock-induced defects produced in numerous metals and alloys are compared with their deformation behavior at ordinary rates of deformation. Examples of the range of defects observed in shock-recovered metals and alloys, include: dislocations, deformation twins, point defects, and residual metastable remnants from pressure-induced phase transformations. Results concerning the influence of interstitial content on the propensity of {omega}-phase formation and its structure in high-purity and A-7O Ti are presented. The influence of shock-wave deformation on the phase stability and substructure evolution of high-purity (low-interstitial) titanium and A-7O (3,700 ppm oxygen) titanium were probed utilizing real-time velocity interferometry (VISAR) and soft shock-recovery techniques. Suppression of the {alpha}-{omega} pressure-induced phase transformation in A-70 Ti, containing a high interstitial oxygen content, is seen to simultaneously correspond with the suppression of deformation twinning.

  10. The quality of high pressure-induced and heat-induced yuzu marmalade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwada, Hiroko; Jibu, Yuri; Teramoto, Ai; Fuchigami, Michiko

    2010-12-01

    Yuzu is a typical Japanese citrus with a desirable smell. The objectives of this study are to establish a process for pressure-induced marmalade (without both heating or the addition of pectin) and compare it with heat-induced marmalade. Sliced peel (flavedo) was soaked in 2% citric acid solution (pH 2.0). Albedo, endocarp and juice sacs were homogenized with 0.3% citric acid solution (pH 2.5). After soaking for 24 h, these were mixed and 50% or 60% sucrose of the total weight was added, then pressurized at 500 MPa or boiled (process A). Process B: all processing was done at pH 2.7. Peel of high pressure-induced marmalade maintained a natural color. Flavedo in heat-induced marmalade was softer than that of pressure-induced marmalade. There was no difference in viscosity between heat-induced and high pressure-induced marmalade. High pressure-induced marmalade with 50% sugar was preferred by a sensory test because fresh flavor and color were maintained.

  11. Complement profile and activation mechanisms by different LDL apheresis systems.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Enebakk, Terje; Christiansen, Dorte; Ludviksen, Judith Krey; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2012-07-01

    Extracorporeal removal of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by means of selective LDL apheresis is indicated in otherwise uncontrolled familial hypercholesterolemia. During blood-biomaterial interaction other constituents than the LDL particles are affected, including the complement system. We set up an ex vivo model in which human whole blood was passed through an LDL apheresis system with one of three different apheresis columns: whole blood adsorption, plasma adsorption and plasma filtration. The concentrations of complement activation products revealed distinctly different patterns of activation and adsorption by the different systems. Evaluated as the final common terminal complement complex (TCC) the whole blood system was inert, in contrast to the plasma systems, which generated substantial and equal amounts of TCC. Initial classical pathway activation was revealed equally for both plasma systems as increases in the C1rs-C1inh complex and C4d. Alternative pathway activation (Bb) was most pronounced for the plasma adsorption system. Although the anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) were equally generated by the two plasma separation systems, they were efficiently adsorbed to the plasma adsorption column before the "outlet", whereas they were left free in the plasma in the filtration system. Consequently, during blood-biomaterial interaction in LDL apheresis the complement system is modulated in different manners depending on the device composition. PMID:22373816

  12. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    PubMed Central

    Kıvrak, Yüksel; Yağcı, İbrahim; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Özcan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks. PMID:26457219

  13. Magnetomechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Causado-Buelvas, Jesus D.; Gomez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Torres, Pedro

    2008-04-15

    In this work, we report a simple, flexible method to create long period fiber gratings mechanically by controlling the repulsion/attraction force between two magnets that pressing a plate with a periodic array of small glass cylinders to a short length of optical fiber. Via the photoelastic effect, the pressure points induce the required periodic refractive index modulation to create the LPFG. We found that the induced device exhibits spectral characteristics similar to those of other types of LPFG. As the optical properties of LPFGs are directly related to the nature of the applied perturbations, we show, to our knowledge for the frrst time, how is the evolution of birefringence effects in mechanically induced LPFGs.

  14. Surfactant-induced hydrogen production in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Famiglietti, M.; Luisi, P.L. ); Hochkoeppler, A. . Dept. di Biologia)

    1993-10-01

    Addition of Tween 85 to aqueous suspensions of Anabaena variabilis induced photosynthetic evolution of hydrogen over a time span of several weeks: as much as 148 nmol H[sub 2]/h [center dot] mg dry weight was produced in the first week by a suspension containing 4.2 mg dry weight of cells and 77 mM Tween 85. The chemical structure of Tween 85 was a necessary prerequisite for inducing hydrogen production, as compounds such as Tween 20, 60, and 80 had a quite different effect. There was a coupling between photosynthetic oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution: Hydrogen evolution started to be effective only when oxygen evolution subdued. The presence of heterocysts in A. variabilis was also required for the Tween-induced hydrogen production. Based on these observations, possible mechanisms for the photosynthetic effect of Tween 85 are advanced and discussed.

