Science.gov

Sample records for anatolian fault turkey

  1. Geometry of the Gerede Segment, North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglayan, A.; ISIK, V.

    2012-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is an active dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey. The NAFZ is approximately 1200 km in length which extends from Karliova in the east and to reach as far as the Gulf of Saros in the west. The NAFZ becomes wider geometry from east to west which are characterized by 9 destructive earthquake of Ms>7 in the 20th century. An earthquake on 1944 February 1 (Ms 7,3) caused 180 km long surface rupture associated with 2-6.5 m of right-lateral slip between Bayramören in the east and Abant Lake in the west along the NAFZ, which is called the Gerede Segment. This study describes internal geometrical characteristics and deformation mechanism of faults with fault surfaces in the Gerede Segment. The faults along the segment variously cut across Mesozoic-Cenozoic basement rocks and Quaternary alluvium deposits. They juxtapose not only different units of basement but also basement rocks and alluvium. We select typical fault surface that have been formed the best exposures in limestone in different locality, which define exhumed main faults along the segment. These faults strike N70°-80°E and dip 50°-85°NW. Slickenlines on these fault surface plunge shallowly to the NE and/or SW. Fault surface include brittle kinematic indicators indicating right-lateral strike-slip displacements. Some typical Riedel shear fractures (R- and P-fractures) around the main faults also show dextral displacements. Along the main faults two main architectural elements including fault core and fault damage zone is typical. The fault damage zones of these faults are characterized by both fault-related fracturing and fluid-assisted deformation processes. Although breccia is common fault rock in fault zones, gouge and cataclasite are seen in variable exposures. We have defined crackle, mosaic and chaotic type breccias using clast-size and clast proportion. Rock fragments within breccias have occurred mm-cm scale from angular to rounded clast. Sub

  2. Aseismic slip behavior of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Ozener, Haluk; Lasserre, Cecile; Rousset, Baptiste; Jolivet, Romain; Mencin, David; Bilham, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Although the creep along the Ismetpaşa section of the North Anatolian Fault was discovered over half a century ago, its spatiotemporal behavior has been poorly known. Measurements with GPS, InSAR and Total Station over the last two decades show a creep rate of 7±2 mm/yr. However, whether slip is steady state or episodic was not widely known. Creepmeter measurements between 1982 and 1990 by Aytun and Sav (1991) illustrate that creep was occurring episodically as bursts of events. Our recent InSAR observations with Cosmo-SkyMed data with short temporal baselines confirm that slip is indeed episodic. This behavior has also been confirmed by continuous creep measurements with creep meters we installed across the Ismetpaşa and Izmit faults in 2014. Both creepmeters shows episodic creep event with long intervals of quiescence. The newly installed creepmeters will be powerful tools to examine the creep behavior along the NAF and they will be used to validate the results of on-going INSAR (Sentinel and Terra-SAR) and recently install continuous GPS studies, along the NAF.

  3. Bimaterial interfaces at the Karadere segment of the North Anatolian Fault, northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdahmadi, B.; Bohnhoff, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We image velocity contrast (bimaterial) interfaces along the Karadere Fault of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, toward the eastern part of the 1999 Izmit Mw 7.4 rupture in NW Turkey, using waveforms recorded by a local seismic network. Applying an automatic procedure for identification and picking of fault zone head waves (FZHW) and direct P arrivals, and manually revising the picks through particle motion analysis, we identify two different groups of FZHW as well as fault zone reflected waves (FZRW). The first group of FZHW has a moveout with respect to the direct P arrivals with distance traveled along the fault, indicating a deep bimaterial interface down to the base of the seismogenic crust with an average velocity contrast of ~3.4%. The second group of FZHW has a constant time difference from the direct P arrivals and is associated with a shallow local interface bounding a low-velocity damage zone or basin structure that extends to a depth of 4-5 km. While the first group of FZHW exists on the slower crustal block, the second group of FZHW and the FZRW are present generally on both sides of the fault. These phases add to the richness and complexity of the early P waveforms observed at stations close to a large fault. The relatively low velocity contrast across the Karadere Fault compared to values to the west may have helped stopping the Izmit rupture.

  4. The implication of gouge mineralogy evolution on fault creep: an example from The North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aseismic creep is found along several sections of major active faults at shallow depth, such as the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, the San Andreas Fault in California (USA), the Longitudinal Valley Fault in Taiwan, the Haiyuan fault in China and the El Pilar Fault in Venezuela. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults, the interplay between creep and earthquakes, and the link between short-term observations from geodesy and the geological setting. Hence, studying the evolution of initial rock into damaged rock, then into gouge, is one of the key question for understanding the origin of fault creep. In order to address this question we collected samples from a dozen well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked sections of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, EPMA, XRD analysis, combined with image processing, to characterize their mineralogy and strain. We conclude that (1) there is a clear correlation between creep localization and gouge composition. The locked sections of the fault are mostly composed of massive limestone. The creeping sections comprises clay gouges with 40-80% low friction minerals such as smectite, saponite, kaolinite, that facilitates the creeping. (2) The fault gouge shows two main structures that evolve with displacement: anastomosing cleavage develop during the first stage of displacement; amplifying displacement leads to layering development oblique or sub-parallel to the fault. (3) We demonstrate that the fault gouge result from a progressive evolution of initial volcanic rocks including dissolution of soluble species that move at least partially toward the damage zones and alteration transformations by fluid flow that weaken the gouge and strengthen the damage zone.

  5. Multicomponent seismic loss estimation on the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    karimzadeh Naghshineh, S.; Askan, A.; Erberik, M. A.; Yakut, A.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic loss estimation is essential to incorporate seismic risk of structures into an efficient decision-making framework. Evaluation of seismic damage of structures requires a multidisciplinary approach including earthquake source characterization, seismological prediction of earthquake-induced ground motions, prediction of structural responses exposed to ground shaking, and finally estimation of induced damage to structures. As the study region, Erzincan, a city on the eastern part of Turkey is selected which is located in the conjunction of three active strike-slip faults as North Anatolian Fault, North East Anatolian Fault and Ovacik fault. Erzincan city center is in a pull-apart basin underlain by soft sediments that has experienced devastating earthquakes such as the 27 December 1939 (Ms=8.0) and the 13 March 1992 (Mw=6.6) events, resulting in extensive amount of physical as well as economical losses. These losses are attributed to not only the high seismicity of the area but also as a result of the seismic vulnerability of the constructed environment. This study focuses on the seismic damage estimation of Erzincan using both regional seismicity and local building information. For this purpose, first, ground motion records are selected from a set of scenario events simulated with the stochastic finite fault methodology using regional seismicity parameters. Then, existing building stock are classified into specified groups represented with equivalent single-degree-of-freedom systems. Through these models, the inelastic dynamic structural responses are investigated with non-linear time history analysis. To assess the potential seismic damage in the study area, fragility curves for the classified structural types are derived. Finally, the estimated damage is compared with the observed damage during the 1992 Erzincan earthquake. The results are observed to have a reasonable match indicating the efficiency of the ground motion simulations and building analyses.

  6. Creep Along the North Anatolian Fault at Ismetpasa (Western Turkey) Deduced From InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Z.; Ergintav, S.; Akoglu, A. M.; Belabbes, S.; Meghraoui, M.

    2004-12-01

    Although creeping along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) at Ismetpasa (Turkey) was discovered some thirty years ago, about a decade after the first observation of the phenomenon along the San Andreas Fault in California, little is known about its extent and rate. In order to reveal its three dimensional nature and rupture characteristics, we use Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and dislocations on rectangular faults in elastic half space. Interferograms with temporal baselines ranging between 1.25 and 5 years show that creeping starts at the western termination of the 1943 (Mw=7.6) earthquake rupture and continues about 70-km to the west overlapping with the eastern part of the 185-km-long rupture of the 1944 (Mw=7.3) earthquake. Maximum creep rate is 10 mm/year approximately in the mid point of the creeping part of the rupture segment diminishing gradually towards the edges. Near Ismetpasa, InSAR data yield 7.7 mm/year of creep rate, consistent with those deduced from instrumental (triangulation and creepmeters) measurements (i.e. 9 mm/year). Modeling of the InSAR and GPS data suggests that the fault creep occurs most probably at a shallow depth (0-7 km). InSAR data do not support the previous claims of creep events triggered by the 1999 Izmit earthquake.

  7. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (<5 mm/yr) than the northern strand . However, historical texts suggest a significant earthquake hazard over the last two millennia in this area. Data are needed to attest for the tectonic origin of the lake and the precise location of the faults. Long-term slip rates and stress accumulation on these faults zone are also unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate seismic hazard. The main goal of this work is to collect new data on the past activity of the NAFMS and to estimate slip rates at different time scales. For this, we observe geomorphic and archeological markers of past deformation. The main fault zones were identified using a high resolution DEM (<2m) derived from Pleiades images, and confirmed on the field. These faults intersect and deform geomorphic features, such as terraces, paleoshorelines, alluvial fans.... Terraces deposited by Iznik Lake during high stands, which were tilted and crossed by several faults, were sampled for dating in order to constrain the normal and strike-slip Quaternary slip rate of the faults and their influence on the lake formation. The valley of Kirandere river east of Iznik presents many deflected and offset rivers and ridges, that will be used to constrain a Holocene strike-slip rate. To document the historical activity of the NAFMS around Iznik, we have identified ancient buildings that underwent successive damages and repairs and characterized them through an archeoseismological approach. We particularly studied the roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  8. Relative tectonic activity assessment along the East Anatolian strike-slip fault, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Abdelrahman

    2016-04-01

    The East Anatolian transform fault is a morphologically distinct and seismically active left-lateral strike-slip fault that extends for ~ 500 km from Karlıova to the Maraş defining the boundary between the Anatolian Block and Syrian Foreland. Deformed landforms along the East Anatolian fault provide important insights into the nature of landscape development within an intra-continental strike-slip fault system. Geomorphic analysis of the East Anatolian fault using geomorphic indices including mountain front sinuosity, stream length-gradient index, drainage density, hypsometric integral, and the valley-width to valley height ratio helped differentiate the faulting into segments of differing degrees of the tectonic and geomorphic activity. Watershed maps for the East Anatolian fault showing the relative relief, incision, and maturity of basins along the fault zone help define segments of the higher seismic risk and help evaluate the regional seismic hazard. The results of the geomorphic indices show a high degree of activity, reveal each segment along the fault is active and represent a higher seismic hazard along the entire fault.

  9. Continental strike slip fault zones in geologically complex lithosphere: the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, David; Thompson, David; Papaleo, Elvira; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory; Kahraman, Metin; Turkelli, Niyazi; Teoman, Ugur; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Gulen, Levent; Utkucu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we present new detailed images in a geologically complex region where the crust and upper mantle is bisected by a major continental strike-slip fault system. Our study region samples the north Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) near the epicentres of two large earthquakes that occurred in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) and where estimates of present day slip rate are 20-25 mm/yr. Using recordings of teleseismic earthquakes from a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield, we build a detailed 3-D image of structure and anisotropy using receiver functions, tomography and shear wave splitting and illuminate major changes in the architecture and properties of the upper crust, lower crust and upper mantle, both across and along the two branches of the NAFZ, at length scales of less than 20 km. We show that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 10 km wide. A high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting appear to add strength to a heterogeneous crust and play a role in dictating the variation in faulting style and postseismic deformation. Sharp changes in lithospheric mantle velocity and anisotropy are constrained as the NAFZ is crossed, whereas crustal structure and anisotropy vary considerably both parallel and perpendicular to the faulting. We use our observations to test current models of the localisation of strike-slip deformation and develop new ideas to explain how narrow fault zones develop in extremely heterogeneous lithosphere.

  10. Structural and seismic data on a new branch of the North Anatolian Fault: A reworked Tertiary thrust fault in northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylan, E.; Akbayram, K.; Imren, C.

    2012-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is an over 1200 km long dextral strike-slip fault in the eastern Mediterranean. The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and its related branches together make up the North Anatolian Shear Zone (NASZ). The NASZ has two well known active segments in Adapazarı - Sakarya - Bolu region, northwestern Turkey. We provide new structural, stratigraphical and seismic data showing that a previously unknown third segment also exists and created as a result of reworking of Cenozoic thrust faults by the recent deformation of the NAF, in northwest Turkey. Our study area is within Sakarya Basin which consists of ~6 km thick Jurassic - Lower Tertiary sediments, located between the main branch of the NAF in the north and a Mesozoic suture zone in the south. During Tertiary the units in the Sakarya Basin is folded and faulted as a result of north - south shortening. Interestingly one of these thrust faults, so called Pirler Fault, is a deep angle fault dipping 70° south. Later regional analysis on the Pirler Fault shows that this fault is approximately 200 km long, extended southwest to northeast, from the southern border of a Quaternary basin (Gölpazarı Basin of Sakarya city) to the main segment of the NAF (Gerede region of Bolu city). Distribution of the epicenters of recent earthquakes also shows that there is much activity going on the Pirler Fault, generating Mw = 2 - 4 earthquakes.

  11. The Transient Behavior of Aseismic Slip Along the Creeping Section of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Rousset, B.; Simons, M.; Lasserre, C.; Riel, B. V.; Milillo, P.; Cakir, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing development of constellations of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites with short repeat time acquisitions allows to explore the behavior of active faults with an unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. The improvement from monthly to daily repeat times sheds a new light on the dynamics of near-surface fault creep along continental faults, which has been shown to exhibit various temporal behaviors, from persistent slow silent slip to discrete episodes of aseismic slip. Along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), an 80 km-long section is creeping at least since the 1944, M7.3 earthquake near Ismetpasa, Turkey. Recent geodetic measurements suggest an average creep rate of about half the total slip rate accommodated by the NAF (8±3 mm/yr vs. 22±3 mm/yr). In addition, an effective bi-modal distribution of frictional properties along fault dip (rate-strengthening from the surface to 5-7 km-depth and rate-weakening down to the locking depth) can explain the persistent creep rate and the extent of past ruptures. We take advantage of the dense set of SAR images acquired by the Cosmo-SkyMed™ (ASI) constellation over the creeping section of the NAF to quantify, with a high spatial and temporal resolution, the distribution of aseismic slip along strike and its evolution between August 2013 and June 2014. We compute 1000+ interferograms from 350+ radar acquisitions over 7 tracks using the ISCE software (JPL). We use the Generic InSAR Analysis Toolbox (GIAnT) and the PyAPS library to correct interferograms from the propagation delays due to the stratification of the troposphere, predicted using the ERA-Interim (ECMWF) re-analysis. We use the New Small Baseline (NSBAS) method to derive the spatial and temporal evolution of the near-fault displacements independently for each track. Our results suggest the fault does not creep steadily over the 2013-2014 period but rather releases strain through discrete aseismic events we refer to as bursts of creep. In

  12. Intraplate Deformation of the Anatolian Micro Plate on the Amasya Branch Fault in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.

    2010-12-01

    The discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate along the North Anatolian fault has been more evident as solid incremental (Kondo et al. 2010) and cumulative (Kozaci et al. 2009, Okumura et al. 2010) slip rate data are accumulated. The strain transient effect (Kozaci et al. 2009) could be a plausible cause for the discrepancy. At the same time, the seismicity, crustal deformation, and active structures indicate significant amount of distributed tectonic strain far inside the Anatolian micro plate. The accumulation and release of the distributed strain may affect the seismic cycle of the plate boundary. However, there is almost no quantitative information on the earthquakes and faults in central Anatolia. Considering the magnitude of the discrepancy, it is important to understand the intra-plate tectonics and to prepare for the seismic hazard in less active intra-plate areas. For this purpose, the author carried out detailed survey of the Amasya fault. Amasya fault is the only major branch of the North Anatolian fault in Central Anatolia. While the main strand of the North Anatolian fault steps at the Niksar basin, the Amasya fault is the westward continuation of the North Anatolian fault along the Kerkit river valley in the east. The fault extends to southwest over 250 km into the Anatolian micro plate. In 1939 about 100 km long eastern portion of the Amasya fault ruptured together with the 200 km long main strand between Niksar and Erzincan. The location and slip distribution of the 1939 ruptures, as well as slip-rate and paleoseismicity on the Amasya fault have been studied very little. Preliminary fault mapping between 36° E and 37° E was done with Google-Earth satellite photos and 1939 rupture locations were confirmed on site by interviews to aged local people. Cumulative slip measurement and slip-rate estimation were conducted in east of Canbolat (37.6228° E) and east of Findicak (36.4572° E). At Canbolat, 11.4 m cumulative offset was measured on

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Holocene alluvial fans, East Anatolian Fault System, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Tamer; Cetin, Hasan; Yegingil, Zehra; Topaksu, Mustafa; Yüksel, Mehmet; Duygun, Fırat; Nur, Necmettin; Yegingil, İlhami

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the optically stimulated luminescence dating technique was used to determine the time of deposition of alluvial sediment samples from the Türkoğlu-Antakya segment of the East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS) in Turkey. The double-single aliquot regenerative dose protocol on fine grain samples was used to estimate equivalent doses (De). Annual dose rate was computed using elemental concentration of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) determined by using thick-source alpha counting and potassium (K) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence and/or atomic absorption spectroscopy. The environmental dose was measured in situ using α-Al2O3:C chips inside plastic tubes for a year. The two different bulk sediment samples collected from the Islahiye trench yielded ages of 4.54 ± 0.28 and 2.91 ± 0.23 ka. We also obtained a 2.60 ± 0.18 ka age for the alluvial deposit in the Kıranyurdu trench and 2.31 ± 0.14 ka age for an excavation area called Malzeme Ocağı. These ages were consistent with the corresponding calibrated Carbon-14 (14C) ages of the region. The differences between the determined ages were insufficient to clearly distinguish the disturbance event from the effects of bioturbation, biological mixing, or other sources of De variation in the region. They provide a record of alluvial aggradation in the region and may determine undocumented historical earthquake events.

  14. Paleoearthquakes on the Kelkit Valley segment of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey: Implications for the surface rupture of the historical 17 August 1668 Anatolian Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabci, Cengiz; Akyuz, H. Serdar; Karabacak, Volkan; Sançar, Taylan; Altunel, Erhan; Gursoy, Halil; Tatar, Orhan

    2010-05-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone is one of the Earth's most important active dextral strike-slip structures, which is extending more than 1500 km from the eastern Turkey to the northern Aegean Sea. This deformation zone is the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian block and connects Aegean extensional regime with East Anatolian high plateau. 26 December 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.8) and 20 December 1942 Erbaa-Niksar (Ms=7.1) earthquakes created a total surface rupture more than 400 km between Erzincan and Erbaa on the middle to eastern sections of the North Anatolian Fault. These two faulting events are separated by a 10-km-wide releasing step-over, acted like a seismic barrier in the 20th century. In contrast, the historical Anatolian Earthquake of 17 August 1668 is thought to have a probable rupture length of more than 400 km, starts from east of Gerede, crossing the 10-km-wide releasing step-over at Niksar, and stops somewhere close to Koyulhisar. However, some other historical earthquake catalogues do not share the idea of a single very large earthquake and mention a series of events between July and September 1668 at various places. In the framework of T.C. D.P.T. Project to 2006K.120220 we undertook paleoseismological trench investigations on the Kelkit Valley segment to test the multi-cycle earthquake behavior of the North Anatolian Fault at this structural complex section. We found evidences for three surface faulting earthquakes predating the 1939 event during the past millennium in trenches, excavated at Reşadiye (40.38N, 37.35E) and Umurca (40.33N, 37.35E). While Reşadiye trench is excavated on alluvial fan deposits at the east of the Reşadiye town, where sedimentation is modified by a man-made artificial channel after a certain period of time, Umurca trench is located at the distal part of an alluvial fan at 23 km east of Reşadiye trench. In addition to the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, prior earthquake surface ruptures are interpreted as: (a) 17

  15. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  16. Post-Seismic Crustal Deformation Following The 1999 Izmit Earthquake, Western Part Of North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkan, O.; Ozener, H.

    2004-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault is an about 1500 km long, extending from the Karliova to the North Aegean. Turkey is a natural laboratory with high tectonic activity caused by the relative motion of the Eurasian, Arabian and Anatolian plates. Western part of Turkey and its vicinity is a seismically active area. Since 1972 crustal deformation has been observed by various kinds of geodetic measurements in the area. Three GPS networks were installed in this region by Geodesy Department of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute( KOERI ) of Bogazici University: (1) Iznik Network, installed on the Iznik-Mekece fault zone, seismically low active part, (2) Sapanca Network, installed on the Izmit-Sapanca fault zone, seismically active part, (3) Akyazi Network, installed on their intersection area, the Mudurnu fault zone. First period observations were performed by using terrestrial methods in 1990 and these observations were repeated annually until 1993. Since 1994, GPS measurements have been carried out at the temporary and permanent points in the area and the crustal movements are being monitored. Horizontal deformations, which have not been detected by terrestrial methods, were determined from the results of GPS measurements. A M=7.4 earthquake hit Izmit, northern Turkey, on August 17, 1999. After this earthquake many investigations have been started in the region. An international project has been performed with the collaboration of Massachussets Institute of Technology, Turkish General Command of Mapping, Istanbul Technical University, TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center and Geodesy Department of KOERI. Postseismic movements have been observed by the region-wide network. A GPS network including 49 well spread points in Marmara region was observed twice a year between 1999 and 2003 years. During these surveys, another network with 6 points has been formed by using 2 points from each 3 microgeodetic networks on NAFZ with appropriate coverage and geometry. These

  17. The first Paleoseismic and New Neotectonic Data from Eskişehir Fault, Major Anatolian Neotectonic Structure, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürçer, Akın; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Kahraman, Serkan

    2014-05-01

    With regard to seismicity, Turkey is one of the most important active deformation regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Region owing to its geotectonic setting. Neotectonic development of Turkey and its neighboring areas is closely associated with the intracontinental convergence developed due to the continental collision between the African-Arabian and Eurasian Plates and the subsequent geological events. The neotectonics of Turkey and its near vicinity is mainly controlled by the dextral North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS), the sinistral East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) and the Aegean-Cyprian subduction zone, which is an active subduction zone. Apart from these main structures, there are secondary fault systems or fault zones which divide Anatolia into smaller blocks or contribute to the development of the Anatolian Block. These are the sinistral Central Anatolian Fault System, the oblique slip Tuz Gölü Fault Zone, the Akşehir Fault Zone and the İnegöl-Eskişehir Fault System. The İnegöl-Eskişehir Fault System (İEFS) is an intracontinental active obligue fault system more than 350 km-long, with a general trend of WNW-ESE extends in between Tuz Gölü in the southeast and İnegöl in the northwest and consisted of several fault and/or fault zone. This fault system is a transition zone that separates strike-slip neotectonic regime to the northeast from the extensional neotectonic regime to the southwest. According to the Revised Active Fault Map of Turkey, these faults are called as Bursa fault, İnegöl fault zone, Oylat fault, Dodurga fault, Eskişehir fault, Kaymaz fault and Cihanbeyli fault, respectively from NW to SE. The Eskişehir Fault is consisted of several geometric fault segments, which are parallel or sub-parallel to each other, varying between 15 and 27.5 km. in length. Kanlıpınar segment, the easternmost segment of Eskişehir Fault, is located on the east of Eskişehir. This segment extends in the N 70

  18. Understanding the intraplate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle: Insights from the study of the Ovacik Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Akçar, Naki

    2015-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly defined by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, Arabia and the smaller Anatolian 'scholle'. The Anatolia is being extruded westward along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian (NASZ) and the East Anatolian (EASZ) shear zones, respectively forming its northern and eastern boundaries. Although there are many geologic and geodetic studies infer that the deformation is mainly concentrated along the NASZ and the EASZ, it is also well documented that the central 'ova' neotectonic province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the NASZ in the north and the EASZ in the east, is also deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. These active structures clearly fit to the passive-Prandtl cell model of an internally deforming body, which is originally suggested by Sengör (1979) to interpret the neotectonics of the central Anatolia. The Malatya-Ovacik Fault Zone (MOFZ) and it is northeastern member, the Ovacik Fault (OF), is one the sinistral faults of the 'ova' province, located close to its eastern boundary. In the framework of the TUBITAK project no. 114Y227, we started to study the (a) the geologic slip rate, (b) the palaeoseismology and (c) the cumulative displacement of the OF in order to understand not only the short and long term spatio-temporal behaviour of this 110 km-long strike slip fault, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian 'scholle'. The faulting is clearly observed along the well-preserved scarps and displaced fluvial landforms at the northern margin of the Ovacik Basin (Tunceli, Turkey), where the deformation is mainly localised along a single strand. The preliminary cosmogenic 36Cl dates of two independent terrace risers at a single site yield slip rates about 1.5 and 1.9 mm/yr (Zabci et al. 2014), which slightly exceed the GPS-based block model

  19. Paleoseismologic Studies of the North Anatolian Fault, Cukurcimen and Ulaslar, North-Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartleb, R. D.; Dolan, J. F.; Kozaci, O.; Seitz, G. G.; Akyuz, H. S.; Barka, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    The central North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a model opportunity to study long-term behavior of continental transforms because of its relative mechanical simplicity and long historic record of earthquakes. We excavated three trenches across the NAF at Cukurcimen, near Refahiye in north-central Turkey on the eastern part of the 1939 M7.9 surface rupture. Measurement of a nearby offset dirt road, together with interviews with residents, indicates that ~9 - 14 m of dextral slip occurred at the site during the 1939 event. Trench stratigraphy is superb, with alternating fine-scale alluvial and marsh deposits, including abundant, laterally-continuous peat horizons. These in-situ peat deposits provide excellent chronological control, which we are utilizing by strategic sampling and AMS 14C analysis. We identified evidence for at least two, and perhaps four, surface ruptures at Cukurcimen. Two distinct event horizons were recognized in trench 1 on the basis of upward fault terminations. The most recent event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of a thin peat horizon (1332 - 1481 AD). We do not have an upper age limit for this event, but the event horizon lies ~75 cm below ground surface. We believe that this is the historical 1583 earthquake which razed Erzincan, and that the 1939 event is not recorded in trench 1. An older, clearly-defined event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of another thin peat horizon (795 - 1022 AD), and before the 1583 (?) event. We suspect that this event is the historical 1045 earthquake. There is also equivocal evidence in trench 1 for an older event that occurred after deposition of a peat dated at BC 538 - 260, and before 795 - 1022 AD. Trench 2 revealed evidence for one event (1939?), peat dates are pending. Trench 3 revealed evidence for two events (probably 1939 and 1583). Additional excavations are planned at this site. We excavated two trenches across the NAF near Ulaslar, 12 km east of Gerede, on the 1944 M7

  20. Paleoseismic evidence of characteristic slip on the Western segment of the North Anatolian fault, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, Yann; Sieh, K.; Altunel, E.; Akoglu, A.; Barka, A.; Dawson, Tim; Gonzalez, Tania; Meltzner, A.; Rockwell, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted a paleoseismic investigation of serial fault rupture at one site along the 110-km rupture of the North Anatolian fault that produced the Mw 7.4 earthquake of 17 August 1999. The benefit of using a recent rupture to compare serial ruptures lies in the fact that the location, magnitude, and slip vector of the most recent event are all very well documented. We wished to determine whether or not the previous few ruptures of the fault were similar to the recent one. We chose a site at a step-over between two major strike-slip traces, where the principal fault is a normal fault. Our two excavations across the 1999 rupture reveal fluvial sands and gravels with two colluvial wedges related to previous earthquakes. Each wedge is about 0.8 m thick. Considering the processes of collapse and subsequent diffusion that are responsible for the formation of a colluvial wedge, we suggest that the two paleoscarps were similar in height to the 1999 scarp. This similarity supports the concept of characteristic slip, at least for this location along the fault. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of 16 charcoal samples are consistent with the interpretation that these two paleoscarps formed during large historical events in 1509 and 1719. If this is correct, the most recent three ruptures at the site have occurred at 210- and 280-year intervals.

  1. Microstructural study of the partition between seismic and aseismic deformation along the North Anatolian Fault zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduri, M.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.; Cakir, Z.; Lasserre, C.

    2014-12-01

    Along the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey), fault sliding is accommodated both by earthquakes and by aseismic creep. The creep processes develop either as transient (post-seismic or interseismic) sliding or as permanent sliding along zones localized on specific segments of the fault. Creep processes relax the stress and contribute to stress redistribution within the seismogenic zone. They participate to the deformation budget during the seismic cycle, sometimes delaying or on the contrary helping triggering the occurrence of large earthquakes. Identifying the mechanisms controlling creep and their evolution with time and space represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults. Our goal is to answer three main questions: How to identify at the outcrop scale permanent creep from transient creep? Is aseismic creep controlled by lithology? How does creep evolve before and after earthquakes? The challenge is to understand which key parameters control the shift from seismic to aseismic deformation, such as the effect of fabric, rock lithology, fault roughness, strain-rate, fluid pressure or stress.We collected samples from a dozen of fresh and well-preserved fault outcrops along creeping and locked segments of the North Anatolian Fault. We used various methods such as microscopic and geological observations, SEM, XRD analysis, strain measurements from image processing approaches in order to quantitatively characterize the amount of deformation and the mechanisms involved. Results show different relationships between lithology and mechanisms of deformation: (i) Along the locked segments of the North Anatolian Fault, in massive limestone, we found evidence of large earthquakes followed by pre- or post-seismic (i.e. afterslip) creep. (ii) Along some creeping segments, we observed gouges with weak clay (saponite) that could accommodate (or have accommodated in the past) large permanent creep. (iii) Along other creeping segments, we observed

  2. Microseismicity at the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara offshore Istanbul, NW Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ellsworth, William L.; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) below the Sea of Marmara forms a “seismic gap” where a major earthquake is expected to occur in the near future. This segment of the fault lies between the 1912 Ganos and 1999 İzmit ruptures and is the only NAFZ segment that has not ruptured since 1766. To monitor the microseismic activity at the main fault branch offshore of Istanbul below the Çınarcık Basin, a permanent seismic array (PIRES) was installed on the two outermost Prince Islands, Yassiada and Sivriada, at a few kilometers distance to the fault. In addition, a temporary network of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed throughout the Çınarcık Basin. Slowness vectors are determined combining waveform cross correlation and P wave polarization. We jointly invert azimuth and traveltime observations for hypocenter determination and apply a bootstrap resampling technique to quantify the location precision. We observe seismicity rates of 20 events per month for M < 2.5 along the basin. The spatial distribution of hypocenters suggests that the two major fault branches bounding the depocenter below the Çınarcık Basin merge to one single master fault below ∼17 km depth. On the basis of a cross-correlation technique we group closely spaced earthquakes and determine composite focal mechanisms implementing recordings of surrounding permanent land stations. Fault plane solutions have a predominant right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, indicating that normal faulting along this part of the NAFZ plays a minor role. Toward the west we observe increasing components of thrust faulting. This supports the model of NW trending, dextral strike-slip motion along the northern and main branch of the NAFZ below the eastern Sea of Marmara.

  3. Monitoring aseismic surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey) using ground-based LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, V.; Altunel, E.; Cakir, Z.

    2011-04-01

    We studied the surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), one of the most seismically active structures of the eastern Mediterranean, by using a ground-based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system at the Ismetpasa and Destek sections. Aseismic surface creep has been known to exist at Ismetpasa since the 1970s, but it has not been previously reported for the Destek site. Three manmade walls across the fault were monitored for 3 yrs between June 2007 and November 2009 using LIDAR. The surveys revealed that a significant amount of aseismic strain is being continuously released along these sections of the NAF: 6.8-10.0 ± 4.0 mm/yr and 9.1-10.1 ± 4.0 mm/yr at two sites near Ismetpasa and 6.0-7.2 ± 4.0 mm/yr at Destek. Despite this, these fault segments are still capable of generating large earthquakes since 50-70% of the yearly slip (i.e., 20-25 mm/yr) still accumulates on the fault, as was demonstrated by the well-known 20th century earthquake sequence of 1939-1999.

  4. A Late Holocene Slip Rate Of The North Anatolian Fault, Hersek Peninsula, Izmit Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.; Altunel, E.; Clahan, K.; Yonlu, O.; Sundermann, S. T.; Lettis, W. R.; Turner, J.; Altekruse, J.; Gumus, I.; Lindvall, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Hersek Peninsula has been a strategic site for at least the last two millennia as a result of its location. It extends into Izmit Bay and creates a shortcut for the historical Bagdad Road, an important section of the spice route, between Istanbul (Constantinople) and Iznik (Nicaea). It also controls the entrance of Izmit Bay to Izmit (Nicomedia). Civilizations have been investing in this location by building harbors, fortifications, baths, roads, bridges, aqueducts, and temples. The remnants of these historical structures record evidence for past destruction of both anthropogenic and tectonic origin. From an active tectonics point of view, the Hersek Peninsula is a key locality for understanding seismic hazard in the Marmara Region. It is the last place that the North Anatolian fault can be studied on land before it enters the Marmara Sea and it has experienced strong ground shaking most recently during the M7.4 Izmit earthquake in 1999. Paleoseismic trenching as well as archeoseismologic investigations were recently performed on the Hersek Peninsula for regional and site specific seismic hazard characterization. Our paleoseismic trenches north of the Hersek Lagoon provided fault exposures confirming the location of the North Anatolian fault on the peninsula. Detailed mapping of a 6th century A.D. Byzantine aqueduct offset 14 ± 1 meters along the projection of this fault trace revealed a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 13.6 +1/-3.5 mm yr-1. Rapid fan deposition and subsidence on the delta plain across the Hersek Peninsula has resulted in the relatively recent deposition of several meters of relatively young alluvium and nearshore tidal deposits. Nearly 2 km of trench exposures revealed these deposits were continuous and contain only minor evidence of ground shaking in the form of secondary liquefaction deposits and ground fractures. The lack of primary ground surface rupture evidence in these approximately 300-year-old sediments strongly suggests that the

  5. Authigenic carbonate crusts and chimneys along the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Güliz; Namık Çaǧatay, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is located on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) fault zone that is a major continental transform plate boundary. It has ca. 1250 m-deep Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik basins that are separated by two NE-SW trending Central and Western Highs. Extensive cold seeps occur along the active fault segments of the NAF in the deep basins and highs, which are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts, carbonate chimneys and mounds, black sulphidic sediments, and local gas hydrates and oil seepage. The cold seep sites were observed and sampled during the Nautile submersible and Victor 6000 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives carried out during MARNAUT and MARSITE cruises in 2007 and 2014, respectively. Here, we report the mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates and discuss their environmental conditions and mechanisms of formation. The carbonate crusts range up to 5 cm in thickness and the chimneys and mounds are up to 2 m high. Some chimneys are active emitting fresh to brackish water at ambient bottom water temperatures (˜ 14° C). The carbonate crusts occur as a pavements, and are commonly covered with black sulphidic sediments and bacterial mats that accommodate a rich chemosynthetic community of bivalves, sea urchins and marine annelid worms (Polychaeta). The authigenic carbonates commonly consist mainly of aragonite, but in a few instances contain subequal amounts of aragonite and calcite. High Mg-calcite is usually a minor to trace component, except in one sample in which it is present as a cement of mudstone. In the active methane emission zones, the sulphate/methane boundary occurs at or close to the seafloor, whereas elsewhere in the Sea of Marmara, the same boundary is located at 2-5 m below the seafloor. This, together with very light stable carbon isotope values (δ13C=-29.8 to - 46.3 ‰ V-PDB), indicates that the anaerobic oxidation of high methane flux emitted from the active faults is the major process

  6. Geomorphic Signals for Preferred Propagation Direction of Earthquake Ruptures on North Anatolian Fault System, TURKEY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, C.; Dor, O.; Rockwell, T.; Emre, O.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Sisk, M.; Duman, T.

    2005-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault ruptured in a sequence of large earthquakes between 1939 and 1999, generally progressing from east to west. The 1943 and 1944 ruptures propagated unilateraly in opposite directions. Preliminary analysis of the geomorphology along these ruptures shows distinct differences that may reflect repeated ruptures with similar propagation directions. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage across the fault that may have goemorphic manifestations. Here we analyze geomorphic signals along the 43 and 44 ruptures to test whether correlative rock bodies across the fault have similar or distinct expression. We made observations at three scales: 1) small scale (< 100m) damage zone, generally expressed as localized badlands due to extremely high drainage density; 2) medium scale data of standard morphometric analyses (drainage density, stream frequency, ruggednes number, bifurcation ratio, landslide density, stream power index, slope length index, curvature and longitudinal profiles) on basins with same lithology; and 3) large scale on major rivers that display different adjustments. At two locations along the 43 rupture, highly eroded badlands south of the rupture have a higher gully density and frequency compared to the north. Drainage density gradually decreases as a function of distance from fault. On the 44 rupture, two sites near Ismetpasa were compared with one north and one south of the fault in the same lithology and with similar morphometric controls (elevation, relief and climate are very similar). Bifurcation ratios are 3.7 for the S side and 3.4 for the N, revealing the general homogeniety of the lithology. Morphometric analysis shows that the N area has higher drainage density, stream frequency, ruggedness number and landslide density. Stream power index , slope length index and curvature analysis are erosion-related parameters that indicate distinctive differences between the two sides of the fault

  7. The late Quaternary slip history of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey: Implications for the spatial and temporal behaviour of large strike-slip fault belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Sançar, Taylan; Güneç Kıyak, Nafiye

    2015-04-01

    I (central-eastern NAF) yield uniform slip rates of about 17 and 19 mm/a for the last 11 and 5 ka, respectively. Although Model II gives a similar uniform rate of about 17 mm/yr for the last 20 ka for the western NAF, the slip history solution shows secular variations in the very long-term offset structures of 100ka time scale within the Sea of Marmara, including eras of deceleration and acceleration during the last 500 ka. The time scale of these changes are remarkably very longer than the earthquake cycle, but shorter than the time-scale characteristics of lithospheric-scale dynamics. The most possible explanation can be the co-dependence between the northern and southern strands of the NASZ that a change on one strand is matched with an equal or opposite change in the rate on the other. In order to have a better understanding on this phenomena or the apparent discrepancy between the geologic and geodetic slip rates, the future studies are mandatory to increase the spatial and temporal resolution especially along the southern strand in the Marmara Region, the splay on the central part and the central-east sections of the NAF. Keywords: North Anatolian Fault, slip rate, variation in crustal deformation, Turkey Reference Gold, R. D., and E. Cowgill (2011), Deriving fault-slip histories to test for secular variation in slip, with examples from the Kunlun and Awatere faults, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 301(1-2), 52-64, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.011.

  8. Earthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; El-Ouahabi, Meriam; Garcia-Moreno, David; Avsar, Ulas; Altinok, Sevgi; Schmidt, Sabine; Cagatay, Namik

    2016-04-01

    Delta contains a sedimentary record primarily indicative of water level changes, but particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking, which results generally in soft-sediment-deformation structures. The Kürk Delta adjacent to a major strike-slip fault displays this type of deformation (Hempton and Dewey, 1983) as well as other types of earthquake fingerprints that are specifically investigated. This lacustrine delta stands at the south-western extremity of the Hazar Lake and is bound by the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), which generated earthquakes of magnitude 7 in eastern Turkey. Water level changes and earthquake shaking affecting the Kurk Delta have been reevaluated combining geophysical data (seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar), remote sensing images, historical data, onland outcrops and offshore coring. The history of water level changes provides a temporal framework regarding the sedimentological record. In addition to the commonly soft-sediment-deformation previously documented, the onland outcrops reveal a record of deformation (faults and clastic dykes) linked to large earthquake-induced liquefactions. The recurrent liquefaction structures can be used to obtain a paleoseismological record. Five event horizons were identified that could be linked to historical earthquakes occurring in the last 1000 years along the EAF. Sedimentary cores sampling the most recent subaqueous sedimentation revealed the occurrence of another type of earthquake fingerprint. Based on radionuclide dating (137Cs and 210Pb), two major sedimentary events were attributed to the 1874-1875 earthquake sequence along the EAF. Their sedimentological characteristics were inferred based X-ray imagery, XRD, LOI, grain-size distribution, geophysical measurements. The events are interpreted to be hyperpycnal deposits linked to post-seismic sediment reworking of earthquake-triggered landslides. A time constraint regarding this sediment remobilization process could be achieved thanks to

  9. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  10. Paleoseismic Trenching on 1939 Erzincan and 1942 Niksar-Erbaa Earthquake Surface Ruptures, the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, H. S.; Karabacak, V.; Zabci, C.; Sancar, T.; Altunel, E.; Gursoy, H.; Tatar, O.

    2009-04-01

    Two devastating earthquakes occurred between Erzincan (39.75N, 39.49E) and Erbaa, Tokat (40.70N, 36.58E) just three years one after another in 1939 and 1942. While 1939 Erzincan earthquake (M=7.8) ruptured nearly 360 km, 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M=7.1) has a length of 50 km surface rupture. Totally, more than 35000 citizens lost their lives after these events. Although Turkey has one of the richest historical earthquake records, there is no clear evidence of the spatial distribution of paleoevents within these two earthquake segments of the North Anatolian Fault. 17 August 1668 Anatolian earthquake is one of the known previous earthquakes that may have occurred on the same segments with a probable rupture length of more than 400 km. It is still under debate in different catalogues, if it was ruptured in multiple events or a single one. We achieved paleoseismic trench studies to have a better understanding on the recurrence of large earthquakes on these two faults in the framework of T.C. DPT. Project no. 2006K120220. We excavated a total of 8 trenches in 7 different sites. While three of them are along the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar Earthquake rupture, others are located on the 1939 Erzincan one. Alanici and Direkli trenches were excavated on the 1942 rupture. Direkli trench site is located at the west of Niksar, Tokat (40.62N, 36.85E) on the fluvial terrace deposits of the Kelkit River. Only one paleoevent could be determined from the structural relationships of the trench wall stratigraphy. By radiocarbon dating of charcoal sample from above the event horizon indicates that this earthquake should have occurred before 480-412 BC. The second trench, Alanici, on the same segment was located between Erbaa and Niksar (40.65N, 36.78E) at the western boundary of a sag-pond. While signs of two (possible three) earthquakes were identified on the trench wall, the prior event to 1942 Earthquake is dated to be before 5th century AD. We interpreted this to have possibility of

  11. Morphotectonic setting of the Gölpazari pull-apart basin: Implications on the region between the North Anatolian and Eskişehir fault zones, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önde, E.; Gürbüz, A.

    2010-05-01

    The Gölpazarı basin is a rhomb-shaped pull-apart basin that situated on the region between the right-lateral North Anatolian and Eskişehir fault zones in NW Turkey at an altitude of ~500 m a.s.l. with a size of 12 km in length and 4.5 km in width. The main structural elements controlling the morphological features in and around the study area are the strike-slip motion of these fault zones. The North Anatolian fault zone is one of the best known faults in the world because of its remarkable high seismicity and importance for the tectonics of Eastern Mediterranean region. This fault zone seperates the Eurasian plate from the Anatolian plate and splays into two major strands to the north of the Gölpazarı basin.The Eskişehir fault zone that located to the south of the studied area is a WNW-ESE-trending strike-slip deformation area with a normal component that extends from Uludağ in the west to Sivrihisar in the east and separates the western Anatolia region from the central Anatolia. The morphotectonic framework of the study area was mainly set in the Quaternary period by the tectonics of these fault zones. The fault-generated mountain fronts are the most characteristic landforms. As a result of this the surrounding topography of the Gölpazarı basin being steeper along the boundaries where mountains rises steeply to over 700 m from the depression floor. The faults along the northern and southern sides of the depression, indicate mainly oblique normal faulting whereas the SE and NW margins indicate mainly strike-slip faulting. The gradient of the basin floor is towards west. There was a shallow lake in the west of the depression until 1963. There are several boreholes in the floor of the Gölpazarı basin that were drilled by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works of Turkey that represents an alluvium thickness of ~300 m. In the Early Quaternary the Gölpazarı basin was a closed depression and then the openning of a strait in the south of the basin by

  12. Collaborative Research: The North Anatolian Fault System in the Marmara Sea, Turkey - Insights from the Quaternary evolution of a multi-stranded transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Seda; Sorlien, Christopher; Cifci, Gunay; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Dondurur, Derman; Steckler, Michael; Barin, Burcu; Seeber, Leonardo; Gungor, Talip; Meriç İlkimen, Elif; Becel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), a major continental transform boundary, splays westward into three branches in the Sea of Marmara region of NW Turkey. The main northern branch passes only ~20 km from Istanbul and has been the subject of intense investigation, The central branch enters the sea of Marmara in Gemlik Bay and extends westward along the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. However, its detailed offshore geometry as well as its level of seismic activity have remained controversial. Under the SoMAR, bilateral TUBITAK-NSF Project, two geophysical cruises were carried out in 2013 and 2014 to map the major sedimentary basins and shallow fault patterns of the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea. Including our 2008 and 2010 acquisition, we acquired 4,430 km of high-resolution multichannel seismic, sparker, multibeam bathymetric and CHIRP data. We used the new data to correlate our published late Quaternary stratigraphic age model across the outer shelf, and a ~1/4 Ma horizon across the Inner Shelf, thus providing a chronology that can be applied to the tectonic history of the central branch. As it exits Gemlik Bay, the central branch itself diverges westward into strands in a fan pattern. A half dozen southern strands strike WSW and W, with one continuing onland near the Kocasu River delta between Bandırma and Mudanya, and others dying out offshore. The northern strand strikes WNW and splays again into the İmrali Ridge Fault and the Imrali Fault across respectively the mid-shelf and the shelf break. A middle fault, the Kapidag fault, is present between Kapidag Peninsula and Marmara Island. Most of the faults increase their vertical component with depth, suggesting activity during Pliocene through Holocene time. The Kapidag fault and Imrali Ridge fault each exhibit between 1 and 2 km of vertical separation of acoustic basement. Late Quaternary rates of vertical separation on these faults can accumulate the total vertical component after Miocene time. Thus

  13. Non-characteristic recurrence behavior on the 1942 Niksar-Erbaa earthquake rupture along the North Anatolian fault system, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Kürçer, A.; Özalp, S.; Emre, Ö.

    2009-04-01

    Repeatability of surface slip distribution through earthquake cycles is basis to evaluate size and timing of future large earthquakes generated by active faults. In order to examine characteristic slip hypothesis on the North Anatolian fault system (NAFS), we have systematically performed 3D trenching survey on the 1944 Bolu-Gerede and the 1942 Niksar-Erbaa earthquake ruptures, to simultaneously reconstruct timing and slip associated with paleoearthquakes. These two earthquake segments are relatively well-known on historical earthquake records indicating the timing and the rupture extent. The results suggest that 1) the NAFS is highly segmented in several tens km long, 2) past large earthquakes have been produced by the multi-segment faulting, and 3) each fault segment seems to have their own characteristics of recurrence behavior. At Demir Tepe site on the Gerede segment which recorded the maximum slip during the 1944 earthquake (M7.4), we revealed the repetition of ca. 5-m-slips and quasi-periodic repeat time of ca. 330 year. The reconstructed slip history gives us to support characteristic slip behavior on the segment, although the segment had ruptured during the historical earthquakes with greatly varied rupture length for each. On the other hands, at Ayvaz site on the Niksar segment which recorded 2.5-m-slip during the 1942 earthquake (M7.0), the preliminary results of 3D trenching exhibit 6.0-m-slip during the penultimate event, probably corresponding to the 1668 Anatolian earthquake. Since this gigantic M8 earthquake ruptured through almost half of the entire NAFS, including both the 1944 and the 1942 earthquake segments, the 1942 type earthquake is not characteristic earthquake. This non-characteristic behavior implies various sizes of large earthquakes have occurred on the NAFS. The key for understanding multi-segment ruptures may be recognition of such macroscopic barrier segment like the 1942 earthquake segment.

  14. Crustal and Basin Thickness Via P-Coda Transfer Functions: Examples from the Southwestern Superior Province, USA and the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new approach to measuring crustal thickness and bulk properties from teleseismic data. In contrast to the traditional H-k stacking approach, which involves receiver-function deconvolution followed by stacking along expected arrival-time curves, we eliminate the deconvolution step and generate synthetic transfer functions predicting the relationship between the vertical and radial components. Given a catalogue of precalculated transfer functions, we convolve the vertical component with each assumed transfer function and then calculate a misfit between the real and predicted radial component. As a single-layer crust is no longer a necessary assumption, we use the transfer-function approach to extend H-k analysis to models containing sedimentary basins. We apply this new technique to two data sets: one from Earthscope instrumentation in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, USA, and one from the FaultLab project, which instrumented the branching North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. From the US data set, we find that the transfer-function approach is able to recover approximate sedimentary thickness in the Williston Basin, as well as remove the contaminating effects of the sedimentary layers from crustal thickness and basement P/S velocity ratio measurements, and so detect westward crustal thinning towards the Trans-Hudson Orogen that may represent crustal erosion related to the orogenic process, as well as compositional differences between Superior and Trans-Hudson basement rocks. The data from Turkey reveal a "stair-step" northward deepening of the Moho across the two major strands of the North Anatolian Fault and a northward decrease in the P/S velocity ratio, overlain by highly variable sediment thicknesses reflecting a complex system of pull-apart basins in the upper crust.

  15. Systematic imaging of bimaterial interfaces at the at the Karadere-Düzce segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdahmadi, S.; Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Ross, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the presence and properties of bimaterial interfaces at the Karadere-Düzce segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in NW Turkey with observations of fault zone head waves and direct P body phases. The tectonic loading on the NAFZ produces major (M7+) strike-slip earthquakes. The two most recent major earthquakes in the study region were the 1999 Mw 7.4 Izmit and Mw 7.1 Dücze events. In the present study we use waveform recordings from near-fault stations along the broader Karadere-Düzce area operating during the Izmit and Duzce aftershock periods. We analyze the data using automatic detection of direct P and fault zone head waves along with the manual inspections and particle motion analysis. Preliminary results indicate abundant early arrivals before the direct P at many stations that appear to be head waves, but show no moveout with different source-receiver distances. These phases may reflect local bimaterial interfaces near the stations that may be associated with fault-zone-related basin structures. We also observe at some stations head wave type signals before the direct P waves that show systematic move-out with increasing propagation distance along the fault and may indicate a deep velocity contrast across the NAFZ in the area. Updated results will be presented in the meeting.

  16. GPR investigations along the North Anatolian Fault near Izmit (Turkey): Constraints on the right-lateral movement and slip history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Kozaci, Ö.; Akyuz, S.; Girard, J.-F.; Barka, A.

    2003-04-01

    The 1999 Ms 7.4 Izmit earthquake produced more than 110 km of surface rupture along the North Anatolian fault. We present here ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles surveyed across and parallel to the 1999 Izmit earthquake ruptures at two sites along the Izmit-Sapanca segment. Fine sandy and coarse gravels favor the penetration depth and processed radar profiles image clearly visible reflectors within the uppermost 10 m. In Köseköy, they document cumulative right-lateral offset of a stream channel by the fault. Old fluvial channel deposits also visible in trenches show a maximum 13.5 to 14 m lateral displacement. Younger channel units display 4 m of right-lateral displacement at 2.5 m depth and correlation with dated trench units yields an average slip rate of 15 mm/yr. At site 2, GPR profiles display the successive faulting of a medieval Ottoman Canal which excavation probably took place in 1591 A.D.. GPR profiles image the corresponding surface as well as numerous faults that affect it. A following trench study confirmed these results as they provide consistent results with the occurrence of three faulting events post-1591 A.D., one of which probably as large as the 1999 Izmit earthquake.

  17. Quantifying aseismic creep on the Ismetpasa segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) by 6 years of GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Dogru, Asli; Turgut, Bulent

    2013-07-01

    For almost half a century, the Ismetpasa section of North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has been known to be creeping aseismically. During the past decades, there have been a number of investigations undertaken to monitor this movement using conventional surveying methods, GPS, LIDAR, and InSAR techniques. These studies have provided information on the length, depth and the rate of fault creep. We used GPS observations on a network of 5 survey points established in 1972 by the General Command of Mapping across the creeping segment to determine the present-day creep rate. This micro-geodetic network covers an area of approximately 1 km × 1 km on the 60 km long creeping section as determined from prior studies. GPS campaigns were carried out annually between 2005 and 2011. We found no evidence of a change in creep rate during this time period, consistent with some previous studies. On this portion of the creeping section, the creep rate is 7.6 ± 1 mm/yr, which is less than half of the annual average rate of relative plate velocity, indicating that significant strain is being accumulated on the fault. By comparing the present creep rate with earlier estimates, we conclude that the creep rate near Ismetpasa has been decreasing exponentially since the initial observations (1957-1969), and is likely the result of postseismic after slip following the 1944 (Mw 7.2) and/or 1951 (Mw 6.9) earthquakes that broke this segment of the fault.

  18. Oblique Deformation in Central Turkey: Fault Interaction and River Incision at the Intersection of the Tuz Gölü and Central Anatolian Fault Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbohm, L. M.; Tokay, B.; Krystopowicz, N. J.; Higgins, M.; Rojay, B.; Brocard, G. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although much of the deformation associated with Arabia-Eurasia collision and Aegean extension is expressed by westward translation of Central Anatolia along the North Anatolian and East Anatolian fault zones, important deformation also takes place in the interior. Major interior faults include the NE-SW striking, left-lateral Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ), which splays from the NAFZ, and the NW-SE striking, right-lateral Tuz Gölü fault zone (TGFZ). We examine fault kinematics and river incision in the triangular region bound by the TGFZ to the SW, the CAFZ to the E and the Salanda graben to the N, in order to document fault interaction and landscape development where these fault systems intersect. We document deformation in the footwall of the Tuz Gölü fault, recorded by the warping of ignimbrite and lacustrine units. We investigate the Salanda fault, which displaces a 1.23 Ma basalt flow by 40 m. Paleostress analysis indicates two deformation phases with maximum strain nearly parallel (191 for extension; 183 for shortening).The Salanda fault reactivates older mylonite near the town of Karaburna. We map faults in the interior of this region, including the N-S striking Derinkuyu fault and the newly identified Derbentbaşi fault. The Derinkuyu fault has been inactive since emplacement of a lava dome at its north end. The Derbentbaşi fault offsets lacustrine limestones and older ignimbrites in a right-lateral, west-side down sense prior to regional river incision. Pliocene lacustrine carbonates are largely confined to the hanging walls and footwalls of the TGFZ and the Yeşilhisar strand of the CAFZ; these deposits are deeply incised and can be used to constrain the pattern and timing of river incision. Along the Salanda graben, the Kızılırmak River has incised the surrounding region to a depth of 350 m. Our data suggest a complicated interaction between the TGFZ and CAFZ, with faulting distributed on multiple, obliquely striking structures, few of

  19. Evidence for a minimum 52 ± 1 km of total offset along the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault in northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbayram, Kenan; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Okay, Aral I.

    2016-02-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) splits into two major branches in northwestern Turkey with most of the present strain accumulation and Holocene displacement being along the northern branch (NAF-N). Estimates of total offset along the NAF-N range between 4 km and 70 km in the Marmara Sea region. These different estimates lead to different interpretations on the formation of Marmara Sea basins. In this study, we use Cretaceous faults sub-perpendicular to the NAF-N as precise offset markers. Based on these faults, as well as the offset of the Middle Eocene volcanic belt, we report a minimum 52 ± 1 km cumulative dextral displacement along the NAF-N east of Marmara Sea near 31°E longitude. The displacement of the Middle Eocene volcanic belt shows that the offset is post-Middle Eocene. If we assume an additional 15 km dextral displacement on the second strand of the NAF-N (Düzce fault), the total offset along the NAF-N can be estimated as ~ 67 km in the Eastern Marmara region. Adding the published offsets that range from 16 to 26 km on the Southern Branch of the NAF give a total offset estimate of whole NAF zone as 88 ± 5 km in the eastern Marmara region. The GPS velocity estimate indicates ~ 23 mm yr- 1 of total plate motion across and near eastern Marmara Sea that would take 3.9 million years to accumulate 88 km of displacement on the NAF. Additionally, the Anatolian Plate would not have instantaneously accelerated to its modern rate of motion. Thus, initiation of transform displacement must somewhat pre-date 3.9 Ma.

  20. Ground-penetrating radar investigations along the North Anatolian fault near Izmit, Turkey: Constraints on the right-lateral movement and slip history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Girard, Jean-François; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Kozaci, Özgur; Akyuz, Serdar; Barka, Aykut

    2004-01-01

    We analyze ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles made across and parallel to the August 1999 earthquake ruptures of the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. The profiles document cumulative right-lateral offset of stream channels and the successive faulting of a medieval (Ottoman) canal. The dominance of fine sand to coarse gravel in the sections imaged allows for reasonably deep penetration, and processed radar signals clearly image visible reflectors within the uppermost 5 m. Near Köseköy, buried fluvial-channel deposits, exposed in some trenches dug to determine paleoseismicity, are also visible on profiles and show a maximum 6.7 7.4 m of lateral displacement. Younger channel units display 4.5 4.9 m of right-lateral displacement at 2 3 m depth and show that the penultimate rupture along the Izmit segment produced a similar amount of displacement as in 1999. At the Ottoman canal site, GPR profiles complement a trench study and provide consistent results showing the occurrence of three faulting events after A.D. 1591, the date of canal construction. This study demonstrates that the use of GPR method in paleoseismology contributes to better identification of cumulative slip along active faults.

  1. Creeping along the Ismetpasa section of the North Anatolian fault (Western Turkey): Rate and extent from InSAR [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet M.; Belabbes, Samir; Ergintav, Semih; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2005-09-01

    Creeping along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) at Ismetpasa (Turkey) was discovered some thirty years ago, about a decade after the first observations of the phenomenon along the San Andreas fault in California. However, little is known about its lateral extent and rate. In order to study its three dimensional nature and rupture characteristics, we use Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and elastic dislocation models compared also with field observations. Interferograms with temporal baselines ranging between 1.25 and 5 years show that the creeping section starts at the western termination of the 1943 ( M = 7.6) earthquake rupture. It continues about 70-km to the west, overlapping with the eastern part of the 1944 ( M = 7.3) earthquake rupture. Offsets along strike indicate a maximum creep rate of 11 ± 3 mm/year near the mid point of the creeping section decreasing gradually towards the edges. Near Ismetpasa, InSAR data yield 8 ± 3 mm/year of creep rate, consistent with recent instrumental (triangulation and creepmeter) measurements. Modeling of the InSAR and GPS data suggests that the fault-creep occurs most probably at a shallow depth (0-7 km). Our analysis combined with previous studies suggests that creeping might have commenced following the 1944 earthquake, and thus may be a long-lasting, but transient slip episode.

  2. Investigation of interseismic deformation along the central section of the North Anatolian fault (Turkey) using InSAR observations and earthquake-cycle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialko, Y.; Kaneko, Y.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Furuya, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation along the central section of the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey using L-band Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data collected by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. We generated satellite line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for the three ascending ALOS tracks (603-605) covering the NAF between 31.2-33.2 deg. East. LOS velocity maps for each track were obtained by averaging 15 to 30 radar interferograms spanning a time period of 4 years between 2007 and 2010. The average LOS velocities reveal discontinuities of up to ~6 mm/year across the geologically mapped fault trace. Assuming that these discontinuities are due to horizontal surface motion, they imply fault creep at a rate of ~10 mm/year, accounting for nearly half of the relative plate motion accommodated by this segment of the NAF. The inferred lateral extent of significant shallow creep is in excess of 60 km. These inferences are broadly consistent with previously reported trilateration surveys and InSAR results based on C-band ERS data (Cakir et al., 2005) that suggested that the NAF segment near Ismetpasa may be only partially locked. If so, the deeper locked portion of the fault must be characterized by a higher stressing rate, and presumably shorter recurrence interval. We are modeling available InSAR and GPS data using numerical simulations of spontaneous earthquake sequences that incorporate laboratory-derived rate-and-state friction laws. The goal of these simulations is to constrain key parameters of fault friction such as the depth extent of the velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening layers, the long-term fault slip rate, and stress evolution in the seismogenic crust.

  3. Seismic Intensity Maps for North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) using Local Felt Intensity and Strong Motion Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic intensity maps indicate the spatial distribution of ground shaking levels in the meizoseismal area affected from an earthquake. Intensity maps provide guidance for the rapid assessment of shaking intensity and consequently the physical damage involved with an earthquake. Local correlations between the instrumental ground motion parameters and shaking intensity values are used to prepare these maps. There are several correlations derived using data from different regions in the world. However, since local damage characteristics of the built environment affect the felt-intensity values directly, different felt-intensity values may be reported in two different regions subjected to ground motions with similar amplitude and frequency contents. Thus such relationships should be derived based on regional strong motion and intensity datasets. Despite the intense seismic activity, as of now there are no such local correlations for the North Anatolian Fault Zone. In this study, we use the recently-compiled Turkish strong motion dataset along with the corresponding felt intensity data from past earthquakes to derive local relationships between MMI and a selected ground motion parameter (PGA, PGV, and SA at selected periods). We provide two sets of predictive equations: first group expresses the intensity values as a function of a selected ground motion parameter while the second set is more refined involving the event magnitude, distance and site class terms as independent variables. We present intensity maps of selected past events against the observed maps. We conclude that regional data from seismic networks is crucial for preparing realistic maps for use disaster management purposes.

  4. Interseismic deformation and creep along the central section of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey): InSAR observations and implications for rate-and-state friction properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Y.; Fialko, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.; Tong, X.; Furuya, M.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractWe present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation along the central section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> using interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite and Envisat missions. We generated maps of satellite line-of-sight velocity using five ascending Advanced Land Observing Satellite tracks and one descending Envisat track covering the NAF between 31.2°E and 34.3°E. The line-of-sight velocity reveals discontinuities of up to ˜5 mm/yr across the Ismetpasa segment of the NAF, implying surface creep at a rate of ˜9 mm/yr; this is a large fraction of the inferred slip rate of the NAF (21-25 mm/yr). The lateral extent of significant surface creep is about 75 km. We model the inferred surface velocity and shallow <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep using numerical simulations of spontaneous earthquake sequences that incorporate laboratory-derived rate and state friction. Our results indicate that frictional behavior in the Ismetpasa segment is velocity strengthening at shallow depths and transitions to velocity weakening at a depth of 3-6 km. The inferred depth extent of shallow <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep is 5.5-7 km, suggesting that the deeper locked portion of the partially creeping segment is characterized by a higher stressing rate, smaller events, and shorter recurrence interval. We also reproduce surface velocity in a locked segment of the NAF by <span class="hlt">fault</span> models with velocity-weakening conditions at shallow depth. Our results imply that frictional behavior in a shallow portion of major active <span class="hlt">faults</span> with little or no shallow creep is mostly velocity weakening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7934C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7934C"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR velocity field across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Akoǧlu, Ahmet M.; ćakmak, Rahşan; Tatar, Orhan; Meghraoui, Mustapha</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency's Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012DSRI...66..114C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012DSRI...66..114C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane-derived authigenic carbonates along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system in the Sea of Marmara (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crémière, Antoine; Pierre, Catherine; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Zitter, Tiphaine; Çağatay, M. Namik; Henry, Pierre</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The Marnaut cruise (May-June 2007) investigated the submerged part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, an active tectonic area in the Sea of Marmara. Already known and new fluid venting sites along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> system were visited by submersible diving. Cold seeps present a considerable diversity of geochemical background associated with occurrences of authigenic carbonate crusts outcropping at the seafloor. Buried carbonate concretions were also recovered by coring within the sediments of the Tekirdağ Basin and of the Western-High ridge that separates the Tekirdağ and Central Basins. Interestingly, numerous of these early diagenetic carbonates were found within the transitional sediments from lacustrine to marine environment deposited after the late glacial maximum. The authigenic carbonates are mainly composed of aragonite, Mg-calcite and minor amounts of dolomite, and are often associated with pyrite and barite. The carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates present a wide range of values from -50.6‰ to +14.2‰ V-PDB indicating different diagenetic settings and complex mixtures of dissolved inorganic carbon from different sources. The low δ13C values of the seafloor crusts and of most buried concretions indicate that the carbon source was a mixture of microbial and thermogenic methane and possibly other hydrocarbons that were oxidized by anaerobic microbial processes. The positive δ13C values of a few buried concretions from the Western-High ridge reflect the mineralization of heavy CO2, which is thought to represent the residual by-product of oil biodegradation in a subsurface petroleum reservoir that migrated up with brines. Most of the oxygen isotopic compositions of seafloor carbonates are close to the isotopic equilibrium with the present-day bottom water conditions but a few values as low as -1.9‰ V-PDB indicate precipitation from brackish waters. In buried carbonate concretions, δ18O values as high as +4.9‰ V-PDB reflect the contribution of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S11B1156D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S11B1156D"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable creeping and distant triggered slips by the 1999 Izmit Earthquake along the Ismetpasa section, North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dogan, A.; Kondo, H.; Emre, O.; Awata, Y.; Ozalp, S.; Tokay, F.; Yyldyrym, C.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The Ismetpasa section of the central North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, which has ruptured during the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake (Ms 7.3) and the 1951 Kursunlu earthquake (Ms 6.9) is known as creeping. We present new findings on the rate of stable creeping and triggered slip associated with the distant 1999 Izmit Earthquake. Across the eastern wall of a highway station at Ismetpasa (N 40§52'15'', E 32§37'30''), we measured 41cm of displacement using total station on 31st August 2002. In 1969, Ambrasys (1970) reported 24 cm displacement of the wall and Aytun(1995) measured 18cm. Between 1969 and 1972, Aytun(1995) also measured 0.6cm/yr average creeping rate using geodetic methods at the same site. Altay et al. (1991) observed 0.77cm/yr creeping rate using creep-meter between 1982 and 1990. These data provides us that cumulative displacement is 23cm and average creeping rate is approximately 0.7cm/yr between 1969 and 2002. In the early summer of 2002, we found the triggered surface slips of 3-6cm of right lateral probably associated with the 1999 Izmit earthquake of Ms7.4, at three sites along 3km-long strand of the Ismetpasa. The epicenter of the earthquake is located 225km, and the eastern tip of the surface rupture is 155km west of Ismetpasa. Those sites are 1) 2km west of the highway station, we observed 3cm displacement on the concrete garden wall of s gas station. The owner of the gas station explained that significant damage of the wall was realized right after the Izmit earthquake. 2) 200m west of the station we measured 6cm displacement on the railway road. 3) At Hamamli village, 1km east of the station, a few cm offset was founded on the brick-wall of house for livestock and on the paved road near the house a few days after the Izmit earthquake. We measured 6cm horizontal and 2cm vertical offset there. There is no information on a stable creeping at sites 1) and 2) since the 1999 earthquake. It is not clear whether creeping on the section has been constant or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0002T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Türker, Tuǧba; Bayrak, Yusuf</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn't been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, MS=7.3 and 1897, MS=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for MS magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boǧazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99 with an earthquake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011GGG....12.6002B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011GGG....12.6002B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary record of coseismic subsidence in Hersek coastal lagoon (Izmit Bay, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) and the late Holocene activity of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertrand, Sébastien; Doner, Lisa; Akçer Ön, Sena; Sancar, Ummuhan; Schudack, Ulla; Mischke, Steffen; Ćagatay, M. Namik; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The late Holocene activity of a restraining bend of the northern strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in Izmit Bay was investigated by a sedimentological, geochemical, and paleoecological analysis of sediment cores from Hersek coastal lagoon, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The sediment cores show a succession of sedimentary sequences composed of three units separated by gradual transitions. The first unit is composed of a thin layer of shell debris-rich sediment in abrupt contact with the underlying organic-rich deposits. This unit is overlain by a thick foraminifera-rich mud deposit, and the sequences are capped by an organic-rich mud unit. These sequences are interpreted as silting up, shallowing upward deposits, typical of a lagoon becoming isolated from the sea. We suggest that they represent the sedimentary signature of coseismic subsidence, which was caused by reverse slip at the Hersek bend, and tsunamis in Izmit Bay. Our radiocarbon-dated paleoseismological record indicates (1) the atypical collapse of the hanging wall during the 740 earthquake and (2) subsidence of the footwall during the 987, 1509, and 1719 earthquakes. This study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of restraining bends, and it highlights the potential of coastal sediments for reconstructing past earthquakes and tsunamis in regions dominated by strike-slip deformations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025911','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025911"><span id="translatedtitle">A shallow <span class="hlt">fault</span>-zone structure illuminated by trapped waves in the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ben-Zion, Y.; Peng, Z.; Okaya, D.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.; Ozer, N.; Michael, A.J.; Baris, S.; Aktar, M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We discuss the subsurface structure of the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> based on analysis of a large seismic data set recorded by a local PASSCAL network in the 6 months following the Mw = 7.4 1999 Izmit earthquake. Seismograms observed at stations located in the immediate vicinity of the rupture zone show motion amplification and long-period oscillations in both P- and S-wave trains that do not exist in nearby off-<span class="hlt">fault</span> stations. Examination of thousands of waveforms reveals that these characteristics are commonly generated by events that are well outside the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. The anomalous features in <span class="hlt">fault</span>-zone seismograms produced by events not necessarily in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> may be referred to generally as <span class="hlt">fault</span>-zone-related site effects. The oscillatory shear wave trains after the direct S arrival in these seismograms are analysed as trapped waves propagating in a low-velocity <span class="hlt">fault</span>-zone layer. The time difference between the S arrival and trapped waves group does not grow systematically with increasing source-receiver separation along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. These observations imply that the trapping of seismic energy in the Karadere-Duzce rupture zone is generated by a shallow <span class="hlt">fault</span>-zone layer. Traveltime analysis and synthetic waveform modelling indicate that the depth of the trapping structure is approximately 3-4 km. The synthetic waveform modelling indicates further that the shallow trapping structure has effective waveguide properties consisting of thickness of the order of 100 m, a velocity decrease relative to the surrounding rock of approximately 50 per cent and an S-wave quality factor of 10-15. The results are supported by large 2-D and 3-D parameter space studies and are compatible with recent analyses of trapped waves in a number of other <span class="hlt">faults</span> and rupture zones. The inferred shallow trapping structure is likely to be a common structural element of <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones and may correspond to the top part of a flower-type structure. The motion amplification</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10759S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10759S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Neogene Akcasehir formation; A possible new constrain on the age of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saroglu, F.; Kazanci, N.; Emre, O.; Dogan, A.; Sarac, G.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>There are several suggestions on the age of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) from the Middle Miocene to latest Pliocene. Late/ latest Pliocene periods were inferred by the some authors of this paper in their previous studies. We present new geological and geomorphological evidence for the age and total offset of the NAF from the Gerede-Ilgaz section. The Akcasehir Formation (AF) of Neogene is a coarse-grained, continental succession which formed at the western part of the (NAF), particularly in the Yenicaga-Gerede-Eskipazar areas where outcrops are seen as patches because of erosion and/or recent cover. The AF overlies unconformably the Eocene units and it is overlain by volcanic rocks of late Neogene in some places and/or travertines of Quaternary age. The present thickness of the succession varies between 50-150 m to outcrops, however the thicker sections are in the Eskipazar area. The exposures of the AF are found both on the north and south sides of the NAF. The main sedimentary facies of the succession, in ascending order, are bouldery conglomerates of alluvial fans at the base, medium to fine grained conglomerates and sandstones of fluvial systems, mudstones of a marsh environment and limestones of a lacustrine environment. The latter is seen only on southern side of the NAF and is some times succeded by fluvial deposits. The mudstone facies of the succession includes a typical micro-mammalian fauna assemblages of Early Pliocene. A palaeontological interpretation of AF is that it has been deposited c. 4 ma ago in a continental basin. Also, facies analysis and environmental reconstruction suggest the AF was deposited as a succession fining upward and then coarsening upward in a tectonically controlled basin with a N-S prolongation. Probably, the southern margin of that basin was tectonically more active during the deposition when there was onlapping of lacustrine limestones on the alluvial fan deposits; and also onto the higher reliefs of bedrock. The so mapped</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S11B1154K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S11B1154K"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-evaluation of <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Geometry and Slip Distribution of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede Earthquake Rupture, North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, H.; Awata, Y.; Emre, O.; Dogan, A.; Ozalp, S.; Tokay, F.; Yildirim, C.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The successive earthquakes along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System in 20th century provides us fundamental data on <span class="hlt">fault</span> segmentation, characteristics <span class="hlt">faulting</span> behavior, and dimensions and scaling laws of <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. In this point of view, we re-evaluate geometry and slip-distribution of the Ms7.3 Bolu-Gerede earthquake rupture of 1944, which has not been studied since 1970. The 1944 rupture is traceable for about 185-km, from 30-km west of Bolu (40.6N, 31.4E) to 20-km west of Ilgaz (41.0N, 33.4E) almost continuously and straightly, trending N75E. Amount of slip along the rupture varies between 2 and 6 m right-laterally. In the middle-east section of the rupture, east of Gerede, the slip is as large as 4.5 to 6 m. Along the other sections, the amount of slip decreases to about 2-4 m. The rupture can be subdivided into 5 to 7 geometrical segments of 10 to 45-km-long, which are separated by small separation, bend, step, push-up and pull-apart structures. At 6-km east of Iametpasa (40.9N, 32.7E), a series of foundation of a stone-bridge, which is built approximately AD 680+190-90 (Ikeda, 1994), has been offset for about 20 m. The 3.5 to 4.0 m slip-per-event during the 1944 earthquakes suggests that the 20 m displacement has been accumulated by 5 to 6 <span class="hlt">faulting</span> events with an average recurrence interval of about 200 to 350 years. Re-evaluated average slip of the 1944 rupture is about 3.5 m that is almost twice of the previously well-known amount. The straightness and continuance of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> strands foresee that the 1944 earthquake had more simple rupture process and shorter source time than those of 1999 Izmit earthquake of Ms 7.4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.8591Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.8591Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial slip behavior of large strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> belts: Implications for the Holocene slip rates of the eastern termination of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Kıyak, Nafiye Güneç</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present new data on Holocene slip rates for the eastern end of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) by using the optically stimulated luminescence ages of the offset terrace deposits at two sites, where a total of four displaced landforms was studied. Each offset feature was analyzed independently, and three different assumptions were made for all the offsets, depending on whether the age of the upper tread (upper tread reconstruction), the lower tread (lower tread reconstruction), or all bounding surfaces (intermediate solution) were used in dating of the terrace risers. The deflected geometry of the risers strongly suggests the use of either the intermediate solution or the upper tread reconstruction. The joint slip rate distributions for the upper tread reconstructions and the intermediate solutions were modeled as 13.0 + 1.8 / -1.4 and 14.3 + 5.8 / -2.4 mm/yr (2σ), respectively. Although the intermediate solution covers the full range of ages for the measured displacements, the curved geometry of the terrace risers suggests that the initiations of the riser offsets are most probably close to the abandonment ages of the upper terrace treads. Therefore, we accepted the joint slip rate of the intermediate solution but suggested that the average rate for the main displacement zone of the eastern NAF should be close to its lower limits. This slower rate with respect to previous estimates suggests that the total deformation is not only accommodated on the main displacement zone but is also distributed along the secondary <span class="hlt">faults</span> to the south of the easternmost segments of the NAF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815010Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815010Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Pleistocene intraplate extension of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Inferences from cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial fan, landslide and moraine surfaces along the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yildirim, Cengiz; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Ciner, Attila</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Late Pleistocene activity of the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone is integrally tied to ongoing intraplate crustal deformation in the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. Here we document the vertical displacement, slip rate, extension rate, and geochronology of normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> within a narrow strip along the main strand of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. The Kartal, Cevizlik and Lorut <span class="hlt">faults</span> are normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> that have evident surface expression within the strip. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide geochronology reveals that the Kartal <span class="hlt">Fault</span> deformed a 104.2 ± 16.5 ka alluvial fan surface and the Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Fault</span> deformed 21.9 ± 1.8 ka glacial moraine and talus fan surfaces. The Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Fault</span> delimits mountain front of the Aladaglar and forms >1 km relief. Our topographic surveys indicate 13.1 ± 1.4 m surface breaking vertical displacements along Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Faults</span>, respectively. Accordingly, we suggest a 0.60 ± 0.08 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.35 ± 0.05 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 21.9 ± 1.8 ka on the Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. Taken together with other structural observations in the region, we believe that the Cevizlik, Kartal ve Lorut <span class="hlt">faults</span> are an integral part of intraplate crustal deformation in Central Anatolia. They imply that intraplate structures such as the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone may change their mode through time; presently, the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone has been deformed predominantly by normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The presence of steep preserved <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps along the Kartal, Cevizlik and Lorut <span class="hlt">faults</span> point to surface breaking normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> away from the main strand and particularly signify that these structures need to be taken into account for regional seismic hazard assessments. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (TUBITAK, Grant number: 112Y087).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PApGe.165...17S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PApGe.165...17S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical Monitoring of Geothermal Waters (2002 2004) along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Spatial and Temporal Variations and Relationship to Seismic Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Süer, Selin; Güleç, Nilgün; Mutlu, Halim; Hilton, David R.; Çifter, Candan; Sayin, Mesut</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A total of nine geothermal fields located along an 800-km long E-W transect of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ), <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> were monitored for three years (2002 2004 inclusive; 3-sampling periods per year) to investigate any possible relationship between seismic activity and temporal variations in the chemistry and isotope characteristics of waters in the fields. The geothermal fields monitored in the study were, from west to east, Yalova, Efteni, Bolu, Mudurnu, Seben, Kurşunlu-Çankırı, Hamamözü, Gözlek and Reşadiye. The chemical (major anion-cation contents) and isotopic (18O/16O, D/H, 3H) compositions of hot and cold waters of the geothermal sites were determined in order to both characterize the chemical nature of the individual fields and identify possible temporal variations associated with localized seismic activity. The geothermal waters associated with the NAFZ are dominantly Na-HCO3, whereas the cold waters are of the Ca-HCO3 type. The oxygen- and hydrogen-isotope compositions reveal that the hot waters are meteoric in origin as are their cold water counterparts. However, the lower δ18O, δD and 3H contents of the hot waters point to the fact that they are older than the cold waters, and that their host aquifers are recharged from higher altitudes with virtually no input from recent (post-bomb) precipitation. Although no major earthquakes (e.g., with M ≥ 5) were recorded along the NAFZ during the course of the monitoring period, variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of some waters were observed. Indeed, the timing of the chemical/isotopic changes seems to correlate with the occurrence of seismic activity of moderate magnitude (3 < M < 5) close to the sampling sites. In this respect, Cl, 3H and Ca seem to be the most sensitive tracers of seismically-induced crustal perturbations, and the Yalova and Efteni fields appear to be the key localities where the effects of seismic activity on the geothermal fluids are most pronounced over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4165A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4165A"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Creep Movement with Terrestrial LIDAR on the Gerede - Bayramören Segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altınok Erayık, Sevgi; Altunel, Erhan; Tunçel, Esra; Çaǧlar Yalçıner, Cahit</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) accommodates the westward motion of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block relative to Eurasian plate with a slip rate of about 20 mm/yr. The Gerede - Bayramören Segment of the NAFZ ruptured during the 1944 Gerede (M:7.2) earthquake. In early 1970s, some deformations were realized on the Gerede - Bayramören Segment of the NAFZ and attributed to aseismic creep. Since then different techniques have been using to understand the nature of the creep. In order to understand the length of the creeping section and the relationship between seismic activity and creep rate, eight new stations were constructed along the Gerede - Bayramören Segment and were monitored by terrestrial LIDAR. Stations were monitored periodically since May 2013. Periodical measurements showed that the aseismic creep is going on between Gerede in west and Bayramören in east, for a distance of about 80 km. Present results showed that the creep rate changes between 2 - 6 ±1 mm/yr along the Gerede Bayramören segment of the NAFZ. Considering the slip rate on the NAFZ, this segment of the NAFZ is still capable of generating large earthquakes since at least 2/3 of the yearly slip still accumulates on the <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...65..259G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...65..259G"><span id="translatedtitle">New observations on the 1939 Erzincan Earthquake surface rupture on the Kelkit Valley segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gürsoy, Halil; Tatar, Orhan; Akpınar, Zafer; Polat, Ali; Mesci, Levent; Tunçer, Doğan</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The 1939 Erzincan Earthquake (M = 7.8), occurred on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ), was one of the most active strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the world, and created a 360-km-long surface rupture. Traces of this surface rupture are still prominently observed. In the absence of detailed mapping to resolve the <span class="hlt">fault</span> characteristics, detailed observations have been conducted at 20 different points on the 70-km-long Kelkit Valley Segment (KVS) of the NAFZ's between Niksar and Koyulhisar. Field data defining <span class="hlt">fault</span> character and slip amounts were found at eight points and show right-lateral slip varying between 1.8 and 4.25 m and the vertical slip varying between 0.5 and 2.0 m. The KVS developed in the most morphologically prominent and narrowest part of the NAFZ. Therefore, the chances of finding evidence of more than one historical earthquake in trenches opened to investigate palaeoseismological aspects are higher. <span class="hlt">Faults</span> observed in foundation and channel excavations opened for energy purposes in the Reşadiye region show this clearly and evidence for up to four seismic events including the 1939 Erzincan Earthquake have been discovered. Further studies are required to discover whether right-lateral deformation on at some locations on this segment is surface ruptures associated with the 1939 earthquake or later creep.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.2883C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.2883C"><span id="translatedtitle">Extent and distribution of aseismic slip on the Ismetpaşa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) from Persistent Scatterer InSAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cetin, Esra; Cakir, Ziyadin; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Ergintav, Semih; Akoglu, Ahmet M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>use the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique with elastic dislocation models and geology along the creeping section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) at Ismetpaşa, to map and deduce the velocity field and the aseismic slip distribution. Revealing the spatiotemporal nature of the creep helped us associate the creep with potential lithological controls, hence providing a new perspective to better understand the underlying causes and mechanisms. The PSI analysis of Envisat ASAR images between 2003 and 2010 reveals a clear picture of surface creep along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> and a new interseismic velocity field transitioning gradually between the creeping and the locked <span class="hlt">fault</span> sections. The creep rate is found to fluctuate along a 100 km long section of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in a manner similar to that along the Hayward <span class="hlt">fault</span>, reaching a maximum of ˜20 ± 2 mm/yr, close to the far field plate velocity (˜25 ± 1.5 mm/yr). At Ismetpaşa, it is in the range of 8 ± 2 mm/yr, consistent with the previous geodetic observations. The creeping section appears to extend 30 km further east than those previously reported. Modeling of the PSI data reveals a heterogeneous creep distribution at depth with two main patches confined mostly to the uppermost 5 km portion of the seismogenic crust, releasing annually 6.2 × 1016 Nm (Mw = 5.1) geodetic moment. Our analysis combined with previous studies suggests that creep might have commenced as postseismic deformation following the 1944 earthquake and has evolved to stable <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep with time. There is a correlation between aseismic surface creep and the geology along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> as it is in major part associated to rocks with low frictional strength such as the andesitic-basaltic, limestone, and serpentine bodies within the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813090Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813090Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of past earthquakes along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Marmara Region (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Implications for the spatial distribution for surface ruptures in the last 1000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zabcı, Cengiz; Altunel, Erhan; Akyüz, H. Serdar</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), one of the major continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> of the World, extends for about 1500 km between the Karlıova triple junction to the east and the North Aegean Trough to the west. This tectonic structure showed a remarkable seismic activity between 1939 and 1999, when the westward migrating earthquake sequence created surface ruptures of more than 1000 km, leaving unbroken only the Yedisu Segment to the east, and the Marmara Segment to the west. The rich historical records include many past earthquakes that destroyed ancient settlements along the NAF. However, there are ambiguities for the spatial distribution of the surface ruptures of these palaeoevents, especially in the Marmara Region, where the <span class="hlt">fault</span> bifurcates into two branches, the more active northern and the less active southern strands. In order to understand the spatial distribution of these historical earthquakes, we revised the available palaeoseismological studies, including trenches for the inland, and results of core analyses for the offshore segments, in the framework of the EU project "MARsite: New directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused Earth observation in the Marmara Supersite". First, we compiled a dataset of more than 50 trench and 20 coring sites, which are mostly located along the northern strand of the NAF. Then, all <span class="hlt">faults</span> are simplified to show only the major geometric elements such as their generalized strikes and lengths. The integration of these temporal and spatial data enabled us to model the relationship between the individual palaeoseismic studies. Our preliminary results show that the migrating earthquake sequence is not characteristic only for the 20th century, but it also occurred in the past. Moreover, limited number of studies, revealing the co-seismic slip of palaeoevents, suggest 'non-characteristic behaviour' of NAF, especially at structurally complex segments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3254R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3254R"><span id="translatedtitle">An aseismic slip transient on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rousset, Baptiste; Jolivet, Romain; Simons, Mark; Lasserre, Cécile; Riel, Bryan; Milillo, Pietro; ćakir, Ziyadin; Renard, François</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Constellations of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites with short repeat time acquisitions allow exploration of active <span class="hlt">faults</span> behavior with unprecedented temporal resolution. Along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, an 80 km long section has been creeping at least since the 1944, Mw 7.3 earthquake near Ismetpasa, with a current Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)-derived average creep rate of 8 ± 3 mm/yr (i.e., a third of the NAF long-term slip rate). We use a dense set of SAR images acquired by the COSMO-SkyMed constellation to quantify the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of creep over 1 year. We identify a major burst of aseismic slip spanning 31 days with a maximum slip of 2 cm, between the surface and 4 km depth. This result shows that <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep along this section of the NAF does not occur at a steady rate as previously thought, highlighting a need to revise our understanding of the underlying <span class="hlt">fault</span> mechanics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PEPI..241....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PEPI..241....1T"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Systems from magnetotelluric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Türkoğlu, Erşan; Unsworth, Martyn; Bulut, Fatih; Çağlar, İlyas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Magnetotelluric (MT) studies can map subsurface resistivity structure and have located zones of low resistivity (high conductivity) within major strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones worldwide which have been interpreted as regions of elevated fluid content. This study describes MT data from the eastern part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Systems (NAFS and EAFS) and presents the results of the first MT studies of these <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The inversion of the MT data produced 2-D resistivity models which showed that both <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems are underlain by a broad low resistivity zone that extended into the lower crust. However, the resistivity beneath the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System was much lower than beneath the eastern part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System. These conductors begin at a depth of 10 km - not at the surface as on the central San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (SAFS). This difference is interpreted as being due to the fact that the EAFS and NAFS are young <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems characterized in the upper crust by multiple <span class="hlt">fault</span> traces - as opposed to the SAFS that has evolved into a single through going <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Different stages of the seismic cycle may also influence the resistivity structure, although this is difficult to constrain without knowledge of time variations in resistivity structure at each location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PEPI..212...19T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PEPI..212...19T"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical investigations on the gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of the region between Sapanca and Duzce, along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tigli, Cigdem Sendur; Ates, Abdullah; Aydemir, Attila</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, it is aimed to model subsurface structures to the east of the Gulf of Izmit through Duzce by using the gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data. 1/500.000 scaled gravity anomaly map of the area was taken from the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) and it was digitized. The aeromagnetic anomaly data were obtained in the digital form. 3D and 2D models were constructed to reveal the subsurface structure in two different inset regions in the study area including most important negative and positive gravity anomalies. Seismic velocities obtained from the deep seismic recordings were converted to densities. In addition, density information from a previous research was also taken. These densities were used for construction of 3D and 2D gravity models where it was shown that there are narrow and long sedimentary basins and depressions with 0.5-3 km depths. These sedimentary basins with the shape of negative flower structures indicating pull-apart basins are controlled by the active <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF). Earthquake epicenter data were also correlated with the constructed models from the gravity anomalies. Positive gravity anomalies are also caused by very shallow (about 2 km) masses that are accepted as the crustal origin intrusions into the fractures of the NAF and, ophiolites and gabbro outcropping on the surface of the studied regions. These intrusives and remnants of the Tethys Ocean are located between the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments where the <span class="hlt">fault</span> bifurcates and they also constitute barriers for straight extension of the NAF. Analytic signal method was applied to the aeromagnetic anomaly data to determine the locations and boundaries of the causative bodies. Those bodies are observed around Duzce, and to the E-SE of it, to the NW of Golyaka and a large mass between Adapazari and Sapanca. Shallow settlement of these magmatics was confirmed by the second vertical derivative of the aeromagnetic data. An anti</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....11520D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....11520D"><span id="translatedtitle">Triggered slip on the Ismetpasa segment of 1944 Bolu-Gerede surface rupture by the 1999 Izmit earthquake, North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dogan, A.; Kondo, H.; Emre, O.; Awata, Y.; Ozalp, S.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The surface rupture associated with the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake (Ms 7.3) is a 185 km-long strand between the Lake Abant and town of Bayramoren at the western central part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The rupture was subdivided into 5 main geometrical segments and a maximum right lateral displacement of 6 m was measured along the rupture zone during the MTA-GSJ joint study. The 1944 rupture includes the Ismetpasa segment, which is known to be since 1970. Average displacement of this segment is 3.0 m, including the 1951 earthquake, smaller then the western continuation of the rupture. We found triggered surface slip associated with the 17 August, 1999 Izmit earthquake (Mw 7.4) that is located 225 km from the epicenter of the mainshock, around the Ismetpasa section of the NAF in summer 2002. The evidence for the triggered slip was exhibited at three sites with 3--6 cm right lateral displacements along the 3 km-long strand of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, surroundings very near the Ismetpasa creep site. Those sites are: 1) Gas station on the Gerede-Cerkes state road, 2 km west of the creep site; we measured 3 cm displacement on a concrete garden wall of the station and a brick wall 100 m west of this. 2) Railway road, 200 m west of the creep site; a 6 cm right lateral displacement was found here. 3) At the village of Hamamli, 1 km east of the creeping, a 6 cm horizontal and 2 cm vertical offset were measured on the brick wall of house for livestock. All the owners explained that they noticed those cracks within several days after the Izmit earthquake. We also found new findings from the Ismetpasa creeping. A total displacement of 18--24 cm was measured on the Ismetpasa creep site by Ambraseys (1970) and Aytun (1995). We measured 40--41 cm of total displacement at the creep site including triggered slip by Izmit earthquake. The creep site and offset railway are located on the alluvial plain. However Site 1 of triggered slips is located on Eocene mudstone and alluvium, and at Site 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711629B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711629B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span>-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude: The case of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bohnhoff, Marco; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Benzion, Yehuda</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform <span class="hlt">faults</span> near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform <span class="hlt">faults</span>, the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with <span class="hlt">fault</span>-zone evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..103...67A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..103...67A"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismically-triggered organic-rich layers in recent sediments from Göllüköy Lake (North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avşar, Ulaş; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; De Batist, Marc; Lepoint, Gilles; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Multi-proxy analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Göllüköy Lake, which is located on the eastern North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), reveals a complete and high-resolution paleoseismic record for the last 650 years. Six sedimentary events are detected in a 3.1 m-long piston core. They form distinct organic-rich intercalations within the background sedimentation, which are characterized by strong anomalies on the loss-on-ignition (LOI550) and total organic carbon (TOC) profiles, as well as by lighter colours on the X-ray radiographic images. Itrax micro-XRF core scanner data are also used to contribute to the detection and characterization of the event deposits. After the detection of the sedimentary events, their temporal correlation with the earthquakes in the historical seismicity catalogue of the NAF is tested. The youngest event is dated to 1940s by using 210Pb and 137Cs profiles in sediment, which coincides with the 1939 earthquake (Ms = 7.7) on the NAF. The ages of the older five events are determined based on radiocarbon dating and regional time-stratigraphic correlation. Radiocarbon dating on the bulk sediment samples does not provide reliable results due to hard-water effect. On the other hand, dating on charcoals, Ephippia of Daphnia and phragmite remains significantly improves the results and implies a mean sedimentation rate of 0.28 cm/yr. Based on this preliminary sedimentation rate, we show that organic matter content variations through our record correlate with the varve-based δ18O record of Nar Lake, which is located 350 km southwest of Göllüköy Lake. Accordingly, high-precipitation/low-evaporation climatic episodes detected in Nar Lake are represented by higher organic matter content in Göllüköy sediments. Fine-tuning the Göllüköy LOI550 record to the Nar δ18O record reveals that the ages of the sedimentary events in Göllüköy match with well-known historical earthquakes that occurred around the lake. Finally, the origin of the organic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22D..07T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22D..07T"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> using the scattered teleseismic wavefield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Cornwell, D. G.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Kahraman, M.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Rondenay, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) is a major continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, similar in size and scale to the San Andreas system, that extends ˜1200 km across <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In 2012, a new multidisciplinary project (<span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab) was instigated to better understand deformation throughout the entire crust in the NAFZ, in particular the expected transition from narrow zones of brittle deformation in the upper crust to possibly broader shear zones in the lower crust/upper mantle and how these features contribute to the earthquake loading cycle. This contribution will discuss the first results from the seismic component of the project, a 73 station network encompassing the northern and southern branches of the NAFZ in the Sakarya region. The Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) is arranged as a 6×11 grid with a nominal station spacing of 7 km, with a further 7 stations located outside of the main grid. With the excellent resolution afforded by the DANA network, we will present images of crustal structure using the technique of teleseismic scattering tomography. The method uses a full waveform inversion of the teleseismic scattered wavefield coupled with array processing techniques to infer the properties and location of small-scale heterogeneities (with scales on the order of the seismic wavelength) within the crust. We will also present preliminary results of teleseismic scattering migration, another powerful method that benefits from the dense data coverage of the deployed seismic network. Images obtained using these methods together with other conventional imaging techniques will provide evidence for how the deformation is distributed within the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone at depth, providing constraints that can be used in conjunction with structural analyses of exhumed <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments and models of geodetic strain-rate across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> system. By linking together results from the complementary techniques being employed in the <span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab project, we aim to produce a comprehensive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.201.1814S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.201.1814S"><span id="translatedtitle">A missing-link in the tectonic configuration of the Almacık Block along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Active <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in the Bolu plain based on seismic reflection studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seyitoğlu, Gürol; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan; Kaypak, Bülent; Esat, Korhan; Çağlayan, Ayşe; Gündoğdu, Oğuz; Güney, Yücel; Işık, Veysel; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Avdan, Uğur</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) starts to branch off in the western Bolu plain. The branches of the NAFZ in this location create the Almacık block which is surrounded by the latest surface ruptures of significant earthquakes that occurred between 1944 and 1999, but its northeastern part remains unruptured. The most recently formed rupture, that was a result of the 1999 November 12 Düzce earthquake, ended to the northwest of the Bakacak <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The connection between the Bakacak <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and the main branch of the NAFZ via the Bolu plain has until now remained unknown. This paper establishes that the route of the missing link runs through the Dağkent, Kasaplar and Bürnük <span class="hlt">faults</span>, a finding achieved with the help of seismic reflection studies. The paper also argues that the cross cutting nature of these newly determined <span class="hlt">faults</span> and a stress analysis based on focal mechanism solutions of recent earthquakes demonstrate the termination of the suggested pull-apart nature of the Bolu plain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2327Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2327Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The analysis of historical earthquakes of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Marmara Region, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> for the last 15 centuries based on intensity and continuous Coulomb scenarios: Implications for the <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and the interaction of individual earthqua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yaltırak, Cenk; Şahin, Murat</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study we evaluated the historical earthquakes of the Marmara Region totally in three-stages. In first stage, historical earthquakes were compiled from the available catalogues and classified according to their spatial distribution, whereas only the ones, related with the active northern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) were selected. Then, the next phase of classification was made to relate historical data to the ancient and historical settlements, for which a kind of shake map was produced for each event. In the second stage, three different <span class="hlt">fault</span> models, suggested for the geometry of the NAF in the Marmara Region, were integrated into a GIS database. Mw magnitudes were calculated for each <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment by using lengths, seismogenic depths, and slip-rates of <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. In the third stage, the revised digital geological map of the Marmara Region were compiled based on 1:500k conventional maps and were used to estimate the Vs30 distribution within a grid of 750x750 m. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) maps were produced for each earthquake scenario, depending on the geometry of different <span class="hlt">fault</span> models, calculated model magnitudes and intensity distributions. Moreover, we tested the surface ruptures of each earthquake scenarios by using the Coulomb stress change model for historical data covering a time era between AD 478 and 2016 in assumption with a constant horizontal slip rate of 19 mma-1 for all <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. As conclusion, the horsetail-<span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry (Yaltırak, 2002) among all 3 <span class="hlt">fault</span> models yielded the best fit to the distribution of intensities and coulomb models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816831O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816831O"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous creep measurements on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> at Ismetpasa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozener, Haluk; Aytun, Alkut; Aktug, Bahadir; Dogru, Asli; Mencin, David; Ergintav, Semih; Bilham, Roger</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A graphite creep-meter was installed across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> near a wall at Ismetpasa, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, that has been offset by <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep processes more than 51 cm since its construction in 1957. The creep-meter is 40-cm-deep, 16.5-m-long and crosses the <span class="hlt">fault</span> at 30 degrees within a 2 cm diameter telescopic PVC conduit. The SW end of the 6-mm-diameter graphite rod is fastened to a buried stainless steel tripod, and motion of its free end relative to a similar tripod at its NE end is monitored by two sensors: an LVDT with 6 μm resolution and 13 mm range, and a Hall-effect rotary transducer with 30 μm resolution and 1.5 m range. The two sensors track each other to better than 1%. Data are sampled every 30 minutes and are publically available via the Iridium satellite with a delay of less than 1 hour. Since May 2014, for periods of months the surface <span class="hlt">fault</span> has been inactive, followed by several weeks or months of slow slip at rates of ≈3 mm/yr and with cumulative slip amplitude less than 1 mm, terminated by a pair of distinct creep events with durations of up to 8 days and amplitudes of up to 2.3 mm, after which slip ceases until the next episode. Maximum slip rates on the surface <span class="hlt">fault</span> are 0.54 mm/hour at the onset of a creep event. The decay time constant of the two pairs of creep events we have observed varies from 3 to 5 hours, similar to those observed by Altay and Sav, (1982) who operated a creepmeter here from 1980-1989. The decadal creep rate observed by these authors was 7.35±0.9 mm/yr, whereas our currently observed least-squares creep-rate is 5.4±1 mm/yr based on 19 months of data. Since most of the annual of the creep occurs in large creep events (80%), we anticipate that our rate will change with elapsed time, and our uncertainty will decrease accordingly. As expected, the 2014-2016 observed creep rate is somewhat lower than the regional creep on the <span class="hlt">fault</span> deduced from Insar analysis and GPS observations (≈7-8 mm/yr), but both the amplitude of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T23E2633C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T23E2633C"><span id="translatedtitle">Detailed Northern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone crustal structure from receiver functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present high resolution images derived from receiver functions of the continental crust in Northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> that is dissected by two <span class="hlt">fault</span> strands of the Northern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ). The NAFZ is a major continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> system that is comparable in length and slip rate to the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Recent large earthquakes occurred towards the western end of the NAFZ in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2). As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we aim to develop a model of NAFZ crustal structure and locate deformation by constraining variations in seismic properties and anisotropy in the upper and lower crust. The crustal model will be an input to test deformation scenarios in order to match geodetic observations from different phases of the earthquake loading cycle. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. This Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was deployed from May 2012 until September 2013 and we selected large events (Mw>5.5) from the high quality seismological dataset to analyze further. Receiver functions were calculated for different frequency bands then collected into regional stacks before being inverted for crustal S-wave velocity structure beneath the entire DANA array footprint. In addition, we applied common conversion point (CCP) migration using a regional velocity model to construct a migrated 3D volume of P-to-S converted and multiple energy in order to identify the major crustal features and layer boundaries. We also performed the CCP migration with transverse receiver functions in order to identify regions of anisotropy within the crustal layers. Our preliminary results show a heterogeneous crust above a flat Moho that is typically at a depth of 33 km. We do not observe a prominent step in the Moho beneath the surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014399','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014399"><span id="translatedtitle">Radon measurements for earthquake prediction along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone: a progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Friedmann, H.; Aric, K.; Gutdeutsch, R.; King, C.-Y.; Altay, C.; Sav, H.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Radon (222Rn) concentration has been continuously measured since 1983 in groundwater at a spring and in subsurface soil gas at five sites along a 200 km segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone near Bolu, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The groundwater radon concentration showed a significant increase before the Biga earthquake of magnitude 5.7 on 5 July 1983 at an epicentral distance of 350 km, and a long-term increase between March 1983 and April 1985. The soil-gas radon concentration showed large changes in 1985, apparently not meteorologically induced. The soil-gas and groundwater data at Bolu did not show any obvious correlation. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2219B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2219B"><span id="translatedtitle">Different phases of the earthquake cycle captured by seismicity along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulut, Fatih</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> has accommodated three major earthquakes during the last 15 years. Although the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone has substantially failed during the last century, it did not completely fail in NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and therefore left several segments at different physical stages. In this study, the seismicity rate is used as a proxy to locate the brittle <span class="hlt">fault</span> sections with high/low strain accumulation. The results show that the 1999 M7.4 İzmit and the 2014 M6.9 Aegean earthquakes were preceded by almost a decade-long period of enhanced microearthquake activity representing a brittle process preparing the failure. This interpretation is supported by observed lateral migration of microearthquakes toward the main shock hypocenter within a time scale of roughly a decade. The Sea of Marmara segments of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> show a rather temporally uniform seismicity trend leading to the hypothesis that those segments are still not in the preparation stage for a large earthquake. The results also show that the duration of aftershock activity is not controlled only by the size of main shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T34B..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T34B..07M"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous creep measurements on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mencin, D.; Bilham, R. G.; Ozener, H.; Aktug, B.; Dogru, A.; Ergintav, S.; Cakir, Z.; Aytun, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Surface creep was recognized as early as 1969 on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> near Ismetpasa and continues to the present day at rates of the order of 5 mm/yr. Although subsurface creep is currently monitored using Insar and GPS, continuous creep measurements on the surface <span class="hlt">fault</span> have been intermittent. In 2014 we installed a carbon-fiber rod creepmeter at Ismetpasa and a second creepmeter across the surface rupture of the 1999 Izmit earthquake, which is also known to be creeping at depth. The creepmeters have a resolution of 5 μm and a range of 2.2 m. Each creepmeter uses two sensors- a subsurface LVDT (resolution 5 μm range 10 mm) and an above-ground rotary Hall effect sensor (resolution 25 μm and range 2.2 m) and their data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite as 30 minute samples every 2 hours. The hybrid sensors on the creepmeters are similar to others currently operating on the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Their ability to capture slow slip, coseismic rupture or afterslip has been tested in deployments on the rapidly creeping Jackson, Wyoming landslide (1-3 mm/day). Installed creepmeters will be a powerful tool to search the possibilities of the transient or episodic creep and they will be used to validate the results of on-going monthly InSAR and campaign GPS studies, along the north <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G43A0838W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G43A0838W"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic strain accumulation across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> measured using InSAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walters, R. J.; Parsons, B. E.; Wright, T. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is a major feature of Middle Eastern tectonics, facilitating the westwards 'escape' of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block away from the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision. In order to understand the role that the NAF plays in regional tectonics it is important to accurately determine the slip rate across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Many slip rate estimates for the NAF have been made over Quaternary and longer time-scales but few geodetic estimates currently exist, especially in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Here we construct satellite radar interferograms using Envisat ASAR data to measure ground displacements around the NAF and hence estimate the slip rate across it. We make use of SAR data from two satellite tracks, one ascending and one descending, that overlap across the NAF, providing a check on the assumption of horizontal <span class="hlt">fault</span>-parallel motion that has previously been used in interseismic modelling of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. We mitigate the effects of atmospheric errors by constructing multiple interferograms over the <span class="hlt">fault</span> and summing them, effectively creating a longer timespan interferogram and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. We empirically correct for orbital errors by flattening the radar swaths on the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau, an area with little expected deformation. Our measurements of rates of displacement are consistent with an interseismic model for the NAF where deformation occurs at depth on a narrow shear zone below a layer in which the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is locked. We jointly invert data from both satellite tracks to solve for best fitting model parameters, estimating both the slip rate and the depth to which the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is locked. Our best-fitting model gives a slip rate of 23 mm/yr and a locking depth of 19 km, which is in agreement with a previous estimate made from a single track of ERS SAR data (Wright et al., 2001, GRL 28, 2117-2120), and with existing GPS data. We also construct a velocity field using a combination of InSAR and GPS data for eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JGeo...67...30M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JGeo...67...30M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic study at the junction of the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> and the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">fault</span> from GPS measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahmoud, Yasser; Masson, Frederic; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Yönlü, Onder; Daoud, Mohamed; Ergintav, Semih; Inan, Sedat</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The Hatay Triple Junction (HTJ) is a tectonically complex area located at the intersection between the left-lateral East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (EAF), the Cyprus subduction arc and the left-lateral Dead Sea <span class="hlt">fault</span> (DSF) which is a transform boundary between the Arabian and Sinai plates as they converge toward Eurasia. Previous GPS studies indicate a left-lateral strike-slip rate across the DSF varying from 5 mm/yr (along the southern part) to 2 mm/yr (along the northern part) (Alchalbi et al., 2010; Gomez et al., 2007; Le Béon et al., 2008; Mahmoud et al., 2005; Al-Tarazi et al., 2011). In contrast, the EAF has a roughly constant velocity along strike estimated at 9.7 + 0.9 mm/yr (Reilinger et al., 2006). The HTJ contains several well-identified active <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments (DSF, EAF, Osmaniye <span class="hlt">fault</span>, Karasu <span class="hlt">fault</span>, Latakia <span class="hlt">fault</span>, Jisr-al-shuggur <span class="hlt">fault</span>, Idleb <span class="hlt">fault</span> and Afrin <span class="hlt">fault</span>) (Meghraoui et al., 2011), the <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip rates for which are poorly constrained. In order to constrain better the slip rate on <span class="hlt">faults</span>, we established a network of 57 GPS sites in NW Syria and in SE <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The first campaign was carried out in September 2009; a second took place in September and November 2010 and a third (only in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) in September 2011. Although the velocity field vectors computed from the 2009, 2010 and 2011 measurements appear consistent with other local studies, the results are hampered by large uncertainties due to the short observation period. However, preliminary interpretations are consistent with decreasing velocity along the DSF from south to north reported previously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8043B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8043B"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous creep measurements on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilham, Roger; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen; Ozner, Haluk; Dogru, Asli; Ergintav, Semih; Cakir, Ziyadin; Aytun, Alkut; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; VanBoskirk, Liz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Surface creep was observed as early as 1969 on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> near Ismetpasa and continues to the present day at rates of the order of 5 mm/yr. Although subsurface creep is currently monitored using INSAR and GPS, continuous creep measurements on the trace of the surface <span class="hlt">fault</span> have been intermittent. In 2014, we installed a carbon-fiber rod creepmeter at Ismetpasa and a second creepmeter across the surface rupture of the 1999 Izmit earthquake, which is also known to be creeping at depth. The creepmeters have a resolution of 5 µm and a dynamic range of 2.2 m. Each creepmeter uses two sensors: 1) a subsurface LVDT (resolution 5 µm, range 10 mm) and an above-ground rotary Hall effect sensor (resolution 25 µm, range 2.2 m) and the data are transmitted via Iridium satellite communications as 30 minute samples every 2 hours. The hybrid sensors on the creepmeters are similar to others currently operating on the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The sensor's ability to capture slow slip, coseismic rupture or afterslip has been tested in deployments on the rapidly creeping Jackson, Wyoming landslide (1-3 mm/day). In addition, we have installed six borehole strainmeters to measure creep on the Princess Island segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> to the west of Ismetpasa. The tensor strainmeters are able to measure strain events on 10e-10 strain and they can resolve 1 mm creep events on the order of 500 m2 at distances of 4 km away based on observations from deployed instruments along the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in Southern California. The tensor strainmeters are unique geodetic instruments in that they are capable of imaging the creep in high resolution where the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) is submarine in the Sea of Marmara. The newly installed creepmeters and strainmeters will be powerful tools to examine the possibilities of the transient or episodic creep along the NAF and they will be used to validate the results of on-going monthly INSAR, continuous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738m0005K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738m0005K"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of chaos analyses methods on East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone fractures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamışlıoǧlu, Miraç; Külahcı, Fatih</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Nonlinear time series analysis techniques have large application areas on the geoscience and geophysics fields. Modern nonlinear methods are provided considerable evidence for explain seismicity phenomena. In this study nonlinear time series analysis, fractal analysis and spectral analysis have been carried out for researching the chaotic behaviors of release radon gas (222Rn) concentration occurring during seismic events. Nonlinear time series analysis methods (Lyapunov exponent, Hurst phenomenon, correlation dimension and false nearest neighbor) were applied for East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EAFZ) <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and its surroundings where there are about 35,136 the radon measurements for each region. In this paper were investigated of 222Rn behavior which it's used in earthquake prediction studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036641','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036641"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal earthquake clusters along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone offshore Istanbul</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bulut, Fatih; Ellsworth, William L.; Bohnhoff, Marco; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigate earthquakes with similar waveforms in order to characterize spatiotemporal microseismicity clusters within the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone (NAFZ) in northwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> along the transition between the 1999 ??zmit rupture zone and the Marmara Sea seismic gap. Earthquakes within distinct activity clusters are relocated with cross-correlation derived relative travel times using the double difference method. The spatiotemporal distribution of micro earthquakes within individual clusters is resolved with relative location accuracy comparable to or better than the source size. High-precision relative hypocenters define the geometry of individual <span class="hlt">fault</span> patches, permitting a better understanding of <span class="hlt">fault</span> kinematics and their role in local-scale seismotectonics along the region of interest. Temporal seismic sequences observed in the eastern Sea of Marmara region suggest progressive failure of mostly nonoverlapping areas on adjacent <span class="hlt">fault</span> patches and systematic migration of microearthquakes within clusters during the progressive failure of neighboring <span class="hlt">fault</span> patches. The temporal distributions of magnitudes as well as the number of events follow swarmlike behavior rather than a mainshock/aftershock pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T31A2834R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T31A2834R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetically constrained models of viscoelastic stress transfer and earthquake triggering along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robinson DeVries, P.; Krastev, P. G.; Meade, B. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over the past 80 years, 8 MW>6.7 strike-slip earthquakes west of 40º longitude have ruptured the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF), largely from east to west. The series began with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, and the most recent 1999 MW=7.4 Izmit earthquake extended the pattern of ruptures into the Sea of Marmara in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The mean time between seismic events in this westward progression is 8.5±11 years (67% confidence interval), much greater than the timescale of seismic wave propagation (seconds to minutes). The delayed triggering of these earthquakes may be explained by the propagation of earthquake-generated diffusive viscoelastic fronts within the upper mantle that slowly increase the Coulomb failure stress change (CFS) at adjacent hypocenters. Here we develop three-dimensional stress transfer models with an elastic upper crust coupled to a viscoelastic Burgers rheology mantle. Both the Maxwell (ηM=1018.6-19.0 Pa•s) and Kelvin (ηK=1018.0-19.0 Pa•s) viscosities are constrained by viscoelastic block models that simultaneously explain geodetic observations of deformation before and after the 1999 Izmit earthquake. We combine this geodetically constrained rheological model with the observed sequence of large earthquakes since 1939 to calculate the time-evolution of CFS changes along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> due to viscoelastic stress transfer. Critical values of mean CFS at which the earthquakes in the eight decade sequence occur between -0.007 to 2.946 MPa and may exceed the magnitude of static CFS values by as much as 180%. The variability of four orders of magnitude in critical triggering stress may reflect along strike variations in NAF strength. Based on the median and mean of these critical stress values, we infer that the NAF strand in the northern Marmara Sea near Istanbul, which previously ruptured in 1509, may reach a critical stress level between 2015 and 2032.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.188.1071O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.188.1071O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> geometry, rupture dynamics and ground motion from potential earthquakes on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> under the Sea of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oglesby, David D.; Mai, P. Martin</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system in the Sea of Marmara, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, considering the geometrical complexity of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near <span class="hlt">fault</span> bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Finally, we find that the complex <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of <span class="hlt">fault</span> bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GeoJI.202..261D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GeoJI.202..261D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Shear wave velocity structure of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate: anomalously slow crust in southwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delph, Jonathan R.; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Ward, Kevin M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate is composed of different lithospheric blocks and ribbon continents amalgamated during the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean and Neotethys Ocean along a subduction margin. Using ambient noise tomography, we investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate. A total of 215 broad-band seismic stations were used spanning 7 yr of recording to compute 13 778 cross-correlations and obtain Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements for periods between 8 and 40 s. We then perform a shear wave inversion to calculate the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show that the overall crustal shear wave velocities of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> crust are low (˜3.4 km s-1), indicative of a felsic overall composition. We find that prominent lateral seismic velocity gradients correlate with Tethyan suture zones, supporting the idea that the neotectonic structures of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> are exploiting the lithospheric weaknesses associated with the amalgamation of Anatolia. Anomalously slow shear wave velocities (˜3.15 km s-1 at 25 km) are located in the western limb of the Isparta Angle in southwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In the upper crust, we find that these low shear wave velocities correlate well with the projected location of a carbonate platform unit (Bey Dağlari) beneath the Lycian Nappe complex. In the lower crust and upper mantle of this region, we propose that the anomalously slow velocities are due to the introduction of aqueous fluids related to the underplating of accretionary material from the underthrusting of a buoyant, attenuated continental fragment similar to the Eratosthenes seamount. We suggest that this fragment controlled the location of the formation of the Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the eastern Aegean Sea during rapid slab rollback of the Aegean Arc in early Miocene times. Lastly, we observe that the uppermost mantle beneath continental Anatolia is generally slow (˜4.2 km s-1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...62P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...62P"><span id="translatedtitle">Frictional strength of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> in eastern Marmara region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and <span class="hlt">fault</span> orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..159N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..159N"><span id="translatedtitle">Focal mechanism determinations of earthquakes along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>, beneath the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakano, Masaru; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doğan</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We determined the centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions of earthquakes that occurred along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) beneath the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea, using data obtained from <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'s broad-band seismograph network. The CMT solution of the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake ( Mw 6.9) represents a strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span>, consistent with the geometry of the NAF, and the source-time function indicates that this event comprised several distinct subevents. Each subevent is considered to have ruptured a different <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment. This observation indicates the existence of a mechanical barrier, namely a NAF segment boundary, at the hypocenter. CMT solutions of background seismicity beneath the Aegean Sea represent strike-slip or normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> along the NAF or its branch <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The tensional axes of these events are oriented northeast-southwest, indicating a transtensional tectonic regime. Beneath the Sea of Marmara, the CMT solutions represent mostly strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, consistent with the motion of the NAF, but we identified a normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> event with a tensional axis parallel to the strike of the NAF. This mechanism indicates that a pull-apart basin, marking a segment boundary of the NAF, is developing there. Because ruptures of a <span class="hlt">fault</span> system and large earthquake magnitudes are strongly controlled by the <span class="hlt">fault</span> system geometry and <span class="hlt">fault</span> length, mapping <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments along NAF can help to improve the accuracy of scenarios developed for future disastrous earthquakes in the Marmara region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019873','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019873"><span id="translatedtitle">Progressive failure on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stein, R.S.; Barka, A.A.; Dieterich, J.H.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>10 M ??? 6.7 earthquakes ruptured 1000 km of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) during 1939-1992, providing an unsurpassed opportunity to study how one large shock sets up the next. We use the mapped surface slip and <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry to infer the transfer of stress throughout the sequence. Calculations of the change in Coulomb failure stress reveal that nine out of 10 ruptures were brought closer to failure by the preceding shocks, typically by 1-10 bar, equivalent to 3-30 years of secular stressing. We translate the calculated stress changes into earthquake probability gains using an earthquake-nucleation constitutive relation, which includes both permanent and transient effects of the sudden stress changes. The transient effects of the stress changes dominate during the mean 10 yr period between triggering and subsequent rupturing shocks in the Anatolia sequence. The stress changes result in an average three-fold gain in the net earthquake probability during the decade after each event. Stress is calculated to be high today at several isolated sites along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. During the next 30 years, we estimate a 15 per cent probability of a M ??? 6.7 earthquake east of the major eastern centre of Ercinzan, and a 12 per cent probability for a large event south of the major western port city of Izmit. Such stress-based probability calculations may thus be useful to assess and update earthquake hazards elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5628493','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5628493"><span id="translatedtitle">Previously unrecognized now-inactive strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the Thrace basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perincek, D. )</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> is a major 1,200 km-long transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> bounding the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate to the north. It formed in late middle Miocene time as a broad shear zone with a number of strands splaying westward in a horsetail fashion. Later, movement became localized along the stem, and the southerly and northerly splays became inactive. One such right-lateral, now-inactive splay is the west-northwest-striking Thrace strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, consisting of three subparallel strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. From north to south these are the Kirklareli, Lueleburgaz, and Babaeski <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones, extending {plus minus} 130 km along the strike. The Thrace <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone probably connected with the presently active northern strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the Sea of Marmara in the southeast and may have joined the Plovdiv graben zone in Bulgaria in the northwest. The Thrace basin in which the Thrace <span class="hlt">fault</span> system is located, is Cenozoic with a sedimentary basin fill from middle Eocene to Pliocene. The Thrace <span class="hlt">fault</span> system formed in pre-Pliocene time and had become inactive by the Pliocene. Strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones with normal and reverse separation are detected by seismic reflection profiles and subsurface data. Releasing bend extensional structures (e.g., near the town of Lueleburgaz) and restraining bend compressional structures (near Vakiflar-1 well) are abundant on the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones. Umurca and Hamitabad fields are en echelon structures on the Lueleburgaz <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. The Thrace strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> system has itself a horsetail shape, the various strands of which become younger southward. The entire system died before the Pliocene, and motion on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone began to be accommodated in the Sea of Marmara region. Thus the Thrace <span class="hlt">fault</span> system represents the oldest strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the west.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3281458','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3281458"><span id="translatedtitle">Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, with emphasis on the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region. PMID:21864150</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018540','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018540"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of stress triggering in earthquake migration on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stein, R.S.; Dieterich, J.H.; Barka, A.A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Ten M???6.7 earthquakes ruptured 1,000 km of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) during 1939-92, providing an unsurpassed opportunity to study how one large shock sets up the next. Calculations of the change in Coulomb failure stress reveal that 9 out of 10 ruptures were brought closer to failure by the preceding shocks, typically by 5 bars, equivalent to 20 years of secular stressing. We translate the calculated stress changes into earthquake probabilities using an earthquake-nucleation constitutive relation, which includes both permanent and transient stress effects. For the typical 10-year period between triggering and subsequent rupturing shocks in the Anatolia sequence, the stress changes yield an average three-fold gain in the ensuing earthquake probability. Stress is now calculated to be high at several isolated sites along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. During the next 30 years, we estimate a 15% probability of a M???6.7 earthquake east of the major eastern center of Erzincan, and a 12% probability for a large event south of the major western port city of Izmit. Such stress-based probability calculations may thus be useful to assess and update earthquake hazards elsewhere. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1690Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1690Y"><span id="translatedtitle">GPS measurements along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone ont he Mid-Anatolia segment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yavasoglu, H.; Team</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is the most important tectonic feature in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> producing lots of earthquakes that cause deaths, wounds and loss of property in large scale. So, there are a lot of seismic, geodetic, geologic and geophysical researches through NAF. A new project, "Determination of Kinematics along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Branch between Ladik and Ilgaz with GPS Measurements", founded by The Scientific and Technical Research Council of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (TUBITAK) and Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Research Fund is also started. The aim of the project is to determine the magnitude and direction of the block movements in the region by using GPS. Having the knowledge about the neotectonics of the region with the contributions of geology and seismology after the GPS campaigns will provide further information on the assessment of the earthquake potential. In this work, the planning stage of the network is examined. Also pre-results from the first and second surveying campaigns are presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The tectonic framework of the Eastern Mediterranean is dominated by the collision of the Arabian and African plates with the Eurasia. This collision created wide variety of tectonic processes such as folds and thrust belts, major continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, opening of pull-apart basins etc. All these tectonic caused long-term destructive earthquakes in Anatolia Last earthquakes occurred at the end of the 20th Century, in 17th of August and 12 of November 1999, Golcuk and Duzce earthquakes, also focused the attention of international science community over the tectonics and kinematics of the NAF. A westward migrating earthquakes series starting from 1939 Erzincan earthquake, produced more than 1000 kilometers of ruptures between Erzincan and Sea of Marmara 2. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NAF The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is one of the longest active strike slip systems. Slip rate of the NAF was estimated from the GPS data as 24±1mm/yr. One of the important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....1690Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....1690Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">GPS measurements along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone ont he Mid-Anatolia segment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yavasoglu, H.; Team</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is the most important tectonic feature in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> producing lots of earthquakes that cause deaths, wounds and loss of property in large scale. So, there are a lot of seismic, geodetic, geologic and geophysical researches through NAF. A new project, "Determination of Kinematics along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Branch between Ladik and Ilgaz with GPS Measurements", founded by The Scientific and Technical Research Council of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (TUBITAK) and Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Research Fund is also started. The aim of the project is to determine the magnitude and direction of the block movements in the region by using GPS. Having the knowledge about the neotectonics of the region with the contributions of geology and seismology after the GPS campaigns will provide further information on the assessment of the earthquake potential. In this work, the planning stage of the network is examined. Also pre-results from the first and second surveying campaigns are presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The tectonic framework of the Eastern Mediterranean is dominated by the collision of the Arabian and African plates with the Eurasia. This collision created wide variety of tectonic processes such as folds and thrust belts, major continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, opening of pull-apart basins etc. All these tectonic caused long-term destructive earthquakes in Anatolia Last earthquakes occurred at the end of the 20th Century, in 17th of August and 12 of November 1999, Golcuk and Duzce earthquakes, also focused the attention of international science community over the tectonics and kinematics of the NAF. A westward migrating earthquakes series starting from 1939 Erzincan earthquake, produced more than 1000 kilometers of ruptures between Erzincan and Sea of Marmara 2. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NAF The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is one of the longest active strike slip systems. Slip rate of the NAF was estimated from the GPS data as 24±1mm/yr. One of the important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8613T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8613T"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from the Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquakes or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct body wave images for the entire crust and the shallow upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using autocorrelations of the vertical component of ground motion, P-wave reflections can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the northern branch of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, indicating that the NAFZ reaches the upper mantle as a narrow structure. The southern branch has a less clear effect on crustal structure. We also see evidence of several discontinuities in the mid-crust in addition to an upper mantle reflector that we interpret to represent the Hales discontinuity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.5195K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.5195K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>-Arabian Collision Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keskin, Mehmet</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip <span class="hlt">Fault</span> between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8960T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8960T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab: Results on the crustal structure of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> from a dense seismic network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, David; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Greg; Cornwell, David; Türkelli, Niyazi; Uǧur, Teoman, Kahraman, Metin; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Gülen, Levent; Utkucu, Murat; Frederiksen, Andrew</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) is a major continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, similar in size and scale to the San Andreas system, that extends ~1200 km across <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> from the Aegean coast on the west to the Lake Van region in the east. <span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab is a multidisciplinary project that aims to better understand deformation throughout the entire crust in the NAFZ, in particular the expected transition from narrow zones of brittle deformation in the upper crust to broad shear zones in the lower crust/upper mantle and how these features contribute to the earthquake loading cycle. The project incorporates broadband seismology, satellite geodesy, structural geology and numerical modelling in order to give an unprecedented view of the dynamic state of the NAFZ in the vicinity of the devastating 1999 Izmit and Düzce earthquakes. This contribution will discuss the first results from the seismic component of the project, a 73 station network encompassing the northern and southern branches of the NAFZ in the Sakarya region. Deployed in May 2012, the Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) is arranged as a 6×11 grid with a nominal station spacing of 7 km, with a further 7 stations located outside of the grid. Receiver function analysis will provide estimates of bulk crustal properties, along with information regarding heterogeneity at depth (dipping interfaces/anisotropy). With the excellent resolution afforded by the DANA network, we will present results using the technique of teleseismic scattering tomography. The method uses a full waveform inversion of teleseismic signals coupled with array processing techniques to infer the properties and location of small-scale heterogeneities (with scales on the order of the seismic wavelength) within the crust. Images obtained using these methods will provide evidence for how the deformation is distributed within the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone at depth, providing constraints that can be used in conjunction with structural analyses of exhumed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3399A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3399A"><span id="translatedtitle">The Propagation Processes of The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and The Evolution of The Sea of Marmara Pull-apart</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armijo, R.; Meyer, B.; Navarro, S.; King, G.; Barka, A.