  15. Modelling of electron beam induced nanowire attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Lucas A.; Speich, Claudia; Schäfer, David; Erni, Daniel; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz J.; Benson, Niels; Schmechel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) induced nanowire (NW) attraction or bundling is a well known effect, which is mainly ascribed to structural or material dependent properties. However, there have also been recent reports of electron beam induced nanowire bending by SEM imaging, which is not fully explained by the current models, especially when considering the electro-dynamic interaction between NWs. In this article, we contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon, by introducing an electro-dynamic model based on capacitor and Lorentz force interaction, where the active NW bending is stimulated by an electromagnetic force between individual wires. The model includes geometrical, electrical, and mechanical NW parameters, as well as the influence of the electron beam source parameters and is validated using in-situ observations of electron beam induced GaAs nanowire (NW) bending by SEM imaging.

  16. Development of autophagy inducers in clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Beth; Packer, Milton; Codogno, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Defects in autophagy have been linked to a wide range of medical illnesses, including cancer as well as infectious, neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. These observations have led to the hypothesis that autophagy inducers may prevent or treat certain clinical conditions. Lifestyle and nutritional factors, such as exercise and caloric restriction, may exert their known health benefits through the autophagy pathway. Several currently available FDA-approved drugs have been shown to enhance autophagy, and this autophagy-enhancing action may be repurposed for use in novel clinical indications. The development of new drugs that are designed to be more selective inducers of autophagy function in target organs is expected to maximize clinical benefits while minimizing toxicity. This Review summarizes the rationale and current approaches for developing autophagy inducers in medicine, the factors to be considered in defining disease targets for such therapy, and the potential benefits of such treatment for human health. PMID:25654546

  17. Gyromagnetically-induced transparency for ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsun-Hsu

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic permeability is generally a second-rank tensor for an anisotropic medium. By considering a dc bias magnetic field and an ac circularly polarized wave, a generalized permeability can be derived. The formula for the generalized permeability explains why most dielectrics, paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials, and even metals have a relative permeability close to unity. For ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic materials, the permeability strongly depends on the applied magnetic field and the polarizations of the electromagnetic waves. This work discusses how a circularly polarized wave interacts with the magnetic dipole moment being induced by and precessing around the applied dc bias field. The gyromagnetic resonance between the wave and the induced dipole allows us to find a condition where the incident wave can propagate through the medium without reflection. This explains the mysterious effect of gyromagnetically induced transparency.

  18. Area scalable optically induced photorefractive photonic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wentao; Xue, Yan Ling; Jiang, Dongdong

    2016-07-01

    A convenient approach to fabricate area scalable two-dimensional photonic microstructures was experimentally demonstrated by multi-face optical wedges. The approach is quite compact and stable without complex optical alignment equipment. Large-area square lattice microstructures are optically induced inside an iron-doped lithium niobate photorefractive crystal. The induced large-area microstructures are analyzed and verified by plane wave guiding, Brillouin-zone spectroscopy, angle-dependent transmission spectrum, and lateral Bragg reflection patterns. The method can be easily extended to generate other more complex area scalable photonic microstructures, such as quasicrystal lattices, by designing the multi-face optical wedge appropriately. The induced area scalable photonic microstructures can be fixed or erased even re-recorded in the photorefractive crystal, which suggests potential applications in micro-nano photonic devices.

  19. Electron and positron induced processes. POSMOL 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Campeanu, Radu; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Ingólfsson, Oddur; Mason, Nigel; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    POSMOL 2013, the international meeting on electron and positron induced processes comprising the XVII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XVIII International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Kanazawa Bunka Hall, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, from 19-21 July 2013. The XVII Workshop encompassed all aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and topics related to these, whereas the XVIII Symposium encompassed all aspects of electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent research on the study of electron swarms was also highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

  20. Nonviral Methods for Inducing Pluripotency to Cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Doherty, Ryan; Wang, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    The concept of inducing pluripotency to adult somatic cells by introducing reprogramming factors to them is one that has recently emerged, gained widespread acclaim and garnered much attention among the scientific community. The idea that cells can be reprogrammed, and are not unidirectionally defined opens many avenues for study. With their clear potential for use in the clinic, these reprogrammed cells stand to have a huge impact in regenerative medicine. This realization did not occur overnight but is, however, the product of many decades worth of advancements in researching this area. It was a combination of such research that led to the development of induced pluripotent stem cells as we know it today. This review delivers a brief insight in to the roots of iPS research and focuses on succinctly describing current nonviral methods of inducing pluripotency using plasmid vectors, small molecules and chemicals, and RNAs. PMID:23841088