</p> <p></p> <p>Between 1939 and 1999 the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) experienced a westward pro- gression of eight large earthquakes over 800 km along its morphological trace. The 2000-km-long North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> has also grown by westward propa- gation through continental lithosphere over a much longer time scale (~10 m.y.). As the Arabia/Europe collision progressed in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> it caused Anatolia to move to the West and the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> to propagate along the Pontides and into the northern Aegean. The early slow extension in the Aegean started to be modi- fied about 5 Ma ago. At 1 Ma the process of propagation dramatically increased the activity of the Corinth Rift in Greece, where Pleistocene marine terraces have been rapidly uplifted. The Sea of Marmara is a large pull-apart which appears to have been a geometrical/mechanical obstacle encountered by the NAF during its westward prop- agation. New high-resolution data (bathymetry, side-scan sonar, seismics) provide a precise image of the structure and the evolution of the submarine <span class="hlt">fault</span> system that forms a smaller pull-apart beneath the Northern Sea of Marmara, between two well- known strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> on land (Izmit and Ganos <span class="hlt">faults</span>). The outstandingly clear submarine morphology shows a segmented <span class="hlt">fault</span> system including pull-apart features at a range of scales, which indicate a dominant transtensional tectonic regime. There is no evidence for a single, throughgoing, purely strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span>. This result is criti- cal to our understanding of the seismic behaviour of this region of the NAF, close to Istanbul. There is morphological and geological evidence for a stable kinematics con- sistent both with the long-term displacement field determined for the past 5 m.y. and with the present-day Anatolia/Eurasia motion determined with GPS. However, within the Sea of Marmara region the <span class="hlt">fault</span> kinematics involves asymmetric slip partitioning which appears to have extended throughout the evolution of the pull</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5195K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5195K"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>-Arabian Collision Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keskin, Mehmet</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip <span class="hlt">Fault</span> between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5185F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5185F"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleo-earthquake timing on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>: Where, when, and how sure are we?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fraser, J.; Vanneste, K.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) traces from the Karilova Triple Junction in the east 1400km into the Aegean Sea in the west, forming a northwardly convex arch across northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In the 20th century the NAF ruptured in an approximate east to west migrating sequence of large, destructive and deadly earthquakes. This migrating sequence suggests a simple relationship between crustal loading and <span class="hlt">fault</span> rupture. A primary question remains unclear: Does the NAF always rupture in episodic bursts? To address this question we have reanalysed selected pre-existing paleoseismic investigations (PIs), from along the NAF, using Bayesian statistical modelling to determine a standardised record of the temporal probability distribution of earthquakes. A wealth of paleoseismic records have accumulated over recent years concerning the NAF although sadly much research remains un-published. A significant output of this study is tabulated results from all of the existing published paleoseismic studies on the NAF with recalibration of the radiocarbon ages using standardized methodology and standardized error reporting by determining the earthquake probability rather than using errors associated with individual bounding dates. We followed the approach outlined in Biasi & Weldon (1994) and in Biasi et al. (2002) to calculate the actual probability density distributions for the timing of paleoseismic events and for the recurrence intervals. Our implementation of these algorithms is reasonably fast and yields PDFs that are comparable to but smoother than those obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo type simulations (e.g., OxCal, Bronk-Ramsey, 2007). Additionally we introduce three new earthquake records from PIs we have conducted in spatial gaps in the existing data. By presenting all of this earthquake data we hope to focus further studies and help to define the distribution of earthquake risk. Because of the long historical record of earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, we can begin to address some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...94....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...94....1A"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip rates and seismic potential on the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System using an improved GPS velocity field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aktug, B.; Ozener, H.; Dogru, A.; Sabuncu, A.; Turgut, B.; Halicioglu, K.; Yilmaz, O.; Havazli, E.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System (EAFS) is the second major <span class="hlt">fault</span> system in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, following the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System (NAFS). Unlike the NAFS, which produced 11 large earthquakes in the last ∼75 years, the EAFS has been relatively quiet during the same period of time. While historical records show that the EAFS has the potential to produce large earthquakes, the <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip rates on the EAFS were not studied in detail, and were not quantified sufficiently. This is possibly due to the relatively low seismicity and slow slip-rates of the EAFS with respect to the NAFS. However, the determination of the slip rates of the EAFS is equally important in order to understand the kinematics of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate. In this study, we collected and analyzed new survey-type GPS data, and homogeneously combined published velocities from other studies, to form the most complete GPS data set covering the EAFS. In particular, continuous GPS observations were utilized for the first time to study the northern part of the EAFS. The results of the analysis give well-constrained slip rates of the northwestern segments of the EAFS, which is further connected to the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System (DSFS) in the south. The results show that while the slip rate of the EAFS is nearly constant (∼10 mm/yr) to the north of Türkoğlu, it then decreases to 4.5 mm/yr in the south. The slip rate on the northern part of the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System (DSFS) was also found to be 4.2 ± 1.3 mm/yr, consistent with earlier studies. The contraction rates along the EAFS are below 5 mm/yr, except for the northernmost part near Karliova, where it reaches a maximum value of 6.3 ± 1.0 mm/yr. The results also show that two well-known seismic gaps across the EAFS, Palu-Sincik and Çelikhan-Türkoğlu segments, have slip deficits of 1.5 m and 5.2 m and have the potential to produce earthquakes with magnitudes of Mw7.4 and Mw7.7, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tecto..35.1446Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tecto..35.1446Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Pleistocene intraplate extension of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Inferences from cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial fan, landslide, and moraine surfaces along the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yıldırım, Cengiz; Sarıkaya, M. Akif; ćiner, Attila</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Here we documented the vertical displacement, slip rate, extension rate, and geochronology of normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> within a narrow strip along the main strand of the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. The Kartal, Cevizlik, and Lorut <span class="hlt">Faults</span> are normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> that have evident surface expression within the strip. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide geochronology revealed that the Kartal <span class="hlt">Fault</span> deformed the 104.2 ± 16.5 ka aged alluvial fan surface and the Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Fault</span> deformed the 21.9 ± 1.8 ka old moraine and talus fan surfaces. Our topographic surveys indicated 120 ± 10 m and 13.1 ± 1.4 m surface-breaking vertical displacements along the Kartal and Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Faults</span>, respectively. Accordingly, we suggest a 1.15 ± 0.21 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.66 ± 0.12 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 104.2 ± 16.5 ka on the Kartal <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, and a 0.60 ± 0.08 mm a-1 slip rate and 0.35 ± 0.05 mm a-1 extension rate for the last 21.9 ± 1.8 ka on the Cevizlik <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. We believe that these structures are an integral part of intraplate crustal deformation in the Central Anatolia. They imply that intraplate structures such as the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone may change their mode through time; presently, the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone has been deformed predominantly by normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The presence of steep preserved <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps along the Kartal, Cevizlik, and Lorut <span class="hlt">Faults</span> point to surface-breaking normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> away from the main strand and particularly signify that these structures need to be taken into account for regional seismic hazard assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S21B2018O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S21B2018O"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Results on Seismicity and <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone Structure Along the 1944 Rupture of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> East of Ismetpasa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozakin, Y.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Aktar, M.; Karabulut, H.; Peng, Z.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), a continental plate boundary similar in some respects to the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (SAF), is of great importance to <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> in terms of seismic hazard. The geological history, lithology & topography suggest that the NAF is generally a bimaterial interface separating different rock bodies. Theoretical and observational studies suggest that there may be fundamental differences between properties of earthquakes and seismic radiation generated by ruptures along interfaces that separate similar and dissimilar solids (e.g., Weertman 1980; Ben-Zion 2001; Dor et al. 2008; Ampuero & Ben-Zion 2008; Zaliapin & Ben-Zion 2010). High-resolution imaging of the internal <span class="hlt">fault</span> structure in various locations can be used to test hypotheses associated with bimaterial ruptures, and estimate expected shaking hazard based on the results. It is also important to clarify the geometry and seismic potential of various sections through high-resolution studies of seismicity. To begin such studies, we conducted a pilot seismic experiment east of Ismetpasa on the 1944 rupture of the NAF with a line of 6-11 seismometers that cross the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The location was chosen because it is within the area where Dor et al. (2008) found strong asymmetry of rock damage that may reflect repeating ruptures on a bimaterial <span class="hlt">fault</span> interface. The location also coincides with a section of the NAF that is partially creeping at least at shallow depth. The creep rate decayed from a maximum of 4-5 cm/yr following the 1994 earthquake to a present value of to 0.7 cm/yr (Cakir et al. 2005). The small local network has been operating for ~2.5 yr. Earthquake detection was done by a manual inspection of automatic identification of candidate events. To date we were able to detect only ~235 events in the magnitude range -1 to 2.5 within a radius of 45 km from the center of the network. Using template earthquakes for detecting more events was not successful so far, as the signals produced by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11B0495O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11B0495O"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> Strain Rates Along Western North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> by GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozener, H.; Dogru, A.; Aktug, B.; Ergintav, S.; Turgut, B.; Yilmaz, O.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have been observing periodically three small-aperture geodetic networks established the main strands of the western North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) by GPS since 1994 and two others since 2005. The main objective of this research is to monitor the partitioning of the strain along the active splays of NAF. The occurrences of 1999 earthquakes also enabled to quantify co-seismic and post-seismic deformation in addition to the inter-seismic deformation. Furthermore, current network scheme allows to monitor the recently discovered aseismic creep along rupture of Izmit earthquake, which require near <span class="hlt">fault</span> observations. Periodic observations at these micro-geodetic networks enable us to clarify how accumulated strain is distributed across spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we analyzed periodic GPS observations of these networks to derive velocity vectors and principal components of crustal strain rates. Estimated horizontal velocities relative to Eurasia are found to be in the range of 18-22mm/yr with an uncertainty level at the order of 1-2mm/yr. The principal strain rate axes show a dominant extension in NE-SW direction, and mostly negligible SE-NW direction of contraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAfES..54....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAfES..54....1H"><span id="translatedtitle">Moganite and quartz inclusions in the nano-structured <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fire opals from <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatipoğlu, Murat</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Red, orange, yellow and colorless chick-pea shaped <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fire opals with massive translucent zoned inclusions, from the Kütahya-Şaphane-Yeni Karamanca region in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, investigated using optical microscopy (gemmoscope and polarizing), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric spectroscopy (TGA), and thermoluminescent spectroscopy (TL). Hydrothermally deposited <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fire opals are found as nodules within the shrinkage and dehydration cracks of rhyolitic lavas and siliceous cemented tuffs. Initially, the opal bearing zone and its surroundings were geologically mapped. Then, different colored fire opal samples were obtained from the field, and finally, tests were carried out on the representative samples to determine their texture, crystalline phases, crystallinity ratios, and the formation temperatures of the silica phases. The gemmoscope and polarizing microscope investigations show the presence of two different sized textures in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fire opals: a nano-sized matrix (opal-CT and opal-C) and micron-sized inclusions (moganite and quartz). The analyses of the XRD patterns of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fire opals using a comparative matching technique show that there are two pseudo-crystalline and three crystalline silica phases in addition to the amorphous phase. The pseudo-crystalline phases are opal-CT and opal-C. The three crystalline phases are moganite, quartz, and also orthorhombic-silica inclusions. The analyses of the XRD patterns of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fire opals using the graphical modelling technique reveal that the crystallite sizes of the pseudo-crystalline phases are between 23 nm (red and colorless) and 27 nm (orange and yellow), and the crystallite sizes of the inclusions range between 125 and 600 nm (average 225 nm). Additionally, the amounts of tridymite present in the opal-CT are estimated to be 30-35% (for red), 45-50% (for orange and yellow), and 55-60% (for colorless). The SEM images</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11A2285B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11A2285B"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a bimaterial interface along the Mudurnu segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from P wave arrival times and polarization analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulut, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Bohnhoff, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We present results on imaging the contrast of seismic velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) in northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> with two new basic techniques using signals in P waveforms generated by near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> seismicity and recorded by near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> stations. The first technique uses changes in motion polarity from <span class="hlt">fault</span>-normal to source-receiver directions to identify early-arriving <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone head wave on the slow side of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, and measure the arrival times of the head and direct P waves. The moveout between the head and direct waves with increasing source-receiver distance along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> provides an estimate of the average contrast of seismic velocities across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The second technique involves measuring travel times from near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> earthquakes to a pair of stations located at similar distances across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, and using the results to estimate average velocities associated with the different ray paths. The results from both techniques indicate that the average contrast of P wave velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the NAFZ is at least 6%, with the south block being the faster side. The findings provide a basis for deriving improved event locations, focal mechanisms and estimated shaking hazard associated with earthquakes on the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The analysis techniques can be used in other <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones monitored using sparse seismic instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.6634L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.6634L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary stratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from Neogene basins across the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lucifora, Stella; Cifelli, Francesca; Mazzini, Ilaria; Cosentino, Domenico; Mattei, Massimo; Cipollari, Paola; Gliozzi, Elsa; Palolo Cavinato, Gian</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>An integrated paleomagnetic and stratigraphic study on Neogene basins across the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau was carried out. This study is developed within the VAMP (Vertical <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Movement Project), an interdisciplinary project aimed to the recent tectonic evolution of the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. The studied areas are located in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Adana, Mut and Ermenek basins) and in northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Kazan, Çankiri, Kastamonu, Boyabat and Sinop basins). For paleomagnetic analyses we sampled 1062 standard cylindrical samples from 13 stratigraphic sections, and 746 samples for paleontological analysis were taken from the same sections. AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), magnetic mineralogy and paleomagnetic polarity data are presented together with the results of the integrated stratigraphic analyses. In the Southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> basins preliminary results show the diffuse presence of authigenic iron sulphides, together with magnetite, as main magnetic carriers. In these sections the iron-sulphides Characteristic Natural Magnetization (ChRM) component is characterized by inconsistent polarity record, suggesting that iron-sulphides have a late diagenetic origin. Conversely, magnetite bearing sediments show more reliable results in term of magnetic polarity interpretations. Preliminary stratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from the southern margin of the plateau allow us both to refine the stratigraphy for the late Miocene of the Adana Basin and to better constrain the age of the youngest marine deposits of the Mut and Ermenek basins. In the late Miocene of the Adana Basin evidence of the Messinian salinity crisis led to a new stratigraphic framework specially for the Messinian-Pliocene interval. Thick fluvial conglomerates from the uppermost Messinian deposits of the Adana Basin, which could be linked to the activation of the southern margin of the plateau, allow us to constrain at about 5.4 Ma the uplift of the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. On the other hand, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34.2118H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34.2118H"><span id="translatedtitle">New kinematic and geochronologic evidence for the Quaternary evolution of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone (CAFZ)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higgins, Mark; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Brocard, Gilles; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Gosse, John C.; Cosca, Michael A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>As the kinematics of active <span class="hlt">faults</span> that bound the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate are well studied, it is now essential to improve our understanding of the style and rates of intraplate deformation to constrain regional strain partitioning and improve seismic risk assessments. One of these internal structures, the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone (CAFZ), was originally defined as a regionally significant left-lateral "tectonic escape" structure, stretching for 700 km in a NE direction across the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate. We provide new structural, geomorphic, and geochronologic data for several key segments within the central part of the CAFZ that suggest that the sinistral motion has been overstated. The Ecemiş <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the southernmost part of the CAFZ, has a late-Quaternary minimum slip rate of 1.1 ± 0.4 mm a-1, slower than originally proposed. Farther north, the Erciyes <span class="hlt">fault</span> has fed a linear array of monogenetic vents of the Erciyes stratovolcano and 40Ar/39Ar dating shows a syneruptive stress field of ESE-WNW extension from 580 ± 130 ka to 210 ± 180 ka. In the Erciyes basin, and central part of the CAFZ, we mapped and recharacterized the Erkilet and Gesi <span class="hlt">faults</span> as predominantly extensional. These long-term geological rates support recent GPS observations that reveal ESE-WNW extension, which we propose as the driver of <span class="hlt">faulting</span> since 2.73 ± 0.08 Ma. The slip rates and kinematics derived in this study are not typical of an "escape tectonic" structure. The CAFZ is a transtensional <span class="hlt">fault</span> system that reactivates paleotectonic structures and accommodates E-W extension associated with the westward movement of Anatolia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..432D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..432D"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Creep displacement along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> by SAR Interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deguchi, Tomonori; Kutoglu, Hakan</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) has several records of a huge earthquake occurrence in the last one century, which is well-known as a risky active <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Some signs indicating a creep displacement could be observed on the Ismetpasa segment. It is reported so far that the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> in California, the Longitudinal Valley <span class="hlt">fault</span> in Taiwan and the Valley <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System in Metro Manila also exhibit <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> with creep deformation is aseismic and never generate the large scale earthquakes. But the scale and rate of <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep are important factors to watch the <span class="hlt">fault</span> behavior and to understand the cycle of earthquake. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of spatial and temporal change on the ground motion due to <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep in the surrounding of the Ismetpasa, NAF. DInSAR is capable to catch a subtle land displacement less than a centimeter and observe a wide area at a high spatial resolution. We applied InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR data in order to measure long-term ground deformation from 2007 until 2011. As a result, the land deformation that the northern and southern parts of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> have slipped to east and west at a rate of 7.5 and 6.5 mm/year in line of sight respectively were obviously detected. In addition, it became clear that the <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep along the NAF extended 61 km in east to west direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.327...17B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.327...17B"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a bimaterial interface along the Mudurnu segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from polarization analysis of P waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulut, Fatih; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Bohnhoff, Marco</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present results on imaging contrast of seismic velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) in northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> with polarization analysis of early P waveforms generated by near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> seismicity and recorded by near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> stations. The analysis uses changes in motion polarity from <span class="hlt">fault</span>-normal to source-receiver directions to identify early-arriving <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone head waves on the slow side of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, and measure the arrival times of the head and direct P waves. The moveout between the head and direct waves with increasing source-receiver distance along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> provides an estimate of the average contrast of seismic velocities across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The results indicate that the average contrast of P wave velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the NAFZ is at least 6%, with the south block being the faster side. The findings provide a basis for deriving improved event locations, focal mechanisms and estimated shaking hazard associated with earthquakes on the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The analysis technique can be used in other <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones monitored with sparse seismic instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813457O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813457O"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural hazards at the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (CAP) (southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Tsunami evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogretmen, Nazik; Cosentino, Domenico; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cipollari, Paola; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In regions that are located in steep, orogenic plateau margins, such as the coastal area of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (CAP) southern margin, natural hazard studies related to active tectonics and events that are triggered by active tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis) are very essential in the context of preventing possible damages. This work herein, represents some evidence of the tsunami hazard along the coast between Aydıncık and Narlıkuyu, in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The work is based on a study on out-of-place beachrock-slab boulder acummulation in Aydıncık district, which were transported onshore by sliding process, and on out-of-place more rounded boulders that were transported by saltation process in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts. The presence of intertidal organisms (e.g., lithophaga boring, balanids, oysters, etc.) encrusting the boulders of both localities shows that those boulders were carried onland from a marine environment. According to their dimensions and weight, in agreement with out-of-place boulders from areas surely affected by tsunamis, those out-of-place boulders here are interpreted as due to tsunami waves. The tsunamites in the Aydıncık area are located on beachrock slabs. They are platty and some of those blocks are embricated and oriented perpendicular to the shoreline (NE-SW direction). Those boulders have been interpreted as transported by sliding process, in relation with the coastal morphology and the boulder geometry, which means that to move those boulders the energy of the tsunami not necessarily should have been as high as in saltation or rolling transport processes. On the contrary, in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık localities, the boulders are well-rounded and ellipsoidal shaped, suggesting that they were transported by rolling and/or saltation mode rather than by sliding. To carry onland the tsunami boulders observed in the Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts, which in the Yeşilovacık area they are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2502T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2502T"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal imaging across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from the autocorrelation of ambient seismic noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Seismic images of active <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones can be used to examine the structure of <span class="hlt">faults</span> throughout the crust and upper mantle and give clues as to whether the associated deformation occurs within a narrow shear zone or is broadly distributed through the lower crust. Limitations on seismic resolution within the crust and difficulties imaging shallow structures such as the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) place constraints on the interpretation of seismic images. In this study we retrieve body wave reflections from autocorrelations of ambient seismic noise. The instantaneous phase coherence autocorrelations allow unprecedented ambient noise images of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ). Our reflection profiles show a Moho reflected P wave and additional structure within the crust and upper mantle. We image a distinct vertical offset of the Moho associated with the northern branch of the NAFZ indicating that deformation related to the <span class="hlt">fault</span> remains narrow in the upper mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8679O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8679O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A change in stress regime along the Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, central northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozden, S.; Gundogdu, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (EF) which is one of the active main <span class="hlt">faults</span> in central northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> elongated a 150 km long with the WNW-ENE to E-W trending between Bursa and SE Eskisehir. EF is representing a right lateral widespread intra-continental <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone which has separated from central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block than Aegean extensional province. Kinematic evolution of this <span class="hlt">fault</span> determined from inversion of both measured <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip vectors (by 209 <span class="hlt">fault</span>-striae) and earthquake focal mechanism solutions (by 13 earthquakes). The inversion of slip vectors measured on <span class="hlt">fault</span> planes indicate that a right lateral strike-slip stress regime is dominant having a consistent NW-trending Hmax(1) and NE-trending Hmin(3) axes. This stress regime changes old transpressional to young transtensional probably in Plio-Pleistocene time. Also, the earthquake focal mechanism inversions confirm that the regional transtensional stress regime continues into recent time. These stress states are characterized by NW and NE-trending 1 and 3 axes, respectively. However, local consistent NE-trending Hmin(3) extension directed normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> regime shows in relation with the development of the Eskisehir basins. Kinematic evolution and/or change in the stress regime probably resulted from (1) coeval influence of the forces due to subduction processes along the Cyprus and Hellenic arc in the south, (2) continental collision Anatolia/Arabian plate in the east, (3) anti-clockwise rotation and (4) westward escape and/or extrusion of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Block.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.674..147B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.674..147B"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximum earthquake magnitudes along different sections of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bohnhoff, Marco; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Ben-Zion, Yehuda</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Constraining the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on continental transform <span class="hlt">faults</span> has fundamental consequences for the expected seismic hazard. Since the recurrence time for those earthquakes is typically longer than a century, such estimates rely primarily on well-documented historical earthquake catalogs, when available. Here we discuss the maximum observed earthquake magnitudes along different sections of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) in relation to the age of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> activity, cumulative offset, slip rate and maximum length of coherent <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. The findings are based on a newly compiled catalog of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist owing to the long civilization record. We find that the largest M7.8-8.0 earthquakes are exclusively observed along the older eastern part of the NAFZ that also has longer coherent <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. In contrast, the maximum observed events on the younger western part where the <span class="hlt">fault</span> branches into two or more strands are smaller. No first-order relations between maximum magnitudes and <span class="hlt">fault</span> offset or slip rates are found. The results suggest that the maximum expected earthquake magnitude in the densely populated Marmara-Istanbul region would probably not exceed M7.5. The findings are consistent with available knowledge for the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and Dead Sea Transform, and can help in estimating hazard potential associated with different sections of large transform <span class="hlt">faults</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.664D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.664D"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Creep displacement along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> by ScanSAR-ScanSAR Interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deguchi, Tomonori</p> <p></p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) has several records of a huge earthquake occurrence in the last one century, which is well-known as a risky active <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Some signs indicating a creep displacement could be observed on the Ismetpasa segment. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> with creep deformation is aseismic and never generates the large scale earthquakes. But the scale and rate of <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep are important factors to watch the <span class="hlt">fault</span> behavior and to understand the cycle of earthquake. The author had investigated the distribution of spatial and temporal change on the ground motion due to <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep in the surrounding of the Ismetpasa by InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR datasets from 2007 until 2011. As a result, the land deformation that the northern and southern parts of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> have slipped to east and west at a rate of 7.5 and 6.5 mm/year in line of sight respectively were obviously detected. These results had good agreement with GPS data. In addition, it became clear that the <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep along the NAF extended 61 km in east to west direction. In this study, the author applied ScanSAR-ScanSAR Interferometry using PALSAR data to the Ismetpasa segment of NAF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815764D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815764D"><span id="translatedtitle">L band InSAR sudy on the Ganos section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Michele, Marcello</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos <span class="hlt">fault</span>, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos <span class="hlt">fault</span> occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear <span class="hlt">fault</span> system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active <span class="hlt">faults</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815764D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815764D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">L band InSAR sudy on the Ganos section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Michele, Marcello</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos <span class="hlt">fault</span>, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos <span class="hlt">fault</span> occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear <span class="hlt">fault</span> system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active <span class="hlt">faults</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8828L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8828L"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal anisotropy along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from receiver functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Licciardi, Andrea; Eken, Tuna; Taymaz, Tuncay; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Tilmann, Frederik</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) that is considered to be one of the largest plate-bounding transform <span class="hlt">faults</span> separates the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate to the south from the Eurasian Plate to the north. A proper estimation of the crustal anisotropy in the area is a key point to understand the present and past tectonic processes associated with the plate boundary as well as for assessing its strength and stability. In this work we used data from the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) passive seismic experiment in order to retrieve the anisotropic properties of the crust by means of the receiver function (RF) method. This approach provides robust constraints on the location at depth of anisotropic bodies compared to other seismological tools like S-waves splitting observations where anisotropic parameters are obtained through a path-integrated measurement process over depth. We computed RFs from teleseismic events, for 39 stations with a recording period of nearly 2 years, providing an excellent azimuthal coverage. The observed azimuthal variations in amplitudes and delay times on the Radial and Transverse RF indicate the presence of anisotropy in the crust. Isotropic and anisotropic effects on the RFs are analyzed separately after harmonic decomposition of the RF dataset (Bianchi et al. 2010). Pseudo 2D profiles are built to observe both the seismic isotropic structure and the depth-dependent lateral variations of crustal anisotropy in the area, including orientation of the symmetry axis. Preliminary results show that the isotropic structure is characterized by a complex crustal setting above a nearly flat Moho at a depth of ~40 km in the central portion of the studied area. Strong anisotropy is present in the upper crust along some portions of the NAFZ and the Ezinepazari-Sungurlu <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (ESF), with a strong correlation between the orientation of the symmetry axis of anisotropy and the strike of the main geological structures. More complex patterns of anisotropy are present in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.T43C2246S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.T43C2246S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic topography of the southern Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, and geodynamic driving mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Dudas, F. O.; Niedermann, S.; Strecker, M. R.; Echler, H.; Yildirim, C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Collision between Eurasia and Arabia and subsequent westward extrusion of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> microplate explains the development of major intracontinental <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems in Anatolia that have remained active to the present-day. Concurrent, and probable episodic uplift of the Central and Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateaus (CAP and EAP), however, suggests that additional geodynamic mechanisms have contributed to the late Cenozoic morphologic development of the region. Sedimentary basins spanning the southern margin of the CAP provide insights on the timing and rates of different phases of surface uplift, giving constraints to test which geodynamic processes have contributed to surface uplift, orogenic plateau growth, and coupled landscape/climate evolution. Stratigraphic and geomorphic records of uplift and subsidence in the Mut Basin at the southern CAP margin and along the Göksu River record dynamic topographic development. Biostratigraphy and Sr isotope stratigraphy on the highest (ca. 2 km) uplifted marine sediments of the Mut basin furnish a maximum age of ca. 8 Ma for the onset of late Cenozoic uplift of the region. A Pliocene to early Pleistocene marine section, inset within the older stratigraphy at ca. 0.2 to 1.2 km elevation, reveals a history of subsidence and renewed uplift, following the initial uplift that occurred between ca. 8 Ma and Pliocene time. The most recent phase of uplift continued with possibly minor interruptions during the Quaternary, and is recorded by a series of fluvial terraces preserved between 30 and 143 m above the modern Göksu River. One terrace (143 m) reveals a 21Ne model exposure age of ca. 160 ka; ongoing exposure age determination will further constrain the uplift history. Different geodynamic mechanisms have likely contributed to surface uplift along the southern CAP margin. Initial uplift may have been associated with the predominantly sinistral Ecemis <span class="hlt">fault</span> system that spans the southern and southeastern CAP margin. Neogene counter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25275402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25275402"><span id="translatedtitle">Health-risk behaviors in agriculture and related factors, southeastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yavuz, Hasret; Simsek, Zeynep; Akbaba, Muhsin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to determine the risky behaviors of farm operators selected from a province of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'s southeastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region, as well as the factors related to risky behaviors. In this cross-sectional analysis, 380 farm operators were enrolled through simple random selection method, and the response rate was 85%. Health-risk behavior was measured using the Control List of Occupational Risks in Agriculture. Of 323 farm operators, 85.4% were male. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to measures of environmental risks were higher in animal husbandry, transportation, transportation and maintenance of machinery, pesticide application, child protection, thermal stress, and psychosocial factors in the work place. Education, age, duration of work, and size of agricultural area were associated with risky behaviors in a multiple linear regression (P < .05). Findings showed that a certified training program and a behavior surveillance system for agriculture should be developed. PMID:25275402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S12B0384O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S12B0384O"><span id="translatedtitle">Refined Slip History of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> at Gerede on the 1944 rupture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okumura, K.; Rockwell, T. K.; Duman, T.; Tokay, F.; Kondo, H.; Yoldirim, C.; Ozaksoy, V.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We excavated four new <span class="hlt">fault</span> crossing trenches and a complex of <span class="hlt">fault</span> parallel trenches at Ardicli, 15 km east of Gerede on the 1944 Bolu-Gerede segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> to resolve timing and slip in past earthquakes. A unique large gravel-filled channel (unit 10) was determined to be offset 17 to 20 m. Preliminary age control on the gravel shows it dates to the 6th or 7th century AD. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> crossing trenches show evidence for 5 events after deposition of unit 10. Preliminary 14C dates place the earlier 3 of 5 events at AD 643-918 (EV5), AD 943-1298 (EV4), and AD 1171-1668 (EV3). These 3 events are recorded in 3 clayey units (8, 6, and 4). EV3 is the best represented with disruption into the base of unit 4 and on the main and subsidiary <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The two most recent events are the 1944 (E1) and presumably the great 1668 earthquake (E2). Based on the offset of small channels cutting into the unit 4 surface at the site, slip in 1944 and 1668 was 5 +/- 1 m in each event. This suggests that the prior 3 events collectively produced 7 to 10 m slip, slightly less than that which occurred in the most recent events. EV4 may be correlated with 1050 earthquake, but no catalog has mentioned about EV5 and EV3, indicating that historic records of the large North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> earthquakes are incomplete for this period. The finding of EV3 is important for the analysis of earthquake cycles. According to the catalogs, the interval of 618 years between 1050 and 1668 was much longer than the 1668-1944 interval and that around the Marmara Sea. With EV3, the recurrence may be much more periodic. Our detailed studies on the repeated slips along the 1944 segment indicate the slips during past 5 earthquakes are similar. The 1944 segment, especially in its central portion around Gerede is quite unique and straight. The refined slip history here will help to define regularity and irregularity of earthquake recurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0003Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0003Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparision of the different probability distributions for earthquake hazard assessment in the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yilmaz, Şeyda; Bayrak, Erdem; Bayrak, Yusuf</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study we examined and compared the three different probabilistic distribution methods for determining the best suitable model in probabilistic assessment of earthquake hazards. We analyzed a reliable homogeneous earthquake catalogue between a time period 1900-2015 for magnitude M ≥ 6.0 and estimated the probabilistic seismic hazard in the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone (39°-41° N 30°-40° E) using three distribution methods namely Weibull distribution, Frechet distribution and three-parameter Weibull distribution. The distribution parameters suitability was evaluated Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We also compared the estimated cumulative probability and the conditional probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes for different elapsed time using these three distribution methods. We used Easyfit and Matlab software to calculate these distribution parameters and plotted the conditional probability curves. We concluded that the Weibull distribution method was the most suitable than other distribution methods in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NHESS...8.1369K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NHESS...8.1369K"><span id="translatedtitle">Triggered creep rate on the Ismetpasa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kutoglu, H. S.; Akcin, H.; Kemaldere, H.; Gormus, K. S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Ismetpasa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is one of the rare places in the world where aseismic creep event has been observed. This segment was ruptured during both the 1944, Mw=7.2, Gerede and 1951, Mw=6.9, Kursunlu earthquakes. After these earthquakes, the segment has not experienced a major earthquake anymore. Starting from 1957, many studies using different technologies have been carried out to determine the creep rate of the segment. All these studies until 2002 revealed that the creep movement of the segment slowed down. The new observation campaign of the Ismetpasa geodetic network shows that the Ismetpasa segment has ceased the slowing trend and started to gain speed. This might be interpreted as an increasing earthquake risk for this segment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13A4626T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13A4626T"><span id="translatedtitle">High resolution images of the mid- to lower-crust beneath the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> obtained using the scattered seismic wavefield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G.; Cornwell, D. G.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Kahraman, M.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.; Rondenay, S.; Frederiksen, A. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Deformation along major strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> is typically focussed into narrow damage zones at the surface, but the distribution at greater depths is more enigmatic. For instance, deformation in the lower crust beneath these <span class="hlt">faults</span> is often attributed to much broader ductile shear zones. Deciphering how strain is distributed throughout the crust and lithospheric mantle is important because it has ramifications on the earthquake loading cycle. In order to better understand the structure of these systems at depth, we investigate the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) as part of a multidisciplinary project entitled <span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> system extends ~1200km across <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and has shown a clear west-east progression in seismicity over the last century, culminating in 2 catastrophic earthquakes located close to the population centers of Izmit and Duzce in 1999. In this contribution, we will present new data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for North Anatolia, DANA, a 6x11 grid with a nominal station spacing of 7km) located across a part of the ruptured segment of the Izmit earthquake. Using the techniques of teleseismic scattering tomography and scattering migration, the excellent resolution afforded by DANA highlights sharp (< 5km) lateral variations in structure at mid- to lower-crustal depths (~20-25 km) across two branches of the NAFZ. This suggests that deformation zones between distinct crustal blocks remain narrow at these depths. Integrating complementary results from other parts of the <span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab project (satellite geodesy, geodynamical modelling, structural geology), the results appear to be consistent with postseismic deformation being accommodated through afterslip on the deep extension of a narrow <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone as opposed to a broad ductile region beneath the seismogenic extent of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH13D1955K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH13D1955K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor Geodetic Monitoring of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Sea of Marmara: System Installation and its Initial Result</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kido, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) get across the mainland of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is known as a quite active strike slip <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The earthquake recurrence period for individual segment is estimated roughly 300 years based on historical records. The Marmara Segment is the major seismic gap since the last earthquake in 1766, while the Murefte earthquake occurred in 1912 at its west side and the Izmit earthquake in 1999 at its east side. The relative motion across the NAF is ~22 mm/yr based on the data from space geodesy. Investigating how much degree of this displacement is released by aseismic creep or accumulated by slip deficit in the Marmara Segment is crucial to know the total seismic risk in this region. Because the NAF is submerged in the Sea of Marmara and is inaccessible by space geodesy, we employed seafloor geodetic technique using extensometers, which acoustically monitor baseline length across a strain-localized zone, such as surface trace of a <span class="hlt">fault</span>. In 2014, we installed five extensometers at the Western High crossing the NAF one after the other, where the surface trace of the NAF is prominent and gas emission from the seafloor is reported in. Totally four beselines of ~1 km range are successfully formed and quality of initial test data was promising. Based on the initial data, detectable level of the baseline change is estimated to be ~2mm, which owing to quite stable seawater near the bottom due to strong density stratification in the Sea of Marmara. The extensometers are designed that data can be recovered via acoustic modem without disrupt the monitoring. Since the installation, we have visited the site twice and have recovered the data for ten months in total. Temperature measured by thermistor equipped on each extensometer showed coherent change and gradual increase by 0.007 degree during the period. This reflects apparent beseline shortening due to the corresponding increase of the sound speed. In the preliminary temperature correction, difference of the change</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GGG....1310018G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GGG....1310018G"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas seepage and seismogenic structures along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the eastern Sea of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gasperini, L.; Polonia, A.; Del Bianco, F.; Etiope, G.; Marinaro, G.; Favali, P.; Italiano, F.; ćAǧAtay, M. N.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>We carried out a combined geophysical and gas-geochemical survey on an active <span class="hlt">fault</span> strand along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) system in the Gulf of İzmit (eastern Sea of Marmara), providing for the first time in this area data on the distribution of methane (CH4) and other gases dissolved in the bottom seawater, as well as the CH4isotopic composition. Based on high-resolution morphobathymetric data and chirp-sonar seismic reflection profiles we selected three areas with different tectonic features associated to the NAF system, where we performed visual and instrumental seafloor inspections, including in situ measurements of dissolved CH4, and sampling of the bottom water. Starting from background values of 2-10 nM, methane concentration in the bottom seawater increases abruptly up to 20 nM over the main NAF trace. CH4 concentration peaks up to ˜120 nM were detected above mounds related probably to gas and fluids expulsion. Methane is microbial (δ13CCH4: -67.3 and -76‰ versus VPDB), and was found mainly associated with pre-Holocene deposits topped by a 10-20 m thick draping of marine mud. The correlation between tectonic structures and gas-seepages at the seafloor suggests that the NAF in the Gulf of İzmit could represent a key site for long-term combined monitoring of fluid exhalations and seismicity to assess their potential as earthquake precursors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811718S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811718S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomorphological and Paleoseismological Studies of the Malatya <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Karabacak, Volkan; Akyüz, Hüsnü Serdar</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (MOFZ is about 240 km-long sinistral strike-slip tectonic structure within the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Scholle. Although the MOFZ is claimed to be an inactive structure since 3 Ma (Westaway and Arger, 2001), recent GPS measurements, morphotectonic studies and micro seismicity strongly suggest considerable amount of strain accumulation along this tectonic feature. The GPS-based elastic block model results yield horizontal slip rates of about 1.2 and 1.6 mm/a, for the northeastern and southwestern sections of this <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, respectively (Aktuǧ et al., 2013). In order to understand the seismic potential of the southwestern section, Malatya <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (MF), of the MOFZ, we carried out paleoseismological trenching and morphometric analyses in the frame of the TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y580. The preliminary results of morphometric analyses, including the hypsometric curve and channel longitudinal profiles, suggest that the northernmost part of the MF accommodate more deformation than the southern part, where the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone bifurcates into several discrete segments. Relatively high values of hypsometric integral and the shape of hypsometric curves and the longitudinal channel profiles, indicate youthful topography at northern part of the MF. In the northern section of the MF, Kızık Basin is one of the most remarkable <span class="hlt">fault</span>-related landforms, which is 9 km long and 2 km wide, and is directly controlled by the extensional step-over of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. On the northern parts of this relatively narrow depression, a linear scarp prolongs between Kızık and Ahlas villages for about 150 m. In summer 2015, we excavated a single trench on this straight lineament, where mostly braided river-related gravels and sands were exposed. Although we could not observe any evidence of surface <span class="hlt">faulting</span> inside the erosional channel systems, the bedrock has very well-developed shear fabric at the toe of the observed scarp. We sampled the most bottom section of the undeformed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T23D2709K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T23D2709K"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Geophysical Model to Estimate the Static Coefficient of Friction and Cohesion on a Central Portion of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> East of the Marmara Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>On August 17th, 1999, a magnitude 7.4 earthquake shook Kocaeli (Izmit), <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> killing over 17,000 people. The epicenter was 100-km east of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'s largest city, Istanbul, along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) system. This 1600-km long, strike-slip boundary divides the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate and the Eurasian plate. The NAF slips at an average rate of 2-3-cm/y, and has an estimated earthquake recurrence interval of approximately 300 years. To further understand the NAF system and its dynamics, a simplified 2-D mesh model was developed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">fault</span> friction coefficient for various low cohesion values along an ~85-km stretch of the NAF system east of the Marmara Sea containing the Mudurnu valley between the cities of Izmit and Bolu (where the NAF splits). The NAF, in the region of interest, exhibits shorter recurrence intervals of 100-150 years over the last four centuries. In this region, two sets of <span class="hlt">faults</span> within the NAF system converge and then diverge; one set diverges to the NW to bound the northern rim of the Marmara Sea, while the second set continues to the SW along the southern rim of the Marmara Sea. A 100 year seismic record of earthquakes between M3.0 and M9.0 supports the claim that the two sets of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> near one another in the center of the region of interest, but do not intersect, thus defining three distinct geology provinces. A representational 2-D mesh separates the study area into three geologic provinces separated by these <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The mesh was processed using PyLith, a finite element code tectonic deformation software. The PyLith software allows us to assign rock physics parameters of the surface geology, and relative plate motions as velocity boundary conditions. Surface geology was simplified into the three rock types, and rock physics parameters were assigned using general physical parameters for each rock type and extrapolating further data from the Canadian Rock Physics Database. An average value for density and P-wave velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=224515','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=224515"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Grazing Effect on Sheep Fescue (Festuca valesiaca)Dominated Steppe Rangelands in the semi-arid Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Because of increased grazing pressure over the last fifty years, vegetation of the steppe rangelands in the semi-arid Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has been severely degraded. In these pastures, Festuca valesiaca (a sod forming short-grass) and Thymus sipyleus ssp rosulans (a prostrate shrub) a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Litho.256...88O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Litho.256...88O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Collision Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T24A..07U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T24A..07U"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Earthquake Breaks At The Sea of Marmara Pull-apart (North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ucarkus, G.; Armijo, R.; Cakir, Z.; Schmidt, S.; Meyer, B.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) makes a major transtensional step-over in the west which forms the lithospheric scale Sea of Marmara pull-apart, between the strike-slip Ganos and Izmit <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Smaller strike- slip segments and pull-apart basins alternate within the main step-over, combining strike-slip and normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. During the MARMARASCARPS cruise clear morphologic evidence of recent <span class="hlt">faulting</span> activity was found along several segments of the NAF in the Sea of Marmara. Sets of well-preserved earthquake scarps extend offshore from the Ganos and Izmit <span class="hlt">faults</span> on land. Our observations from visual exploration and ultra- high resolution bathymetry data (microbathymetry) suggest that those scarps correspond to the submarine ruptures of the purely strike-slip 1999 Izmit (Mw 7.4) and the 1912 Ganos (Ms 7.4) earthquakes. One break extends offshore eastward of the Ganos <span class="hlt">fault</span> and cuts continuously the Tekirdag basin and Western High up to the Central basin over 60 km. Scarps, here, are very well preserved and show fine-scale morphology typical of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. The age of the last earthquake break is difficult to assess directly with dating approaches. However, recent sedimentation rates can provide information on the age of the sediment covering the scarps. With that purpose, ROV (remote operated vehicle) sampled interface cores (up to 35 cm) into the disturbed sediment in the immediate vicinity of those scarps. Our first geochronological analysis with 210Pb seems to confirm the connection of fresh <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps to the 1912 Ganos earthquake rupture. Sedimentation rates determined from 210Pb profiles (excluding disturbed layers) on cores show a narrow range between 0.1-0.2 cm/yr. Another very fresh break is seen where the Izmit <span class="hlt">fault</span> enters westward into the Cinarcik Basin. It crosses the bottom of a submarine canyon at 180 m depth, 10 km west of the Hersek peninsula. Microbathymetry suggests the 1999 <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarp is there 0.5 m high. The flat floor of the canyon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G31A0963H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G31A0963H"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR time-series constraints on inter-seismic strain accumulation and creep distribution along North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and Chaman <span class="hlt">Faults</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havazli, E.; Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In many aspects, the San Andreas and the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones show many similarities. They are similarly right-lateral, strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, at the same time, are transforms. However, they vary in the maximum amount of lateral displacement and show different topographic features. The maximum offset is nearly 300 km along the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> whereas it is approximately 85-90 km along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. In recent years, interseismic crustal velocities and strains have been determined for North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone through repeated measurements using the Global Positioning System and satellite radar interferometry. The Chaman <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in Pakistan and Afghanistan is the only major <span class="hlt">fault</span> along the western India-Eurasia plate boundary zone and probably accommodates the entire relative plate motion of 30-35 mm/yr. Recent GPS and InSAR studies on the Chaman <span class="hlt">fault</span> yield slip rates of 18 × 1 mm/yr. The inconsistency in geologic, geodetic and seismic slip rates along the Chaman <span class="hlt">Fault</span> need investigations to better understand the geodynamic responses of the Indo-Asia collision along its western boundary. We use InSAR time-series analysis using archived and new SAR imagery to constrain strain accumulation across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and Chaman <span class="hlt">Faults</span>. We expect a relative accuracy of InSAR measurements better than 1 mm/yr over 100 km, made possible by recent advances in flattening residual, orbital error and atmospheric correction strategies [Fattahi & Amelung, 2013]. After validation of the technique in Southern San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, using GPS observations, we apply the same InSAR time-series approach to constrain strain accumulation across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and Chaman <span class="hlt">Faults</span>. We will use the InSAR data to establish the first-order <span class="hlt">fault</span> properties of the Chaman and North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Faults</span> (creep distribution, locking depth) using analytical two-dimensional elastic strain accumulation models along different transects across the <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Our preliminary results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.274...34G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.274...34G"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas emissions and active tectonics within the submerged section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone in the Sea of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Géli, L.; Henry, P.; Zitter, T.; Dupré, S.; Tryon, M.; Çağatay, M. N.; de Lépinay, B. Mercier; Le Pichon, X.; Şengör, A. M. C.; Görür, N.; Natalin, B.; Uçarkuş, G.; Özeren, S.; Volker, D.; Gasperini, L.; Burnard, P.; Bourlange, S.; Marnaut Scientific Party</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The submerged section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> within the Marmara Sea was investigated using acoustic techniques and submersible dives. Most gas emissions in the water column were found near the surface expression of known active <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Gas emissions are unevenly distributed. The linear <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment crossing the Central High and forming a seismic gap - as it has not ruptured since 1766, based on historical seismicity, exhibits relatively less gas emissions than the adjacent segments. In the eastern Sea of Marmara, active gas emissions are also found above a buried transtensional <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, which displayed micro-seismic activity after the 1999 events. Remarkably, this zone of gas emission extends westward all along the southern edge of Cinarcik basin, well beyond the zone where 1999 aftershocks were observed. The long term monitoring of gas seeps could hence be highly valuable for the understanding of the evolution of the fluid-<span class="hlt">fault</span> coupling processes during the earthquake cycle within the Marmara Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S13A2792T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S13A2792T"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from the Auto-Correlation of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at a Dense Seismometer Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, D. G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquake or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct reflection images for the entire crust and upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using auto-correlations of vertical and horizontal components of ground motion, both P- and S-wave velocity information can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure further to established methods. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone in the region. The combined analysis of auto-correlations using vertical and horizontal components will lead to further insight into the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone structure throughout the crust and upper mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002JVGR..117..237P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002JVGR..117..237P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Palaeomagnetism and magnetic properties of the Cappadocian ignimbrite succession, central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Neogene tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> collage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piper, J. D. A.; Gürsoy, H.; Tatar, O.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The Cappadocian ignimbrite succession of central-southern Anatolia comprises at least nine major and two minor calc-alkaline rhyolitic sheets emplaced at 1-2-Ma intervals between 11.2 and 1.1 Ma. It records the last phase of Neotethyan subduction during final emplacement of the Tauride orogen in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. This study reports magnetostratigraphy and describes associated rock magnetic properties. Remanence resides in Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Haematisation is locally produced by post-emplacement oxidation but does not contribute significantly to the palaeomagnetic signature although secondary processes within the ignimbrite sheets have produced composite isothermal remanent magnetisation spectra and variable intensities of magnetisation. Weak anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility describes tensors with maximum axes close to bedding and minimum axes perpendicular to this plane. Directions of kmax with weak imbrication mostly suggest flow away from centres of eruption located by gravity and remote sensing. Older ignimbrites (Upper and Lower Göreme, Akdag-Zelve) from the Çardak Centre are all of normal polarity. Later ignimbrites, partly erupted from the Derinkuyu Centre, comprise the Sarımaden (R), Cemilköy (R), Tahar (R), Kızılkaya (R), Incesu (N) and Valibaba-Sofular (R) ignimbrites. The overall (reversed) group mean is D/ I=174/-51° ( N=10 units, R=9.84, α95=6.6°, k=55) and all magnetisation directions from the Upper Göreme (9.0 Ma) onwards are rotated anticlockwise with respect to Eurasian and African palaeofields. This sense of rotation characterises most of central Anatolia and averages 9±5° in this sector. The rotation rate from 8 to 1 Ma BP was ˜1.25°/Ma but it appears to have accelerated during the latter part of the Quaternary to about an order higher than rates determined from GPS. Rotation has resulted from extrusion of <span class="hlt">fault</span> blocks during tectonic escape of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> collage to the southwest and followed crustal thickening as the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2452S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2452S"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sançar, Taylan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">fault</span>-bounded mountain fronts. In addition to that I also extracted hypsometric curves, hypsometric integrals and stream length gradient index to understand the relationship between characteristics of the drainage basins and tectonic activity. As preliminary results, I conclude that the southern segment of the NF is tectonically quiescent, whereas the deformation is mainly accommodated on the northern branch. References Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Kondo, H., Olgun, Ş., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., 2012. 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Serisi, Erzincan (NJ37-3) Paftası, Seri No:44, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüǧü, Ankara-Türkiye. Kara, K., Sançar, T., Zabci, C., 2013. Morphologic and Morphotectonic Characteristics of the Nazimiye <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. EGU2013-8105, EGU General Assembly Vienna, Austria. Şengör, A.M.C., 1979. The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> transform <span class="hlt">fault</span>; its age, offset and tectonic significance. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136, Part 3, 269-282.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3705469','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3705469"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (Izmir, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) for Disaster Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The Tuzla <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important <span class="hlt">fault</span> in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of <span class="hlt">fault</span> characteristics. A one-dimensional <span class="hlt">fault</span> model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.661...99S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.661...99S"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed transpressive continental deformation: The Varto <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Sunal, Gürsel; Villa, Igor M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The convergence between the Eurasian and Arabian plates has created a complicated structural setting in the Eastern Turkish high plateau (ETHP), particularly around the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) where the Eurasian, Arabian, and <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plates intersect. This region of interest includes the junction of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Shear Zone (NASZ) and the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Shear Zone (EASZ), which forms the northern border of the westwardly extruding <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Scholle and the western boundary of the ETHP, respectively. In this study, we focused on a poorly studied component of the KTJ, the Varto <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (VFZ), and the adjacent secondary structures, which have complex structural settings. Through integrated analyses of remote sensing and field observations, we identified a widely distributed transpressional zone where the Varto segment of the VFZ forms the most northern boundary. The other segments, namely, the Leylekdağ and Çayçatı segments, are oblique-reverse <span class="hlt">faults</span> that are significantly defined by uplifted topography along their strikes. The measured 515 and 265 m of cumulative uplifts for Mt. Leylek and Mt. Dodan, respectively, yield a minimum uplift rate of 0.35 mm/a for the last 2.2 Ma. The multi-oriented secondary structures were mostly correlated with "the distributed strike-slip" and "the distributed transpressional" in analogue experiments. The misfits in strike of some of secondary <span class="hlt">faults</span> between our observations and the experimental results were justified by about 20° to 25° clockwise restoration of all relevant structures that were palaeomagnetically measured to have happened since ~ 2.8 Ma ago. Our detected <span class="hlt">fault</span> patterns and their true nature are well aligned as being part of a transpressional tectonic setting that supports previously suggested stationary triple junction models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1403766','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1403766"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Project (SEAP) region in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bozkurt, Ali I; Şahinöz, Saime; Özçırpıcı, Birgül; Özgür, Servet; Şahinöz, Turgut; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Saka, Günay; Ceylan, Ali; Palanci, Yılmaz; İlçin, Ersen; Akkafa, Feridun</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background Smoking is an important health threat in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Project (SEAP) Region in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 %) than in rural (22.8 %) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking. PMID:16436202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T21E..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T21E..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Onset and Mechanisms of Surface Creep on Strike Slip <span class="hlt">Faults</span>: Clues from the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and Comparisons with the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cakir, Z.; Ergintav, S.; Akoglu, A. M.; Cetin, E.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Aseismic <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip was first reported over forty years ago along some major strike slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> including the San Andreas (SAF) and North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">faults</span> (NAF). Yet both their origin and timing on active <span class="hlt">faults</span> and underlying physical processes remain subjects of debate. The presence of weak minerals and/or trapped fluid overpressures within <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones have been proposed as mechanics for aseismic <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep. Our InSAR observations together with GPS measurements and geology along the NAF provide new evidence for the mechanism, characteristics, and initiation of <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface creep. We have used the persistent scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique to investigate both the creeping section of the NAF at Ismetpaşa that had ruptured during the 1944 and 1951 earthquakes, and the postseismic era of the 1999 İzmit Earthquake. The results reveal that the central segment of the 1999 Izmit Earthquake rupture has been creeping for over for the past 15 years since the event, becoming the longest lasting afterslip ever recorded. The slip pattern of ongoing surface creep on the İzmit rupture supports the idea that stable <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep can be initiated as postseismic afterslip, a mechanism we proposed previously but could not have confirmed due to the lack of pre- and post-earthquake observations on creeping <span class="hlt">faults</span> such as the Ismetpaşa segment of the NAF and the segments of the SAF in the San Francisco Bay area. Geological maps along the Ismetpaşa and Izmit creeping segments show that both <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones run through ophiolitic and calcareous rocks with phyllosilicates that probably result in <span class="hlt">fault</span> weakening. Earthquake rupture maps and PS-InSAR velocity fields for these regions also reveal that the creeping <span class="hlt">faults</span> have simple geometry being fairly rectilinear and continuous along their strike. These common features suggest that following a large earthquake, a stable surface creep can be triggered on a section of a mature <span class="hlt">fault</span> if it has evolved in to simple geometry and is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..107...81C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..107...81C"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaternary uplift rates of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: insights from cosmogenic isochron-burial nuclide dating of the Kızılırmak River terraces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Çiner, Attila; Doğan, Uğur; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Kubik, Peter W.; Schlüchter, Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (CAP) in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is a relatively small plateau (300 × 400 km) with moderate average elevations of ˜1 km situated between the Pontide and Tauride orogenic mountain belts. Kızılırmak, which is the longest river (1355 km) within the borders of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, flows within the CAP and slowly incises into lacustrine and volcaniclastic units before finally reaching the Black Sea. We dated the Cappadocia section of the Kızılırmak terraces in the CAP by using cosmogenic burial and isochron-burial dating methods with 10Be and 26Al as their absolute dating can provide insight into long-term incision rates, uplift and climatic changes. Terraces at 13, 20, 75 and 100 m above the current river indicate an average incision rate of 0.051 ± 0.01 mm/yr (51 ± 1 m/Ma) since ˜1.9 Ma. Using the base of a basalt fill above the modern course of the Kızılırmak, we also calculated 0.05-0.06 mm/yr mean incision and hence rock uplift rate for the last 2 Ma. Although this rate might be underestimated due to normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> along the valley sides, it perfectly matches our results obtained from the Kızılırmak terraces. Although up to 5-10 times slower, the Quaternary uplift of the CAP is closely related to the uplift of the northern and southern plateau margins respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9326K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9326K"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a geodetic monitoring system using seafloor extensometers for the state of the submerged North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Sea of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kido, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Narumi; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Ozeren, Sinan; Ohta, Yusaku; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Failure of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) accompanied by a large earthquake is sequentially propagating to the west in Turley during the last century. However the region of the Marmara Sea, close to populous Istanbul, still remains unmoved and hence expected to have an impending devastating earthquake. In order to evaluate stress accumulation along the unmoved <span class="hlt">fault</span>, which possibly controls the magnitude of the earthquake, it is crucial to know coupling ratio between the segments across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The NAF is submerged beneath the Marmara Sea and inaccessible using onshore GNSS data. Therefore we have developed five seafloor extensometers and started their operation since September 2014 under SATREPS program between Japan and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> to directly measure the <span class="hlt">fault</span> movement. The installation site is just on the Western High (~700m of depth), where strain partitioning is expected smaller (i.e., strain is concentrated at the main <span class="hlt">fault</span>) because fewer sub-branches are observed. Four out of the five extensometers are alternately aligned across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in oblique direction with a baseline of roughly 1-km for each. The exact position of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is inferred from fine-scale bathymetric data based on multibeam surveys provided by Ifremer. The extensometers are designed that the main ranging data with associated information, such as temperature of sea water and etc., can be recovered through an acoustic modem at any time visiting the site without disruption of the measurement and is continuously worked at least 5 years with sampling rate of 12 hours. Based on the high-sampling (30 min.) preliminary data for 24 hours just after the installation, we found that the temporal variation of bottom temperature is quite stable due to strong density stratification in the Marmara Sea. Because of such stable condition, we confirmed that the system can potentially resolve 2-3 mm of shortening or extension along the 1-km-baseline. Maximum displacement across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is expected to be 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..983H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..983H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Kırşehir Block and the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Ophiolites, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Plunder, Alexis; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart W. H.; Corfu, Fernando; Gürer, Derya; Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; Peters, Kalijn; McPhee, Peter J.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Advokaat, Eldert L.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In Central and Western Anatolia two continent-derived massifs simultaneously underthrusted an oceanic lithosphere in the Cretaceous and ended up with very contrasting metamorphic grades: high pressure, low temperature in the Tavşanlı zone and the low pressure, high temperature in the Kırşehir Block. To assess why, we reconstruct the Cretaceous paleogeography and plate configuration of Central Anatolia using structural, metamorphic, and geochronological constraints and Africa-Europe plate reconstructions. We review and provide new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages from Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> metamorphic and magmatic rocks and ophiolites and show new paleomagnetic data on the paleo-ridge orientation in a Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Ophiolite. Intraoceanic subduction that formed within the Neotethys around 100-90 Ma along connected N-S and E-W striking segments was followed by overriding oceanic plate extension. Already during suprasubduction zone ocean spreading, continental subduction started. We show that the complex geology of central and southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> can at first order be explained by a foreland-propagating thrusting of upper crustal nappes derived from a downgoing, dominantly continental lithosphere: the Kırşehir Block and Tavşanlı zone accreted around 85 Ma, the Afyon zone around 65 Ma, and Taurides accretion continued until after the middle Eocene. We find no argument for Late Cretaceous subduction initiation within a conceptual "Inner Tauride Ocean" between the Kırşehir Block and the Afyon zone as widely inferred. We propose that the major contrast in metamorphic grade between the Kırşehir Block and the Tavşanlı zone primarily results from a major contrast in subduction obliquity and the associated burial rates, higher temperature being reached upon higher subduction obliquity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9231V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9231V"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Kırşehir Block and the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Ophiolites, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Plunder, Alexis; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart; Corfu, Fernando; Gürer, Derya; de Gelder, Giovanni; Peters, Kalijn; McPhee, Peter; Brouwer, Fraukje; Advokaat, Eldert; Vissers, Reinoud</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In Central and western Anatolia two continent-derived massifs simultaneously underthrusted an oceanic lithosphere in the Cretaceous, and ended up with very contrasting metamorphic grades: high-pressure, low-temperature in the Tavşanlı Zone and the low-pressure, high-temperature in the Kırşehir Block. To assess why, we reconstruct the Cretaceous paleogeography and plate configuration of central Anatolia using structural, metamorphic, and geochronological constraints and Africa-Europe plate reconstructions. We review and provide new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages from Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> metamorphic and magmatic rocks and ophiolites, and show new paleomagnetic data on the paleo-ridge orientation in a central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> ophiolite. Intra-oceanic subduction that formed within the Neotethys around 100-90 Ma along connected N-S and E-W striking segments was followed by overriding oceanic plate extension. Already during supra-subduction zone ocean spreading, continental subduction started. We show that the complex geology of central and southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> can at first order be explained by a foreland-propagating thrusting of upper crustal nappes derived from a downgoing, dominantly continental lithosphere: the Kırşehir Block and Tavşanlı Zone accreted around 85 Ma, the Afyon zone around 65 Ma, and Taurides accretion continued until after the Middle Eocene. We find no argument for Late Cretaceous subduction initiation within a conceptual 'Inner Tauride Ocean' between the Kırşehir Block and the Afyon Zone as widely inferred. We propose that the major contrast in metamorphic grade between the Kırşehir Block and the Tavşanlı Zone primarily results from a major contrast in subduction obliquity and the associated burial rates, higher temperature being reached upon higher subduction obliquity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.8307O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.8307O"><span id="translatedtitle">Velocity contrast across the 1944 rupture zone of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> east of Ismetpasa from analysis of teleseismic arrivals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Aktar, Mustafa; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Peng, Zhigang</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We use differences between arrival times of teleseismic events at sets of stations crossing the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> east of Ismetpasa, where shallow creep has been observed, to detect and quantify a contrast of seismic velocities across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Waveform cross correlations are utilized to calculate phase delays of P waves with respect to expected teleseismic arrivals with incident angles corresponding to the generating events. Compiled delay times associated with 121 teleseismic events indicate about 4.3% average P wave velocity contrast across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> over the top 36 km, with faster velocity on the north side. The estimated contrast is about 8.3% if the velocity contrast is limited to the top 18 km. The sense of velocity contrast is consistent with the overall tectonic setting and inference made for the examined <span class="hlt">fault</span> section based on theoretical expectations for bimaterial ruptures and observed asymmetry of rock damage across the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Our data indicate lack of significant microseismicity near the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, suggesting that creep in the area is limited to the depth section above the seismogenic zone.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7446K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7446K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging the conductivity anomalies at the vicinity of Ganos <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, northwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> by magnetotellurics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karaş, Mustafa; Tank, Bülent; Özaydın, Sinan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT: 10400 Hz. - 1 Hz.) data were collected across Ganos <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, near Mürefte, at the western part of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The twelve observation points were densely distributed to form a north - south aligned continuous profile that aims to reveal the electrical resisitivity structure to a depth of 1500 m. Ganos <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is inactive since 1912 Mürefte Earthquake (Ms: 7.4) and acts as a locked segment with the potential to generate a significant event in the near future. Preliminary dimensionality analyses of the AMT data were performed by using three approaches; strike angle determination following Groom and Bailey decomposition (N70°E), phase tensor analyses (N70°E) and induction vectors (N60°E). All of these methods gave results that are in good agreement with present geological (N70°E) and seismological (N70°E) values. Following the dimensionality analyses, two- and three- dimensional numerical modeling routines were utilized to perform inverse modeling. The inversions were performed by different methods such as Rodi and Mackie, WinGLink, (2001) and Ogawa and Uchida, ABIC, (1996) for 2D and Siripunvaraporn et al., WSINV3DMT (2005) and Egbert and Kelbert, ModEM (2012) for 3D. All modeling attempts ended up with similar models suggesting that: (i) A significant low resistivity anomaly was detected just below the <span class="hlt">fault</span>'s trace representing the so-called "<span class="hlt">fault</span> zone conductor" with 400 m width and 500 m depth, (ii) An asymmetric damage zone is present involving the <span class="hlt">fault</span>'s core concentrated to the south, (iii) A resistivity contrast between the two sides of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, representing a geological boundary between Eocene aged Keşan Formation in the north and Miocene aged Çengelli Formation in the south (iv) Opiholitic basement appears as a high resistivity block at a depth of 800 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009508','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009508"><span id="translatedtitle">The Interpretation of Crustal Dynamics Data in Terms of Plate Interactions and Active Tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate and Surrounding Regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert E.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>During the past 6 months, efforts were concentrated on the following areas: (1) Continued development of realistic, finite element modeling of plate interactions and associated deformation in the Eastern Mediterranean; (2) Neotectonic field investigations of seismic <span class="hlt">faulting</span> along the active <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> with emphasis on identifying seismic gaps along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>; and (3) Establishment of a GPS regional monitoring network in the zone of ongoing continental collision in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (supported in part by NSF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1784A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1784A"><span id="translatedtitle">Initiation of the northern Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone to the present location in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altunel, Erhan; Karabacak, Volkan</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The left-lateral strike-slip Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (DSFZ) extends from the Read Sea in south to the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EAFZ) in north. The present trace of the DSFZ bounds the western edge of the Ghab Basin in Syria and continues further north to <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Nearly N-S-trending segment enters <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> along the western side of the Asi River and further north, it extends through the Amik Basin. Analysis of boreholes data and electrical resistivity profiles across the Amik Basin shows that the present trace of the DSFZ offsets a pre-Quaternary basin sinistrally by about 10 km. Detailed examination of geological and geomorphological evidence observed around the Amik Basin suggests that the northern DSFZ initiated in the present location in the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. Combination of field evidence with the results of previous studies suggests that the northern DSFZ extended through the Mediterranean Sea and it used the NE-SW-trending Antakya-Samandag corridor until Late Pliocene. A left step-over in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone around the Amik Basin resulted in subsidence where the pre-Quaternary basin beneath the present Amik Basin formed as a pull-apart basin during this phase. At present, the major strand of the DSFZ extends across the Amik Basin in N-S direction and as a result, the Amik Basin has been elongating. Slip on the DSFZ transferred to the EAFZ via the Karasu <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (KFZ) during the first phase and, at present, the KFZ still transfers the significant amount of slip from DSFZ to the EAFZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3234C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3234C"><span id="translatedtitle">New geological and tectonic findings on the Ganos <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and surroundings, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ćinar, Seray; Zeki Tutkun, Salih; Özden, Süha; Kapan Yeşilyurt, Sevinç; Ateş, Özkan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> grained, incohesive conglomerate, sandstone and has rich in Ostrea edulis (Linne) content. At the southern part of the succession, Ostrea edulis content is decreasing despite Chlayms variabilis, Cerastoderma (Cerastoderma) edule Lamarck, Glcymeris (G.) glcymeris Lamarck and Acanthocardia sp. progressively increasing in the unit. According to these fossil faunas, Late Pleistocene age is dated to this formation. We understood as the vertical movement together with strike-slip movement efficient since Late Pleistocene. In this study, active <span class="hlt">fault</span> mapped around Gaziköy and also measured <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip vectors on this <span class="hlt">fault</span> is presented by kinematic analysis and contour-rose diagrams of joint-bedding measurements. According to joint-bedding measuments taken from Gaziköy Formation, regional compressional direction determined as WNW-ESE at the north of Gelibolu Peninsula. In addition, metric <span class="hlt">fault</span> planes, Gaziköy Formation sandstones and their planes, has kinematic indicators as the striae. Kinematic analysis results (inversion) of these <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip data shows an active transtensional tectonic regime and presented as the maximum horizontal stress (σ1) axis a NW-SE (N117±34°E) and minimum horizontal stress (σ3) axis a NE-SW (N30±5°E). Rm value is the 0,30. According <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane measurements and some earthquakes focal mechanism solutions, Ganos <span class="hlt">Fault</span> has an active and right lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> with the normal component since Late Miocene. This result related with the continental collision in eastern Anatolia, slab-pull forces on African plate in SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> combined effect of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> extrusion to west since Late Miocene time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615398B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615398B"><span id="translatedtitle">GONAF - A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>: Permanent downhole monitoring of a pending major earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Raub, Christina; Kilic, Tugbay; Kartal, Recai F.; Tuba Kadirioglu, F.; Nurlu, Murat; Ito, Hisao; Malin, Peter E.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ hereafter) is a right-lateral transform plate boundary between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate and Eurasia accommodating a relative plate motion of ~25 mm/yr. Almost the entire <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone has failed during the last century as a westward migrating sequence of destructive earthquakes leaving a very high probability of a forthcoming large event to the Sea of Marmara segments. This area did not host any M>7 earthquake since 1766. Therefore, listening to the Sea of Marmara segments at a very low detection threshold is required to address how the brittle deformation develops along a critically-stressed <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment prior to a potential failure. GONAF-ICDP project has been developed to design a downhole seismic network surrounding the Sea of Marmara segments of the NAFZ deploying 300 m deep boreholes equipped with a chain of sensitive seismographs. Natural and city-induced noise is attenuated through the unconsolidated subsurface formation and therefore provides ideal boundary conditions for seismic monitoring within the intact rocks at greater depths. A typical GONAF borehole consists of 1 Hz vertical sensor at every 75 m depth increment and a combination of 1Hz, 2Hz and 15 Hz 3C sensors at 300 m depth. By now, three boreholes were successfully implemented in the Tuzla and Yalova-Çınarcık regions. The plan is to complete four more GONAF boreholes in 2014. Our preliminary results show that GONAF waveform recordings will broaden the magnitude range down to ~M -1 in the target area providing a better characterization of seismically active features in time and space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9998S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9998S"><span id="translatedtitle">The crustal structure along the 1999 Izmit/Düzce rupture of the North-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sebastian, Rost; David, Cornwell; David, Thompson; Greg, Houseman; Metin, Kahraman; Ugur, Teoman; Selda, Altuncu-Poyraz; Niyazi, Turkelli; Andrew, Frederiksen; Stephane, Rondenay; Tim, Wright</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Deformation along continental strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> is localized onto narrow <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones at the surface, which may slip suddenly and catastrophically in earthquakes. On the other hand, strain in the upper mantle is more broadly distributed and is thought to occur by continuous ductile creep. The transition between these two states is poorly understood although it controls the behaviour of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone during the earthquake loading cycle. To understand the structure of and strain distribution across the North-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) we deployed temporary seismic stations in the region of the 1999 Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) earthquakes. The rectangular array consisted of 66 seismic stations with a nominal station spacing of 7 km and seven additional stations forming a semi-circular ring towards the east (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA). Using this very dense seismic dataset and a combination of established (e.g. H-k stacking and common conversion point migration) and novel (scattering migration and scattering inversion) seismic processing techniques allows unprecedented resolution of the crustal structure in this region. This study resolves sharp changes in crustal structure across and along the surface expression of the two branches of the NAFZ at scale lengths less than 10 km at mid to lower-crustal depths. The results indicate that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 5 km wide throughout the crust. We furthermore resolve a high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting that might add strength to a heterogeneous crust and may play a role in dictating the variation in <span class="hlt">faulting</span> style and postseismic deformation in this region of the NAFZ. The results are consistent with a narrow <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone accommodating postseismic deformation in the lower crust, as opposed to a broad ductile region below the seismogenic region of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13460C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13460C"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometry of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> beneath the Gulf of Izmit and extent of the 1999 seafloor rupture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cormier, M.-H.; Seeber, L.; Polonia, A.; Cagatay, M. N.; Emre, O.; McHugh, C. M. G.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Gorur, N.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>High-resolution multibeam bathymetry data acquired during two recent surveys clearly highlight the trace of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> beneath Izmit Gulf. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> follows the approximate axis of the Darica (Western) Basin and the Karamürsel (Central) Basin, and has an overall orientation consistent with Present relative plate motion documented by GPS measurements. In detail, the <span class="hlt">fault</span> displays the en echelon geometry typical of right-lateral transform <span class="hlt">faults</span>, with right-stepping en echelon folds and left-stepping Riedel shear fractures along its strike. Seafloor relief across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> ranges from less than 1 m to over 100 m, indicating that strike-slip motion is often associated with a component of vertical slip. Holocene submerged shorelines are visible north of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> which do not appear affected by vertical tectonics. In contrast, the corresponding shorelines cannot be unambiguously located south of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>,. This may partly reflect the higher sediment supply south of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. It also suggests most of the vertical component of slip in central and western Izmit basins is accommodated by subsidence of the southern block. The August 17, 1999 earthquake produced more than 4 m of lateral slip in Golcuk on the eastern end of Karamursel basin, but did not affect Hersek Peninsula on the western end. On the other hand, several InSAR, GPS, and seismicity analysis concur to indicate 1--2 m of slip within the subsurface west of Hersek Peninsula. Multibeam backscatter data do not reveal any disturbance in Darica and Karamursel Basins, except close to Golcuk near 29^o43'E, where sub-parallel EW lineaments and very reflective seafloor affect the entire width of the Bay. We tentatively interpret this anomalous seafloor as underwater mole tracks and dewatering features associated with the 1999 seafloor rupture. In combination with the lack of evidence for ground rupture on Hersek, acoustic backscatter data suggest that the surface rupture terminated near 29^o43'E</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7518T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7518T"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Electrical Resistivity Structure at the Creeping Segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> near Ismetpasa by Wide-band Magnetotellurics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tank, Bülent; Kandemir, Özgür; Akbayram, Kenan; Kanar, Fatih; Öztay, Erkan; Rıza Kılıç, Ali; Bakar, Levent; Tok, Turgut; Çobankaya, Mehmet; Aylan, Eşref; Karabulut, Gamze; Paker, Ercan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>More than hundred wide-band (360 Hz - 2000 sec.) magnetotelluric (MT) observations were performed and were utilized to decipher the electrical resistivity structure in two- and three- dimensions along a 320 km, northwest - southeast aligned profile that cuts through the Gerede - Ismetpasa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. Even though Gerede - Ismetpasa region has accommodated 1944, Gerede (Mw=7.2) and 1951, Kursunlu (Mw=6.9) events, seismically, this segment is considered as a relatively quiet portion of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and is well known with its creeping behavior (approx. 7.6 mm/yr). In this study the aim is to compare electrical resistivity structure with the creep information. Several modeling attempts targeting different depths and portions of the profile were made for imaging different problems. Preliminary three-dimensional models that were developed by WSINV3DMT suggest that; (i) There is significant and deep extending <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone conductor that might be related with the creeping segment and (ii) In the deeper levels high and low conductivity interfaces are present in and around the <span class="hlt">fault</span> region, which might be related to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and seldom earthquake activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH23B1881G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH23B1881G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Delineation of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Within the Sapanca Lake and Correlation of Seismo-Turbidites With Major Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gulen, L.; Demirbağ, E.; Cagatay, M. N.; Yıldırım, E.; Yalamaz, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Seismic reflection studies have been carried out in the Sapanca Lake to delineate the geometry of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. A total of 28 N-S and 2 E-W trending seismic profiles were obtained. The interpretation of seismic reflection profiles have revealed that the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone exhibits a pull-apart <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry within the Sapanca Lake and the active <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments have been mapped. A bathymetry map of the Sapanca Lake is also generated and the maximum depth is determined to be 54 m. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three up to 75.7 cm long water-sediment interface cores located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 5.1.5 m water depth. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Organic (TOC) and Total Inorganic carbon (TIC) analysis and Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by seismo-turbidites consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with a sharp basal and transitional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density and magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more of elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the seismo-turbidites are correlated with the 1999 İzmit and Düzce (Mw=7.4 and 7.2), 1967 Mudurnu (Mw= 6.8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) Earthquakes. Additionally a prominent Cs137 peak was found in the Sapanca Lake sediment cores at a depth of 12 cm. indicating that a radioactive fallout occurred in the region as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22D..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22D..06T"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity and Crustal Anisotropy Beneath the Western Segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>: Results from a Dense Seismic Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Cambaz, D.; Mutlu, A. K.; Kahraman, M.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Cornwell, D. G.; Utkucu, M.; Gülen, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is one of the major strike slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems on Earth comparable to San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in some ways. Devastating earthquakes have occurred along this system causing major damage and casualties. In order to comprehensively investigate the shallow and deep crustal structure beneath the western segment of NAF, a temporary dense seismic network for North Anatolia (DANA) consisting of 73 broadband sensors was deployed in early May 2012 surrounding a rectangular grid of by 70 km and a nominal station spacing of 7 km with the aim of further enhancing the detection capability of this dense seismic array. This joint project involves researchers from University of Leeds, UK, Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), and University of Sakarya and primarily focuses on upper crustal studies such as earthquake locations (especially micro-seismic activity), receiver functions, moment tensor inversions, shear wave splitting, and ambient noise correlations. To begin with, we obtained the hypocenter locations of local earthquakes that occured within the DANA network. The dense 2-D grid geometry considerably enhanced the earthquake detection capability which allowed us to precisely locate events with local magnitudes (Ml) less than 1.0. Accurate earthquake locations will eventually lead to high resolution images of the upper crustal structure beneath the northern and southern branches of NAF in Sakarya region. In order to put additional constraints on the active tectonics of the western part of NAF, we also determined <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane solutions using Regional Moment Tensor Inversion (RMT) and P wave first motion methods. For the analysis of high quality <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane solutions, data from KOERI and the DANA project were merged. Furthermore, with the aim of providing insights on crustal anisotropy, shear wave splitting parameters such as lag time and fast polarization direction were obtained for local events recorded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18...67C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18...67C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric characteristics of Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> fluorites (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Tracing the origin of post-magmatic fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cosanay, Pelin; Mutlu, Halim; Koc, Sükrü; Cevik, Nihal; Oztürk, Ceyda; Varol, Ece</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of fluorite veins in Central Anatolia with emphasis on mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric variations. The studied fluorite mineralizations (Kaman, Akçakent, Pöhrenk and Şefaatli mineralizations from west to east) are located on northern part of Kırşehir Massif which is a part of Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Crystalline Complex that is bordered by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. The Kaman, Akçakent and Şefaatli fluorite deposits are formed in association with magmatic rocks such as syenite and monzonite / monzodiorite in composition which are of Upper Cretaceous age. Fluorite in these deposits occurs as purple- and green-colored stockwork veins and/or disseminations along <span class="hlt">fault</span>/fracture systems and is accompanied by quartz and rare pyrite. The Pöhrenk ore, however, is precipitated as space filling-breccia type within karstic voids of Eocene limestones and marl levels. The silicification/carbonatization and barite occurrences are found as the main alteration and secondary products of mineralization. Thickness of fluorite veins is between 2 and 30 cm. ΣREE contents of host rocks and fluorite veins are in the range of 2-806 ppm and 20-390 ppm, respectively. In element variation diagrams constructed for both host rocks and fluorite mineralizations, LREE concentrations are found to be greater than HREEs. REE contents of green-colored fluorites are about 10-fold higher than those of purple-colored ones. Negative Ce and Eu anomalies indicate high oxygen fugacity for the mineralizing fluids. Fluid inclusion studies indicated three different types of inclusions: 1) two-phase (liquid-vapor) primary and secondary inclusions, 2) single-phase (liquid) primary and secondary inclusions and 3) two-phase (liquid-vapor) and single-phase (liquid) pseudo-secondary inclusions. Results of homogenization temperatures from a number of about 200 measurements chiefly on fluorite and less often quartz and barite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1998A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1998A"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigaton of ÇINARCIK Basin and North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Within the Sea of Marmara with Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atgın, O.; Çifçi, G.; Sorlien, C.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M.; Sillington, D.; Kurt, H.; Dondurur, D.; Okay, S.; Gürçay, S.; Sarıtaş, H.; Küçük, H. M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Sea of Marmara is becoming a natural laboratory for structure, sedimentation, and fluid flow within the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) system. Much marine geological and geophysical data has been collected there since the deadly 1999 M=7.2. Izmit earthquake. The Sea of Marmara occupies 3 major basins, with the study area located in the eastern Cinarcik basin near Istanbul. These basins are the results of an extensional component in releasing segments between bends in this right-lateral tranmsform. It is controversial whether the extensional component is taken up by partitioned normal slip on separate <span class="hlt">faults</span>, or instead by oblique right-normal slip on the non-vertical main northern branch of the NAF. High resolution multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and multibeam bathymetry data collected by R/V K.Piri Reis and R/V Le-Suroit as part of two different projects respectively entitled "SeisMarmara", "TAMAM" and "ESONET". 3000 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were collected in 2008 and 2010 using 72, 111, and 240 channels of streamer with a 6.25 m group interval. The generator-injector airgun was fired every 12.5 or 18.75 m and the resulting MCS data has 10-230 Hz frequency band. The aim of the study is to investigate continuation of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> along the Sea of Marmara, in order to investigate migration of depo-centers past a <span class="hlt">fault</span> bend. We also test and extend a recently-published age model, quantify extension across short normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and investigate whether a major surface <span class="hlt">fault</span> exists along the southern edge of Çınarcık Basin. MCS profiles indicate that main NAF strand is located at the northern boundary of Çınarcık Basin and has a large vertical component of slip. The geometry of the eastern (Tuzla) bend and estimated right-lateral slip rates from GPS data requires as much of ten mm/yr of extension across Çınarcık Basin. Based on the published age model, we calculate about 2 mm/yr of extension on short normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410784C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410784C"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistent Scatterer InSAR time series analysis of the creeping section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> at Ismetpasa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cetin, E.; Cakir, Z.; Akoglu, A. M.; Ergintav, S.; Dogan, U.; Ozener, H.; Meghraoui, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Although the creep along the Ismetpasa section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> was noticed over half a century ago, its spatiotemporal nature is still poorly known due to lack of geodetic and seismological studies along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Analysis of ERS (C-band) data acquired between 1992 and 2001 suggested an average creep rate of 9±3 mm along a <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment of ~70 km long despite the difficulties arising from limited number of images available, atmospheric artefacts and low coherency that are common in classical long-term InSAR studies (Cakir et al., 2005). These inferences have been supported by a recent study of stacked PALSAR (L-band) interferograms spanning the period between 2007 and 2010 (Fialko et al., 2011). In this study, we use the Persistent Scatterer InSAR technique to better constrain the spatiotemporal characteristics of the surface creep. InSAR time series have been calculated using 27 Envisat ASAR images that were acquired between 2003 and 2010 in descending track 479. The results clearly reveal the gradual transition between the creeping and locked segments of the NAF west of Ismetpasa. Its eastern termination cannot be determined since the surface creep appears to continue further east (east of 33.4E) along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> outside the Envisat image frame. The length of the creeping section therefore appears to be longer than 70 km. The creep rate is also tightly constrained and found to be in the range of 10-11 mm/yr along most of its length, consistent with the GPS measurements from a small-aperture geodetic network near Ismetpasa and recently reported PALSAR measurements (Fialko et al., 2011). Preliminary analysis confirms shallow locking depths for creeping as inferred by the previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1301S"><span id="translatedtitle">Age of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Segments in the Yalova with U/Th Dating Method by Travertine Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selim, Haluk; Ömer Taş, K.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Travertine occurrences developed along the segments of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) in the south of Yalova. Travertines outcrop approximately 1 km2 area. These are middle-thick bedded approximately 20-40 m and back-tilted southward or horizontally. Lithology of travertines deposited such as physolite, stalactites-stalagmites, cave pearls, sharp pebble carbonate nodules, spherical-roller-intricate shapes or laminated banded travertine. Geochemical analyses were performed on the six samples of the travertines. X-ray analysis indicates that all samples are entirely composed of low-Mg calcite. Banded travertines with some tubular structures formed by precipitation from rising hot water are best developed near the toes of the large, hanging-wall-derived alluvial fans, whereas phreatic cement preferentially exists in footwall-derived, alluvial-fan conglomerates. The unit developed clarity which is controlled by normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> as the structural and morphological, relationship with active tectonics. The travertines are a range-front type. U/Th series age dating results indicate that the travertine deposition extends back to 155 ka and yields ages of 60.000 (± 3, 091) to 153.149 (±13,466) from the range-front type travertines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814251Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814251Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving earthquake history of the Knidos <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, using cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yildirim, Cengiz; Ersen Aksoy, Murat; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tuysuz, Okan; Genc, S. Can; Ertekin Doksanalti, Mustafa; Sahin, Sefa; Benedetti, Lucilla; Tesson, Jim; Aster Team</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Formation of bedrock <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps in extensional provinces is a result of large and successive earthquakes that ruptured the surface several times. Extraction of seismic history of such <span class="hlt">faults</span> is critical to understand the recurrence intervals and the magnitude of paleo-earthquakes and to better constrain the regional seismic hazard. Knidos on the Datca Peninsula (SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) is one of the largest cities of the antique times and sits on a terraced hill slope formed by en-echelon W-SW oriented normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The Datça Peninsula constitutes the southern boundary of the Gulf of Gökova, one of the largest grabens developed on the southernmost part of the Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Extensional Province. Our investigation relies on cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of limestone <span class="hlt">faults</span> scarps. This method is a powerful tool to reconstruct the seismic history of normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> (e.g. Schlagenhauf et al 2010, Benedetti et al. 2013). We focus on one of the most prominent <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarp (hereinafter Mezarlık <span class="hlt">Fault</span>) of the Knidos <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone cutting through the antique Knidos city. We collected 128 pieces of tablet size (10x20cm) 3-cm thick samples along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> dip and opened 4 conventional paleoseismic trenches at the base of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarp. Our 36Cl concentration profile indicates that 3 to 4 seismic events ruptured the Mezarlık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results from the paleoseismic trenching are also compatible with 36Cl results, indicating 3 or 4 seismic events that disturbed the colluvium deposited at the base of the scarp. Here we will present implications for the seismic history and the derived slip-rate of the Mezarlık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> based on those results. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (TUBITAK, Grant number: 113Y436) and it was conducted with the Decision of the Council of Ministers with No. 2013/5387 on the date 30.09.2013 and was done with the permission of Knidos Presidency of excavation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812093F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812093F"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface uplift due to thermo-rheological changes in the crust: The case of the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (S <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Late Miocene uplift of the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> orogenic plateau (SCAP) can be explained with our proposed surface uplift mechanism. This new model is based on the dynamic interactions between the growth of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> accretionary subduction margin and thermo-rheological changes at the base of its crust. Our thermo-rheological uplift mechanism fits newly obtained structural data, as well as compiled geological and geophysical data along a 550km-long arc-perpendicular transect. This transect runs between the Cyprian Arc trench and central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> through the area of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> upper-plate with larger uplift, i.e. central south <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Observed deformation patterns and associated vertical motions along this transect indicate distributed shortening in relation to the subduction of the Cyprus slab, which still underlies this area. In the middle sectors of the transect a pre-Miocene basement gently dipping southward underwent regional subsidence since Early Miocene times. After ~8 Ma, surface uplift took place in the area of the future SCAP, as recorded by disruption of marine deposition and the onset of erosion, whereas subsidence persisted to the south of it, in the Cilicia Basin. Overall N-S shortening during this period developed regional contractional structures along the margin: the S-verging Kyrenia thrust system in N Cyprus, the S-dipping thrusts in the center of the Cilicia Basin, and the large-wavelength S-dipping monocline in S <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. We tested our proposed mechanism with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled finite elements models. The models demonstrate that sediment accretion and deposition in the central Cyprus accretionary forearc basin system led to crustal thickening of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> upper-plate, which in turn forced a sedimentary "blanketing" effect. This sedimentary "blanketing" effect controlled the temperature gradient in the crust, with decreased temperatures within the blanket and increased underneath it. Higher temperatures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012E%26PSL.317...85S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012E%26PSL.317...85S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-phased uplift of the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Niedermann, S.; Yıldırım, C.; Echtler, H.; Wittmann, H.; Strecker, M. R.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Uplifted Neogene marine sediments and Quaternary fluvial terraces in the Mut Basin, southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, reveal a detailed history of surface uplift along the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau from the Late Miocene to the present. New surface exposure ages (10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne) of gravels capping fluvial strath terraces located between 28 and 135 m above the Göksu River in the Mut Basin yield ages ranging from ca. 25 to 130 ka, corresponding to an average incision rate of 0.52 to 0.67 mm/yr. Published biostratigraphic data combined with new interpretations of the fossil assemblages from uplifted marine sediments reveal average uplift rates of 0.25 to 0.37 mm/yr since Late Miocene time (starting between 8 and 5.45 Ma), and 0.72 to 0.74 mm/yr after 1.66 to 1.62 Ma. Together with the terrace abandonment ages, the data imply 0.6 to 0.7 mm/yr uplift rates from 1.6 Ma to the present. The different post-Late Miocene and post-1.6 Ma uplift rates can imply increasing uplift rates through time, or multi-phased uplift with slow uplift or subsidence in between. Longitudinal profiles of rivers in the upper catchment of the Mut and Ermenek basins show no apparent lithologic or <span class="hlt">fault</span> control on some knickpoints that occur at 1.2 to 1.5 km elevation, implying a transient response to a change in uplift rates. Projections of graded upper relict channel segments to the modern outlet, together with constraints from uplifted marine sediments, show that a slower incision/uplift rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr preceded the 0.7 mm/yr uplift rate. The river morphology and profile projections therefore reflect multi-phased uplift of the plateau margin, rather than steadily increasing uplift rates. Multi-phased uplift can be explained by lithospheric slab break-off and possibly also the arrival of the Eratosthenes Seamount at the collision zone south of Cyprus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817517G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817517G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology and seismotectonics of the North-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Sea of Marmara: implications for seismic hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gasperini, Luca; Cedro, Vincenzo; Polonia, Alina; Cruise Party, Marmara</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Based on high-resolution multibeam and seismic reflection data recently collected and analysed in the frame of Marsite (New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite) EC FP7 Project, in conjunction with a large set of geophysical and geological data collected starting from 1999, we compiled a new morphotectonic map of the submerged part of the North-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system (NAF) in the Sea of Marmara. Data analysis allowed us to recognize active <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments and their activity at the scale of 10 ka, taking as stratigraphic reference the base of the latest marine ingression, which constitutes a clear marker in the sedimentary sequence of the Sea of Marmara. This is mainly due to the fact the Sea of Marmara was a fresh water lake during the Last Glacial Maximum, and switched to a marine environment when the global sea level reached to the -85 m relative to present day and crossed the Dardanelles sill during the transgression. The passage from lacustrine to marine environment is marked by a typical unconformity in high-resolution seismic profiles, which can be correlated over the entire Marmara basin. According to the average recurrence time for major earthquake along the NAF, the time interval of 10 ka should include several earthquake cycle and is representative of the seismotectonic behavior of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> at geological time scales. Given the relatively high deformation rates relative to in relative to sediment supply, most active tectonic structures have a morphological expression at the seafloor. This allowed us to correlate deformations from a seismic section to the adjacent. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> strands not affecting the Holocene sequence were considered inactive. Three types of deformation patterns were observed and classified: almost purely E-W oriented strike-slip segments; NE-SW oriented trans-pressional structures; NW-SE trending trans-tensional features. Segmentation of the so-called Main Marmara <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26720232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26720232"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> 2008-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008-2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18-69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases. PMID:26720232</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6817S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6817S"><span id="translatedtitle">No significant steady state surface creep along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The submarine Istanbul-Silivri <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-<span class="hlt">fault</span> baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes <span class="hlt">fault</span> displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment is currently accumulating stress.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.T33E..02M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.T33E..02M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Van <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in quaternary material, to determine whether the <span class="hlt">fault</span> reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van <span class="hlt">fault</span>, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of <span class="hlt">fault</span> gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a <span class="hlt">fault</span> reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay <span class="hlt">fault</span> within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying <span class="hlt">faults</span> in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this <span class="hlt">fault</span> could fail seismically. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse <span class="hlt">fault</span>, unmapped prior to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G13A0996R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G13A0996R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Undersea acoustic telemetry across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Marmara Sea: results from the first 6 months of monitoring of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> displacement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Royer, J. Y.; Deschamps, A.; Piete, H.; Sakic, P.; Ballu, V.; Apprioual, R.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Ruffine, L.; Géli, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Located in the Marmara Sea, the Istanbul-Silivri segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is known to be a seismic gap since 1766, although, in the last century, the NAF has caused major devastating earthquakes over most of its extent. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment, void of seismicity, may be either creeping aseismically or blocked and accumulating enough strain to produce an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater. This section of the NAF may thus represent a major seismic and tsunamigenic hazard for the Istanbul megalopolis, located only 40 km away. The objective of the MARSITE project, funded by the European Union and coordinated by the Observatory of the University of Kandilli (KOERI), is to determine the blocking state of the Istanbul-Silivri <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment. In this context, an array of 10 acoustic transponders has been deployed on either sides of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, in the eastern part of the Kumburgaz Basin, to measure the displacements of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> over a period of 3 to 5 years. The telemetric beacons (4 from the University of Brest and 6 from the GEOMAR Institute in Kiel) form two arrays fitted in one another. The principle of the experiment is to repeatedly measure the distance (ie two-way-travel time of acoustic pings) between pairs of beacons and thus to monitor the deformation of an array of 9 baselines, 500m to 3000m long, of which 5 cross obliquely the assumed <span class="hlt">fault</span> trace. The French and German arrays are independent but ensure a redundancy of rangings along common baselines. Each acoustic transponder also monitors the temperature, pressure, sound-velocity and attitude (tiltmeters), every one or two hours. Data are stored in each beacon and can be downloaded from the surface using an acoustic modem. We present here the first 6 months of recording by the French array, from November 1st, 2014 to April 25, 2015. All acoustic transponders worked nominally for 6 months and appear to have remained stable on the seafloor. Recorded sea-bottom temperatures provide evidence for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4169T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4169T"><span id="translatedtitle">Landslide displacement measurements from Optical Satellite Images: A Case Study on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turk, Tarik; Gorum, Tolga; Birdal, Anil Can; Tatar, Orhan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Several geodetic and remote sensing methods are used to monitor the movements due to the tectonic and geomorphic processes and the assessment of associated hazards. Recent advances in image-correlation techniques and high resolution satellite imaging at meter resolution offer the possibility to measure surface displacements with sub-metric accuracy. Moreover, this methods enables an accurate mapping of the surface displacements, and vector visualization of the horizontal movements over a period through establishing correlation among the different dated satellite images belonging to the same area. This study analyzes the displacement pattern of the earth flows using sub-pixel image correlation techniques along the tectonic Kelkit Valley, Central Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In this study, we used Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (Cosi-Corr) to measure the horizontal surface displacement of landslides from SPOT-5 images. The significance of the horizontal displacement results was verified through fieldwork studies. The landslide displacement vectors obtained from SPOT 5 (2.5 meter resolution) optical satellite images on 11 August 2006 and 21 September 2011 indicate that many of the old landslides reactivated in the study area. It was determined that such reactivation occurred due to the secondary slides developed inside the main body of the old landslides, especially in their accumulation sections. The horizontal displacement values in the accumulation sections of the old landslides vary between 4.9 and -7.7 meters in the North-South direction and between 8.2 and -5 meters in the East-West direction. The maximum displacement values were observed in the eastern hill-slopes. The results show that the Cosi-Corr technique provides important contributions in the determination of the landslide movements especially with very slow, slow to moderate slip velocities and their deformation quantities and patterns. Acknowledgements This research was financially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.S11B1155O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.S11B1155O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Rupture History of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede Segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>: Gerede-Ardicli Trench Re-excavated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okumura, K.; Awata, Y.; Duman, T. Y.; Tokay, F.; Kuscu, I.; Kondo, H.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Though the intensive research on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> after the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake brought a lot of information on the present and past activity of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, our knowledge about the rupture history and the past slips along the entire length of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> is still very limited. More precise data on the timing and amount of past slips along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is indispensable to understand the <span class="hlt">fault</span> behavior in the past and in the future. The Aridicli trench site, 15 km east of Gerede, is one of the most promising sites for this investigation, for abundant datable material and for ideal sedimentation history to record recent earthquakes. Okumura et al. (1990, 1993) opened a trench here in 1990 and concluded 8 earthquake events in 2000 years. However, the conclusion depended mostly on indirect evidence of coseismic deformation along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> because few master <span class="hlt">fault</span> strands repeatedly ruptured in pure strike-slip condition and dating was not enough. The Gerede 2002 trench was opened about 18 m east of the 1990 trench, cutting into a 10 m by 10 m light-toned area on an aerial photography. The light-toned area turned out to be a small pressure ridge or dome associated with an a-few-meter-wide restraining jog of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The north side of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the 3-metere-deep trench consists of an anticline of ca. 1000 B.P. to 2000 B.P. lacustrine deposits underlain by 1000 B.P. and younger flood and marsh deposits. Two distinct levels of overlap indicate the timing of events that accompanied the growth of the anticline. The south side of the <span class="hlt">faults</span> consists of 0 to ca. 1000 B.P. flood and marsh deposits. A basement of a brick kiln is cutting into the deposits and tilted conformably with the dip of the sedimentary units. Steeply north dipping oblique-reverse <span class="hlt">faults</span> bifurcates from vertical master <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. There are three discrete levels of upper terminations of these subsidiary <span class="hlt">faults</span>, beside the flower structure at the top of the master <span class="hlt">fault</span>. These four</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1412157S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1412157S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Uplift of the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Echtler, H.; Rojay, B.; Strecker, M. R.; Yildirim, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Deciphering the geodynamic mechanisms of topographic development is often thwarted by low-resolution paleotopographic reconstructions, poor constraints on deep earth processes, and limited integration of other evidence for geodynamic processes such as modes of structural deformation. The Mediterranean Basin offers particular challenges, as the complex tectonic plate boundaries and lithospheric slab geometries have changed substantially throughout the Cenozoic. The southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau fortunately provides a rich record of geomorphologic, stratigraphic, and structural evidence for the timing, pattern, and mode of surface uplift. Combined with recently published tomography, the plateau margin provides detailed evidence of how tectonic and lithopheric slab processes have contributed to topographic growth through time. We use detailed biostratigraphic analyses of uplifted marine sediments, interpretations of transient river profiles, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of fluvial strath terraces in the Mut Basin and adjacent areas to decipher the uplift history along the 2- to 3-km high southern margin of the plateau. Uplifted marine sediments reveal that surface uplift rates of 0.1 to 0.3 mm/yr throughout the plateau margin started between ~7 and 5.5 Ma, followed by a phase of faster uplift (0.7 mm/yr) in the Mut Basin starting at 1.6 Ma. These faster uplift rates may have continued to modern times, as average river incision rates of 0.52 to 0.66 mm/yr along the Göksu River in the Mut Basin have occurred from ca. 130 ka to today. Transient river profiles in the region support the onset of a sudden increase in uplift rates, with quantitative interpretations of the river profiles reflecting an uplift history that is broadly consistent with the constraints from the uplifted marine sediments. Interestingly, the onset of uplift is generally coeval with a change from contractional to extensional deformation throughout the region, which appears to rule</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T44B..02G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T44B..02G"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine Heat flow measurements from the submerged section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, in the Sea of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Andre, C.; Zitter, T.; Cagatay, N.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>For the first time, marine heat flow data were collected in the Sea of Marmara, in 2007, during the MarNaut cruise of R/V L'Atalante. A total of 45 heat flow measurements were carried out along three transects, respectively : the Tekirdag, the Central and the Cinarçik basins. The data were collected using 7 Micrel autonomous digital temperature probes fitted on a 10 cm-diameter gravity corer (the tube length was 10 m for the first 5 measurements ; 5 m for the remaining ones). The thermal profiles are linear, except near the very surface, where slight changes in water bottom temperature can be suspected. The measured heat flow values range between about 15 and 55 mW.m-2, except at one single location near the northern Cinarcik Basin escarpment, where heat flow reaches 120 mW.m-2, probably in response to deep, upward fluid flow. The measured values are lower than the published regional heat flow averages, which are of about 50 to 60 mW.m-2 and of about 100 mW.m-2 north and south of the Sea of Marmara, respectively. The lowest values correspond to the basins depocenters, where the syn-rift sediment cover is thickest, which suggests strong thermal sediment blanketing effects. Near the edges of the basins, effects resulting from basement topography are also suspected. Corrections are made to account for both effects, assuming different scenarii for the temporal and spatial evolution of the sedimentation rate. The computation results provide constraints to estimate the age of initiation of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> within what is now the Sea of Marmara.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3974423','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3974423"><span id="translatedtitle">Traditional Tar Production from the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9266A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9266A"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation Of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> In The Sea Of Marmara: <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Geometry, The Cumulative Extension, Age Modeling In Çinarcik Basin Using Multi Channel Seismic Reflection Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atgın, Orhan; Çifçi, Günay; Soelien, Christopher; Seeber, Leonardo; Steckler, Michael; Shillington, Donna; Kurt, Hülya; Dondurur, Derman; Okay, Seda; Gürçay, Savaş; Sarıtaş, Hakan; Mert Küçük, H.; Barın, Burcu</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Marmara Sea is a limelight area for investigations due to its tectonic structure and remarkable seismic activity of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ). As NAFZ separates into 3 branches in the Marmara Sea, it has a complicated tectonic structure which gives rise to debates among researchers. Çınarcık Basin, which is close to Istanbul and very important for its tectonic activity is studied in this thesis. Two different multichannel seismic reflection data were used in this thesis. First data were acquired in 2008 in the frame of TAMAM (Turkish American Multichannel Project) and second data were in 2010 in the frame of TAMAM-2 (PirMarmara) onboard R/V K.Piri Reis. Also high resolution multibeam data were used which is provided by French Marine Institute IFREMER. In the scope of TAMAM project total 3000 km high resolution multi channel data were collected. 3000 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were collected in 2008 and 2010 using 72, 111, and 240 channels of streamer with a 6.25 m group interval. The generator-injector airgun was fired every 12.5 or 18.75 m and the resulting MCS data has 10-230 Hz frequency band. In this study, a detailed <span class="hlt">fault</span> map of the basin is created and the <span class="hlt">fault</span> on the southern slope of the basin which is interpreted by many researchers in many publications was investigated. And there is no evidence that such a <span class="hlt">fault</span> exists on the southern part of the basin. With the multichannel seismic reflection data seismic stratigrafic interpretations of the basin deposits were done. The yearly cumulative north-south extension of the basin was calculated by making some calculations on the most active part of the <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in the basin. In addition, the tilt angles of parallel tilted sediments were calculated and correlated with global sea level changes to calculate ages of the deposits in the basin. Keywords: NAFZ, multi channel seismic reflection, Çınarcık Basin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.105..139H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.105..139H"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonic deformation in the Eurasia-Arabia collision zone, the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau, E <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: evidence from palaeomagnetic study of Neogene-Quaternary volcanic rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hisarlı, Z. Mümtaz; Çinku, Mualla Cengiz; Ustaömer, Timur; Keskin, Mehmet; Orbay, Naci</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Palaeomagnetic studies of the Neogene-Quaternary rocks of Anatolia have been mostly interpreted in the light of its westward escape as a result of the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates along the Bitlis-Zağros suture during the Neotectonic period. However, within the collision zone, in East Anatolia, palaeomagnetic data are not available. In order to help understand the deformational history of Eastern Anatolia during the Neotectonic period, we have carried out a palaeomagnetic study of Miocene-Quaternary volcanic rocks from 100 sites, selected on the basis of their geographical position and known age. The results indicate that the study area can be divided into five principal tectonic blocks, based on earthquake activity and the rotation that the blocks underwent. These blocks are the Van Block (VB), the Kars Block (KB), the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Block (AB), the Pontide Block (PB), and the Arabian Block (ARB). The largest counterclockwise (CCW) tectonic rotations were encountered in the AB and PB, whereas the largest clockwise (CW) rotations were recorded in the VB. The sinistral East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and the Erzurum <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone form the present boundary of these two contrasting, CW and CCW-rotating domains. Both the AB and the PB exhibit similar amount of rotation until the Quaternary, during which the AB rotated 13° CCW while the PB remained stable. The Quaternary rotation of the AB is attributed to the activity of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The KB shows the smallest amount of CW rotation during all of the time intervals studied. All of the blocks studied indicate an acceleration in the amount of rotations during the Quaternary, which was preceded by a period of relative tectonic stability during the Late Pliocene. Following the collision of the Arabian Plate with the Eurasian Plate during the Mid-Miocene, the crust was initially thickened by thrusting and folding. This was followed by lateral extrusion and differential rotation of the crustal blocks during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T21H..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T21H..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">What controls the location where large earthquakes nucleate along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouchon, M.; Karabulut, H.; Schmittbuhl, J.; Durand, V.; Marsan, D.; Renard, F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We review several sets of observations which suggest that the location of the epicenters of the 1939-1999 sequence of large earthquakes along the NAF obeys some mechanical logic. The 1999 Izmit earthquake nucleated in a zone of localized crustal extension oriented N10E (Crampin et al., 1985; Evans et al., 1987), nearly orthogonal to the strike of the NAF, thus releasing the normal stress on the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the area and facilitating rupture nucleation. The 1999 Duzce epicenter, located about 25km from the end of the Izmit rupture, is precisely near the start of a simple linear segment of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> (Pucci et al., 2006) where supershear rupture occurred (Bouchon et al., 2001, Konca et al., 2010). Aftershock locations of the Izmit earthquake in the region (Gorgun et al., 2009) show that Duzce, at its start, was the first significant Izmit aftershock to occur on this simple segment. The rupture nucleated on the part of this simple segment which had been most loaded in Coulomb stress by the Izmit earthquake. Once rupture of this segment began, it seems logical that the whole segment would break, as its simple geometry suggests that no barrier was present to arrest rupture. Rupture of this segment, in turn, led to the rupture of adjacent segments. Like the Izmit earthquake, the 1943 Tosya and the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquakes nucleated near a zone of localized crustal extension. The long-range delayed triggering of extensional clusters observed after the Izmit/Duzce earthquakes (Durand et al., 2010) suggests a possible long-range delayed triggering of the 1943 shock by the 1942 Niksar earthquake. The 1942, 1957 Albant and 1967 Mudurnu earthquake nucleation locations further suggest that like what is observed for the Duzce earthquake, the previous earthquake ruptures stopped when encountering geometrically complex segments and nucleated again, past these segments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G43A0839O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G43A0839O"><span id="translatedtitle">GPS Measurements for Detecting Aseismic Creeping in the Ismetpasa Region of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozener, H.; Dogru, A.; Turgut, B.; Yilmaz, O.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In 1972, a six point-network was established by General Directorate of Mapping in Gerede-Ismetpasa. This region is relatively quiet segment of western NAF which is creeping along steadily. This network was surveyed by terrestrial techniques in 1972 and 1973. The Ismetpasa Network was re-measured in 1982 and in 1992 by the Geodesy Working Group of Istanbul Technical University. Although the same network (with five points) was observed in 2002 and 2007 by Zonguldak Karaelmas University applying GPS technique, with 1-hour site occupation, the characteristics of movement has not been detected implicitly. This type of movement still raises a question about the accumulation of tectonic movements in the region. Geodesy Department of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) of Bogazici University has been re-surveyed the network by campaign-based static GPS surveying (10-hour site occupation) since 2005. The GPS velocities data coming from geodynamic GPS networks of the crustal deformation studies and the analysis of repeated geodetic observations give us significant information about the elastic deformation. Therefore, data gathered in this study is processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and analyzed together with previously collected data to obtain velocity field and strain accumulation in the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10.2653K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10.2653K"><span id="translatedtitle">Relaxation on the Ismetpasa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> after the Golcuk Mw = 7.4 and Duzce Mw = 7.2 shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kutoglu, H. S.; Akcin, H.; Gundogdu, O.; Gormus, K. S.; Koksal, E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Ismetpasa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) is a rare place where aseismic <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip (creep) has been observed. Its creep behaviour has been monitored using different observation methods since the 1950s. The findings obtained from the studies until 1990s showed that the creep rate exponentially decreased before the major shocks in 1999, Golcuk (Mw = 7.4) and Duzce (Mw = 7.2). After these shocks, three GPS periods observation in 2002, 2007 and 2008 were carried out on the geodetic network established around the segment. The evaluations of these observations showed that the creep behaviour relaxed after the major earthquakes. This result demonstrates that the creep behaviour of the Ismetpasa segment might be a warning before future major earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6541Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6541Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Implications of the morphometric analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>, are mostly seen at the NE part of the study region. We observe several knick points along the longitudinal channel profiles that mostly fits to the surface trace of the OF. The existence of multiple knick points along the same channel profiles on the southwestern sections of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> are interpreted to be the result of multiple parallel/sub-parallel branches of the OF in this region. The integrated preliminary results of all applied methods indicate the evidence of a stronger deformation at the northeastern part of the OF, in addition to the OB section. The deformation significantly diffuses to the southwest of the OB, where the main <span class="hlt">fault</span> bifurcates into several branches. In order to explain the distribution of the deformation style along the OF, we suggest three hypotheses: (a) the OF is confined within a very narrow zone in its most northeastern parts, and the total strain is distributed at its southwestern section (especially to the southwest of the OB), (b) The high asymmetric values, calculated at the northeastern OF, are mainly affected by another major tectonic structure, the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Shear Zone, at this region or (c) the combined effect of these two settings. Our further studies, which will include the analyzing the lithological properties of drainage basins, detailed <span class="hlt">fault</span> mapping, and understanding the cumulative horizontal slip by constructing and comparing the pseudo-palaeotopography at both sides of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, are going to provide more detailed information on the activity and the style of deformation along the OF. This study is supported by TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y227. References -AFAD, 2013, Son 48 saatte 48 deprem (48 earthquakes at the last 48 hours) http://www.afad.gov.tr/TR/HaberDetay.aspx?IcerikID=1511&ID=12, Volume 2013. -Aktuǧ, B., Dikmen, Ü., Doǧru, A., and Özener, H., 2013, Seismicity and strain accumulation around Karliova Triple Junction (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Journal of Geodynamics, v. 67, no. 0, p. 21-29. -Şengör, A. M. C., Görür, N</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.4316K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.4316K"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip history of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake rupture along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system: Implications for recurrence behavior of multisegment earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, Hisao; Ã-Zaksoy, Volkan; YıLdirim, Cengiz</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Recent research shows that active <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems produce multisegment earthquakes; however, we have yet to understand the <span class="hlt">faulting</span> behavior of various spatial patterns of segments. We conducted a three-dimensional trenching survey to reconstruct the detailed slip history of a <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment that ruptured as one of the multisegment ruptures along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system. The trench site, on the Gerede segment, recorded a maximum right-lateral slip of up to 6 m that was associated with the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake (M 7.4). <span class="hlt">Fault</span> exposures show evidence of four paleoearthquakes. Radiocarbon dates, a refined probability density distribution, and correlation with historical earthquakes place the mean repeat time at ˜330 years. Four discrete paleoslips yield a slip per event of 5.0 ± 0.8 m with a coefficient of variation of 0.2. Our research suggests that multisegment earthquakes exhibit various spatial patterns, regardless of recurrence with quasiperiodicity and characteristic slip. Coincidentally, the <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry exhibits extremely linear traces, suggesting simple stress accumulation and release through earthquake cycles. Furthermore, the 1944 event did not occur in a single segment, and the Gerede segment probably ruptured within a slip-pulse-like rupture during a multisegment earthquake. A comparable geological slip rate of ˜17 mm a-1 based on a GPS-based strain rate supports the persistence of macroscopic asperity through recent geological time. Therefore we conclude that a segment with simple <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry along a strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> system plays an important role in forecasting the timing of future multisegment earthquakes, but the spatial extent of such earthquakes needs to be explored further.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G31A0392H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G31A0392H"><span id="translatedtitle">3-D InSAR Phase Unwrapping with Extended Kalman Filter: Applications to interseismic deformation detection across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havazli, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a method that allows researchers to map elevations, analyze surface deformation and even detect ground water level changes. The InSAR phase measurements are wrapped between 0 and 2π and therefore have to be unwrapped to reveal the full scale of the observations. Even though there are algorithms for finding discrete irrotational fields among neighboring pixels in two-dimensions, a three dimensional unwrapping approach is important as it can constrain the solution of our data to a more robust and accurate state. We developed a 3-D unwrapping algorithm based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that is capable of simultaneously filtering, unwrapping and inverting multiple interferograms to obtain a DEM or deformation map. The method is based on a path-following algorithm that unwraps the dataset starting from a reference point and moves to the next-highest quality neighboring point. The EKF algorithm allows us to better resolve unwrapping problems, especially in vegetated areas, which tend to be decorrelated, and hence obtain more accurate results. In this study we apply our 3-D EKF unwrapping algorithm to North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in order to detect interseismic crustal movement across these two major <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems. For the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> we processed 37 Envisat scenes that covers the Ismetpasa segment of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, and generated 237 interferograms. The generated interferograms are used with both EKF and SBAS algorithms to estimate the deformation in the area. Our previous study of this segment based on the SBAS technique revealed that the Ismetpasa segment creeps at a rate of 8 mm/yr. For the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (SAF) we processed 37 descending Envisat ASAR scenes acquired between November 2005 and October 2010. Our area of interest includes the central SAF near its intersection with the Garlock <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. Initial results show deformation across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> but the results have low fit to the data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EP%26S...58..937K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EP%26S...58..937K"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the 30-year creep trend on the Ismetpaşa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> using an old geodetic network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kutoglu, H. S.; Akcin, H.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The Ismetpaşa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> was ruptured during both the 1944 (Mw = 7.2) Gerede and 1951 (Mw = 6.9) Kuršunlu earthquakes. The field studies carried out in the aftermath of these two major earthquakes showed that the Ismetpaša segment had experienced a creep movement. To monitor the surface creep, a geodetic network with six control points was established on the segment. This network was observed three times - in 1972, 1982 and 1992. Based on our evaluations of those observations, the creep on the segment was geodetically determined to be 1.02 cm/year (1972-1982) and 0.93 cm/year (1982-1992) respectively. In 1999, the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> experienced two major shocks - the Mw = 7.4 Gölcük and Mw = 7.2 Düzce earthquakes - both on the western part of the Ismetpaša <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Using the global positioning system, our surveying team observed the network one more time in 2002 to assess whether these earthquakes affected the creep of the Ismetpaša segment, or not. The evaluation of the observations revealed a creep of 0.78 cm/year for the period 1992-2002. This result reveals that the creep of the segment has decreased in a linear fashion between 1972 and 2002 and that it had not been triggered by the Gölcük and Düzce earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJEaS.tmp...75T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJEaS.tmp...75T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6541Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6541Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Implications of the morphometric analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>, are mostly seen at the NE part of the study region. We observe several knick points along the longitudinal channel profiles that mostly fits to the surface trace of the OF. The existence of multiple knick points along the same channel profiles on the southwestern sections of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> are interpreted to be the result of multiple parallel/sub-parallel branches of the OF in this region. The integrated preliminary results of all applied methods indicate the evidence of a stronger deformation at the northeastern part of the OF, in addition to the OB section. The deformation significantly diffuses to the southwest of the OB, where the main <span class="hlt">fault</span> bifurcates into several branches. In order to explain the distribution of the deformation style along the OF, we suggest three hypotheses: (a) the OF is confined within a very narrow zone in its most northeastern parts, and the total strain is distributed at its southwestern section (especially to the southwest of the OB), (b) The high asymmetric values, calculated at the northeastern OF, are mainly affected by another major tectonic structure, the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Shear Zone, at this region or (c) the combined effect of these two settings. Our further studies, which will include the analyzing the lithological properties of drainage basins, detailed <span class="hlt">fault</span> mapping, and understanding the cumulative horizontal slip by constructing and comparing the pseudo-palaeotopography at both sides of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, are going to provide more detailed information on the activity and the style of deformation along the OF. This study is supported by TÜBİTAK project no. 114Y227. References -AFAD, 2013, Son 48 saatte 48 deprem (48 earthquakes at the last 48 hours) http://www.afad.gov.tr/TR/HaberDetay.aspx?IcerikID=1511&ID=12, Volume 2013. -Aktuǧ, B., Dikmen, Ü., Doǧru, A., and Özener, H., 2013, Seismicity and strain accumulation around Karliova Triple Junction (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): Journal of Geodynamics, v. 67, no. 0, p. 21-29. -Şengör, A. M. C., Görür, N</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JAfES.111..349O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JAfES.111..349O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactions between Eurasian/African and Arabian plates: Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özden, Süha; Gündoğdu, Erdem; Bekler, Tolga</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is an active right-lateral widespread intra-continental deformation zone which separates central western Anatolia from the Aegean domain. The inversion of <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip vectors along the Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> yields a strike-slip stress state with NW-trending σHmax (σ1) and NE-trending σHmin (σ3) axes since the Early Pliocene. A change in strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> under a compressional stress regime: from old transpression to young transtension, probably occurred in the Quaternary. The inversion of the earthquake source mechanism indicates that the transtensional stress regime continues up to the present. The İnönü and Eskişehir Basins developed under the transtensional stress regime producing consistent and local normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> with a continuing NE-trending σHmin (σ3). The stress regime change resulted in a decrease in σHmax (σ1) and/or an increase in σHmin (σ3) stress magnitudes due to coeval influence of the superimposed plate forces and the interaction of three plates (Eurasian/African/Arabian): (1) continental collision of Eurasian/Arabian plates with <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block in the east, (2) westward escape of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block by anticlockwise rotation at the west-southwest border of the Eurasian and Arabian/African plates and (3) a complex subduction process between African and Eurasian plates along the Aegean (Hellenic) and the Cyprus arcs which favors western extrusion of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block in the eastern Mediterranean region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1975B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1975B"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen and 40Ar/39Ar isotope evidence for multiple and protracted paleofluid flow events within the long-lived North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Keirogen (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boles, Austin; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mulch, Andreas; Mutlu, Halim; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Warr, Laurence N.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We present a new approach to identifying the source and age of paleofluids associated with low-temperature deformation in the brittle crust, using hydrogen isotopic compositions (δD) and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of authigenic illite in clay gouge-bearing <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones. The procedure involves grain-size separation, polytype modeling, and isotopic analysis, creating a mixing line that is used to extrapolate to δD and age of pure authigenic and detrital material. We use this method on samples collected along the surface trace of today's North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF). δD values of the authigenic illite population, obtained by extrapolation, are -89 ± 3‰, -90 ± 2‰, and -97 ± 2‰ (VSMOW) for samples KSL, RES4-1, and G1G2, respectively. These correspond to δD fluid values of -62‰ to -85‰ for the temperature range of 125°C ± 25°, indistinguishable from present-day precipitation values. δD values of the detrital illite population are -45 ± 13‰, -60 ± 6‰, and -64 ± 6‰ for samples KSL, G1G2, and RES4-1, respectively. Corresponding δD fluid values at 300°C are -26‰ to -45‰ and match values from adjacent metamorphic terranes. Corresponding clay gouge ages are 41.4 ± 3.4 Ma (authigenic) and 95.8 ± 7.7 Ma (detrital) for sample G2 and 24.6 ± 1.6 Ma (authigenic) and 96.5 ± 3.8 Ma (detrital) for sample RES4-1, demonstrating a long history of meteoric fluid infiltration in the area. We conclude that today's NAF incorporated preexisting, weak clay-rich rocks that represent earlier mineralizing fluid events. The samples preserve at least three fluid flow pulses since the Eocene and indicate that meteoric fluid has been circulating in the upper crust in the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Keirogen since that time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EartD...2..169W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EartD...2..169W"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometry of the <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>-Arabia and Africa-Arabia plate boundaries in the latest Miocene to Mid-Pliocene: the role of the Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westaway, R.; Demir, T.; Seyrek, A.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>We suggest a working hypothesis for the geometry of the strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> that formed the boundaries between the Turkish, African and Arabian plates in the latest Miocene to Mid-Pliocene (LMMP), between ~7-6 Ma and ~3.5 Ma. This geometry differed significantly from the modern geometry; the northern Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (DSFZ) was located east of its present line and the TR-AR boundary was formed by the Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (MOFZ), located well north of the modern East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EAFZ). The MOFZ is potentially the most problematic aspect of such a scheme, given the dramatically different interpretations of it that have been proposed. However, the presently-available evidence, albeit limited, is consistent with our proposed interpretation. Significant differences between the proposed LMMP <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and the modern geometry include, first, the transtensional geometry of the MOFZ, the modern EAFZ being typically a left-lateral transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone but with localized transpression. Second, the MOFZ slip rate was much lower than the ~9-10 mm a-1 EAFZ slip rate; it is estimated as ~2-3 mm a-1, having produced no more than ~8 km of slip during its approximately three million year long activity. Third, unlike at present, there was no throughgoing linkage of left-lateral <span class="hlt">faulting</span> between the LMMP DSFZ and the MOFZ; instead, the DSFZ terminated northward, and the MOFZ terminated southward, in a zone of localised crustal shortening adjoining the suture of the former Neotethys Ocean in the Kahramanmaraç-Pazarcık region of SE <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The different motion of the Turkish plate relative to Arabia, and, thus, relative to Eurasia, means that senses and rates of crustal deformation can be expected to have been different during the LMMP phase from at present, throughout the eastern Mediterranean region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJEaS.100.1967G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJEaS.100.1967G"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical characterization of a Quaternary monogenetic volcano in Erciyes Volcanic Complex: Cora Maar (Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Volcanic Province, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gencalioglu-Kuscu, Gonca</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Volcanic Province (CAVP) is a fine example of Neogene-Quaternary post-collisional volcanism in the Alpine-Mediterranean region. Volcanism in the Alpine-Mediterranean region comprises tholeiitic, transitional, calc-alkaline, and shoshonitic types with an "orogenic" fingerprint. Following the orogenic volcanism, subordinate, within-plate alkali basalts ( sl) showing little or no orogenic signature are generally reported in the region. CAVP is mainly characterized by widespread calc-alkaline andesitic-dacitic volcanism with orogenic trace element signature, reflecting enrichment of their source regions by subduction-related fluids. Cora Maar (CM) located within the Erciyes pull-apart basin, is an example to numerous Quaternary monogenetic volcanoes of the CAVP, generally considered to be alkaline. Major and trace element geochemical and geochronological data for the CM are presented in comparison with other CAVP monogenetic volcanoes. CM scoria is basaltic andesitic, transitional-calc-alkaline in nature, and characterized by negative Nb-Ta, Ba, P and Ti anomalies in mantle-normalized patterns. Unlike the "alkaline" basalts of the Mediterranean region, other late-stage basalts from the CAVP monogenetic volcanoes are classified as tholeiitic, transitional and mildly alkaline. They display the same negative anomalies and incompatible element ratios as CM samples. In this respect, CM is comparable to other CAVP monogenetic basalts ( sl), but different from the Meditterranean intraplate alkali basalts. Several lines of evidence suggest derivation of CM and other CAVP monogenetic basalts from shallow depths within the lithospheric mantle, that is from a garnet-free source. In a wider regional context, CAVP basalts ( sl) are comparable to Apuseni (Romania) and Big Pine (Western Great Basin, USA) volcanics, except the former have depleted Ba contents. This is a common feature for the CAVP volcanics and might be related to crustal contamination or source</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G51B1093C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G51B1093C"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of creep rate and extent at Ismetpasa section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> using Persistent Scatterer InSAR and GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cetin, E.; Cakir, Z.; Dogan, U.; Akoglu, A. M.; Ozener, H.; Ergintav, S.; Meghraoui, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep was discovered over half a century ago along the Ismetpasa section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, its spatiotemporal nature is still poorly known due to lack of geodetic and seismological studies along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Despite the difficulties arising from atmospheric artifacts and low coherency, classical long-term InSAR analysis of ERS (C-band) data between 1992 and 2001 suggested an average creep rate of 9±3 mm along a <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment of ~70 km long (Cakir et al., 2005). Even though these estimations were obtained from a limited number of available images, these results have been supported by a recent study of stacked PALSAR (L-band) interferograms spanning the period between 2007 and 2010 (Fialko et al., 2011). In this study, we use the Persistent Scatterer InSAR technique to better constrain spatiotemporal characteristics of the surface creep. We analyzed 55 Envisat ASAR images on 2 descending tracks (479 and 207) between 2003 and 2010 and calculated InSAR time series. The PS-InSAR results show clearly the gradual transition between the creeping and locked sections of the NAF west of Ismetpasa. On the contrary, its eastern boundary is crudely determined near 33.4E since the signal is disturbed by the postseismic deformation of the Orta earthquake (June 6, 2000, Mw=6.0). The extent of the creeping section therefore appears to be approximately 81.5 km. The creep rate is also robustly constrained and found to be in the range of 10±2 mm/yr near to Ismetpasa, consistent with the GPS measurements from a small-aperture geodetic network near Ismetpasa and recently reported PALSAR measurements (Fialko et al., 2011). Furthermore, elastic dislocation modeling suggests shallow creeping depth (< 5 km).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.656..190A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.656..190A"><span id="translatedtitle">New constraints on micro-seismicity and stress state in the western part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone: Observations from a dense seismic array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Teoman, M. Uğur; Türkelli, Niyazi; Kahraman, Metin; Cambaz, Didem; Mutlu, Ahu; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory A.; Thompson, David A.; Cornwell, David; Utkucu, Murat; Gülen, Levent</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>With the aim of extensively investigating the crustal structure beneath the western segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone where it splays into northern and southern branches, a temporary seismic network (dense array for North Anatolia-DANA) consisting of 70 stations was deployed in early May 2012 and operated for 18 months in the Sakarya region during the <span class="hlt">Fault</span>Lab experiment. Out of 2437 events contaminated by explosions, we extracted 1371 well located earthquakes. The enhanced station coverage having a nominal station spacing of 7 km, lead to a minimum magnitude calculation of 0.1. Horizontal and vertical location uncertainties within the array do not exceed 0.8 km and 0.9 km, respectively. We observe considerable seismic activity along both branches of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> where the depth of the seismogenic zone was mostly confined to 15 km. Using our current earthquake catalog we obtained a b-value of 1. We also mapped the b-value variation with depth and observed a gradual decrease. Furthermore, we determined the source parameters of 41 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 1.8 using P-wave first motion polarity method. Regional Moment Tensor Inversion method was also applied to earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 3.0. Focal mechanism solutions confirm that Sakarya and its vicinity is stressed by a compressional regime showing a primarily oblique-slip motion character. Stress tensor analysis indicates that the maximum principal stress is aligned in WNW-ESE direction and the tensional axis is aligned in NNE-SSW direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geomo.259...55T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geomo.259...55T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic geomorphology of a large normal <span class="hlt">fault</span>: Akşehir <span class="hlt">fault</span>, SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Topal, Savaş; Keller, Edward; Bufe, Aaron; Koçyiğit, Ali</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In order to better understand the activity of the Akşehir normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> in SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and the associated seismic hazard, we investigated the tectonic geomorphology of a 60-km stretch of the 100-km-long Akşehir <span class="hlt">fault</span> block. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> can be separated into seven geomorphic segments (1 to 7 from NW to SE) along the mountain front. Segment length varies from about 9 to 14 km, and relief of the horst block varies from about 0.6 km in the SE to 1.0 km in the NW. Analysis of the tectonic geomorphology of 32 drainage basins and mountain front facets using a combination of geomorphic indices reveals a general pattern of high slip rates in the northern and central segments and low slip rates in the southern, probably older, segments. We show that mountain front sinuosity varies from about 1.1 to 1.4 on segments S1-S6 to 2.4 on segment S7, suggesting that the six northern segments are more active than the southernmost segment. Similarly, χ analysis and slope-area analysis of streams reveal a pattern of steepest channels draining the central and northern segments of the horst. The ratio of valley floor width to valley height varies from 0.2 to 0.6, which are typical values for tectonically active mountain fronts; and alluvial fans along segments S1, S2, and S4 are back-tilted. Finally, we show that (1) shapes of the ~ 100-900m high mountain front facets are mostly triangular (~ 80%) and partly trapezoidal (~ 20%); (2) facet slopes range from 6 to 22°; (3) facets at the NW and SE segment ends are larger than the intervening facets; and (4) steepest facets occur along the central segments. Uplift rates estimated from the slope of mountain front facets range from about 0.06 m/ky on the southernmost <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment (S7) to 0.23 m/ky on the more central S5 and 0.16 m/ky on the northern segment (S1). The estimated pattern of uplift is consistent with the pattern of geomorphic indices. The vertical relief of the facets suggests that uplift of the mountain front initiated in the late</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..53.1157E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..53.1157E"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> part of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> by means of artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> part of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8873C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8873C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for latest Pleistocene to Holocene uplift at the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (CAP), southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cosentino, Domenico; Öǧretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Gliozzi, Elsa; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Baykara, Oruc M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Along the Mediterranean coastal area of southern Anatolia, markers of ancient sea-level have been reported west of Alanya and east of the Göksu delta. In both areas, bioconstructed fossil rims, consisting mainly of calcareous algae, are situated 0.5 m above the live counterpart. The fossil rim to the west of Alanya has been dated between 2690 to 1545 yrs BP, evidencing late Holocene rock uplift at the CAP southern margin. More recently, based on beachrocks along the coastal area from Incekum to the south of Adana, authors showed that the shoreline was raised around 0.5 m after 19 BC-200 AD. Based on new field observations along the coast between Aydı ncı k and Ayaş (Mersin, southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), together with AMS 14C dating and high-resolution U-Th chronology, a more complex uplift history can be suggested. Along the coast of Yeşilovacı k, we observed up to seven uplifted marine notches, from 0.5 m to 6.10 m above sea level. Some of them show relationships with a travertine crust that yielded U-Th ages of 2727 ± 1559 years and 5236 ± 2255 years. In the same area, a calcareous algae fossil trottoir related to a marine notch 5.40 m above sea level yielded an AMS 14C 2σ age of 32700 to 31645 years cal BP. Considering that the global ocean was 60 m below the present sea level at 32 ka, the Yeşilovacı k coastal area has been uplifted at 2 mm/yr. Moving to the east, in a small embayment at Eǧribük, two distinct well cemented beach deposits containing Murex brandaris, Cerithium vulgatum, and Columbella rustica have been uplifted at 0.3 m and 0.7 m above the present sea level. Although it is difficult to reconstruct the paleodepth of those beach deposits, AMS 14C 2σ ages of 5575 to 5445 years cal BP and 2130 to 1965 years cal BP show late Holocene uplift. In the Narlı kuyu area, up to seven different uplifted markers of sea level were observed between 0.8 and 7.2 m above the present sea level. In addition, near Ayaş new insights for late Holocene uplift are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G13A0994O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G13A0994O"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip Rates of Main Active <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zones Through <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Inferred From GPS Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozener, H.; Aktug, B.; Dogru, A.; Tasci, L.; Acar, M.; Emre, O.; Yilmaz, O.; Turgut, B.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.; Bal, O.; Eraslan, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Active <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Map of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> was revised and published by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration in 2012. This map reveals that there are about 500 <span class="hlt">faults</span> can generate earthquakes.In order to understand the earthquake potential of these <span class="hlt">faults</span>, it is needed to determine the slip rates. Although many regional and local studies were performed in the past, the slip rates of the active <span class="hlt">faults</span> in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> have not been determined. In this study, the block modelling, which is the most common method to produce slip rates, will be done. GPS velocities required for block modeling is being compiled from the published studies and the raw data provided then velocity field is combined. To form a homogeneous velocity field, different stochastic models will be used and the optimal velocity field will be achieved. In literature, GPS site velocities, which are computed for different purposes and published, are combined globally and this combined velocity field are used in the analysis of strain accumulation. It is also aimed to develop optimal stochastic models to combine the velocity data. Real time, survey mode and published GPS observations is being combined in this study. We also perform new GPS observations. Furthermore, micro blocks and main <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones from Active <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Map <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> will be determined and homogeneous velocity field will be used to infer slip rates of these active <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Here, we present the result of first year of the study. This study is being supported by THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF <span class="hlt">TURKEY</span> (TUBITAK)-CAYDAG with grant no. 113Y430.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7926Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7926Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results about the Quaternary activiy of the Ovacik <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Aktaǧ, Alican</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Erzincan Basin and the surrounding region have a complex structure, which is formed by the interaction of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), the Northeast <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NEAF), the Pülümür <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (PF), and the Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (OF). The region has been shaked many times by devastating earthquakes throughout both the instrumental and the historical periods. The infamous 26 December 1939 Erzincan Earthquake (M~7.9) is the largest event, which was instrumentally recorded along the NAF. Moreover, the eastern continuation of the surface rupture of this earthquake, "the Yedisu Segment", is known as one of the two seismic gaps on this dextral shear zone. We started multi-disciplinary studies on the OF, which has relatively very limited data. Even though some researches think about this tectonic feature as a non-active <span class="hlt">fault</span>, recent GPS measurements point strain accumulation along it. In addition to that 1992 Erzincan and 2003 Pülümür earthquakes loaded additional stress on the neighboring <span class="hlt">faults</span>, including the OF. The OF elongate between the SE Erzincan Basin and Kemaliye (Erzincan) about 110 km with a general strike of N60E. The clear morphological expression of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> is especially observed around Ovacık, Tunceli. The OF delimits the Jurassic aged Munzur limestone in the north and the Miocene volcanoclastics and Permo-Carboniferous schist in the south in this vicinity. We identified many offset features, such as wash plains, moraines, alluvial fans and inset terraces in our preliminary morphological maps. The measured displacements change from 20 to 350 m, which may play a critical role in the calculation of the geological slip-rate. Moreover, we used morphological indices, such as topographic profiling, hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry, and the mountain front sinuosity to quantify the activity of the OF. Our preliminary results clearly point out the necessity of future studies, which may help to understand the earthquake potential of this poorly known</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP21A1120A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP21A1120A"><span id="translatedtitle">The origin of the magnetic fabric and the significance of AIRM in reconstructing the emplacement dynamics of ignimbrites: a case study from the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Volcanic Province, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agrò, A.; Zanella, E.; Le Pennec, J.; Temel, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The investigation of the magnetic fabric is a very effective tool in the study of the emplacement and depositional processes of volcanic rocks. The analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been increasingly applied to pyroclastic deposits with the main purpose of getting information about the petrofabric, understanding the flow dynamics, and inferring flow directions and vent position. One of the most crucial points, which prejudice the reliability of any volcanological reconstructions is understanding the meaning of the AMS, discriminating among primary and secondary fabric and identifying the carriers of the AMS signal. The AMS fabric of a volcanic rock is the complex result of various factors: contribution of the paramagnetic fraction, type of ferromagnetic grains (MD or SD), rheology of the flow, interaction of the flow with paleotopography and disturbances due to the intrinsic heterogeneities. In this study we investigate the magnetic fabric of the Late Miocene Kizilkaya ignimbrite (Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Volcanic Province, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) through measures of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), isothermal remanent magnetization (AIRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Sampling has been performed at seven localities at different stratigraphic heights (a total of 35 sites yielding about 600 specimens) within the ignimbrite's devitrified layer. Our measurements and observations reveal that the magnetic mineralogy is complex: the main magnetic carrier is represented by Ti-magnetite which occurs as free grains in the matrix and as inclusions in pumice and lithic clasts, as well as in glass shards; in certain levels it is also detected the presence of a more oxidized Ti-magnetite and haematite. The AMS fabric varies vertically along each section; based on the angle between the direction of the magnetic lineation k1 and that of the foliation plunge k3, three types of fabric are evidenced: normal, oblique and transverse. The anisotropy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..644Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..644Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-parameter analysis of seismoturbidites in the Kumburgaz Basin of Sea of Marmara: Implications for creeping versus locked Central High segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yakupoǧlu, Nurettin; Uçarkuş, Gülsen; Eriş, K. Kadir; Çaǧatay, M. Namık; Henry, Pierre; Yalamaz, Burak; Sabuncu, Asen; Acar, Dursun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sediment sequences deposited in active transform basins provide valuable archives of earthquake-triggered co-seismic sedimentation. A better understanding of the relationship between offshore <span class="hlt">fault</span> ruptures and Seismoturbidites would have direct implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Submerged section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the northern Sea of Marmara basin, which experienced more than 55 (Ms>6.8) earthquakes in the last 2000 years, poses a unique laboratory to study such kind of sync-tectonic history. Following the devastating 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes (Mw = 7.4/7.2 respectively), a major seismic gap is now along the offshore branch of the NAF in the Sea of Marmara. The segments that control the Cinarcik and Kumburgaz basins in the Sea of Marmara have not ruptured during the 20th century. This study focusses on the Kumburgaz basin, which is located along the central segment of the NAF, and its less-known linkage to historical earthquakes, particularly to Ms>7 1509 and 1766 earthquakes. The main objective of this study is to test the two alternative hypotheses of a creeping versus locked central High segment by determining the frequency and timing of earthquake triggered turbidite units in the Kumburgaz basin. A 21-m-long piston core recovered in Kumburgaz basin during the Marsite cruise in 2014 is analysed at high resolution in order to identify the discrete turbidite-homogenite units (T-H units). The piston core reveals 22 T-H units where several packages consist of a sharp basal contact and multiple fining upward beds of sand to coarse silt as characteristically seen in most Seismoturbidite units. We initiated a systematic study of T-H units with the objectives of establishing criteria for identification of Seismoturbidites by analysing the physical, mineralogical and chemical composition of the piston core. The density and magnetic susceptibility changes along the core are analysed by Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL). High detrital input</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Earth...3...27W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Earth...3...27W"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometry of the <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>-Arabia and Africa-Arabia plate boundaries in the latest Miocene to Mid-Pliocene: the role of the Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westaway, R.; Demir, T.; Seyrek, A.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>We suggest a working hypothesis for the geometry of the strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> that formed the boundaries between the Turkish, African and Arabian plates in the latest Miocene to Mid-Pliocene (LMMP), between ~7 6 Ma and ~3.5 Ma. This geometry differed significantly from the modern geometry; the northern Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (DSFZ) was located east of its present line and the TR-AR boundary was formed by the Malatya-Ovacık <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (MOFZ), located well north of the modern East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EAFZ). The MOFZ is potentially the most problematic aspect of such a scheme, given the dramatically different interpretations of it that have been proposed. However, the presently-available evidence, albeit limited, is consistent with our proposed interpretation. Significant differences between the proposed LMMP <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and the modern geometry include, first, the transtensional geometry of the MOFZ, the modern EAFZ being typically a left-lateral transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone but with localized transpression. Second, the MOFZ slip rate was much lower than the ~9 10 mm a-1 EAFZ slip rate; it is estimated as ~2 3 mm a-1, having produced no more than ~8 km of slip during its approximately three million year long activity. The Euler vector is tentatively inferred to have involved relative rotation between the Turkish and Arabian Plates at ~0.85±0.15° Ma-1 about a pole at ~37.75±0.15° N, ~38.8±0.3° E. Third, unlike at present, there was no throughgoing linkage of left-lateral <span class="hlt">faulting</span> between the LMMP DSFZ and the MOFZ; instead, the DSFZ terminated northward, and the MOFZ terminated southward, in a zone of localised crustal shortening adjoining the suture of the former Neotethys Ocean in the Kahramanmaraş-Pazarcık region of SE <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The different motion of the Turkish plate relative to Arabia, and, thus, relative to Eurasia, means that senses and rates of crustal deformation can be expected to have been different during the LMMP phase from at present, throughout the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812602S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812602S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity along the Main Marmara <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: from space-time distribution to repeating events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) poses a significant hazard for the large cities surrounding the Marmara Sea region particularly the megalopolis of Istanbul. Indeed, the NAF is presently hosting a long unruptured segment below the Sea of Marmara. This seismic gap is approximately 150 km long and corresponds to the Main Marmara <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (MMF). The seismicity along the Main Marmara <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed here during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic inversions. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. Interestingly we found also several long term repeating earthquakes in this domain. Using a template matching technique, we evidenced two new families of repeaters: a first family that typically belongs to aftershock sequences and a second family of long lasting repeaters with a multi-month recurrence period. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00557&hterms=Earthquake&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DEarthquake','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00557&hterms=Earthquake&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DEarthquake"><span id="translatedtitle">Izmit, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> 1999 Earthquake Interferogram</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of <span class="hlt">fault</span> breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip extended west of the surface <span class="hlt">faults</span>, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the <span class="hlt">fault</span> rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other <span class="hlt">faults</span> and to the continuation of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8345O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8345O"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene sedimentary processes in the Gemlik Gulf: a transtensional basin on the middle Strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Sea of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özmaral, A.; Çagatay, M. N.; Imren, C.; Gasperini, L.; Henry, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Gemlik Gulf is an oval-shaped transtensional basin with a maximum depth of 113 m, located on the middle strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) in the eastern part of the Sea of Marmara (SOM). During the last glacial period until the Holocene marine transgression about 12 ka BP, the sea level was below the Çanakkale (Dardanelles) Strait's bedrock sill depth of -85 m, and the Gemlik Basin became a lake isolated lake from the rest of the Sea of Marmara "Lake" and the global ocean. The high resolution seismic profiles and the multi- beam bathymetric map of the basin show that the basin is characterized by NW-SE trending transtensional oblique <span class="hlt">faults</span>, delta lobes of the Büyükdere (Kocadere) to the east and an erosional surface below an up to 15 m-thick Holocene mud drape. The Holocene mud drape was studied in up to 9.5 m-long gravity-piston and 0.84 m-long sediment/water interface cores located at -105 to -113 m in the basin's depocentre. The Holocene mud consists mainly of plastic gray green marine clayey mud that includes thick-red brown clay layers and a laminated organic-rich, dark olive green sapropel in the lower part, which was previously dated at 11.6-6.4 14Ckyr (uncalib) BP. Multi-proxy analyses of the Holocene mud drape in the sediment cores were carried out using Multisensor Core Logger, XRF Core Scanner equipped with digital X-Ray radiography, and laser particle size analyzer. Seismic-core correlation was made using seismic data of the chirp profiles at the core locations and the synthetic seismograms generated using the MSCL P-wave velocity and gamma density measurements. The long piston-gravity cores include five 20 to 100 mm-thick "red brown mud layers" in the top 2.5 m of the core. These layers have a sharp basal boundary and gradational upper boundary. The red brown layers consist of 55-75% clay-size material with an average grain size of 3-4 µm, and have relatively a high magnetic susceptibility. They are enriched in K, Fe, Ti and Zr that are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984BGeod..58..137E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984BGeod..58..137E"><span id="translatedtitle">Strain analysis along the North Analtolian <span class="hlt">Fault</span> by using geodetic surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eren, Kamil</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>In earthquake prediction studies geodetic surveys play a very significant role. For this purpose, in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, three micro geodetic networks have been established across the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. Of these, the Ismetpa§a Network is the subject of this paper. From the observations in combined triangulation—trilateration mode in 1972 and 1982 the horizontal movements and strain components were determined. Afterwards the parameters of the best fitting deformation model were computed and analyzed. The results show that the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate has about a 1 cm/year westward motion, and there exists considerable strain accumulation in the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.111..792G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.111..792G"><span id="translatedtitle">Source <span class="hlt">fault</span> of 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake and its' mechanism: New field data, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gürboğa, Şule</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>19 August 1966 Varto earthquake (Ms = 6.8; Io = IX) was sourced from Varto <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (VFZ) that caused 2529 deaths in the Varto region. Just after the occurrence of the event, some researchers have different ideas related to the source <span class="hlt">fault</span> and mechanism of the earthquake. The Varto <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone is a major NW-SE trending tectonic feature in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. New geological mapping and description of structures have been used to constrain the geometry, surface deformations and geological history of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. According to this extensive research, the VFZ consists of left-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> with minor amount of reverse component and has been divided into three <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments Varto, Leylekdağ and Çayçatı regarding as geological and morphological characteristics. Hence, palaeostress configurations of the segments are reliable with the regional ∼N-S compression direction. Lastly, the Varto segment northern branch of VFZ has been defined as the source of 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9813P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9813P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> Characterization in the Sea of Marmara (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) Using OBS and Land Seismic Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinar, Ali; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Turhan, Fatih; Takahashi, Narumi; Kalafat, Dogan; Citak, Seckin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) occurring between Tekirdag basin and Kumburgaz basin are investigated using 15 Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) stations. The OBS stations were deployed closely around the <span class="hlt">fault</span> trace of NAF. During the observation period from September, 2014 until July, 2015 more than one thousand microearthquakes were determined. No uniform seismicity pattern was observed along strike and along dip of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments in an area spanning 100 km from East to West of Marmara Sea. The western <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments exhibit relatively higher and deeper seismic activity while the eastern segment show shallower and relatively lower seismic activity. Integrating the first motion polarity data from the land based stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) with the polarity data acquired from the OBS stations the focal mechanisms of 173 micro-earthquakes were determined. Most of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane solutions indicate predominantly strike-slip mechanism. Several clusters of events are identified along the E-W extending NAF. We derive a focal mechanism for the individual events whenever the number of the polarities are sufficient. In addition, simultaneous inversion of the polarities in a cluster are done to retrieve a stress tensor along with focal mechanisms of the individual events in a cluster. A unique cluster of focal mechanisms was obtained from the events taking place in Western High (WH) region located between Tekirdag Basin (TB) and Central Basin (CB). Several features of this cluster are noticeable; 1) the site is the most seismically active part in Marmara Sea, 2) the site is the locus of the deepest events in the Sea of Marmara, 3) the shallower part of this segment is seismically less active, 4) two subgroups of P-axes of focal mechanisms exist; one oriented NW-SE and other oriented in N-S direction despite the proximity of the location of the events giving clues on the <span class="hlt">faulting</span> dynamics. The N-S oriented P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IJEaS..93..974K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IJEaS..93..974K"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing of post-collisional H-type to A-type granitic magmatism: U Pb titanite ages from the Alpine central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> granitoids (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Köksal, Serhat; Romer, Rolf L.; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Toksoy-Köksal, Fatma</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The last stages of the continental collision during the closure of the Neotethyan ocean in central Anatolia are characterized by post-collisional H- and A-type granitoids intruding both the metamorphic country rocks and allochthonous ophiolitic rocks of the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> crystalline complex. Available Rb Sr and K Ar whole-rock and mineral age data on the H- and A-type granitoids in central Anatolia are inconsistent. To better constrain the geological relevance and the timing of the change in the chemical character of magmatism in the wake of the Alpine orogeny in Anatolia, we re-evaluated the geochemical characteristics and dated titanite from representative H- (Baranadag quartz-monzonite: BR) and A-type (Çamsari quartz-syenite: CS) granitoids by the U Pb method. BR is a high-K calc-alkaline intrusion with mafic microgranular enclaves and shows enrichment of LILE relative to HFSE. The alkaline CS displays higher SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Th and HFSE with corresponding depletion in CaO, MgO, Fe2O<Stack>3tot</Stack>, P2O5, Ba, Sr, and Ti. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the BR and CS samples have LREE-enriched and flat HREE patterns, whereas CS differs from BR by higher LREE enrichment and lower MREE and HREE contents. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics suggest that BR and CS were not products of the same magma source. BR was derived from a subduction-modified depleted hybrid-source and CS had an enriched mantle source with significant crustal contribution. The U Pb titanite ages of the H-type central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> granitoids (BR) and the A-type granitoids (CS) are 74.0±2.8 and 74.1±0.7 Ma, respectively. The coeval evolution of post-collisional/calc-alkaline H- to A-type magmatism was possibly associated with source heterogeneity and variable involvement of continental materials during the evolution of these granitoids. These new age data constrain the timing of the onset of a post-collision extensional period following the Alpine thickening</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoJI.141F...1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoJI.141F...1A"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity of the Sea of Marmara (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) since 1500</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ambraseys, N. N.; Jackson, J. A.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>We use the earthquake history of the last 500 years to help evaluate the tectonic and hazard contexts of the 1999 earthquakes at Izmit and Düzce in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The 20th century has been unusually active, but over the 500 year period the seismic moment release can account for the known right-lateral shear velocity across the Marmara region observed by GPS. Two areas of known late Quaternary <span class="hlt">faulting</span> stand out as unusually quiet over this period: the northwest shore of the Sea of Marmara and the southern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system between Bursa and Mudurnu.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.433...89S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.433...89S"><span id="translatedtitle">Central and eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> crustal deformation rate and velocity fields derived from GPS and earthquake data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simão, N. M.; Nalbant, S. S.; Sunbul, F.; Komec Mutlu, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a new strain-rate and associated kinematic model for the eastern and central parts of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In the east, a quasi N-S compressional tectonic regime dominates the deformation field and is partitioned through the two major structural elements of the region, which are the conjugate dextral strike-slip North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) and the sinistral strike slip East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EAFZ). The observed surface deformation is similar to that inferred by anisotropy studies which sampled the region of the mantle closer to the crust (i.e. the lithospheric mantle and the Moho), and is dependent on the presence or absence of a lithospheric mantle, and of the level of coupling between it and the overlaying crust. The areas of the central and eastern parts of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> which are deforming at elevated rates are situated above areas with strong gradients in crustal thickness. This seems to indicate that these transition zones, situated between thinner and thicker crusts, promote more deformation at the surface. The regions that reveal elevated strain-rate values are 1) the Elaziğ-Bingol segment of the EAFZ, 2) the region around the Karlıova triple-junction including the Yedisu segment and the Varto <span class="hlt">fault</span>, 3) the section of the NAFZ that extends from the Erzincan province up to the NAFZ-Ezinepazarı <span class="hlt">fault</span> junction, and 4) sections of the Tuz Gölü <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Other regions like the Adana basin, a significant part of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (CAFZ), the Aksaray and the Ankara provinces, are deforming at smaller but still considerable rates and therefore should be considered as areas well capable of producing damaging earthquakes (between M6 and 7). This study also reveals that the central part of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is moving at a faster rate towards the west than the eastern part <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, and that the wedge region between the NAFZ and the EAFZ accounts for the majority of the counter clockwise rotation between the eastern and the central parts of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.4553K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.4553K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in the Simav graben of western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> reassessed with calibrated earthquake relocations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karasözen, Ezgi; Nissen, Edwin; Bergman, Eric A.; Johnson, Kendra L.; Walters, Richard J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has a long history of large earthquakes, but the responsible <span class="hlt">faults</span> are poorly characterized. Here we reassess the past half century of instrumental earthquakes in the Simav-Gediz region, starting with the 19 May 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw 5.9), which we image using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and regional and teleseismic waveforms. This event ruptured a steep, planar normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> centered at 7-9 km depth but failed to break the surface. However, relocated main shock and aftershock hypocenters occurred beneath the main slip plane at 10-22 km depth, implying rupture initiation in areas of low coseismic slip. These calibrated modern earthquakes provide the impetus to relocate and reassess older instrumental events in the region. Aftershocks of the 1970 Gediz earthquake (Mw 7.1) form a narrow band, inconsistent with source models that invoke low-angle detachment <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, and may include events triggered dynamically by the unilateral main shock rupture. Epicenters of the 1969 Demirci earthquakes (Mw 5.9, 6.0) are more consistent with slip on the south dipping Akdağ <span class="hlt">fault</span> than the larger, north dipping Simav <span class="hlt">fault</span>. A counterintuitive aspect of recent seismicity across our study area is that the largest event (Mw 7.1) occurred in an area of slower extension and indistinct surface <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, yet ruptured the surface, while recent earthquakes in the well-defined and more rapidly extending Simav graben are smaller (Mw <6.0) and failed to produce surface breaks. Though our study area bounds a major metamorphic core complex, there is no evidence for involvement of low-angle normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in any of the recent large earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..220Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..220Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Corner frequency ratios of P and S waves and strain drops of earthquakes recorded by a tight network around the Karadere segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone: evidence for non-classical source processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Wenzheng; Ben-Zion, Yehuda</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We present a method for estimating ratios of P and S waves corner frequencies (Rcf) and earthquake strain drops by joint analysis of P and S source spectra of neighbouring groups of events. The method is applied systematically to data generated by ˜9000 earthquakes around the Karadere segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. The results indicate several regions that produce consistently Rcf values higher (e.g. >2) than expected from classical earthquake source models. These are associated generally with <span class="hlt">fault</span> sections having strong geometrical heterogeneities, shallow depth sections and/or locations without large pre-existing surface trace. Earthquake ruptures in such regions are likely to generate significant rock damage and tensile components of <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. To assess whether the observed high Rcf values are produced by enriched high frequency P waves, reduced high frequency S waves or both, we compare the associated P and S spectra with mean/median results. The analysis suggests that the high Rcf values of shallow events (depth <4 km) are generated primarily by reduced high frequency S radiation, and that the contribution from elevated high frequency P radiation increases with depth and proximity to geometrical complexities. The results highlight the importance of considering carefully the existence of some volumetric source components in earthquake rupture processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..343O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..343O"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye-Burdur <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozcelik, Mehmet</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye-Burdur <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (FBFZ) in SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sites in lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptunian dykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor <span class="hlt">faults</span> and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JAfES.102..191A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JAfES.102..191A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The origin of vein-type copper-lead-zinc deposits Host in Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks at the Southeast <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Orogenic Belt (Küplüce-Adıyaman, Southeastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akyıldız, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Nail; Gören, Burcu; Yıldırım, Esra; Ilhan, Semiha</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The study area is located around the town of Küplüce between the Çelikhan and Sincik districts (Adıyaman, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>). Mineralisations are located at the Southeast <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Orogenic Belt. Despite many differential units, especially in age and lithology, that coexist in the region, mineralisation and alteration are only developed in partly concordant/partly disconcordant veins/veinlets of quartz within chlorite schists, sericite schists, mica schists/mica gneisses, quartz schists and metadiabases of the Palaeozoic Pütürge metamorphics. Pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite are dominant minerals in mineral paragenesis. Chalcocite, covellite and carollite are also found in trace amounts. Quartz, calcite, sericite and chlorite are the gang minerals. Silicification, sericitisation, chloritisation, epidotisation and limonitisation are widespread in limited areas around ore veins. The estimated Co/Ni (1.8-4.3) ratio in pyrites belonging to mineralisation deposits indicates that mineralisation in the region is related to magmatic hydrothermal deposits. In addition, REE (rare earth element) contents of mineralisation deposits in chondrite-normalised diagrams are enriched and show a similar trend to that of chondritic values. This indicates that metals that form mineralisation deposits are related to magmatic rocks. Values of δ34S estimated in the Küplüce region vary between 1.6‰ and 2.34‰. Values of δ34S close to 0 indicate that the sulphur forming the mineralisation is of magmatic origin. In addition, δ18O values vary between 8‰ and 10.8‰ and are consistent with magmatic water. Analyses of the fluid inclusions in quartz samples from mineralisation deposits were performed, and the homogenisation temperature was estimated to be between 90 and 150 °C. These temperature values can be explained by the mixing of a solution with surface water. It was determined that mineralisation deposits were vein-type hydrothermal deposits that had developed due to Middle Eocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192..929P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192..929P"><span id="translatedtitle">Present-day strain distribution across a segment of the central bend of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone from a Persistent-Scatterers InSAR analysis of the ERS and Envisat archives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peyret, M.; Masson, F.; Yavasoglu, H.; Ergintav, S.; Reilinger, R.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) is the major transform system that accommodates the westward movement of the relatively rigid <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block with respect to Eurasia. Mitigating the hazard associated with devastating earthquakes requires understanding how the NAFZ accumulates and releases the potential energy of elastic deformation both in space and in time. In this study, we focus on the central bend of the NAFZ where the strike of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) changes from N75° to N105° within less than 100 km, and where a secondary <span class="hlt">fault</span> system veers southwards within the interior of Anatolia. We present interseismic velocity fields obtained from a Persistent-Scatterers (PS) Interferometric radar analysis of ERS and Envisat radar archives. Despite the high vegetation cover, the spatial density of measurements is high (˜10 PS/km2 in average). Interseismic velocities presented below indicate a velocity change of ˜6-8 mm/yr along the satellite line-of-sight (LOS) mainly centred on the NAF surface trace, and are in good agreement with the GPS velocity field published previously. The observed deformation is accommodated within a zone of ˜20 to 30 km width, in this area where no surface creep has been reported, contrary to the Ismetpasa segment located ˜30 km to the west of this study zone. Although less conspicuous, ˜2-3 mm/yr (˜1 mm/yr along the LOS) of the total deformation seems to be localized along the Lacin <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The overall agreement with horizontal GPS measurements suggests that the vertical component of the ground deformation is minor. This is confirmed, over the western part of our study zone, by the 3-D estimation of the ground deformation from the combination of the GPS- and the PS-mean velocity fields. However, a specific pattern of the PS velocity fields suggests that an area, enclosed between two <span class="hlt">faults</span> with roughly south-north orientation, experiences uplift. The PS analyses of radar time-series both prior and posterior to the Izmit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007JAESc..31...91O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007JAESc..31...91O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A re-evaluation of the Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone as a recent extensional structure in NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ocakoğlu, Faruk</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EFZ), one of the major active structures within the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> platelet, is investigated in a 100 km long sector between Bozüyük and Alpu, in vicinity of Eskişehir. The morphotectonic observations indicate that throughout the studied area the EFZ extends WNWwards as a ca. 15 km wide belt, and is composed of some 21 <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments, 5-25 km long. These segments form a north-dipping southern set and two south-dipping northern sets, all together working both sides of the Eskişehir graben. The <span class="hlt">faults</span> are dominantly normal in character with a slight right-lateral component in the westernmost areas. The estimated total vertical displacement on certain northern and southern <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments exceeds 450 m. In order to estimate the initiation age of the EFZ a brief stratigraphic review is given. The generally horizontal Pliocene terrestrial deposits are separated from the Miocene succession by a low-angular unconformity, and are cut in turn by the EFZ. Sedimentological data show that neither the distribution of the Pliocene depositional environments and their paleocurrent directions, nor the preserved Pliocene basal unconformity surface have a genetic relation to the EFZ. These data strongly suggest that the EFZ is a younger post-Pliocene active normal <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone with low rates of deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5598T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5598T"><span id="translatedtitle">Pliocene Quaternary <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in the Lycian Taurides - new insights into the neotectonic evolution of SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ten Veen, J.; Huibregtse, J.; Zwart, L.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The submarine Anaximander Mountains connect the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs and form a zone that accommodates the different tectonic regimes along these arcs. The Lycian Tauride Mountains in southwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> are situated just north of the Anaximander Mts. and likely have a comparable neotectonic evolution. The Lycian Taurides comprise the Bey Daglari positioned between the Lycian Nappes in the west and the Antalya Nappe Complex in the east. Here we focus on two tectonic basins, the Kasaba and Esen Çay basins, that are located in the Bey Daglari and Lycian Nappes respectively. Until the Langhian, NW-SW compression associated with the emplacement of the Lycian Nappes, caused (ductile) folding of the Bey Daglari autochthon and syntectonic sedimentation in a NE-SW trending foreland-type basin. After foreland deposition of Upper Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) conglomerates, a phase of S-vergent thrusting and reverse <span class="hlt">faulting</span> started, probably related to the late Miocene - Early Pliocene Aksu phase. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> data from the Kasaba basin show that the Pliocene-Recent tectonic evolution is characterized by extension, although no sedimentary basins formed. From slickensides, striae and other kinematic indicators, in combination with stratigraphical and geomorphological information, 3 extensional <span class="hlt">fault</span> phases are inferred: (1) ?Pliocene (post Miocene) WNW-ESE extension, forming approximately N-S trending asymmetrical grabens. (2) More recent (?Pleistocene) NE-SW extension that resulted in large 135^o tilt-block basins that are cut by less pronounced 070^o left lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The Pleistocene - Recent period is dominated by N-S extension that resulted in formation of 90^o -100^o normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> and reactivation of older (normal) <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Although extension prevails, exhumation and lowering of base level, evident from crosscutting scree, point at relative uplift. From the structural data of the Esen Çay Basin, 2 extensional phases are inferred: (1) Pliocene E</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017319','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017319"><span id="translatedtitle">Highlights of the 13 March 1992 Erzincan (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Celebi, Mehmet</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The March 13, 1992 Ms = 6.8 Erzincan earthquake in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is highlighted here. The epicenter of this earthquake was located 7.7 km from the eastern end of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The strong motions recorded in Erzincan had peak ground accelerations of approximately 0.5 g, accompanied by a pulse of 2 seconds. The duration of the earthquake was 7 seconds. This earthquake caused collapse of about 150 buildings--mainly to 4-5-story reinforced, concrete-framed buildings with infill walls. This damage, which is discussed, can be attributed to non-compliance with seismic codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.8818R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.8818R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Miocene Tectonics from Black Sea to Mediterrenean Sea along Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rojay, B.; Özsayın, E.; Çiner, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The existences of the gross structures are crucial elements in the understanding of the Neogene evolution of the Anatolia. The structures, from north to south, are fairly documented extensional Black Sea coast structures, "N vergent tectonics" in Black Sea region, the cross cutting scar/shear zone -North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>- , S verging tectonics in central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> overthrust belt (Cretaceous ophiolitic mélange belt), extensional Tuzgölü basin, basins like Cilicia, Mut situated to the back of the Cyprian arc and Cyprus locked subduction and accretionary tectonics (locked by approaching and colliding of the Eratosthenes and Hecatacus "seamount" obstacles). The closure of the northern Neotethys during post-Late Eocene- pre-Miocene end with the collision of the squeezed "<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Block" from south with the Eurasian Continent. Consequently the linkage of the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> basins is lost with the Seas (Paratethys) in north by the evolution of Black Sea Mountains. However, the subduction in southern Neotethys continued with a complex array due to oblique subduction between "<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Block" and downgoing African-Arabian plates. The growth of the accretionary wedge along southeast Anatolia resulted in retreat of the Miocene Seas towards Basra Bay (Iraq) and collision of the southeast <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> belt operated to the end of late Miocene where the marine realm in eastern Mediterrenean Sea continues. The rifting - sea-floor spreading in Red Sea, propagating of Dead Sea Transform to the north and oblique subduction in southern Tethys Ocean during different times in Miocene-Pliocene manifested a various different tectonic mechanism stories in the evolution of the Neogene basin in Anatolia. Consequently progressive closure of the Tethys Oceans resulted in the development Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateaus. The growth of the Plateaus, in other words, the progressive shortening from north to south during Late Miocene, ended with the escape of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Block</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S11F4409U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S11F4409U"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unal, B.; Askan, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and to the south of the very active North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Since most of the focus is on North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-<span class="hlt">fault</span> simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194.1941W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194.1941W"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal velocity structure of Central and Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> from ambient noise tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warren, Linda M.; Beck, Susan L.; Biryol, C. Berk; Zandt, George; Özacar, A. Arda; Yang, Yingjie</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, the ongoing convergence of the Arabian and African plates with Eurasia has resulted in the westward extrusion of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate. To better understand the current state and the tectonic history of this region, we image crust and uppermost mantle structure with ambient noise tomography. Our study area extends from longitudes of 32° to 44°E. We use continuous data from two temporary seismic deployments, our 2006-2008 North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Passive Seismic Experiment and the 1999-2001 Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Seismic Experiment, as well as from additional seismographs in the region. We compute daily cross-correlations of noise records between all station pairs and stack them over the entire time period for which they are available, as well as in seasonal subsets, to obtain interstation empirical Green's functions. After selecting interstation cross-correlations with high signal-to-noise ratios and measuring interstation phase velocities, we compute phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 8 to 40 s. At all periods, the phase velocity maps are similar for winter and summer subsets of the data, indicating that seasonal variations in noise sources do not bias our results. Across the study area, we invert the phase velocity estimates for shear velocity as a function of depth. The shear velocity model, which extends to 50 km depth, highlights tectonic features apparent at the surface: the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau is a prominent low-velocity anomaly whereas the Kirşehir Massif has relatively fast velocities. There is a large velocity jump across the Inner Tauride Suture/Central Anataolian <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone throughout the crust whereas the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> does not have a consistent signature. In addition, in the southeastern part of our study area, we image a high velocity region below 20 km depth which may be the northern tip of the underthrusting Arabian Plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12177973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12177973"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Focus in this discussion of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In 1986, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'s population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'s population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.649...33S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.649...33S"><span id="translatedtitle">No surface breaking on the Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, since Late Pleistocene (~ 64.5 ka); new geomorphic and geochronologic data from cosmogenic dating of offset alluvial fans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarıkaya, M. A.; Yıldırım, C.; Çiner, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EF) has been recognized as a major left lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> in the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (CAFZ) of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. However, its Quaternary slip-rate has been challenging to determine due to the difficulty of dating offset markers. Using high-precision offset measurements and 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating, we present the first geochronologically determined Late Quaternary slip-rate for the EF. Our study focuses on the excellent exposures of offset alluvial fan surfaces, originating from the Aladağlar, a Late Quaternary glaciated mountain. Analysis of airborne orthophotogrametry and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) surveys indicates 168 ± 2 m left lateral and 31 ± 1 m vertical displacements. In-situ terrestrial cosmogenic 36Cl geochronology obtained from eleven surface boulders provides a minimum abandonment/incision age of 104.2 ± 16.5 ka for the oldest offset alluvial fan surface. Our geomorphic observations together with Self-potential geophysical surveys revealed the presence of an unfaulted alluvial fan terrace, which allows us to constrain the timing of deformation. The abandonment/incision age of this fan is 64.5 ± 5.6 ka based on thirteen 36Cl depth profile samples. Accordingly, we obtained a geologic <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip-rate of 4.2 ± 1.9 mm a- 1 horizontally and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm a- 1 vertically for the time frame between 104.2 ± 16.5 ka and 64.5 ± 5.6 ka. Our analysis indicates that the EF has not been producing a major surface breaking earthquake on the main strand at least since 64.5 ± 5.6 ka (mid-Late Pleistocene). This could be the result of abandonment of the main strand and accommodation of deformation by other <span class="hlt">faults</span> within the EF. Nevertheless, a recently occurred (30 September 2011) low magnitude (ML: 4.3) left lateral strike-slip earthquake indicates recent seismic activity of the EF. Comparison of the recent GPS velocity field with the longer slip history along the CAFZ indicates a constant but low strain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T51G2432K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T51G2432K"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate: Constraints form GPS and Geological Data Mehmet Kokum and Kaj Johnson</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kokum, M.; Johnson, K. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We have combine GPS-derived velocities and geological slip rates to build kinematic block models of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate and surrounding regions relative. We determine long-term velocities of the blocks in this region and slip rates on major <span class="hlt">faults</span>. We have adopted fourteen tectonic blocks: <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>, Eurasia, Nubian, Arabian, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Iran Block, Caucasus, Northern Greece, Marmara, Southwest <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>, Central Greece, Sinai and Southeast Aegean. Initial results show that inversions with GPS data alone give slip rates that are somewhat higher than geological slip rates on North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone. Our model suggests that <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate has anticlockwise movement and the rate of the movement increases in the direction of Hellenic arc that consistent with previous results. The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> has a good paleoseismic earthquake record as and we will examine the influence of postseismic transients from past earthquakes, including the well-known sequence of 20th century earthquakes, on estimates of block motions and <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3002Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3002Z"><span id="translatedtitle">National Seismic Network System of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zunbul, S.; Kadirioğlu, F. T.; Holoğlu, N.; Kartal, R. F.; Kiliç, T.; Yatman, A.; Iravul, Y.; Tüzel, B.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In order to mitigate disaster losses, it is necessary to establish an effective disaster management and risk system. The first step of the management is constituted by preparedness studies before the earthquake (disaster). In order to determinate disaster and risk information it is necessary to have a seismological observation network. Due to the monitoring of the earhquakes in the country-wide scale, recording, evaluation, archieving and to inform to the public autority, the project named "Development of the National Seismic Network Project-USAG" has been started. 6 Three Component Short Period, 63 Broad-band, 13 One Component Short Period stations, 65 Local Network- Broad-band, and 247 accelerometers have been operated in the frame of this project. All of the stations transmit continuously their signal to the ERD (Earthquake Research Department) seismic data center in Ankara. Capability of the network is to determine an earthquake which is minimum local magnitude ML= 2.8 generally, in some region local magnitude threshold is ML=1.5 (the places where the stations are concentrated). Earthquake activity in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and surrounding region has been observed 7 days / 24 hours, in ERD data center in Ankara. After the manuel location of an earthquake, If the magnitude is over 4.0, system sends to SMS message automaticaly to the authorized people and immediately press, public and national-local crisis center, scientific institutions are informed by fax and e-mail. Data exchange has been carried out to EMSC-CSEM. During the İnstallation of the broad-band stations, the seismotectonics of the region has been taken into consideration. Earthqauke record stations are concentrated at the most important <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>; North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System, East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System, Bitlis Overlap Belt and Aegean Graben (or opening) System. After 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes, the number of the seismic stations in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> have been increased each passing year. In this study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194.1335B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194.1335B"><span id="translatedtitle">3-D sediment-basement tomography of the Northern Marmara trough by a dense OBS network at the nodes of a grid of controlled source profiles along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bayrakci, G.; Laigle, M.; Bécel, A.; Hirn, A.; Taymaz, T.; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, S.; Seismarmara Team</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A 3-D tomographic inversion of first arrival times of shot profiles recorded by a dense 2-D OBS network provides an unprecedented constraint on the P-wave velocities heterogeneity of the upper-crustal part of the North Marmara Trough (NMT), over a region of 180 km long by 50 km wide. One of the specific aims of this controlled source tomography is to provide a 3-D initial model for the local earthquake tomography (LET). Hence, in an original way, the controlled source inversion has been performed by using a code dedicated to LET. After several tests to check the results trade-off with the inversion parameters, we build up a 3-D a priori velocity model, in which the sea-bottom topography, the acoustic and the crystalline basements and the Moho interfaces have been considered. The reliability of the obtained features has been checked by checkerboard tests and also by their comparison with the deep-penetration multichannel seismic profiles, and with the wide-angle reflection and refraction modelled profiles. This study provides the first 3-D view of the basement topography along the active North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> beneath the Marmara Sea, even beneath the deepest part of three sedimentary basins of NMT. Clear basement depressions reaching down 6 km depth below the sea level (bsl) have been found beneath these basins. The North Imrali Basin located on the southern continental shelf is observed with a similar sedimentary thickness as its northern neighbours. Between Central and Çinarcik basins, the Central High rises up to 3 km depth below (bsl). Its crest position is offset by 10 km northwestward relatively to the bathymetric crest. On the contrary, Tekirdağ and Central basins appear linked, forming a 60-km-long basement depression. Beneath the bathymetric relief of Western High low velocities are observed down to 6 km depth (bsl) and no basement high have been found. The obtained 3-D Vp heterogeneity model allows the consideration of the 3-D supracrustal heterogeneity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3268K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3268K"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Part2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia <span class="hlt">fault</span> and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880062171&hterms=earthquake+activity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dearthquake%2Bactivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880062171&hterms=earthquake+activity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dearthquake%2Bactivity"><span id="translatedtitle">Strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and its influence on earthquake activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barka, A. A.; Kadinsky-Cade, K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The geometry of Turkish strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> is reviewed, showing that <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry plays an important role in controlling the location of large earthquake rupture segments along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones. It is found that large earthquake ruptures generally do not propagate past individual stepovers that are wider than 5 km or bends that have angles greater than about 30 degrees. It is suggested that certain geometric patterns are responsible for strain accumulation along portions of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. It is shown that <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry plays a role in the characteristics of earthquake behavior and that aftershocks and swarm activity are often associated with releasing areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S41A1897O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S41A1897O"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip History of the 1944 Rupture Segment on North Anatolia <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Near Gerede, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Constraints on Earthquake Recurrence Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okumura, K.; Rockwell, T. K.; Akciz, S. O.; Wechsler, N.; Aksoy, E. M.; Ishimura, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Completeness of historic earthquake catalogs must be examined by geologic records, though the geologic records are not always more complete and precise than historic records. The historic records on large earthquakes from the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> are tested in trenches on the 1944 segment. Previous results indicated 3 historic and 1 geologic events in past 1000 years with characteristic ~ 5 m slip and quasi-periodic recurrence every 200-280 years. The one geologic event without historic information is critical to know the recurrence behavior of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> and catalog evaluation. We excavated seven new trenches at the Ardicli paleoseismic site, located about 15 km east of Gerede, to resolve displacement on a Byzantine-aged channel and the timing of the offsets. The channel appears to have been excavated to drain the site and allow mining of clay for making bricks and tiles: a kiln was found adjacent to the channel. The V-shaped channel thalweg is offset 13.5+1.5 m, and based on many cross-<span class="hlt">fault</span> trenches, represents slip in the past three surface ruptures. Dating of the channel is on pine cones, wood and charcoal that are incorporated into the channel deposits and in the stratified sediments into which the channel is cut: current dating suggests that this channel dates to the 9th-11th century AD. If confirmed with additional dates, the surface rupture that initially offset the channel likely corresponds to the historically-reported earthquake in AD 1035. The surface geomorphology records displacement from two more recent events. The 1944 surface rupture in this region produced 4-5 m of slip based on offset field boundaries and small channels. Older fluvial channels and rills in this area show about 10 m of displacement. We dated the fill from a 10 m offset channel, and place the penultimate event as younger than about AD 1650, which must correspond to the well-documented earthquake in 1668. From our previously reported work, we resolved 22-26 m of displacement for</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024868','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024868"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, H.D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments of the dextral North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct <span class="hlt">fault</span> traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the <span class="hlt">fault</span> steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T42B..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T42B..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">New insights into the northern Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (Karasu Rift and Hatay Graben), Southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulton, S. J.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The Karasu Rift forms the northernmost segment of the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (DSFZ), trending northwards from the Amik Plain. To the south of the Amik Plain, the Gharb Rift forms the southwards continuation of the DSFZ, while to the east the Hatay Graben trends NE-SW from the Amik Plain to the present Mediterranean coast. Recent fieldwork in the area shows a markedly different style of deformation across the Amik Plain. The northern Gharb <span class="hlt">fault</span> is a narrow (<10 km wide) structure that is flanked by numerous <span class="hlt">fault</span> strands, large strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> have negligible vertical offset. Small-scale <span class="hlt">faulting</span> accompanying the large <span class="hlt">faults</span> is uncommon, although the Late Miocene and Pliocene sediments are pervasively fractured, with two sets of joints orientated between 010°-060° and 090°-130°. This may imply that motion along the DSFZ is accommodated along the main <span class="hlt">faults</span> and internally <span class="hlt">fault</span> blocks do not undergo any <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. By contrast, the southern Karasu Rift is 15-20km wide and the bounding <span class="hlt">faults</span> have a significant vertical component of motion. Palaeozoic to Upper Miocene sediments have been exhumed in the footwall and are <span class="hlt">faulted</span> as well as jointed, two main populations of <span class="hlt">faults</span> have been identified, those trending NE-SW (010°- 060°) and those trending ~ N-S (320°-005°), although in some areas there is also a third subset of <span class="hlt">faults</span> that trend E- W. These differences suggest that the structural controls on the two areas differ, implying that there is no continuity of structure across the Amik Plain. The Hatay Graben is also 15-20km wide; the flanks of the graben are dominated by normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> mainly striking parallel to the graben (0-180°). In contrast, the graben axis exhibits numerous strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, trending from 100° - 200°, and normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> striking 040°- 060° and 150°-190° (with a subset striking 110°-130°). Normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> of similar orientation occur in Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments, whereas strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> are mostly identified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T42B..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T42B..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">New insights into the northern Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (Karasu Rift and Hatay Graben), Southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulton, S. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Karasu Rift forms the northernmost segment of the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (DSFZ), trending northwards from the Amik Plain. To the south of the Amik Plain, the Gharb Rift forms the southwards continuation of the DSFZ, while to the east the Hatay Graben trends NE-SW from the Amik Plain to the present Mediterranean coast. Recent fieldwork in the area shows a markedly different style of deformation across the Amik Plain. The northern Gharb <span class="hlt">fault</span> is a narrow (<10 km wide) structure that is flanked by numerous <span class="hlt">fault</span> strands, large strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> have negligible vertical offset. Small-scale <span class="hlt">faulting</span> accompanying the large <span class="hlt">faults</span> is uncommon, although the Late Miocene and Pliocene sediments are pervasively fractured, with two sets of joints orientated between 010°-060° and 090°-130°. This may imply that motion along the DSFZ is accommodated along the main <span class="hlt">faults</span> and internally <span class="hlt">fault</span> blocks do not undergo any <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. By contrast, the southern Karasu Rift is 15-20km wide and the bounding <span class="hlt">faults</span> have a significant vertical component of motion. Palaeozoic to Upper Miocene sediments have been exhumed in the footwall and are <span class="hlt">faulted</span> as well as jointed, two main populations of <span class="hlt">faults</span> have been identified, those trending NE-SW (010°- 060°) and those trending ~ N-S (320°-005°), although in some areas there is also a third subset of <span class="hlt">faults</span> that trend E- W. These differences suggest that the structural controls on the two areas differ, implying that there is no continuity of structure across the Amik Plain. The Hatay Graben is also 15-20km wide; the flanks of the graben are dominated by normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> mainly striking parallel to the graben (0-180°). In contrast, the graben axis exhibits numerous strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, trending from 100° - 200°, and normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> striking 040°- 060° and 150°-190° (with a subset striking 110°-130°). Normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> of similar orientation occur in Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments, whereas strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> are mostly identified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.473..261T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.473..261T"><span id="translatedtitle">From palaeotectonics to neotectonics in the Neotethys realm: The importance of kinematic decoupling and inherited structural grain in SW Anatolia (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>ten Veen, J. H.; Boulton, S. J.; Alçiçek, M. C.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>In order to asses young, i.e. "neotectonic" <span class="hlt">fault</span> kinematics and the relation with plate-tectonic processes in SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> we focused on the questions: 1) what produced the structural grain, i.e. how and when are <span class="hlt">faults</span> generated, 2) what was/is the kinematic behaviour of these <span class="hlt">faults</span> and 3) during which period(s) were these <span class="hlt">faults</span> active? Firstly, the distribution of <span class="hlt">faults</span> has been investigated using a lineament analysis performed on satellite imagery and digital elevation models. We define five main tectonic domains in SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: 1 and 2) the Northern and Southern Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> extensional provinces; 3) the eastern Hellenic arc (including Rhodes Island and the submarine Anaximander mountains); 4) The Lycian Taurides and 5) the western limb of the Isparta Angle. Lineament analysis reveals dominance of three lineament groups, i.e. NNE-, ENE-, and WNW-trending, in all identified domains. Variations in the relative importance of lineament groups exist and are attributed to the specific tectonic evolution of each domain. A synthesis of recently published field data shows that the onset of activity of related <span class="hlt">fault</span> groups is neither synchronous, nor uniform. The "structural grain" for the neotectonic deformation in SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is formed during the last stage of palaeotectonic deformation (stage 1), which is dominated by the onset of the Menderes Massif exhumation along a top-N major detachment, the Datça break-away <span class="hlt">fault</span> [Seyitoğlu, G., Işık, V., and Çemen, İ., 2004. Complete Tertiary exhumation history of the Menderes massif, western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: an alternative working hypothesis. Terra Nova, 16, 358-364.], and related SE-ward sliding of the Lycian Nappes in the footwall of this <span class="hlt">fault</span>. This stage is characterized by spatially variable types of deformation that are delineated by, from NW to SE, the Datça <span class="hlt">Fault</span> around the Menderes-Lycian contact zone and the Lycian frontal thrust zone, respectively. The kinematic decoupling along these structures explains the co</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13C4675Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13C4675Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, across northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G34B..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G34B..07W"><span id="translatedtitle">A map of strain rate for Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, from InSAR and GPS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walters, R. J.; Parsons, B.; Wright, T. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Tectonic deformation in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is dominated by strain localisation on two major strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>; the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) and the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (EAF). Here we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to map interseismic strain across the Eurasian-Arabian plate boundary zone in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, covering both the NAF and the EAF. Most previous InSAR interseismic studies of the NAF have used only descending track data, and in these studies it was therefore necessary to assume purely horizontal, <span class="hlt">fault</span>-parallel motion in modelling deformation. The slip rate of the EAF has been the focus of only a few geological and geodetic studies, and InSAR has not previously been used to measure interseismic strain accumulation across this <span class="hlt">fault</span>. We construct ~400 Envisat interferograms on three descending and two ascending tracks in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, covering both the NAF and EAF. We use these data to generate five line-of-sight velocity maps (ratemaps) using the PiRATE software package (Wang et al., GRL, 2009), which implements a multi-interferogram network approach in order to maximise spatial coverage and correct for orbital errors. We find that the five InSAR ratemaps agree best in overlapping regions when all interferograms are first corrected for atmospheric effects using model outputs from the ERA-Interim global atmospheric model (Jolivet et al., GRL, 2011). From these five overlapping ratemaps, we model elastic strain accumulation for both the NAF and EAF, and calculate slip rates of 20×3 mm/yr and 10×2 mm/yr respectively, with associated locking depths of 16×9 km and 13×4 km. We then use the ratemaps, together with a compilation of GPS data in the area, to calculate a velocity field for Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. We find that the velocity field derived from InSAR and GPS data significantly reduces the uncertainty of east-west velocities when compared with the velocity field derived from GPS data alone, and shows that strain is mainly localised</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...65..136C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...65..136C"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ stress field and mechanics of <span class="hlt">fault</span> reactivation in the Gediz Graben, Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Çiftçi, N. Bozkurt</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The present-day stress field in the Gediz Graben is characterized by vertical maximum and horizontal 105°N-trending intermediate and 015°N-trending minimum principal stress axes. Stress gradients are 23.4, 18.6 and 15.3 MPa/km for maximum, intermediate and minimum stresses, respectively. This stress tensor aligns well with the observed <span class="hlt">fault</span> pattern of the graben and confirms the ˜N-S-oriented extension. The strikedip of optimum planes with highest slip tendency is 105°60°S and 285°60°N and highest dilation tendency is on 105°N-trending vertical fractures. <span class="hlt">Faults</span> in the graben fill have near normal frictional strength with friction coefficient of (μ) 0.48. Pore pressure is generally hydrostatic but local overpressure elevated to pore-fluid factor (λ) of 0.71 was observed in close proximity to the master bounding <span class="hlt">fault</span> of the graben. Data and geological evidence suggest that this <span class="hlt">fault</span> is a major conduit for mantle degassing and plays a significant role in fluid circulation. The hot CO2-rich fluids ascending through the <span class="hlt">fault</span> system could be locally trapped to form overpressured CO2 pockets as observed in the shale-rich Alaşehir Formation which is suitable to form clay smears and clay-matrix <span class="hlt">fault</span> gouges with high seal potential. High temperature and CO2 content is also favorable for healing and sealing of the fractures by carbonate precipitation to re-establish <span class="hlt">fault</span> cohesion. Temporary <span class="hlt">fault</span> seal breaching may occur due to shear reactivation of the <span class="hlt">faults</span> and could relieve excess pore pressure. This may also lead to surface discharge of CO2-rich fluids with hydrocarbons generated in the Alaşehir Formation. Projection of the deduced stress field to 6 km depth suggests that brittle reactivation of the low-angle segment of the master bounding <span class="hlt">fault</span> possibly requires combined operation of overpressuring and <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone weakening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..438B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..438B"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The Sekli thrust <span class="hlt">fault</span> is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan <span class="hlt">fault</span> is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya <span class="hlt">fault</span> is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5223O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5223O"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation Monitoring by Borehole Geodetic Strainmeter in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Ergintav, Semih; Dogru, Asli; Yilmaz, Onur; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirik, Liz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This project is aimed to study three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation through North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System (NAFS) in Marmara Region, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Within this project, two borehole observatories consisting of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, tiltmeters, and pore pressure sensors have been deployed in Istanbul. These installations have been supported by Istanbul Development Agency (ISTKA) (financially) and UNAVCO (technically). Istanbul, located near the most active parts of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, has been monitored by different observing techniques such as seismic networks and continuous/survey-mode GPS networks for decades. Borehole strainmeters are very sensitive to deformation in the range of less than a month and can capture signals with superior precision at local spatial scales. In this project, it will be possible to determine the movements precisely which can not be monitored with available measurement systems in the middle and the eastern part of Marmara Sea through NAFS. Our long term objective is to build a borehole monitoring system in the region. By integrating various data obtained from borehole observatories, we expect to get a better understanding of dynamics in the western NAF. In this presentation, we introduce data and ongoing analysis obtained with strainmeters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.7045A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.7045A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Neogene Sequence Along the Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EFZ), NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Apaydın Poşluk, Elif; Koral, Hayrettin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study aims to explore the stratigraphy and structural features of Neogene units located in the Bozüyük (Bilecik) and Oklubalı (Eskişehir) area in southern Marmara, which lies on the collision zone between the Sakarya and Tauride-Anatolide blocks. Pre-Mesozoic marbles, schists and granodiorites, Mesozoic marbles, schists, ophiolitic units and limestones are basement rocks. Cover units include Neogene age formations. From the bottom to top, they are named the Porsuk Formation and the Akpınar Limestone, the İnönü Volcanics and the Ilıca Formation. Paleontological data which could yield a geological age have not been observed in fluvial sediments of the Porsuk Formation and lacustrine deposits of the Akpınar Limestone. The 40K/40Ar dating analyses on trachy-andesite of the overlying İnönü Volcanics have yielded middle Miocene ages (15.0-15.5 Ma), suggesting the underlying sedimentary units namely the Porsuk Formation and the Akpınar Limestone to be lower-middle Miocene in age. Fossils have been discovered in the lacustrine limestone of the Ilıca Formation in Oklubalı (İnönü-Eskişehir) village, and the age is determined to be lower Pliocene. The Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EFZ) transects the Neogene formations and Quaternary sediments along an E-W'ly orientation. The Ormangüzle, Bozalan, Kandilli and İnönü <span class="hlt">Faults</span> are segments observed from the west to east inside the Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Some of these <span class="hlt">faults</span> have NW-SE and others WNW-ESE orientations. The <span class="hlt">faults</span> in NW-SE directions were effective for the formation of the Neogene sequence based on NE, SE and SW-oriented paleo-flow orientations and abrupt facies changes. The <span class="hlt">faults</span> with WNW-ESE orientations, as noted in the Çukurhisar earthquake of February 2, 1956 (M=6.4), still keep their seismic activity and have a potential of producing earthquakes. Keywords: Neogene sediments, 40K/40Ar dating, the Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, active <span class="hlt">fault</span>, Çukurhisar earthquake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tectp.612..134I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tectp.612..134I"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic burial and exhumation cycles tracked by muscovite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in a strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Idleman, Lauren; Cosca, Michael A.; Heizler, Matthew T.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Muscovite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages from the eastern margin of the Niğde massif in central Anatolia track the timing of initial exhumation, reburial, and final exhumation and cooling of metamorphic rocks deformed within a strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. Although the ages of initial and final cooling were known from previous studies, our new results document the timing of the reheating/reburial event. Muscovite from four of eight gneiss samples have Late Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages that date initial cooling at ~ 75 Ma. The remaining samples have perturbed spectra that climb to Late Cretaceous ages with increasing extraction temperatures during analysis. These perturbed samples are located beneath a <span class="hlt">faulted</span> unconformity overlain by Paleogene sedimentary deposits that were derived in part from the metamorphic rocks, then buried, metamorphosed, and deformed under greenschist facies conditions. Samples close to the <span class="hlt">faulted</span> unconformity are more perturbed than structurally deeper samples. The age of the thermal perturbation is determined at 30 ± 5 Ma using multi-diffusion domain modeling of K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data from two gneiss samples, one located close to the unconformity and one at a structurally deeper level. Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar results and modeled K-feldspar temperature-time histories show that the eastern margin of the Niğde massif experienced a reheating event that peaked at ~ 30 Ma. The thermal pulse has been attributed to reburial associated with transpression in the Ecemiş segment of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone along the eastern margin of the Niğde massif. Activity of this <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone may represent a far-field expression of the onset of collision of Arabia with Eurasia in SE Anatolia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5622K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5622K"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-<span class="hlt">Turkey</span> project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active <span class="hlt">fault</span> studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S21A2156O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S21A2156O"><span id="translatedtitle">Present-day Stress Pattern of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> from Inversion of Updated Earthquake Focal Mechanism Catalogue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özacar, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Active tectonic setting of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is characterized by different stress regimes. In order to analyze present-day tectonic stresses throughout the country, all available earthquake focal mechanisms with updated locations reported by the International Seismological Center (ISC) and national catalogues are compiled between 34° - 43° latitudes and 25° - 46° longitudes. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes with multiple solutions are chosen based on their reliability and consistency with the local tectonic setting. The resultant database which includes 1391 events occurred during the period 1909 - 2010 with magnitudes ranging from 2.0 to 8.0 and depths reaching up to 165 km, constitutes the base information for better active <span class="hlt">fault</span> characterization in seismic hazard analyses. Using this catalogue, the pressure-tension axes, maximum-minimum horizontal stress axes, and tectonic stress regime of each earthquake are determined following the World Stress Map (WSM) project guidelines and analyzed separately for crustal and intermediate depth earthquakes. During stress inversion, crustal events are grouped in 36 and intermediate depth events in 2 distinct regions on the basis of their geographical proximity, kinematic homogeneity and tectonic setting to minimize the amount of heterogeneity and map the variations in the stress field. In the following stage, results of independent stress inversions including orientations of the three principal compressive stresses (σ1 = maximum, σ2 = intermediate, and σ3 = minimum), ratio of stress magnitudes (σ2 - σ3 / σ1 - σ3), and dominant stress regimes, are analyzed along with seismicity recorded by national seismic networks and previously mapped active <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Our results reveal widespread strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in the crust throughout <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> including North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, North Aegean Trough, Pliny-Strabo Trenches, Paphos Transform <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Tuzgölü <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. The regions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024889','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024889"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1999 Izmit, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harris, R.A.; Dolan, J.F.; Hartleb, R.; Day, S.M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Before the August 1999 Izmit (Kocaeli), <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, earthquake, theoretical studies of earthquake ruptures and geological observations had provided estimates of how far an earthquake might jump to get to a neighboring <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Both numerical simulations and geological observations suggested that 5 km might be the upper limit if there were no transfer <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The Izmit earthquake appears to have followed these expectations. It did not jump across any step-over wider than 5 km and was instead stopped by a narrower step-over at its eastern end and possibly by a stress shadow caused by a historic large earthquake at its western end. Our 3D spontaneous rupture simulations of the 1999 Izmit earthquake provide two new insights: (1) the west- to east-striking <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments of this part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> are oriented so as to be low-stress <span class="hlt">faults</span> and (2) the easternmost segment involved in the August 1999 rupture may be dipping. An interesting feature of the Izmit earthquake is that a 5-km-long gap in surface rupture and an adjacent 25° restraining bend in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone did not stop the earthquake. The latter observation is a warning that significant <span class="hlt">fault</span> bends in strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> may not arrest future earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CRGeo.347..170B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CRGeo.347..170B"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of building materials from the aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benjelloun, Yacine; de Sigoyer, Julia; Carlut, Julie; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Dessales, Hélène; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), a city located near the junction between the active Dead Sea <span class="hlt">fault</span> and the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>, has been damaged several times due to historical earthquakes, as mentioned in ancient texts. The traces of repairs are studied in order to identify their potential seismic origin. The deformations of the structure were characterised thanks to a LIDAR scan. Several bricks were sampled on different parts of the city's aqueducts, on the original structure and on repaired parts. The bricks were characterized through a petrological approach. 14C and archaeomagnetism were tested on the bricks in order to constrain the age of their production. The synthesis of all the data showed a local origin for the bricks, and led to the identification of several manufacturing techniques and several types of production, thus, confirming the potentiality of this approach to date and characterise post-seismic repairs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PEPI..160...86B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PEPI..160...86B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation into the regional wrench tectonics of inner East Anatolia (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) using potential field data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Büyüksaraç, Aydın</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The residual aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies of inner East Anatolia, surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, display complexities. Some <span class="hlt">faults</span>, which are known and new lineaments, are drawn from maxspot map derived from the location of the horizontal gradient of gravity anomalies. Tectonic lineaments of inner East Anatolia exhibit similarities to the direction of East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Anticlockwise rotation, approximately -30°, defined from disorientations of aeromagnetic anomalies. The lineaments obtained from maxspots map produced from the gravity anomalies and disoriented aeromagnetic anomalies are in-line with the mobilistic system revealed by the palaeomagnetic data. These Alpine age continental rotations caused westward wrenching of the global lithosphere and led to significant tectonic reactivation and deformations. GPS measurements, current tectonic knowledge and the results of the evaluation of potential field data were combined in a base map to demonstrate similarities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174292','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174292"><span id="translatedtitle">M≥7 Earthquake rupture forecast and time-dependent probability for the Sea of Marmara region, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Murru, Maura; Akinci, Aybige; Falcone, Guiseppe; Pucci, Stefano; Console, Rodolfo; Parsons, Thomas E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We forecast time-independent and time-dependent earthquake ruptures in the Marmara region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> for the next 30 years using a new <span class="hlt">fault</span>-segmentation model. We also augment time-dependent Brownian Passage Time (BPT) probability with static Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFF) from interacting <span class="hlt">faults</span>. We calculate Mw > 6.5 probability from 26 individual <span class="hlt">fault</span> sources in the Marmara region. We also consider a multisegment rupture model that allows higher-magnitude ruptures over some segments of the Northern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NNAF) beneath the Marmara Sea. A total of 10 different Mw=7.0 to Mw=8.0 multisegment ruptures are combined with the other regional <span class="hlt">faults</span> at rates that balance the overall moment accumulation. We use Gaussian random distributions to treat parameter uncertainties (e.g., aperiodicity, maximum expected magnitude, slip rate, and consequently mean recurrence time) of the statistical distributions associated with each <span class="hlt">fault</span> source. We then estimate uncertainties of the 30-year probability values for the next characteristic event obtained from three different models (Poisson, BPT, and BPT+ΔCFF) using a Monte Carlo procedure. The Gerede <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment located at the eastern end of the Marmara region shows the highest 30-yr probability, with a Poisson value of 29%, and a time-dependent interaction probability of 48%. We find an aggregated 30-yr Poisson probability of M >7.3 earthquakes at Istanbul of 35%, which increases to 47% if time dependence and stress transfer are considered. We calculate a 2-fold probability gain (ratio time-dependent to time-independent) on the southern strands of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.2679M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.2679M"><span id="translatedtitle">M ≥ 7 earthquake rupture forecast and time-dependent probability for the sea of Marmara region, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murru, M.; Akinci, A.; Falcone, G.; Pucci, S.; Console, R.; Parsons, T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We forecast time-independent and time-dependent earthquake ruptures in the Marmara region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> for the next 30 years using a new <span class="hlt">fault</span> segmentation model. We also augment time-dependent Brownian passage time (BPT) probability with static Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFF) from interacting <span class="hlt">faults</span>. We calculate Mw > 6.5 probability from 26 individual <span class="hlt">fault</span> sources in the Marmara region. We also consider a multisegment rupture model that allows higher-magnitude ruptures over some segments of the northern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone beneath the Marmara Sea. A total of 10 different Mw = 7.0 to Mw = 8.0 multisegment ruptures are combined with the other regional <span class="hlt">faults</span> at rates that balance the overall moment accumulation. We use Gaussian random distributions to treat parameter uncertainties (e.g., aperiodicity, maximum expected magnitude, slip rate, and consequently mean recurrence time) of the statistical distributions associated with each <span class="hlt">fault</span> source. We then estimate uncertainties of the 30 year probability values for the next characteristic event obtained from three different models (Poisson, BPT, and BPT + ΔCFF) using a Monte Carlo procedure. The Gerede <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment located at the eastern end of the Marmara region shows the highest 30 year probability, with a Poisson value of 29% and a time-dependent interaction probability of 48%. We find an aggregated 30 year Poisson probability of M > 7.3 earthquakes at Istanbul of 35%, which increases to 47% if time dependence and stress transfer are considered. We calculate a twofold probability gain (ratio time dependent to time independent) on the southern strands of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T23C2961P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T23C2961P"><span id="translatedtitle">Zipper <span class="hlt">Faults</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Platt, J. P.; Passchier, C. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Intersecting simultaneously active pairs of <span class="hlt">faults</span> with different orientations and opposing slip sense ("conjugate <span class="hlt">faults</span>") present geometrical and kinematic problems. Such <span class="hlt">faults</span> rarely offset each other, even when they have displacements of many km. A simple solution to the problem is that the two <span class="hlt">faults</span> merge, either zippering up or unzippering, depending on the relationship between the angle of intersection and the slip senses. A widely recognized example of this is the so-called blind front developed in some thrust belts, where a backthrust branches off a decollement surface at depth. The decollement progressively unzippers, so that its hanging wall becomes the hanging wall of the backthrust, and its footwall becomes the footwall of the active decollement. The opposite situation commonly arises in core complexes, where conjugate low-angle normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> merge to form a single detachment; in this case the two <span class="hlt">faults</span> zipper up. Analogous situations may arise for conjugate pairs of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. We present kinematic and geometrical analyses of the Garlock and San Andreas <span class="hlt">faults</span> in California, the Najd <span class="hlt">fault</span> system in Saudi Arabia, the North and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">faults</span>, the Karakoram and Altyn Tagh <span class="hlt">faults</span> in Tibet, and the Tonale and Guidicarie <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the southern Alps, all of which appear to have undergone zippering over distances of several tens to hundreds of km. The zippering process may produce complex and significant patterns of strain and rotation in the surrounding rocks, particularly if the angle between the zippered <span class="hlt">faults</span> is large. A zippering <span class="hlt">fault</span> may be inactive during active movement on the intersecting <span class="hlt">faults</span>, or it may have a slip rate that differs from either <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Intersecting conjugate ductile shear zones behave in the same way on outcrop and micro-scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030791','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030791"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential <span class="hlt">fault</span> movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-<span class="hlt">faulting</span> earthquakes on the <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4919M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4919M"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamics of the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span>: Do active <span class="hlt">faulting</span> and past earthquakes determine the seismic gaps?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meghraoui, Mustapha</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The ~1000-km-long North-South trending Dead Sea transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> (DSF) presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments in Syria and the Ziyaret <span class="hlt">Fault</span> segment in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short term slip rates along the DSF. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated <span class="hlt">faulting</span> events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern <span class="hlt">fault</span> section to 6 mm/yr in the northern <span class="hlt">fault</span> section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these estimates of <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. However, recent GPS results showing ~2.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appears to be quite different than the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern where the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this paper, we discuss the role of the DSF in the regional geodynamics and its implication on the identification of seismic gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23C2296B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23C2296B"><span id="translatedtitle">A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) and (3) a regional regression across southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau also applies to the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau. For the eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...94...50S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...94...50S"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating viscoelastic postseismic deformation due to large earthquakes in East Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sunbul, Fatih; Nalbant, Suleyman S.; Simão, Nuno M.; Steacy, Sandy</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We investigate the postseismic viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and upper mantle due to the 19th and 20th century large earthquakes in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Three possible rheological models are used in the viscoelastic postseismic deformation analysis to assess the extent to which these events influence the velocity fields at GPS sites in the region. Our models show that the postseismic signal currently contributes to the observed deformation in the eastern part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> and northern and middle parts of the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, primarily due to the long-lasting effect of the Ms 7.9 1939 earthquake. None of the postseismic displacement generated by the Ms 7.5 1822 earthquake, which is the earliest and the second largest event in the calculations, exceeds observed error range at the GPS stations. Our results demonstrate that a postseismic signal can be identified in the region and could contribute up to 3-25% of the observed GPS measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4649Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4649Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Source Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes occurred in the Fethiye-Rhodes Basin and Anaximander Seamounts (SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Understanding the active tectonics of southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> involves integrating earthquake source parameters with the regional tectonics. In this respect, seismological studies have played important roles in deciphering tectonic deformations and existing stress accumulations in the region. This study is concerned with the source mechanism parameters and spatio-temporal finite-<span class="hlt">fault</span> slip distributions of recent earthquakes occurred along the Pliny-Strabo Trench (PST), which constitutes the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Region, and along the Fethiye-Burdur <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (SW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>). The study area is located at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs along which the African plate plunges northwards beneath the Aegean Sea and the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block. Bathymetry and topography including large-scale tectonic structures such as the Rhodes Basin, Anaximander Seamounts, the Florence Rise, the Isparta Angle, the Taurus Mountains, and Kyrenia Range also reflect the tectonic complexities in the region. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-<span class="hlt">fault</span> slip distributions of recent Fethiye-Rhodes earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.0) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30 - 90 degrees, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained rupture histories of the earthquakes to determine the <span class="hlt">fault</span> area (<span class="hlt">fault</span> length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. Inversion results exhibit that recent earthquakes show left-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> mechanisms with relatively deeper focal depths (h > 40 km) consistent with tectonic characteristics of the region, for example, the June 10, 2012 Fethiye earthquake (Mw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870011229&hterms=Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Plate%2BTectonics%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870011229&hterms=Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Plate%2BTectonics%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Toksoz, M. Nafi</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The primary effort in this study during the past year has been directed along two separate lines: (1) expanding finite element models to include the entire <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate, the Aegean Sea and the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and (2) investigating the relationship between <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and earthquake activity for the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and similar strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> (e.g., San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span>). Both efforts are designed to provide an improved basis for interpreting the Crustal Dynamics measurements NASA has planned for this region. The initial phases of both investigations have been completed and the results are being prepared for publication. These investigations are described briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8747O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8747O"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Cenozoic stress field distribution in Biga Peninsula, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozden, S.; Bekler, T.; Tutkun, S. Z.; Kurcer, A.; Ates, O.; Bekler, F. N.; Kalafat, D.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Biga Peninsula is a seismically active region both in instrumental and historical period in NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In this part, middle and southern branches of North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> are represented by Etili, Can-Biga, Yenice-Gonen, Manyas-Danisment, Lapseki, Sinekci, Terzialan, Dogruca, Uluabat, Edincik, Pazarkoy-Hamdibey-Kalkim, Edremit, Yigitler, Sarikoy-Inova, Troia and Karabiga <span class="hlt">Faults</span>. All of these <span class="hlt">faults</span> are responsible of the seismic activity in Biga Peninsula. Historical earthquakes happened in 29, 155, 170, 543, 620, 1440, 1737, 1855, 1865 and 1875. Furthermore, as for instrumental period, Saros Gulf-Murefte earthquakes (M:7.3 and M:6.3) in 1912, Erdek Gulf (M:6.4) and Can-Biga (M:6.3) in 1935, Edremit Gulf-Ayvaci k (M:6.8) in 1944, Yenice-Gonen (M:7.2) in 1953, Gonen (M:5.8) in 1964, Edremit-Baki rcay (M:5.5) in 1971, Biga (M:5.8) in 1983, Kusgolu-Manyas (M:5.2) and Bandirma (M:5.0) in 2006. In this study, we determined the Late Cenozoic stress field distribution and present-day tectonic regimes both <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip data (by 253 <span class="hlt">fault</span> planes) and earthquake focal mechanism solutions (by 58 earthquakes) were investigated by the inversion methods. The results indicate that a transtensional stress regime is dominant with a NW-SE to WNW-ESE directed compression (1) and NE-SW to ENE-WSW directed extension (3), which yielded a NE-SW, ENE-WSW and also E-W trending strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> <span class="hlt">faults</span> with a normal component. While a transtensional tectonic regime has an active component in Biga Peninsula, a local and consistent transpressional tectonic regime were determined along an E-W trending narrow zone in the northern part of the Biga Peninsula also. The tectonic regime and stress field is resulted from interactions both continental collision of Eurasian/<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>/Arabian plate in the east and subduction processes (roll back and/or slab-pull) of the African plate along the Cyprus and Hellenic arc in the Mediterranean region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..119M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..119M"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-<span class="hlt">faulting</span> earthquake, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The 23 October 2011 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop <span class="hlt">fault</span> exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van <span class="hlt">fault</span> started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm/yr. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay <span class="hlt">fault</span> initiated several days to weeks after the mainshock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that up-dip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging-wall of the Van <span class="hlt">fault</span> is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface <span class="hlt">faulting</span> based solely on surface folding and <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in regions of reverse <span class="hlt">faulting</span> may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative postseismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of postseismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoJI.206..501M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoJI.206..501M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-<span class="hlt">faulting</span> earthquake, eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop <span class="hlt">fault</span> exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van <span class="hlt">fault</span> started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay <span class="hlt">fault</span> initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van <span class="hlt">fault</span> and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van <span class="hlt">fault</span> is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface <span class="hlt">faulting</span> based solely on surface folding and <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in regions of reverse <span class="hlt">faulting</span> may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of post-seismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8919B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8919B"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elazığ and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone starts at the Karlıova triple junction, where it meets the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-<span class="hlt">fault</span> and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.9396S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.9396S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The stress state of the region around Inönü-Eskişehir. Active <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System; interpretations derived from kinematic analysis accompanied with the TUTGA data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>SaäžLam Selćuk, Azad; Gökten, Ergun; Aktuäž, Bahadır.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Central parts of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block plays role of stress transferring zone between East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> contractional province and Aegean extensional region in the west during its driven towards west along North and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> systems. Because of this, various stress regimes characterize and control the different subregions of the Central Anatolia and this situation is reflected by the seismicity of subregions. However the much of the subregions are characterized by strike-slip <span class="hlt">faultings</span>, the orientations and the trends of the stess tensors are apart from each other. The northwestern part of the Central Anatolia is experienced by İnönü-Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System which creates a complex stress region with the interactions of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System situated in close north. The İnönü-Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System is a WNW-ESE striking right-lateral strike-slip deformational area with a normal component that extends from Uludağ in the west to Sivrihisar in the east and separates the western Anatolia extensional region from the central Anatolia to the northeast. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> system consists of E-W- and NW-SE-trending <span class="hlt">fault</span> sets and segments which have potential to produce earthquakes in a wide range of magnitutes. Different aged and typed strike-slip basins appear around the Inonu-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">fault</span> system. One of them is Mahmudiye-Cifteler-Emirdag basin. The Mahmudiye-Cifteler-Emirdag basin is a <span class="hlt">fault</span>-controlled pull-apart basin in 85 km length and 25 km average width, extending in northwest-southeast trend from Yürükkaracaören village in the North to Emirdag in the South. Because of the recorded GPS data are inadequate for determining characters of the the low velocity deformation in the studied area, the strain rates are computed by using the velocity vectors from TUTGA data. TUTGA network has been established between 1997 and 1999 as covering the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block, and considering the deformation acquired by means of active tectonic movements of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814065O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814065O"><span id="translatedtitle">Uplift of the southern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (CAP): age constraints from the youngest marine deposits capping the central Tauride Units in the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Frezza, Virgilio; Faranda, Costanza; Gliozzi, Elsa; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Radeff, Giuditta; Cosentino, Domenico</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), Neogene marine deposits unconformably overlie the basement units of the Central Taurides. The age of these marine deposits was classically used to constrain the uplift of the CAP southern margin and, according to the age of the marine deposits cropping out in the Ermenek Basin (Başyayla section), a post-Tortonian age was recently suggested for this event. Indeed, the stratigraphy of the subsiding Adana-Cilicia Basin, to the south of the uplifted CAP southern margin, provides evidence of even younger age (end of the Messinian, ca. 5.45 Ma). Moreover, the stratigraphical architecture of the marine deposits capping the CAP southern margin, which shows an unconformity surface within the late Neogene marine succession, was recently used for defining a multi-phased uplift of the CAP southern margin, with a second uplift phase in the early Calabrian (ca. 1.6 Ma). In the Gülnar area, we sampled the highest marine deposits of the upper Neogene succession that unconformably overlie the basement units of the Central Taurides (Gülnar E section). Biostratigraphical investigations carried out on calcareous nannofossils, benthic and planktonic foraminifera, and ostracods reveal that the Gülnar E section represents the youngest marine deposits, as far known, preserved on top of the uplifted CAP southern margin. These deposits, which unconformably overlie the shallow-water limestones of the Mut Formation (middle-late Miocene), consist mainly of clays and calcareous beds showing a shallowing-upward trend. Five sapropel layers characterize the grey clays of the lowermost part of the section, with an additional possible anoxic event between the second and third sapropel. A spectacular thick slumped-horizon qualifies the uppermost portion of the study section. The Calabrian age of the Gülnar E section is well constrained by the occurrence of different marker species from both calcareous nannofossils and foraminifera. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9370D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9370D"><span id="translatedtitle">Aftershock Triggering and Estimation of the Coulomb Stress Changes with Approach of Optimally Oriented <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Planes: Examples of Some Contemporary Earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demirci, Alper</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Coulomb Stress changes due to the some moderate and large earthquakes are shaped according to the orientations of reciever <span class="hlt">faults</span> or weakness zones along the corresponding seismogenic zones. In some cases, the determination of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane parameters (e.g. length, width, strike, dip) of the receiver <span class="hlt">faults</span> are more difficult due to the tectonical complexity of the region. Therefore, in order to understand the aftershock distrubition in such areas Coulomb stress changes can be calculated under the assumption of optimally oriented <span class="hlt">fault</span> planes which increases the spatial correlation between stress changes and aftershock distribution. In the scope of the present sutdy, aftershock distrubiton of some contemporary earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Simav (Mw 5.8), May 2011; Van (Mw 7.0), Oct 2011 and Gulf of Fethiye (Mw 6.1), June 2012) and their coulomb stress changes were correlated. <span class="hlt">Fault</span> plane parameters of these earthquakes which suggest three different types of focal mechanism were calculated using moment tensor inversion technique and aftershock location data in a period of 30 days for each corresponding events were taken from Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalog. The focal mechanisms of the selected earthquakes represent normal, strike slip and thrust <span class="hlt">faulting</span> for the earthquakes of Simav, Gulf of Fethite and Van, respectively. Coulomb Stress Changes were calculated using the open source Matlab based (Coulomb 3.3) codes. The calculations were performed by assuming Poisson's ratio and apparent friction coefficient to be 0.25 and 0.4, respectively. The coulomb stress variations were calculated at fixed depths for each event and aftershocks were selected as ±4 km for corresponding depths. Keeping in mind that the increase of static stress more than 0.5 bar can cause the triggered events in an area, the accordance rates of Coulomb stress changes and aftershock distribution under different tectonic regimes were disscussed. The accordance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003Tectp.374...57G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003Tectp.374...57G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonic deformation in the western sector of tectonic escape in Anatolia: palaeomagnetic study of the Afyon region, central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gürsoy, H.; Piper, J. D. A.; Tatar, O.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Following final closure of the Neotethyan Ocean during the late Miocene, deformation in central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has led to crustal thickening and uplift to produce the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau followed by westward extrusion of terranes by strike-slip. Widespread volcanism has accompanied this latter (neotectonic) phase, and palaeomagnetic study of the volcanism shows a coherent record of differential block rotations, indicating that the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region is not a plate (or 'platelet') sensu stricto but is undergoing distributed internal deformation. To evaluate the scale of neotectonic rotations in the transition zone near the western limit of tectonic escape and the border of the extensional domain in central-west <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, we have studied the palaeomagnetism at 82 sites in volcanic suites distributed along a ˜140-km lineament with north-south trend and ranging in age from 18 to 8 Ma. Comparable deflection of magnetic remanence from the present field direction is identified along the full length of the lineament. A mean clockwise rotation of 12.3±4.2° is determined for this western sector of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> strike-slip province. Since similar rotations are observed in the youngest and oldest units, this cumulative rotation occurred after the late Miocene. When interpreted together with results elsewhere in Anatolia, it is inferred that the rotation is later than crustal thickening and uplift of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau and entirely a facet of the tectonic escape. Inclinations are mostly ˜10° shallower than the predicted Miocene field and are considered to reflect the presence of a persistent inclination anomaly in the Mediterranean region. Larger rotations departing from the regional trend are also observed within the study region, but are confined to the vicinity of major <span class="hlt">faults</span>, notably those bounding the Afyon-Akşehir Graben. The pattern of neotectonic declinations across Anatolia identifies strong anticlockwise rotation in the east near the Arabian pincer with progressive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S23C..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S23C..07W"><span id="translatedtitle">Insurance Applications of Active <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woo, G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p> high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a <span class="hlt">fault</span> map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5218M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5218M"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip deficit and location of seismic gaps along the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toussaint, Renaud; Ferry, Matthieu; Nguema-Edzang, Parfait</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (DSF), a ~ 1000-km-long North-South trending transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments in Syria and the Ziyaret <span class="hlt">Fault</span> segment in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short-term slip rates along the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated <span class="hlt">faulting</span> events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern <span class="hlt">fault</span> section to 6 mm/yr in the northern <span class="hlt">fault</span> section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these long-term estimates of <span class="hlt">fault</span> slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. Indeed, recent GPS results showing 3 +-0.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appear to be in contradiction with the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern with the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this contribution, we present the calculated seismic slip deficit along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments and discuss the identification of seismic gaps and the implication for the seismic hazard assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17..427S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17..427S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts <span class="hlt">faults</span> are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust <span class="hlt">faults</span> reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> parallel to these thrust <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5099Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5099Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake Swarm in Armutlu Peninsula, Eastern Marmara Region, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Serkan Irmak, T.; Woith, Heiko; Cesca, Simone; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Barış, Şerif</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The most active <span class="hlt">fault</span> system of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone and caused two large earthquakes in 1999. These two earthquakes affected the eastern Marmara region destructively. Unbroken part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone crosses north of Armutlu Peninsula on east-west direction. This branch has been also located quite close to Istanbul known as a megacity with its high population, economic and social aspects. A new cluster of microseismic activity occurred in the direct vicinity southeastern of the Yalova Termal area. Activity started on August 2, 2014 with a series of micro events, and then on August 3, 2014 a local magnitude is 4.1 event occurred, more than 1000 in the followed until August 31, 2014. Thus we call this tentatively a swarm-like activity. Therefore, investigation of the micro-earthquake activity of the Armutlu Peninsula has become important to understand the relationship between the occurrence of micro-earthquakes and the tectonic structure of the region. For these reasons, Armutlu Network (ARNET), installed end of 2005 and equipped with currently 27 active seismic stations operating by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Sciences Research Center (ESSRC) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), is a very dense network tool able to record even micro-earthquakes in this region. In the 30 days period of August 02 to 31, 2014 Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) announced 120 local earthquakes ranging magnitudes between 0.7 and 4.1, but ARNET provided more than 1000 earthquakes for analyzes at the same time period. In this study, earthquakes of the swarm area and vicinity regions determined by ARNET were investigated. The focal mechanism of the August 03, 2014 22:22:42 (GMT) earthquake with local magnitude (Ml) 4.0 is obtained by the moment tensor solution. According to the solution, it discriminates a normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> with dextral component. The obtained focal mechanism solution is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.665...92D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.665...92D"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach to obtaining a 3D shear wave velocity model of the crust and upper mantle: An application to eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delph, Jonathan R.; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a new approach to the joint inversion of surface wave dispersion data and receiver functions by utilizing Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking to reconcile the different sampling domains of the two datasets. Utilizing CCP stacking allows us to suppress noise in the data by waveform stacking, and correct for backazimuthal variations and complex crustal structure by mapping receiver functions back to their theoretical location. When applied to eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, this approach leads to a higher resolution image of the subsurface and clearly delineates different tectonic features in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> that were not apparent using other approaches. We observe that the slow seismic velocities near the Karliova Triple Junction correlate to moderate strain rates and high heat flow, which leads to a rheologically weak crust that has allowed for the upward propagation of Miocene and younger volcanics near the triple junction. We find seismically fast, presumably rigid blocks located in the southeastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plate and Arabian Plate are separated by a band of low shear wave velocities that correspond to the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, which is consistent with the presence of fluids in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. We observe that the Arabian Plate has underthrust the Eurasian Plate as far as the northern boundary of the Bitlis Massif, which can explain the high exhumation rates in the Bitlis Massif as a result of slab break-off of the Arabian oceanic lithosphere. We also find a shallow (~ 33 km) anomaly beneath eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> that we interpret as a localized wedge of mantle that was underthrust by a crustal fragment during the collision of Arabia and Eurasia. These observations are possible because of the high-resolution images obtained by combining common conversion point receiver function stacks with ambient noise dispersion data to create a data-driven three-dimensional shear wave velocity model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011NHESS..11.1071T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011NHESS..11.1071T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tosun, H.; Seyrek, E.; Orhan, A.; Savaş, H.; Türköz, M.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>, Kütahya and Simav <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810935M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810935M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> (NAF) in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S51A2393B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S51A2393B"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Seismic Quality Factor (Q) in the Western Izmit Bay, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baydar, B.; Kaslilar, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The seismic Q (quality factor) parameter, the inverse of attenuation, is a petrophysical parameter being more sensitive to lithology and physical properties of the medium (pressure, temperature, saturation to fluid and gas, etc) than the velocity and it can be used as an indicator to determine the physical changes along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones. The multi-channel seismic reflection data of the Western Izmit Bay, collected after 17 August 1999 Izmit Earthquake (Mw=7.6) by Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is used for the Q estimation to investigate the lateral and vertical variations of the Q parameter along the seismic profiles. The Q value is determined from the reflection seismograms, and is an average of the quality factors of the layers passed by the reflected wavelet. Since it is difficult and less reliable to estimate the interval-Q values from surface seismic reflection data, instead of estimating the interval-Q values for lithological correlation, the variations of the Q parameter along and around the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone is investigated. In this study, the constant-Q wavelet modeling method, based on the comparison of the attenuated synthetic wavelets by the observed wavelets, is used. The measure of agreement of the wavelets are provided by two methods: the correlation coefficient and L2 norm. The prominent, isolated reflected waves are determined from the raw shot data of the seismic reflection profile and used for Q estimation. In a former study it is observed that the correlation coefficient method has a limitation for the estimation of the Q value higher than 100. Therefore the Q parameter is estimated by two different methods along four seismic lines and the results are compared. It is seen that the L2 norm method gives more reliable results when compared to the correlation coefficient method. It is also observed that low Q values are observed in shallow sediments and around the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5593O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5593O"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Multi-Parameter Borehole System to Evaluate the Expected Large Earthquake in the Marmara Sea, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Parolai, Stefano; Bouchon, Michel; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Aktar, Mustafa; Meral Ozel, Nurcan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Istanbul-Marmara region of northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> with a population of more than 15 million faces a high probability of being exposed to an hazardous earthquake. The 1999 Izmit earthquake in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is one of the best recorded in the world. For the first time, researchers from CNRS and Kandilli Observatory (Istanbul) observed that the earthquake was preceded by a preparatory phase that lasted 44 minutes before the rupture of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. This phase, which was characterized by a distinctive seismic signal, corresponds to slow slip at depth along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Detecting it in other earthquakes might make it possible to predict some types of earthquakes several tens of minutes before <span class="hlt">fault</span> rupture. In an attempt to understand where and when large earthquakes will occur, and the physics of the source process prior to large earthquakes, we proposed to install multi-parameter borehole instruments in the western part of Marmara Sea in the frame of an EU project called MARSITE. This system and surrounding small-aperture surface array is planned to capable of recording small deformations and tiny seismic signals near the active seismic zone of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> passing through the Marmara Sea, which should enable us to address these issues. The objective is to design and build a multi-parameter borehole system for observing slow deformation, low-frequency noise or tremors, and high frequency signals near the epicentral area of the expected Marmara earthquake. Furthermore, it is also aimed to identify the presence of repeating earthquakes and rupture nucleation, to measure continuously the evolution of the state of stress and stress transfer from east to west with high resolution data, and to estimate the near-surface geology effects masking the source related information. The proposed location of the borehole system is right on the Ganos <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and in a low ambient noise environment in Gazikoy in the western end of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the Marmara Sea, where the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12..459C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12..459C"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of two suspension bridges in Istanbul, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> to near- and far-<span class="hlt">fault</span> ground motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Çavdar, Ö.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to compare the near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> and far-<span class="hlt">fault</span> ground motion effects on the probabilistic sensitivity dynamic responses of two suspension bridges in Istanbul. Two different types of suspension bridges are selected to investigate the near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> (NF) and far-<span class="hlt">fault</span> (FF) ground motion effects on the bridge sensitivity responses. NF and FF strong ground motion records, which have approximately identical peak ground accelerations, of the Kocaeli (1999) earthquake are selected for the analyses. Displacements and internal forces are determined using the probabilistic sensitivity method (PSM), which is one type of stochastic finite element method. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are validated by comparison with results of the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The displacements and internal forces obtained from the analyses of suspension bridges subjected to each <span class="hlt">fault</span> effect are compared with each other. It is clearly seen that there is more seismic demand on displacements and internal forces when suspension bridges are subjected to NF and FF ground motion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAfES.118..137A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAfES.118..137A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Neogene-Quaternary evolution of the Tefenni basin on the Fethiye-Burdur <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, SW Anatolia-<span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aksoy, Rahmi; Aksarı, Süleyman</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Fethiye-Burdur <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone (FBFZ) is a complex belt of major break in the southwestern Anatolia. A number of basins occur within the FBFZ. The Tefenni basin is one of the NE-SW trending basins located in the central part of the FBFZ. The basin is 10-20 km wide and 60 km long. It contains two infills of fluvial, lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits from late Miocene to Recent. The older and folded infill rests on the pre-middle Miocene basement rocks with an angular unconformity and consists of fluvial and lacustrine sediments. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor sediments. The Tefenni basin is controlled by a series of NE-SW trending left lateral oblique-slip normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> along its margins. The Tefenni and Mürseller <span class="hlt">faults</span> bound the northwestern margin of the basin and the Kemer <span class="hlt">fault</span> bounds the southeastern margin of the basin. The basin is also cut by NE-SW striking major and NW-SE, N-S and E-W striking small scale normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Structural analyses in the basin show that NE-SW-trending contraction stress regime ended by Pliocene and was followed by NE-SW-trending extension from Pliocene onward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MarGR..27..225A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MarGR..27..225A"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of tectonic structure of İskenderun Basin (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) using steerable filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albora, A. Muhittin; Sayın, Nurdan; Uçan, Osman N.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of steerable filters as a method of delineating the boundaries of subsurface geological structures. Steerable filters, generally used for edge detection on 2-D images, have the properties of band pass filters with certain directions and are applied to many image processing problems. We first tested the method on synthetic data and then applied it to the aeromagnetic data of İskenderun Basin and adjacent areas. İskenderun Basin is located in the Northeastern Mediterranean where African-Arabian and <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plates are actively interacting. The basin fill records a complex tectonic evolution since the Early Miocene, involving ophiolite emplacement, diachronous collision of Eurasian and Arabian plates and subsequent tectonic escape related structures and associated basin formation. Geophysical investigations of the tectonic framework of İskenderun Basin of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> provide important insights on the regional tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. In this study we show geological structures, which are responsible for the magnetic anomalies in İskenderun Basin and enlighten the structural setting of the Northeastern Mediterranean triple junction using steerable filters. We obtained a magnetic anomaly map of the region from the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration as raw data and then evaluated this by steerable filters. We determined the magnetic anomaly boundaries for İskenderun Basin by using various types of steerable filters and correlated these to drilling data and seismic profiles from the Turkish Petroleum Corporation. The result of the steerable filter analysis was a clarified aeromagnetic anomaly map of İskenderun Basin. The tectonic structure of İskenderun Basin is divided into regions by an N-S trending oblique-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> defined by the steerable filter outputs. We propose a new tectonic structure model of İskenderun Basin and modify the direction of the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EP%26S...68..132P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EP%26S...68..132P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Marmara region (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) and the surrounding area from local earthquake tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polat, Gulten; Özel, Nurcan Meral; Koulakov, Ivan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigated the crustal structure beneath the Marmara region and the surrounding area in the western part of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. These areas have high seismicity and are of critical significance to earthquake hazards. The study was based on travel-time tomography using local moderate and micro-earthquakes occurring in the study area recorded by the Multi-Disciplinary Earthquake Research in High Risk Regions of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> project and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute. We selected 2131 earthquakes and a total of 92,858 arrival times, consisting of 50,044 P-wave and 42,814 S-wave arrival times. We present detailed crustal structure down to 50 km depth beneath the Marmara region for P- and S-wave velocities using the LOTOS code based on iterative inversion. We used the distributions of the resulting seismic parameters ( Vp, Vs) to pick out significant geodynamical features. The high-velocity anomalies correlate well with fracturing segments of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. High seismicity is mostly concentrated in these segments. In particular, low velocities were observed beneath the central Marmara Sea at 5 km depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850008940&hterms=gulen&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgulen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850008940&hterms=gulen&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgulen"><span id="translatedtitle">Delineation of major geologic structures in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> using SIR-B data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Toksoz, M. N.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P.; Gulen, L.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of well mapped segments of major <span class="hlt">faults</span>, such as the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (EAF) will be studied to identify the prominent signatures that characterize the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones for those specific regions. The information will be used to delineate the unmapped <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones in areas with similar geological and geomorphological properties. The data obtained from SIR-B images will be compared and correlated with the LANDSAT thematic mapper and seismicity alignments based on well constrained earthquake epicenters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1876Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1876Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, revealed by ocean bottom observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doǧan; Pinar, Ali; Gürbüz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, across northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.7) and the Duzce (Ms=7.4) earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (Mw=6.9), the only un-ruptured segments left behind the 1600 km long NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To consider the earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation, the detailed information about <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea is very important. Thus, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations to estimate the <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry from microearthquake distribution. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18th of June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. We first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data, i.e., using all the temporary OBS stations. Although there are only 3 earthquakes listed on the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalogue, we could identify 41 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and two-third of them located within the OBS network. We found the earthquake cluster along the main NAF and whose depth interval is 12</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004AcSpA..60.1359U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004AcSpA..60.1359U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">ESR studies of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> gypsum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulusoy, Ülkü</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to date the formation and most recent recrystallization of three types of gypsum samples (massive, bedded and fracture filling gypsum) from the Sakarya Formation at Eskişehir in the middle of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The ESR spectra had the signals of Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ in addition to those of the G1 and G2 sensitive centers ( g=2.002 and 2.008) to artificial γ-irradiation. ESR intensities of G1 and G2 were enhanced by γ-ray irradiation to give equivalent doses DE for each sample. The ESR ages derived from the annual doses of 238U, 232Th and 40K contents of the samples determined by thermal neutron activation analysis (TNAA) were between 43±18 ka (massive gypsum) and 1100±466 ka (bedded gypsum) as minimal and maximal values. The ages fall into the upper Miocene-Pliocene Epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the stratigraphy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17...62M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17...62M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal waters in Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: A link to fluid-mineral equilibria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutlu, Halim; Gülec, Nilgün; Hilton, David R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The complex magmato-tectonic setting of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has resulted in the occurrence of numerous geothermal fields with distinct chemical and isotopic fluid compositions. We evaluate the data on these fluids in terms of water-rock interaction, mineral equilibrium conditions and reservoir temperatures of each geothermal field. The Ca-HCO3 rich nature of most waters is ascribed to derivation from carbonate-type reservoir rocks. SO4-type waters are found in areas where the reservoir is partly comprised of evaporite units. Na-Cl type waters are characteristic for the coastal areas of west Anatolia. Chemical geothermometer applications estimate average reservoir temperatures of 180 °C for the western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region, 120 °C for the Balıkesir region, 130 °C for the eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region, 140 °C for the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone and 70 °C for the Eskişehir region. For most of the waters, chalcedony controls the silica solubility and the majority of waters are equilibrated with calcite and chalcedony minerals. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (-13.5 to -4 permil (VSMOW) and -95.4 to -23 permil (VSMOW), respectively) are generally conformable with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL); however, stable isotope systematics of geothermal waters close to the coast are consistent with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL). Carbon and sulfur isotope compositions (δ13C (VPDB): -17.7 to +5.6 permil and δ34S (VCDT): -5.5 to +45.7 permil) suggest marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units as the main source of dissolved carbon and sulfate in the waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933707"><span id="translatedtitle">[Ankyloglossia in an <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Shepherd dog].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grundmann, S; Hofmann, A</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Ankyloglossia, commonknown as tongue-tie, is a rare congenital oral anomaly in dogs. A complete attachment of the lingual frenulum to the floor of the oral cavity leads to limited mobility of the tongue including problems during eating and swallowing. In humans ankyloglossia is a common anomaly in newborn infants. In our report a 5-month old <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Shepherd dog was surgically treated and full function of the tongue could be achieved with a horizontal-to-vertical frenuloplasty. PMID:16933707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......438T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......438T"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative geomorphology of the eastern Marmara region, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tari, U.; Tuysuz, O.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, one of the longest and most active strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> of the world, is an important feature controlling the recent tectonic and morphological development of the northern part of Asia Minor. Along this 1500 km-long active dextral zone, best examples of pull-apart basins, push-up structures, and other strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span>-related morphological features developed under the control of geometric and structural orientation of <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> splays into three main branches in the Northwestern Anatolia. According to GPS measurements, the northern branch is the most active one among the others. The Sea of Marmara and the Gulf of Izmit forming its eastern tip, were developed as pull-apart basins on this branch from Late Pliocene onward. The morphology and bathymetry of the region bear traces of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> and <span class="hlt">fault</span>-controlled morphological features. The morphometry of a landscape can be described as a function of the changes in elevation. Digital elevation models, and recently developed computer programs allow detailed analysis. In this study we evaluated morphometric analysis of an area between Gulf of Izmit and Adapazari pull-apart basin on the northern branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The area contains three east-west trending belts. The northern belt, the Kocaeli Peninsula, developed as a peneplain during the Late Miocene. The average height of this peneplain is about 150-200 m. The peneplain surface is delimited to the south by a degraded <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface trending parallel to the recently active branch of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The peneplain has an asymmetric nature indicating a northward tilting, most probably due to the development of this <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The valleys facing to the Gulf of Izmit are mainly short and immature, and degraded the <span class="hlt">fault</span> surfaces. In contrast, the valleys facing to the Black Sea to the north are long, asymmetric and deeply incised into the peneplain. The southern belt, the Samanli Mountains which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7566H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7566H"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH23B..07K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH23B..07K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active <span class="hlt">fault</span> studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMED42A1198H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMED42A1198H"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation Between Radon Outgassing and Seismic Activity Along the Hayward <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Near Berkeley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holtmann-Rice, D.; Cuff, K.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Results from previous studies indicate that radon concentration values are significantly higher over selected sections of the Hayward <span class="hlt">fault</span> than adjacent areas. This phenomenon is believed to be attributed to the presence of abundant fractures in rock associated with the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, which act as pathways for radon as it migrates from depth towards the earth?s surface. In an attempt to determine whether or not a relationship exists between seismicity along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the production of microfractures, and emanation of radon, a radon outgassing monitoring study was conducted along an active section of the Hayward <span class="hlt">fault</span> in Berkeley, California. The study was carried out by using an alphaMETER 611, which is a device capable of accurately measuring radon concentrations every 15 minutes. The alphaMETER was placed at the bottom of a sealed one meter deep well, in close proximity to a section of the Hayward <span class="hlt">fault</span> located along the northwestern face of the Berkeley Hills. Once per week for several months data collected by the alphaMETER was downloaded into a laptop computer. Data from the alphaMETER was then compared with seismic data recorded by local seismometers to see if any correlation existed. A general correlation between variation in radon concentration and the occurrence of small earthquakes was found. Significant peaks in radon concentration were observed within an approximately one week period before the occurrence of small earthquakes. Concentration values then decreased dramatically just prior to and during periods when the earthquakes occurred. Such correlation is very similar to that recently observed in association with a magnitude five earthquake along the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, reported by geoscientists working in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> using similar instrumentation (Inan, 2003, personal communication). The most plausible explanation for the observed correlation is as follows: 1) prior to a given earthquake, stress build up within a particular <span class="hlt">fault</span> region leads to the formation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411778B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411778B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle delamination as the cause for the Miocene-Recent evolution of the Central and Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartol, J.; Govers, R.; Wortel, M. J. R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Stratigraphic and geomorphological data of the southern margin of Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> suggest that the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau underwent regional uplift to its present day elevation since the Late Miocene (8-5.45Ma). This uplift was preceded by the onset of widespread volcanism in central Anatolia (13Ma-8Ma). There is no evidence for crustal shortening and sub-crustal seismic velocities beneath Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau are low. This suggests that mantle processes may be responsible and it is the aim of our TOPOEUROPE/VAMP project is to identify the cause of the regional uplift. Seismic tomographical results for the top of the lower mantle suggest a single slab from the Aegean to Bitlis in the past. Based on the upper mantle tomography, this slab became fragmented later. These constraints were used to add evolving plate boundaries to published Middle East Basins Evolution (MEBE) maps. In the reconstruction, the laterally continuous Northern Neotethys slab broke west of the Kisehir block into two slab fragments; an Aegean slab and a Central-East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> slab. In Eastern Anatolia, roll-back of the Central-East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> slab and delamination of the lithospheric mantle has been proposed to be the cause of uplift and widespread volcanism. Here, we propose that this process also took place beneath the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and that both plateaus genetically form a single "<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau". If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a 3D thermal-flexural model and accounting for changes in the effective elastic thickness due to thermal evolution, we aim to quantify the possible imprints of delamination in the geological record of the Central and Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau. Our model results show that a combination of a single delamination event and minor crustal thickening (1-5km) in Eastern Anatolia can explain the present day elevation of both plateaus. Delamination can also explain the observed anomalously high surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T41C2910F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T41C2910F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving strain from crystallographic preferred orientation for a ductile shear zone in north western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farrell, K.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Wallis, D.; Phillips, R. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the behaviour of active continental-scale <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones at depth, and in particular how displacements observed at the Earth's surface are accommodated through the crust, is crucial to improving understanding of the earthquake cycle. This behaviour can be inferred by study of exhumed portions of ductile shear zones using methods such as recording strain profile(s) across the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. However, due to the nature of mid-crustal rocks, strain markers tend to be rare and/or discontinuously distributed. The intensity (I) of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of deformed minerals provides a proxy for strain that is continuous across <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones. CPO are collected via electron back scattered diffraction in the scanning electron microscope. The strength of the CPO can be quantified using eigenvalue-based intensity parameters. Calibration of intensity with strain is achieved via comparison with visco-plastic self-consistency models of CPO evolution, although the temperature-dependent critical resolved shear stresses of potential crystal slip systems must be known. As an example, we consider the dextral strike-slip Eskişehir shear zone, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, which was active during the Oligocene and accommodated ~100km of displacement, including a component of late oblique-normal slip. An exhumed mid-crustal section of this <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone is exposed in the Uludağ Massif, comprising of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Uludağ Group, intruded by the Central and South Uludağ granites. Sample transects focussed on the pure calcic marbles that dominate the stratigraphy. Fortunately, the availability of experimental data for calcite crystal slip behaviour at different temperatures makes the application of the CPO intensity strain proxy method relatively straightforward. The Uludağ Massif and Eskişehir shear zone provide a field based analogue for the ductile shear zone beneath the currently active North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The results of our CPO intensity-based strain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6520K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6520K"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic rupture process of the great 1668 <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kase, Yuko; Kondo, Hisao; Emre, Ömer</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> system (NAFS) gives us the well-preserved evidences of multi-segment earthquakes. During the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, surface ruptures extended along the Resadiye segment. The surface ruptures during the 1942 earthquake appeared on two segments, the eastern Niksar and the western Erbaa segments which are to the west of the Resadiye segment. On the other hand, paleoseismological evidences show that the 1668 earthquake was a single multi-segment earthquake including the Resadiye, Niksar, and Erbaa segments (Kondo et al., 2009). The <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry, however, does not make us imagine a single multi-segment occurring. The distance along strike and step-over width between the Resadiye and Niksar segments is 17 and 11 km, respectively. This <span class="hlt">fault</span> discontinuity is much larger than the previously-known threshold of a multi-segment rupture, 5 km, shown in observations of historical earthquakes (Matsuda, 1990; Wesnousky, 2006) and numerical studies (Harris and Day, 1999; Kase and Kuge, 2001). In this study, we construct dynamic rupture models for the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> earthquakes based on seismological data of the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes and the present stress condition, and then we investigate possibility of a single multi-segment earthquake in agreement with the paleoseismological data of the 1668 earthquake. A <span class="hlt">fault</span> model is assumed, based on the surface traces, hypocenter distribution and source mechanisms of the 20th century earthquakes on the NAFS. Using the source mechanism of the 1939 earthquake (McKenzie, 1972) and the stress inversion results along the NAFS (Bellier et al., 1997; Fuenzalida et al., 1997), we adopt a regional stress field that is resolved onto all <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments. We perform preliminary simulations to determine a hydrostatic stress condition and coefficient of friction producing surface slip distribution consistent with the observed surface slips during the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes (Barka, 1996; Emre et al., 2009; Kondo et</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050236237&hterms=mechanics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmechanics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050236237&hterms=mechanics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmechanics"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Geodetic Constraints On Earthquake Processes: Implications of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes for <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Mechanics and Seismic Hazards on the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reilinger, Robert</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Our principal activities during the initial phase of this project include: 1) Continued monitoring of postseismic deformation for the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> earthquakes from repeated GPS survey measurements and expansion of the Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET), 2) Establishing three North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> crossing profiles (10 sitedprofile) at locations that experienced major surface-<span class="hlt">fault</span> earthquakes at different times in the past to examine strain accumulation as a function of time in the earthquake cycle (2004), 3) Repeat observations of selected sites in the <span class="hlt">fault</span>-crossing profiles (2005), 4) Repeat surveys of the Marmara GPS network to continue to monitor postseismic deformation, 5) Refining block models for the Marmara Sea seismic gap area to better understand earthquake hazards in the Greater Istanbul area, 6) Continuing development of models for afterslip and distributed viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake cycle. We are keeping close contact with MIT colleagues (Brad Hager, and Eric Hetland) who are developing models for S. California and for the earthquake cycle in general (Hetland, 2006). In addition, our Turkish partners at the Marmara Research Center have undertaken repeat, micro-gravity measurements at the MAGNET sites and have provided us estimates of gravity change during the period 2003 - 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6762888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6762888"><span id="translatedtitle">Basins and thrust belts in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Tectonic history and hydrocarbons potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bird, P.R.; Johns, C.C.; Clark-Lowes, D.D. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> consists of a number of tectonic terranes joined together by a network of suture zones. The terranes originated as microcontinental plates that rifted away from the continental margins forming the northern and southern boundaries of the Tethyan sea. These micro-continents were united by a series of collisions beginning in the Late Triassic and ending in the Miocene, with the final closure of the Tethyan sea. The sedimentary cover of the microcontinents consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic passive margin and rift basin sequences containing numerous potential source and reservoir intervals. Most of these sequences show affinities with Gondwanaland, with the notable exception of the Istanbul nappe, which is strongly Laurasian in character. Forearc basin sequences were also deposited on the margins of the microcontinents during early Tertiary plate convergence. Ensuing continental collisions resulted in compressional deformation of sedimentary cover sequences. The intensity of deformation ranged from basin inversion producing numerous potential hydrocarbon traps, to large-scale overthrusting. Following continental suturing, continued compression in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has been accommodated since the Miocene by westward escape of continental lithosphere between the North and South <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> transform <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Neotectonic pull-apart basins formed in response to these movements, accumulating large thicknesses of Miocene-Pliocene carbonates and clastic sediments. Potential reservoirs in the Neotectonic basins may be sourced either in situ or from underlying Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks that remain within the hydrocarbon generating window today.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5145B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5145B"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining seismic velocity features combining short and long period signals: Test ground is <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulut, Fatih; Eken, Tuna; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Verifying the seismic velocity models requires combining different techniques to obtain more reliable basement for further steps, e.g., earthquake location, moment tensor analysis etc. Especially, 2D/3D heterogeneities and velocity contrasts are the key unknowns to be addressed in order to achieve the best-possible setup for further analysis. In that frame, short and long period signals are combined to better constrain the unusual velocity features. Our approach employs P-wave particle motions and receiver functions to discriminate the velocity structure of different crustal blocks. P-wave particle motions are basically used to differentiate direction of incoming waves, which is an indirect measure of potential velocity contrast/heterogeneity in horizontal axis. In the meanwhile, P-wave receiver functions are used to estimate frequency dependent S-wave velocities at different crustal spots. <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, seismically the most active region in Europe, is selected to be the test ground for joint analysis scheme. The region has been continuously monitored by AFAD (Prime Ministry, Ankara) and Kandilli Observatory (Boğaziçi Üniversity, Istanbul). Furthermore, some particular regions have been densely monitored for a couple of years by temporary seismic networks, e.g., the IRIS network deployed in the frame of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> experiment. We integrated all available data to reach to the highest possible coverage for selected test sites. The results are jointly interpreted to refine existing crustal models in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005408','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005408"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of Regional Seismic Stations in the Middle East with Shots in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toksoz, M N; Kuleli, S; Gurbuz, C; Kalafat, D; Nekler, T; Zor, K; Yilmazer, M; Ogutcu, Z; Schultz, C A; Harris, D B</p> <p>2003-07-21</p> <p>The objective of this project is to calibrate regional travel-times and propagation characteristics of seismic waves in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and surrounding areas in the Middle East in order to enhance detection and location capabilities in the region. Important data for the project will be obtained by large calibration shots in central and eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The first, a two-ton shot, was fired in boreholes near Keskin in central Anatolia on 23 November 2002. The explosives were placed in 14 holes, each 80 m deep, arranged in concentric circular arrays. Ninety temporary seismic stations were deployed within a 300 km radius around the shot. The permanent stations of the Turkish National Seismic Network provided a good azimuthal coverage as well as three radial traverses. Most stations within a radius of 200 km recorded the shot. Travel-time data have been analyzed to obtain a detailed crustal model under the shot and along the profiles. The model gives a 35 km thick crust, characterized by two layers with velocities of 5.0 and 6.4 km/s. The P{sub n} velocity was found to be 7.8 km/s. The crustal thickness decreases to the north where the profile crosses the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. There is a slight increase in crustal velocities, but no change in crustal thickness to the west. Data analysis effort is continuing to refine the regional velocity models and to obtain station corrections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616172K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616172K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Near Real-Time Earthquake Exposure and Damage Assessment: An Example from <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamer, Yavor; Çomoǧlu, Mustafa; Erdik, Mustafa</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Confined by infamous strike-slip North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> from the north and by the Hellenic subduction trench from the south <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is one of the most seismically active countries in Europe. Due this increased exposure and the fragility of the building stock <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is among the top countries exposed to earthquake hazard in terms of mortality and economic losses. In this study we focus recent and ongoing efforts to mitigate the earthquake risk in near real-time. We present actual results of recent earthquakes, such as the M6 event off-shore Antalya which occurred on 28 December 2013. Starting at the moment of detection, we obtain a preliminary ground motion intensity distribution based on epicenter and magnitude. Our real-time application is further enhanced by the integration of the SeisComp3 ground motion parameter estimation tool with the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER). SeisComp3 provides the online station parameters which are then automatically incorporated into the ShakeMaps produced by ELER. The resulting ground motion distributions are used together with the building inventory to calculate expected number of buildings in various damage states. All these analysis are conducted in an automated fashion and are communicated within a few minutes of a triggering event. In our efforts to disseminate earthquake information to the general public we make extensive use of social networks such as Tweeter and collaborate with mobile phone operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OGeo....6..403C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OGeo....6..403C"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of earthquake hazard by hidden Markov model (around Bilecik, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Can, Ceren; Ergun, Gul; Gokceoglu, Candan</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Earthquakes are one of the most important natural hazards to be evaluated carefully in engineering projects, due to the severely damaging effects on human-life and human-made structures. The hazard of an earthquake is defined by several approaches and consequently earthquake parameters such as peak ground acceleration occurring on the focused area can be determined. In an earthquake prone area, the identification of the seismicity patterns is an important task to assess the seismic activities and evaluate the risk of damage and loss along with an earthquake occurrence. As a powerful and flexible framework to characterize the temporal seismicity changes and reveal unexpected patterns, Poisson hidden Markov model provides a better understanding of the nature of earthquakes. In this paper, Poisson hidden Markov model is used to predict the earthquake hazard in Bilecik (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) as a result of its important geographic location. Bilecik is in close proximity to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone and situated between Ankara and Istanbul, the two biggest cites of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Consequently, there are major highways, railroads and many engineering structures are being constructed in this area. The annual frequencies of earthquakes occurred within a radius of 100 km area centered on Bilecik, from January 1900 to December 2012, with magnitudes (M) at least 4.0 are modeled by using Poisson-HMM. The hazards for the next 35 years from 2013 to 2047 around the area are obtained from the model by forecasting the annual frequencies of M ≥ 4 earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CEJG....6..403C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CEJG....6..403C"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of earthquake hazard by hidden Markov model (around Bilecik, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Can, Ceren Eda; Ergun, Gul; Gokceoglu, Candan</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Earthquakes are one of the most important natural hazards to be evaluated carefully in engineering projects, due to the severely damaging effects on human-life and human-made structures. The hazard of an earthquake is defined by several approaches and consequently earthquake parameters such as peak ground acceleration occurring on the focused area can be determined. In an earthquake prone area, the identification of the seismicity patterns is an important task to assess the seismic activities and evaluate the risk of damage and loss along with an earthquake occurrence. As a powerful and flexible framework to characterize the temporal seismicity changes and reveal unexpected patterns, Poisson hidden Markov model provides a better understanding of the nature of earthquakes. In this paper, Poisson hidden Markov model is used to predict the earthquake hazard in Bilecik (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) as a result of its important geographic location. Bilecik is in close proximity to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone and situated between Ankara and Istanbul, the two biggest cites of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Consequently, there are major highways, railroads and many engineering structures are being constructed in this area. The annual frequencies of earthquakes occurred within a radius of 100 km area centered on Bilecik, from January 1900 to December 2012, with magnitudes ( M) at least 4.0 are modeled by using Poisson-HMM. The hazards for the next 35 years from 2013 to 2047 around the area are obtained from the model by forecasting the annual frequencies of M ≥ 4 earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4457M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4457M"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable behaviour of the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> along the southern Arava segment from GPS measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masson, Frédéric; Hamiel, Yariv; Agnon, Amotz; Klinger, Yann; Deprez, Aline</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Tectonic deformation in the Levant is primarily related to the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (DSF), about 1000 km long continental transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> forming the tectonic boundary between the Arabian plate and the Sinai sub-plate in the eastern Mediterranean region. The DSF is generally divided into 3 sections: the southern section spanning from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Jordan Valley, the central section that includes the Mount Lebanon and Anti Lebanon ranges, and the northern section that goes parallel to the eastern side of the Syrian Coastal Mountains and joins with the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The main movement along the DSF is left-lateral. The velocity is varying from a rate of ~5 mm/year along the southern and central segments to a rate of ~2 mm/yr along the northern segment (north of 35°N). An average locking depth of 11 ± 9 km is proposed along the southernmost segment (Le Béon et al., 2008; al Tarazi et al., 2011; Sadeh et al., 2012) while this locking depth is very difficult to estimate along the northernmost segment (Alchalbi et al., 2010). In this study we focus on the Wadi Arava <span class="hlt">fault</span>, which is located in the southern section of the DSF, between the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea. We propose a reassessment of the slip rate and locking depth along the southern DSF from the Dead Sea to the Aqaba Gulf. Thanks to a third measurement of a geodetic network installed in 1999 and covering both sides of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>, we are able to propose a finer velocity description than proposed in the previous studies which points out some complexities along the Wadi Arava <span class="hlt">fault</span> not previously taken into account. Moreover our geodetic velocity field allows for the first time an unambiguous determination of the locking depth of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845856"><span id="translatedtitle">INVESTIGATION OF STAT5A, FSHR AND LHR GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN TURKISH INDIGENOUS CATTLE BREEDS (EAST ANATOLLAN RED, SOUTH <span class="hlt">ANATOLIAN</span> RED, TURKISH GREY, <span class="hlt">ANATOLIAN</span> BLACK AND ZAVOT).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arslan, K; Akyüz, B; Agaoglu, O Korkmaz</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to examine the allelic and genotypic profiles of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5A (STAT5A), Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptors (FSHR), and Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (LHR) genes in five indigenous cattle breeds in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. For this purpose, a total of 329 cattle from East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Red (EAR), South <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Red (SAR), Turkish Grey (TG), <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Black (AB), and Zavot were genotyped using by PCR-RFLP method. A215 bp fragment of STAT5A, a 306bp fragment of FSHR, and a 303 bp fragment of LHR were amplified and digested with AvaI, AluI, and HhaI restriction enzymes, respectively. In this study two types of alleles C and Tfor STAT5A, C and G for FSHR and C and T for LHR were observed. The highest frequencies for STAT5A-C and STAT5A-T alleles were estimated for the Zavot and TG breeds (0.86) and the EAR breed (0.29), respectively. The highest frequency for FSHR-C and FSHR-G alleles was estimated for the Zavot breed (0.72) and the AB and SARbreeds (0.35), respectively. The highest frequency for LHR-C and LHR-T alleles was estimated for the EAR breed (0.75) and the AB breed (0.39), respectively. According to FT values, a small level of genetic diversity was found among five cattle breeds. The F(ST) value was calculated 0.019 between AB and Zavot. And, the value was significant (p < 0.001), while the other F(ST) values were not significant. According to the genetic distance values (Nei), the highest genetic distance was found between AB and TG while the smallest genetic distance was found between Zavot and TG. The chi-square test showed that the TG and Zavot breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for STAT5A gene; the EAR, SAR, TG, and Zavot breeds were in HWE for FSHR gene and the EAR, SAR, and TG breeds were in HWE for LHR gene. In conclusion, further investigation is required to determine the correlation of the FSHR and LHR genes with early puberty for the improvement of sexual precocity, and it is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..828M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..828M"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic accumulation across the Khoy <span class="hlt">fault</span> from InSAR measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohseni Aref, Mohammad; Çakir, Ziyadin; Karimzadeh, Sadra</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Khoy <span class="hlt">fault</span> is part of a long right lateral strike slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> that runs in NW-SE direction between Çaldıran in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Tabriz in northwest of Iran within the Turkish-Iranian plateau that accommodates the plate convergence between Eurasia and Arabia. It connects the North Tabriz <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NTF) with the Gailatu-Siah Chesmeh and Çaldiran <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and thus is named here the Çaldiran-Tabriz <span class="hlt">fault</span> (CTF). The CTF, unlike the North and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">faults</span> to the west, does not have a clear morphological expression in the topography along much of it length. Active <span class="hlt">fault</span> maps show a distributed deformation zone. Nevertheless, it has produced several devastating large earthquakes both recently (e.g., Ms 7.3, 1976 Çaldiran earthquake), and historical times (e.g., Ms > 7, 1721 and 1780 Tabriz earthquakes).The recent double earthquakes (Mw 6.5 and 6.2) of August 11th, 2012 in Ahar-Varzaghan area 40-45 km north of the NTF manifest the seismic activity of the region. Recent geodetic studies using GPS InSAR suggest 9±2 mm/yr of slip rate for the NTF, which is significantly higher than geologically determined slip rates (e.g., 2-4 mm/yr). In this study, we use InSAR data acquired from 2003 and 2010 on a descending orbit track of ENVISAT satellite, across the Khoy <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, which is the north-western continuation of the NTF north of the Urmia Lake. We use the Stanford method of persistent scatter interferometry (StaMPS) technique to overcome the decorelation problem with time and over large areas. The line of sight velocity field we obtained clearly delineates the shear zone that trends NW-SW aligning with the NTF. We project the mean line of sigh velocity field derived by InSAR time series onto <span class="hlt">fault</span> parallel horizontal velocity field, assumed that vertical offset rate of the Khoy <span class="hlt">fault</span> is negligible. Single screw dislocation models in elastic half-space model were applied along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone to estimate slip rate, locking depth and <span class="hlt">fault</span> location within 95</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20947288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20947288"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of pyrolysis kinetics of humic acids from low rank <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> coal by thermal analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tonbul, Y.; Erdogan, S.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of humic acid samples from low rank <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> (east of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, Bingol) coal were investigated under atmospheric pressure. The samples were subjected for the decomposition of organic matter ambient to 800{sup o} C at four different heating rates (5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees C min{sup -1}). The humic acid samples were started at decomposition between 170 - 206{sup o}C and amount of residues varied 55-60% according to heating rate. Each of samples showed a single step mass loss. TG/DTG data of samples were analyzed to determine activation energy values by Coats and Redfern method and Arrhenius method. Activation energy values are similar obtained from Coats and Redfern method and Arrhenius method and varied from 25 to 29 kJ mol{sup -1}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7110C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7110C"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8609Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8609Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing Advanced Seismic Imaging Methods For Characterizing the <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Haijiang</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Here I present a series of recent developments on seismic imaging of <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone structure. The goals of these advanced methods are to better determine the physical properties (including seismic velocity, attenuation, and anisotropy) around the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone and its boundaries. In order to accurately determine the seismic velocity structure of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, we have recently developed a wavelet-based double-difference seismic tomography method, in which the wavelet coefficients of the velocity model, rather than the model itself, are solved using both the absolute and differential arrival times. This method takes advantage of the multiscale nature of the velocity model and the multiscale wavelet representation property. Because of the velocity model is sparse in the wavelet domain, a sparsity constraint is applied to tomographic inversion. Compared to conventional tomography methods, the new method is both data- and model-adaptive, and thus can better resolve the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone structure. In addition to seismic velocity property of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, seismic anisotropy and attenuation properties are also important to characterize the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone structure. For this reason, we developed the seismic anisotropy tomography method to image the three-dimensional anisotropy strength model of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone using shear wave splitting delay times between fast and slow shear waves. The applications to the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> around Parkfield, California and north <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> will be shown. To better constrain the seismic attenuation structure, we developed a new seismic attenuation tomography method using measured t* values for first arrival body waves, in which the structures of attenuation and velocity models are similar through the cross-gradient constraint. Seismic tomography can, however, only resolve the smooth variations in elastic properties in Earth's interior. To image structure at length scales smaller than what can be resolved tomographically, including</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T41F1293A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T41F1293A"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonics and Evolution of the Yenicaga Basin, Bolu - <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arca, M.; Kocyigit, A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The Yenicaga Basin, located along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System, is interpreted to be a <span class="hlt">fault</span>-wedge basin with the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System's master strand, the Gerede <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, cutting across the basin itself. The basin and its surroundings contain both paleotectonic rock units and neotectonic rock units. Paleotectonic units, which are deposited or formed during prior tectonic regimes, comprise several formations. The most important of these is the Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene Eskipazar formation which plays an important role in the understanding of the evolutionary history of the basin. The main Neotectonic unit deposited under control of the present tectonic regime is the Plio-Quaternary Betemurlu formation. The Betemurlu formation unconformably overlies the paleotectonic Eskipazar formation throughout the study area and the unconformity separating these two units corresponds to the time interval during which the paleotectonic stress regime changed into the neotectonic stress regime. Thus, the onset age of the strike-slip neotectonic regime in the study area is Late Pliocene (~ 2.6 Ma). Common basin-margin-bounding <span class="hlt">faults</span> of the Yenicaga Basin are the Asagi Kuldan <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the Aksu <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the Izmirli <span class="hlt">fault</span> set, the Saraycali <span class="hlt">fault</span>, the Degirmen <span class="hlt">fault</span> set and the Hamzabey <span class="hlt">fault</span> set. These <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems display well-preserved <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps in places. Morphological expressions of these <span class="hlt">faults</span> and their geometrical relationships with the local stress regime indicate that these <span class="hlt">faults</span> are mainly strike-slip and oblique-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Morphotectonic expressions of the <span class="hlt">faults</span> exposed within the study area indicate that these <span class="hlt">faults</span> remain active. Most of the population centers within the study area are located on water-saturated, loose basin fill near the active <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Hence, these population centers are open to future earthquake hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23C2308M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23C2308M"><span id="translatedtitle">Neogene Topography And Precipitation Patterns Of The Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mulch, A.; Mikes, T.; Schemmel, F.; Rojay, B.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Long-term stable isotope records of terrestrial environments represent increasingly important tools for tectonic, paleoaltimetric, and paleoclimatic reconstructions within continental interiors. A rapidly growing number of studies within the Earth’s major mountain ranges demonstrates that the growth of topography and orogenic plateaus profoundly influences local, regional, and hemispheric climate and hence precipitation patterns while regional surface uplift patterns are intimately linked to plate-scale geodynamic processes. In contrast, such records are almost absent for the Near East and the Turkish-Iranian plateau, an important topographic element in the Alpine-Himalayan chain and an area most likely to be strongly affected by future climate change and water scarcity. Our objective is to assess the role of orographic factors that have governed the distribution (and isotopic composition) of precipitation across the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau (CAP, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) from the Neogene to recent. Such data are fundamental for our understanding of the geodynamic and sedimentary history of orogenic plateaus in general and for the role of surface uplift along the plateau margins in the Pontide and Tauride mountains. We present oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen isotope data from Neogene-to-recent fluvio-lacustrine and pedogenic environments, stream and lake waters of the CAP with the ultimate aim of reconstructing past precipitation changes, plateau aridification and ideally Neogene surface uplift histories. Our approach is to cross-calibrate modern patterns of isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen) in precipitation with pedogenic carbonate oxygen and carbon isotope data across topographic barriers that today strongly control the distribution of rainfall along the plateau margins and within the plateau interior. We then compare these patterns with Miocene-to-Pleistocene lacustrine and pedogenic records to assess a) the role of late Neogene (ca. 8-0 Ma) surface uplift in the Taurus mountains</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH21B1825K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH21B1825K"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Part2 Yoshiyuki KANEDA Nagoya University Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Haluk OZENER Boğaziçi University, Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-<span class="hlt">Turkey</span> project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneda, Y.; Ozener, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred near the Marmara Sea. The Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated. The Japan and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities. To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. To contribute the evaluation of active <span class="hlt">fault</span> studies in Japan. This project is composed of four research groups. The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia <span class="hlt">fault</span> and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.T31F..06O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.T31F..06O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Oligocene dextral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in Anatolia: an early escape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okay, A. I.; Satir, M.; Zattin, M.; Cavazza, W.; Topuz, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Early Eocene collision between the Eurasian and <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plates in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> was followed by regional contraction, uplift, erosion and strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, which spanned the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval. This period ended abruptly in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> in the Early Miocene by regional north-south extension and calc-alkaline magmatism. There are few rock records of the Late Eocene - Oligocene in western Anatolia, however, a major structure, active in this period between contraction and extension, was the NW-SE trending, right-lateral strike-slip Paleo-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> with a length of over 225 km and a cumulative displacement of ca. 100 km. The ductile lower sections of the Paleo-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> are exposed in the Uludag Massif, a NW-SE trending <span class="hlt">fault</span>-bounded mountain range in northwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> consisting of gneiss, amphibolite and marble. The Uludag Massif is characterized by NW-SE striking subvertical foliation and subhorizontal mineral stretching lineation with a dextral shear sense. The Rb/Sr muscovite and biotite ages from the Uludag Massif are Eocene (ca. 49 Ma) and Oligocene (36-30 Ma), respectively. The metamorphic rocks are intruded by a tectonically foliated subvertical Oligocene (ca. 33 Ma) granitic dyke, 17 km long and only 1.5 km wide, with subhorizontal mineral stretching lineation. A 27 Ma post-kinematic granite marks the termination of the shear zone activity. The apatite fission track (AFT) ages from the crystalline rocks are Early Miocene (ca. 20 Ma). Large gneiss clasts derived from the Uludag Massif are found in the adjacent Miocene basin. The 14 Ma AFT age from a gneiss clast from the Miocene basin show that the Uludag Massif was on the surface by the Middle Miocene. These data constrain the strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> along the Paleo-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> to the Late Eocene-Oligocene (38-27 Ma). The exhumation of the Uludag Massif occurred in the Early Miocene and post-dates the strike-slip activity. Although the Paleo-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is comparable in length</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tectp.680..155S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tectp.680..155S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology of the Çaldıran <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Age, slip rate and implications on the characteristic slip behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Erturaç, M. Korhan; Nomade, Sebastien</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Çaldıran <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is a strike slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> with a dextral slip in East Anatolia. The activity on this <span class="hlt">fault</span> was marked by the November, 24 1976 earthquake (Mw: 7.1) which produced an ~ 50 km long surface rupture and caused 3840 fatalities, which was close to half of the population living along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> at that time. Together with the North Tabriz <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in Iran, it is regarded as the southern boundary of the Caucasus Block. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> has an average annual slip rate of 8.1 from 10.8 mm yr- 1, as derived from elastic block modelling. We present results from a detailed morphotectonic survey along the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The Çaldıran <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is comprised of three segments, each of which is eparated by bend structures that bend towards the SW with a total change in strike of 20° from east to west. The offsets of lithological contact markers show that the long-term geological slip rate for the Çaldıran <span class="hlt">fault</span> is approximately 3.27 ± 0.17 mm yr- 1for a duration of approximately 290 ka. The cumulative offset of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> was determined from an analysis of a dome-shaped rhyolitic volcano which constrained the age of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> to the Middle-Late Pleistocene. An analysis of small-scale morphological offset markers indicates a characteristic slip behaviour of the Çaldıran <span class="hlt">Fault</span> for the last 3 events with an average offset of 2.6 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261710"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> lizard Apathya (Squamata, Lacertidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kapli, Paschalia; Botoni, Dimitra; Ilgaz, Cetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Avcı, Aziz; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Fathinia, Behzad; Lymberakis, Petros; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Poulakakis, Nikos</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Apathya is a lacertid genus occurring mainly in south-east <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and its adjacent regions (part of Iran and Iraq). So far two morphological species have been attributed to the genus; A. cappadocica (with five subspecies, A. c.cappadocica, A. c.muhtari, A. c.schmidtlerorum, A. c. urmiana and A. c.wolteri) and A.yassujica. The first species occupies most of the genus' distribution range, while A. yassujica is endemic of the Zagros Mountains. Here, we explored Apathya's taxonomy and investigated the evolutionary history of the species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear markers. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that Apathya is a highly variable genus, which parallels its high morphological variation. Such levels of morphological and genetic differentiation often exceed those between species of other Lacertini genera that are already treated as full species, suggesting the necessity for a taxonomic revision of Apathya. The phylogeographical scenario emerging from the genetic data suggests that the present distribution of the genus was determined by a combination of dispersal and vicariance events between Anatolia and Southwest Asia dating back to the Miocene and continuing up to the Pleistocene. Key geological events for the understanding of the phylogeography of the genus are the movement of the Arabian plate that led to the configuration of Middle East (orogenesis of the mountain ranges of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Iran) and the formation of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Diagonal. PMID:23261710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5736E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5736E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone Guided Wave generation on the locked, late interseismic Alpine <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A. K.; Malin, P. E.; Boese, C. M.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) have been observed for the first time within New Zealand's transpressional continental plate boundary, the Alpine <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, which is late in its typical seismic cycle. Ongoing study of these phases provides the opportunity to monitor interseismic conditions in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone. Distinctive dispersive seismic codas (~7-35 Hz) have been recorded on shallow borehole seismometers installed within 20 m of the principal slip zone. Near the central Alpine <span class="hlt">Fault</span>, known for low background seismicity, FZGW-generating microseismic events are located beyond the catchment-scale partitioning of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> indicating lateral connectivity of the low-velocity zone immediately below the near-surface segmentation. Initial modeling of the low-velocity zone indicates a waveguide width of 60-200 m with a 10-40% reduction in S wave velocity, similar to that inferred for the <span class="hlt">fault</span> core of other mature plate boundary <span class="hlt">faults</span> such as the San Andreas and North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Faults</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RaSc...46.0D16G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RaSc...46.0D16G"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric structures correlated with <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> surface features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garner, T. W.; Slack, C. M.; Mehta, K.; Scholze, A.; Mahrous, A. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A UHF/VHF beacon receiver located in Helwan, Egypt, frequently observes structures in ΔTEC/Δt measurements (where TEC is total electron count), where the F region (300 km) intercept of the radio rays crosses the steep topographic gradients associated with the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. There are three classes of structures: bumps, ripples and waves. A bump is defines as a single spatial ΔTEC/Δt peak with a peak-to-trough amplitude of at least 0.01 TECU/s (1 TEC unit (TECU) = 1016 electrons/m2) that is at least 1° wide in F region latitude. A ripple is a bump with smaller structures on either side of the central bump. Finally, waves have amplitudes ≥0.01 TECU/s with several roughly equal peaks. These features were observed repeatedly in a number passes from 31 August to 30 November 2008. Over half of passes had either a bump (34.6%), a ripple (18.2%) or a wave (6.3%). Most of these structures occur near areas with large orographic gradients. The prevailing surface wind blows across the mountains when bumps and ripples are observed. These correlations suggest that the local ionosphere is affected by the ground topography, most likely through the orographic lifting and the associated gravity waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53G..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53G..07M"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR analysis of the 2000 - 2002 earthquake sequence along the Sultan Dag front in the Isparta Angle (southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manjunath, D. V.; Gomez, F. G.; Brooks, B. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Sultan Dag range of southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is a <span class="hlt">fault</span>-block mountain range that has developed within or at the edge of the Isparta Angle - a region of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate situated near a tear in the subducting slab of the African plate. The mountain range is bounded on the northeast by the Sultandagi-Aksehir <span class="hlt">fault</span> and the Aksehir-Afyon graben. A sequence of moderate earthquakes that occurred between 2000 and 2002 provides insight into the incremental growth of the mountain front through individual seismic events. The earthquake sequence consists of three moderate size events: a Mw 5.1 and a Mw 6.0 earthquake (December 15, 2000) and a Mw 6.5 earthquake (February 3, 2002). Surface deformations corresponding with the individual earthquakes were imaged using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The resulting displacement maps were used with elastic dislocation models to estimate <span class="hlt">faulting</span> parameters associated with each earthquake (<span class="hlt">fault</span> orientation and slip). These <span class="hlt">fault</span> models were subsequently used to estimate static coulomb stress changes resulting from the earthquakes. The findings suggest that the two events of December 15, 2000, were not directly related to one another in terms of stress triggering. However, both events from 2000 appear to influence the extent of the 2002 earthquake. The larger event increased the stress on the segment ruptured in 2002, whereas the stress shadow from smaller event, which occurred on an antithetic <span class="hlt">fault</span>, appears to have unloaded the stress at the termination of the 2002 rupture. Furthermore, the uplift and subsidence patterns associated with the earthquakes closely mimic overall geologic structure and general topography. Hence, these results permit exploring the extrapolation of coseismic displacements to understand the long-term growth of the mountain front.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.5113T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.5113T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">OBS development for long term observation in the Marmara Sea, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Narumi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Citak, Seckin; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We have carried out a collaboration study between Japan and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> since 2013, which is one of SATREPS projects, "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>". The main objective of this project is to reduce risk brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. In particular, the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system runs through the Marmara sea and it is expected that the seismic gap exists there according to past seismic studies. The details of seismicity distribution in the Marmara Sea is, however, still insufficient to construct <span class="hlt">fault</span> model along the active <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Therefore, we prepare ten ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to realize long term observation. We aim to identify size and depth of seismogenic zones using micro seismicity. In addition, we need to cover relative broad area from off-shore Istanbul city to the western end of the Marmara Sea. To clear these conditions, OBS specifications we need are high dynamic range and low instrument noise to observe micro seismicity, low electrical consumption to realize long term observation of over one year, high cost performance to cover the broad area for OBS installation, low cost implementation, and good operability to treat by relatively small number of persons. All items, which are three components velocity sensor, batteries, a recorder, a GPS receiver, a transponder and its transducer to control OBS retrieval, a flasher and a beacon, are installed in the 17 inches glass sphere. The natural frequency of the velocity sensor is 4.5 Hz and the frequency range of our OBS is from 4.5 Hz to 250 Hz. Data sampling is selectable among 100 Hz, 250 Hz and 500 Hz. Because our OBS is deployed by free fall, accuracy of the OBS clock is essentially one of important factors, and it is less than 0.1 ppm. And the resolution of A/D conversion performed on the recorder is 24 bit and we keep the dynamic range of over 135 dB. These data is stored on a semiconductor memory and the capacity is over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810086K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810086K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-stage Uplift of Granite-Gneiss-Migmatite Complex (GGMC) of Çataldaǧ Core Complex (Western Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): the role of detachment <span class="hlt">faults</span> on uplift processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The most recently identified core complex of western Anatolia (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), the Çataldaǧ Core Complex (ÇCC) consists of a granite-gneiss-migmatite complex (GGMC) representing deep crustal rocks of NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and a shallow level granodioritic body (ÇG: Çataldaǧ granodiorite). The GGMC is Latest Eocene-Early Oligocene and ÇG is Early Miocene in age, and both were exhumed in the footwall of the Çataldaǧ Detachment <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (ÇDFZ) in the Early Miocene. On the basis of correlation of age data and the closure temperatures of zircon, monazite, muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar, the T-time history of GGMC reveals that GGMC has experienced at least two stages of cooling and uplift, from 33.8 to 30.1 Ma and 21.3 to 20.7 Ma. In stage I, from 33.8 to 30.1 Ma, the cooling rate of GGMC was relatively slow (35°C/my) however cooling rate increase dramatically to ≥500°C/my in stage II between 21.3 and 20.7 Ma. T-time history also indicate that GGMC was elevated to the final location in at least 8-13 My according to the monazite and zircon and mica ages obtained from the same rock. Rapid slab rollback at the Hellenic trench at ca. 23 Ma may have increased extension rates leading to the development of detachment <span class="hlt">faults</span> (i.e. ÇDFZ), core complexes and associated syn-extensional granitoids in Western Anatolia and the Aegean extensional province.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.4601R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.4601R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Miocene Deformation in Central Anatolia and its link to Horst and Graben System of Western Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rojay, B.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> multi-directional extensional terrain developed as a result of the anti-clockwise westward migration of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Block onto African Plate along the Mediterranean Ridge in between the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in north and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>-Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in south-southeast. The multi-directed horst-graben system of the western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> neotectonic domain is bisected by NW-SE to WNW-ESE extending <span class="hlt">faults</span>. To understand the deformational pattern in the western Anatolia, five tectonic domains are differentiated in the area between Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> in the northeast and Kucuk Menderes sector in the southwest; i. central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> domain (S of Galatian Volcanic province and Kazan Basin), ii. Eskişehir-Cihanbeyli <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, iii. Kütahya <span class="hlt">Fault</span> and Simav-Afyon-Akşehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, iv. Gediz-Alaşehir Graben and v. Kücük Menderes basin. The results of the slip data analysis for the post-Late Miocene to Quaternary period from the northeastern sector (central Anatolia) to southwestern sector (K. Menderes) of the five domains are indicate that the style and tectonic setting of deformation phases are similar. In central Anatolia, the deformation is expressed by three distinct stages as (i) post-Late Miocene - pre-Pliocene NW-SE to N-S compression, (ii) Pliocene almost E-W extension and (iii) NNE-SSW to NW-SE multi-directed extension since the Pliocene. Similarly, the history of deformation in the Kucuk Menderes area is expressed by three distinct episodes as: (i) post-Late Miocene-pre-Pliocene N-S compression, (ii) ENE-WSW extension during Plio-Quaternary and (iii) NE-SW extension since the Quaternary. The <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip analyses from the five domains are consistent with continuum of continental extension since Pliocene which follows the post-Late Miocene - pre-Pliocene compression. The s1 - s3 relationship manifests a rotation of principal stress s1 axes from either NE-SW to NNE-SSW extension or converse, in multi directed extensional system. In western</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/fall07/articles/fall07pg26-27.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/fall07/articles/fall07pg26-27.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Talking <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Talking Turkey… 45 million <span class="hlt">turkeys</span> are eaten each Thanksgiving, 22 ... more 4 Steps to Making Sense, Safely, of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and "All the Fixin's" The U.S. Food and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=research+AND+data&pg=4&id=EJ1016897','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=research+AND+data&pg=4&id=EJ1016897"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of Teacher Candidates' Usage Level of Metacognitive Learning Strategies: Sample of a University in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yesilyurt, Etem</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level metacognitive learning strategies are used by teacher candidates. The study was designed as a descriptive research. Study group of present research consists of 291 teacher candidates studying in the Faculty of Education within the body of a Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> university in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tectp.671..218A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tectp.671..218A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-collisional accretionary growth of the southern Laurasian active margin, Central Pontides, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes crop out over wide areas in the central part of the Pontides, northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. To the north, the wedge consists of a low-grade metaflysch sequence with blocks of marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite (PT = 7-12 kbar; 400 ± 70 °C) and serpentinite. 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from the phyllites of the metaflysch are ca. 100 Ma. The metaflysch sequence is underlain by oceanic crust-derived HP/LT metabasites and micaschists along a major detachment <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The metabasites are epidote-blueschists consisting of glaucophane, epidote, titanite, and phengite locally with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are exposed as blocks along the detachment <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Peak metamorphic conditions of a garnet-blueschist are constrained to 17 ± 1 kbar and 500 ± 40 °C and of a lawsonite-blueschist to 14 ± 2 kbar and 370-440 °C. 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating on the micaschists constrains the HP/LT metamorphism as 101-92 Ma, younging southward. Middle Jurassic (ca. 160 Ma) accretionary complexes consisting of blueschist to lower greenschist facies metabasites, marble and volcanogenic metasediment intercalations are exposed at the southern part of the Cretaceous wedge. In the studied area, the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> forms the contact between Cretaceous and Middle Jurassic HP/LT metamorphic rocks. Wide distribution of Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes implies accretionary tectonic continental growth along the Laurasian active margin. High amount of clastic sediment flux into the trench has a major effect on enlarging the wedge during the Albian. Tectonic thickening of the oceanic HP/LT metamorphic sequence, however, was possibly achieved by propagation of the décollement along the retreating slab which can create the space necessary for progressive deep level basal underplating and extension of the wedge for subsequent syn-subduction exhumation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010ApGCh..25..572Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010ApGCh..25..572Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of earthquake precursors by multi-parameter stations in Eskisehir region (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuce, G.; Ugurluoglu, D. Y.; Adar, N.; Yalcin, T.; Yaltirak, C.; Streil, T.; Oeserd, V. O.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the geochemical and hydrogeological effects of earthquakes on fluids in aquifers, particularly in a seismically active area such as Eskisehir (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) where the Thrace-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone stretches over the region. The study area is also close to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone generating devastating earthquakes such as the ones experienced in 1999, reactivating the Thrace-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. In the studied area, Rn and CO2 gas concentrations, redox potential, electrical conductivity, pH, water level, water temperature, and the climatic parameters were continuously measured in five stations for about a year. Based on the gathered data from the stations, some ambiguous anomalies in geochemical parameters and Rn concentration of groundwater were observed as precursors several days prior to an earthquake. According to the mid-term observations of this study, well-water level changes were found to be a good indicator for seismic estimations in the area, as it comprises naturally filtered anomalies reflecting only the changes due to earthquakes. Also, the results obtained from this study suggest that both the changes in well-water level and gas-water chemistry need to be interpretated together for more accurate estimations. Valid for the studied area, it can be said that shallow earthquakes with epicentral distances of <30 km from the observation stations have more influence on hydrochemical parameters of groundwater and well-water level changes. Although some hydrochemical anomalies were observed in the area, it requires further observations in order to be able to identify them as precursors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RMRE...49.2763B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RMRE...49.2763B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Probe Drilling Ahead of Two TBMs in Difficult Ground Conditions in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilgin, Nuh; Ates, Ugur</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the results of probe drilling carried out ahead of TBMs in two difficult tunneling projects in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The tunnels have completely different geological characteristics which necessitated two different methods of data analysis. Melen Water Tunnel was excavated under Istanbul Bosphorus within sedimentary rocks which are cut frequently by andesitic dykes, fracturing the surrounding rocks and creating a potential risk for water ingress into the tunnel. At the beginning of Melen Project, pioneering probe drillings with petrographic analysis and strength tests were performed on samples collected from TBM muck. This analysis allowed identifying some critical normalized probe drilling rate values for predicting potential weak zones created by andesitic dykes. These studies gave a sound basis for further interpretation of TBM and geologic data for the same tunnel. The second set of probe drilling analysis was from Kargi Tunnel. The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> highly affected the tunnel excavation by fractured rock formations. Although the change in normalized probe drilling data was a good indicator of fractured zones, the diversity of rock formations made it difficult to interpret the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.1537P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.1537P"><span id="translatedtitle">Downhole geophysical observatories: best installation practices and a case history from <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prevedel, Bernhard; Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Raub, Christina; Kartal, Recai F.; Alver, Fatih; Malin, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Downhole sensors of different types and in various environments provide substantial benefit to signal quality. They also add the depth dimension to measurements performed at the Earths' surface. Sensor types that particularly benefit from downhole installation due to the absence of near-surface noise include piezometers, seismometers, strainmeters, thermometers, and tiltmeters. Likewise, geochemical and environmental measurements in a borehole help eliminate near-surface weathering and cultural effects. Installations from a few hundred meter deep to a few kilometer deep dramatically reduce surface noise levels—the latter noticeably also reduces the hypocentral distance for shallow microearthquakes. The laying out of a borehole network is always a compromise of local boundary conditions and the involved drilling costs. The installation depth and procedure for a long-term downhole observatory can range from time limited installations, with a retrieval option, to permanently cemented sensors. Permanently cemented sensors have proven to be long-term stable with non-deteriorating coupling and borehole integrity. However, each type needs to be carefully selected and planned according to the research aims. A convenient case study is provided by a new installation of downhole seismometers along the shoreline of the eastern Marmara Sea in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. These stations are being integrated into the regional net for monitoring the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Here we discuss its design, installation, and first results. We conclude that, despite the logistical challenges and installation costs, the superior quality of downhole data puts this technique at the forefront of applied and fundamental research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9687S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9687S"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Holocene diffused interaction between a transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> and nearby continental margin, extracted by comparing biological sea-level indicators and hydro-isostatic numerical predictions along the eastern Mediterranean coasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schattner, U.; Sivan, D.; Morhange, C.; Lambeck, K.; Boaretto, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Dendropoma petraeum are fixed vermitides that construct the abrasion platform rims. These endemic mollusks are considered good Relative Sea Level (RSL) indicators in the eastern and the southern Mediterranean, due to their narrow habitat at the sea surface (+/- 10cm). The observed RSL values recorded (submerged, uplifted or at present MSL) reflect a superposition of eustatic, isostatic, tectonic and possibly local sedimentary instabilities. The present study examines fossil Dendropoma samples gathered along the Levant coast, from northern Israel to eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Conventional radiocarbon dates (from <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, Syria and partly in Lebanon) and C14 AMS (from Lebanon and Israel) yields Dendropoma ages ranging through Late Holocene. A numerical model is used for calculating the change in sea level through the Holocene as a function of glacio-hydrology and isostasy of the eastern Mediterranean. Space-time dependent subtractions of the model values are used to eliminate the eustatic component of the RSL, in order to obtain the tectonic factor. Results show a general northward increase in tectonic uplift of the Levant coast. This differential uplift corresponds well to the major tectonic segments comprising the Levant continental margin since the Pleistocene, from the Carmel <span class="hlt">fault</span> to the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T41C..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T41C..04R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Non-Regularity of Earthquake Recurrence in California: Lessons From Long Paleoseismic Records in Simple vs Complex <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Regions (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rockwell, T. K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A long paleoseismic record at Hog Lake on the central San Jacinto <span class="hlt">fault</span> (SJF) in southern California documents evidence for 18 surface ruptures in the past 3.8-4 ka. This yields a long-term recurrence interval of about 210 years, consistent with its slip rate of ~16 mm/yr and field observations of 3-4 m of displacement per event. However, during the past 3800 years, the <span class="hlt">fault</span> has switched from a quasi-periodic mode of earthquake production, during which the recurrence interval is similar to the long-term average, to clustered behavior with the inter-event periods as short as a few decades. There are also some periods as long as 450 years during which there were no surface ruptures, and these periods are commonly followed by one to several closely-timed ruptures. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the timing of these earthquakes is about 0.6 for the past 4000 years (17 intervals). Similar behavior has been observed on the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (SAF) south of the Transverse Ranges where clusters of earthquakes have been followed by periods of lower seismic production, and the CV is as high as 0.7 for some portions of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. In contrast, the central North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, which ruptured in 1944, appears to have produced ruptures with similar displacement at fairly regular intervals for the past 1600 years. With a CV of 0.16 for timing, and close to 0.1 for displacement, the 1944 rupture segment near Gerede appears to have been both periodic and characteristic. The SJF and SAF are part of a broad plate boundary system with multiple parallel strands with significant slip rates. Additional <span class="hlt">faults</span> lay to the east (Eastern California shear zone) and west (<span class="hlt">faults</span> of the LA basin and southern California Borderland), which makes the southern SAF system a complex and broad plate boundary zone. In comparison, the 1944 rupture section of the NAF is simple, straight and highly localized, which contrasts with the complex system of parallel <span class="hlt">faults</span> in southern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711976E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711976E"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling Tendency of Geothermal Waters Armutlu Peninsula, Northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ertekin, Can</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Prediction of scaling tendencies from geothermal waters is important for taking necessary precautions to prevent or control the scale formation. This study contains scaling tendency of geothermal outlets occurring through Armutlu Peninsula in Northwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The E-W trending region stretches into the Marmara Sea (ca. 117 km E-W by 45 km N-S) and is bounded to the north and the south by North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ). The two branches of NAFZ traversing the peninsula control not only active seismicity but also geothermal discharges of the region. Widespread basement rocks across the peninsula including metamorphic assemblage of granitic and volcanic rocks host geothermal fluids. The two distinctive geothermal discharges (Armutlu and Yalova) take place through lineaments appurtenant to the northern branch of NAFZ. Their discharge temperatures of 65 ° C (Yalova) and 70 ° C (Armutlu) are the highest of the region. According to their water chemical results, scaling tendency were computed by using WATCH for different temperature steps under the assumptions of single-stage adiabatic boiling and equilibrium degassing. To evaluate their scaling tendencies, mean geothermal reservoir temperatures were computed by using chemical geothermometers. Scaling tendencies were plotted for calcite, amorphous silica and quartz minerals for different temperature values including reservoir temperatures. Their scaling behavior reveals that oversaturation with calcite and quartz minerals are rapidly attained for the geothermal fluids (Yalova and Armutlu) at relatively lower temperatures. Regarding amorphous silica, they are completely undersaturated. Besides, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) were calculated. Their results depict scale formation due to being positive LSI and less than 6.0 of RSI values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03349&hterms=kill&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dkill','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03349&hterms=kill&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dkill"><span id="translatedtitle">Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) is a strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara in the center of this view of northwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, taken during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The water of the Black Sea at the top of the image and Sea of Marmara below the center are colored blue in this image, along with several large lakes. The largest lake, to the lower right of the Sea of Marmara, is Iznik Lake. The Bosporus (Turkish Bogazici) Strait is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the large city of Istanbul, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is located on both sides of the southern end of the strait, visible as a brighter (light green to white) area on the image due to its stronger reflection of radar. Istanbul is the modern name for a city with along history, previously called Constantinople and Byzantium. It was rebuilt as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. by Constantine on the site of an earlier Greek city, and it was later the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires until 1922.<p/>The Gulf of Izmit is the narrow gulf extending to the east (right) from the Sea of Marmara. The city of Izmit at the end of the gulf was heavily damaged by a large magnitude 7.4 earthquake on August 17,1999, often called the Izmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, earthquake), that killed at least 17,000 people. A previous earthquake under the Gulf of Izmit in 1754 killed at least 2,000people. The Izmit earthquake ruptured a long section of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system from off the right side of this image continuing under the Gulf of Izmit. Another strand of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system is visible as a sharp linear feature in the topography south of Iznik Lake. Bathymetric surveys show that the north <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system extends beneath and has formed the Sea of Marmara, in addition to the Gulf of Izmit and Iznik Lake. Scientists are studying the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> system to determine the risk of a large earthquake on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011GCarp..62..345O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011GCarp..62..345O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of oroclinal bending in the structural evolution of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau: evidence of a regional changeover from shortening to extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özsayin, Erman; Dirik, Kadir</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The NW-SE striking extensional Inönü-Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System is one of the most important active shear zones in Central Anatolia. This shear zone is comprised of semi-independent <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments that constitute an integral array of crustal-scale <span class="hlt">faults</span> that transverse the interior of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau region. The WNW striking Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone constitutes the western to central part of the system. Toward the southeast, this system splays into three <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones. The NW striking Ilıca <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone defines the northern branch of this splay. The middle and southern branches are the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zones, which also constitute the western boundary of the tectonically active extensional Tuzgölü Basin. The Sultanhanı <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone is the southeastern part of the system and also controls the southewestern margin of the Tuzgölü Basin. Structural observations and kinematic analysis of mesoscale <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zones clearly indicate a two-stage deformation history and kinematic changeover from contraction to extension. N-S compression was responsible for the development of the dextral Yeniceoba <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Activity along this structure was superseded by normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> driven by NNE-SSW oriented tension that was accompanied by the reactivation of the Yeniceoba <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone and the formation of the Cihanbeyli <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. The branching of the Inönü-Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System into three <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones (aligned with the apex of the Isparta Angle) and the formation of graben and halfgraben in the southeastern part of this system suggest ongoing asymmetric extension in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. This extension is compatible with a clockwise rotation of the area, which may be associated with the eastern sector of the Isparta Angle, an oroclinal structure in the western central part of the plateau. As the initiation of extension in the central to southeastern part of the Inönü-Eskişehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System has similarities with structures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=erdogan&pg=5&id=EJ850110','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=erdogan&pg=5&id=EJ850110"><span id="translatedtitle">Portrait of a Consortium: ANKOS (<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> University Libraries Consortium)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Erdogan, Phyllis; Karasozen, Bulent</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) was created in 2001 with only a few members subscribed to nine e-journal collections and bibliographic databases. This Turkish library consortium had developed from one state and three private universities joining together for the purchase of two databases in 1999. Over time, the numbers of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269222','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269222"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of mine fires due to spontaneous combustion in the mechanized faces of Middle <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Lignite mine (OAL), case studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gueyagueler, T.; Karaman, H.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>In this paper fires due to spontaneous combustion in Middle <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Lignite mine (OAL) which is the first fully mechanized underground lignite mine in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, are studied. Since the installation of mechanization, due to spontaneous heating, four panel fires namely, AO1, AO2, AO3 and AO4 have broken out. During these fires, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and the velocity of air are measured continuously by the Micro Minos Environmental monitoring system. For each fire, the environment where fire has started is examined and the possible causes of the fire are investigated. Also the precautions taken to extinguish the fire at different stages are described and the importance of the early detection of mine fire are discussed together with the limitations of the monitoring system the practical difficulties observed during the fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T13G..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T13G..01N"><span id="translatedtitle">Active deformation in Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: new GPS observations and models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nocquet, J.; Aktug, B.; Parsons, B.; Cingoz, A.; England, P.; Erkan, Y.; Soyer, N.; Akdeniz, H.; Kilicoglu, A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>How the continents deform remains a matter of debate. One view postulates that continental deforming zones are comprised of a limited numbers of rigid (elastic) microplates. If true, the surface motion can then be described by the relative rotation of blocks, and strain should be localized along the major <span class="hlt">faults</span> separating the blocks. An alternative view is that the deformation at depth is distributed over wide areas, can be modelled by a viscous flow responding to boundary conditions applied on it and gravitational potential energy gradients related to variations in topography, and the surface strain simply reflects this deformation. Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is a region of crustal extension, part of the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary. Its kinematics is often modelled by the relative motion of a small number of rigid blocks (Nyst & Thatcher, 2005, Reilinger et al., 2006). However, until now, the limited number of GPS velocity vectors available has prevented a detailed examination of which is the more appropriate description. We present a new geodetic velocity field including ~100 sites from the longitude the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau to the Aegean coast, derived from a combination of campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2006, and continuous GPS operating since 2003, which we use to test the different models. While the kinematics of the area can be correctly modelled by a block model, a good fit to the velocity field requires blocks with sizes smaller than 100 km and still fails to adequately predict the strain rate observed within blocks . Alternatively, we test an approach where the lithosphere is modelled as a thin viscous sheet, responding to the gravitational potentiel energy contrast between the high plateau of eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> to the east and the subduction along the Hellenic trench in the southwest. The simplistic model has only one free parameter (the force applied by the subducting oceanic lithosphere on the Aegean ), but provides a good agreement with the observed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.105..173U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.105..173U"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary development of the Oligocene Karsantı Basin, southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, in its regional tectonic setting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can; Akıncı, Ahmet Can</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Following Late Cretaceous ophiolite and melange emplacement within the Tauride belt several Neogene sedimentary basins of variable size were formed along the southern flank of the Taurus continent in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. These include the Pozantı and Karsantı Basins and the regional scale Çukurova Basin Complex, extending southwestwards into the Cilicia-Kyrenia Basin. The Karsantı Basin is bounded by the regional scale sinistral Ecemiş <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone to the west, the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone to the southeast and the Negoene Adana Basin to the south. Deformed Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rock units that display an irregular palaeotopography form the basement of the Karsantı Basin. These units are overlain by an allochthonous Kızıldağ melange and by thrust slices of basic/ultrabasic ophiolitic rocks (Faraşa ophiolites) that were emplaced in this region during the Late Maastrichtian. The Karsantı Basin was formed during the Oligocene above the thrust sheets. The Karsantı Basin disconformably overlies the ophiolitic nappes and is interpreted as a N-S trending half graben which was probably most active following the deposition of lacustrine sediments during the late Oligocene. The main Karsantı Basin infill is represented by four lithological units: 1. Alluvial fan deposits (A1), 2. shallow-marine deposits (A2), 3. lacustrine deposits (A3), and 4. fluvial deposits (A4). These sediments were deposited during the Oligocene, prior to the initiation of the main Adana Basin, which formed in a separate intermontane setting. The Karsantı Basin fill is unconformably overlain by early Miocene sediments of the Neogene Adana basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2499N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2499N"><span id="translatedtitle">Reprocessing and Interpretation of the High Resolution Seismic Data from Northern Marmara Continental Shelf, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nasif, Aslıhan; Dondurur, Derman; Ergintav, Semih; Cifci, Gunay</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Marmara Sea is an inland sea located in the NW of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> with a maximum depth of 1270 m, and consists of a 3 major sub-basins. The active dextral North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) passes through the basins, which shapes the general morphology and forms the tectonic settlement of the Marmara Sea. The investigations for the Marmara Sea are now important since İstanbul city, which is the most populous and economically the most important city of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, is located just north of the Marmara Sea, quite close to the NAF. In order to define the morphology and structural state of the northern continental shelf of the Marmara Sea, we collected 224 km of multichannel high resolution seismic and 338 km of Chirp subbottom profiler data along the shallow shelf in 2007. A 600 m long, 96 channel digital seismic streamer, and a Generator-Injector (GI) gun was used to obtain high resolution seismic data. The Chirp data was collected a 2.75-6.75 kHz over-the-side-mount transducer system. The data have been processed using a conventional data processing flow. The scope of the present study is to re-process and to interpret the seismic and Chirp data between Silivri and Sarayburnu on the northern Marmara shelf up to 100 m water depth. The active tectonic characteristics of the area, especially its geological connection with the terrestrial area, are investigated using acoustic data. In addition, offshore continuity of the of the Çatalca <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone is investigated. The Çatalca <span class="hlt">Fault</span> enters the shelf along the B. Çekmece Lake and can be tracked in the SSE direction on the seismic data. The seismic data is tied to North Marmara-1 well located on the central part of the shelf area, and distributions and thicknesses of the pre-Miocene sediments are mapped using a jump-correlation to the well information. The seismic data located at the southernmost part of the shelf along the shelf break also indicate the presence of active sediment erosion. Behind the shelf break, the slope inclination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1816079E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1816079E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of a new Late Cretaceous continental arc in the Central Pontides (Northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Sayit, Kaan; Catanzariti, Rita; Frassi, Chiara; Cemal Göncüoǧlu, M.; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the Central Pontides (Northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>), south of Tosya, a tectonic unit consisting of not-metamorphic volcanic rocks and overlying sedimentary succession is exposed inside a <span class="hlt">fault</span>-bounded elongated block. It is restrained within a wide shear zone, where the Intra-Pontide suture zone, the Sakarya terrane and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone are juxtaposed as result of strike-slip activity of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> shear zone. The volcanic rocks are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites (with their pyroclastic equivalents) associated with a volcaniclastic formation made up of breccias and sandstones that are stratigraphically overlain by a Marly-calcareous turbidite formation. The calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy points to a late Santonian-middle Campanian age (CC17-CC21 Zones) for the sedimentary succession. The geochemistry of the volcanic rocks reveals an active continental margin setting as evidenced by the enrichment in Th and LREE over HFSE, and the Nb-enriched nature of these lavas relative to N-MORB. As highlighted by the performed arenite petrography, the occurrence of continent-derived clastics in the sedimentary succession supports the hypothesis of a continental arc-derived volcanic succession. Alternative geodynamic reconstructions are proposed, where this tectonic unit could represent a slice derived from the northern continental margin of the Intra- Pontide or Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic basins.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5269Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5269Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Detailed spatial distribution of microearthquakes beneath the Marmara Sea, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, deduced from long-term ocean bottom observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Pinar, Ali; Kalafat, Doǧan; Citak, Seckin; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Çok, Özkan; Ogutcu, Zafer; Suvariklı, Murat; Tunc, Suleyman; Gürbüz, Cemil; Turhan, Fatih; Ozel, Nurcan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) crosses the Marmara Sea in E-W direction, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. There are many large earthquakes along the 1500 km long NAF repeatedly occurred and interacted each other. The recent large northern Aegean earthquake with Mw=6.9 filled one of the last two seismic gaps on NAF that experienced extraordinary seismic moment release cycle during the last century and confirmed a remained blank zone in the Marmara Sea. However, this segment keeps its mystery due to its underwater location. Earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation studies in Marmara region are sensitive to detailed information on <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea. We have started ocean bottom seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the SATREPS collaborative project between Japan and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> namely "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>". The target area spans from western Marmara Sea to offshore Istanbul along the NAF. In the beginning of the project, we deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin (CB) in September 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them in the western end of the Marmara Sea and in the eastern CB to extend the observed area in March 2015. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July 2015 and deployed them again in the same locations after data retrieve and battery maintenance. From continuous OBS records, we could detect more than 700 events near the seafloor trace of NAF during 10 months observation period whereas land-seismic network could detect less than 200 events. We estimated the micro-earthquake location using manual-picking arrival times incorporating station corrections. The tentative results show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.4700C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.4700C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">3D Full Seismic Waveform Tomography of NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Surroundings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cubuk, Yesim; Fichtner, Andreas; Taymaz, Tuncay</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Northward collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian plate, and interaction of the motion between dynamic processes originated from the subduction of the African plate beneath the Aegean generated very complex tectonic structures in the study region. Western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is among one of the most active extensional regions in the world and the study area is mainly located where the extensional Aegean and the right-lateral strike-slip North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ) intersects. Therefore, the tectonic framework of the NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and the Marmara region is mainly characterized by the transition between the strike-slip tectonics to the extensional tectonics. The Sea of Marmara region has been subjected to several active and passive seismic investigations, nevertheless the accurate knowledge on the heterogeneity in the crust and upper mantle beneath the study area still remains enigmatic. On small-scale tomography problems, seismograms strongly reflect the effects of heterogeneities and the scattering properties of the Earth. Thus, the knowledge of high-resolution seismic imaging with an improved 3D radially anisotropic crustal model of the NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> will enable better localization of earthquakes, identification of <span class="hlt">faults</span> as well as the improvement of the seismic hazard assessment. For this purpose, we aim to develop 3D radially anisotropic subsurface structure of the Sea of Marmara and NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> crust based on full waveform adjoint tomography method. The earthquake data were principally obtained from the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and Earthquake Research Center (AFAD-DAD) database. In addition to this, some of the seismic waveform data extracted from the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) stations that are located within our study region were also used in this study. We have selected and simulated waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes 4.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.7 occurred in the period between 2007-2014 to determine the 3D velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010WRR....4612545B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010WRR....4612545B"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring willingness to pay to improve municipal water in southeast Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilgic, Abdulbaki</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Increasing demands for water and quality concerns have highlighted the importance of accounting for household perceptions before local municipalities rehabilitate existing water infrastructures and bring them into compliance. We compared different willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates using household surveys in the southern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Our study is the first of its kind in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Biases resulting from sample selection and the endogeneity of explanatory variables were corrected. When compared to a univariate probit model, correction of these biases was shown to result in statistically significant findings through moderate reductions in mean WTP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511135M"><span id="translatedtitle">Block model at the Hatay Triple junction in N-W Syria and S-E <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> from GPS data inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahmoud, Yasser; Cakir, Ziyadin; Masson, Frédéric; Meghraoui, Mustapha</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The active deformation at the Hatay Triple junction (HTJ) in northwest Syria and southeast <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is represented by finite number of rotating elastic spherical blocks limited by <span class="hlt">faults</span>. GPS derived horizontal velocities are inverted for the <span class="hlt">fault</span> parameters and block angular velocities. We are using GPS vectors from our dense regional GPS network reinforced by other GPS solutions in the region.We test different tectonic configurations trying to minimize the data misfit of our model using a reduced chi-square statistic:χ_n^2=(∑r^2/s2 )/DOF.Residuals were calculated for different models in order to define the best fit to the known kinematic configuration of the region. A block model with the new Iskenderun and Amanous micro blocks and three major blocks of Arabia, Anatolia, and Sinai is essential to explain the GPS vectors. The estimated relative slip rates on <span class="hlt">faults</span> are similar to other published estimations with some exceptions.The Karasu <span class="hlt">Fault</span> shows a sinistral slip rate of 4.0 ± 1.0 mm/yr and a compressional behavior with a revers slip rate of 2.1-2.7 mm/yr, which contradicts with the extensional nature proposed by previous studies. The Dead Sea <span class="hlt">fault</span> experiences a relative slip rate of ~3.5 ± 0.3 mm/yr along all its segments. We also define a new Euler pole for the relative angular velocity of Anatolia-Arabia Euler pole at (27.61oN, 45.127oE, 0.391± 0.056 o/Myr), and a Sinai-Arabia Euler pole at (31.012oN, 46.464oE, 0.202 ± 0.067 o/Myr).A 15 km of locking depth is estimated for the EAF, 4-5 km deeper than that of the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> is however partially locked down to the depths of 30 km with no significant extension or compression. In general, slip rates and kinematics of <span class="hlt">faults</span> are consistent with the geological observations in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1710557L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1710557L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ophiolite suture in Central Anatolia: New insights from the Sivas Basin (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The closure of the Neotethys is classically associated with the obduction of ophiolitic rocks, defining successive suture zones. Theses Alpine-Himalayan ophiolites reflect a complex and still poorly understood paleogeographic framework. In <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, various types of ophiolite have been described, involving supra subduction zone and ophiolitic melanges as well. Hence reconstructions of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> continent assumed the amalgamation of one or more continental fragments during the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic time. The Sivas Basin is located in a key position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Crystalline Complex to the West. These blocks are separated to the North by the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAESZ), and by the Inner Tauride suture zone (ITSZ) to the South. Ophiolitic outcrops are common in this area, mainly on the basin borders, and sometimes within the central part. These green rocks have been previously related to the ophiolitic melange from the IAESZ in Northern part and to the ITSZ for the southern parts. Recent fieldwork on the southern edge of the Sivas Basin allows a proper description of the ophiolitic complex, including from bottom to top: (1) a large volume of intensely serpentinized peridotites, strongly veined with chrysotile, with minor gabbroic intrusions; (2) upward, serpentinized mantle rocks affected by a cataclastic deformation associated with tectonic breccias and ophicalcites ; and eventually, (3) on the top of the mantle, silicates deposits similar to radiolarian cherts cover by sedimentary breccias with mantle clasts. New geochemical analysis and subsurface data confirm the existence of a southward obducted slice of ophiolite over more than 100km from North to South, forming the basement of the Sivas Basin since the Campanian. This southward obduction related to the IAESZ appears similar to slow spreading ridge or hyper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS41B1935O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS41B1935O"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Tekirdag region (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) is quite close to the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major <span class="hlt">faults</span>. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2086E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2086E"><span id="translatedtitle">Submarine slides, slumps and turbidites in relation to various tectonic and sedimentary processes in the Çinarcik Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ergin, Mustafa; Sakitas, Alper; Sarikavak, Kerim; Keskin, Seref</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The main purpose of this study was to determine and understand the impacts of the climatic changes, active tectonism, slope instability and sediment mass movements in the eastern Marmara Sea (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) during the Holocene. Of these, sea level changes, earth quakes, slides, slumps and turbidites were considered to be the major causes to shape the seafloor in the region. With this in mind and within a framework of a larger Project (TÜBİTAK-YDABAG 101Y071), after the major earthquake of 17 August 1999 in Kocaeli-<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, both sediment samples and seismic reflection profiles were obtained during the August 2000 Cruise of the Research Vessel "MTA "SİSMİK 1" at water depths between 58 and 1249 meters in the Çınarcık Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>). Offshore studies covered shelf, slope and basin-floor subenvironments. Onboard, airgun and multichannel seismic reflection system was used along 7 tracklines aligned to N-S and E-W directions. At 15 sites gravity cores were deployed and from 53 to 367 cm thick core sediments were obtained. Grain size analysis, visual core descriptions, and conventional radicarbon datings were also made. To interpret seismic profiles, well-known seismic facies analysis and stratigraphic methods were applied. Fine-grained and grayish-green colored siliciclastic mud was the dominant sediment type (also called "homogenite") deposited on the floor. The coarser-grained intervals and laminations would likely suggest effects of not only turbidites from active tectonism but they can also be related to the wind-driven offshore storm deposits and river floods after heavy rain-falls. Active normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> on the shelves, <span class="hlt">fault</span> scarps along the slopes and negative flower structure of syntectonic sedimentation in the deep basin floor observed on the seismic profiles all must indicate the consequences of westerly extension of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone in the Marmara Sea. Seismic profiles displayed sediment structures of underwater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497212"><span id="translatedtitle">High microsatellite and mitochondrial diversity in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> native horse breeds shows Anatolia as a genetic conduit between Europe and Asia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koban, E; Denizci, M; Aslan, O; Aktoprakligil, D; Aksu, S; Bower, M; Balcioglu, B K; Ozdemir Bahadir, A; Bilgin, R; Erdag, B; Bagis, H; Arat, S</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The horse has been a food source, but more importantly, it has been a means for transport. Its domestication was one of the crucial steps in the history of human civilization. Despite the archaeological and molecular studies carried out on the history of horse domestication, which would contribute to conservation of the breeds, the details of the domestication of horses still remain to be resolved. We employed 21 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region partial sequences to analyse genetic variability within and among four <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> native horse breeds, Ayvacık Pony, Malakan Horse, Hınıs Horse and Canik Horse, as well as samples from indigenous horses of unknown breed ancestry. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to produce data from the prehistorically and historically important land bridge, Anatolia, in order to assess its role in horse domestication and second, to analyse the data from a conservation perspective to help the ministry improve conservation and management strategies regarding native horse breeds. Even though the microsatellite data revealed a high allelic diversity, 98% of the genetic variation partitioned within groups. Genetic structure did not correlate with a breed or geographic origin. High diversity was also detected in mtDNA control region sequence analysis. Frequencies of two haplogroups (HC and HF) revealed a cline between Asia and Europe, suggesting Anatolia as a probable connection route between the two continents. This first detailed genetic study on <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> horse breeds revealed high diversity among horse mtDNA haplogroups in Anatolia and suggested Anatolia's role as a conduit between the two continents. The study also provides an important basis for conservation practices in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. PMID:22497212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820058015&hterms=seismic+interaction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dseismic%2Binteraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820058015&hterms=seismic+interaction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dseismic%2Binteraction"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress accumulated mechanisms on strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turcotte, D. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The tectonic framework causing seismicity on the San Andreas and North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">faults</span> can be understood in terms of plate tectonics. However, the mechanisms responsible for the distribution of seismicity in space and time on these <span class="hlt">faults</span> are poorly understood. The upper part of the crust apparently behaves elastically in storing energy that is released during an earthquake. The relatively small distances from the <span class="hlt">fault</span> in which stress is stored argue in favor of a plate with a thickness of 5-10 km. The interaction of this plate with a lower crust that is behaving as a fluid damps the seismic cycling in distances of the order of 10 km from the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Low measured heat flow also argues in favor of a thin plate with a low stress level on the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Future measurements of stress, strain, and heat flow should help to provide a better understanding of the basic mechanisms governing the behavior of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGE....12..552D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGE....12..552D"><span id="translatedtitle">An active extensional deformation example: 19 May 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw = 5.8), Western Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demirci, Alper; Özden, Süha; Bekler, Tolga; Kalafat, Doğan; Pınar, Ali</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Simav Earthquake that occurred on 19 May 2011 in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> was investigated on the basis of seismological data and geological observations. Approximately WNW-ESE trending surface ruptures were observed on the Simav <span class="hlt">Fault</span>. The focal mechanism parameters of the earthquake (Mw = 5.8) and its aftershocks (Mw  >  3.5) were estimated using time-domain moment tensor inversion. A total of 2245 events were located with Geiger’s conventional absolute location method then relocated using the double difference (DD) algorithm. The calculated locations at a depths between 2 and 16 km were found to be consistent with Coulomb stress variation in the area. Average variance reduction (VR) of the solutions was calculated as ~70%. The focal parameters of strike dip and slip of the main shock, occurring at a depth of 11 km dipping towards the NNE, were estimated at 277, 62 and -92, respectively. The most striking indication of the study is that the area is dominated by normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> with mainly WNW-ESE trends. It is also concluded that earthquakes in the region are caused by an active and regional NNE-SSW (N 12° E) trending (σ3 axis) extension regime. The mean stress ratio is 0.80, indicating a triaxial stress state. This extension is probably associated with a slab-pull force and /or roll-back due to the complex subduction process of the African Plate beneath <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block along both the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the eastern Mediterranean region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BUJST..58...18B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BUJST..58...18B"><span id="translatedtitle">Precursory Anomaly in VLF/LF Recordings Prior to the Çaglayan (Erzincan-<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) Earthquake on July 30th, 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Pinar, Ali; Koşaroǧlu, Sinan</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>An international project network consisting of six receivers for sampling LF and VLF radio signals has been going on to record the data in Europe from different transmission stations around the World. One of them was established in Resadiye, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, located just on the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. The receiver works in VLF and LF bands monitoring ten frequencies (16.4, 21.75, 37.5, 45.9, 153, 180, 183, 216 and 270 kHz) with one minute sampling interval. An earthquake of Mw = 4.9 took place 225 km away from the VLF/LF station at the eastern tip of the Erzincan basin at 4 km depth on July 30, 2009. We observed some anomalies on the radio signals (37.5 and 153 kHz) that initiated about 7 days before the earthquake and disappeared soon after the earthquake. We attribute this anomaly to the Mw=4.9 earthquake as a seismo-electromagnetic precursor. The radio anomaly that appeared 7 days before the occurrence of the 2009 Caglayan (Erzincan) earthquake is in good agreement with other results indicating precursory anomalies in the project network mostly observed in seismically active countries such as Italy and Greece.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ExG....45...74A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ExG....45...74A"><span id="translatedtitle">Site characterisation in north-western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> based on SPAC and HVSR analysis of microtremor noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asten, Michael W. </name><xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff1"><sup>1</sup></xref><xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff6"><sup>6</sup></xref><contrib contrib-type="author"><name>Askan, Aysegul </name><xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff2"><sup>2</sup></xref><contrib contrib-type="author"><name>Ekincioglu, E. Ezgi </name><xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff3"><sup>3</sup></xref><xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff4"><sup>4</sup></xref><contrib contrib-type="author"><name>Sisman, F. Nurten </name><xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff2"><sup>2</sup></xref><contrib contrib-type="author"><name>Ugurhan, Beliz</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The geology of the north-western Anatolia (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) ranges from hard Mesozoic bedrock in mountainous areas to large sediment-filled, pull-apart basins formed by the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> zone system. Düzce and Bolu city centres are located in major alluvial basins in the region, and both suffered from severe building damage during the 12 November 1999 Düzce earthquake (Mw = 7.2). In this study, a team consisting of geophysicists and civil engineers collected and interpreted passive array-based microtremor data in the cities of Bolu and Düzce, both of which are localities of urban development located on topographically flat, geologically young alluvial basins of Miocene age. Interpretation of the microtremor data under an assumption of dominant fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave noise allowed derivation of the shear-wave velocity (Vs) profile. The depth of investigation was ~100 m from spatially-averaged coherency (SPAC) data alone. High-frequency microtremor array data to 25 Hz allows resolution of a surface layer with Vs < 200 m/s and thickness 5 m (Bolu) and 6 m (Düzce). Subsequent inclusion of spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components of microtremor data (HVSR) in the curve fitting process extends useful frequencies up to a decade lower than those for SPAC alone. This allows resolution of two interfaces of moderate Vs contrasts in soft Miocene and Eocene sediments, first, at a depth in the range 136-209 m, and second, at a depth in the range 2000 to 2200 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1496A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1496A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and stable-radiogenic isotope compositions of Polatlı-Haymana thermal waters (Ankara, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akilli, Hafize; Mutlu, Halim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Complex tectono-magmatic evolution of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> land resulted in development of numerous geothermal areas through <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The Ankara region in central Anatolia is surrounded by several basins which are filled with upper Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. Overlying Miocene volcanics and step <span class="hlt">faulting</span> along the margins of these basins played a significant role in formation of a number of low-enthalpy thermal waters. In this study, chemical and isotopic compositions of Polatlı and Haymana geothermal waters in the Ankara region are investigated. The Polatlı-Haymana waters with a temperature range of 24 to 43 °C are represented by Ca-(Na)-HCO3 composition implying derivation from carbonate type reservoir rocks. Oxygen-hydrogen isotope values of the waters are conformable with the Global Meteoric Water Line and point to a meteoric origin. The carbon isotopic composition in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the studied waters is between -21.8 and -1.34 permil (vs. VPDB). Marine carbonates and organic rocks are the main sources of carbon. There is a high correlation between oxygen (3.7 to 15.0 permil; VSMOW) and sulfur (-9.2 to 19.5 permil; VCDT) isotope compositions of sulfate in waters. The mixing of sulfate from dissolution of marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units is the chief process behind the observed sulfate isotope systematics of the samples. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of waters varying from 0.705883 to 0.707827 are consistent with those of reservoir rocks. The temperatures calculated by SO4-H2O isotope geothermometry are between 81 and 138 °C nearly doubling the estimates from chemical geothermometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T53B0480P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T53B0480P"><span id="translatedtitle">High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> where the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014178','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014178"><span id="translatedtitle">High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W</p> <p>2004-09-03</p> <p>We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> where the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..181K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..181K"><span id="translatedtitle">Microzonation Studies In District of Dikili, Izmir (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) In The Context of Social Responsibility by Using GIS Tecniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karabulut, Savas; Cinku, Mualla; Tezel, Okan; Hisarli, Mumtaz; Ozcep, Ferhat; Tun, Muammer; Avdan, Ugur; Ozel, Oguz; Acikca, Ahmet; Aygordu, Ozan; Benli, Aral; Kesisyan, Arda; Yilmaz, Hakan; Varici, Cagri; Ozturkan, Hasan; Ozcan, Cuneyt; Kivrak, Ali</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Social Responsibility Projects (SRP) are important tools in contributing to the development of communities and applied educational science. Researchers dealing with engineering studies generally focus on technical specifications. However, when the subject depends on earthquake, engineers should be consider also social and educational components, besides the technical aspects. If scientific projects collaborated with municipalities of cities, it should be known that it will reach a wide range of people. <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is one of the most active region that experienced destructive earthquakes. The 1999 Marmara earthquake was responsible for the loose of more than 18.000 people. The destructive damage occurred on buildings that made on problematic soils. This however, is still the one of most important issues in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> which needs to be solved. Inspite of large earthquakes that occurred along the major segments of the North and East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zones due to the northwards excursion of Anatolia, the extensional regime in the Aegean region is also characterized by earthquakes that occurred with the movement of a number of strike slip and normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The Dikili village within the Eastern Aegean extensional region experienced a large earthquake in 1939 (M: 6.8). The seismic activity is still characterised by high level and being detected. A lot of areas like the Kabakum village have been moved to its present location during this earthquake. The probability of an earthquake hazard in Dikili is considerably high level, today. Therefore, it is very important to predict the soil behaviour and engineering problems by using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools in this area. For this purpose we conducted a project with the collaboration of the Dikili Municipality in İzmir (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) to determine the following issues: a) Possible disaster mitigation as a result of earthquake-soil-structure interaction, b) Geo-enginnering problems (i.e: soil liquefaction, soil settlement, soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA51D1648G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA51D1648G"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Ionospheric Features over the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garner, T. W.; Slack, C. M.; Scholze, A.; Mehta, K.; Mahrous, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Helwan University and the Applied Research Laboratories at the University of Texas have collaborated to field the Ionospheric Tomography Network of Egypt (ITNE). ITNE consists of 3 UHF/VHF beacon receivers across Egypt. The first of these receivers was placed in Helwan, Egypt. It frequently observes a peak in ΔTEC/Δt measurements where the F-region intercept of the radio rays crosses the southern edge of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. This feature was observed repeatedly in passes over Anatolia during the summer of 2008. The ΔTEC/Δt peaks occur where the 300 km intercept passes over the edge. Visually the ΔTEC/Δt peaks are correlated with steep surface topography gradients. These correlations suggest that the local ionosphere is affected by the ground topography, possibly through the upward propagation of mountain-generated gravity waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tectp.679..199G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Tectp.679..199G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Plio-Quaternary kinematic development and paleostress pattern of the Edremit Basin, western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Sangu, Ercan; Özburan, Muzaffer; Gürbüz, Alper; Gürer, Aysan; Sinir, Hasan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Edremit Basin and Kazdağ High are the most prominent morphological features of the Biga Peninsula in northwest Anatolia. There is still no consensus on the formation of Edremit Basin and debates are on whether the basin evolved through a normal, a right-lateral or a left-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span>. In this study, the geometric, structural and kinematic characteristics of the Edremit Basin are investigated to make an analytical approach to this problem. The structural and kinematic features of the <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the region are described according to field observations. These <span class="hlt">fault</span>-slip data derived from the <span class="hlt">fault</span> planes were analyzed to determine the paleostress pattern of <span class="hlt">faulting</span> in the region. According to the performed analysis, the southern end of the Biga Peninsula is under the influence of the ENE-WSW-trending <span class="hlt">faults</span> of the region, such as the Yenice-Gönen, the Edremit, the Pazarköy and the Havran-Balıkesir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zones. The right step-over geometry and related extension caused to the development of the Edremit Basin as a transtensional pull-apart basin between the Havran-Balıkesir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone and the Edremit <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. Field observations showed that the Plio-Quaternary <span class="hlt">faults</span> at the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas are prominently right-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Our paleostress analyses suggest a dominant NE-SW extension in the study area, as well as NW-SE direction. This pattern indicates the major effects of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System and the component of Aegean Extensional System in the region. However, our kinematic analysis represents the dominant signature of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System in basin bounding <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The field observations and kinematic findings of this study are also consistent with the regional GPS, paleomagnetic and seismological data. This study concludes that the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System is the prominent structure in the current morphotectonic framework of the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613412E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613412E"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of gas and seismic energy release: new results from the multi-parametric benthic observatory SN-4 at MARsite location (Gulf of Izmit, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Embriaco, Davide; Marinaro, Giuditta; Frugoni, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Etiope, Giuseppe; Gasperini, Luca; Polonia, Alina; Del Bianco, Fabrizio; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Ulgen, Umut B.; Favali, Paolo</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Episodic gas seepage occurs at the seafloor in the Gulf of Izmit (Sea of Marmara, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) along the submerged segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF), which ruptured during the 1999 Mw7.4 Izmit earthquake, and caused tectonic loading of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment in front of the Istanbul metropolitan area. Marmara site was selected as one EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory) node where establish a permanent sea-bottom observatory. An autonomous and long-term multiparametric benthic observatory (SN-4) was deployed in order to study gas seepage and seismic energy release along the NAF. SN-4 operated in the gulf at the western end of the 1999 Izmit earthquake rupture for about one-year at 166 m water depth. The SN-4 payload included a three-component broad-band seismometer, as well as gas and oceanographic sensors. We analysed data collected continuously for 161 days in the first part of the experiment, from October 2009 to March 2010. The main objective of our work was to verify whether tectonic deformation along the NAF could trigger methane seepage. Results from the SN-4 experiment in the Sea of Marmara suggest that neither low-magnitude local seismicity, nor regional events affect intensity and frequency of gas flows from the seafloor. The SN-4 observatory was recently re-deployed in the same site for another one year mission (September 2013) in the framework of MARsite (New Directions in Seismic Hazard assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite) EC project which aims assessing the 'state of the art' of seismic risk evaluation and management at European level by long-term monitoring activities in Marmara Sea. References EMSO web site: http://www.emso-eu.org MARsite web site: http://www.marsite.eu/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870064"><span id="translatedtitle">Domestic livestock resources of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: water buffalo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Water buffalo are an ancient component of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'s domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684481"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine-related farm injuries in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akdur, Okhan; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Polat; Avsarogullari, Levent; Koyuncu, Murat; Ikizceli, Ibrahim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Traumas connected with agricultural production can result in serious injuries and mortality. The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics of agricultural machines related work injury cases admitted to the Emergency Department, and to asses factors related to injury severity and hospital admission in the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. All the cases presented related to injuries caused by work with agricultural machines between January 2006-November 2007 were included in the study. Information was collected concerning the demographic structures of the patients. Injury sites, injury types, and clinical features were recorded. Initial injury severity scores of all the cases were diagnosed at hospital admission. 91.9 percent of the cases were male. Mean age was 35.8 +- 17.0. The most common machine causing injuries was a tractor with 46 percent of cases, and all of these were fall traumas. 18.9 percent of the cases was considered as slight injury, 43.2 percent as moderate, and 37.9 percent as severe. Two male cases resulted in fatality. Our findings suggest that tractors are the most dangerous agricultural machines, and falls from tractors as the most common injury mechanism among machine-related injuries, especially for young people. In the rural areas of our country, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, agricultural machines cause serious injuries that require hospitalization. PMID:20684481</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4366D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4366D"><span id="translatedtitle">The nature and location of the plate boundary between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and African plates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>deǧer Özbakır, Ali; Wortel, Rinus; Govers, Rob</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Overall convergence of the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates, and the westward escape of Anatolia has resulted in an evolving plate boundary zone since the Miocene. In the Eastern Mediterranean, the current location and nature of the plate boundary between the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> and the African plates is difficult to trace due to the scattered crustal earthquakes, and the absence of deeper earthquakes. In this study we aim to better constrain the nature and the location of the plate boundary. GPS-derived velocity field and stresses from earthquake mechanism solutions comprise the datasets which short time scale (elastic) models can be compared to. We model the stresses and deformation on the overriding plate by incorporating convergence of Africa and Arabia towards stable Eurasia, and rollback of the Hellenic trench. Investigation of the plate boundary consists of constraining the directions of motions over the segments which make up the boundary. We assume various types and locations for the plate boundary within the observational limits. We use a spherical plane stress finite element model to test these possibilities. We find that stresses and displacements are sensitive to both the location and the nature of the plate boundary. We obtain the minimum misfit with the data in a model where we assume the following: (1) the segment between Hellenic and the Cyprus arcs have both down-dip and <span class="hlt">fault</span> parallel motions, (2) the connection between the Cyprus arc and Arabia--Eurasia collision zone is pure strike-slip. In all our models, an extra pull force on Anatolia is required to explain the high velocities in southwest Anatolia. This force may be related to return flow around the lateral edge of the Aegean slab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245481','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245481"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Turkey`s</span> nuclear power effort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aybers, N.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews <span class="hlt">Turkey`s</span> plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465174"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. PMID:21465174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NW.....98..407S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NW.....98..407S"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610360A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610360A"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface wave phase velocities from 2-D surface wave tomography studies in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arif Kutlu, Yusuf; Erduran, Murat; Çakır, Özcan; Vinnik, Lev; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We study the Rayleigh and Love surface wave fundamental mode propagation beneath the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate. To examine the inter-station phase velocities a two-station method is used along with the Multiple Filter Technique (MFT) in the Computer Programs in Seismology (Herrmann and Ammon, 2004). The near-station waveform is deconvolved from the far-station waveform removing the propagation effects between the source and the station. This method requires that the near and far stations are aligned with the epicentre on a great circle path. The azimuthal difference of the earthquake to the two-stations and the azimuthal difference between the earthquake and the station are restricted to be smaller than 5o. We selected 3378 teleseismic events (Mw >= 5.7) recorded by 394 broadband local stations with high signal-to-noise ratio within the years 1999-2013. Corrected for the instrument response suitable seismogram pairs are analyzed with the two-station method yielding a collection of phase velocity curves in various period ranges (mainly in the range 25-185 sec). Diffraction from lateral heterogeneities, multipathing, interference of Rayleigh and Love waves can alter the dispersion measurements. In order to obtain quality measurements, we select only smooth portions of the phase velocity curves, remove outliers and average over many measurements. We discard these average phase velocity curves suspected of suffering from phase wrapping errors by comparing them with a reference Earth model (IASP91 by Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The outlined analysis procedure yields 3035 Rayleigh and 1637 Love individual phase velocity curves. To obtain Rayleigh and Love wave travel times for a given region we performed 2-D tomographic inversion for which the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) code developed by N. Rawlinson at the Australian National University was utilized. This software package is based on the multistage fast marching method by Rawlinson and Sambridge (2004a, 2004b). The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoJI.175.1273Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoJI.175.1273Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Tomographic evidence of slab detachment beneath eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and the Caucasus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zor, Ekrem</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Teleseismic phase readings from the Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Seismic Experiment (ETSE) have been inverted using teleseismic tomography in order to create a 3-D image of the underlying mantle beneath Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The aim was to investigate the existence of an upper mantle negative velocity anomaly that is used to explain the uplift of Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and the potential pieces of detached oceanic slabs related to Neo-Tethyan subduction suggested by previous studies. Using teleseismic waveforms from the 29 stations of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Seismic Experiment, 2926 direct P phases from 146 events were picked by using adaptive stacking techniques. In order to increase the station coverage and resolve the surrounding area, the phase readings from the International Seismological Center (ISC) Bulletin have also been added. The data set consists of 9571 P and PKP phase readings of 79 stations from 503 teleseismic events. This study develops the first high-resolution 3-D upper mantle P-wave tomographic model for this region. The tomographic results show the existence of an upper mantle negative velocity anomaly to a depth of ~200 km beneath the eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> accreationary complex (EAAC) as commonly observed in the previous studies that suggest a shallow partially molten asthenosphere. The slab-like high velocity anomalies beneath the EAAC, Pontides and Caucasus are interpreted as the detached southern and northern Neo-Tethys slabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24301958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24301958"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> traditional quince cultivars, based on microsatellite markers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yüksel, C; Mutaf, F; Demirtaş, İ; Öztürk, G; Pektaş, M; Ergül, A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We conducted simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses of 15 traditional quince (Cydonia oblonga) cultivars from <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> gene sources for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Three pear and two apple cultivars were used as references for SSR locus data analysis and to determine allele profiles between species. Eight SSR loci that were developed from apple and pear were used, and a total of 44 alleles were found among quince cultivars. The CH01F02 locus was found to have the highest identification probability, while the CH04E03 locus had the lowest identification probability. Analysis of similarity ratios between quince cultivars showed that the lowest similarity ratio was 18% (Eşme-Bardacık ± k), while the highest similarity ratio was 87% (Bursa-Osmancık ± k and Osmancık ± k-Viranyadevi). In the phylogenetic dendrogram, Eşme quince showed separate branching from other quince cultivars, and no synonymous accessions were found. These results suggest that SSR markers from pear and apple could be used to determine genetic variation among quince cultivars. These findings can be used to guide future quince breeding and management studies. PMID:24301958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2319E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2319E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithospheric Response of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ergun, Mustafa</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43E2428C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43E2428C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Miocene to Recent evolution of an active transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> at the junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, eastern Mediterranean: the linkage between the western Antalya Basin and Finike Basin and Anaximander Seamounts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cinar, E.; King, H.; Aksu, A.; Hall, J.; Gurcay, S.; Çifçi, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A 100 km-wide transform ('STEP') <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone separates the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs at the convergent plate boundary of the eastern Mediterranean, where the African plate to the south is being subducted below the Aegean-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> microplate to the north. The eastern edge of the transform <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone is a N-S transtensional lineament which occurs at the shelf edge between the onland Bey Daglari mountains and the offshore Antalya Basin. The lineament runs northwards to the Isparta Angle in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>; and continues southwards to veer to the southwest through the Anaximander Seamounts to connect with the Strabo Trough. The Finike Basin lies immediately west of the transtensional <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone, and south of the Turkish shelf. Its Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary fill is trapped between the shelf and the Anaximander Seamounts, which appear to override it in a shallow-dipping north-verging thrust which carries the Sirri Erinç Plateau. Recent acquisition of around 1500 km of multi-channel seismic reflection profiles has enabled us to discern the relationships of the Finike Basin with the <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems which bound it. Miocene thrusts verging to the south characterise the area, and many are reactivated in Pliocene-Quaternary time, accompanied by back thrusts (verging to the north) indicative of transpression. A north-verging thrust carries the Sirri Erinç Plateau over the southern margin of the Finike Basin, and similarly-verging thrusts occur within the Basin. These, like the back-thrusts, are indicative of the (?)sinistral transpression that characterizes the STEP <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone in Pliocene-Quaternary time. The Kas 1 well illustrates south-verging thrusting on land, probably as a continuation of the contraction in the Taurides to the north. We suggest that the normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> along the coast is superficial and gravitational, formed on the back of the deep thrusts carrying Tauride Mountains. The Finike Basin has similarities with the adjacent Rhodes Basin. It is a deep</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.105..369K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.105..369K"><span id="translatedtitle">A Miocene onset of the modern extensional regime in the Isparta Angle: constraints from the Yalvaç Basin (southwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The pre-Neogene Tauride fold-and-thrust belt, comprising Cretaceous ophiolites and metamorphic rocks and non-metamorphic carbonate thrust slices in southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, is flanked and overlain by Neogene sedimentary basins. These include poorly studied intra-montane basins including the Yalvaç Basin. In this paper, we study the stratigraphy, sedimentology and structure of the Yalvaç Basin, which has a Middle Miocene and younger stratigraphy. Our results show that the basin formed as a result of multi-directional extension, with NE-SW to E-W extension dominating over subordinate NW-SE to N-S extension. We show that <span class="hlt">faults</span> bounding the modern basin also governed basin formation, with proximal facies close to the basin margins grading upwards and basinwards into lacustrine deposits representing the local depocentre. The Yalvac Basin was a local basin, but a similar, contemporaneous history recently reconstructed from the Altınapa Basin, ~100 km to the south, shows that multi-directional extension dominated by E-W extension was a regional phenomenon. Extension is still active today, and we conclude that this tectonic regime in the study area has prevailed since Middle Miocene times. Previously documented E-W shortening in the Isparta Angle along the Aksu Thrust, ~100 km to the southwest of our study area, is synchronous with the extensional history documented here, and E-W extension to its east shows that <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> westwards push is likely not the cause. Synchronous E-W shortening in the heart and E-W extension in the east of the Isparta Angle may be explained by an eastwards-dipping subduction zone previously documented with seismic tomography and earthquake hypocentres. We suggest that this slab surfaces along the Aksu thrust and creates E-W overriding plate extension in the east of the Isparta Angle. Neogene and modern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> geodynamics may thus have been driven by an Aegean, Antalya and Cyprus slab segment that each had their own specific evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3264T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3264T"><span id="translatedtitle">ESR dating marine terraces along the Mediterranean coast of the Antakya Graben, SE <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: Sea level change and tectonic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tari, Ufuk; Tüysüz, Okan; Blackwell, Bonnie; Genç, Ş. Can; İmren, Caner; Florentin, Jonathan A.; Skinner, Anne</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In southeastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, NE-trending Antakya Graben forms an asymmetric depression filled by Pliocene marine siliciclastic sediment, Pleistocene to Recent fluvial terrace sediment and alluvium. A multi-segmented, dominantly sinistral <span class="hlt">fault</span> lying along the graben possibly connects the Cyprus Arc in the west to the Amik Triple Junction on the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (DSF) in the east. Normal <span class="hlt">faults</span>, bounding the southeastern margin caused the graben to tilt southeastward and these <span class="hlt">faults</span> are younger than the sinistral ones. Westward escape of the continental İskenderun Block along the sinistral <span class="hlt">faults</span> belonging to the DSF in the east and to the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in the north caused Antakya Graben to open since Pliocene. In the later stages of this opening, normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> developed along the southeastern of the graben, leading to differential uplift of the Mediterranean coastal terraces. Tectonic uplift coupled with sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces at elevations ranging from 0.25 m to 180 m above current sea level along the Mediterranean coast. In this study we dated these terrace deposits by using electron spin resonance (ESR) method. In the NW part of the graben, terraces at 30 m above mean sea level (amsl) yield 63±8 ka and correlate with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. Older units dating to MIS 7 and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. On the 45 m amsl terrace dates to 114±7 ka, which is the MIS 5d/5e boundary. Terrace deposits at 105 m amsl belong to MIS 5c boundary at 91±13 ka. At Samandağ site at 39 m amsl, molluscs deposited in a large tidal channel indicate MIS 5d/5e boundary at 116 ± 5 ka. Contemporary sediments are seen in different elevations in the SE part of the graben. The youngest samples suggest an age 14±1 ka in the late MIS 2 for the slump topping the 8 m amsl terrace. At the 50 m amsl terrace dates to 89±5 ka and correlate with MIS 5a/5c. Here 180 m amsl terrace gave a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865763','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865763"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> finder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bunch, Richard H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">fault</span> finder for locating <span class="hlt">faults</span> along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a <span class="hlt">fault</span>. A <span class="hlt">fault</span> is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate <span class="hlt">fault</span> distance calculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSG....36...88G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSG....36...88G"><span id="translatedtitle">Comment on: 'Late Cretaceous extensional denudation along a marble detachment <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone in the Kırşehir massif near Kaman, Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>' by C. Lefebvre et al., 2011 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsg.2011.06.002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genç, Yurdal; Yürür, Tekin</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>For long time, Central Anatolia was believed to be a region undergoing compressional tectonics following the Late Cretaceous closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gautier et al. (2008) who studied the ductile domain of the Niğde core complex discussed the Niğde exhumation in terms of compression and extension. Genç and Yürür (2004), Yürür and Genç (2006), and Genç and Yürür (2010) structurally described the detachment <span class="hlt">faults</span> not only from the Niğde Massif but also from several other locations in central Anatolia to propose that the region underwent crustal extension since Late Cretaceous time. One of the important conclusions of Genç and Yürür (2010) is that the suture lines now observed in Anatolia have to be reconsidered with regard to displacements that the suture lines may have experienced due to this extensional regime. A new paper by Lefebvre et al. (2011), was recently published dealing with the tectonics of the Kırşehir Massif entitled 'Cretaceous extensional denudation along a marble detachment <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone in the Kırşehir massif near Kaman, Central <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>'. The paper mainly discusses the 'Kaman <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone' using calcite deformation fabrics of the marbles. Applying calcite fabrics and geochronological data from the literature, they propose a geotectonic model in four stages for the Kırşehir metamorphics. The purpose of this comment is to point out a number of incoherencies in the paper of Lefebvre et al. (2011). We have numbered these for convenience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713325E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713325E"><span id="translatedtitle">Results from the latest SN-4 multi-parametric benthic observatory experiment (MARsite EU project) in the Gulf of Izmit, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: oceanographic, chemical and seismic monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Embriaco, Davide; Marinaro, Giuditta; Frugoni, Francesco; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Monna, Stephen; Etiope, Giuseppe; Gasperini, Luca; Çağatay, Namık; Favali, Paolo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>An autonomous and long-term multiparametric benthic observatory (SN-4) was designed to study gas seepage and seismic energy release along the submerged segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF). Episodic gas seepage occurs at the seafloor in the Gulf of Izmit (Sea of Marmara, NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) along this submerged segment of the NAF, which ruptured during the 1999 Mw7.4 Izmit earthquake. The SN-4 observatory already operated in the Gulf of Izmit at the western end of the 1999 Izmit earthquake rupture for about one-year at 166 m water depth during the 2009-2010 experiment (EGU2014-13412-1, EGU General Assembly 2014). SN-4 was re-deployed in the same site for a new long term mission (September 2013 - April 2014) in the framework of MARsite (New Directions in Seismic Hazard assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite, http://marsite.eu/ ) EC project, which aims at evaluating seismic risk and managing of long-term monitoring activities in the Marmara Sea. A main scientific objective of the SN-4 experiment is to investigate the possible correlations between seafloor methane seepage and release of seismic energy. We used the same site of the 2009-2010 campaign to verify both the occurrence of previously observed phenomena and the reliability of results obtained in the previous experiment (Embriaco et al., 2014, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt436). In particular, we are interested in the detection of gas release at the seafloor, in the role played by oceanographic phenomena in this detection, and in the association of gas and seismic energy release. The scientific payload included, among other instruments, a three-component broad-band seismometer, and gas and oceanographic sensors. We present a technical description of the observatory, including the data acquisition and control system, results from the preliminary analysis of this new multidisciplinary data set, and a comparison with the previous experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8179E..0JD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8179E..0JD"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep around NAF by InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deguchi, Tomonori</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> (NAF) has several records of a huge earthquake occurrence in the last one century, which is well-known as a risky active <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Some signs indicating a creep displacement could be observed on the Ismetpasa segment. It is reported so far that the San Andreas <span class="hlt">Fault</span> in California, the Longitudinal Valley <span class="hlt">fault</span> in Taiwan and the Valley <span class="hlt">Fault</span> System in Metro Manila also exhibit <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> with creep deformation is aseismic and never generates the large-scale earthquakes. But the scale and rate of <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep are important factors to watch the <span class="hlt">fault</span> behavior and to understand the cycle of earthquake. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of spatial and temporal change on the ground motion due to <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep in the surrounding of the Ismetpasa, NAF. DInSAR is capable to catch a subtle land displacement less than a centimeter and observe a wide area at a high spatial resolution. We applied InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR data in order to measure long-term ground deformation from 2007 until 2011. As a result, the land deformation that the northern and southern parts of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> have slipped to east and west at a rate of 7.5 and 6.5 mm/year in line of sight respectively were obviously detected. In addition, it became clear that the <span class="hlt">fault</span> creep along the NAF extended 61 km in east to west direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02665&hterms=prosperity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dprosperity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02665&hterms=prosperity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dprosperity"><span id="translatedtitle">Istanbul, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/>This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.<p/>Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ927372.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ927372.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Difference and Relationship between the SSEE and UEE-1 Scores of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Vocational High Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bahar, Mustafa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Vocational High School students enter schools either with GPA or with Secondary School Entrance Exam (SSEE). In this research, the difference between the percentages of standard scores of 6190 students at four kinds of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Vocational High Schools in SSEE and UEE 1 exams, and their regression analyses have been studied. Moreover, one-way…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073952','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073952"><span id="translatedtitle">Elastic rebound following the Kocaeli earthquake, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, recorded using synthetic aperture radar interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mayer, Larry; Lu, Zhong</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A basic model incorporating satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> rupture zone that formed during the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999, documents the elastic rebound that resulted from the concomitant elastic strain release along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. For pure strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, the elastic rebound function derived from SAR interferometry is directly invertible from the distribution of elastic strain on the <span class="hlt">fault</span> at criticality, just before the critical shear stress was exceeded and the <span class="hlt">fault</span> ruptured. The Kocaeli earthquake, which was accompanied by as much as ∼5 m of surface displacement, distributed strain ∼110 km around the <span class="hlt">fault</span> prior to <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, although most of it was concentrated in a narrower and asymmetric 10-km-wide zone on either side of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The use of SAR interferometry to document the distribution of elastic strain at the critical condition for <span class="hlt">faulting</span> is clearly a valuable tool, both for scientific investigation and for the effective management of earthquake hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9103P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9103P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> strength in Marmara region inferred from the geometry of the principle stress axes and <span class="hlt">fault</span> orientations: A case study for the Prince's Islands <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinar, Ali; Coskun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydin; Kalafat, Dogan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The general consensus based on historical earthquake data point out that the last major moment release on the Prince's islands <span class="hlt">fault</span> was in 1766 which in turn signals an increased seismic risk for Istanbul Metropolitan area considering the fact that most of the 20 mm/yr GPS derived slip rate for the region is accommodated mostly by that <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment. The orientation of the Prince's islands <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment overlaps with the NW-SE direction of the maximum principle stress axis derived from the focal mechanism solutions of the large and moderate sized earthquakes occurred in the Marmara region. As such, the NW-SE trending <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment translates the motion between the two E-W trending branches of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone; one extending from the Gulf of Izmit towards Çınarcık basin and the other extending between offshore Bakırköy and Silivri. The basic relation between the orientation of the maximum and minimum principal stress axes, the shear and normal stresses, and the orientation of a <span class="hlt">fault</span> provides clue on the strength of a <span class="hlt">fault</span>, i.e., its frictional coefficient. Here, the angle between the <span class="hlt">fault</span> normal and maximum compressive stress axis is a key parameter where <span class="hlt">fault</span> normal and <span class="hlt">fault</span> parallel maximum compressive stress might be a necessary and sufficient condition for a creeping event. That relation also implies that when the trend of the sigma-1 axis is close to the strike of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> the shear stress acting on the <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane approaches zero. On the other hand, the ratio between the shear and normal stresses acting on a <span class="hlt">fault</span> plane is proportional to the coefficient of frictional coefficient of the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Accordingly, the geometry between the Prince's islands <span class="hlt">fault</span> segment and a maximum principal stress axis matches a weak <span class="hlt">fault</span> model. In the frame of the presentation we analyze seismological data acquired in Marmara region and interpret the results in conjuction with the above mentioned weak <span class="hlt">fault</span> model.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21781952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21781952"><span id="translatedtitle">Malaria in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005TuJES..14..281Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005TuJES..14..281Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Water-Level Changes in Shallow Wells Before and After the 1999 Ýzmit and Düzce Earthquakes and Comparison with Long-Term Water-Level Observations (1999-2004), NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yaltirak, Cenk; Yalçin, Tolga; Yüce, Galiip; Bozkurtoǧlu, Erkan</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>It is well known that earthquakes cause hydrological changes, such as drying or flooding of water wells, fluctuations in ground-water levels in wells, changes in water quality, and formation of new springs. Significant drops in ground-water levels in wells were recorded during recent earthquakes in NW <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> on August 17, 1999 in Ýzmit and on November 12, 1999 in Düzce. The Ýzmit earthquake (Ms 7.4) caused pre-seismic water-level changes in wells at Eskisehir, located 118-216 km away from the epicentre. Well-level changes in the Eskisehir, Sakarya, Bursa, Yalova, Yenisehir and Ýnegöl basins were recorded prior to and after the Düzce earthquake (Ms 7.2) as well. These changes are due to strain on the southern Marmara segments of the Thrace-Eskisehir <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (TEFZ), which is affected by deformation of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (NAFZ). Ground-water-level changes in wells prior to and after the earthquake away from the epicentre and the position of Eastern Marmara-Eskisehir region indicate a possible connection between well-level changes that respond to compressive and tensile stresses and shear strain away from active strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>. The wells, located in basins having an angular connection with the earthquake-producing main <span class="hlt">faults</span>, completely activate only during major earthquakes. The wells showing anomalies prior to earthquakes are generally found near epicentres or in basins having an angular connection as stated above. The data collected after the 1999 anomalies up to September 2004 indicate that the 1999 anomalies are unique to that year. It was not difficult to separate the seasonal fluctuations of the water levels from the earthquake anomalies. In this context, it is concluded that the 1999 water level anomalies prior to the earthquake were the fast- and short-period signature of slow but long-term deformations that occurred over a large area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014315','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014315"><span id="translatedtitle">The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A detailed study was made of the consequences of the Arabian plate convergence against Eurasia and its effects on the tectonics of Anatolia and surrounding regions of the eastern Mediterranean. A primary source of information is time rates of change of baseline lengths and relative heights determined by repeated SLR measurements. These SLR observations are augmented by a network of GPS stations in Anatolia, Aegea, and Greece, established and twice surveyed since 1988. The existing SLR and GPS networks provide the spatial resolution necessary to reveal the details of ongoing tectonic processes in this area of continental collision. The effort has involved examining the state of stress in the lithosphere and relative plate motions as revealed by these space based geodetic measurements, seismicity, and earthquake mechanisms as well as the aseismic deformations of the plates from conventional geodetic data and geological evidence. These observations are used to constrain theoretical calculations of the relative effects of: (1) the push of the Arabian plate; (2) high topography of Eastern Anatolia; (3) the geometry and properties of African-Eurasian plate boundary; (4) subduction under the Hellenic Arc and southwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>; and (5) internal deformation and rotation of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001638','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001638"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> diagnosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, Kathy</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the research in this area of <span class="hlt">fault</span> management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing <span class="hlt">faults</span>, especially <span class="hlt">faults</span> which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a <span class="hlt">fault</span> monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> and all components affected by the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the <span class="hlt">fault</span> propagation as the <span class="hlt">faulted</span> system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the <span class="hlt">faulted</span> system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the <span class="hlt">fault</span>. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found <span class="hlt">fault</span> situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the <span class="hlt">faulted</span> systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.T11C2450F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.T11C2450F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of the Eratosthenes Seamount, Cyprus and S. <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> from an amphibian wide-angle seismic profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feld, C.; Mechie, J.; Huebscher, C. P.; Gurbuz, C.; Nicolaides, S.; Weber, M. H.; Hall, J.; Louden, K. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In March 2010, the project CoCoCo (incipient COntinent-COntinent COllision) recorded a 650 km long amphibian N-S wide-angle seismic profile, extending from the Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM) across Cyprus and southern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> to the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau. The aim of the project is to reveal the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the Cyprus-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate. A visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data and reveal a good data quality. Subsequent first break picking, finite-differences ray tracing and inversion of the offshore wide-angle data leads to a first-arrival tomographic model. This model reveals (1) P-wave velocities lower than 6.5 km/s in the crust, (2) a crustal thickness of about 25-30 km and (3) an upper crustal reflection at 5 km depth beneath the ESM. Two landshots on <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, also recorded on Cyprus, air gun shots south of Cyprus and geological (Mackenzie et al., 2006) and previous seismic information provide the data to derive a layered velocity model beneath the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. Reflections provide evidence for a north-dipping plate subducting beneath Cyprus. The main features of this model are (1) an upper and lower crust with large lateral changes in velocity structure and thickness, (2) a Moho depth of about 45-50 km beneath the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau, (3) a shallow north-dipping subducting plate below Cyprus with an increasing dip and (4) a typical ophiolite sequence on Cyprus with a total thickness of about 14km. The offshore-onshore seismic data complete and improve the information about the velocity structure beneath Cyprus and the deeper part of the offshore tomographic model. Thus, the wide-angle seismic data provide detailed insights into the 2D-geometry and velocity structures of the uplifted and overriding Cyprus-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate. Subsequent gravity modeling will be used to check and improve the velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5053351','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5053351"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Segall, P. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of <span class="hlt">fault</span> mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; <span class="hlt">fault</span> friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adult&pg=6&id=EJ1018887','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adult&pg=6&id=EJ1018887"><span id="translatedtitle">Adult Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has a long tradition of adult education with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15006169','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15006169"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake focal parameters and lithospheric structure of the <span class="hlt">anatolian</span> plateau from complete regional waveform modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rodgers, A</p> <p>2000-12-28</p> <p>This is an informal report on preliminary efforts to investigate earthquake focal mechanisms and earth structure in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> (Turkish) Plateau. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle and earthquake focal parameters for event in the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau are estimated from complete regional waveforms. Focal mechanisms, depths and seismic moments of moderately large crustal events are inferred from long-period (40-100 seconds) waveforms and compared with focal parameters derived from global teleseismic data. Using shorter periods (10-100 seconds) we estimate the shear and compressional velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Results are broadly consistent with previous studies and imply relatively little crustal thickening beneath the central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau. Crustal thickness is about 35 km in western Anatolia and greater than 40 km in eastern Anatolia, however the long regional paths require considerable averaging and limit resolution. Crustal velocities are lower than typical continental averages, and even lower than typical active orogens. The mantle P-wave velocity was fixed to 7.9 km/s, in accord with tomographic models. A high sub-Moho Poisson's Ratio of 0.29 was required to fit the Sn-Pn differential times. This is suggestive of high sub-Moho temperatures, high shear wave attenuation and possibly partial melt. The combination of relatively thin crust in a region of high topography and high mantle temperatures suggests that the mantle plays a substantial role in maintaining the elevation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616186V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616186V"><span id="translatedtitle">Networking of Near <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Observatories in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vogfjörd, Kristín; Bernard, Pascal; Chiraluce, Lauro; Fäh, Donat; Festa, Gaetano; Zulficar, Can</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Networking of six European near-<span class="hlt">fault</span> observatories (NFO) was established In the FP7 infrastructure project NERA (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation). This networking has included sharing of expertise and know-how among the observatories, distribution of analysis tools and access to data. The focus of the NFOs is on research into the active processes of their respective <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones through acquisition and analysis of multidisciplinary data. These studies include the role of fluids in <span class="hlt">fault</span> initiation, site effects, derived processes such as earthquake generated tsunamis and landslides, mapping the internal structure of <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems and development of automatic early warning systems. The six <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones are in different tectonic regimes: The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in Iceland, the Marmara Sea in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and the Corinth Rift in Greece are at plate boundaries, with strike-slip <span class="hlt">faulting</span> characterizing the SISZ and the Marmara Sea, while normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> dominates in the Corinth Rift. The Alto Tiberina and Irpinia <span class="hlt">faults</span>, dominated by low- and medium-angle normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span>, respectively are in the Apennine mountain range in Italy and the Valais Region, characterized by both strike-slip and normal <span class="hlt">faulting</span> is located in the Swiss Alps. The <span class="hlt">fault</span> structures range from well-developed long <span class="hlt">faults</span>, such as in the Marmara Sea, to more complex networks of smaller, book-shelf <span class="hlt">faults</span> such as in the SISZ. Earthquake hazard in the <span class="hlt">fault</span> zones ranges from significant to substantial. The Marmara Sea and Corinth rift are under ocean causing additional tsunami hazard and steep slopes and sediment-filled valleys in the Valais give rise to hazards from landslides and liquefaction. Induced seismicity has repeatedly occurred in connection with geothermal drilling and water injection in the SISZ and active volcanoes flanking the SISZ also give rise to volcanic hazard due to volcano-tectonic interaction. Organization among the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2319E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2319E"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithospheric Response of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ergun, Mustafa</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192.1217A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192.1217A"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations and stochastic modelling of strong ground motions for the 2011 October 23 Mw 7.1 Van, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akinci, Aybige; Antonioli, Andrea</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p> empirical ground motion equations, both at moderate and larger distance; this feature is captured by the AC10 model that is derived from Turkish earthquake database. Faster attenuation of ground motion due to the high attenuation of seismic waves in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau is in agreement with our stochastic simulations of strong ground motions of the 2011 October 23 Van earthquake. This highlights the importance of retrieving specific regional seismic parameters for the ground motion predictive equations. The stress redistribution computation indicates that the October sequence had an active role in promoting the November aftershocks, being the Coulomb stress variation positive in the entire region of interest. Furthermore, the Van events enhanced the stress level on the Caldiran <span class="hlt">fault</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009506','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009506"><span id="translatedtitle">Informatics in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cakir, Serhat</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..392D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..392D"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal Structure of the Central Anatolia - Eastern Mediterrenean, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Cyprus from Wide-Angle Seismic Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denli, Alper; Gürbüz, Cemil; Mechie, James; Weber, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As a part of the CyprusArc project, a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles were carried out in March 2010. The 300 km and 45 km long north-south trending profiles extended from Cihanbeyli in Central Anatolia to Anamur in eastern Mediterranean, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and in southern Cyprus, respectively. The purpose of the project is to observe the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plate. The field experiment comprised two land shots (1125 kg explosives) in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and airguns (98 cubic liters) on the Mediterranean sea, beneath Cyprus. 244 stations were installed on land for data acquisition. 77 three-component sensors and 167 vertical-component sensors were installed along ~300 km distances between Cihanbeyli and Anamur with an average spacing of 1.25 km, on <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. 24 three-component sensors and 21 vertical component sensors were deployed along 45 km distances on land at southern Cyprus with an average spacing of 1.25 km. To reveal a good data quality, a visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data. Two land shots on <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (also recorded on Cyprus) and airgun shots on the Mediterranean sea beneath Cyprus, geological and previous seismic investigations provide information to derive a layered velocity models beneath from the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau to eastern Mediterranean, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. After picking observed seismic phases, finite-differences ray tracing of the wide-angle data leads a 2-D crustal P-wave velocity models. The results show moho depth increases from 38 km to 45 km depth along north-south trending profile on <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and crustal thinning between south <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Cyprus from 40 km to 36 km. Obtained models were further refined using forward modeling to generate synthetic seismograms for individual shot gathers. Thus, by varying the velocity structure, the theoretical times and amplitudes of the various</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815334U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815334U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T41A2853Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T41A2853Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The stress shadow effect: a mechanical analysis of the evenly-spaced parallel strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.; Lin, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Parallel evenly-spaced strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> are prominent in the southern San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> system, as well as other settings along plate boundaries (e.g., the Alpine <span class="hlt">fault</span>) and within continental interiors (e.g., the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span>, central Asian, and northern Tibetan <span class="hlt">faults</span>). In southern California, the parallel San Jacinto, Elsinore, Rose Canyon, and San Clemente <span class="hlt">faults</span> to the west of the San Andreas are regularly spaced at ~40 km. In the Eastern California Shear Zone, east of the San Andreas, <span class="hlt">faults</span> are spaced at ~15 km. These characteristic spacings provide unique mechanical constraints on how the <span class="hlt">faults</span> interact. Despite the common occurrence of parallel strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, the fundamental questions of how and why these <span class="hlt">fault</span> systems form remain unanswered. We address this issue by using the stress shadow concept of Lachenbruch (1961)—developed to explain extensional joints by using the stress-free condition on the crack surface—to present a mechanical analysis of the formation of parallel strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> that relates <span class="hlt">fault</span> spacing and brittle-crust thickness to <span class="hlt">fault</span> strength, crustal strength, and the crustal stress state. We discuss three independent models: (1) a fracture mechanics model, (2) an empirical stress-rise function model embedded in a plastic medium, and (3) an elastic-plate model. The assumptions and predictions of these models are quantitatively tested using scaled analogue sandbox experiments that show that strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> spacing is linearly related to the brittle-crust thickness. We derive constraints on the mechanical properties of the southern San Andreas strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> and <span class="hlt">fault</span>-bounded crust (e.g., local <span class="hlt">fault</span> strength and crustal/regional stress) given the observed <span class="hlt">fault</span> spacing and brittle-crust thickness, which is obtained by defining the base of the seismogenic zone with high-resolution earthquake data. Our models allow direct comparison of the parallel <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the southern San Andreas system with other similar strike</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...80R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...80R"><span id="translatedtitle">Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> for the period 1976-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, with less variation in precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3595648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3595648"><span id="translatedtitle">Van, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Earthquake of 23 October 2011, Mw 7.2; An Overview on Disaster Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>ZARÉ, Mehdi; NAZMAZAR, Behnaz</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515082"><span id="translatedtitle">Van, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> earthquake of 23 october 2011, mw 7.2; an overview on disaster management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaré, Mehdi; Nazmazar, Behnaz</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611751','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611751"><span id="translatedtitle">A new subspecies of Seseli gummiferum (Apiaceae) from Ilgaz Mountain National Park, northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Çetin, Özlem; Şeker, Meryem Öztürk; Duran, Ahmet</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract A new subspecies Seseli gummiferum Pall. ex Sm. subsp. ilgazense A.Duran, Ö.Çetin & M.Öztürk, subsp. nov. (Apiaceae) is described from Kastamonu province, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. It was collected from the open Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies nordmanniana (Steven) É.Spach. mixed forest in the northern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region. An endemic apparently confined to the Ilgaz Mountain National Park, the new taxon is closely related to Seseli gummiferum subsp. gummiferum. Diagnostic morphological characters for closely similar taxa are discussed, and a key to the subspecies of Seseli gummiferum is presented. ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the nuclear ribozomal DNA of closely related Seseli L. taxa and Pimpinella is used to constract phylogenetic tree by using BioEdit and Seaview Programme. PMID:26491389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17825358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17825358"><span id="translatedtitle">Kaletepe Deresi 3 (<span class="hlt">Turkey</span>): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Located in the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:17825358</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26491389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26491389"><span id="translatedtitle">A new subspecies of Seseli gummiferum (Apiaceae) from Ilgaz Mountain National Park, northern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Çetin, Özlem; Şeker, Meryem Öztürk; Duran, Ahmet</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new subspecies Seseli gummiferum Pall. ex Sm. subsp. ilgazense A.Duran, Ö.Çetin & M.Öztürk, subsp. nov. (Apiaceae) is described from Kastamonu province, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. It was collected from the open Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies nordmanniana (Steven) É.Spach. mixed forest in the northern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region. An endemic apparently confined to the Ilgaz Mountain National Park, the new taxon is closely related to Seseli gummiferum subsp. gummiferum. Diagnostic morphological characters for closely similar taxa are discussed, and a key to the subspecies of Seseli gummiferum is presented. ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the nuclear ribozomal DNA of closely related Seseli L. taxa and Pimpinella is used to constract phylogenetic tree by using BioEdit and Seaview Programme. PMID:26491389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912420"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of prion gene promoter and intron1 indel polymorphisms in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oztabak, K; Ozkan, E; Soysal, I; Paya, I; Un, C</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disease caused by miss folded prion protein. Studies in the cattle, comparing genetic data from BSE diseased and healthy animals have shown that indel polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of PRNP gene were associated with disease susceptibility. Several studies were conducted to find out allele and genotypic frequencies of indel polymorphisms in promoter and intron 1 of the cattle PRNP gene. Unlike domestic cattle and bison, no indel polymorphisms of the PRNP promoter and intron 1 were examined in any population of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Aim of this study was to analyse frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms (23 bp indel in promoter and 12 bp indel in intron 1) in prion protein coding gene (PRNP) of water buffalo. Therefore a PCR based procedure, previously used in cattle to detect indel polymorphisms of PRNP promoter and intron 1 locus, was applied to 106 <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> water buffalo DNAs. Our results have revealed high frequency of in variants and in23/in12 haplotype for PRNP promoter and intron 1 indel polymorphisms in water buffalo. The results of the study have demonstrated that frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms in PRNP gene of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> water buffalo are significantly different those from cattle and bison PRNP indel polymorphisms. PMID:19912420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214157D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214157D"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle Response to Collision, Slab Breakoff & Lithospheric Tearing in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Orogenic Belts, and Cenozoic Geodynamics of the Aegean-Eastern Mediterranean Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilek, Yildirim; Altunkaynak, Safak</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>) to the southern margin of Eurasia, and by related slab breakoff events. Exhumation of middle to lower crustal rocks and the formation of extensional metamorphic domes occurred in the backarc region of this progressively southward-migrated trench and the Tethyan (Afro-Arabian) slab throughout the Cenozoic. Thus, slab retreat played a major role in the Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean and Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> regions. However, the subducting African lithospheric slab beneath the Aegean-Western <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> region is delimited to the east by a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) <span class="hlt">fault</span>, which corresponds to the sharp cusp between the Hellenic and Cyprus trenches whose surface expression is marked by the Isparta Angle in the Western Taurides. This lithospheric tear in the downgoing African plate allowed the mantle to rise beneath SW Anatolia, inducing decompressional melting of shallow asthenosphere and producing linearly distributed alkaline magmatism younging in the direction of tear propagation (southward). The N-S-trending potassic and ultra-potassic volcanic fields stretching from the Kirka and Afyon-Suhut region (~17 Ma) in the north to the Isparta-Gölcük area (4.6 Ma-Recent) in the south are the result of this melting of the sub-slab (asthenospheric) mantle, which was metasomatized by recent subduction events in the region. Asthenospheric low velocities detected through Pn tomographic imaging in this region support the existence of shallow asthenosphere beneath the Isparta Angle at present. These observations suggest that currently there is no active subduction underneath much of Western Anatolia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3795325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3795325"><span id="translatedtitle">Echinococcosis multilocularis in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uysal, V; Paksoy, N</p> <p>1986-10-01</p> <p>We present 20 new cases of Echinococcosis multilocularis (EM) and have also reviewed all 137 previously reported cases from <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The total number of cases is now 157 up until the end of 1983. Of 146 cases with information on their place of occurrence, 133 (91%) were from eastern and central parts of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> or the region of the Black Sea where the cold climate is predominant. This area should be considered as part of the geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis which extends from the Caucasian Republics (Azerbaijan and Georgian S.S.R.) to Siberia in the Soviet Union. EM is more frequent among the people involved in raising livestock in the rural areas of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. Most of the cases (76%) were between the ages of 30 and 50; 53% were males. One hundred and thirty nine cases (92%) were liver infections, and most of the cases (60%) were clinically diagnosed as liver tumour. PMID:3795325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411011C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411011C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> weakening and onset of aseismic creep on mature strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Çakir, Z.; Ergintav, S.; Ozener, H.; Dogan, U.; Akoglu, A. M.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Persistent Scatterer InSAR time series analysis of the radar images of the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency, GPS measurements and field observations reveal that central section of the Izmit <span class="hlt">fault</span> is now creeping at a steady-state rate reaching to its full speed of up to ~2 cm/yr, that is, its geodetically determined pre-earthquake slip rate. GPS measurements and InSAR time series west of Lake Sapanca show that rapid postseismic afterslip started immediately after the earthquake following the coseismic movement of ~3 m. As expected, it decays logarithmically with time and appears to be in a steady-state stage over the last 5-6 years, implying that it will likely continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. In other words, postseismic afterslip turns into surface creep with time, which is what might also have happened along the Hayward segment of the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> and Ismetpasa segment of the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span> following the large earthquakes in 1857 and 1944, respectively. Therefore, the 1999 Izmit earthquake demonstrates for the first time how postseismic afterslip evolves in to stable surface creep. We attribute the triggering of surface creep to trapped pore-fluid overpressures induced by the supershear rupture propagation during the Izmit earthquake, and to the oceanic and metamorphic rocks outcropping in the earthquake region as they are largely made up of weak phyllosilicates. The aseismic slip explains the relative seismic quiescence along supershear rupture segments observed after the 1999 Izmit and possibly various other large earthquakes elsewhere in the world, suggesting that supershear <span class="hlt">fault</span> segments might be potential sites for aseismic surface creep.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JVGR...85...33D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JVGR...85...33D"><span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of volcanic vents and geodynamics of Central Anatolia, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhont, D.; Chorowicz, J.; Yürür, T.; Froger, J.-L.; Köse, O.; Gündogdu, N.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>Observations on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), complemented by field structural analysis permit a new understanding of relationships between tectonics and volcanism since the late Miocene (10 Ma) in Central Anatolia. Volcanic edifices form elongate stratovolcanoes, linear clusters and volcanic ridges. They indicate emplacement on tension fractures and tail-crack or horsetail features. For instance, the Kara Dag volcano is rooted on a tail-crack which accommodates a horizontal left-lateral throw component at a <span class="hlt">fault</span> termination. Caldera complexes of Cappadocia are associated with horsetail <span class="hlt">fault</span> patterns. The emplacement of volcanoes also benefits from larger-scale tectonic structures: the Erciyes Dag volcano is localized by the Sultan Saz releasing bend which opens along the sinistral strike-slip Ecemis <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Deformation has been analysed from tension fractures—which are perpendicular to the direction of extension—and from field structural analysis. On a regional scale, the tectonic regime responsible for the distribution of volcanic vents in this area of convergence and lateral extrusion, is not compression but extension. The Central Taurus range is the thermally uplifted shoulder of the Adana-Cilicia basin, which is related to lithosphere thinning. Westward movements in the northwestern part of the studied area are influenced by the active back-arc Aegean extension situated to the west. Farther to the south, the direction of motion turns southwest and south, under the influence of the opening of the Adana-Cilicia basin. We interpreted that extension in the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plateau is related to crustal blocks moving above sub-horizontal detachment surfaces located in the lower crust. This is based on several facts: the Tuz Gölü <span class="hlt">fault</span> zone is a within-crust detachment; the Tuz Gölü basin does not affect the whole lithosphere because otherwise it would have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5319756','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5319756"><span id="translatedtitle">Block rotation in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. 1. Observational evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Westaway, R. )</p> <p>1990-11-10</p> <p>Field observations and seismicity of the past century are used to deduce positions and slip senses of major active oblique normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> in this region, which take up extension in the upper crustal brittle layer and allow <span class="hlt">fault</span>-bounded blocks to rotate around vertical axes. The principal active normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> in western <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> strike roughly east-west near the Aegean coast, turning gradually toward westnorthwest-eastsoutheast strike across {approximately}200 km distance inland to the east. Slip vector azimuths indicate typical extension direction on these <span class="hlt">faults</span> is {approximately}S18{degree}{plus minus}8W. They truncate a second set of <span class="hlt">faults</span> with smaller displacement and roughly orthogonal strike and slip vector azimuth. As well as subdividing the brittle layer into blocks that show little different Neogene rotation around vertical axes. Some domains contain sets of major active oblique normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> that bound blocks that are elongated, angular, and shaped like tilted dominoes. These <span class="hlt">faults</span> take up extension, and can also take up rotation around vertical axes provided they and the blocks between them rotate around vertical axes at the same rate. Where adequate paleomagnetic observations are available, they indicate these domains have rotated counterclockwise, as expected by up to {approximately}40{degree}: Roughly equal to the change in strike of the principal set of active <span class="hlt">faults</span> between the Aegean coast and the eastern edge of the actively extending zone. However, evidence is scarce for the right-lateral strike slip expected in some kinematic models on a set of oblique normal <span class="hlt">faults</span> that takes up extension and counterclockwise rotation; instead, each <span class="hlt">fault</span> appears to have the component of strike slip necessary to enable it, given its local strike, to slip in the direction in which the region is extending.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr00265','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr00265"><span id="translatedtitle">Bedrock Geology of the <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Char, Stephen J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of <span class="hlt">fault</span> locations and geologic map units based on age and lithology. Created for use in the Jefferson County Mountain Ground-Water Resources Study, it is to be used at a scale no more detailed than 1:50,000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810359K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810359K"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modelling of Triple Junction Tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>: implications for the mechanism of magma transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karaoǧlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). Suitably stressed crustal materials of the extruded block on the Karlıova-type triple junctions are potential regions for magma ascent. The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple junction tectonic settings is, however, poorly understood. This study discusses the mechanism of magma propagation in the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) tectonic regime. We aim to demonstrate how the geometry and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">faults</span> and rock units affect magma propagation under a variety of tectonic boundary loads. We discuss the geologic setting of the KTJ and the manifestations of shallow and deeper magma chambers within the crustal segment. Our numerical modelling study aims to quantify the crustal response of various tectonic regimes in Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. The region is characterised by lithological heterogeneity which is considered in our models. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models to help constrain evolving ideas regarding inversion and transtensional tectonics in an east-west direction along the KTJ. We also consider a north to south striking profile which is subjected to regional compression and local extensional tectonic phases which likely operated in the region ~3 My. A three-dimensional model is presented to investigate the effect of regional differential stresses. Our numerical models demonstrate that the regional tectonic stresses that are capable of encouraging magma-chamber failure and dyke propagation. Turnadaǧ volcanism at the western part of this triple junction has been fed by a shallow magma chamber located at 8-10 km depth during E-W extension. The Varto caldera is also fed by a shallow magma chamber at 8-10 km depth. Numerical results show that if the region were to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22061521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22061521"><span id="translatedtitle">Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Red sires mated to Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Red dams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (P<0.01) for carcasses from C and S sires, and highest for carcasses from EAR calves. C-sired calves received higher (P<0.01) ratings for panel tenderness score, lower shear force value and number of chews before swallow than S- and EAR-sired progeny. Overall results of the study suggested that fattening performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed. PMID:22061521</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930084584','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930084584"><span id="translatedtitle">The "<span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Buzzard" glider</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T</p> <p>1923-01-01</p> <p>The "<span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088656.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088656.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Country Profiles, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Lewis S.</p> <p></p> <p>A profile of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turkeys&pg=7&id=EJ857857','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Turkeys&pg=7&id=EJ857857"><span id="translatedtitle">Special Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479556"><span id="translatedtitle">Wind energy and <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=258189','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=258189"><span id="translatedtitle">Osteomyelitis in <span class="hlt">turkeys</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Turkey</span> osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Creationism&pg=6&id=EJ610394','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Creationism&pg=6&id=EJ610394"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloning Creationism in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edis, Taner</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Defines how political balances and changes in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511257.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511257.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Special Education in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eres, Figen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ops2.book..195E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ops2.book..195E"><span id="translatedtitle">Astronomy in Modern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=328478','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=328478"><span id="translatedtitle">Axiom <span class="hlt">turkey</span> genotyping array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Axiom®<span class="hlt">Turkey</span> Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2336B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2336B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A pollen-based environmental reconstruction in Lake Hazar (Eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>) during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene: Example for the Eastern Mediterranean Realm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biltekin, Demet; Kadir Eris, Kürsad; Namik Cagatay, Memet; Nagihan Arslan, Tugce; Akcer On, Sena; Acar, Dursun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Eastern Mediterranean realm historically is a melting area for ancient civilisations. This region has been therefore anthropogenically influenced since the Late Pleistocene. The understanding the processes between vegetation and climate, pollen analysis is a significant proxy in the investigation of past climate, vegetation records and the human influence on the environment. In this research, we carried out the environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene using multi-proxy analysis (palynology, XRF core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and TOC) in the sediment core obtained from 54.39 m depth on the northern shelf of Lake Hazar using a percussion piston corer. Lake Hazar (38° 31' N-39° 25' E) is located at ca. 1255 m above sea level, 22 km south-east of Elazıǧ city in eastern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> in the south-east Taurus Mountains. It is an oligotrophic, alkaline soda and a tectonic lake being situated on East <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone (EAFZ). The chronology of the sediment core has been determined using AMS radiocarbon method. We present the first pollen record from the core sediments in Lake Hazar, providing insight into multi-millennial scale climatic changes over the last ~15 14C ka BP. In the piston core, the Bølling/Allerød period is associated by the presence of Pistacia reflecting milder winter conditions with high biological productivity. Onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) period is marked by increase in herbaceous plants and lake level lowering that can also be documented by high magnetic susceptibility and Ca/Ti ratio. The spread of deciduous Quercus at the beginning of Holocene can be attributed to significant forestation due to a high humidity that was presumably sufficient for the establishment of oak forest. An increase in Quercus continued in most of the early and middle Holocene. The 3rd millenium crisis is strongly characterized by an increase in herbal elements, and a decline in Quercus, pointing to dry climatic conditions. The most striking</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11743159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11743159"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> tree rings and a new chronology for the east Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manning, S W; Kromer, B; Kuniholm, P I; Newton, M W</p> <p>2001-12-21</p> <p>We report an extensive program of high-precision radiocarbon dating to establish the best date for a floating 1599-year <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> tree ring chronology that spans the later third millennium B.C. through the earlier first millennium B.C. This chronology is directly associated with a number of key sites and ancient personages. A previously suggested dating is withdrawn and is replaced by a robust new date fix 22 (+4 or -7) years earlier. These new radiocarbon wiggle-matched dates offer a unique independent resource for establishing the precise chronology of the ancient Near East and Aegean and help resolve, among others, a long-standing debate in favor of the so-called Middle Mesopotamian chronology. PMID:11743159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7239M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7239M"><span id="translatedtitle">Rain shadow development and paleoenvironmental change in the southern Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meijers, Maud J. M.; Mulch, Andreas; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Whitney, Donna L.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Ongoing Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the eastern Mediterranean region has led to the westward escape of the <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> microplate and the formation of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Plateau (CAP). The US-NSF CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Tectonics) project aims at understanding the surface-to-mantle coupling during the transition from collision to escape tectonics and plateau formation in Anatolia. Within the CD-CAT project, this study aims at determining the paleoenvironmental conditions and the age of plateau (margin) uplift by integrating stable isotope geochemistry and absolute dating techniques (40Ar/39Ar geochronology and magnetostratigraphy) on middle Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The low-relief CAP (~1.5 km average elevation) is characterized by high-relief mountain ranges at its southern and northern margins. The Tauride mountain belt forms the southern plateau margin of the CAP with a relief of up to 3 km. Uplift of Tortonian marine sediments in the central Taurides to modern elevations of up to 2 km constrain the onset of surface uplift of the southern plateau margin to ~8 Ma (Schildgen et al. 2012a,b). Proxy records of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in precipitation allow to reconstruct the development of the present-day Tauride rain shadow and hence the surface elevation history of the southern plateau margin. Here we evaluate δ18O and δ13C records of seven lacustrine basins situated along a SW-NE swath in the lee of the modern Tauride mountains in order to track the development of a Tauride rain shadow and changes in open to closed lake conditions through the late Miocene to Pliocene. We focus on lacustrine sections with available mammal ages and integrate these with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of widespread volcanics of the Central <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Volcanic Province and magnetostratigraphy where possible. Our results from seven sections of ~12-4 Ma in lacustrine deposits and pedogenic soil carbonates of ~3-2.5 Ma show a decrease of δ18O</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3611453','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3611453"><span id="translatedtitle">CT evaluation of the bony nasal pyramid dimensions in <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> people</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karadag, D; Ozdol, NC; Beriat, K; Akinci, T</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the nasal bone and bony nasal pyramid in adult <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> people. Method A total of 80 patients (48 males, 32 females, mean age of 40.03 years) were all evaluated using CT. Upper, intermediate and inferior thickness of the nasal bone on each side and on the lateral and medial osteotomy line were measured. In addition, nasal bone length and pyriform aperture width were determined. Results The bone thickness was 2.23 mm ± 0.15 mm in males and 2.19 mm ± 0.14 mm in females at the level of upper border of the nasal bone; 1.82 mm ± 0.32 mm in males and 1.81 mm ± 0.25 mm in females at the intermediate level; and 1.73 mm ± 0.30 mm in males and 1.86 mm ± 0.69 mm in females at the lower border of the nasal bone. The mean thickness on the lateral osteotomy line was 1.85 mm ± 0.32 mm in males and 1.91 mm ± 0.46 mm in females. The mean thickness of the medial osteotomy line was 2.08 ± 0.17 mm in males and 2.04 mm ± 0.17 mm in females. The mean length of the nasal bone was 30.61 mm ± 1.26 mm in males and 29.01 mm ± 1.12 mm in females. The mean width of the pyriform aperture was 18.83 mm ± 2.17 mm in males and 18.19 mm ± 1.85 in females. Conclusion The dimensions of the nasal pyramid are known to be important in the selection of appropriate osteotome. Our results can be used for pre-operative evaluation of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> people undergoing nasal surgery. PMID:21346082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..436C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..436C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Collision Zone, Northeastern Anatolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cengiz, Özlem; Tuǧrul Başokur, Ahmet; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Northeastern Anatolia is located at the intensely deformed Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Collision Zone (EACZ), and its tectonic framework is characterized by the collision of the Arabian plate with Eurasian. Although extensive attention is given to understand the crustal and upper mantle processes at this convergent boundary, there is still an ongoing debate over the geodynamic processes of the region. In this study, we were specifically interested in the geoelectric properties and thus geodynamics of the crust beneath the EACZ. Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were made on two profiles across the north of the EACZ in 1998 as part of a national project undertaken by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO). MT data in the frequency range of 300-0.001 Hz were collected from 168 stations located along 78 km north to south and 47 km west to east profiles where direct convergence occurs between Arabian and Eurasian plates. Two and three-dimensional inversion algorithms were used to obtain resistivity models of the study area. According to these models, the upper crust consists of low resistivity sedimentary rocks (<30 Ωm) that are underlain by highly resistive (~500-1000 Ωm) crystalline basement rocks of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Accretionary Complex and Pontides. While the upper and lower crustal resistivity at the northern part of the study area shows a layered structure, significant horizontal and vertical variations for the rest of the EACZ exists on resistivity models. The broad low resistivity zones (<50 Ωm) observed at mid and lower crustal levels throughout the EACZ. These fluid-rich regions along with high temperatures could indicate weak zones representing the locations of active deformation induced by continent-continent collision and correlate with volcanic centers in the region. The variation in the resistivity structure supports the southward subduction model with the resistive continental block and the deep conductive zones presumably corresponding to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH21B1820A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH21B1820A"><span id="translatedtitle">Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span> near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern <span class="hlt">Turkey</span>. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoJI.187..959C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoJI.187..959C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> slip distribution and <span class="hlt">fault</span> roughness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Candela, Thibault; Renard, François; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Bouchon, Michel; Brodsky, Emily E.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We present analysis of the spatial correlations of seismological slip maps and <span class="hlt">fault</span> topography roughness, illuminating their identical self-affine exponent. Though the complexity of the coseismic spatial slip distribution can be intuitively associated with geometrical or stress heterogeneities along the <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface, this has never been demonstrated. Based on new measurements of <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface topography and on statistical analyses of kinematic inversions of slip maps, we propose a model, which quantitatively characterizes the link between slip distribution and <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface roughness. Our approach can be divided into two complementary steps: (i) Using a numerical computation, we estimate the influence of <span class="hlt">fault</span> roughness on the frictional strength (pre-stress). We model a <span class="hlt">fault</span> as a rough interface where elastic asperities are squeezed. The Hurst exponent ?, characterizing the self-affinity of the frictional strength field, approaches ?, where ? is the roughness exponent of the <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface in the direction of slip. (ii) Using a quasi-static model of <span class="hlt">fault</span> propagation, which includes the effect of long-range elastic interactions and spatial correlations in the frictional strength, the spatial slip correlation is observed to scale as ?, where ? represents the Hurst exponent of the slip distribution. Under the assumption that the origin of the spatial fluctuations in frictional strength along <span class="hlt">faults</span> is the elastic squeeze of <span class="hlt">fault</span> asperities, we show that self-affine geometrical properties of <span class="hlt">fault</span> surface roughness control slip correlations and that ?. Given that ? for a wide range of <span class="hlt">faults</span> (various accumulated displacement, host rock and slip movement), we predict that ?. Even if our quasi-static <span class="hlt">fault</span> model is more relevant for creeping <span class="hlt">faults</span>, the spatial slip correlations observed are consistent with those of seismological slip maps. A consequence is that the self-affinity property of slip roughness may be explained by <span class="hlt">fault</span> geometry without considering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G21C..05C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G21C..05C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Detectability of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> using borehole tiltmeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chery, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>During the last decades, geodetic tools like C-GPS allowed the detection of slow slip events associated with transient motion below the seismogenic zone. This new class of <span class="hlt">fault</span> motion lead us to revise the standard version of the seismic cycle simply including coseismic, postseismic and interseismic phases. Most of these discoveries occurred on subduction margins in various places like Japan, Cascadia, Chile and Indonesia. By contrast, GPS and strainmeters have provided little evidence of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of large continental <span class="hlt">faults</span> like the San Andreas <span class="hlt">fault</span> or the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Because the detectability of such motions is mostly tributary from instrumental precision, we examine the theoretical capability of tiltmeter arrays for detecting horizontal motion of a buried vertical <span class="hlt">fault</span>. We define the slipping part of the strike-slip <span class="hlt">fault</span> like a buried rectangular patch submitted to horizontal motion. This motion provides horizontal and vertical surface deformation as a function of both patch geometry (length, width, depth) and motion amplitude. Using a dislocation buried at 15km depth, we compute the maximum motion and tilt as a function of seismic moment. Assuming yields of detectability of 1mm for GPS horizontal motion and 10 nrad for a tiltmeter, we show that small slip events could be better detected using high resolution and stability tiltmeters. We then examine how tiltmeters arrays could be used for such a purpose. In particular, we discuss how to deal with usual problems often plaguing tiltmeters data like instrumental drift, borehole coupling and hydrological strain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003HESS....7..777Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003HESS....7..777Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Technical NoteEarthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region, <span class="hlt">Turkey</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuce, G.; Ugurluoglu, D.</p> <p></p> <p>Although satisfactory results have yet to be obtained in earthquake prediction, one of the most common indicators of an anomalous precursor is a change in groundwater level in existing wells. Further wells should thus be drilled in unconfined aquifers since these are more susceptible to seismic waves. The Eskisehir region lies in the transition zone between the Aegean extensional domain and the compressible northern <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> block. Limnigraphs, installed in 19 exploration wells in the Eskisehir region, recorded pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic level changes during the earthquakes of 17 August Izmit (Mw= 7.4) and 12 November Duzce (Mw= 7.2) 1999 that occurred along the North <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> <span class="hlt">Fault</span> Zone. The Izmit and Duzce earthquakes affected groundwater levels, especially in confined aquifers. The aquifer characteristics before and after the earthquakes were unchanged so the aquifer is elastic in its behaviour. Further detailed geo-mechanical investigation of the confined aquifer in the Eskisehir region may improve understanding of earthquake prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2352H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2352H"><span id="translatedtitle">Inferences of Integrated Lithospheric Strength from Plate-Scale Analyses of Deformation Observed in the Aegean-<span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> Region and the Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houseman, Gregory</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> with a flow field that is driven by gradients of gravitational potential energy, and the rates of deformation are now well-constrained by extensive geodetic measurements. In the second case the rates are significantly smaller in magnitude, but the locations and mechanisms of broadly distributed intra-plate seismicity, together with structural interpretations of near-surface <span class="hlt">faulting</span> allow us to constrain the distribution of a strain-rate field whose integrated effect is accurately defined by global tectonic models like MORVEL. Predictably, the resistance of Indian Ocean lithosphere to deformation is much greater than that of <span class="hlt">Anatolian</span> lithosphere. We also infer a more strongly non-linear constitutive law for the oceanic example, but in both cases the magnitudes of depth-averaged stress difference appear significantly less than one would infer from the classic rheological profiles as summarized by Burov. These differences may indicate a significant role for pore fluids reducing stress-differences across <span class="hlt">faults</span> in the crust and/or upper mantle, for grain-size reduction in shear zones, or for dislocation glide playing an important role in the deformation of the uppermost mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910007729','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910007729"><span id="translatedtitle">Flight elements: <span class="hlt">Fault</span> detection and <span class="hlt">fault</span> management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Fault</span> management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of <span class="hlt">fault</span> tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing <span class="hlt">fault</span> isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time <span class="hlt">fault</span> detection and <span class="hlt">fault</span> management system and an information management system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JSG....26..503K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JSG....26..503K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fault</span> damage zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Young-Seog; Peacock, David C. P.; Sanderson, David J.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Damage zones show very similar geometries across a wide range of scales and <span class="hlt">fault</span> types, including strike-slip, normal and thrust <span class="hlt">faults</span>. We use a geometric classification of damage zones into tip-, wall-, and linking-damage zones, based on their location around <span class="hlt">faults</span>. These classes can be sub-divided in terms of <span class="hlt">fault</span> and fracture patterns within the damage zone. A variety of damage zone structures can occur at mode II tips of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span>, including wing cracks, horsetail fractures, antithetic <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and synthetic branch <span class="hlt">faults</span>. Wall damage zones result from the propagation of mode II and mode III <span class="hlt">fault</span> tips through a rock, or from damage associated with the increase in slip on a <span class="hlt">fault</span>. Wall damage zone structures include extension fractures, antithetic <span class="hlt">faults</span>, synthetic <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and rotated blocks with associated triangular openings. The damage formed at the mode III tips of strike-slip <span class="hlt">faults</span> (e.g. observed in cliff sections) are classified as wall damage zones, because the damage zone structures are distributed along a <span class="hlt">fault</span> trace in map view. Mixed-mode tips are likely to show characteristics of both mode II and mode III tips. Linking damage zones are developed at steps between two sub-parallel <span class="hlt">faults</span>, and the structures developed depend on whether the step is extensional or contractional. Extension fractures and pull-aparts typically develop in extensional steps, whilst solution seams, antithe